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  1. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  2. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  3. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  4. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking: effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Fabro, S

    1983-06-01

    Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy remain an important concern for the practicing obstetrician, who should provide current information on the potential detrimental effects of these habits. There appears to be a wide spectrum of fetal phenotypic response to the effects of alcohol. This phenotypic variability may be partially explained by the dose, timing, and pattern of gestational exposure, the metabolism of mother or fetus, or other environmental and genetic factors. At the most severe end of the spectrum are infants with the unique combination of anomalies termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The abnormalities most typically associated with alcohol teratogenicity can be grouped into 4 categories: central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions; growth deficiencies; a characteristic cluster of facial abnormalites, and variable major and minor malformations. To make a diagnosis of fullblown FAS, abnormalities in all 4 categories must be present. Along the continuum toward normal are infants with various combinations of FAS anomalies. One of the most common and serious defects associated with ethanol teratogenicity is mental retardation. Recent evidence supports the concept of a prenatal origin to the problem. At birth infants with FAS are deficient for both length and weight, usually at or below the 3rd percentile for both parameters. Growth and mental deficiency are seen in many conditions, but the rather striking facial appearance of children with FAS secures the diagnosis. The characteristic face in small children includes short palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, hypoplastic philtrum, hypoplastic maxilla, and thinned upper vermilion. A table lists the variety of malformations that may be found in other organ systems in patients with FAS. The likelihood of miscarriage increases directly with alcohol consumption. Risk of abortion is twice as high in women consuming 1 ounce of absolute alcohol (AA) as infrequently as twice a week

  5. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat.

  6. INCREASED CIGARETTE TAX IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCTIONS IN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN A LONGITUDINAL U.S. SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Method Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves I (2001–2002) and II (2004–2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Results Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among non-smokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Conclusions Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette

  7. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  8. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  9. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption: relationship to blood lipids and lipoproteins in premenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Stamford, B A; Matter, S; Fell, R D; Sady, S; Cresanta, M K; Papanek, P

    1984-07-01

    A total of 164 premenopausal female subjects were randomly selected for evaluation from a much larger pool of volunteers. The relationships between blood lipid and lipoprotein levels as dependent variables and cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption were determined from partial regression coefficients. A lower HDL-C level (10.1 mg/dL) was seen in smokers v nonsmokers. For each ounce of alcohol consumed, HDL-C level was higher by 2.8 mg/dL, and greater physical activity was associated with a higher HDL-C level of 8.6 mg/dL. An analysis of covariance with covariance adjustments for age and body fat revealed that smokers who regularly exercise or consume alcohol had significantly lower HDL-C levels than nonsmokers with similar habits. Subjects who both exercise and consume alcohol demonstrated higher HDL-C levels than those who indulge in one or the other separately. Results suggest that cigarette smoking may attenuate the effects of chronic exercise or alcohol consumption, or of both, to raise HDL-C levels. Also, chronic exercise and alcohol consumption may exert an additive effect, raising HDL-C level.

  10. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  11. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-09-12

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  12. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  13. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy by Danish women and their spouses--a potential source of fetal morbidity.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D H; Krasilnikoff, P A; Leventhal, J M; Berget, A; Weil, B

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption behavior during pregnancy was examined in a select group of Danish women and their spouses. Five-hundred consecutive women who had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered full-term babies were interviewed 3+ days postpartum. Information was collected about smoking and drinking behavior of all household members during pregnancy. We found (1) a high percentage of Danish women (70%) and their spouses (80%) consume alcohol during pregnancy, and (2) a significant correlation between maternal and paternal smoking (r = .25, P .0001) and maternal and paternal drinking (r = .35, P .0001). These data suggest that even though the potential dangers of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy have been well publicized, there is still a high percentage of women who participate in such behaviors. There may also exist an important role for the father in affecting these two behaviors and therefore indirectly affecting fetal development.

  14. The role of anti-smoking legislation on cigarette and alcohol consumption habits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking and drinking habits were investigated in this paper. In 2005, a smoking ban was introduced in Italy, and we exploited this exogenous variation to measure the effect on both smoking participation and intensity and the indirect effect on alcohol consumption. Using data from the Everyday Life Aspects survey, for the period 2001-2007, we show that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Italy significantly affected smoking behavior. We also document significant indirect effects on alcohol consumption for the main alcoholic beverage categories. A robustness analysis is also performed, to test the extent to which unobservable variables may bias our estimated parameters. Our results are then used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the anti-smoking legislation in Italy.

  15. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  16. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  17. Effects of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption on morningness-eveningness preference and sleep habits by Japanese female students aged 18-29.

    PubMed

    Nakade, Miyo; Takeuchi, Hitomi; Kurotani, Mamiko; Harada, Tetsuo

    2009-03-01

    The relationship of meal habits and alcohol/cigarette consumption to circadian typology and sleep health in Japanese female students was studied from an epidemiological point of view. Questionnaires on Morningness-Eveningness by Torsvall and Akerstedt (1980), sleep habits, regularity of meal intake and meal amount, and style of alcohol and cigarette consumption were administered to 800 students aged 18-29 years, attending university or training schools for nutrition specialists (Aichi Prefecture, 35 degrees N). Points from ten questions were totaled to provide estimates of sleep habits given as the Unhealthy Sleep Index (UHSI). The average and standard deviation of Morningness-Eveningness scores were 16.07+/-3.53. Students who had breakfast at regular times showed significantly higher Morningness-Eveningness scores than those who ate at irregular times. Based on an integrated analysis (ANOVA) on the effect of regularity of breakfast intake on sleep health, regular breakfast intake may link to sleep health positively via the shifting to morning-type (i.e., the phase-advance of the circadian clock). However, a similar analysis promoted the hypothesis that alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking relate to sleep health negatively and directly, rather than via the shifting to evening-type (i.e., the phase-delaying of the circadian clock). In the case of young women, getting a good quality and quantity of sleep in normal life seems to be important for promoting their mental health, which may fluctuate throughout the menstruation cycle accompanied by mental symptoms as a part of premenstrual syndrome.

  18. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  19. Study on the short-term effects of increased alcohol and cigarette consumption in healthy young men’s seminal quality

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Cruz, Daniel; Gomes, Mariana; Correia, Bárbara Regadas; Freitas, Maria João; Sousa, Luís; Silva, Vladimiro; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have reported a negative impact of lifestyle factors on testicular function, spermatozoa parameters and pituitary-gonadal axis. However, conclusions are difficult to draw, since studies in the general population are rare. In this study we intended to address the early and late short-term impact of acute lifestyle alterations on young men’s reproductive function. Thirty-six healthy male students, who attended the Portuguese academic festivities, provided semen samples and answered questionnaires at three time-points. The consumption of alcohol and cigarette increased more than 8 and 2 times, respectively, during the academic festivities and resulted in deleterious effects on semen quality: one week after the festivities, a decrease on semen volume, spermatozoa motility and normal morphology was observed, in parallel with an increase on immotile spermatozoa, head and midpiece defects and spermatozoa oxidative stress. Additionally, three months after the academic festivities, besides the detrimental effect on volume, motility and morphology, a negative impact on spermatozoa concentration was observed, along with a decrease on epididymal, seminal vesicles and prostate function. This study contributed to understanding the pathophysiology underlying semen quality degradation induced by acute lifestyle alterations, suggesting that high alcohol and cigarette consumption are associated with decreased semen quality in healthy young men. PMID:28367956

  20. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  1. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  2. Cigarette Smoking is Associated with Unhealthy Patterns of Food Consumption, Physical Activity, Sleep Impairment, and Alcohol Drinking in Chinese Male Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cappelli, Christopher; Li, Yawen; Tanenbaum, Hilary; Chou, Chih-Ping; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Palmer, Paula H.; Johnson, C. Anderson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives According to a recent national survey, tobacco use is a critical public health issue in China, with more than two thirds of Chinese males smoking. Findings in Western populations suggest that smoking may cluster with other health-risk behaviors. To explore these relationships in Chinese male adults, we utilized baseline data from the China Seven Cities Study (CSCS). Methods Male adults (N=12,122) were included. Smoking status was defined as never smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, and current heavy smokers. Logistic regression was employed to investigate the association of cigarette smoking and patterns of food consumption, physical activity, and alcohol drinking. Results After controlling for age, socioeconomic status, and city residence, heavy smokers consumed significantly less vegetables, fruits, milk and other dairy products, spent significantly more time watching television, slept and exercised less, and got drunk or engaged in binge drinking more frequently compared to never, ex, or current smokers (p<0.05). Conclusion Findings suggest significant associations of heavy cigarette smoking with other health-risk behaviors in Chinese male adults, underscoring the need for tobacco control interventions for Chinese males. PMID:26321106

  3. Price and cigarette consumption in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Gallus, S; Schiaffino, A; Vecchia, C La; Townsend, J; Fernandez, E

    2006-01-01

    Objective To analyse the variation in demand for tobacco according to price of cigarettes across the European region. Design Cross‐sectional study. Setting All the 52 countries of the European region. Participants For each European country, data were collected on annual per adult cigarette consumption (2000), smoking prevalence (most recent), retail price of a pack of local and foreign brand cigarettes (around 2000), the gross domestic product adjusted by purchasing power parities, and the adult population (2000). Main outcome measure Price elasticity of demand for cigarettes (that is, the change in cigarette consumption according to a change in tobacco price) across all the European countries, estimated by double‐log multiple linear regression. Results Controlling for male to female prevalence ratio, price elasticities for consumption were −0.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.74 to −0.17) and −0.74 (95% CI −1.13 to −0.35) for local and foreign brand, respectively. The inverse relation between cigarette price and consumption was stronger in countries not in the European Union (price elasticity for foreign brand cigarettes of −0.8) as compared to European Union countries (price elasticity of −0.4). Conclusions The result that, on average, in Europe smoking consumption decreases 5–7% for a 10% increase in the real price of cigarettes strongly supports an inverse association between price and cigarette smoking. PMID:16565459

  4. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  5. Reciprocal Associations Between Cigarette Consumption and DSM-IV Nicotine Dependence Criteria in Adolescent Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mei-Chen; Griesler, Pamela C.; Wall, Melanie M.; Kandel, Denise B.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the interrelationships between cigarette consumption and DSM-IV nicotine dependence (ND) criteria from smoking onset in adolescence up to seven years later, adjusting for alcohol consumption and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) criteria. Design A cohort drawn from grades 6-10 in an urban school system was interviewed five times at 6-month intervals (Waves 1-5) and 4.5 years later (Wave 6). A parent was interviewed three times. Setting Chicago, Illinois. Participants Recent smokers (n=409). Measurements Structured household interviews ascertained number of cigarettes smoked, DSM-IV ND symptoms, drinks consumed, DSM-IV AD symptoms, and selected covariates. Analysis Reciprocal prospective associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria, controlling for time-varying alcohol consumption and dependence criteria, were examined with cross-lagged models. Findings Reciprocal associations between number of cigarettes smoked and ND criteria were both significant. Cigarette consumption had stronger associations with later ND (β=0.25, 95% CI=0.17-0.32) than dependence had with later cigarette consumption (β=0.09, 95% CI=0.01-0.16). Alcohol and cigarette consumption influenced each other; AD scores were associated with later ND scores but not the reverse. Reports of pleasant initial experiences from smoking were positively associated with cigarette consumption and ND the first year after smoking onset; later smoking onset was negatively associated with cigarette consumption the seventh year after onset; parental ND predicted cigarette consumption and ND throughout. Conclusions In adolescent smokers, higher cigarette consumption predicts later severity of DSM-IV nicotine dependence more than the reverse. Smoking and drinking also influence each other mutually over time. PMID:24845775

  6. The Effects of Alcohol on Cigarette Craving in Heavy Smokers and Tobacco Chippers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.; Peters, Annie R.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of alcohol consumption on cigarette craving in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (n = 138) who were instructed not to smoke for 12 hr. Participants were exposed to both smoking cues (a lit cigarette) and control cues. Half received a moderate dose of alcohol, adjusted for gender, and half received a placebo. Results indicated that alcohol consumption produced an increase in urge-to-smoke ratings before smoking cue exposure. Moreover, during cue exposure, alcohol consumption produced a sharper increase in urge ratings than did the placebo. In addition, during smoking cue exposure, alcohol increased the likelihood of displaying facial expressions associated with positive affect. These findings suggest that alcohol consumption influences both the magnitude and the emotional valence of cigarette cravings. PMID:16187804

  7. Does technology use moderate the relationship between parental alcoholism and adolescent alcohol and cigarette use?

    PubMed

    Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2009-01-01

    The primary goals of this study were to examine the associations between technology use and alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence and to explore whether technology use moderates the relationship between parental alcoholism and substance use (alcohol and cigarette use). The sample included 328 14-16 year-old adolescent boys and girls. The adolescents completed a battery of self-report questionnaires which included measures that assessed their substance use, their use of technology, and their parents' alcohol use (including alcoholism). Results indicated that adolescents who had an alcoholic parent reported relatively higher levels of alcohol consumption. Heavier use of technology (particularly text messaging, e-mailing/IMing, and watching television) also was related to earlier and heavier substance use during adolescence. Moreover, these effects tended to be more pronounced in adolescents with an alcoholic parent. Results from this study suggest that high levels of technology use during adolescence may be related to an increased risk of alcohol and cigarette use, particularly for children of alcoholic parents (COAs).

  8. Body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx: modeling odds ratios in pooled case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Kelsey, Karl; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf Neto, Jose; Purdue, Mark P; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2010-06-15

    Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.

  9. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  10. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  11. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  12. Diet, cigarettes and alcohol in laryngeal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Freudenheim, J.L.; Graham, S.; Byers, T.E.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.K.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Diet and other risk factors for cancer of the larynx were examined in a case-control study among white males in Western New York, conducted in 1975-1985. Incident, pathologically-confirmed cases and age- and neighborhood-matched controls were interviewed to determine usual diet, and lifetime use of tobacco and alcohol. Because response rates were low for both cases and controls, this cannot be considered a population-based study. A strong association of risk with cigarette but not pipe and cigar smoking was found. Beer and hard liquor but not wine were associated with increased risk. After control for cigarettes, alcohol and education, the upper quartile odds ratio for fat was 2.40, while the odds ratio for high intake of carotenoids was 0.51. There was effect modification by smoking. Carotenoids were most negatively associated with risk among lighter smokers; dietary fat was most positively associated with risk among heavier smokers. Total calories, protein, and retinol were associated with increased risk; there was no relationship between laryngeal cancer and vitamins C and E or carbohydrate. This study again demonstrates the strong association between tobacco and alcohol and laryngeal cancer and also suggests that diets low in carotenoids and high fat may increase risk.

  13. Alcohol and cigarette use and misuse among Hurricane Katrina survivors: psychosocial risk and protective factors.

    PubMed

    Flory, Kate; Hankin, Benjamin L; Kloos, Bret; Cheely, Catherine; Turecki, Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined survivors' use and misuse of cigarettes and alcohol following Hurricane Katrina. We also examined several psychosocial factors that we expected would be associated with higher or lower rates of substance use following the hurricane. Participants were 209 adult survivors of Hurricane Katrina interviewed in Columbia, SC or New Orleans, LA between October 31, 2005 and May 13, 2006. Results revealed that survivors were smoking cigarettes, consuming alcohol, and experiencing alcohol consumption-related problems at a substantially higher rate than expected based on pre-hurricane prevalence data. Results also suggested that certain psychosocial factors were associated with participants' substance use and misuse following the hurricane.

  14. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  15. Gender Commitment and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Categorized 179 college students as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Found gender orientations related to overall quantity-frequency index of alcohol consumption and beverage type. Androgynous respondents consumed less total alcohol than other groups; undifferentiated subjects drank more than feminine or androgynous subjects;…

  16. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  17. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  18. Oesophageal cancer mortality: relationship with alcohol intake and cigarette smoking in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, A; Vioque, J; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to explore temporal changes in mortality from oesophageal cancer that could be related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DESIGN--The study used mortality trends from oesophageal cancer over the period 1951-1985. In addition, available trends on per capita consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are also presented. SETTING--Data for this study were derived from Spain's National Institute for Statistics. MAIN RESULTS--Age standardised mortality rates from oesophageal cancer have increased significantly among men in Spain from 1951 to 1985 (p less than 0.01). Mortality rates in women have not changed significantly during the same period, although there is evidence of a certain decrease in recent years. Trends of per capita cigarette consumption from 1957 to 1982 related positively with oesophageal cancer mortality among men, whereas no significant relationship was observed in women. Trends of beer, spirits, and total alcohol consumption were also positively correlated with oesophageal cancer mortality in men. Among women, a weaker relationship was found. Wine consumption showed no relationship with oesophageal cancer mortality either in men or women. CONCLUSIONS--These results are similar to those found in other studies, supporting a role of alcohol (spirits and beer) and cigarette consumption in causation of oesophageal cancer. No relationship was observed with wine consumption. PMID:1795145

  19. Effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking on sperm parameters and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    de Jong, A M E; Menkveld, R; Lens, J W; Nienhuis, S E; Rhemrev, J P T

    2014-03-01

    Much has been published about smoking and alcohol intake influencing male fertility, sperm parameters and reproductive outcome. However, there is no conclusive agreement about the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol use on these outcomes and thus no generally accepted guidelines. The combined effect of cigarette smoking and alcohol intake, though, has not been rigorously investigated. Because alcohol consumption and smoking are often seen together, this study focuses on the effect of smoking and drinking habits separately and combined on semen parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology, and on pregnancy outcome. These suggested toxic effects are studied in a group of subfertile, asthenozoospermic men (<10% motile spermatozoa), compared with a group of 'proven fertile', healthy men. The extreme asthenozoospermic group has especially been chosen because of the suspected effect, that is, oxidative stress, on sperm motility. In our study, we found that cigarette smoking and alcohol intake did not differ between the subfertile and fertile group. In conclusion, cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption do not appear to significantly affect sperm parameters, such as volume, sperm count, motility and morphology or pregnancy outcome in our study population.

  20. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  1. Consumption of cigarettes and combustible tobacco--United States, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    2012-08-03

    Smoking cigarettes and other combustible tobacco products causes adverse health outcomes, particularly cancer and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. A priority of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services is to develop innovative, rapid-response surveillance systems for assessing changes in tobacco use and related health outcomes. The two standard approaches for measuring smoking rates and behaviors are 1) surveying a representative sample of the public and asking questions about personal smoking behaviors and 2) estimating consumption based on tobacco excise tax data. Whereas CDC regularly publishes findings on national and state-specific smoking rates from public surveys, CDC has not reported consumption estimates. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which previously provided such estimates, stopped reporting on consumption in 2007. To estimate consumption for the period 2000-2011, CDC examined excise tax data from the U.S. Department of Treasury's Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (TTB); consumption estimates were calculated for cigarettes, roll-your-own tobacco, pipe tobacco, and small and large cigars. From 2000 to 2011, total consumption of all combustible tobacco decreased from 450.7 billion cigarette equivalents to 326.6, a 27.5% decrease; per capita consumption of all combustible tobacco products declined from 2,148 to 1,374, a 36.0% decrease. However, while consumption of cigarettes decreased 32.8% from 2000 to 2011, consumption of loose tobacco and cigars increased 123.1% over the same period. As a result, the percentage of total combustible tobacco consumption composed of loose tobacco and cigars increased from 3.4% in 2000 to 10.4% in 2011. The data suggest that certain smokers have switched from cigarettes to other combustible tobacco products, most notably since a 2009 increase in the federal tobacco excise tax that created tax disparities between product types.

  2. Cigarette smoking: an independent risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Talamini, G; Bassi, C; Falconi, M; Frulloni, L; Di Francesco, V; Vaona, B; Bovo, P; Rigo, L; Castagnini, A; Angelini, G; Vantini, I; Pederzoli, P; Cavallini, G

    1996-03-01

    It is not known whether cigarette smoking plays a role as a risk factor in alcoholic pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to compare drinking and smoking habits in three groups of male subjects with an alcohol intake in excess of 40 g/day: (i) 67 patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, without other known potential causative agents; (ii) 396 patients with chronic alcoholic pancreatitis; and (iii) 265 control subjects randomly selected from the Verona polling lists and submitted to a complete medical checkup. The variables considered were age at onset of disease, years of drinking and smoking, daily alcohol intake in grams, number of cigarettes smoked daily, and body mass index (BMI). Cases differed from controls in daily grams of alcohol, number of cigarettes smoked and BMI (Mann-Whitney U test, p < 0.00001 for each comparison). Multivariate logistic regression analysis, comparing acute and chronic cases, respectively, versus controls, revealed an increased relative risk of pancreatitis in the two comparisons, associated in both cases with a higher alcohol intake (p < 0.00001) and cigarette smoking (p < 0.00001). No significant interaction between alcohol and smoking was noted, indicating that the two risks are independent. In conclusion, in males a higher number of cigarettes smoked daily seems to be a distinct risk factor in acute and chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

  3. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  4. Brand switching or reduced consumption? A study of how cigarette taxes affect tobacco consumption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiang-Ming; Chang, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Lin; Lee, Jwo-Leun

    2014-12-01

    We examined the influence of cigarette taxes on tobacco consumption, with an emphasis on smokers' choice between reducing cigarette consumption and switching brands. We constructed three scenario-based models to study the following two subjects: (1) the relationship between deciding whether to reduce one's cigarette consumption and to practice brand switching (simultaneous or sequential); (2) the key determinants that affect smokers' decisions in terms of their consumption and brand switching when facing higher taxes. We applied data collected from a survey in Taiwan, and the results indicated that both independent and two-stage decision-making models generated very similar conclusions. We also found that gender difference contributed to reduce cigarette consumption. In addition, this study indicated that high-income smokers were less likely to switch brands, whereas well-educated smokers were more likely to switch brands. Most importantly, we questioned the effectiveness of cigarette tax policy, as our results suggested that higher price did not necessarily reduce consumption. Indeed, data indicated that <24 % of smokers actually reduced their cigarette consumption after the tax on cigarettes increased.

  5. Social Inequality in Cigarette Consumption, Cigarette Dependence, and Intention to Quit among Norwegian Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Background. The study aim was to examine the influence of education and income on multiple measures of risk of smoking continuation. Methods. Three logistic regression models were run on cigarette consumption, dependence, and intention to quit based on nationally representative samples (2007–2012) of approximately 1 200 current smokers aged 30–66 years in Norway. Results. The relative risk ratio for current versus never smokers was RRR 5.37, 95% CI [4.26–6.77] among individuals with low educational level versus high and RRR 1.53, 95% CI [1.14–2.06] in the low-income group versus high (adjusted model). Low educational level was associated with high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit. The difference in predicted probability for having high cigarette consumption, high cigarette dependence, and no intention to quit were in the range of 10–20 percentage points between smokers with low versus those with high educational level. A significant difference between low- and high-income levels was observed for intention to quit. The effect of education on high consumption and dependence was mainly found in smokers with high income. Conclusion. Increased effort to combat social differences in smoking behaviour is needed. Implementation of smoking cessation programmes with high reach among low socioeconomic groups is recommended. PMID:26273648

  6. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  7. Usual Source of Cigarettes and Alcohol among US High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sherry Everett; Caraballo, Ralph S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cigarette and alcohol use are common among youth. We examined sources of cigarettes and alcohol among youth who were current cigarette and alcohol users. Methods: We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2009 and 2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys--biennial, school-based surveys of high school students in the United…

  8. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  9. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  10. [Cigarette and alcohol advertising in the Swiss free press].

    PubMed

    Olivier, Jacques

    2014-11-26

    Tobacco and alcohol are ordinary consumer goods that are still two overriding preventable causes of death in Switzerland. Massive advertising supports their selling and contributes to maintain a major public health problem up to date. The widely read free press represents an interesting advertising mean. The study of tobacco and alcohol advertisements published in the free newspaper 20 minutes through the year 2012 gives us a good idea of these products' advertising strategies. Compared to those for alcohol, the cigarette advertisements are more numerous, more suggestive and dealing with emotions. The themes proposed respond to young people's expectations in order to incline them to smoke, whereas positive images encourage to keep on smoking.

  11. Hookah tobacco smoking in a large urban sample of adult cigarette smokers: Links with alcohol and poly-tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Ehlke, Sarah J; Cobb, Caroline O; Soule, Eric K

    2017-05-01

    Hookah tobacco smoking (HTS) has been increasing, particularly among young adults and has similar health effects compared to cigarette smoking. The link between HTS and poly-tobacco use is well documented, but fewer show an association between HTS and alcohol use. It is essential to identify factors that increase the risk for or addictiveness and consequences of HTS, given its growing prevalence. This study examined whether the association between HTS and poly-tobacco use differed as a function of age and alcohol consumption within in a sample of 1223 adult cigarette smokers. Approximately 20% of participants reported HTS. Compared to non-users, hookah users were more likely to be male, highly educated, and to report drug and alcohol use, binge drinking, and poly-tobacco use but were less likely to be heavy smokers (≥10 cigarettes per day). Regression analyses predicting number of tobacco products used (excluding cigarettes and HTS) indicated a three-way interaction of HTS, frequency of alcohol use, and age such that the association between HTS and number of tobacco products used was strongest for younger respondents who consumed alcohol more frequently. As observed in previous studies, alcohol is an important risk factor in the relationship between HTS and poly-tobacco use, particularly among younger cigarette smokers. The links between alcohol, HTS, and poly-tobacco use should be considered when developing HTS education and prevention materials directed toward younger cigarette smokers. Findings provide information relevant to FDA's interest in the addiction potential of HTS and its link to poly-tobacco use.

  12. Trajectories of Alcohol Consumption Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, Andrea; Dew, Mary Amanda; Day, Nancy; Fitzgerald, Mary Grace; Jones, Bobby L.; deVera, Michael; Fontes, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Any use of alcohol in the years following liver transplantation (LTX) approaches 50% of patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We collected detailed prospective data on alcohol consumption following LTX for ALD to investigate ongoing patterns of use. Using trajectory modeling we identified four distinct alcohol use trajectories. One group had minimal use over time. Two other groups developed early onset moderate to heavy consumption and one group developed late onset moderate use. These trajectories demonstrate that alcohol use varies based on timing of onset, quantity, and duration. Using discriminant function analysis, we examine characteristics of recipient’s pre-LTX alcohol histories and early post-LTX psychological stressors to identify the profile of those at risk for these specific trajectories. We discuss the relevance of these findings to clinical care and preliminarily to outcomes. PMID:20726963

  13. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, David; Galea, Sandro; Resnick, Heidi; Ahern, Jennifer; Boscarino, Joseph A; Bucuvalas, Michael; Gold, Joel; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2002-06-01

    The September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks were the largest human-made disaster in the United States since the Civil War. Studies after earlier disasters have reported rates of psychological disorders in the acute postdisaster period. However, data on postdisaster increases in substance use are sparse. A random digit dial telephone survey was conducted to estimate the prevalence of increased cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and marijuana use among residents of Manhattan, New York City, 5-8 weeks after the attacks. Among 988 persons included, 28.8% reported an increase in use of any of these three substances, 9.7% reported an increase in smoking, 24.6% reported an increase in alcohol consumption, and 3.2% reported an increase in marijuana use. Persons who increased smoking of cigarettes and marijuana were more likely to experience posttraumatic stress disorder than were those who did not (24.2% vs. 5.6% posttraumatic stress disorder for cigarettes; 36.0% vs. 6.6% for marijuana). Depression was more common among those who increased than for those who did not increase cigarette smoking (22.1 vs. 8.2%), alcohol consumption (15.5 vs. 8.3%), and marijuana smoking (22.3 vs. 9.4%). The results of this study suggest a substantial increase in substance use in the acute postdisaster period after the September 11th attacks. Increase in use of different substances may be associated with the presence of different comorbid psychiatric conditions.

