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Sample records for alcohol consumption increases

  1. Increased alcohol consumption in rats after subchronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Orio, Laura; Gorriti, Miguel Á; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    The use of antidepressants for alcoholism in humans has been a matter of controversy in recent years. Despite the existence of an important co-morbidity for depression and alcoholism, some studies suggest that the use of antidepressants could worsen the prognosis of alcoholism. However, there is a lack of studies in animal models exploring this phenomenon. In the present study, we show how the 15-d treatment with fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) or venlafaxine (50 mg/kg) affected alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) and subsequent alcohol consumption. Initially, fluoxetine reduced ADE and venlafaxine did not affect it. However, in the following days, both antidepressants increased alcohol consumption, an effect that was found to last at least 5 wk. Fluoxetine treatment was shown to cause a locomotor sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (0.5 mg/kg), indicating the presence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. In summary, antidepressant treatment may increase alcohol consumption in rats after a period of alcohol deprivation and this could be related to alterations in the reward circuitry. This finding confirms in an animal model previous reports in humans that may limit the use of antidepressants for alcoholism.

  2. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  3. Increased Facial Attractiveness Following Moderate, but not High, Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Abbeele, Jana; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Attwood, Angela S.; Stephen, Ian D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviours, but this relationship may be complex and bidirectional. We explored whether alcohol consumption leads to the consumer being rated as more attractive than sober individuals. Methods: Heterosexual social alcohol consumers completed an attractiveness-rating task, in which they were presented with pairs of photographs depicting the same individual, photographed while sober and after having consumed alcohol (either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg), and required to decide which image was more attractive. Results: Photographs of individuals who had consumed a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 250 ml of wine at 14% alcohol by volume for a 70 kg individual) were rated as more attractive than photographs of sober individuals. This was not observed for photographs of individuals who had consumed a high dose of alcohol. Conclusion: In addition to perceiving others as more attractive, a mildly intoxicated alcohol consumer may also be perceived as more attractive by others. This in turn may play a role in the relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:25716115

  4. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  5. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  6. Decreased injecting is associated with increased alcohol consumption among injecting drug users in northern Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Go, Vivian F.; Le Minh, Nguyen; Frangakis, Constantine; Viet Ha, Tran; Latkin, Carl A.; Sripaipan, Teerada; Davis, Wendy; Zelaya, Carla; Phuong Ngoc, Nguyen; Minh Quan, Vu

    2016-01-01

    Background Reducing injecting frequency may reduce the risk of HIV infection and improve health outcomes among injection drug users (IDU). However, the reduction of one risk behavior may be associated with an increase in other risk behaviors, including the use of other risk-associated substances. Our objective was to determine if an association exists between a reduction in injecting and level of alcohol use among IDU. Methods We conducted a longitudinal analysis of data collected for a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of a peer education intervention in reducing HIV risk among IDU and their network members in Thai Nguyen, Vietnam. Our analysis included active male injectors (n=629) who were study participants and attended both baseline and 3-month visits. Frequency of alcohol consumption was assessed as the number of alcoholic drinks in the past 30 days. Change in risk and outcome behaviors was calculated as the difference in frequencies of behaviors between baseline and 3-month follow-up visits. The outcome of interest was concurrent decreased drug injection and increased alcohol consumption. Results The mean difference between baseline and 3-month follow-up of alcohol consumption and injection frequency in the past 30 days was 19.03 drinks (93.68 SD) and 20.22 injections (35.66 SD), respectively. Participants who reported reduced injection frequency were almost three times as likely to report increased alcohol consumption (OR 2.8; 95% CI, 2.0, 4.0). The proportion that both decreased injecting and increased alcohol by any amount in the past 30 days was 35.6%. In multivariate analysis higher education was significantly associated with an increase in alcohol and decrease in injecting of any amount. Conclusion Male IDU may be at risk for increasing alcohol consumption when they reduce injection frequency. Interventions with male IDU that encourage reduction of injection may need to review specific strategies to limit alcohol consumption. PMID

  7. Excessive alcohol consumption increases risk taking behaviour in travellers to Cusco, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabada, Miguel M; Mozo, Karen; Pantenburg, Birte; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2011-03-01