  14. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  16. Patterns of alcohol consumption after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H; Boulton, R; Gunson, B; Hubscher, S; Neuberger, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Uncertainty exists about the extent and consequences of a return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). 
Aims—To determine the prevalence and consequences of alcohol consumption in patients transplanted for ALD. 
Methods—A retrospective case controlled study of all patients transplanted for ALD at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, between 1987 and 1996. 
Results—Seventy patients with ALD were transplanted, of which 59 survived more than three months; 56 were interviewed. Twenty eight had consumed some alcohol after transplantation; for the nine "heavy drinkers" (HD), the median time to resumption of alcohol intake was six months and for the 19 "moderate drinkers" (MD) it was eight months. There was no significant difference in episodes of acute rejection or compliance with medication between those who were abstinent, MD, or HD. Histological evidence of liver injury was common in ALD patients who had returned to drink. Mild fatty change was found in 1/11 biopsy specimens from abstinent patients but moderate to severe fatty change and ballooned hepatocytes were seen in 3/5 MD and 2/5 HD specimens. Two HD patients had early fibrosis. One HD patient has died of alcohol related complications. 
Conclusions—Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption occurs in patients transplanted for ALD. Patient recall of abstinence advice is unreliable, and patients return to alcohol mainly within the first year after liver transplantation. Return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation is associated with rapid development of histological liver injury including fibrosis. 

 Keywords: alcohol consumption; liver transplantation PMID:9771419

  17. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  18. A quantitative epigenetic approach for the assessment of cigarette consumption

    PubMed Central

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Wang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Despite the development of numerous preventive and treatment interventions, the rate of daily smoking in the United States is still approximately 22%. Effective psychosocial interventions and pharmacologic agents exist for the prevention and treatment of smoking. Unfortunately, both approaches are hindered by our inability to accurately quantify amount of cigarette consumption from the point of initial experimentation to the point of total dependency. Recently, we and others have demonstrated that smoking is associated with genome-wide changes in DNA methylation. However, whether this advance in basic science can be employed as a reliable assay that is useful for clinical diagnosis and treatment has not been shown. In this communication, we determine the sensitivity and specificity of five of the most consistently replicated CpG loci with respect to smoking status using data from a publically available dataset. We show that methylation status at a CpG locus in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor, cg05575921, is both sensitive and specific for smoking status in adults with a receiver operated curve characteristic area under the curve of 0.99. Given recent demonstrations that methylation at this locus reflects both intensity of smoking and the degree of smoking cessation, we conclude that a methylation-based diagnostic at this locus could have a prominent role in understanding the impact of new products, such as e-cigarettes on initiation of cigarette smoking among adolescents, while improving the prevention and treatment of smoking, and smoking related disorders. PMID:26082730

  19. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  20. Alcohol Consumption Indices of Genetic Risk for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Todd, Richard D.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported a significant genetic correlation between heaviness of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence (AD), but this association might be driven by the influence of AD on consumption rather than the reverse. We test the genetic overlap between AD symptoms and a heaviness of consumption measure among individuals who do not have AD. A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk. Methods Factor analysis of 5 alcohol use measures was used to create a measure of heaviness of alcohol consumption. Quantitative genetic analyses of interview data from the 1989 Australian Twin Panel (n=6257 individuals; M=29.9 years) assessed the genetic overlap between heaviness of consumption, DSM-IV AD symptoms, DSM-IV AD symptom clustering, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Results Genetic influences accounted for 30–51% of the variance in the alcohol measures and genetic correlations were 0.90 or higher for all measures, with the correlation between consumption and dependence symptoms among non-dependent individuals estimated at 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Heaviness of consumption and AD symptoms have a high degree of genetic overlap even among non-dependent individuals in the general population, implying that genetic influences on dependence risk in the general population are acting to a considerable degree through heaviness of use, and that quantitative measures of consumption will likely have a useful role in the identification of genes contributing to AD. PMID:19576574

  1. Colour vision impairment and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Blain, L; Lemaire, J; Lalande, F

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol intake and colour discrimination capacity was examined among 136 persons of whom 16 were undergoing treatment in a detoxification centre. Current weekly alcohol consumption (or prior to treatment for those in the centre) was obtained with a detailed questionnaire, which divided week and weekend drinking into types of alcohol (beer, wine, spirits). Alcohol consumption varied from 0-5824 g/week; median: 266 g/week. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of acquired dyschromatopsia was obtained with a colour arrangement test, the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. In all age categories, the prevalence of dyschromatopsia increased with alcohol intake. Moreover, all the heavy drinkers (greater than 751 g/week) presented a certain degree of dyschromatopsia, whether or not they were undergoing treatment for alcoholism in a detoxification centre. Colour loss was primarily in the blue-yellow range; however, 4 of the 16 persons from the detoxification centre presented complex dyschromatopsia patterns including red-green loss. This raises the question of possible progressive deterioration. Multiple regression analysis showed that colour vision loss was significantly related to both age (p less than 0.001) and alcohol intake (p less than 0.01). These results underline the importance of taking into account the contribution of alcohol consumption in studies on acquired dyschromatopsia.

  2. Vascular effects of maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Magness, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant field of scientific exploration primarily because of its negative effects on the developing fetus, which is specifically defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Though the effects on the mother are less explored compared with those on the fetus, alcohol produces multiple effects on the maternal vascular system. Alcohol has major effects on systemic hemodynamic variables, endocrine axes, and paracrine factors regulating vascular resistance, as well as vascular reactivity. Alcohol is also reported to have significant effects on the reproductive vasculature including alterations in blood flow, vessel remodeling, and angiogenesis. Data presented in this review will illustrate the importance of the maternal vasculature in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and that more studies are warranted in this field. PMID:22730388

  3. Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use among Fourth-Grade Urban Schoolchildren in 1988/89 and 1990/91.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Patricia J.; Iannotti, Ronald J.

    1993-01-01

    Studies alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use by fourth graders in Washington, DC (n=4,675 in 1988-89 and n=4,678 in 1990-91). Lifetime prevalence of self-reported alcohol use, alcohol use without parental knowledge, and smoking more than a puff of a cigarette declined, although marijuana use and cigarette experimentation did not decline. (SLD)

  4. Does increased cigarette consumption nullify any reduction in lung cancer risk associated with low-tar filter cigarettes?

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter N; Sanders, Edward

    2004-12-01

    Epidemiological data suggest that smoking filter and lower tar cigarettes is associated with less lung cancer risk than is smoking plain and higher tar cigarettes. A recent National Cancer Institute monograph claimed these apparent benefits of lower delivery products may be illusory if relative risks are adjusted for daily consumption, and switching leads to "compensation" for reduced nicotine intake by increasing numbers of cigarettes smoked. To investigate this, we compared relative risks unadjusted and adjusted for daily cigarette consumption. Overall estimates of the filter/plain relative risk, using random-effects meta-analysis, were 0.61 (95%confidence interval 0.54 to 0.70) for unadjusted data and 0.66 (0.58 to 0.76) for adjusted data. The lower tar/higher tar relative risk was estimated as 0.60 (0.45 to 0.81) for unadjusted data and 0.73 (0.64 to 0.83) for adjusted data. The risk reductions were clearly seen regardless of gender, study location, period, or design, and when only studies providing both unadjusted and adjusted estimates were considered. Whether or not relative risk estimates are adjusted for cigarette consumption is not crucial to the conclusion of a clear advantage to filter cigarettes and tar reduction. Data on "compensation" for amount smoked were reviewed and any increase following switching to reduced-tar-yield cigarettes was shown to be quite small. Other biases in the epidemiology are also discussed, and we conclude that the apparent advantage to reduced-tar-delivery products is real and likely to be a marked underestimate of the reduction in lung cancer risk from lifetime smoking of low-tar cigarettes.

  5. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  6. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  7. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  8. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  9. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  10. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  11. Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is correlated with a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. Acute alcohol abuse causes damage to and functional impairment of several organs affecting protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mitochondria participate with the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate and the generation of increased amounts of NADH. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during fetal development induces a wide spectrum of adverse effects in offspring, such as neurologic abnormalities and pre- and post-natal growth retardation. Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as well as resveratrol. This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers. PMID:21318009

  12. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  13. The Self-Awareness Reducing Effects of Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Jay G.; And Others

    According to a recent model of some of the causes and effects of alcohol consumption, alcohol interferes with cognitive processes fundamental to a state of self-awareness. The effects of alcohol consumption and the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol on the self-awareness state were examined. Male subjects (N=46) consumed either alcohol or…

  14. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-05-24

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  16. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  17. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role.

  18. From Promotion to Cessation: Masculinity, Race, and Style in the Consumption of Cigarettes, 1962–1972

    PubMed Central

    Oliffe, John L.; Bottorff, Joan L.

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions. PMID:23409887

  19. From promotion to cessation: masculinity, race, and style in the consumption of cigarettes, 1962-1972.

    PubMed

    White, Cameron; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, analysis of survey data provided by projects such as the National Health Interview Survey and the Youth Tobacco Survey has revealed the extent to which cigarette consumption patterns are influenced by gender and race. Taking our lead from a broader field of research that analyzed the sociological characteristics of cigarette consumption, we analyzed these intersections between race and gender through a study of masculinity and style in Marlboro and Kool cigarette advertisements during the 1960s and 1970s. We focused on this period because it was then that the racial bifurcation of cigarette consumption practices first became apparent. We suggest that style provides both a theoretical framework and methodology for understanding how and why White American and African American male consumers learned to consume in different ways. We also argue that the analysis of tobacco consumption in terms of masculinity and style provides a useful method for approaching the design of antismoking interventions.

  20. Changes in cigarette consumption patterns among Brazilian smokers between 1989 and 2008.

    PubMed

    Szklo, André Salem; Levy, David; Souza, Mirian Carvalho de; Szklo, Moysés; Figueiredo, Valeska Carvalho; Perez, Cristina; Almeida, Liz Maria de

    2012-11-01

    The assessment of temporal differences in cigarette consumption may help in understanding whether a smoking population is becoming more resistant to quitting over time. We calculated absolute differences in average cigarette consumption, stratified by birth cohort and age group. Data were obtained from random samples from two Brazilian national household surveys (1989, N = 12,782; 2008, N = 6,675). A linear regression model was used to adjust estimates by gender, educational level, and place of residence. Birth cohort analysis found that average daily cigarette consumption increased for individuals born after 1964 and decreased for those born before 1955 (adjusted p-values < 0.001). Age-specific analysis found that the remaining smoking population aged 64 years-old or less decreased cigarette consumption between 1989 and 2008 (adjusted p-values < 0.001). Brazil's anti-tobacco policy changes and rapid economic growth may be principally related to temporal changes in cigarette consumption for most age groups, rather than to a change in the relationship between age and cigarette consumption.

  1. OLDER MALES, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Areheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the question, how do older men who drink alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measures of cognitive function, memory, affect, and health? Of the nonprobability sample of male participants (N = 60), 35 (58%) of the males reported some degree of alcohol consumption. Eleven men had one or more drinks per day, 14 had one or more drinks per week, and 9 were occasional drinkers. The drinkers reported significantly less depression, had higher self-reported general health and vitality, and had higher cognitive performance, cognitive flexibility, and verbal memory, and greater knowledge of memory processes. PMID:16546934

  2. Moderate alcohol consumption--need for intervention programs in pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Meberg, A; Halvorsen, B; Holter, B; Ek, I J; Askeland, A; Gaaserud, W; Steinsvåg, J

    1986-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol was investigated in two groups of pregnant women: an intervention group (n = 58) (two structured interviews during pregnancy including counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption and potential benefits to the fetus, and interview after delivery), and a control group (n = 74) (interview after delivery). Prepregnancy 80% of the women were light or moderate alcohol consumers, and 20% teetotalers. Pregnancy considerably reduced alcohol consumption in both groups. 66% abstained from alcohol during pregnancy, and use of liquor nearly ceased. The changes in alcohol consumption occurred independently to the intervention program. Strategy for reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy should include a structured alcohol anamnesis at the first ante-natal visit, accompanied by counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption. More extensive intervention programs may be reserved for pregnancies at higher risk (high-consumers, abusers).

  3. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey.

  4. The Impact of Smoking Very Low Nicotine Content Cigarettes on Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dermody, Sarah S.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Denlinger, Rachel L.; Pacek, Lauren R.; al’Absi, Mustafa; Drobes, David J.; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Vandrey, Ryan; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes could improve public health by reducing smoking and toxicant exposure, but may also have unintended consequences on alcohol use. The primary objective of this study was to examine the effect of reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes on alcohol outcomes. The secondary aim was to examine whether the effects of these cigarettes on alcohol outcomes were mediated by changes in nicotine exposure, smoking behavior, or withdrawal. Methods Between June 2013 and July 2014, we conducted a 7-arm, double-blind, randomized clinical trial at 10 U.S.-based sites. Daily smokers not currently interested in quitting (n = 839) were assigned to equally sized groups to smoke for 6 weeks cigarettes containing either normal nicotine content (NNC; 15.8 mg/g, 9 mg tar), moderate nicotine content (5.2 mg/g nicotine, 9 mg tar), or very low nicotine content (VLNC; 0.4 to 2.4 mg/g, 9 to 13 mg tar). This investigation focused on a subsample of current drinkers (n = 403). Each reduced nicotine content cigarette condition was compared to the NNC control condition with respect to trajectories over the 6-week period of average daily alcohol use and occurrence of binge drinking. Moderating variables were considered. Mediation analyses tested potential explanatory processes including changes in nicotine exposure, cigarettes per day, and withdrawal. Results Over time, reduced nicotine exposure and smoking rate mediated effects of VLNC cigarette use on reduced alcohol use. There was no evidence of compensatory drinking in response to nicotine reduction or nicotine withdrawal, even among subgroups expected to be at greater risk (e.g., relatively heavier drinkers, highly nicotine-dependent individuals). Conclusions The findings suggest that compensatory drinking is unlikely to occur in response to switching to VLNC cigarettes. In contrast, reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes may reduce alcohol use (clinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01681875

  5. The Impact of the Master Settlement Agreement on Cigarette Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Frank A.; Trogdon, Justin G.

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, 46 states and the four major tobacco companies signed the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), which stipulated that the tobacco companies pay states $206 billion over 25 years and take steps to reduce youth smoking. The remaining states settled separately. We sought to determine the effect of the settlements on demand for cigarettes. Using…

  6. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L.; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. Method we conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113) or quit (n = 290), and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124) or quit (n = 1403) during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. Findings severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: ‘conflict with loved ones’ (OR = 10.4, p<0.01), ‘crime related’ (OR = 35.7, p<0.05), ‘pregnancy-specific’ (OR = 13.4, p<0.05), and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05). Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level) did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. Conclusions Our

  7. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  8. Alcohol consumption in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sand, J; Lankisch, P G; Nordback, I

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the relation between the alcoholic consumption and the development of pancreatitis should help in defining the alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Although the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years, it remains still unclear why some alcoholics develop pancreatitis and some do not. Surprisingly little data are available about alcohol amounts, drinking patterns, type of alcohol consumed and other habits such as dietary habits or smoking in respect to pancreatitis preceding the attack of acute pancreatitis or the time of the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. This review summarizes the current knowledge. Epidemiological studies clearly show connection between the alcohol consumption in population and the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis. In the individual level the risk to develop either acute or chronic pancreatitis increases along with the alcohol consumption. Moreover, the risk for recurrent acute pancreatitis after the first acute pancreatitis episode seems also to be highly dependent on the level of alcohol consumption. Abstaining from alcohol may prohibit recurrent acute pancreatitis and reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, all the attempts to decrease alcohol consumption after acute pancreatitis and even after the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis should be encouraged. Smoking seems to be a remarkable co-factor together with alcohol in the development of chronic pancreatitis, whereas no hard data are available for this association in acute pancreatitis. Setting the limits for accepting the alcohol as the etiology cannot currently be based on published data, but rather on the 'political' agreement.

  9. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use revisited.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2013-03-01

    In volume 30, issue 4 of this journal, we used data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth, 1997 cohort (NLSY97) to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age (MLDA) laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. In our analysis, we used a restricted sample of young adults and considered only those who have consumed alcohol, smoked cigarettes, or used marijuana at least once since the date of their last interview. In this paper, we revisit our original study using the full sample. We show that our results for alcohol consumption in the full sample are similar to those from the restricted sample. However, the effect of the MLDA on smoking and marijuana use is smaller and often statistically insignificant.

  10. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  11. Cannabidiol reduces cigarette consumption in tobacco smokers: preliminary findings.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Celia J A; Das, Ravi K; Joye, Alyssa; Curran, H Valerie; Kamboj, Sunjeev K

    2013-09-01

    The role of the endocannabinoid system in nicotine addiction is being increasingly acknowledged. We conducted a pilot, randomised double blind placebo controlled study set out to assess the impact of the ad-hoc use of cannabidiol (CBD) in smokers who wished to stop smoking. 24 smokers were randomised to receive an inhaler of CBD (n=12) or placebo (n=12) for one week, they were instructed to use the inhaler when they felt the urge to smoke. Over the treatment week, placebo treated smokers showed no differences in number of cigarettes smoked. In contrast, those treated with CBD significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked by ~40% during treatment. Results also indicated some maintenance of this effect at follow-up. These preliminary data, combined with the strong preclinical rationale for use of this compound, suggest CBD to be a potential treatment for nicotine addiction that warrants further exploration.

  12. The cross-effects of cigarette and betel nut consumption in Taiwan: have tax increases made a difference?

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng-Hung; Lee, Jie-Min; Liu, Hsiang-Hsi; Wang, Hui-Cheng; Ye, Chun-Yuan

    2011-05-01

    This paper empirically identifies cross-price elasticities of betel nut and cigarette consumption in Taiwan based on the Central Bureau of Statistics demand model. It compares reduction of cigarette consumption as a result of the proposed Betel Nut Health Tax with reduction of betel nut consumption as a result of the Tobacco Health and Welfare Taxes levied in 2002 and 2006, in order to determine which tax is most effective. Results from a simulated comparative analysis indicate that the Betel Nut Health Tax reduces cigarette consumption to a much greater extent than the Tobacco Health and Welfare Taxes reduce betel nut consumption.

  13. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  14. The Tokelau Island migrant study: alcohol consumption in two environments.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, J M; Prior, I A

    1979-11-28

    The prevalence of alcohol consumption, the choice of beverages and the quantity of drinks used by a Polynesian society are described, both in the Tokelau atolls and among Tokelauan migrants in New Zealand. Current drinking was uncommon but increasing among women. Among men, it was more common, but both prevalence and quantity were modest compared with national alcohol consumption in New Zealand. Description of alcohol consumption in such migrant populations may provide a basis for encouraging continuing prudence regarding alcohol and ready acceptance and provision for the non-drinker of alcohol.

  15. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether underage drinkers with varied media use patterns differentially consume popular brands of alcohol. A survey was conducted with a national online panel of 1,032 underage youth 13-20 years of age who had consumed at least 1 drink in the past 30 days. A latent class analysis identified four distinct media use patterns. Further analyses explored whether these media use groups differentially consumed the most frequently used alcohol brands. The results showed that past 30-day consumption of specific alcohol brands differed significantly across the four media use clusters, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, U.S. geographic region, frequency of parent's alcohol overconsumption, cigarette smoking, and seatbelt use. This study shows that youth use media in different ways, and this differential use is significantly associated with the consumption of specific alcohol brands. The media clusters revealed in this analysis may inform future research about the association between specific alcohol media exposures and individual brand consumption.

  16. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence.

  17. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: part 3. Smoking cessation and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Martin, U

    1998-02-01

    Smoking cessation (SC) is probably the single most important risk factor modification for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to stop smoking are highly cost effective. SC produces reductions in mortality and morbidity that generally outweigh any increase in risk due to weight gain, unless the gain is so great that it is accompanied by adverse changes in blood pressure, lipid profile or glucose tolerance. There is clear evidence that SC improves the lipid profile, decreases thrombotic tendency, reduces vascular endothelial damage and improves insulin sensitivity. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) with moderate alcohol consumption (showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day), but an increased risk at higher alcohol consumption levels. Potential mediators of these cardioprotective effects include an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased clotting propensity, enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and a possible lowering of blood pressure at low consumption levels in women. Alcohol consumption may not, however, compensate for the large increase in risk produced by smoking. Whereas moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduces the risk of death between the ages of 35 and 69 years, cigarette smoking approximately doubles the risk.

  18. The Influence of Family Relations on Trajectories of Cigarette and Alcohol Use from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutman, Leslie Morrison; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.; Peck, Stephen; Malanchuk, Oksana

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines growth curve trajectories of cigarette and alcohol use from 13 to 19 years, and investigates how family relations (i.e., decision-making opportunities, negative family interactions, and positive identification with parents) relate to contemporaneous and predictive alcohol and cigarette use during adolescence. Data came…

  19. Adolescent internet use and its relationship to cigarette smoking and alcohol use: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chi; Yi, Chin-Chun; Ksobiech, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the longitudinal impact of situational Internet use on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use among male and female adolescents. A Northern Taiwanese cohort sample of adolescents with no prior use of cigarettes (n=1445) or alcohol (n=1468) was surveyed at age 16 and again 4 years later. Information regarding where, why, and length of time spent using the Internet was gathered from the 16-year-old participants. Outcome information regarding cigarette/alcohol use was gathered via a follow-up questionnaire at age 20. Multivariate regressions were used to incorporate peer, individual and family characteristics as measured at age 16 and create models of future cigarette and alcohol use at age 20. The analyses demonstrated that adolescent Internet use, particularly where such use took place, has a significant impact on future cigarette smoking and alcohol use, adjusted for conventional factors, and its relationship differs significantly by gender. Female adolescents with Internet café use appear to be especially likely to develop these two risky behaviors. The why of Internet use is also a predictor of future cigarette smoking. Finally, time spent using the Internet is significantly related to alcohol use; greater use of the Internet is associated with higher levels of drinking. The results revealed that different risky behaviors are differentially influenced by separate components of adolescent Internet use. These findings suggest that programs aimed at promoting adolescent health could potentially benefit Taiwanese adolescents by including components related to situational Internet use and taking gender into consideration.

  20. Maternal prenatal cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use and risk of infant leukaemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Slater, Megan E; Linabery, Amy M; Blair, Cindy K; Spector, Logan G; Heerema, Nyla A; Robison, Leslie L; Ross, Julie A

    2011-11-01

    Several case-control studies have evaluated associations between maternal smoking, alcohol consumption and illicit drug use during pregnancy and risk of childhood leukaemia. Few studies have specifically focused on infants (<1 year) with leukaemia, a group that is biologically and clinically distinct from older children. We present data from a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of 443 infants diagnosed with acute leukaemia [including acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)] between 1996 and 2006 and 324 population controls. Mothers were queried about their cigarette, alcohol and illicit drug use 1 year before and throughout pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals [CI] were calculated using adjusted unconditional logistic regression models. Maternal smoking (>1 cigarette/day) and illicit drug use (any amount) before and/or during pregnancy were not significantly associated with infant leukaemia. Alcohol use (>1 drink/week) during pregnancy was inversely associated with infant leukaemia overall [OR = 0.64; 95% CI 0.43, 0.94], AML [OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.28, 0.87], and leukaemia with mixed lineage leukaemia gene rearrangements ('MLL+') [OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36, 0.97]. While our results agree with the fairly consistent evidence that maternal cigarette smoking is not associated with childhood leukaemia, the data regarding alcohol and illicit drug use are not consistent with prior reports and are difficult to interpret. It is possible that unhealthy maternal behaviours during pregnancy, some of which carry potential legal consequences, may not be adequately measured using only self-report. Future case-control studies of childhood leukaemia that pursue these exposures may benefit from incorporation of validated instruments and/or biomarkers when feasible.

  1. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  2. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  3. Health-as-a-value, spirituality, and cigarette and alcohol use among Russian high school students.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Masagutov, Radik; Kniazev, Vadim; Sussman, Steve

    2012-12-01

    National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively limited. Research conducted primarily in the United States has shown that spirituality and health-as-a-value are plausible predictors of adolescent substance use. However, these constructs have not been extensively studied in regions outside the United States. In this study, we tested whether spirituality and heath-as-a-value had protective effects on past-month cigarette and alcohol use behaviors and next-year cigarette and alcohol use intentions among Russian high school students (N = 354, mean age = 15.7 years), after controlling for known predictors of adolescent substance use such as age, gender, socioeconomic status, peer substance use, and sensation seeking. We found a significant inverse relationship between health-as-a-value and recent cigarette and alcohol use as well as future cigarette use intentions. However, we did not find a significant relationship between spirituality and any substance use variables. Implications of these findings for school-based substance use prevention are discussed.

  4. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  5. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  6. An Intimate Look at Contraception and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…

  7. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  8. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy

  9. [Attitudes towards consumption and non-consumption of alcohol among high school students in Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Cisneros, Manuel Antonio; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Castillo, María Magdalena Alonso; Castillo, María Teresa de Jesús Alonso; Aguilar, Lucio Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences in high school students' attitudes towards the consumption or non-consumption of alcohol using the theory of planned behavior. This was a qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that included a sample of 131 students. We found that 74% of students had consumed alcohol, and 18.3% exhibited a harmful level of consumption. We also found that behavioral beliefs towards consumption were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=29.32, median=27.50) than those who did not consume alcohol. Moreover, positive beliefs towards consumption were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=17.72, median=9.52) than non-consumers, which demonstrates a need for preventative programs to strengthen adolescents' beliefs concerning alcohol as well as protective factors and healthy lifestyles.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and the Risk for Alcohol Use Disorders Among Adolescent Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Grucza, Richard A.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking and alcohol use disorders are closely linked, but it is not clear whether higher rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD) among smokers are solely attributable to heavier drinking, or alternatively, whether smokers are more vulnerable to alcohol abuse and dependence than non-smokers who drink comparable quantities. We sought to address this issue using data from a nationally representative U.S. sample of adolescents and young adults. Specifically, we analyzed the relationship between cigarette smoking, drinking, and alcohol use disorders. Methods: Data were from the aggregated 2002 through 2004 U.S. National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Participants were randomly selected, household-dwelling adolescents and young adults (ages 12-20) from the non-institutionalized, civilian population of the United States (N=74,836). Measurements included current DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence, number of drinks in the past 30-days, and past-year cigarette smoking, defined as having smoked more than 100 cigarettes across the lifetime and having smoked during the past year. Results: Past-year smokers, (prevalence=16.0%) drank in higher quantities than never-smokers, but were also at elevated risk for AUD when compared to never-smokers who drank equivalent quantities. The effect was observed across age groups, but was more prominent among younger adolescents. After adjusting for drinking quantity and sociodemographic variables, smokers had 4.5-fold higher odds of AUD than never-smokers (95% CI: 3.1-6.6). Youths who reported smoking but did not cross the 100-cigarette threshold were at intermediate risk (OR=2.3, 95% CI: 1.7-3.3). Differences in AUD between smokers and never-smokers were most pronounced at lower levels of drinking. Conclusions: The results are consistent with a higher vulnerability to alcohol use disorders among smokers, compared to non-smokers who drink equivalent quantities. PMID:17117970

  11. Early social isolation augments alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; Spoelder, Marcia; Rotte, Marthe D; Janssen, Martijn J; Hesseling, Peter; Lozeman-van't Klooster, José G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-10-01

    There is a considerable degree of individual vulnerability for alcohol use disorder (AUD) as only a subpopulation of individuals who regularly consume alcohol develop AUD. It is therefore very important to understand the factors and mechanisms that contribute towards the individual risk for AUD. In this respect, social influences, in particular during development, may be relevant for AUD as disruptions in early social experiences are associated with an increased risk for AUD. Social play, the most prominent form of social behaviour shown by young mammals, is rewarding and considered to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development. Recent studies suggest that early social isolation, effectively depriving animals from social play, increases the risk for addictive behaviour. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the long-term consequences of early social isolation on alcohol consumption and motivation for alcohol. To this end, rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21-42, followed by 4 weeks of social housing, and voluntary alcohol consumption and operant responding for alcohol were determined in adulthood. We observed enhanced levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood in previously isolated rats, whereas operant responding for alcohol was not altered. The impact of early social isolation was independent of the individual variation in alcohol consumption. These data indicate that social isolation, during a developmental period when social play is highly abundant, enhances the propensity to consume alcohol in adulthood. This implies that early social experience may be a protective factor against excessive alcohol use.