    The risks associated with alcohol intoxication are rarely discussed during pre-travel counselling. However, alcohol immoderation abroad may increase the exposure to health risks. Few studies have addressed alcohol consumption and risk taking behaviour in travellers to South America. From October to December of 2004, travellers leaving the city of Cusco in Peru were asked to fill out anonymous questionnaires regarding demographics, self-reported alcohol consumption, illness and risk behaviour for sexually-transmitted infection (STI) and travellers diarrhoea. Most travellers (87.2%) consumed alcohol and 20.4% reported inebriation in Cusco. Those admitting inebriation were more likely to be male, single, <26 years old, and travelling alone or with friends. Travellers who admitted inebriation and fell ill while in Cusco were more likely to seek medical attention, change itinerary, and report decreased satisfaction with the trip experience. In the multivariate analysis, inebriation was independently associated with reporting higher numbers of unsafe food choices, illicit drug use, and risky sexual activity. It is concluded that alcohol intoxication during travel was associated with increased risk taking behaviour for common travel related conditions. Although travel related illnesses were not associated with inebriation, some markers of illness severity were more often reported by those who admitted intoxication. Risk for heavy alcohol use abroad should be assessed during the pre-travel visit in certain groups and appropriate counselling should be provided.

  8. INCREASED CIGARETTE TAX IS ASSOCIATED WITH REDUCTIONS IN ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IN A LONGITUDINAL U.S. SAMPLE

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Kasza, Karin A.; Hyland, Andrew J.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette taxation has been recognized as one of the most significant policy instruments to reduce smoking. Smoking and drinking are highly comorbid behaviors, and the public health benefits of cigarette taxation may extend beyond smoking-related outcomes to impact alcohol consumption. The current study is the first to test whether increases in cigarette taxes are associated with reductions in alcohol consumption among smokers using a large, prospective U.S. sample. Method Our sample included 21,473 alcohol consumers from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate whether increases in cigarette taxes between Waves I (2001–2002) and II (2004–2005) were associated with reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, adjusting for demographics, baseline alcohol consumption, and alcohol price. Stratified analyses were conducted by sex, hazardous drinking status, and age and income group. Results Increases in cigarette taxes were associated with modest reductions in typical quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking among smokers. Cigarette taxation was not associated with changes in alcohol consumption among non-smokers. In analyses stratified by sex, the inverse associations of cigarette taxes with typical quantity and binge drinking frequency were found only for male smokers. Further, the inverse association of cigarette taxation and alcohol consumption was stronger among hazardous drinkers (translating into approximately 1/2 a drink less alcohol consumption per episode), young adult smokers, and smokers in the lowest income category. Conclusions Findings from this longitudinal, epidemiological study suggest increases in cigarette taxes are associated with modest to moderate reductions in alcohol consumption among vulnerable groups. Additional research is needed to further quantify the public health benefits of cigarette

  9. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...

  10. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-02-07

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.

  11. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  12. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  13. Ego depletion increases ad-lib alcohol consumption: investigating cognitive mediators and moderators.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Paul; Cole, Jon C; Field, Matt

    2012-04-01

    When self-control resources are depleted ("ego depletion"), alcohol-seeking behavior becomes closely associated with automatic alcohol-related processing biases (e.g., Ostafin, Marlatt, & Greenwald, 2008). The current study aimed to replicate and extend these findings, and also to investigate whether the effects of ego depletion on drinking behavior would be mediated by temporary impairments in executive function or increases in impulsivity. Eighty heavy social drinkers (46 female) initially completed measures of automatic approach tendencies (stimulus response compatibility [SRC] task) and attentional bias (visual probe task) elicited by alcohol-related cues. Participants were then exposed to either an ego depletion manipulation or a control manipulation, before completing a bogus taste test in order to assess ad-lib alcohol consumption. In a subsequent testing session, we examined effects of the ego depletion manipulation (vs. control manipulation) on 3 aspects of executive function (inhibitory control, phonemic fluency, and delay discounting). Results indicated that the ego depletion manipulation increased ad-lib drinking, relative to the control manipulation. Automatic approach tendencies, but not attentional bias, predicted ad-lib drinking, although this effect was not moderated by ego depletion. Ego depletion had inconsistent effects on measures of executive function and impulsivity, and none of these measures mediated the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking. However, the effect of ego depletion on ad-lib drinking was mediated by self-reported effort in suppressing emotion and thoughts during the manipulation. Implications for the effects of self-control strength on drinking behavior, and cognitive mediators of these effects, are discussed.

  14. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  15. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  16. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  17. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  18. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.

  19. Gender Commitment and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabow, Jerome; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Categorized 179 college students as masculine, feminine, androgynous, or undifferentiated. Found gender orientations related to overall quantity-frequency index of alcohol consumption and beverage type. Androgynous respondents consumed less total alcohol than other groups; undifferentiated subjects drank more than feminine or androgynous subjects;…

  20. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  1. Colour vision impairment and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mergler, D; Blain, L; Lemaire, J; Lalande, F

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between alcohol intake and colour discrimination capacity was examined among 136 persons of whom 16 were undergoing treatment in a detoxification centre. Current weekly alcohol consumption (or prior to treatment for those in the centre) was obtained with a detailed questionnaire, which divided week and weekend drinking into types of alcohol (beer, wine, spirits). Alcohol consumption varied from 0-5824 g/week; median: 266 g/week. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of acquired dyschromatopsia was obtained with a colour arrangement test, the Lanthony D-15 desaturated panel. In all age categories, the prevalence of dyschromatopsia increased with alcohol intake. Moreover, all the heavy drinkers (greater than 751 g/week) presented a certain degree of dyschromatopsia, whether or not they were undergoing treatment for alcoholism in a detoxification centre. Colour loss was primarily in the blue-yellow range; however, 4 of the 16 persons from the detoxification centre presented complex dyschromatopsia patterns including red-green loss. This raises the question of possible progressive deterioration. Multiple regression analysis showed that colour vision loss was significantly related to both age (p less than 0.001) and alcohol intake (p less than 0.01). These results underline the importance of taking into account the contribution of alcohol consumption in studies on acquired dyschromatopsia.

  2. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey.

  3. Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is correlated with a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. Acute alcohol abuse causes damage to and functional impairment of several organs affecting protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mitochondria participate with the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate and the generation of increased amounts of NADH. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during fetal development induces a wide spectrum of adverse effects in offspring, such as neurologic abnormalities and pre- and post-natal growth retardation. Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as well as resveratrol. This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers. PMID:21318009

  4. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  5. Alcohol consumption increases locomotion in an open field and induces Fos-immunoreactivity in reward and approach/withdrawal-related neurocircuitries.

    PubMed

    Wscieklica, Tatiana; de Barros Viana, Milena; Le Sueur Maluf, Luciana; Pouza, Kathlein Cristiny Peres; Spadari, Regina Célia; Céspedes, Isabel Cristina

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by compulsion to seek and take the drug, loss of control in limiting intake and, eventually, the emergence of a negative emotional state when access to the drug is prevented. Both dopamine and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-mediated systems seem to play important roles in the modulation of alcohol abuse and dependence. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on anxiety and locomotor parameters and on the activation of dopamine and CRF-innervated brain regions. Male Wistar rats were given a choice of two bottles for 31 days, one containing water and the other a solution of saccharin + alcohol. Control animals only received water and a solution of 0.2% saccharin. On the 31st day, animals were tested in the elevated plus-maze and open field, and euthanized immediately after the behavioral tests. An independent group of animals was treated with ethanol and used to measure blood ethanol concentration. Results showed that alcohol intake did not alter behavioral measurements in the plus-maze, but increased the number of crossings in the open field, an index of locomotor activity. Additionally, alcohol intake increased Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) in the prefrontal cortex, in the shell region of the nucleus accumbens, in the medial and central amygdala, in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, in the septal region, and in the paraventricular and dorsomedial hypothalamus, structures that have been linked to reward and to approach/withdrawal behavior. These observations might be relevant to a better understanding of the behavioral and physiological alterations that follow alcohol consumption.