  12. Caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption among medical students in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Laporte, J R; Cami, J; Gutiérrez, R; Laporte, J

    1977-07-19

    A survey of medical students was conducted at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in 1974. Out of 1029 students, 808 present at lectures (78.5%) returned properly completed questionnaires. These showed that mean caffeine consumption was 8.3 g per month and increased with the length of stay at the university. Tobacco consumption (general mean, 190 cigarettes per month, 216 for males and 150 for females) and alcohol consumption (8.8 litres/year for males and 4.1 litres/year for females) also increased with time spent at university. Alcohol consumption was not as high as in the general population. Amphetamine consumption was very high (22% of students had taken amphetamines on more than one occasion in the six months prior to the survey). Marihuana and hashish were by far the most commonly used drugs (9.6%), the use of these drugs being much less common than at other European universities. The use of "harder" drugs was very limited. Appraisal of alcohol, tobacco and amphetamine abuse is necessary, since the authorities have not employed adequate measures to stop or limit them.

  13. A Test of Biosocial Models of Adolescent Cigarette and Alcohol Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Granger, Douglas A.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath; Hussong, Andrea M.; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J.; DuRant, Robert H.

    2007-01-01

    The authors test biosocial models that posit interactions between biological variables (testosterone, estradiol, pubertal status, and pubertal timing) and social context variables (family, peer, school, and neighborhood) in predicting adolescent involvement with cigarettes and alcohol in a sample of 409 adolescents in Grades 6 and 8. Models…

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Kelly N.; Fernandez, Maria E.; Shelton, Terri L.; Frabutt, James M.; Willford, Amanda P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase the knowledge base of adolescent substance use by examining the influences of risk and protective factors for specific substance use, namely alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. Participants included 271 adolescents and their primary caregivers referred for mental health services across North Carolina. A…

  15. Adolescents' Multisubstance Use Patterns: The Role of Heavy Alcohol and Cigarette Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the role of increasing use and heavy first-time use of alcohol and cigarettes in multisubstance abuse patterns for 4,192 secondary school students surveyed 3 times over a 4-year period. A history of licit substance use with increasing use levels is likely to precede use of other substances. (SLD)

  16. Alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure as independent predictors of social drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Cox, W Miles

    2008-10-01

    Prior studies aimed at explaining cognitive-motivational reasons for drinking have focused on either cognitive or motivational factors, but not on both. This study examined the ability of both alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure to predict alcohol consumption. Participants were university students (N=87) who completed a battery of tests, including the Personal Concerns Inventory (a measure of adaptive and maladaptive motivation), an alcohol Stroop test (a measure of alcohol-attentional bias), and an alcohol-use inventory. Regression, moderation, and mediation analyses showed that (a) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias were positive predictors of alcohol consumption after participants' age, gender, and executive cognitive functioning had been controlled, and (b) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias independently predicted alcohol consumption. The implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed.

  17. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PMID:25545451

  18. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  19. Exploring factors influencing alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Li, H Z; Rosenblood, L

    1994-07-01

    Past research on alcohol consumption patterns comparing Chinese and Caucasians indicates that significant group differences exist. Chinese, as a group, consume significantly less alcohol than their Caucasian counterparts. Explanations for these differences have been controversial. Some argue that it is due to cultural differences, whereas others contend that it is because of physiological differences. The present study explores this controversy using a new approach: model testing via path analysis. With a sample size of 178 Canadian Chinese and 161 Caucasian university students, the present study found that in both ethnic groups, cultural norms rather than physical symptoms were a significant predictor of alcohol consumption patterns. This finding strongly suggests that alcohol consumption behavior can be better understood by a social/psychological rather than a biomedical approach. To effect changes in alcohol assumption patterns, it is suggested that cultural interpretations of alcohol use should be examined.

  20. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  1. Pre-pregnancy alcohol experience attenuates typical decrease in gestational alcohol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Becker, H C; Randall, C L; Anton, R F

    1986-01-01

    The influence of pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption on alcohol self-selection during pregnancy and lactation was examined in C57BL mice. One group of animals was given a two-bottle choice between water and a 10% w/v ethanol solution for three weeks prior to breeding, throughout pregnancy, and during lactation, while a second group was given the alcohol-water choice beginning on the first day of pregnancy. Relative alcohol intake (g ethanol/kg body weight) as well as alcohol "preference" decreased below pre-pregnancy levels during both pregnancy and lactation. That is, voluntary alcohol consumption was attenuated in pregnant and lactating mice, regardless of strain-typical pre-pregnancy high consumption. However, mice given a choice between alcohol and water prior to pregnancy did not decrease their alcohol consumption during pregnancy as much as mice not given the pre-pregnancy alcohol choice. There was no correlation between pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and subsequent intake. The mechanism underlying decreased voluntary alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains to be elucidated, but it is clear that prior experience with alcohol influences the phenomenon.

  2. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase

    PubMed Central

    Saenz-de-Miera, Belen; Chaloupka, Frank J; Waters, Hugh R; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the impact of a 2007 cigarette tax increase from 110% to 140% of the price to the retailer on cigarette price and consumption among Mexican smokers, including efforts to offset price increases. Methods Data were analysed from the 2006 and 2007 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico, which is a population-based cohort of adult smokers. Self-reported price of last cigarette purchase, place of last purchase, preferred brand, daily consumption and quit behaviour were assessed at baseline and follow-up. Results Self-reported cigarette prices increased by 12.7% after the tax increase, with prices for international brands increasing more than for national brands (13.5% vs 8.7%, respectively). Although the tax increases were not fully passed onto consumers particularly on national brands, no evidence was found for smokers changing behaviour to offset price increases. Consistent declines in consumption across groups defined by sociodemographic and smoking-related psychosocial variables suggest a relatively uniform impact of the tax increase across subpopulations. However, decreased consumption appeared limited to people who smoked relatively more cigarettes a day (>5 cigarettes/day). Average daily consumption among lighter smokers did not significantly decline. A total of 13% (n=98) of the sample reported being quit for a month or more at follow-up. In multivariate models, lighter smokers were more likely than heavier smokers to be quit. Conclusions Results suggest that the 2007 tax increase was passed on to consumers, whose consumption generally declined. Since no other tobacco control policies or programmes were implemented during the period analysed, the tax increase appears likely to have decreased consumption. PMID:20870740

  3. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  4. Alcohol Consumption as a Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy 6. AUTHOR (S) Robert E. Steed, Captain 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... definitons are used: Alcohol abuse refers to ingestion of alcohol which causes any personal, physical, psychological, familial, social, legal, employment...alcohol is decried. Moralists debate whether or not alcohol has any appropriate purpose for human consumption while legal and medical authorities try to

  5. Impact of alcohol consumption on clinical aspects of gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Valdepérez, Ana; Agüera, Zaida; Håkansson, Anders; Sauvaget, Anne; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Baño, Marta; Honrubia, María; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Similarities between gambling disorder and substance use disorders have been extensively described. To date, however, few studies using large clinical samples have been carried out that reliably assess the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and gambling disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impact of baseline alcohol consumption levels on the clinical profile in a large sample of treatment-seeking individuals. Nine hundred and fifty-one consecutive outpatients diagnosed with gambling disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were compared after being included in three alcohol consumption groups (low risk, abuse and risk of dependence) based on their total raw scores on the AUDIT questionnaire. Results showed a high prevalence of risk of alcohol dependence in GD patients who were immigrants, unemployed, and had a low level of education. A positive linear trend was also found between alcohol consumption level and the prevalence of other current and life-time comorbid mental disorders, and for the presence of drug abuse. Statistically significant differences were found between the three alcohol consumption groups in terms of the evolution and severity of the gambling disorder, self-directedness personality trait, and levels of general psychopathology, hostility and paranoid ideation. In conclusion, the results showed an association between increased alcohol consumption and greater dysfunction.

  6. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption.

  7. Consumption of single cigarettes and quitting behavior: A longitudinal analysis of Mexican smokers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous cross-sectional research has suggested single cigarettes could either promote or inhibit consumption. The present study aimed to assess the effects of single cigarette availability and consumption on downstream quit behavior. Methods We analyzed population-based, longitudinal data from adult smokers who participated in the 2008 and 2010 administrations of the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Survey in Mexico. Results At baseline, 30% of smokers saw single cigarettes for sale on a daily basis, 17% bought singles at their last purchase, and 7% bought singles daily. Smokers who most frequently purchased singles, both in general and specifically to control their consumption, were no more likely to attempt to quit over the 14 month follow-up period than those who did not purchase singles. Frequency of buying singles to reduce consumption had a non-monotonic association with being quit at followup. The odds of being quit was only statistically significant when comparing those who had not bought singles to reduce consumption with those who had done so on a more irregular basis (AOR = 2.30; 95% CI 1.19, 4.45), whereas those who did so more regularly were no more likely to be quit at followup. Frequency of self-reported urges to smoke upon seeing singles for sale was unassociated with either quit attempts or being quit at followup. Conclusions These results suggest that the relationship between singles consumption and quit behavior is complex, with no clear evidence that singles either promote or inhibit downstream quit behavior. PMID:21352526

  8. Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising on Billboards: Targeting with Social Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Caroline; Basil, Michael D.

    A study examined whether billboard advertising of tobacco and alcohol products is differentially targeted toward White, Black, Asian, and Hispanic neighborhoods. The study analyzed 901 billboards in neighborhood commercial districts in San Francisco, California, giving particular attention to tobacco and alcohol billboards. Neighborhood census…

  9. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  10. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  11. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  12. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  13. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  14. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  15. Impact of Tobacco Control on Adult per Capita Cigarette Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Donald W.; Gillespie, Brenda W.; Levy, David T.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of tobacco control on adult per capita cigarette consumption in the United States from 1964 to 2011. Methods. We used logit regression to model the diffusion of smoking from 1900 to 2011. We also projected hypothetical cigarette consumption after 1963 in the absence of tobacco control. Model predictors included historical events such as wars, specific tobacco control interventions, and other influences. Results. Per capita consumption increased rapidly through 1963, consistent with S-shaped (sigmoid) diffusion. The course reversed beginning in 1964, the year of publication of the first surgeon general’s report on smoking and health. Subsequent tobacco control policy interventions significantly reduced consumption. Had the tobacco control movement never occurred, per capita consumption would have been nearly 5 times higher than it actually was in 2011. Conclusions. Tobacco control has been one of the most successful public health endeavors of the past half century. Still, the remaining burden of smoking in the United States augurs hundreds of thousands of deaths annually for decades to come. Reinvigorating the tobacco control movement will require novel interventions as well as stronger application of existing evidence-based policies. PMID:24228645

  16. Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior. PMID:17365768

  17. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  18. Increased Facial Attractiveness Following Moderate, but not High, Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Abbeele, Jana; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Attwood, Angela S.; Stephen, Ian D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviours, but this relationship may be complex and bidirectional. We explored whether alcohol consumption leads to the consumer being rated as more attractive than sober individuals. Methods: Heterosexual social alcohol consumers completed an attractiveness-rating task, in which they were presented with pairs of photographs depicting the same individual, photographed while sober and after having consumed alcohol (either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg), and required to decide which image was more attractive. Results: Photographs of individuals who had consumed a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 250 ml of wine at 14% alcohol by volume for a 70 kg individual) were rated as more attractive than photographs of sober individuals. This was not observed for photographs of individuals who had consumed a high dose of alcohol. Conclusion: In addition to perceiving others as more attractive, a mildly intoxicated alcohol consumer may also be perceived as more attractive by others. This in turn may play a role in the relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:25716115

  19. Increased alcohol consumption in rats after subchronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Orio, Laura; Gorriti, Miguel Á; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    The use of antidepressants for alcoholism in humans has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Despite the existence of an important co-morbidity for depression and alcoholism, some studies suggest that the use of antidepressants could worsen the prognosis of alcoholism. However, there is a lack of studies in animal models exploring this phenomenon. In the present study, we show how the 15-d treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or venlafaxine (50 mg/kg) affected alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) and subsequent alcohol consumption. Initially, fluoxetine reduced ADE and venlafaxine did not affect it. However, in the following days, both antidepressants increased alcohol consumption, an effect that was found to last at least 5 wk. Fluoxetine treatment was shown to cause a locomotor sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the presence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. In summary, antidepressant treatment may increase alcohol consumption in rats after a period of alcohol deprivation and this could be related to alterations in the reward circuitry. This finding confirms in an animal model previous reports in humans that may limit the use of antidepressants for alcoholism.

  20. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  1. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  2. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Schonlau, Matthias; Scribner, Richard; Farley, Thomas A; Theall, Katherine; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Scott, Molly; Cohen, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents' addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes) and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet) estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent's home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent's census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  3. Alcohol consumption in young adults: the role of multisensory imagery.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people.

  4. Cancer mortality in relation to national consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee.

    PubMed

    Stocks, P

    1970-06-01

    Comparison between the age-adjusted death rates in 1964-65 from cancers of different sites and the annual consumption of cigarettes, solid fuel, tea and coffee as measured by trade statistics in 20 countries reveals the existence of significant correlations.Cigarette consumption per adult in the population is positively related with lung and bladder cancer in males and insignificantly with lung in females. Negative relations are indicated with the liver and biliary passages, prostate and uterus.Solid fuel is positively related with the intestine, lung and bladder in both sexes, with leukaemia in males and with breast in females. Nagative associations are indicated with the stomach.Tea is positively related with intestine except rectum in both sexes and with larynx, lung and breast in females. Negative associations are indicated with the stomach in both sexes and with uterus and leukaemia in females.Coffee is positively related with the pancreas, prostate and leukaemia in males and with ovary and leukaemia in females.Specially noteworthy were the contrasts between the intestine and stomach in their associations with solid fuel, cigarettes and tea for which a possible explanation has been suggested.

  5. Upper Airway Variation and Frequent Alcohol Consumption Can Affect Compliance With Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Jong In; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Hong, Sang Duk; Ryu, Gwanghui; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Kyung Eun; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung-Kyu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Compliance with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment remains a primary concern for improving treatment outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea. There are few studies that have considered the role of upper airway anatomy on the compliance with CPAP. We hypothesized that upper airway anatomy would influence the compliance with CPAP. Methods One hundred out of 161 consecutive patients were enrolled in this study. The following possible determinants were tested against CPAP use: demographic and anthropometric data, minimal cross-sectional area on acoustic rhinometry, cephalometric and polysomnographic data, questionnaires of Epworth sleepiness scale and Beck depression index, and histories of previous upper airway surgery, degree of nasal obstruction, daily cigarette consumption, and weekly frequency of alcohol intake. Results Univariate analysis showed that histories of previous upper airway surgery and less frequent alcohol consumption, and longer mandibular plane-hyoid length (MP-H) on cephalometry were associated with longer average daily CPAP use. After adjustment for the confounding factors with multiple linear regression analysis, alcohol consumption and MP-H were still associated with the compliance with CPAP significantly. Conclusion To improve compliance with CPAP, careful evaluations of upper airway problems and life style are important before initiating CPAP. PMID:27334512

  6. Western Australian students' alcohol consumption and expenditure intentions for Schoolies.

    PubMed

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Hagger, Martin S

    2016-12-19

    In Australia, the immediate post-school period (known as 'Schoolies') is associated with heavy drinking and high levels of alcohol-related harm. This study investigated students' intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies to inform interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm among this group. An online survey was administered to students in their senior year of schooling. Included items related to intended daily alcohol consumption during Schoolies, amount of money intended to be spent on alcohol over the Schoolies period, and past drinking behaviour. On average, participants (n=187) anticipated that they would consume eight standard drinks per day, which is substantially higher than the recommended maximum of no more than four drinks on a single occasion. Participants intended to spend an average of A$131 on alcohol over the Schoolies period. Although higher than national guidelines, intended alcohol consumption was considerably lower than has been previously documented during Schoolies events. The substantial amounts of money expected to be spent during Schoolies suggest this group has adequate spending power to constitute an attractive target market for those offering alternative activities that are associated with lower levels of alcohol-related harm.

  7. Alcohol consumption, female sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J

    1986-07-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on female sexuality and contraceptive use, 69 sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 34 completed daily logs of their drinking behavior, sexual activity and contraceptive use over three consecutive menstrual cycles. In addition, participants completed a post-study questionnaire that assessed personal beliefs regarding alcohol use and sexual behavior. Although the results from the daily logs failed to show any significant effects of alcohol on subsequent sexual arousal, sexual pleasure or orgasm, female-initiated sexual activity appeared to be inversely related to alcohol use with women initiating significantly fewer sexual activities following the consumption of alcohol. On the contrary, the retrospective questionnaire data indicated that women believed alcohol enhanced sexual desire, enjoyment and activity. The findings further indicated that alcohol consumption immediately prior to sexual intercourse did not significantly alter the use of coitus-dependent contraceptives. These data suggest that women view alcohol as an aphrodisiac despite their physiological and reported behavioral responses.

  8. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  9. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  10. Effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of hydroxyapatite implant.

    PubMed

    Andrade, A R; Sant'Ana, D C M; Mendes, J A; Moreira, M; Pires, G C; Santos, M P; Fernandes, G J M; Nakagaki, W R; Garcia, J A D; Lima, C C; Soares, E A

    2013-02-01

    The present study aims to assess the effects of cigarette smoke inhalation and/or coffee consumption on bone formation and osseous integration of a dense hydroxyapatite (DHA) implant in rats. For this study, 20 male rats were divided into four groups (n = 5): CT (control) group, CE (coffee) group, CI (cigarette) group and CC (coffee + cigarette) group. During 16 weeks, animals in the CI group were exposed to cigarette smoke inhalation equivalent to 6 cigarettes per day; specimens in the CE group drank coffee as liquid diet; and rats in the CC group were submitted to both substances. In the 6th week a 5 mm slit in the parietal bone and a 4 mm slit in the tibia were performed on the left side: the former was left open while the latter received a DHA implant. As soon as surgeries were finished, the animals returned to their original protocols and after 10 weeks of exposure they were euthanised (ethically sacrificed) and the mentioned bones collected for histological processing. Data showed that exposure to cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption did not interfere in weight gain and that solid and liquid diet consumption was satisfactory. Rats in the CC group showed a decrease in bone neoformation around the tibial DHA implant (31.8 ± 2.8) as well as in bone formation in the parietal slit (28.6 ± 2.2). On their own, cigarette smoke inhalation or coffee consumption also led to diminished bone neoformation around the implant and delayed the bone repair process in relation to the CT group. However, reduction in the bone repair process was accentuated with exposure to both cigarette smoke inhalation and coffee consumption in this study.

  11. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  12. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed.

  13. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  14. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption.

  15. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  16. Personality, lifestyles, alcohol and drug consumption in a sample of British medical students.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C H; Kamali, F

    1995-05-01

    Personality characteristics and lifestyle variables were assessed in two cohorts of second-year medical students at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK as part of a psychopharmacology 'teach-in' in 1993 and 1994. The pooled sample included 186 students: 77 men, 109 women, mean age 20.4 +/- 1.8 years. Measures included the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and a questionnaire concerning consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs, and physical exercise. The results were compared, where possible, with a similar survey in Newcastle upon Tyne medical students in 1983 and 1984. Personality variables, prevalence of cigarette smoking, levels of caffeine consumption and participation in sports had not changed significantly over the decade. There appeared to be a modest overall increase in alcohol consumption and in the 1993 and 1994 cohorts of students, 25.5% of those who drank alcohol exceeded recommended low risk levels (comparable data not available for 1983 and 1984). Reported use of cannabis and other illicit drugs had more than doubled, and in the present survey 49.2% of students recorded using cannabis and 22% had tried other illicit drugs. Corresponding figures for 1983 and 1984 were 20.9% for cannabis and 3.3% for other illicit drugs. Anxiety levels were not measured in 1983 and 1984 but in the present survey 39.3% of the students had anxiety ratings within the clinically significant range. The high levels of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, and the high anxiety ratings, in this sample of medical students are a cause for concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  18. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

  19. Stress and Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use Among Latino Adolescents in Families with Undocumented Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Cervantes, Richard C.; Merten, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Families in which one or more members are undocumented immigrants experience unique hardships. Yet, little is known about stress and substance use among adolescents growing up in these families. The present study examined associations between two sources of adolescent stress (i.e., low parental involvement due to contextual constraints and family economic insecurity) and lifetime alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use among adolescents in families with undocumented members. The sample was comprised of 102 adolescents (10–18 years old) and one of his or her parents. Participants responded a survey in English or Spanish. Adolescent lifetime use of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana was 51%, 32.4%, and 37.3%, respectively. Chi–Square analyses found no significant gender differences in lifetime substance use. Logistic regression models showed that adolescent stress due to hindered parental involvement increased the odds of both lifetime cigarette and marijuana use after controlling for gender, age, linguistic acculturation, familism, parental control, and negative peer affiliation. Being a girl increased the odds of lifetime alcohol use. Family economic stress was not associated with lifetime substance use. Results suggest that hindered parental involvement might be a stressor and a risk factor for cigarette and marijuana use among adolescents growing up in families with undocumented members. Because parents in these families are likely to be undocumented, policies that allow immigrants to apply for legal status could improve parents' working conditions and facilitate parental involvement; in turn, such policies could decrease the risk for adolescent substance use among children of Latino immigrants. PMID:26900317

  20. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  1. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  2. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  3. User characteristics of a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

    2017-03-17

    Digital interventions are available to help people reduce their alcohol consumption, but it is not known who uses these interventions and how this treatment-seeking group compares with the general population of drinkers. The study objective was to compare the socio-demographic and drinking characteristics of users of the 'Drinks Meter' smartphone app with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Data were used from the Drinks Meter app and website, and a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in England (Alcohol Toolkit Study). Participants were drinkers aged 16+ in England. Data were collected on participants' age, gender, region, sexual orientation, social grade and AUDIT score. Regression analyses were conducted to assess differences in socio-demographic and drinking characteristics between samples. Drinks Meter app users, compared with drinkers of the general population, were younger, more likely to be from the South, not heterosexual, less likely to be of a lower social grade and had a higher mean AUDIT score. Drinks Meter app users were younger than website users and reported greater alcohol consumption and related harms. Drinkers using the Drinks Meter app are more likely to be younger and report greater alcohol consumption and related harms compared with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Apps that provide feedback on drinking appear to be reaching those who report greater alcohol consumption and related harms.

  4. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  5. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  6. Effects of Alcohol-Induced Working Memory Decline on Alcohol Consumption and Adverse Consequences of Use

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, William V.; Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. Objectives The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trails Making Test-B). Method Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3% male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30 day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Results Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. Conclusions It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one’s ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day, and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use. PMID:26407604

  7. Fractures and lifestyle: effect of cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and relative weight on the risk of hip and forearm fractures in middle-aged women.

    PubMed Central

    Hemenway, D; Colditz, G A; Willett, W C; Stampfer, M J; Speizer, F E

    1988-01-01

    Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and low relative weight are often cited as risk factors for osteoporosis. In a prospective cohort study of 96,508 middle-aged nurses 35 to 59 years of age we found that smoking was not a risk factor for hip and forearm fracture. Women who drank more than 15 grams of alcohol per day and whose relative weight was less than 21 kg/m2 were at increased risk of fractures, but these risk factors were not independent. Only the combination of alcohol intake and thinness substantially increased the likelihood of fracture. The low weight women consuming more than one drink per day comprised but 4 per cent of our population of middle-class women and sustained 6 per cent of the fractures. PMID:3189632

  8. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  9. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  10. The density of alcohol outlets and adolescent alcohol consumption: An Australian longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Hemphill, Sheryl; Leung, Rachel; Livingston, M; Toumbourou, J W

    2016-01-01

    Higher density of alcohol outlets has been linked to increased levels of adolescent alcohol-related behaviour. Research to date has been cross-sectional. A longitudinal design using two waves of annual survey data from the Australian arm of the International Youth Development Study was used. The sample comprised 2835 individuals with average age at wave 2 of 14 years (SD=1.67; range=11-17 years). GSEM was used to examine how absolute levels of alcohol outlet density was associated with student-reported alcohol use one year later, while controlling for prior alcohol use, risk factors at wave one and changes in density over the 2 years. Adolescents' perception of alcohol availability and friends' alcohol use were tested as potential mediators of the association between alcohol outlet density and adolescent alcohol use. Elasticity modelling identified a 10% increase in overall density at wave one was associated with an approximately 17% increase in odds of adolescent alcohol consumption at wave two. Living in areas with a higher density of outlets was associated with a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of adolescents developing early age alcohol consumption.

  11. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1) those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total) and (2) those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total). The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997) was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old) subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present) was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old) subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline) associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic) drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia) and to cognitive impairment (low test scores), but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores) was found. Both light and moderate drinking provided a similar benefit, but heavy drinking was associated with nonsignificantly higher cognitive risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the meta

  13. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  14. [The evaluation of smoking and alcohol consumption by university students in Gdańsk].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Z; Anand, J S; Salamon, M; Waldman, W; Wnuk, K

    2001-01-01

    Anonymous questionnaire examination were performed among 1585 students from eight universities in Gdańsk, including 664 men and 921 women from 17 to 48 (mean 21.4 +/- 2.26) years old. Alcohol was consumed by 1452 (91.61%) students, including 91.53% women and 91.72% men. Both men and women preferred beer, respectively, 73.7% and 50.6%. In three-stage AUDIT-test (alcohol drinking dangerous to health) including 716 (45.2%) students, most of them in stage A (81.6%); in stage B about 8.2% comprised while there were about 10.2% in stage C students. Alcohol consumption carried the lowest risk (stage A) among students of Medical University while corresponding risk was the highest among students of Maritime High School. Among respondents drinking alcohol dangerously to health there were significantly more persons who did drugs (73.7%). Students qualified to the AUDIT test smoked cigarettes significantly more often than the rest of the examined population. Smokers amounted to 399 (25.2%) students, including 224 (26.3%) women and 157 (23.6%) men. The difference in figures was statistically non-significant. Among smoking respondents the students of Fine Arts Academy constituted the majority, while those of Medical University and of University School of Physical Education were in minority. Catholic Priest Seminary respondents did not have the relevant experiences.

  15. The dimensionality of alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in a cross-national perspective

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Cremonte, Mariana; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2009-01-01

    Aims To replicate the finding that there is a single dimension trait in alcohol use disorders and to test whether usual 5+ drinks for men and/4+ drinks for women and other measures of alcohol consumption help to improve alcohol use disorder criteria in a series of diverse patients from Emergency Departments (EDs) in four countries. Design Cross-sectional surveys of patient 18 and older that reflected consecutive arrival at the ED. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Core was used to obtain a diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse. Quantity and frequency of drinking and drunkenness as well as usual number of drinks consumed during the last year. Setting Participants were 5,195 injured and non-injured patients attending 7 EDs in 4 countries, Argentina, Mexico, Poland the U.S., (between 1995-2001). Findings Using exploratory factor analyses alcohol use disorders can be described as a single, unidimensional continuum without any clear cut distinction between the criterions for dependence and abuse in all sites. Results from item response theory analyses showed that the current DSM-IV criterions tap people in the middle-upper end of the alcohol use disorder continuum. Alcohol consumption (amount and frequency of use) can be used in all EDs with the current DSM-IV diagnostic criterions to help tap the middle-lower part of this continuum. Even though some specific diagnostic criterions and some alcohol consumption variables showed differential item function across sites, test response curves were invariant for ED sites and their inclusion would not impact the final (total) performance of the diagnostic system. Conclusions DSM-IV abuse and dependence form a unidimensional continuum in ED patients regardless of country of survey. Alcohol consumption variables, if added, would help to tap patients with more moderate severity. DSM diagnostic system for alcohol use disorders showed invariance and performed extremely well in these samples. PMID

  16. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S; Tyrrell, D A; Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Smith, A P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was conducted to test the supposition that both smoking and consuming alcohol suppress host resistance to viral infections. METHODS. The relations between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of documented clinical colds were prospectively studied among 391 subjects intentionally exposed to one of five respiratory viruses and 26 subjects given saline. Clinical colds were defined as clinical symptoms verified by the isolation of virus or by an increase in virus-specific antibody titer. Analyses included control variables for demographics; body weight; virus; and environmental, immunological and psychological factors. RESULTS. Smokers were at greater risk for developing colds than nonsmokers because smokers were more likely both to develop infections and to develop illness following infection. Greater numbers of alcoholic drinks (up to three or four per day) were associated with decreased risk for developing colds because drinking was associated with decreased illness following infection. However, the benefits of drinking occurred only among nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Susceptibility to colds was increased by smoking. Although alcohol consumption did not influence risk of clinical illness for smokers, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with decreased risk for nonsmokers. PMID:8363004

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  18. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  19. A review of military research into alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verrall, N G

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is a part of military history. The impacts in terms of both short-term and long-term consequences require modern militaries to develop and instigate a duty of care for its personnel, which informs the military's 'cradle to the grave' approach in addressing alcohol consumption and other risky health behaviours (e.g. smoking, driving, sex, drugs, obesity, etc.). Thus, in recent years there have been numerous studies that have either focused on, or included, measures of alcohol consumption among various military populations. Therefore, a synthesis of this research is warranted in order to provide a contemporary understanding of this topic. This review addresses the military research regarding alcohol consumption. It reviews the methodological issues associated with the breadth of research, as well as commenting on a range of factors that need to be considered when interpreting and comparing the different research studies; for example, (1) when comparing findings across military to civilian and pan-military populations, (2) deployment-related research, (3) military groups at risk, and (4) the impact on readiness, operational effectiveness and force sustainability.

  20. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  2. A follow-up study of attentional behavior in 6-year-old children exposed prenatally to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Fried, P A; Watkinson, B; Gray, R

    1992-01-01

    Attentional behavior was examined in one hundred twenty-six 72-month-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marihuana, cigarettes, and alcohol has previously been ascertained. Discriminant Function Analysis revealed a dose-response association between prenatal cigarette exposure and impulsive behavior as manifest on poorer performance on a response inhibition task and increased errors of commission on a sustained vigilance task. Performance on a series of memory tasks particularly those requiring verbal recall was also negatively associated with maternal cigarette use. Prenatal marihuana habits were associated with increased omission errors in the vigilance task, possibly reflecting a deficit in sustained attention. In addition, Discriminant Function Analysis revealed a dose-response relationship between prenatal marihuana use and a higher rating by the mothers on an impulsive/hyperactive scale. Relatively low levels of maternal alcohol consumption was related to decreased impulsive responding both in the response inhibition task and in terms of the mothers' perception of the child's behavior. The multifaceted approach of examining attentional behavior was essential to reveal the differential associations with the three prenatally used drugs. The implications of the observations and how the findings relate to and extend the existing literature is discussed.

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Baloch, Zulqarnain; He, Ting-Ting; Xia, Xueshan

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to determine by meta-analysis the relationship between drinking alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. Material/Methods A systematic Medline search was performed to identify all published reports of drinking alcohol and the associated risk of gastric cancer. Initially we retrieved 2,494 studies, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis showed that alcohol consumption elevated the risk of gastric cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 (95% CI 1.20–1.61). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that only a nested case-control report from Sweden did not support this observation. Subgroup analysis of moderate drinking and heavy drinking also confirmed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of gastric cancer. Publication bias analysis (Begg’s and Egger’s tests) showed p values were more than 0.05, suggesting that the 10 articles included in our analysis did not have a publication bias. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of gastric cancer; suggesting that effective moderation of alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:28087989

  4. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches including genetic, developmental, pharmacological, behavioral, and psychophysical studies. The presentations were as follows: (1) Introduction and overview of the chemical senses (Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov); (2) Taste reactivity as a measure of alcohol palatability and its relation to alcohol consumption in rats (Stephen W. Kiefer); (3) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in laboratory animals (Juan Carlos Molina); (4) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in humans (Julie A. Mennella); (5) Genetic dissection of the ethanol-sweet taste relationship in mice (Alexander A. Bachmanov and Michael Tordoff); and (6) Human genetic variation in taste: connections with alcohol sensation and intake (Valerie B. Duffy and Linda M. Bartoshuk). The symposium concluded with a general discussion. PMID:12605071

  5. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol–cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents’ alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  6. The impact of parenthood on alcohol consumption trajectories: variations as a function of timing of parenthood, familial alcoholism, and gender.

    PubMed

    Little, Michelle; Handley, Elizabeth; Leuthe, Eileen; Chassin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the impact of the transition to parenthood on growth in alcohol consumption from early adolescence through emerging adulthood. We measured age-related discontinuity in trajectories of alcohol consumption associated with timing of the parenthood transition, above and beyond the effects of accrued educational status, gender, and time-varying marital status. We also examined the impact of a familial selection factor for the transmission of alcohol use problems, family history density of alcoholism (FHD), on both risk for adolescent parenthood and risk for adolescent parents' continuity in alcohol consumption after the parent transition within a mediation structural equation model. Premature timing of parenthood had a distinct effect on emerging adult alcohol trajectories. Although participants who became parents as emerging adults showed role-related decline in alcohol consumption, those who became parents during adolescence showed a role-related rise in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Gender moderated adolescent parents' role-related growth in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Adolescent fathers showed an adverse rise in alcohol consumption after becoming parents, whereas adolescent mothers' alcohol consumption did not change significantly. FHD was related to high adolescent alcohol consumption, which mediated risk for the incidence of early parenthood. Finally, the adverse effect of FHD on trajectories of emerging adult alcohol use was mediated by a dual pathway: (a) developmental continuity of conduct problems and (b) early transition to parenthood.

  7. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  8. Acute risperidone treatment did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Reiji; Kakihara, Shingo; Umene-Nakano, Wakako; Sugita, Atsuko; Hori, Hikaru; Ueda, Nobuhisa; Nakamura, Jun

    2008-06-01

    Excessive cigarette smoking and caffeine intake are often seen in schizophrenic patients being treated with antipsychotic drugs, particularly typical antipsychotic drugs. Using nicotine and caffeine sometimes influences psychotic symptoms in these patients. Clozapine is the only antipsychotic drug reported to reduce the amount of cigarette smoking, however, still remains controversial of its efficacy. In the present study, we examined the effect of acute risperidone treatment on the amount of cigarette smoking and plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine in schizophrenic patients. Treatment with risperidone for 4 weeks did not increase daily cigarette consumption or plasma levels of cotinine and caffeine. The results suggest that acute risperidone treatment does not promote the intake of nicotine and caffeine at least by 4 weeks in schizophrenic patients.

  9. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction.

  10. [Effects of alcohol consumption on traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Katada, Ryuichi

    2011-10-01

    It has been well known that alcohol consumption affects traumatic brain injury. The mechanism of detrimental effect of ethanol on traumatic brain injury has not been clarified. This review focused on the relationship among traumatic brain injury, ethanol and aquaporin-4. We have reported that ethanol increased brain edema after brain contusion and decreased survival rates in rats. It was suggested that increasing brain edema by ethanol after brain contusion may be caused by oxidative stress. Brain edema consists of cytotoxic brain edema, vasogenic brain edema, interstitial brain edema and osmotic edema. Ethanol mainly increases cytotoxic brain edema. Both alcohol consumption and brain contusion cause oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment decreases cytotoxic brain edema. Aquaporin-4, an water channel, was increased by ethanol 24 hr after traumatic brain injury in rat. The aquaporin-4 inhibitor decreased brain edema after brain contusion and increased survival rates under ethanol consumption. Aquaporin-4 may have strict relation between ethanol and brain edema increasing after brain contusion.

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  13. Alcohol consumption and health status in very old veterans.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Lasarev, Michael R; Dickinson, Kathryn C; Dobscha, Steven K

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has linked drinking with health, but has yet to address alcohol consumption and the relationship between drinking and health among very old veterans. To help fill this gap, the authors present a cross-sectional self-report study on 1105 veterans age 90 and older who completed the national Veteran's Affairs (VA) Survey of the Health Experiences of Patients (SHEP) for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Alcohol consumption was measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores (AUDIT-C). Health status was measured using the Veterans Rand Health Survey: VR-12. Among men (n = 1063), 60% were abstainers. No significant differences in mental health component (MCS; F(3,1040) = 1.80, P = .15) or physical health component (PCS; F(3,1040) = 1.48, P = .22) scores were detected across consumption categories. Among women (n = 42), 47% were abstainers. These results suggest many very old veterans abstain from alcohol and, among men, the associations between health status and drinking observed in younger groups may not be present in very old age.

  14. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of

  15. The association of smoking, alcoholic consumption, betel quid chewing and oral cavity cancer: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tin-Tin; Lin, Whe-Dar; Wang, Ching-Ping; Wang, Chen-Chi; Liu, Shih-An

    2008-11-01

    We aimed to analyze the relationship between smoking, alcoholic consumption and betel quid chewing with oral cavity cancer. All male patients age > or =18 years who visited our clinic received an oral mucosal inspection. Basic data including personal habits were also obtained. A multivariate logistic regression model was utilized to determine relevant risk factors for developing oral cavity cancer. A total of 8,356 patients were enrolled in this study. Abnormal findings were found in 382 patients (4.6%). Two hundred and ninety-seven patients received biopsy and 191 patients were proven to have oral cavity cancer. The results of multivariate logistic regression showed that those who smoked, consumed alcohol and chewed betel quid on a regular basis were most likely to contract oral cancer (odds ratio: 39.66, 95% confidence interval: 26.04-60.38). Therefore, habitual cigarette smokers, alcohol consumers, and betel quid chewers have a higher risk of contracting oral cavity cancer and should receive oral mucosal screening regularly so potential oral cavity cancer can be detected as early as possible, which may result in better and improved survival of oral cancer patients.

  16. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  17. Cigarette, alcohol use and physical activity among Myanmar youth workers, Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Howteerakul, N; Suwannapong, N; Than, M

    2005-05-01

    Over 1.2 million migrants from Myanmar are currently residing in Thailand. Little information is known about Myanmar youth risk behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence and the factors associated with cigarette and alcohol use, and physical inactivity, among Myanmar youth working in a harbor town in Samut Sakhon Province, Thailand. One hundred and seventy-seven young workers aged 15-24 years, living in the study area, were interviewed by structured questionnaire. About 21.5% were current smokers, 25.4% were alcohol drinkers, and 36.7% were physically inactive. Univariate analysis indicated one variable was significantly associated with cigarette smoking: education level higher than primary school (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.02-5.0), Three variables were significantly associated with alcohol drinking: married status (OR=2.2, 95%CI 1.02-4.5); non-seafood-processing workers, i e, street vendors, construction laborers, etc. (OR=3.4, 95% CI 1.7-7.1), and high job stress due to supervisor/boss (OR=2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Two variables were significantly associated with physical inactivity: female youth (OR=3.9 95% CI 2.1-7.5), and education level higher than primary school (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8). The prevalence of smoking, alcohol drinking and physical inactivity among Myanmar migrant youths was quite high. Government and non-government organizations should co-operate to provide interventions to reduce youths' risk behaviors.

  18. Risk factors for wrist fracture: effect of age, cigarettes, alcohol, body height, relative weight, and handedness on the risk for distal forearm fractures in men.

    PubMed

    Hemenway, D; Azrael, D R; Rimm, E B; Feskanich, D; Willett, W C

    1994-08-15

    Fractures of the distal forearm (wrist) are among the most common of all fractures. While evidence exists concerning risk factors for wrist fracture among women, little is known about risk factors among men. This study examines the relation of lifestyle characteristics (cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, relative weight) as well as body height and handedness to the risk for fracture in a male population that has been followed up for 6 years. The 51,529 men, who were between the ages of 40 and 75 years in 1986, were participants in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a national prospective cohort study. In 271,552 person-years of follow-up, 271 respondents reported a wrist fracture. The risk for wrist fracture in this population did not vary with age. Cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, body height, and relative weight also were not related to risk for wrist fracture. Handedness, which was divided into four mutually exclusive categories (right-handed, left-handed, forced to change, and ambidextrous), was significantly associated with wrist fracture. Left-handers had a multivariate relative risk for wrist fracture 1.56 times that of right-handers (95% confidence interval 1.02-2.37), and men who reported they had been forced to change from left-handed to right-handed had a multivariate relative risk 2.47 times greater than right-handers (95 percent confidence interval 1.21-5.04).

  19. Drug Metabolizing Enzyme and Transporter Gene Variation, Nicotine Metabolism, Prospective Abstinence, and Cigarette Consumption.

    PubMed

    Bergen, Andrew W; Michel, Martha; Nishita, Denise; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S; Conneely, Karen N; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Hops, Hyman; Zhu, Andy Z X; Baurley, James W; McClure, Jennifer B; Hall, Sharon M; Baker, Timothy B; Conti, David V; Benowitz, Neal L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Swan, Gary E

    2015-01-01

    The Nicotine Metabolite Ratio (NMR, ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine and cotinine), has previously been associated with CYP2A6 activity, response to smoking cessation treatments, and cigarette consumption. We searched for drug metabolizing enzyme and transporter (DMET) gene variation associated with the NMR and prospective abstinence in 2,946 participants of laboratory studies of nicotine metabolism and of clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Stage I was a meta-analysis of the association of 507 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 173 DMET genes with the NMR in 449 participants of two laboratory studies. Nominally significant associations were identified in ten genes after adjustment for intragenic SNPs; CYP2A6 and two CYP2A6 SNPs attained experiment-wide significance adjusted for correlated SNPs (CYP2A6 PACT=4.1E-7, rs4803381 PACT=4.5E-5, rs1137115, PACT=1.2E-3). Stage II was mega-regression analyses of 10 DMET SNPs with pretreatment NMR and prospective abstinence in up to 2,497 participants from eight trials. rs4803381 and rs1137115 SNPs were associated with pretreatment NMR at genome-wide significance. In post-hoc analyses of CYP2A6 SNPs, we observed nominally significant association with: abstinence in one pharmacotherapy arm; cigarette consumption among all trial participants; and lung cancer in four case:control studies. CYP2A6 minor alleles were associated with reduced NMR, CPD, and lung cancer risk. We confirmed the major role that CYP2A6 plays in nicotine metabolism, and made novel findings with respect to genome-wide significance and associations with CPD, abstinence and lung cancer risk. Additional multivariate analyses with patient variables and genetic modeling will improve prediction of nicotine metabolism, disease risk and smoking cessation treatment prognosis.

  20. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  1. Boost Your High: Cigarette Smoking to Enhance Alcohol and Drug Effects among Southeast Asian American Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Lee, Juliet P.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined: 1) whether using cigarettes to enhance the effects of other drugs (here referred to as “boosting”) is a unique practice related to blunts (i.e., small cheap cigars hollowed out and filled with cannabis) or marijuana use only; 2) the prevalence of boosting among drug-using young people; and 3) the relationship between boosting and other drug-related risk behaviors. We present data collected from 89 Southeast Asian American youth and young adults in Northern California (35 females). 72% respondents reported any lifetime boosting. Controlling for gender, results of linear regression analyses show a significant positive relationship between frequency of boosting to enhance alcohol high and number of drinks per occasion. Boosting was also found to be associated with use of blunts but not other forms of marijuana and with the number of blunts on a typical day. The findings indicate that boosting may be common among drug-using Southeast Asian youths. These findings also indicate a need for further research on boosting as an aspect of cigarette uptake and maintenance among drug- and alcohol-involved youths. PMID:22522322

  2. Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol ingestion facilitates escalatory processes in aggressive interactions. The present study examined interaction patterns in intoxicated, sober and mixed dyads. Thirty pairs of men college students were randomly assigned to these conditions. Subjects who received alcohol received .964 g of absolute alcohol per kg of body weight. At the beginning of each trial in a reaction-time competition, each member of the dyad selected the shock level that he wanted his opponent to receive if the opponent was slower on the trial. Further, each member was informed by feedback lights of the shock level that his opponent had selected for him. The results indicated that the intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels than did the sober dyads. Mixed dyads tended to select lower shock levels than intoxicated dyads but higher shock levels than sober dyads. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, intoxicated dyads escalated in aggression over the first block of six trials, whereas neither sober nor mixed dyads evidenced such an escalation. One interpretation of these findings is that the cognitive disruption caused by the alcohol interfered with the subjects' ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior and to interpret the behavior of their opponents. A second interpretation is that, because of the expectancy effects associated with alcohol consumption, intoxicated dyads did not feel constrained to a nonaggressive stance. Finally, the value of the dyadic-interaction paradigm in the study of alcohol-related violence was discussed.

  3. Nitrogen narcosis and alcohol consumption--a scuba diving fatality.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, E; Patsalis, A

    1987-07-01

    Nitrogen narcosis can cause death among experienced scuba divers. Nitrogen under pressure affects the brain by acting as an anesthetic agent. Furthermore, the consumption of ethanol along with diving will cause the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis to occur at depths less than 30 m. Our case deals with an experienced diver who drank alcoholic beverages before diving and developed symptoms of nitrogen narcosis at a shallow depth. These two conditions contributed to his death by drowning.

  4. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  5. Hybrid mice as genetic models of high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Y A; Ozburn, A R; Walker, D; Ahmed, S; Belknap, J K; Harris, R A

    2010-01-01

    We showed that F1 hybrid genotypes may provide a broader variety of ethanol drinking phenotypes than the inbred progenitor strains used to create the hybrids (Blednov et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1949-1958, 2005). To extend this work, we characterized alcohol consumption as well as intake of other tastants (saccharin, quinine and sodium chloride) in five inbred strains of mice (FVB, SJL, B6, BUB, NZB) and in their reciprocal F1 hybrids with B6 (FVBxB6; B6xFVB; NZBxB6; B6xNZB; BUBxB6; B6xBUB; SJLxB6; B6xSJL). We also compared ethanol intake in these mice for several concentrations before and after two periods of abstinence. F1 hybrid mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB and also B6 and SJL drank higher levels of ethanol than their progenitor strains, demonstrating overdominance for two-bottle choice drinking test. The B6 and NZB hybrid showed additivity in two-bottle choice drinking, whereas the hybrid of B6 and BUB demonstrated full or complete dominance. Genealogical origin, as well as non-alcohol taste preferences (sodium chloride), predicted ethanol consumption. Mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB showed high sustained alcohol preference and the B6 and NZB hybrids showed reduced alcohol preference after periods of abstinence. These new genetic models offer some advantages over inbred strains because they provide high, sustained, alcohol intake, and should allow mapping of loci important for the genetic architecture of these traits.

  6. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  7. Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: a look at the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Nguyen, Nhi; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association. PMID:25581056

  8. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  9. The association of sexual orientation with self-rated health, and cigarette and alcohol use in Mexican adolescents and youths.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Hernández, Luis; Tello, Blanca Lilia Gómez; Valdés, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    Evidence of health inequities associated with sexual orientation has been gathered for industrialized countries. The situation for lesbians, gay males, and bisexuals (LGB) from middle- or low-income countries may be worse than those in industrialized nations. Here, we analyze the relationship of sexual orientation with self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use among a representative sample of Mexican adolescents and youths between the ages of 12 and 29 years, in order to explore whether this association is mediated by discrimination and violence. Three dimensions of sexual orientation (affective attraction, sexual behavior, and identity) were assessed. The outcomes were self-rated health and cigarette and alcohol use. Compared to heterosexuals, LGB youths more frequently smoked >or=6 cigarettes per day, reported having experienced family violence, having crimes perpetrated against them, and having experienced violations of their rights. Among males, gays and bisexuals exhibited a higher risk of poor health than heterosexuals. Compared to heterosexual women, lesbians and bisexual women were more likely to consume alcohol. Many differences in self-rated health and substance use according to sexual orientation were explained by having experienced discrimination and violence. We concluded that lesbian and bisexual females have a higher prevalence of cigarette and alcohol use. It is necessary to develop policies and programs aimed at the reduction of substance abuse among LGB youths (focusing on females who engage in sexual contact with persons of the same gender) and to work against discrimination and violence experienced by LGB people, particularly against non-heterosexual males.

  10. The Influence of Household Substance Use on Children's Later Cigarette, Alcohol and Drug Use: A Three Factor Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, I.; Willner, P.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of family use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs on teenagers', aged 11-16 years old, later use of these substances. Adult drug use, whether of single substances or several, clearly influenced adolescents to use a variety of substances. Suggests a three-factor model comprising Modeling, Attitude, and Availability to explain the…

  11. Relationships of Adolescents' Perceptions of Parental and Peer Behaviors with Cigarette and Alcohol Use in Different Neighborhood Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Ying-Chih; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Foshee, Vangie A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships of adolescents' perceptions of parental and peer behaviors with cigarette and alcohol use in different neighborhood contexts. The sample included 924 adolescents (49% boys, 51% girls) 12-14 years of age whose addresses were matched with 1990 census block groups. Six neighborhood types were identified through a…

  12. A Comparison of Memory for and Attitudes about Alcohol, Cigarette, and Other Product Advertisements in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinser, Otto; Freeman, James E.; Ginnings, David K.

    1999-01-01

    Compares college student attitude ratings and recall scores of various advertisements. Results reveal that the rating and recall scores of alcohol advertisements were significantly higher than those for cigarette advertisements and were among the highest of all the advertisements. Sex differences are examined. Results indicate that college…

  13. Brief Report: Disposable Income, and Spending on Fast Food, Alcohol, Cigarettes, and Gambling by New Zealand Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I.; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-01-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of…

  14. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  15. Alcohol consumption by youth: Peers, parents, or prices?

    PubMed

    Ajilore, Olugbenga; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Egan, Keven

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health, we estimate the effect of peers' alcohol consumption and alcohol prices on the drinking habits of high-school-age youth. We use the two-stage residual inclusion method to account for the endogeneity of peer drinking in nonlinear models. For our sample of high school students, we find that peer effects are statistically and economically significant regarding the choice to participate in drinking but are not significant for the frequency of drinking, including binge drinking. Regarding alcohol prices, even though we have good price variation in our sample, alcohol prices are not found to be significant. The results are important for policymakers who are considering policies to reduce underage drinking, as we conclude that no significant impact on underage drinking will result from low-tax states' increasing excise taxes on alcohol so they are similar to those of high-tax states. Policymakers may choose to focus instead on the influence of peers and changing the social norm behavior.

  16. A comparison of memory for and attitudes about alcohol, cigarette, and other product advertisements in college students.

    PubMed

    Zinser, O; Freeman, J E; Ginnings, D K

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the attitude ratings and recall scores of cigarette, alcohol, automobile, deodorant, jeans, soft drink, athletic shoe, breakfast cereal, and fast food restaurant advertisements. Male and female college students rated the advertisements of these product groups on a number of traits--adventurous, eye-catching, appealing, informative, believable, good times, recreational, effectiveness, romantic, athletic, buy product, and honesty. Drawing on their everyday experience, the students also were asked to recall as much about the advertisements from these product groups as they could. The results revealed that the rating and recall scores of the alcohol advertisements were significantly higher than those for the cigarette advertisements and among the highest of all of the advertisement groups. The female recall scores generally were significantly higher than the male recall scores. In contrast to the cigarette advertisements, the high scores of the alcohol advertisements were interpreted to be due in part to the wider distribution alcohol advertising has had. That alcohol advertising ranked among the highest of all of the advertising groups indicates that college students view alcohol advertising very favorably.

  17. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes.

  18. Pilots' knowledge of the relationship between alcohol consumption and levels of blood alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Widders, R; Harris, D

    1997-06-01

    The U.K. Civil Aviation Authority is currently proposing that a maximum BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) limit of just 0.02% should be imposed on United Kingdom pilots. In this survey of 477 pilots, it was found that a large proportion could not determine when their BAC was likely to fall below this level after drinking alcohol and could, therefore, potentially inadvertently infringe the proposed regulation. Another large proportion of pilots felt that they were safe to fly before their BAC had dropped below 0.02%, which may be indicative of a willingness to infringe the regulations. Estimates of when it was safe to fly also became more inaccurate as the amount drunk increased and varied with the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. It was also found that the conclusions drawn were heavily dependent upon the formula used to estimate BAC. This methodological problem identified has considerable implications for the study of alcohol consumption when flying.

  19. Alcohol consumption enhances antiretroviral painful peripheral neuropathy by mitochondrial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2010-09-01

    A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial-dependent and PKCε-independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy was PKCε-dependent and mitochondrial-independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for 1 week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial-dependent but PKCε-independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction.

  20. Is it possible to reduce tobacco consumption via alcohol taxation?

    PubMed

    Jimenez, S; Labeaga, J M

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies with Spanish data suggest that indirect taxation is a potential instrument to reduce tobacco consumption but the magnitude of the estimated price elasticity limits the effectiveness of the taxes. However, if the separability restriction does not hold between tobacco and other goods, the results obtained could be misleading. This shortcoming of previous analyses leads us to formulate a demand system with alcohol, tobacco and other goods so as to estimate and test complementary effects and to assess the possibility for reducing consumption by indirect taxation of complementary commodities. We use the Spanish Family Expenditure Survey to carry out a cross-section study which allows us to estimate demand models under different assumptions about the nature of zero expenditures and to test the effectiveness of indirect taxation. The findings tend to support our initial suspicions about the inadequacy of imposing separability and point out the importance of alcohol taxation to reduce tobacco consumption. However, given the structure of the data used, these results should be viewed with caution and must be confirmed by additional evidence.

  1. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, Kathleen B.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women’s health concern. PMID:26293593

  2. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Haley A; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women's health concern.

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption in prenatal life, childhood, and adolescence on child development.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Franchin, Laura; Verduci, Elvira; Giovannini, Marcello

    2011-11-01

    The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.

  4. Genome-Wide Interaction Analyses between Genetic Variants and Alcohol Consumption and Smoking for Risk of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Newcomb, Polly A.; Campbell, Peter T.; Baron, John A.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bezieau, Stephane; Brenner, Hermann; Casey, Graham; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Du, Mengmeng; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Gallinger, Steven; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Haile, Robert W.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hopper, John L.; Hudson, Thomas J.; Jeon, Jihyoun; Jenkins, Mark A.; Küry, Sébastien; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindor, Noralane M.; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Potter, John D.; Rudolph, Anja; Schoen, Robert E.; Seminara, Daniela; Slattery, Martha L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thornquist, Mark; Toth, Reka; Wallace, Robert; White, Emily; Jiao, Shuo; Lemire, Mathieu; Hsu, Li; Peters, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified many genetic susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, variants in these loci explain only a small proportion of familial aggregation, and there are likely additional variants that are associated with CRC susceptibility. Genome-wide studies of gene-environment interactions may identify variants that are not detected in GWAS of marginal gene effects. To study this, we conducted a genome-wide analysis for interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR) and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium (GECCO). Interactions were tested using logistic regression. We identified interaction between CRC risk and alcohol consumption and variants in the 9q22.32/HIATL1 (Pinteraction = 1.76×10−8; permuted p-value 3.51x10-8) region. Compared to non-/occasional drinking light to moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer among individuals with rs9409565 CT genotype (OR, 0.82 [95% CI, 0.74–0.91]; P = 2.1×10−4) and TT genotypes (OR,0.62 [95% CI, 0.51–0.75]; P = 1.3×10−6) but not associated among those with the CC genotype (p = 0.059). No genome-wide statistically significant interactions were observed for smoking. If replicated our suggestive finding of a genome-wide significant interaction between genetic variants and alcohol consumption might contribute to understanding colorectal cancer etiology and identifying subpopulations with differential susceptibility to the effect of alcohol on CRC risk. PMID:27723779

  5. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  7. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  8. Acculturation and alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans: a three-generation study.

    PubMed Central

    Markides, K S; Krause, N; Mendes de Leon, C F

    1988-01-01

    Data from a three-generation study of Mexican Americans conducted in the San Antonio, Texas area are utilized to examine the influence of acculturation into the larger society on alcohol consumption. Acculturation was not related to alcohol consumption in the older generation. In the middle generation, it was related to lower alcohol consumption among men, as well as among women. In the younger generation, acculturation was related to more drinking among women, but not among men. Within-family analysis showed that the alcohol consumption of members of the younger generation was associated with the consumption of their parents, particularly in the case of younger women. PMID:3407815

  9. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use.

  10. Examining the Associations among Severity of Injunctive Drinking Norms, Alcohol Consumption, and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences: The Moderating Roles of Alcohol Consumption and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene Markman; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Atkins, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a range of injunctive norms for alcohol use and related consequences from less severe behaviors (e.g., drinking with friends) to more severe behaviors (e.g., drinking enough alcohol to pass out), and their relationship with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. In addition, this research aimed to determine if these relationships between injunctive norms and consequences were moderated by alcohol consumption and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. A random sample (N = 1,002) of undergraduates (56.9% female) completed a Web–based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking behavior, perceived approval of drinking behaviors that ranged in severity (i.e., injunctive norms), and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. Results suggest that the association between negative consequences and injunctive drinking norms depend on one's own drinking behavior, identification with other students, and the severity of the alcohol use and related consequences for which injunctive norms are assessed. Findings are discussed in terms of false consensus and false uniqueness effects, and deviance regulation perspectives. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed. PMID:20565144

  11. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  12. Alcohol consumption in late-life--the first Brazilian National Alcohol Survey (BNAS).

    PubMed

    Castro-Costa, E; Ferri, C P; Lima-Costa, M F; Zaleski, M; Pinsky, I; Caetano, R; Laranjeira, R

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the alcohol consumption in later life in Brazil and its association with socio-demographic characteristics. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data. A multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to select 3007 individuals of 14 years of age and older from the Brazilian household population. In this study we analyzed data from all 400 participants who were over 60 years old. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Syndrome was established according to DSM-IV and Risky Drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and as binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion). Twelve percent of participants reported heavy drinking behavior while 10.4% and 2.9% were binge drinkers and alcohol dependent respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression only gender was associated with heavy drinking behavior. Males, the youngest and the wealthiest were more likely to report binge drinking behaviors. In conclusion, alcohol related-problems are common but under recognized among older adults. Health professionals should be aware that common definitions of alcohol abuse and dependence may not apply as readily to older people, who have had biological changes for alcohol tolerance and its effects on the Central Nervous System.

  13. Co-occurrence of alcohol, smokeless tobacco, cigarette, and illicit drug use by lower ranking military personnel.

    PubMed

    Kao, T C; Schneider, S J; Hoffman, K J

    2000-01-01

    The Worldwide Survey of Health Related Behaviors is administered periodically to a probability sample of military personnel. Earlier reports of these surveys suggested that illicit drug use was highest among the lowest ranking personnel. This paper reports a secondary analysis of the 1992 and 1995 surveys of the lowest ranking personnel. The results suggested that in general illicit drug users tended also to use alcohol, smokeless tobacco, and cigarettes. Heavy drinkers were more likely than light drinkers to use illicit drugs. No such relationship was observed between illicit drug use and the level of use of cigarettes or smokeless tobacco. Moreover, among the heavy drinkers, illicit drug users were especially likely to use cigarettes and among males, smokeless tobacco. The relevance of these results to military policies toward illicit drug use is discussed.

  14. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  15. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  16. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode.

  17. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  18. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Xisca; Villalbí, Joan R; Espelt, Albert; Franco, Manuel

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use.

  19. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  20. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A.; Richardson, Ben D.; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1–2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV–VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%–60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we

  1. Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Corley, Janie; McNeill, Geraldine; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive ability are often confounded. One approach to avoid confounding is the Mendelian randomization design. Here, we used such a design to test the hypothesis that a genetic score for alcohol processing capacity moderates the association between alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the same test of intelligence at age 11 and 70 years. They were assessed for recent alcohol consumption in later life and genotyped for a set of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three alcohol dehydrogenase genes. These variants were unrelated to late-life cognition or to socioeconomic status. We found a significant gene × alcohol consumption interaction on lifetime cognitive change (p = 0.007). Individuals with higher genetic ability to process alcohol showed relative improvements in cognitive ability with more consumption, whereas those with low processing capacity showed a negative relationship between cognitive change and alcohol consumption with more consumption. The effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive change may thus depend on genetic differences in the ability to metabolize alcohol.

  2. Nonmedical prescription pain reliever and alcohol consumption among cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Zarkin, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined poly-drug use involving the use of cannabis with nonmedical prescription pain reliever use (NMPR) and alcohol use. Methods Computer-assisted survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were examined. The NSDUH is an annual, cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized citizens in the United States (ages 12+). Replicate analyses were conducted using the 2013 and 2003 survey waves. Results Higher levels of cannabis use were consistently associated with more frequent consumption of prescription pain relievers, with findings replicating in both 2013 and 2003. While the prevalence of dual users declined from 2003 (2.5%) to 2013 (2.3%), the average number of days used among dual users increased by an average of 20 days over that period. These changes largely occurred among those aged 35 or older, males, whites, and non-illicit drug users. Past-year marijuana use increased by 16% (10.8–12.6%, p-value < .001) whereas NMPR decreased by 15% (4.9–4.2%, p-value < .001). The largest changes occurred after 2011. Persons using the most cannabis generally had higher levels of alcohol use relative to those using the least amount of cannabis. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dual use between 2003 (10.2%) and 2013 (11.6%), while the prevalence of past-year alcohol use remained relatively stable. Conclusions Clinical efforts and public health interventions should consider the possible co-ingestion of cannabis with NMPR and alcohol, as concomitant use may portend negative health effects in the short and long-term. PMID:26748409

  3. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  4. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  5. Brief report: Disposable income, and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling by New Zealand secondary school students.

    PubMed

    Darling, Helen; Reeder, Anthony I; McGee, Rob; Williams, Sheila

    2006-10-01

    We describe self-reported sources of income and expenditure, and the association between part-time employment and spending on fast food, alcohol, cigarettes, and gambling for a sample of 3434 New Zealand (NZ) secondary school students (mean age 15.0 years). Disposable income was usually received from parents and guardians, but nearly 40% of students also reported receiving money from part-time employment. The proportion of students employed increased as socioeconomic rating increased, and was associated with increased purchasing of fast food and alcohol, and increased spending on cigarettes and gambling. Spending by youth has obvious public health implications, particularly when it is concentrated on products that have a negative health impact.

  6. Alcohol, poverty and social exclusion: Alcohol consumption among the homeless and those at risk of social exclusion in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Sonia; Vázquez, José Juan; Martín, Rosa María

    2016-06-14

    The work analyzes different aspects related to alcohol consumption among homeless people and people at risk of social exclusion. The data was gathered from a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 188) and a sample of people at risk of social exclusion (n = 164) matched in sex, age, and origin (Spaniards vs. foreigners). The results showed that homeless people present a greater consumption of alcohol and have experienced more problems derived from its consumption than people at risk of social exclusion. Most of the homeless people who had alcohol-related problems had had them prior to their homelessness, and they stated they had poorer health and had experienced a greater number of homelessness episodes. Despite the relevance of problems related to alcohol among our sample, only a small percentage of the sample had participated in treatment programs for alcohol consumption.

  7. Common genetic influences on the timing of first use for alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis in young African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The risks associated with early age at initiation for alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis use are well documented, yet the timing of first use has rarely been studied in genetically informative frameworks, leaving the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to age at initiation largely unknown. The current study assessed overlap in heritable and environmental influences on the timing of initiation across these three substances in African-American women, using a sample of 462 female twins (100 monozygotic and 131 dizygotic pairs) from the Missouri Adolescent Female Twin Study. Mean age at the time of interview was 25.1 years. Ages at first use of alcohol, cigarettes, and cannabis were gathered in diagnostic interviews administered over the telephone. Standard genetic analyses were conducted with substance use initiation variables categorized as never, late, and early onset. Variance in the timing of first use was attributable in large part to genetic sources: 44% for alcohol, 62% for cigarettes, and 77% for cannabis. Genetic correlations across substances ranged from 0.25 to 0.70. Shared environmental influences were modest for alcohol (10%) and absent for cigarettes and cannabis. Findings contrast with reports from earlier studies based on primarily Caucasian samples, which have suggested a substantial role for shared environment on substance use initiation when measured as lifetime use. By characterizing onset as timing of first use, we may be tapping a separate construct. Differences in findings may also reflect a distinct etiological pathway for substance use initiation in African-American women that could not be detected in previous studies. PMID:19261395

  8. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  9. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  10. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  11. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence: The moderating role of perceived peer norms☆

    PubMed Central

    Zehe, Jennifer M.; Colder, Craig R.; Read, Jennifer P.; Wieczorek, William F.; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2013-01-01

    This study prospectively examines the association between social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence and how injunctive (perceived peer approval of use) and descriptive (perceived peer use) norms may moderate the association. Sex differences were also examined. Data were taken from a longitudinal study investigating problem behavior and adolescent substance use. The community sample (N=387) was assessed annually, and data from the first two waves of assessment were used for this study. Early adolescents were between the ages of 11 and 13 at the first assessment (mean age=11.05, SD=0.55, 55% female). Peer norms moderated the association between both social and generalized anxiety symptoms and the likelihood of alcohol and cigarette use for girls, but not for boys. Specifically, girls with elevated levels of generalized anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer use was low, and protected from use when perceived peer use was high. Girls with elevated levels of social anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer approval of use was high, and protected from use when perceived peer approval of use was low. Past studies have found inconsistent support for an association between anxiety and adolescent substance use, and our findings provide some clarity regarding for whom and when anxiety operates as a risk/protective factor. Social context and sex are critical for understanding the role of different forms of anxiety in the etiology of adolescent alcohol and cigarette use. PMID:23380488

  12. Social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence: the moderating role of perceived peer norms.

    PubMed

    Zehe, Jennifer M; Colder, Craig R; Read, Jennifer P; Wieczorek, William F; Lengua, Liliana J

    2013-04-01

    This study prospectively examines the association between social and generalized anxiety symptoms and alcohol and cigarette use in early adolescence and how injunctive (perceived peer approval of use) and descriptive (perceived peer use) norms may moderate the association. Sex differences were also examined. Data were taken from a longitudinal study investigating problem behavior and adolescent substance use. The community sample (N=387) was assessed annually, and data from the first two waves of assessment were used for this study. Early adolescents were between the ages of 11 and 13 at the first assessment (mean age=11.05, SD=0.55, 55% female). Peer norms moderated the association between both social and generalized anxiety symptoms and the likelihood of alcohol and cigarette use for girls, but not for boys. Specifically, girls with elevated levels of generalized anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer use was low, and protected from use when perceived peer use was high. Girls with elevated levels of social anxiety symptoms were at risk for use when perceived peer approval of use was high, and protected from use when perceived peer approval of use was low. Past studies have found inconsistent support for an association between anxiety and adolescent substance use, and our findings provide some clarity regarding for whom and when anxiety operates as a risk/protective factor. Social context and sex are critical for understanding the role of different forms of anxiety in the etiology of adolescent alcohol and cigarette use.

  13. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  15. Consumption of 'low-yield' cigarettes: its frequency and relationship to serum thiocyanate.

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, A R; Pechacek, T F; de Gaudemaris, R; Luepker, R V; Jacobs, D R; Gillum, R F

    1984-01-01

    To determine the use and possible health risks of low-yield cigarettes, we ascertained the cigarette brands and serum thiocyanate (SCN) levels of 2,561 adult smokers (age 25-74) in population-based samples of seven upper Midwestern communities during 1980-82. Brands were coded according to December 1981 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) ratings for "tar", nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO). Compared to 1980 data from the National Center for Health Statistics for the United States as a whole, a greater proportion of smokers in these communities smoked low-yield brands. More people with higher education than lesser and more women than men smoked low-yield cigarettes. Greater proportions of older people (65-75 years) than younger people (less than 65 years) smoked cigarettes in the highest and lowest brand yield categories. SCN, adjusted for number of cigarettes smoked and for sex, was only weakly associated with brand ratings for "tar" (r = +.12), nicotine (R = +.11), and CO (r = +.15). Furthermore, the gradient in SCN between lowest and highest quintiles of brand strength was less than 16 per cent--much lower than the 300-500 per cent gradient in smoke components implied by FTC ratings. These data add to the evidence that smoking low-yield cigarettes may not be significantly less hazardous than smoking high-yield brands. PMID:6426329

  16. Facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sunfu; Song, Yanlin; Ma, Guangzhi; Meng, Yu; Ye, Zengpanpan; Ma, Xuelei; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between facial flushing and cancer risk. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature. The patients’ baseline characteristics and estimated risks were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the risk of facial flushing in cancer, and subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Ten studies with 89,376 participants from East Asia were included. The pooled OR of facial flushing in all cancers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08–1.91), with the pooled ORs of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.33–2.83) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80–1.12) in men and women, respectively. The pooled ORs were also estimated in different cancer types. Conclusion: Our results showed that facial flushing response to alcohol was associated with higher cancer risk in men in East Asia, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, yet facial flushing was not significantly associated with cancer risk among women. PMID:28353603

  17. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Fergus G.; Williams, Damien J.; Goodall, Christine A.; Murer, Jeffrey S.; Donnelly, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Method Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants’ experiences of the trial. Results Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. Conclusions The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour. PMID:23825656

  18. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (<5 g/day), (iii) intermediate (<30 g/day), and (iv) high (≥30 g/day) alcohol consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p < 0.05). TG levels were only increased in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II) or decreased β-cell function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p < 0.001). In subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II), intermediate and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity. PMID:27854254

  19. Alcohol consumption and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus: a comprehensive meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lin-Lin; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been proposed to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature to clarify the relationship between them. In our study, twenty eligible cohort studies involving 42925 participants were identified. Combined relative risk (RR) ratios for the highest versus lowest alcohol consumption levels were calculated. The alcohol dose-response analysis was performed to investigate the association between the increment consumption of 10 g/d alcohol and the risk of developing BE. Subgroup analyses were used to examine heterogeneity across the studies. A combined RR of 0.98 (0.62–1.34) was found when comparing highest vs. lowest alcohol consumption levels for BE. An inverse association between alcohol and incidence of BE (RR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.055–0.96) was demonstrated in women. Moreover, Asian drinkers had a relative higher risk of BE (RR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11–1.56) compared with Western drinkers. In conclusion, our results showed that overall alcohol consumption was not associated with increased BE incidence. The limited data available on alcohol consumption supports a tentative inversion of alcohol consumption with BE risk in women, while Asian drinkers tend to have a higher risk of BE. PMID:26542211

  20. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.

  1. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  2. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  4. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  5. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  6. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  8. Alcohol consumption in men is influenced by qualitatively different genetic factors in adolescence and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is influenced by genetic factors. Previous studies have examined the heritability of alcohol consumption, or related phenotypes, from adolescence into adulthood, frequently finding that total heritability changes over time. However, it remains unclear whether the same genes underlie liability to alcohol consumption across development versus whether novel risk genes become important over time. Method A population-based study of adult male twins (n=1790) born in Virginia, USA, retrospectively reported on their average monthly alcohol consumption from early adolescence through adulthood. We used twin modeling methods to explore genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption over time. Results One latent genetic factor accounted for the majority of the heritability in alcohol consumption during mid-to late adolescence, but its influence declined thereafter ; from young adulthood forward, heritability was largely attributable to a second genetic factor. The total heritability of alcohol consumption increased from 0 at ages 12–14 years to 0.40 by ages 18–21 years. Shared environmental factors declined in influence over time. Conclusions The heritability of alcohol consumption over time is dynamic both quantitatively and qualitatively. These results have important implications for gene identification endeavors. Furthermore, these findings could inform efforts to elucidate developmentally dynamic behaviors, such as antisocial behavior. PMID:23282961

  9. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  10. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  11. A cross-cultural investigation of college student alcohol consumption: a classification tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulou, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study, the authors attempted to identify high-risk subgroups for alcohol consumption among college students. American and Greek students (N = 132) answered questions about alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, attitudes toward drinking, advertisement influences, parental monitoring, and drinking consequences. Heavy drinkers in the American group were younger and less religious than were infrequent drinkers. In the Greek group, heavy drinkers tended to deny the negative results of drinking alcohol and use a permissive attitude to justify it, whereas infrequent drinkers were more likely to be monitored by their parents. These results suggest that parental monitoring and an emphasis on informing students about the negative effects of alcohol on their health and social and academic lives may be effective methods of reducing alcohol consumption. Classification tree analysis revealed that student attitudes toward drinking were important in the classification of American and Greek drinkers, indicating that this is a powerful predictor of alcohol consumption regardless of ethnic background.

  12. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns].

    PubMed

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  13. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  14. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  15. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  16. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania.

  17. Cigarette Smoking as a Predictor of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Children and Adolescents: Evidence of the "Gateway Drug Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torabi, Mohammad R.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Data from a 1992 statewide survey of students in grades 5-12 were analyzed to determine the extent to which cigarette smoking predicted alcohol and other drug use and acted as a gateway drug. Results indicated smoking was a powerful predictor for alcohol and drug use, and the relationship was dose responsive. (SM)

  18. Extent to Which Selected Factors Contribute to Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Public Day Secondary Schools Male Students: A Case of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oteyo, John; Kariuki, Mary

    2009-01-01

    The increase in alcohol and cigarettes use among young people than any population strata is of great concern. The use of alcohol that began in African traditional society as an activity for political, religious, cultural and social relations has evolved over time into a problem of dependence and addiction. Despite concerted prevention efforts,…

  19. The Relationship of Cigarette Smoking and Other Substance Use among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Nancy L.

    1993-01-01

    Administered questionnaire relating to cigarette smoking and substance use to 863 college students. Results indicated no significant difference between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers with regard to use of smokeless tobacco, alcohol consumption, or marijuana use. There was significant difference in use of other illicit substances such that…

  20. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  1. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  2. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  3. Retinal-Image Quality and Night-Vision Performance after Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José J.; Pozo, Antonio M.; Anera, Rosario G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  4. GENDER AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: PATTERNS FROM THE MULTINATIONAL GENACIS PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Richard W.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy D.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate multinational patterns of gender- and age-specific alcohol consumption. Design and participants Large general-population surveys of men’s and women’s drinking behavior (N’s > 900) in 35 countries in 1997–2007 used a standardized questionnaire (25 countries) or measures comparable to those in the standardized questionnaire. Measurements Data from men and women in three age groups (18–34, 35–49, 50–65) showed the prevalence of drinkers, former drinkers, and lifetime abstainers; and the prevalence of high-frequency, high-volume, and heavy episodic drinking among current drinkers. Analyses examined gender ratios for prevalence rates and the direction of changes in prevalence rates across age groups. Findings Drinking per se and high-volume drinking were consistently more prevalent among men than among women, but lifetime abstention from alcohol was consistently more prevalent among women. Among respondents who had ever been drinkers, women in all age groups were consistently more likely to have stopped drinking than men were. Among drinkers, the prevalence of high-frequency drinking was consistently greatest in the oldest age group, particularly among men. Unexpectedly, the prevalence of drinking per se did not decline consistently with increasing age, and declines in high-volume and heavy episodic drinking with increasing age were more typical in Europe and English-speaking countries. Conclusions As expected, men still exceed women in drinking and high-volume drinking, although gender ratios vary. Better explanations are needed for why more women than men quit drinking, and why aging does not consistently reduce drinking and heavy drinking outside Europe and English-speaking countries. PMID:19686518

  5. Alcohol consumption modulates host defense in rhesus macaques by altering gene expression in circulating leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) >80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (BEC <50 mg/dl) enhanced T and B-cell responses to Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-MVA vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T-cell and antibody responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing, and increased expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced expression of genes involved in cancer. In order to uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our dataset. PMID:26621857

  6. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  8. Proximal and time-varying effects of cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and other hard drug use on adolescent dating aggression.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2014-04-01

    Although numerous studies have established a link between substance use and adult partner violence, little research has examined the relationship during adolescence and most extant research has not examined multiple substance use types. The current study used hierarchical growth modeling to simultaneously examine proximal (between-person) and time-varying (within-person) relations between cigarette, alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use and physical dating aggression across grades 8 through 12 while controlling for demographic covariates and shared risk factors. Proximal effects of marijuana use on dating aggression were found for girls and proximal effects of hard drug use on dating aggression were found for boys. Time-varying effects were found for alcohol for both boys and girls and for hard drug use for boys only. Overall, findings suggest that alcohol, marijuana and hard drug use predict whether and when adolescents engage in dating aggression and should be targeted by prevention interventions.

  9. Higher cigarette prices influence cigarette purchase patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hyland, A; Bauer, J; Li, Q; Abrams, S; Higbee, C; Peppone, L; Cummings, K

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine cigarette purchasing patterns of current smokers and to determine the effects of cigarette price on use of cheaper sources, discount/generic cigarettes, and coupons. Background: Higher cigarette prices result in decreased cigarette consumption, but price sensitive smokers may seek lower priced or tax-free cigarette sources, especially if they are readily available. This price avoidance behaviour costs states excise tax money and dampens the health impact of higher cigarette prices. Methods: Telephone survey data from 3602 US smokers who were originally in the COMMIT (community intervention trial for smoking cessation) study were analysed to assess cigarette purchase patterns, use of discount/generic cigarettes, and use of coupons. Results: 59% reported engaging in a high price avoidance strategy, including 34% who regularly purchase from a low or untaxed venue, 28% who smoke a discount/generic cigarette brand, and 18% who report using cigarette coupons more frequently that they did five years ago. The report of engaging in a price avoidance strategy was associated with living within 40 miles of a state or Indian reservation with lower cigarette excise taxes, higher average cigarette consumption, white, non-Hispanic race/ethnicity, and female sex. Conclusion: Data from this study indicate that most smokers are price sensitive and seek out measures to purchase less expensive cigarettes, which may decrease future cessation efforts. PMID:15791017

  10. Gene by Environment Interaction Linking the Chromosome 15q25 Locus With Cigarette Consumption and Lung Cancer Susceptibility — Are African American Affected Differently?

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, R.J.; Young, R.P.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of lung cancer cases result from complex interactions between smoking exposure, genetic susceptibility and a person's immune response to chronic inflammation or lung remodelling. Epidemiological studies confirm that susceptibility to developing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), especially emphysema, is also closely linked to lung cancer susceptibility. Genetic epidemiology studies have consistently reported associations between the chromosome 15q25 locus with lung cancer and COPD. In addition, studies show this locus to be independently associated with cigarette consumption and nicotine addiction in a dose-response manner, primarily at lower levels of cigarette consumption. Studies that measure both cigarette consumption and lung function, together with extensive genotype analysis, will be needed to further unravel these complex relationships. PMID:27014742

  11. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  12. Concomitant consumption of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and progression: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Caio Fabio Baeta; de Angelis, Bruno Brandão; Prudente, Henrique Maciel; de Souza, Bernardo Vieira Goulart; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel

    2012-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) corresponds to 95% of all malignant tumours of the mouth. The association between alcohol and tobacco is the major risk factor for this disease, increasing the chances for the development of OSCC by 35-fold. The plant, Cannabis sativa is smoked as cigarettes or blunts and is commonly used in association with tobacco and alcohol. Any type of smoking habit exposes individuals to a wide range of carcinogens or pro-carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as some ethanol derived substances such as acetaldehyde (AA), and all are genotoxic in the same way. In addition, ethanol acts in the oral mucosa as a solvent and therefore increases the cellular membrane permeability to carcinogens. Carcinogens found in tobacco are also concentrated in marijuana, but the latter also contains high levels of cannabinoids, bioactive compounds responsible for several effects such as euphoria and analgesia. However, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the major psychotropic cannabinoid found in plants, causes a reduction of cellular metabolism and induction of apoptosis, both of which are anti-neoplastic properties. Apart from limited epidemiologic and experimental data, the effects of concomitant chronic exposure to marijuana (or Δ(9)-THC), tobacco and alcohol in OSCC development and progression is poorly known. This paper reviews the most recent findings on the effects of marijuana over cellular proliferation, as well as in the risk for OSCC, with emphasis on its interaction with tobacco and ethanol consumption.

  13. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  14. Association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of five observational studies.

    PubMed

    E, Meng; Yu, Sufang; Dou, Jianrui; Jin, Wu; Cai, Xiang; Mao, Yiyang; Zhu, Daojian; Yang, Rumei

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Published literature on the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of the identified studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed and publication bias was assessed. Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed the result. Evidence for publication bias was detected. Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  15. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A

    1998-03-01

    Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.

  16. A Systematic Review of Naltrexone for Attenuating Alcohol Consumption in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Canidate, Shantrel S; Carnaby, Giselle D; Cook, Christa L; Cook, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Several clinical trials have evaluated naltrexone as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but few have focused on women. The aim of this review was to systematically review and summarize the evidence regarding the impact of naltrexone compared to placebo for attenuating alcohol consumption in women with an AUD. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Alcohol Studies Database to identify relevant peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1990 and August 2016. Seven published trials have evaluated the impact of naltrexone on drinking outcomes in women distinct from men; 903 alcohol-dependent or heavy drinking women were randomized to receive once daily oral or depot (injectable) naltrexone or placebo with/without behavioral intervention. Two studies examining the quantity of drinks per day observed trends toward reduction in drinking quantity among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. The 4 studies examining the frequency of drinking had mixed results, with 1 study showing a trend that favored naltrexone, 2 showing a trend that favored placebo, and 1 that showed no difference. Two of the 3 studies examining time to relapse observed trends that tended to favor naltrexone for time to any drinking and time to heavy drinking among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. While the growing body of evidence suggests a variety of approaches to treat AUD, the impact of naltrexone to combat AUD in women is understudied. Taken together, the results suggest that naltrexone may lead to modest reductions in quantity of drinking and time to relapse, but not on the frequency of drinking in women. Future research should incorporate sophisticated study designs that examine gender differences and treatment effectiveness among those diagnosed with an AUD and present data separately for men and women.

  17. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  18. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses.

  19. Portion, package or tableware size for changing selection and consumption of food, alcohol and tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Hollands, Gareth J; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M; Jebb, Susan A; Lewis, Hannah B; Wei, Yinghui; Higgins, Julian Pt; Ogilvie, David

    2015-01-01

    analysis We applied standard Cochrane methods to select eligible studies for inclusion and to collect data and assess risk of bias. We calculated study-level effect sizes as standardised mean differences (SMDs) between comparison groups, measured as quantities selected or consumed. We combined these results using random-effects meta-analysis models to estimate summary effect sizes (SMDs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) for each outcome for size and shape comparisons. We rated the overall quality of evidence using the GRADE system. Finally, we used meta-regression analysis to investigate statistical associations between summary effect sizes and variant study, intervention or participant characteristics. Main results The current version of this review includes 72 studies, published between 1978 and July 2013, assessed as being at overall unclear or high risk of bias with respect to selection and consumption outcomes. Ninety-six per cent of included studies (69/72) manipulated food products and 4% (3/72) manipulated cigarettes. No included studies manipulated alcohol products. Forty-nine per cent (35/72) manipulated portion size, 14% (10/72) package size and 21% (15/72) tableware size or shape. More studies investigated effects among adults (76% (55/72)) than children and all studies were conducted in high-income countries - predominantly in the USA (81% (58/72)). Sources of funding were reported for the majority of studies, with no evidence of funding by agencies with possible commercial interests in their results. A meta-analysis of 86 independent comparisons from 58 studies (6603 participants) found a small to moderate effect of portion, package, individual unit or tableware size on consumption of food (SMD 0.38, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.46), providing moderate quality evidence that exposure to larger sizes increased quantities of food consumed among children (SMD 0.21, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.31) and adults (SMD 0.46, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.52). The size of this effect suggests that, if

  20. Regular Alcohol Consumption Mimics Cardiac Preconditioning by Protecting against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, Masami; Diamond, Ivan; Weiner, Michael W.; Camacho, S. Albert; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    1997-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that long-term alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of coronary disease and may improve outcome after myocardial infarction. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction improves survival. This study investigates the possibility that alcohol consumption can improve survival after myocardial infarction by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hearts were isolated from guinea pigs after drinking ethanol for 3-12 weeks and subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts from animals drinking ethanol showed improved functional recovery and decreased myocyte damage when compared with controls. Adenosine A1 receptor blockade abolished the protection provided by ethanol consumption. These findings indicate that long-term alcohol consumption reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and that adenosine A1 receptors are required for this protective effect of ethanol. This cardioprotective effect of long-term alcohol consumption mimics preconditioning and may, in part, account for the beneficial effect of moderate drinking on cardiac health.

  1. Developing a Quantitative Measure of Alcohol Consumption for Genomic Studies on Prospective Cohorts*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Littlefield, Andrew; Waldron, Mary; Pergadia, Michele L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Todorov, Alexandre; Trull, Timothy; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Todd, Richard D.; Sher, Kenneth; Heath, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for gene-mapping studies. Method: Using a sample of 3,787 young-adult twin women and an independent sample of 489 men and women from a college drinking study, we developed an alcohol-consumption factor score indexed by (1) maximum typical consumption (log-transformed quantity frequency [LQNTFRQ]), (2) maximum drinks in a 24-hours period (LMAXALC), (3) frequency of drinking five or more drinks per day (FIVE), and (4) frequency of drinking to intoxication (INTOX). We tested (1) for factorial and psychometric equivalence across samples and genders; (2) for construct validity and its equivalence, across samples and genders, using measures of tobacco and cannabis use and family history of alcoholism; and (3) to determine the heritability of the alcohol-consumption factor score using a genetic psychometric model. Results: A single-factor model fit well with factor loadings ranging from .60 to .90. With rare exception, we found support for measurement invariance across the two samples and across genders. Measures of nicotine and cannabis use as well as family history of alcoholism were associated, to a similar extent across samples and genders, with the underlying alcohol-consumption factor. Psychometric twin modeling revealed that each of the alcohol-consumption measures (h 2 = 34%-47%) and the underlying factor score (h 2 = 50%) were heritable, with the remainder of the variance attributable to individual-specific environmental factors. This moderately heritable alcohol-consumption factor also accounted for a majority of the genetic variance in LQNTFRQ, LMAXALC, FIVE, and INTOX. Conclusions: Quantitative measures of alcohol consumption with the favorable attributes of measurement invariance, construct validity, and moderate heritability can greatly enhance future gene-mapping efforts, supplementing information afforded by conventional diagnostic measures of alcohol abuse

  2. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body’s retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minorRE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

  3. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption: a case-crossover study in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Mittleman, Murray

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports a case-crossover analysis in a sample of 961 patients who consulted the emergency department (ED) due to an injury in Santa Clara, California, and in Pachuca, Mexico. In the analysis in which usual alcohol consumption during the last 12 months served as the control value, the estimated relative risk of injury in the hour after alcohol consumption, as compared with no alcohol consumption during that time, was 4.33 (CI, 3.55-5.27). After controlling for alcohol use in the 1-h period before injury, the relative risks for consecutive 1-h periods (2-6 h) before the injury were not significantly greater than one, indicating that the induction time was less than 1 h. The relative risk varied greatly depending on race-ethnicity and acculturation among the Hispanics in Santa Clara, with Mexicans in Pachuca showing the highest risk and the high acculturation group in Santa Clara showing the lowest risk. Violence-related injuries were associated with higher relative risk. Relative risk also varied depending on the presence of alcohol dependence and usual frequency of drunkenness: patients with alcohol dependence and patients with high frequency of usual drunkenness had lower risks than patients without alcohol dependence and with lower self-reported episodes of drunkenness in the last year. When blood alcohol content at ED admission was used instead of self-reported alcohol consumption, similar results were obtained. These findings have important public health consequences. Each episode of alcohol consumption results in an increase in the short-term risk for an injury, especially for a violence-related injury. Patients with the lowest usual involvement with alcohol are subject to a higher elevation in their risk for an injury immediately after alcohol consumption compared to patients who drink more heavily.

  4. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  5. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  6. The Association Between Changes in Insulin Sensitivity and Consumption of Tobacco and Alcohol in Young Adults: Ordinal Logistic Regression Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fufaa, Gudeta; Cai, Bin

    2016-01-01

    consumption (ml/day) at baseline was not associated with changes in insulin sensitivity (OR = 0.998, 95% CI 0.995-1.001), while the number of cigarettes consumed per day at baseline was statistically significantly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity (OR = 1.016, 95% CI 1.007-1.025). Covariates such as age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.031-1.071), mean arterial blood pressure (OR = 0.986, 95% CI 0.977-0.994), body-mass index (OR = 0.951, 95% CI 0.936-0.965), race (OR = 0.840, 95% CI 0.735-0.960), and sex (OR = 0.561, 95% CI 0.483-0.652) were significantly associated with changes in insulin sensitivity. Conclusion After adjusting for relevant covariates, the daily tobacco consumption at baseline was independently associated with changes in insulin sensitivity. But we were not able to replicate the association between daily alcohol consumption at baseline and changes in insulin resistance reported by other studies. Further studies in different populations and settings are warranted to examine the association between alcohol consumption and changes in insulin resistance. PMID:28123923

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Businelle, Michael S.; Lam, Cho Y.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse. PMID:23379613

  8. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  9. Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Cronin, Mary; Perry, Ivan J; O'Connor, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting A large Irish university. Participants Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90 min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peer-influenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research. PMID:27852707

  10. K(Ca)2 channels: novel therapeutic targets for treating alcohol withdrawal and escalation of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Patrick J

    2012-06-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)2) channels influence neuronal firing properties, intrinsic excitability, and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic responses and plasticity. In this mini-review, we discuss new evidence that chronic alcohol-associated plasticity critically involves K(Ca)2 channels in hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens. K(Ca)2 channel activity can modulate the magnitude of excitation of midbrain dopamine neurons induced by acute alcohol exposure. Emerging evidence indicates that K(Ca)2 channels regulate neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol that contribute to withdrawal hyperexcitability and escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Restoring K(Ca)2 channel activity can attenuate the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in vivo and withdrawal-associated neurotoxicity in vitro. Pharmacological modulation of K(Ca)2 channels can bi-directionally influence drinking behavior in rat and mouse models of voluntary alcohol consumption. Collectively, these studies using various rodent models have clearly indicated a central role for K(Ca)2 channels in the neuroplasticity of chronic alcohol exposure. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that K(Ca)2 channels are a novel therapeutic target to alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and reduce high amounts of alcohol drinking.

  11. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice with access to a running wheel.

    PubMed

    Ehringer, Marissa A; Hoft, Nicole R; Zunhammer, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Studies of the behavioral effects of alcohol in humans and rodent models have implicated a number of neurological pathways and genes. Separate studies have shown that certain regions of the brain are involved in behavioral responses to exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether mice which normally voluntarily consume high amounts of alcohol (C57BL/6 strain) would exhibit reduced alcohol consumption when given access to a running wheel under two different models of voluntary consumption: unlimited access two-bottle choice and limited access drinking in the dark (DID). Under the two-bottle choice model, the animals voluntarily consumed less alcohol when a wheel was present in their cage. However, sex-specific differences emerged because female mice voluntarily consumed less alcohol when they have the opportunity to exercise on a running wheel, whereas male mice consumed less alcohol even if the running wheel was locked. There were no significant differences observed in alcohol metabolism or food consumption. Under the DID protocol, no differences in alcohol consumption were observed in the presence of a running wheel. These results suggest that exercise may be a useful approach to consider for treatment for some types of chronic human alcohol problem behaviors, but may be less applicable to human binge drinking.

  12. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  13. Social imitation of alcohol consumption and ingratiation motives in young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Sharps, Maxine; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Scott, Jade; Clark, Emma; Piercy, Katie; Field, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants' alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants' alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Social Imitation of Alcohol Consumption and Ingratiation Motives in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants’ alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants’ alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. PMID:27322802

  15. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  16. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small ... time by developing new, healthy activities, hobbies, and relationships, or renewing ones you've missed. If you ...

  17. Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1993-01-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption can have severe consequences for both the individual and society. A review of the six published studies on the effectiveness of general practitioner interventions for individuals with harmful alcohol consumption suggests that between five and 10 minutes of advice leads to reductions of alcohol consumption of around 25-35% at follow up six months or one year later. Two of the three studies which failed to demonstrate an intervention effect had inadequate sample sizes and in two of the studies the control group was a comparison group which received minimal advice to reduce alcohol consumption. There was greater evidence for an intervention effect among men than women. The methodological problems of the studies are discussed. PMID:8251237

  18. Joint Effects of Alcohol Consumption and Polymorphisms in Alcohol and Oxidative Stress Metabolism Genes on Risk of Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Millikan, Robert C.; Rusyn, Ivan; Herring, Amy H.; North, Kari E.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Funkhouser, William F.; Weissler, Mark C.; Olshan, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in alcohol metabolism genes are associated with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN), and may influence cancer risk in conjunction with alcohol. Genetic variation in the oxidative stress pathway may impact the carcinogenic effect of reactive oxygen species produced by ethanol metabolism. We hypothesized that alcohol interacts with these pathways to affect SCCHN incidence. Methods Interview and genotyping data for 64 SNPs were obtained from 2552 European- and African-American subjects (1227 cases, 1325 controls) from the Carolina Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology study, a population-based case-control study of SCCHN conducted in North Carolina from 2002–2006. We estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for SNPs and haplotypes, adjusting for age, sex, race, and duration of cigarette smoking. P-values were adjusted for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction. Results Two SNPs were associated with SCCHN risk: ADH1B rs1229984 A allele (OR=0.7, 95%CI=0.6–0.9) and ALDH2 rs2238151 C allele (OR=1.2, 95%CI=1.1–1.4). Three were associated with sub-site tumors: ADH1B rs17028834 C allele (larynx, OR=1.5, 95%CI=1.1–2.0), SOD2 rs4342445 A allele (oral cavity, OR=1.3, 95%CI=1.1–1.6), and SOD2 rs5746134 T allele (hypopharynx, OR=2.1, 95%CI=1.2–3.7). Four SNPs in alcohol metabolism genes interacted additively with alcohol consumption: ALDH2 rs2238151, ADH1B rs1159918, ADH7 rs1154460, and CYP2E1 rs2249695. No alcohol interactions were found for oxidative stress SNPs. Conclusions and Impact Previously unreported associations of SNPs in ALDH2, CYP2E1, GPX2, SOD1, and SOD2 with SCCHN and sub-site tumors provide evidence that alterations in alcohol and oxidative stress pathways influence SCCHN carcinogenesis, and warrant further investigation. PMID:21940907

  19. Exploration of a Polygenic Risk Score for Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Haycock, Philip C.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol. Methods Repeated measures of alcohol consumption from mothers and their offspring were collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We tested the association between 89 SNPs (identified from either published GWAS data or from functional literature) and repeated measures of alcohol consumption, separately in mothers (from ages 28–48) and offspring (from ages 15–21) who had ever reported drinking. We modelled log units of alcohol using a linear mixed model and calculated beta coefficients for each SNP separately. Cross-validation was used to determine an allelic score for alcohol consumption, and the AVENGEME algorithm employed to estimate variance of the trait explained. Results Following correction for multiple testing, one SNP (rs1229984) showed evidence for association with alcohol consumption (β = -0.177, SE = 0.042, p = <0.0001) in the mothers. No SNPs showed evidence for association in the offspring after correcting for multiple testing. The optimal allelic score was generated using p-value cut offs of 0.5 and 0.05 for the mothers and offspring respectively. These scores explained 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance. Conclusion Our PGRS explains a modest amount of the variance in alcohol consumption and larger sample sizes would be required to use our PGRS in an MR framework. PMID:27902751

  20. Decreased injecting is associated with increased alcohol consumption among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Le Minh, Nguyen; Frangakis, Constantine; Viet Ha, Tran; Latkin, Carl A.; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Phuong Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Quan, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing injecting frequency may reduce the risk of HIV infection and improve health outcomes among injection drug users (IDU). However, the reduction of one risk behavior may be associated with an increase in other risk behaviors, including the use of other risk-associated substances. Our objective was to determine if an association exists between a reduction in injecting and level of alcohol use among IDU. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of a peer education intervention in reducing HIV risk among IDU and their network members in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Our analysis included active male injectors (n=629) who were study participants and attended both baseline and 3-month visits. Frequency of alcohol consumption was assessed as the number of alcoholic drinks in the past 30 days. Change in risk and outcome behaviors was calculated as the difference in frequencies of behaviors between baseline and 3-month follow-up visits. The outcome of interest was concurrent decreased drug injection and increased alcohol consumption. Results The mean difference between baseline and 3-month follow-up of alcohol consumption and injection frequency in the past 30 days was 19.03 drinks (93.68 SD) and 20.22 injections (35.66 SD), respectively. Participants who reported reduced injection frequency were almost three times as likely to report increased alcohol consumption (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 2.0, 4.0). The proportion that both decreased injecting and increased alcohol by any amount in the past 30 days was 35.6%. In multivariate analysis higher education was significantly associated with an increase in alcohol and decrease in injecting of any amount. Conclusion Male IDU may be at risk for increasing alcohol consumption when they reduce injection frequency. Interventions with male IDU that encourage reduction of injection may need to review specific strategies to limit alcohol consumption. PMID

  1. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  2. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  3. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  4. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Jargin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities.

  5. Alcohol consumption and antitumor immunity: dynamic changes from activation to accelerated deterioration of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of how alcohol and its metabolites induce cancer have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol consumption affects antitumor immunity and host survival have largely been unexplored. We studied the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the immune system and antitumor immunity in mice inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma and found that alcohol consumption activates the immune system leading to an increase in the proportion of IFN-γ-producing NK, NKT, and T cells in mice not injected with tumors. One outcome associated with enhanced IFN-γ activation is inhibition of melanoma lung metastasis. However, the anti-metastatic effects do not translate into increased survival of mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. Continued growth of the subcutaneous tumors and alcohol consumption accelerates the deterioration of the immune system, which is reflected in the following: (1) inhibition in the expansion of memory CD8+ T cells, (2) accelerated decay of Th1 cytokine-producing cells, (3) increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells, (4) compromised circulation of B cells and T cells, and (5) increased NKT cells that exhibit an IL-4 dominant cytokine profile, which is inhibitory to antitumor immunity. Taken together, the dynamic effects of alcohol consumption on antitumor immunity are in two opposing phases: the first phase associated with immune stimulation is tumor inhibitory and the second phase resulting from the interaction between the effects of alcohol and the tumor leads to immune inhibition and resultant tumor progression.

  6. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  7. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  8. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  9. Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

  10. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  11. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  12. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  13. Health Education in Practice. Let's Party: Teaching Responsible Alcohol Consumption Through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyde, Adrian R.; Temple, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Role play can teach college students responsible alcohol consumption behavior. The paper presents a technique to help students develop skills and attitudes that lead to responsible alcohol use behaviors. The technique models appropriate behaviors for party hosts, helps students put knowledge into action, and lets students explore the potential…

  14. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  15. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  16. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  17. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  18. The role of social drinking motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halim, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Allen, Felicity

    2012-12-01

    Social norms are key predictors of college student drinking. Additionally, the social reasons for consumption (i.e. social drinking motives) are important to understanding drinking behaviour. This study investigated the effects of social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption. A total of 229 college students completed an online questionnaire assessing their drinking behaviour, social drinking motives and their perceived drinking social norms. Drinking social norms were assessed as descriptive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption), and injunctive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived approval of drinking by their peers). Additionally, injunctive norms were further separated into distal (socially distant peers) and proximal (socially close peers). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed descriptive norms, proximal injunctive norms and social motives all independently predicted alcohol consumption. Additionally, the relationship between proximal injunctive norms and consumption, and descriptive norms and consumption was mediated by social motives. Lastly, there was a significant three-way interaction between descriptive norms, distal injunctive norms and social motives on drinking. Consideration of both the individual factors and the complex interplay between social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption is necessary to further understand drinking behaviour, and to develop more effective alcohol harm-reduction strategies.

  19. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups.

  20. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  1. Alcohol consumption and partner violence among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Vyga G; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesized role of alcohol consumption as a proximal risk factor for partner violence, a within-subjects analysis compared levels of alcohol consumption in violent versus nonviolent conflict events among substance-abusing women and their male partners. Participants were married or cohabiting women (N = 145) who had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and reported both a violent and a nonviolent relationship conflict event with their male partner in the prior 6 months. The average age was 38, and 83% were White. Male partners did not participate in the study. The female participant provided information about the male partner. Women were interviewed regarding a violent conflict event in which physical violence occurred and a nonviolent conflict event in which psychological aggression occurred without physical violence. The interview assessed quantity of alcohol consumed and use of other drugs prior to each conflict. Alcohol consumption was significantly greater prior to violent versus nonviolent conflict events for all measures of women's alcohol consumption examined: any drinking, heavy drinking, number of drinks in the 12 hr preceding the conflict event, and estimated blood alcohol concentration at time of the event. Male partners' alcohol consumption showed similar results. Use of other drugs in women, but not men, was significantly more likely prior to physical conflicts. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that the quantity of alcohol consumption is an important proximal risk factor for partner violence in substance-abusing women and their male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  3. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  4. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  5. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  6. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  7. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  8. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Gill, J

    2000-01-01

    Studies that have investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the level of oestrogens and progesterone in both pre- and post-menopausal women are reviewed. It is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women. Proposed mechanisms include an increased rate of aromatization of testosterone or a decreased rate of oxidation of oestradiol to oestrone. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked to decreased progesterone levels in pre-menopausal women. The relevance of these findings to female health, fertility and the timing of the menopause is considered.

  9. The Cumulative Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption, Individual Differences and Situational Perceptions on Sexual Decision Making*

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SAENZ, CHRISTOPHER; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Past alcohol administration research has produced mixed findings regarding the role of acute alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more complex theoretical model that places alcohol's acute effects in context, through the inclusion of background measures as well as affective and cognitive responses to the specific situation. Method College students (90 men, 90 women) completed a survey that included measures of individual difference characteristics and past experiences; approximately 1 month later, they participated in an alcohol administration study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three drink conditions (sober, placebo, alcohol), after which they read a story about a couple that wanted to have sex, but had no condoms available. Results In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, acute alcohol consumption significantly predicted participants’ perceived likelihood that they would have sex without a condom in such a situation; an earlier step included gender, impulsivity, self-reported alcohol expectancies, frequency of heavy drinking, lifetime number of sexual partners and frequency of condom use. There was no significant effect associated with the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol. Neither was there a significant interaction between drink condition and self-reported alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Through the inclusion of measures of individual differences and responses to the specific situation, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the factors that affect college students’ sexual decision making, compared with laboratory studies that examine the effects of acute alcohol consumption in isolation. Alcohol consumption explained a significant yet relatively small amount of variance. Researchers need to consider the broader context to understand how intoxication influences sexual decision making. PMID:15830907

  10. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  11. Long-lasting reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis by alcohol consumption in adolescent nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Crean, Rebecca D; Crawford, Elena F; Edwards, Scott; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2010-06-15

    Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics.

  12. Interaction of cannabinoid receptor 2 and social environment modulates chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Bruno; Erxlebe, Edda; Markert, Astrid; Rácz, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute nearly in equal power to the development of alcoholism. Environmental factors, such as negative life events or emotionally disruptive conditions, initiate and promote alcohol drinking and relapse. The endocannabinoid system is involved in hedonic control and modulates stress reactivity. Furthermore, chronic alcohol drinking alters endocannabinoid signalling, which in turn influences the stress reactivity. Recently, it has been shown that CB2 receptor activity influences stress sensitivity and alcohol drinking. We hypothesized that CB2 receptors influence the impact of environmental risk factors on alcohol preference and consumption. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the alcohol-drinking pattern of wild-type and CB2-deficient animals under single- and group-housing conditions using different alcohol-drinking models, such as forced drinking, intermittent forced drinking and two-bottle choice paradigms. Our data showed that CB2 receptor modulates alcohol consumption and reward. Interestingly, we detected that lack of CB2 receptors led to increased alcohol drinking in the intermittent forced drinking paradigm under group-housing conditions. Furthermore, we found that CB2 knockout mice consumed more food and that their body weight gain was modulated by social environment. On the basis of these data, we conclude that social environment critically affects the modulatory function of CB2 receptors, especially in alcohol intake. These findings suggest that a treatment strategy targeting CB2 receptors may have a beneficial effect on pathological drinking, particularly in situations of social stress and discomfort.

  13. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Methods The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Conclusions Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. PMID:28301483

  14. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.

  15. [Alcohol consumption and domestic violence against women: a study with university students from Mexico].

    PubMed

    Paredes, José Manuel Herrera; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence against women and alcohol consumption are considered public health problems. This descriptive study aimed at determining the occurrence of domestic violence against women enrolled in the Nursing and Midwifery Program at the University of Celaya, Mexico and its relation with alcohol consumption by their partners. A sample of 73 students was randomly selected. Data were collected using the CASIQUE-QUEJ TUN questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. With respect to physical violence, results showed that 91.9% were not maltreated by their partners. Regarding alcohol consumption, 57.5% of the women interviewed and 67.1% of their partners drank alcohol, especially at social events. Results also showed that 41.1% of the subjects did not know about their rights in cases of domestic violence. Thus, there is a need for actions which increase women's awareness of their rights and the possibilities of legal support in cases of violence.

  16. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  17. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  18. The Moderating Role of Parental Monitoring on the Influence of Peer Pro-Drug Norms on Alcohol and Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becerra, David; Castillo, Jason T.; Ayón, Cecilia; Blanchard, Kelly N.

    2014-01-01

    This study utilized data drawn from a study of 980 adolescents living in Tijuana, Mexico, in February 2009 to examine whether parental monitoring had a moderating impact on the influence of peer pro-drug norms on lifetime and past-30-day alcohol and cigarette use among a group of adolescents living along the United States-Mexico border. The…

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Binh Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Hashibe, Mia; Vecchia, Carlo La; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the IARC Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. The relative risks are 3.2–9.2 for more than 60 grams/day (or more than 4 drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response relationship on intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current drinkers, a decreased risk is associated with alcohol cessation for about 10–15 years. Similar associations have been observed among non-smokers in over 20 studies. Generally, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increases in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure of alcohol and tobacco consumption demonstrate a more than multiplicative synergistic effect. PMID:20679896

  20. Intoxicated prejudice: The impact of alcohol consumption on implicitly and explicitly measured racial attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Manning, Mark; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Although beverage condition did not affect prejudice levels on either measure, it did change the correlation between them. Implicitly measured attitudes significantly predicted explicit reports of prejudice and discrimination only for participants who consumed alcohol. We discuss the implications of our findings for debates regarding dissociations between implicit and explicit measures and the cultural phenomenon of intoxicated individuals attributing prejudiced statements to alcohol consumption rather than personal attitudes. PMID:26330762

  1. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  2. Effects of moderate consumption of distilled and fermented alcohol on some aspects of neuroimmunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ligia Esperanza; Cano, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Vanesa; Nova, Esther; Romeo, Javier; Marcos, Asunción; Esquifino, Ana Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are characterized by their fermented versus distilled origin and also by their degree of alcohol. The toxic effects of chronic alcohol consumption have been widely studied. However, there is less evidence about possible beneficial effects of moderate alcohol intake. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of moderate alcohol consumption (beer or ethanol) on plasma hormone concentrations, blood and thymus lymphocyte phenotypes and brain neurotransmitter levels. For this purpose, 40 adult Wistar male rats were administered ethanol or beer for 4 weeks (experimental groups). Age-matched rats were administered beer without alcohol or water to be used as controls. Rats were killed by decapitation and plasma from the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH concentrations by homologous specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Thymus and blood lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Neurotransmitter concentrations [dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine] were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in the median eminence and the pituitary. Blood and thymus lymphocyte subsets were not significantly changed by either ethanol or beer consumption, compared to controls. Plasma prolactin levels significantly decreased in ethanol-administered groups (p < 0.05) compared to control animals drinking water, although plasma levels of growth hormone and ACTH were not modified by either alcohol used. Dopamine and GABA concentrations in the median eminence or in the adenohypophysis remained unmodified by moderate beer or ethanol consumption. However, taurine concentration was significantly increased in the pituitary (p < 0.05) in the group drinking ethanol compared to those groups drinking beer with or without alcohol. These data suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may change the regulatory mechanism of prolactin secretion. Whether these modifications have a physiological

  3. A case-crossover study of alcohol consumption, meals and the risk of road traffic crashes

    PubMed Central

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Valent, Francesca; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Marchetti, Riccardo; Barbone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Background The case-crossover (CC) design has proved effective to investigate the association between alcohol use and injuries in general, but has never been applied to study alcohol use and road traffic crashes (RTCs) specifically. This study aims at investigating the association between alcohol and meal consumption and the risk of RTCs using intrapersonal comparisons of subjects while driving. Methods Drivers admitted to an Italian emergency room (ER) after RTCs in 2007 were interviewed about personal, vehicle, and crash characteristics as well as hourly patterns of driving, and alcohol and food intake in the 24 hours before the crash. The odds ratio (OR) of a RTC was estimated through a CC, matched pair interval approach. Alcohol and meal consumption 6 and 2 hours before the RTC (case exposure window) were compared with exposures in earlier control windows of analogous length. Results Of 574 patients enrolled, 326 (56.8%) reported previous driving from 6 to 18 hours before the RTC and were eligible for analysis. The ORs (mutually adjusted) were 2.25 (95%CI 1.11-4.57) for alcohol and 0.94 (0.47-1.88) for meals. OR for alcohol was already increased at low (1-2 units) doses - 2.17 (1.03-4.57) and the trend of increase for each unit was significant - 1.64 (95%CI 1.05-2.57). In drivers at fault the OR for alcohol was 21.22 (2.31-194.79). The OR estimate for meal consumption seemed to increase in case of previous sleep deprivation, 2.06 (0.25-17.00). Conclusion Each single unit of acute alcohol consumption increases the risk of RTCs, in contrast with the 'legal' threshold allowed in some countries. Meal consumption is not associated with RTCs, but its combined effects with sleepiness need further elucidation. PMID:19723319

  4. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  5. Alcohol consumption over time and mortality in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort

    PubMed Central

    Licaj, Idlir; Sandin, Sven; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roswall, Nina; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is steadily increasing in high-income countries but the harm and possible net benefits of light-to-moderate drinking remain controversial. We prospectively investigated the association between time-varying alcohol consumption and overall and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged women. Methods Among 48 249 women at baseline (33 404 at follow-up) in the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, age 30–49 years at baseline, we used repeated information on alcohol consumption and combined this method with multiple imputation in order to maximise the number of participants and deaths included in the analyses. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate HRs for overall and cause-specific mortality. Results During >900 000 person/years, a total of 2100 deaths were recorded through Swedish registries. The median alcohol consumption increased from 2.3 g/day in 1991/1992 (baseline) to 4.7 g/day in 2004 (follow-up). Compared with light drinkers (0.1–1.5 g/day), a null association was observed for all categories of alcohol consumption with the exception of never drinkers. The HR comparing never with light drinkers was 1.46 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.74). There was a statistically significant negative trend between increasing alcohol consumption and cardiovascular and ischaemic heart diseases mortality. The results were similar when women with prevalent conditions were excluded. Conclusions In conclusion, in a cohort of young women, light alcohol consumption was protective for cardiovascular and ischaemic heart disease mortality but not for cancer and overall mortality. PMID:27807087

  6. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  7. Drinkers and Bettors: Investigating the Complementarity of Alcohol Consumption and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100 percent increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities. PMID:18430523

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  9. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  10. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways and colorectal cancer risk: the JPHC Study

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Thomas; Yamaji, Taiki; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary secondary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two pathways related to alcohol intake. 375 cases of CRC were identified among 38 373 Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) participants who had returned a baseline questionnaire, reported no diagnosis of any cancer and provided blood samples. For each case, two controls were selected on matching variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine matched Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways (e.g. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133) and CRC risk. Compared to never/occasional alcohol intake, moderate to heavy alcohol intake was associated with CRC (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.34–3.36). When compared to the CC genotype, the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with CRC (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54–0.97). Never/occasional consumers of alcohol with the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype were also at a reduced risk of CRC compared to never/occasional drinkers with the CC genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47–0.98) (P for interaction = 0.27). The results indicate that the folate pathway is likely to be involved in alcohol-related CRC development. PMID:27827401

  11. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  12. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  13. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  14. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  15. 27 CFR 40.352 - Cigarette tubes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Cigarette tubes. 40.352... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.352 Cigarette tubes. Cigarette...

  16. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Hepatitis B Carriers: A Nationwide Study in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. “Monthly alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol at least once per month during the past year, and “high-risk alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol twice or more per week and, for males, having consumed at least 60 g of alcohol on one occasion or, for females, having consumed at least 40 g of alcohol on more than one occasion. The prevalence of monthly alcohol consumption was 53.2%, and that of high-risk alcohol consumption was 11.8% among HBV carriers. Less education was associated with both monthly and high-risk alcohol consumption(OR = 1.75 [95% CI = 1.02−3.02] for monthly alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education; OR = 2.48 [95% CI = 1.19−5.17] for high-risk alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education and OR = 2.02 [95% CI = 1.12−3.64] among those with a high school education). Additionally, smoking and being male increased the risk of alcohol consumption, and older age and having a normal body mass index decreased the risk. HBV carriers who were less educated, overweight, and smokers were more likely to consume alcohol or meet criteria for high-risk drinking. Health policies and intervention programs aimed at promoting a generally healthy lifestyle in HBV carriers should consider educational inequalities and alcohol consumption. PMID:25387237

  17. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  18. Translational models of interactions between stress and alcohol consumption: strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Sparta, Dennis R; Bonci, Antonello

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the interaction of stressors (physical, social, and psychological) and alcohol addiction based on studies in humans and preclinical models. We begin by considering the significance and complexity of alcoholism and the options for effectively modeling it in animals, particularly rodents. We then focus on the following aspects of stress-alcohol interactions: (1) compulsive alcohol consumption, characterized by continued intake despite the presence of stressful or aversive consequences; (2) the possible relationship between acute stress and increased alcohol intake; (3) an apparent cross sensitization of stress and alcohol exposure, which increases both future reactivity to stress and the risk of developing alcohol addiction; and (4) efforts to target stress in therapeutic interventions for alcoholism. We also describe possible neuroadaptations and genetic factors that may interact with stress to increase susceptibility to alcoholism. Throughout, we describe the challenges and inconsistencies inherent in both human and animal studies of alcoholism, its etiology, and its impacts. We believe the relationship between preclinical and human studies is of paramount importance to understand addiction-related behavior in humans and to direct, improve, and expand animal models. It is our hope that a full understanding of the mechanistic bases of pathological alcohol intake will have translational benefits for the development of behavioral and pharmacological therapies.

  19. The behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y; Sung, H; Yang, C; Shih, S

    2003-01-01

    Objective: Since market liberalisation in 1987, the Taiwan Tobacco and Wine Monopoly Bureau (TTWMB) annual statistics indicate that both the demand for imported cigarettes as well as the number of seized smuggled packs have increased with an average revenue loss of NT$4942 million over the past 15 years. The NT$10 average increase in cigarette prices after Taiwan entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the implementation of the Tobacco and Alcohol Tax Law in 2002 are forcing policy makers to examine smuggling even more closely. This study evaluates factors that affect an individual smoker's decision to purchase smuggled cigarettes, particularly when faced with higher prices. Design: 437 male smokers of imported cigarettes were drawn from a national interview survey on cigarette consumption, which the Division of Health Policy Research at the National Health Research Institutes conducted during the year 2000. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse the behaviour of purchasing smuggled cigarettes with respect to demographic factors, economic factors, smoking behaviour, and other variables. Results: Cigarette price was the driving factor most closely linked to the purchase of smuggled cigarettes—a 1% increase in cigarette price raised the likelihood of purchasing smuggled cigarettes at least 2.60 times (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08 to 6.26). Smokers who spent more than NT$1000/month on cigarettes were twice as likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes as those who spent less than NT$1000 (odds ratio (OR) 2.34, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.70). Betel nut chewers were more likely to purchase smuggled cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.09 to 2.90). Smokers who opposed cigarette taxation policy were 1.69 times more likely to buy smuggled cigarettes. Personal income was not significantly associated with smuggled cigarettes purchases. Conclusions: This study evaluates what causes smokers to purchase smuggled cigarettes. We have determined that cigarette price is

  20. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in US birth cohorts since 1919.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R A; Gerstein, D R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined recent trends in initiation of psychoactive drug use. METHODS: Data from the 1991 through 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse were used to compare the percentages of US cohorts born from 1919 through 1975 who began using drugs before the ages of 15, 21, and 35. RESULTS: Initiation of cigarette smoking by males peaked in the 1941-1945 cohort, then declined steadily. For females, early smoking initiation rose through the 1951-1955 cohort and then stabilized. Initiation of alcohol use was less common than smoking for pre1950 cohorts but increased steadily, approaching cigarette use for cohorts born in the early 1970s. Only 2% of teenagers born in 1930-1940 tried marijuana; half the teenagers born in 1956-1965 did so. The percentage initiating marijuana use declined in the 1980s, more so among young adults than among teenagers. The use of cocaine and other illicit drugs echoed the rise of marijuana use but peaked later and showed less evidence of subsequent decline. Sex differences declined over time for every drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cohorts born since World War II have had much higher rates of illicit drug use initiation, but trends have varied by drug type, possibly reflecting changes in relative prices. PMID:9584029

  1. Alcohol consumption amongst South African farm workers: a challenge for post-apartheid health sector transformation.

    PubMed

    London, L

    2000-05-01

    A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted amongst farm workers in the deciduous fruit industry in South Africa to assess levels of alcohol consumption and abuse, and to explore the impact of the DOP system, whereby farm workers are paid in part with alcohol, on indicators of alcohol consumption. High levels of alcohol consumption were found. On the CAGE and a shortened version of the MAST questionnaires, 87 and 65%, respectively, had responses indicating problem drinking. Close to half of the sample consumed more grams of alcohol per week than considered safe drinking (210 g) and 9.3% consumed amounts in excess of dangerous drinking (>490 g/week). Almost one-fifth (19.4%) of workers interviewed reported current use of the DOP system, and 47.8% of workers had experience of one or more farms in the past where the DOP system had been used. Workers with past experience of the DOP system were 9.8 times less likely to be asbstainers than colleagues without exposure to the DOP system. The pervasive effects of excessive alcohol consumption, and its relationship to past and current DOP practices pose substantial public health challenges to the transformation of health services currently underway in South Africa.

  2. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  3. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption.

    PubMed

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; da Costa, Vera Luiza; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer; Tursan d'Espaignet, Edouard

    2015-12-01

    The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses.

  4. The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

    PubMed Central

    Novotny, Thomas E; Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Burt, Lindsay; Curtis, Clifton; Luiza da Costa, Vera; Iqtidar, Silvae Usman; Liu, Yuchen; Pujari, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. PMID:26668440

  5. Neurotransplantation of stem cells genetically modified to express human dopamine transporter reduces alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Regulated neurotransmitter actions in the mammalian central nervous system determine brain function and control peripheral organs and behavior. Although drug-seeking behaviors, including alcohol consumption, depend on central neurotransmission, modification of neurotransmitter actions in specific brain nuclei remains challenging. Herein, we report a novel approach for neurotransmission modification in vivo by transplantation of stem cells engineered to take up the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) efficiently through the action of the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). As a functional test in mice, we used voluntary alcohol consumption, which is known to release DA in nucleus accumbens (NAC), an event hypothesized to help maintain drug-seeking behavior. We reasoned that reducing extracellular DA levels, by engrafting into NAC DA-sequestering stem cells expressing hDAT, would alter alcohol intake. Methods We have generated a neural stem cell line stably expressing the hDAT. Uptake kinetics of DA were determined to select a clone for transplantation. These genetically modified stem cells (or cells transfected with a construct lacking the hDAT sequence) were transplanted bilaterally into the NAC of wild-type mice trained to consume 10% alcohol in a two-bottle free-choice test for alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake was then ascertained for 1 week after transplantation, and brain sections through the NAC were examined for surviving grafted cells. Results Modified stem cells expressed hDAT and uptaken DA selectively via hDAT. Mice accustomed to drinking 10% ethanol by free choice reduced their alcohol consumption after being transplanted with hDAT-expressing stem cells. By contrast, control stem cells lacked that effect. Histologic examination revealed surviving stem cells in the NAC of all engrafted brains. Conclusions Our findings represent proof of principle suggesting that genetically engineered stem cells can be useful for exploring the role of

  6. Association of alcohol consumption with specific biomarkers: a cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (± 30.0) and 23.3 (± 29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p ≤ 0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p ≤ 0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans.

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk of melanoma among women: pooled analysis of eight case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Zens, Michael S; Peart, Tessa; Holly, Elizabeth A; Berwick, Marianne; Gallagher, Richard P; Mack, Thomas M; Elwood, J Mark; Karagas, Margaret R; Green, Adèle C

    2015-11-01

    While alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of several types of cancer, evidence regarding the association between alcohol and melanoma is inconclusive. This pooled analysis was conducted to examine total alcohol consumption (grams per day), and type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine, beer and wine combined, and liquor) in relation to melanoma among women using original data from eight completed case-control studies (1886 cases and 2113 controls), with adjustment for the potential confounding effects of sun exposure-related factors. We found a positive association with ever consuming alcohol [adjusted pooled odds ratio (pOR) 1.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.5]. Specifically the pORs were 1.4 (95 % CI 1.1-1.8) for wine, 1.1 (95 % CI 0.9-1.5) for beer and 1.2 (95 % CI 1.0-1.4) for liquor. However, the pOR for the highest fourth of consumption compared with never consumption was 1.0 (95 % CI 0.7-1.3) without evidence of a trend with increasing amount of total alcohol, or separately with amount of beer, wine or liquor consumed. Stratifying by anatomic site of lesion, number of nevi, age group, or histologic subtype did not alter these results. Although the results showed a weak positive association between ever consuming alcohol and melanoma occurrence, our findings do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of melanoma in women.

  8. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Lung Carcinoma by Histological Subtype.

    PubMed

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol is a carcinogen suspected of increasing lung cancer risk. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma in 492,902 persons from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. Between 1995/1996 and December 31, 2006, there were 10,227 incident cases of lung carcinoma, classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 4,036), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,998), small cell carcinoma (n = 1,524), undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 559), and other (n = 2,110). Compared with nondrinking, alcohol consumption was associated with a modest nonlinear reduction in total lung carcinoma risk at lower levels of consumption (for 0.5-<1 drink/day, HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.96) but a modest increase in risk in the highest category (for ≥7 drinks/day, HR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.24). Regarding histological type, alcohol was associated with a nonlinear reduction in squamous cell carcinoma that became attenuated as consumption increased and a modest increase in adenocarcinoma among heavier drinkers. Cubic spline models confirmed these findings. Our data suggest that the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma differs by histological subtype.

  9. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  10. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  11. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.

  12. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  13. Alcohol consumption among men and women with tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sonya S.; Mathew, Trini A.; Yanova, Galina V.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Livchits, Viktoriya; Yanov, Sergey A.; Strelis, Aivar K.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Bokhan, Nicolai A.; Lastimoso, Charmaine S.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hart, Jessica E.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behavior among Russian women remains poorly described. We analyzed gender differences in alcohol use among 374 tuberculosis patients in Tomsk, Siberia. Twenty-six (28.3%) women had lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 70.6% of men. Women with alcohol use disorders drank 12.7 ± 14.0 standard drinks per day and 34.6% drank ≥ three days per week. Among individuals with a lifetime alcohol use disorder, age of onset and typical consumption did not differ significantly by gender. We conclude that Russian women with alcohol use disorders consume almost as much alcohol as men and may be at greater risk for negative social and medical consequences. PMID:21033607

  14. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Anderson, M L; Nokia, M S; Govindaraju, K P; Shors, T J

    2012-11-08

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, "moderate" amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4% ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of 2 weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08%, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning 2 days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40%. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain.

  15. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Megan L.; Nokia, Miriam S.; Govindaraju, Krishna P.; Shors, Tracey J.

    2015-01-01

    Drinking alcohol in moderation is often considered a health-conscious behavior, associated with improved cardiovascular and brain health. However, “moderate” amounts of alcohol include drinking 3-4 alcohol beverages in a day, which is closer to binge drinking and may do more harm than good. Here we examined how daily drinking of moderate-high alcohol alters the production of new neurons in the adult hippocampus. Male and female adult Sprague-Dawley rats were provided free access to a liquid replacement diet that was supplemented with either 4 % ethanol or Maltodextrin for a period of two weeks. Proliferating cells were labeled with 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and the number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampus was assessed after the final day of drinking. A subset of rats was also exposed to a motor skill or associative learning task to examine the functional effects of alcohol consumption. The drinking regime resulted in an average blood alcohol concentration of approximately 0.08 %, which is comparable to the human legal driving limit in many countries. This level of intoxication did not impair motor skill learning or function in either sex, nor did the alcohol consumption disrupt associative learning two days after drinking. Therefore, moderate alcohol consumption did not disrupt basic sensory, motor or learning processes. However, the number of cells produced in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was reduced by nearly 40 %. Thus, even moderate consumption of alcohol for a relatively short period of time can have profound effects on structural plasticity in the adult brain. PMID:22906480

  16. Determination of ethyl glucuronide in hair to assess excessive alcohol consumption in a student population.

    PubMed

    Oppolzer, David; Barroso, Mário; Gallardo, Eugenia

    2016-03-01

    Hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was used to evaluate the pattern of alcohol consumption amongst the Portuguese university student population. A total of 975 samples were analysed. For data interpretation, the 2014 guidelines from the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) for the use of alcohol markers in hair for the assessment of both abstinence and chronic excessive alcohol consumption were considered. EtG concentrations were significantly higher in the male population. The effect of hair products and cosmetics was evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and significant lower concentrations were obtained when conditioner or hair mask was used or when hair was dyed. Based on the analytical data and information obtained in the questionnaires from the participants, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed in order to determine the ideal cut-offs for our study population. Optimal cut-off values were estimated at 7.3 pg/mg for abstinence or rare occasional drinking control and 29.8 pg/mg for excessive consumption. These values are very close to the values suggested by the SoHT, proving their adequacy to the studied population. Overall, the obtained EtG concentrations demonstrate that participants are usually well aware of their consumption pattern, correlating with the self-reported consumed alcohol quantity, consumption habits and excessive consumption close to the time of hair sampling.

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Carr, Peggy G.

    1990-01-01

    Examined impact of psychosocial variables on drinking among 505 Black college students. Lack of social support was best predictor of drinking of hard alcoholic beverages among Black college males. Respondents who began drinking at younger age, had parents who approved of drinking, and had friends who drank were more likely to drink light and hard…

  18. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot.

  19. Alcohol consumption and hormonal alterations related to muscle hypertrophy: a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental effects of acute and chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption on human physiology are well documented in the literature. These adversely influence neural, metabolic, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. However, the side effects of ethanol consumption on hormonal fluctuations and subsequent related skeletal muscle alterations have received less attention and as such are not entirely understood. The focus of this review is to identify the side effects of ethanol consumption on the major hormones related to muscle metabolism and clarify how the hormonal profiles are altered by such consumption. PMID:24932207

  20. Coercive sexual experiences, protective behavioral strategies, alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rebekka S; McMahon, Thomas J; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Ball, Samuel A

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female college students. We surveyed 370 college students regarding their past year experiences and found that 34% of women and 31% of men reported unwanted sexual contact, 6% of women and 13% of men reported engaging in sexually coercive behavior, and 4% of women and 9% of men reported experiencing both unwanted contact and engaging in sexually coercive behavior. Findings indicated students who experienced unwanted sexual contact reported significant differences in alcohol expectancies. More specifically, those who engaged in sexually coercive behaviors had significantly higher sex-related alcohol expectancies. In addition, recipients of unwanted contact reported higher alcohol consumption, used fewer protective strategies when drinking, and experienced more negative consequences due to their alcohol use. Results suggest that campus alcohol and sexual assault prevention efforts should include information on alcohol expectancies and use of protective strategies.

  1. Novel anticonvulsants for reducing alcohol consumption: A review of evidence from preclinical rodent drinking models.

    PubMed

    Padula, Ae; McGuier, Ns; Griffin, Wc; Lopez, Mf; Becker, Hc; Mulholland, Pj

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and have an enormous social and economic burden in developed, developing, and third-world countries. Current pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in preventing relapse in a subset of individuals. This signifies an essential need for improved medications to reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Growing literature has provided support for the use of anticonvulsants in suppressing symptoms induced by alcohol withdrawal. Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a number of well-tolerated anticonvulsants may also decrease alcohol drinking. This review will focus on recent evidence supporting the efficacy of novel anticonvulsants in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models. The data demonstrate that anticonvulsants reduce drinking in standard home cage two-bottle choice paradigms, self-administration of alcohol in operant chambers, and cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behaviors in rats and mice. This review also highlights evidence that some anticonvulsants were only moderately effective in reducing drinking in select strains of rodents or models. This suggests that genetics, possible neuroadaptations, or the pharmacological target affect the ability of anticonvulsants to attenuate alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, anticonvulsants are relatively safe, have little abuse potential, and can work in combination with other drugs. The results from these preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence that anticonvulsants are a promising class of medication for the treatment of AUDs.

  2. Novel anticonvulsants for reducing alcohol consumption: A review of evidence from preclinical rodent drinking models

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, WC; Lopez, MF; Becker, HC; Mulholland, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are a major public health issue and have an enormous social and economic burden in developed, developing, and third-world countries. Current pharmacotherapies for treating AUDs suffer from deleterious side effects and are only effective in preventing relapse in a subset of individuals. This signifies an essential need for improved medications to reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. Growing literature has provided support for the use of anticonvulsants in suppressing symptoms induced by alcohol withdrawal. Emerging clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that a number of well-tolerated anticonvulsants may also decrease alcohol drinking. This review will focus on recent evidence supporting the efficacy of novel anticonvulsants in reducing voluntary alcohol consumption in rodent models. The data demonstrate that anticonvulsants reduce drinking in standard home cage two-bottle choice paradigms, self-administration of alcohol in operant chambers, and cue- and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking behaviors in rats and mice. This review also highlights evidence that some anticonvulsants were only moderately effective in reducing drinking in select strains of rodents or models. This suggests that genetics, possible neuroadaptations, or the pharmacological target affect the ability of anticonvulsants to attenuate alcohol consumption. Nonetheless, anticonvulsants are relatively safe, have little abuse potential, and can work in combination with other drugs. The results from these preclinical and clinical studies provide compelling evidence that anticonvulsants are a promising class of medication for the treatment of AUDs. PMID:24432188

  3. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  4. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  5. Brand-Specific Consumption of Flavored Alcoholic Beverages among Underage Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Erin K.; Siegel, Michael; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Ross, Craig; DeJong, William; Albers, Alison B.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although several studies have identified flavored alcoholic beverages (FABs) as being popular among underage drinkers, no previous study has ascertained the prevalence of brand-specific FAB consumption among a national sample of underage youth. Objectives To ascertain the brand-specific consumption prevalence and consumption share of FABs among a national sample of underage drinkers in the United States. Methods In 2012, we conducted an online, self-administered survey of a national sample of 1,031 underage drinkers, ages 13-20, to determine the prevalence of past 30-day consumption for each of 898 alcoholic beverage brands, including 62 FABs, and each brand’s youth consumption share, based on the estimated total number of standard drinks consumed. There were three brand-specific outcome measures: prevalence of consumption, prevalence of consumption during heavy episodic drinking, and consumption share, defined as the percentage of the total drinks consumed by all respondents combined that was attributable to a particular brand. Results The FAB brands with the highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Smirnoff Malt Beverages, 17.7%; Mike’s, 10.8%; Bacardi Malt Beverages, 8.0%; and Four Loko/Four MaXed, 6.1%. Just five brands accounted for almost half (49.1%) of the total consumption share by volume within the FAB category. Conclusion Flavored alcoholic beverages are highly popular among underage drinkers, and their FAB brand preferences are highly concentrated among a small number of brands. To decrease the consumption of FABs by underage youth, all states should re-classify these beverages as distilled spirits rather than beer. PMID:24266600

  6. Twelve Months of Voluntary Heavy Alcohol Consumption in Male Rhesus Macaques Suppresses Intracortical Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gaddini, Gino W.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n = 21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22 h/d, 7 d/wk for 12 months. Control monkeys (n = 13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3 days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7 ± 0.2 g alcohol/kg/d (mean ± SE) during the 12 months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77 ± 9 mg/dl from samples taken at 7 h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250 mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8 ± 0.5 % versus 0.6 ± 0.1 %, p = 0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41 ± 0.2/mm2 versus 0.04 ± 0.01/mm2, p < 0.003) in alcohol-consuming monkeys compared to controls, indicating a reduced rate of intracortical bone remodeling

  7. Twelve months of voluntary heavy alcohol consumption in male rhesus macaques suppresses intracortical bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gaddini, Gino W; Grant, Kathleen A; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-02-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n=21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22h/d, 7 d/wk for 12months. Control monkeys (n=13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7±0.2g alcohol/kg/d (mean±SE) during the 12months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77±9mg/dl from samples taken at 7h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8±0.5 % versus 0.6±0.1 %, p=0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41±0.2/mm(2)versus 0.04±0.01/mm(2), p<0.003) in alcohol-consuming monkeys compared to controls, indicating a reduced rate of intracortical bone remodeling. In concordance, plasma CTx

  8. Health-as-a-Value, Spirituality, and Cigarette and Alcohol Use among Russian High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Masagutov, Radik; Kniazev, Vadim; Sussman, Steve

    2012-01-01

    National estimates suggest that the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use is higher among adolescents in Russia than among adolescents in the United States and other European countries. However, research on the psychosocial correlates of, as well as protective factors for, tobacco and alcohol use among Russian adolescents has been relatively…

  9. Alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown inconsistent results regarding alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver. We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and fatty liver disease (FLD). Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese databases, identifying studies that reported an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of FLD. Results A total of 16 studies with 76,608 participants including 13 cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and one cohort study met the inclusion criteria. For light to moderate alcohol consumption (LMAC), there was a 22.6% reduction in risk of FLD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.774, 95% confidence interval CI [0.695–0.862], P <0.001), and subgroup analysis showed that a greater reduction in risk of FLD was found in the female drinkers (30.2%) and the drinkers with BMI ≥25 kg/m2(31.3%) compared with the male drinkers (22.6%) and the drinkers with BMI <25 kg/m2(21.3%), respectively. For heavy alcohol consumption, there was no significant influence on risk of FLD (OR = 0.869, 95% CI [0.553–1.364], P = 0.541) in Japanese women, but there was a 33.7% reduction in risk of FLD (OR = 0.663, 95% CI [0.574–0.765], P < 0.001) in Japanese men and a significant increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.785, 95% CI [1.064–2.996], P = 0.028) in Germans. Conclusion LMAC is associated with a significant protective effect on FLD in the studied population, especially in the women and obese population. However, the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on FLD remains unclear due to limited studies and small sample sizes. PMID:27812428

  10. Are psychosocial stressors associated with the relationship of alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown a protective association of moderate alcohol intake with mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this relationship could be due to misclassification confounding. As psychosocial stressors are among those factors that have not been sufficiently controlled for, we assessed whether they may confound the relationship between alcohol consumption and all-cause mortality. Methods Three cross-sectional MONICA surveys (conducted 1984–1995) including 11,282 subjects aged 25–74 years were followed up within the framework of KORA (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg), a population-based cohort, until 2002. The prevalences of diseases as well as of lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables were compared in different alcohol consumption categories. To assess all-cause mortality risks, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards models which included lifestyle, clinical and psychosocial variables. Results Diseases were more prevalent among non-drinkers than among drinkers: Moreover, non-drinkers showed a higher percentage of an unfavourable lifestyle and were more affected with psychosocial stressors at baseline. Multivariable-adjusted HRs for moderate alcohol consumption versus no consumption were 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-0.94) in men and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.66-1.16) in women. In men, moderate drinkers had a significantly lower all-cause mortality risk than non-drinkers or heavy drinkers (p = 0.002) even after multivariable adjustment. In women, moderate alcohol consumption was not associated with lowered risk of death from all causes. Conclusions The present study confirmed the impact of sick quitters on mortality risk, but failed to show that the association between alcohol consumption and mortality is confounded by psychosocial stressors. PMID:24708657

  11. Alcohol Consumption, Dementia and Cognitive Decline: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Ilomaki, Jenni; Jokanovic, Natali; Tan, Edwin C K; Lonnroos, Eija

    2015-01-01

    There is uncertainty in relation to the effect of alcohol consumption on the incidence of dementia and cognitive decline. This review critically evaluated published systematic reviews on the epidemiology of alcohol consumption and the risk of dementia or cognitive decline. MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO were searched from inception to February 2014. Systematic reviews of longitudinal observational studies were considered. Two reviewers independently completed the 11-item Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) tool to assess the quality. We identified three moderate quality systematic reviews (AMSTAR score 4-6) that included a total of 45 unique studies. Two of the systematic reviews encompassed a meta-analysis. Light to moderate drinking may decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) (pooled risk ratio [RR] 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61-0.86) and dementia (RR 0.74; 95%CI 0.61-0.91) whereas heavy to excessive drinking does not affect the risk (RR 0.92; 95%CI 0.59-1.45 and RR 1.04; 95%CI 0.69-1.56, respectively). One systematic review identified two studies that reported a link between alcohol consumption and the development of AD. No systematic review categorised former drinkers separately from lifetime abstainers in their analysis. Definitions of alcohol consumption, light to moderate drinking and heavy-excessive drinking varied and drinking patterns were not considered. Moderate quality (AMSTAR score 4-6) systematic reviews indicate that light to moderate alcohol consumption may protect against AD and dementia. However, the importance of drinking patterns and specific beverages remain unknown. There is insufficient evidence to suggest abstainers should initiate alcohol consumption to protect against dementia.

  12. Examining the Unique Influence of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Drinking Perceptions on Alcohol Consumption Among College Students*

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. Method: College students (N = 303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Results: Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed. PMID:19261229

  13. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states.

  14. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012.

  15. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  16. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María- José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case–control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Compared with participants consuming 0.1–4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1–1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60–0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes. Conclusions: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:26313664

  17. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  18. Effects of Nutrition and Alcohol Consumption on Bone Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well established that excessive consumption of high fat diets results in obesity. However, the consequences of obesity of skeletal development, maturation and remodeling have been the subject of controversy. New studies suggest that the response of the growing skeleton to mechanical loading i...

  19. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  20. Electronic Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  1. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  2. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Neighbors, Clayton; Christina Hove, M.; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Method: Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Results: Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults’ passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention. PMID:26402355

  3. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, <26 years old, and travelling alone or with friends. Travellers who admitted inebriation and fell ill while in Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.

  4. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BURDEN OF DISEASE - AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Baliunas, Dolly; Borges, Guilherme L. G.; Graham, Kathryn; lrving, Hyacinth; Kehoe, Tara; Parry, Charles D.; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Poznyak, Vladimir; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Taylor, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS As part of a larger study to estimate the global burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol: To evaluate the evidence for a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption and pattern of drinking on diseases and injuries;To quantify relationships identified as causal based on published meta-analyses;To separate the impact on mortality vs. morbidity where possible; andTo assess the impact of the quality of alcohol on burden of disease. METHODS Systematic literature reviews were used to identify alcohol-related diseases, birth complications and injuries using standard epidemiologic criteria to determine causality. The extent of the risk relations was taken from meta-analyses. RESULTS Evidence of a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption was found for the following major diseases: tuberculosis, mouth, nasopharynx, other pharynx and oropharynx cancer, oesophageal cancer, colon and rectum cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders, unipolar depressive disorders, epilepsy, hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, conduction disorders and other dysrhythmias, lower respiratory infections (pneumonia), cirrhosis of the liver, preterm birth complications, foetal alcohol syndrome. Dose-response relationships could be quantified for all disease categories except for depressive disorders, with the relative risk increasing with increased level of alcohol consumption for most diseases. Both average volume and drinking pattern were causally linked to IHD, foetal alcohol syndrome, and unintentional and intentional injuries. For IHD, ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus beneficial effects were observed for patterns of light to moderate drinking without heavy drinking occasions (as defined by 60+ grams pure alcohol per day). For several disease and injury categories, the effects were stronger on mortality compared to morbidity. There was insufficient

  5. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Prostatic Hyperplasia According to Facial Flushing After Drinking in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hak Sun; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Yoon, Seok-Joon; Yang, HyunJu; Joung, Hyun Chul

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether facial flushing after drinking influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostatic hyperplasia among Korean men. Methods The subjects were 957 Korean men (180 non-drinkers, 389 with drinking-related facial flushing, 388 without facial flushing) in the 40–69 age group, who underwent prostate ultrasound at the health promotion center of Chungnam National University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Alcohol consumption and alcohol-related facial flushing were assessed through a questionnaire. In terms of the amount consumed, 14 g of alcohol was considered a standard drink. With the non-drinker group as reference, logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between weekly alcohol intake and prostatic hyperplasia in the flushing and non-flushing groups, with adjustment for confounding factors such as age, body mass index, smoking, and exercise patterns. Results Individuals aged 50–59 years who experienced drinking-related facial flushing had a significantly lower risk of prostatic hyperplasia than the non-drinker group, depending on alcohol consumption: ≤4 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86); >4 ≤8 standard drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.95); >8 standard drinks (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.84). However, no significant relationship was observed between the number of drinks consumed and the risk of prostate hyperplasia in the non-flushing group. Conclusion The risk of prostatic hyperplasia appears to be reduced by alcohol consumption among Korean men aged 50–59 years who exhibit drinking-related facial flushing. PMID:28360985

  6. Alcohol consumption and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of older women

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, B C-H; Cerhan, J R; Gapstur, S M; Sellers, T A; Zheng, W; Lutz, C T; Wallace, R B; Potter, J D

    1999-01-01

    We investigated the relation of alcohol consumption to risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in a cohort of 35 156 lowa women aged 55–69 years who participated in the lowa Women's Health Study in 1986. Alcohol consumption at baseline was obtained using a mailed questionnaire. During the 9-year follow-up period, 143 incident cases of NHL were identified. Higher alcohol consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of NHL (P-trend = 0.03). Compared to non-drinkers, multivariate-adjusted relative risks (RRs) were decreased for women with intake of ≤ 3.4 g day−1 (RR = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–1.21) and > 3.4 g day−1 (RR = 0.59; 0.36–0.97). The inverse association could not be attributed to one particular type of alcoholic beverage, although red wine (RR = 0.21 for > 2 glasses per month vs non-drinker; 0.05–0.86; P-trend = 0.02) has the most distinct effect. The apparent protective effect was universal regardless of specific NHL grade or Working Formulation subtype, but was most pronounced for nodal NHL (RR = 0.48; 0.26–0.90; P-trend = 0.01) and low-grade NHL (RR = 0.52; 0.21–1.26; P-trend = 0.05). These data suggest that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of NHL in older women and the amount of alcohol consumed, rather than the type of alcoholic beverages, appears to be the main effect determinant. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10424754

  7. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  8. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders.

  9. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

    2009-04-21

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  10. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component.

  11. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p nonlinearity < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  12. Factors associated with alcohol consumption among male high school students in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2010-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to explore factors associated with alcohol consumption among male high school students in central Thailand. Five thousand one hundred eighty-four male students from central Thailand were classified into 2 groups according to alcohol consumption during the past year (yes = 916, no = 4,268). Data were collected by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking behavior during the previous year from December 2007 to February 2008. Descriptive statistics, a chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used to analyze the data. Seventeen point seven percent of male high school students in this study reported consuming alcohol. Most of the students (73.4%) were 15 years old or younger. Univariate analysis revealed socio-demographic factors, such as age, educational level, residence, cohabitants, grade point average (GPA), having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems were significantly associated with alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for age, revealed five factors were associated with alcohol consumption: the educational level (OR MS3 = 2.69, 95% CI 2.07-3.49; OR MS5 = 5.50, 95% CI 4.25-7.13), cohabitants (OR Friends = 3.09, 95% CI 1.38-6.93), having a job earning money (OR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.13-1.66), having family members with alcohol/drug problems (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.11-1.60), and GPA (OR < 2 = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.71; OR > 3 = 0.62, 95% CI 0.51-0.75). Approximately 38% drank more than 2 times a month, 35% drank more than 4 drinks each time, 60% experienced binge drinking, and 43% experienced drunkenness. These results suggest alcohol abuse preventive measures among male high school students should take into account education level, cohabitants, having a job earning money, family members with alcohol/drug problems and GPA. Education regarding the disadvantages of

  13. µ-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Polymorphism A118G: Lack of Association in Finnish Populations with Alcohol Dependence or Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Kovanen, Leena; Aalto, Mauri; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Sinclair, David; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Koskinen, Seppo; Saarikoski, Sirkku T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The molecular epidemiological studies on the association of the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) and alcohol use disorders have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the possible association of A118G polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in three large cohort-based study samples. Methods: The association between the OPRM1 A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption was analyzed using three different population-based samples: (a) a Finnish cohort study, Health 2000, with 503 participants having a DSM-IV diagnosis for alcohol dependence and/or alcohol abuse and 506 age- and sex-matched controls; (b) a Finnish cohort study, FINRISK (n = 2360) and (c) the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n = 1384). The latter two populations lacked diagnosis-based phenotypes, but included detailed information on alcohol consumption. Results: We found no statistically significant differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between controls and subjects with alcohol dependence or abuse diagnoses. Likewise no significant effects were observed between the A118G genotype and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: These results suggest that A118G (Asn40Asp) polymorphism may not have a major effect on the development of alcohol use disorders at least in the Finnish population. PMID:23729673

  14. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alcohol consumption in US white and black adults: data from NHANES II.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Carroll, M; Johnson, C; Fulwood, R; Kalsbeek, W; Briefel, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known to be positively related to moderate alcohol consumption from studies in selected populations. This study describes the association in a representative sample of the US adult population. METHODS. Stratification and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine HDL cholesterol levels and alcohol consumption. RESULTS. Fewer women than men reported consumption of alcohol at any frequency. Similar percentages of Whites and Blacks reported alcohol consumption. Age-adjusted mean HDL cholesterol levels were higher among alcohol drinkers than among nondrinkers in all sex-race strata. Mean HDL cholesterol levels of Whites and Blacks of both sexes increased consistently with increased frequency of consumption of beer, wine, and liquor. With age, education, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity controlled for, there were higher age-adjusted HDL cholesterol levels with increasing reported quantities of alcohol consumed. Daily or weekly use of alcohol led to an increase of 5.1 mg/dL in mean HDL cholesterol level, whereas consumption of 1 g of alcohol led to an increase of 0.87 mg/dL. CONCLUSION. Even if there is a causal association between alcohol consumption and higher HDL cholesterol levels, it is suggested that efforts to reduce coronary heart disease risks concentrate on the cessation of smoking and weight control. PMID:8498617

  15. Synaptic microRNAs Coordinately Regulate Synaptic mRNAs: Perturbation by Chronic Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Most, Dana; Leiter, Courtney; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2016-01-01

    Local translation of mRNAs in the synapse has a major role in synaptic structure and function. Chronic alcohol use causes persistent changes in synaptic mRNA expression, possibly mediated by microRNAs localized in the synapse. We profiled the transcriptome of synaptoneurosomes (SN) obtained from the amygdala of mice that consumed 20% ethanol (alcohol) in a 30-day continuous two-bottle choice test to identify the microRNAs that target alcohol-induced mRNAs. SN are membrane vesicles containing pre- and post-synaptic compartments of neurons and astroglia and are a unique model for studying the synaptic transcriptome. We previously showed that chronic alcohol regulates mRNA expression in a coordinated manner. Here, we examine microRNAs and mRNAs from the same samples to define alcohol-responsive synaptic microRNAs and their predicted interactions with targeted mRNAs. The aim of the study was to identify the microRNA–mRNA synaptic interactions that are altered by alcohol. This was accomplished by comparing the effect of alcohol in SN and total homogenate preparations from the same samples. We used a combination of unbiased bioinformatic methods (differential expression, correlation, co-expression, microRNA-mRNA target prediction, co-targeting, and cell type-specific analyses) to identify key alcohol-sensitive microRNAs. Prediction analysis showed that a subset of alcohol-responsive microRNAs was predicted to target many alcohol-responsive mRNAs, providing a bidirectional analysis for identifying microRNA–mRNA interactions. We found microRNAs and mRNAs with overlapping patterns of expression that correlated with alcohol consumption. Cell type-specific analysis revealed that a significant number of alcohol-responsive mRNAs and microRNAs were unique to glutamate neurons and were predicted to target each other. Chronic alcohol consumption appears to perturb the coordinated microRNA regulation of mRNAs in SN, a mechanism that may explain the aberrations in synaptic

  16. Synaptic microRNAs Coordinately Regulate Synaptic mRNAs: Perturbation by Chronic Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Leiter, Courtney; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2016-01-01

    Local translation of mRNAs in the synapse has a major role in synaptic structure and function. Chronic alcohol use causes persistent changes in synaptic mRNA expression, possibly mediated by microRNAs localized in the synapse. We profiled the transcriptome of synaptoneurosomes (SN) obtained from the amygdala of mice that consumed 20% ethanol (alcohol) in a 30-day continuous two-bottle choice test to identify the microRNAs that target alcohol-induced mRNAs. SN are membrane vesicles containing pre- and post-synaptic compartments of neurons and astroglia and are a unique model for studying the synaptic transcriptome. We previously showed that chronic alcohol regulates mRNA expression in a coordinated manner. Here, we examine microRNAs and mRNAs from the same samples to define alcohol-responsive synaptic microRNAs and their predicted interactions with targeted mRNAs. The aim of the study was to identify the microRNA-mRNA synaptic interactions that are altered by alcohol. This was accomplished by comparing the effect of alcohol in SN and total homogenate preparations from the same samples. We used a combination of unbiased bioinformatic methods (differential expression, correlation, co-expression, microRNA-mRNA target prediction, co-targeting, and cell type-specific analyses) to identify key alcohol-sensitive microRNAs. Prediction analysis showed that a subset of alcohol-responsive microRNAs was predicted to target many alcohol-responsive mRNAs, providing a bidirectional analysis for identifying microRNA-mRNA interactions. We found microRNAs and mRNAs with overlapping patterns of expression that correlated with alcohol consumption. Cell type-specific analysis revealed that a significant number of alcohol-responsive mRNAs and microRNAs were unique to glutamate neurons and were predicted to target each other. Chronic alcohol consumption appears to perturb the coordinated microRNA regulation of mRNAs in SN, a mechanism that may explain the aberrations in synaptic

  17. Development and validation of the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS).

    PubMed

    Rahal, Collin J; Bryant, Judith B; Darkes, Jack; Menzel, Jessie E; Thompson, J Kevin

    2012-04-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to develop and validate a measure to assess an individual's eating-related behaviors related to alcohol consumption, specifically behaviors intended to compensate for calories so that more alcohol could be consumed or restrict calories to enhance the psychoactive effects of alcohol consumption. Two hundred and seventy four undergraduate students (n=51 males; 75.2% Caucasian) completed a newly developed scale, the Compensatory Eating and Behaviors in Response to Alcohol Consumption Scale (CEBRACS), along with measures of eating restriction, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction. An exploratory factor analysis on the CEBRACS revealed the existence of 4 clear-cut factors: alcohol effects, bulimia, dieting and exercise, and restriction. Internal consistency statistics for all subscales ranged from .79 to .95. Pearson product-moment correlations between the CEBRACS and measures of bulimia, restriction, and body dissatisfaction ranged from .04 to .44. T-tests revealed no gender differences in compensatory eating behaviors. Future research directions and limitations of the current study are discussed.

  18. Impulsive Choice, Alcohol Consumption, and Pre-Exposure to Delayed Rewards: II. Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Hinnenkamp, Jay E.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In a prior study (Stein et al., 2013), we reported that rats pre-exposed to delayed rewards made fewer impulsive choices, but consumed more alcohol (12% wt/vol), than rats pre-exposed to immediate rewards. To understand the mechanisms that produced these findings, we again pre-exposed rats to either delayed (17.5 s; n = 32) or immediate (n = 30) rewards. In post-tests, delay-exposed rats made significantly fewer impulsive choices at both 15- and 30-s delays to a larger, later food reward than the immediacy-exposed comparison group. Behavior in an open-field test provided little evidence of differential stress exposure between groups. Further, consumption of either 12% alcohol or isocaloric sucrose in subsequent tests did not differ between groups. Because Stein et al. introduced alcohol concentration gradually (3–12%), we speculate that their group differences in 12% alcohol consumption were not determined by alcohol’s pharmacological effects, but by another variable (e.g., taste) that was preserved as an artifact from lower concentrations. We conclude that pre-exposure to delayed rewards generalizes beyond the pre-exposure delay; however, this same experimental variable does not robustly influence alcohol consumption. PMID:25418607

  19. Hardiness, avoidance coping, and alcohol consumption in war veterans: A moderated-mediation study.

    PubMed

    Bartone, Paul T; Johnsen, Bjorn H; Eid, Jarle; Hystad, Sigurd W; Laberg, Jon C

    2016-11-24

    Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan. Conditional process analysis was used to test for mediation and moderation effects. Mediation effects were further tested in a replication sample of Norwegian Army soldiers (N = 230) deployed to Kosovo. Findings show that hardiness is a significant (negative) predictor of increased alcohol use and that this relation is mediated by avoidance coping. Further, this effect was moderated by combat stress exposure in the U.S. sample, such that the mediation is stronger for those with greater exposure (moderated-mediation). Avoidance coping also mediated the effects of hardiness on alcohol consumption in the Norwegian sample. These findings suggest that avoidance coping and hardiness may be fruitful areas for interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in high-stress groups like the military.

  20. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  1. Trends in Alcohol Consumption among Undergraduate Students at a Northeastern Public University, 2002-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Irfan, Syed; Mugno, Raymond; Barton, Barbara; Ackerman, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption patterns and trends at a public university in the Northeast from 2002 to 2008. Participants: Stratified random sampling was used to select undergraduate students enrolled in courses during spring semesters in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. Methods: Data were collected during regularly scheduled…

  2. Gender, Self-Monitoring, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Behavior: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; Abbey, Antonia

    For this study, college students were asked to describe their sexual histories and how their sexual behavior related to alcohol consumption, contraceptive use, and concern over Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) so that more could be learned about gender and self-monitoring differences in sexual behavior. College undergraduates (N=94)…

  3. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  4. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  5. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  6. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Dietery Intake, and Body Mass Index in Young Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known about the relationship of diet and weight to alcohol consumption in young adults. Dietary intake data were collected in 1995–1996 on 1,335 young adults (20–38 years) (62% female; 27% black) using a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (YAQ), and the Health Lifestyle-Behavio...

  7. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  8. Alcohol Consumption among Kansas State University Freshmen by Probation and Non-Probation Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janis L.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between consumption of alcoholic beverages and probation/non-probation status of college freshmen. Data revealed that males drank more than did females; students on probation drank more than did non-probation students; and students in the College of Business Administration drank more than students in Arts and Sciences and…

  9. The Effects of Fear Appeal and Communication Upon Attitudes Toward Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzen, Robert D.

    1975-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between two independent variables, the fear appeal of the message and the character of the communicator; and the attitudes, behavior and information retention of seventh and eighth grade pupils with respect to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. A number of significant findings are reported. (Author)

  10. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  11. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  12. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  13. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  14. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  15. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  16. The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ≥7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed.

  17. Pre-College Matriculation Risk Profiles and Alcohol Consumption Patterns during the First Semesters of College

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J.; Ray, Anne E.; Lu, Shou-En

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation and alcohol use was measured with 5 assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled “Anti-Drinking”, “Unfavorable”, “Mixed”, and “Risky”. Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  18. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Piechniczek-Buczek, Joanna; Knapp, Clifford; Afshar, Maryam; Devine, Eric; Sickles, Laurie; Uwodukunda, Emma; Richambault, Courtney; Koplow, Jillian; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this open-label pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anticonvulsant agent, levetiracetam, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A maximal dose of 2000 mg was administered daily for 10 weeks to alcohol dependent subjects (n = 20). Mean reported ethanol intake declined significantly from 5.3 to 1.7 standard drinks per day. Levetiracetam was well tolerated by most subjects. PMID:18584574

  19. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  20. Alcohol consumption and genetic variation in MTHFR and MTR in relation to breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Platek, Mary E.; Shields, Peter G.; Marian, Catalin; McCann, Susan E.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Nie, Jing; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Millen, Amy E.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Quick, Sylvia K.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that effects of alcohol consumption on one-carbon metabolism may explain, in part, the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferease (MTR) genes express key enzymes in this pathway. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) and MTR (rs1805087) with breast cancer risk and their interaction with alcohol consumption in a case-control study, the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. Cases (n=1063) were women with primary, incident breast cancer and controls (n= 1890) were frequency matched to cases on age and race. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found no association of MTHFR or MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer. In the original case control study, there was a nonsignificant increased odds of breast cancer among women with higher lifetime drinking. In the current study, there was no evidence of an interaction of genotype and alcohol in premenopausal women. However, among postmenopausal women there was an increase in breast cancer risk for women who were homozygote TT for MTHFR C677T and had high lifetime alcohol intake (≥1161.84 ounces) (OR=1.92, CI=1.13–3.28) and for those who had a high number of drinks per drinking day (> 1.91 drinks/day) (OR=1.80, CI=1.03–3.28) compared to nondrinkers who were homozygote CC. Our findings indicate that among postmenopausal women, increased breast cancer risk with alcohol consumption may be as a result of effects on one-carbon metabolism. PMID:19706843

  1. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health.

  2. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  3. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant African-American Women in Washington, D.C

    PubMed Central

    Thornberry, Jutta S.; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviors related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington D.C. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous, alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions were from the TWEAK and AUDIT as well as quantity/frequency questions about the amount, type, and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were determined to be at no, low, moderate or high risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy. For comparisons of risk levels of drinking, bivariate associations were examined using Fisher’s Exact Tests. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were also computed. Although 31% of current/recent drinkers stated that they continued to drink during pregnancy, responses to quantity/frequency questions revealed that 42% continued to do so. Women who were high compared to moderate risk acknowledged that others were worried [OR=4.0, 95% CI=1.5,10.6], drinking upon rising [OR=6.7, 95% CI=1.8,26.9], a need to reduce drinking [OR=3.2, 95% CI=1.3,8.1] and in the past five years having fractures [OR=4.2, 95% CI=1.0,17.8] or traffic crash injury(-ies) [OR=3.4, 95% CI=1.0,12.2]. Women in the high/moderate compared to low risk group were more likely to have been injured in a fight or assault [OR=2.7,95% CI=1.3,5.6]. This study validated the usefulness of our questionnaire in identifying women who were at risk for alcohol consumption during pregnancy across a range of consumption levels. Using our screening tool, women were willing to disclose their drinking habits. This low cost method identifies and allows for targeting of interventions. PMID:21649675

  4. Review of Survey and Experimental Research That Examines the Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Men's Sexual Aggression Perpetration

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E.; Pierce, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation. PMID:24776459

  5. Review of survey and experimental research that examines the relationship between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression perpetration.

    PubMed

    Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana; Woerner, Jacqueline; Pegram, Sheri E; Pierce, Jennifer

    2014-10-01

    This article systematically reviews empirical studies that examine associations between alcohol consumption and men's sexual aggression with the goal of identifying major findings; gaps in current knowledge; and directions for future research, practice, and policy. We identified 25 cross-sectional surveys, 6 prospective studies, and 12 alcohol administration experiments published between 1993 and August 2013 with male college students and young adult (nonincarcerated) samples. Many cross-sectional surveys have demonstrated that distal and proximal measures of men's alcohol consumption are positively associated with sexual assault perpetration, although very few of these studies evaluated how alcohol interacts with other risk and protective factors to exacerbate or inhibit sexual aggression. There are surprisingly few surveys that examine alcohol's effects at the event level and over short-time intervals to identify how changes in alcohol consumption are associated with changes in perpetration status. Alcohol administration studies suggest some important mechanisms that warrant additional investigation.

  6. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking.

  7. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T K; Hjollund, N H; Henriksen, T B; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-08-22

    The effect of alcohol consumption on the probability of conception was investigated in a prospective study of 430 Danish couples seeking to achieve pregnancy for the first time. Couples were recruited through a national mailing to trade union members and followed for six menstrual cycles after contraception discontinuation or until a clinically recognized pregnancy occurred. Mean weekly alcohol intake was 4.0 drinks among women and 9.5 drinks among their male partners; 73 women (17%) abstained from alcohol drinking throughout the six cycles. During the study period, 179 (64%) of the 280 women with an average weekly alcohol intake of less than five drinks and 75 (55%) of the 136 women with a higher intake conceived. Among male partners, these rates were 67% and 58%, respectively. After adjustment for cycle number, smoking, enrollment center, diseases of the reproductive system, body mass index, sperm concentration, and menstrual cycle duration, the odds ratio decreased with increasing alcohol consumption from 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.93) among women who consumed 1-5 drinks a week to 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.85) among those reporting 6-10 drinks a week to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.52) among women consuming 11-15 drinks a week compared with women with no alcohol intake. No dose-response relationship was found in male partners after adjustment for the same confounders. Although these findings require further corroboration, they suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption has a significant adverse effect on fecundability.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus

  9. Religiosity and adolescent substance use in central Mexico: exploring the influence of internal and external religiosity on cigarette and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L; Hoffman, Steven

    2012-03-01

    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14-17) living in a semi-rural area in the central state of Guanajuato, Mexico, and attending alternative secondary schools. Findings indicate that adolescents who have higher church attendance coupled with higher religious importance have lower odds of using alcohol, while cigarette use is lower among adolescents who have lower church attendance and lower religious importance. Adolescents are most at risk using alcohol and cigarettes when church attendance is higher but religious importance is lower. In conclusion, incongruence between internal religious beliefs and external church attendance places Mexican youth at greater risk of alcohol and cigarette use. This study not only contributes to understandings of the impact of religiosity on substance use in Mexico, but highlights the importance of understanding religiosity as a multidimensional phenomenon which can lead to differential substance use patterns.

  10. Religiosity and Adolescent Substance Use in Central Mexico: Exploring the Influence of Internal and External Religiosity on Cigarette and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Hoffman, Steven

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the multidimensional nature of religiosity on substance use among adolescents living in central Mexico. From a social capital perspective, this article investigates how external church attendance and internal religious importance interact to create differential pathways for adolescents, and how these pathways exert both risk and protective influences on Mexican youth. The data come from 506 self-identified Roman Catholic youth (ages 14–17) living in a semi-rural area in the central state of Guanajuato, Mexico, and attending alternative secondary schools. Findings indicate that adolescents who have higher church attendance coupled with higher religious importance have lower odds of using alcohol, while cigarette use is lower among adolescents who have lower church attendance and lower religious importance. Adolescents are most at risk using alcohol and cigarettes when church attendance is higher but religious importance is lower. In conclusion, incongruence between internal religious beliefs and external church attendance places Mexican youth at greater risk of alcohol and cigarette use. This study not only contributes to understandings of the impact of religiosity on substance use in Mexico, but highlights the importance of understanding religiosity as a multidimensional phenomenon which can lead to differential substance use patterns. PMID:21533659

  11. Decreases in self-reported alcohol consumption following HIV counseling and testing at Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol use has a detrimental impact on the HIV epidemic, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. HIV counseling and testing (HCT) may provide a contact opportunity to intervene with hazardous alcohol use; however, little is known about how alcohol consumption changes following HCT. Methods We utilized data from 2056 participants of a randomized controlled trial comparing two methods of HCT and subsequent linkage to HIV care conducted at Mulago Hospital in Kampala, Uganda. Those who had not previously tested positive for HIV and whose last HIV test was at least one year in the past were eligible. Participants were asked at baseline when they last consumed alcohol, and prior three month alcohol consumption was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C) at baseline and quarterly for one year. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as scoring ≥3 or ≥4 for women and men, respectively. We examined correlates of alcohol use at baseline, and of hazardous and non-hazardous drinking during the year of follow-up using multinomial logistic regression, clustered at the participant level to account for repeated measurements. Results Prior to HCT, 30% were current drinkers (prior three months), 27% were past drinkers (>3 months ago), and 44% were lifetime abstainers. One-third (35%) of the current drinkers met criteria for hazardous drinking. Hazardous and non-hazardous self-reported alcohol consumption declined after HCT, with 16% of baseline current drinkers reporting hazardous alcohol use 3 months after HCT. Independent predictors (p < 0.05) of continuing non-hazardous and hazardous alcohol consumption after HCT were sex (male), alcohol consumption prior to HCT (hazardous), and HIV status (negative). Among those with HIV, non-hazardous drinking was less likely among those taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions HCT may be an opportune time to intervene with alcohol consumption. Those with HIV experienced

  12. EASING THE PAIN OF AN ECONOMIC DOWNTURN: MACROECONOMIC CONDITIONS AND EXCESSIVE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    DÁVALOS, MARÍA E.; FANG, HAI; FRENCH, MICHAEL T.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Individuals can react to financial stress in a variety of ways, such as reducing discretionary spending or engaging in risky behaviors. This paper investigates the effect of changing macroeconomic conditions (measured by the unemployment rate in the state of residence) on one type of risky behavior: excessive alcohol consumption. Using unique and recent panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and estimating fixed-effects models, we find that changes in the unemployment rate are positively related to changes in binge drinking, alcohol-involved driving, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Some differences are present among demographic groups, primarily in the magnitude of the estimated effects. These results contradict previous studies and suggest that problematic drinking may be an indirect and unfortunate consequence of an economic downturn. PMID:21913282

  13. Easing the pain of an economic downturn: macroeconomic conditions and excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, María E; Fang, Hai; French, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Individuals can react to financial stress in a variety of ways, such as reducing discretionary spending or engaging in risky behaviors. This article investigates the effect of changing macroeconomic conditions (measured by the unemployment rate in the state of residence) on one type of risky behavior: excessive alcohol consumption. Using unique and recent panel data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) and estimating fixed-effects models, we find that changes in the unemployment rate are positively related to changes in binge drinking, alcohol-involved driving, and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Some differences are present among demographic groups, primarily in the magnitude of the estimated effects. These results contradict previous studies and suggest that problematic drinking may be an indirect and unfortunate consequence of an economic downturn.

  14. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  15. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  16. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (β ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [γ = −0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Urinary Estrogens and Estrogen Metabolites in Premenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sisti, Julia S.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Xu, Xia; Eliassen, A. Heather; Ziegler, Regina

    2016-01-01

    In a cross-sectional analysis, we evaluated the associations of usual total alcohol and wine intake with a comprehensive profile of mid-luteal phase urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites (referred to jointly as EM) in a sample of 603 premenopausal women participating in the Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII). A total of 15 individual EM (pmol/mg creatinine) were measured by a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method with high accuracy and reproducibility. We used linear mixed models to calculate the adjusted geometric means of individual EM, EM grouped by metabolic pathways, and pathway ratios by category of alcohol intake with non-drinkers of alcohol as the referent. Total alcohol intake was not associated with total EM but was positively associated with estradiol (26 % higher among women consuming >15 g/day vs. non-drinkers; P trend=0.03). Wine consumption was positively associated with a number of EM measures including estradiol (22 % higher among women consuming ≥5 drinks/week vs. non-drinkers, P trend < 0.0001). In conclusion, the total