  6. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-05-24

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  7. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  8. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  9. Acute Alcohol Consumption and Secondary Psychopathic Traits Increase Ratings of the Attractiveness and Health of Ethnic Ingroup Faces but Not Outgroup Faces

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Ian J.; Gillespie, Steven M.; Leverton, Monica; Llewellyn, Victoria; Neale, Emily; Stevenson, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Studies have consistently shown that both consumption of acute amounts of alcohol and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits are associated with an impaired ability for prepotent response inhibition. This may manifest as a reduced ability to inhibit prepotent race biased responses. Here, we tested the effects of acute alcohol consumption, and elevated antisocial psychopathic traits, on judgments of the attractiveness and health of ethnic ingroup and outgroup faces. In the first study, we show that following acute alcohol consumption, at a dose that is sufficient to result in impaired performance on tests of executive function, Caucasian participants judged White faces to be more attractive and healthier compared to when sober. However, this effect did not extend to Black faces. A similar effect was found in a second study involving sober Caucasian participants where secondary psychopathic traits were related to an intergroup bias in the ratings of attractiveness for White versus Black faces. These results are discussed in terms of a model which postulates that poor prefrontal functioning leads to increases in ingroup liking as a result of impaired abilities for prepotent response inhibition. PMID:25745403

  10. Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2006-01-01

    Excess activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex following ethanol withdrawal is considered to contribute to significant behavioural disturbances, and to alcohol craving. Astrocytes may play a role in these manifestations because astrocytes are essential in the regulation of released glutamate and its conversion to glutamine through the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). However, it is unclear if withdrawal from free-choice ethanol drinking causes changes in the numbers of astrocytes expressing GS or the cytoskeletal protein of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed to free-choice ethanol drinking were either maintained without forced interruption of ethanol drinking, subjected to a 3-day withdrawal period at the end of 2 months, or subjected to three 3-day withdrawal periods along 6 months. At 2 months, P rats were also compared with alcohol-naïve alcohol non-preferring rats (NP) rats. Packing density of GS and GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes was measured in sections from the prelimbic cortex (PLC) using the optical disector probe. An alcohol deprivation effect was observed in P rats with withdrawals during a 6-month ethanol drinking period. Ethanol withdrawal significantly increased the packing density of GS- and GFAP-IR astrocytes in the PLC of P rats as compared with P rats with continuous access to ethanol. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the pre-withdrawal ethanol consumption and the packing density of GS-IR astrocytes. The present results suggest the involvement of astrocytes in the regulation of the glutamatergic activation associated with withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption and point to differential adaptations of GS and GFAP to prolonged alcohol drinking in the PLC of P rats.

  11. Alcohol consumption in patients with acute or chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sand, J; Lankisch, P G; Nordback, I

    2007-01-01

    Understanding of the relation between the alcoholic consumption and the development of pancreatitis should help in defining the alcoholic etiology of pancreatitis. Although the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatitis has been recognized for over 100 years, it remains still unclear why some alcoholics develop pancreatitis and some do not. Surprisingly little data are available about alcohol amounts, drinking patterns, type of alcohol consumed and other habits such as dietary habits or smoking in respect to pancreatitis preceding the attack of acute pancreatitis or the time of the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. This review summarizes the current knowledge. Epidemiological studies clearly show connection between the alcohol consumption in population and the development of acute and chronic pancreatitis. In the individual level the risk to develop either acute or chronic pancreatitis increases along with the alcohol consumption. Moreover, the risk for recurrent acute pancreatitis after the first acute pancreatitis episode seems also to be highly dependent on the level of alcohol consumption. Abstaining from alcohol may prohibit recurrent acute pancreatitis and reduce pain in chronic pancreatitis. Therefore, all the attempts to decrease alcohol consumption after acute pancreatitis and even after the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis should be encouraged. Smoking seems to be a remarkable co-factor together with alcohol in the development of chronic pancreatitis, whereas no hard data are available for this association in acute pancreatitis. Setting the limits for accepting the alcohol as the etiology cannot currently be based on published data, but rather on the 'political' agreement.

  12. The Tokelau Island migrant study: alcohol consumption in two environments.

    PubMed

    Stanhope, J M; Prior, I A

    1979-11-28

    The prevalence of alcohol consumption, the choice of beverages and the quantity of drinks used by a Polynesian society are described, both in the Tokelau atolls and among Tokelauan migrants in New Zealand. Current drinking was uncommon but increasing among women. Among men, it was more common, but both prevalence and quantity were modest compared with national alcohol consumption in New Zealand. Description of alcohol consumption in such migrant populations may provide a basis for encouraging continuing prudence regarding alcohol and ready acceptance and provision for the non-drinker of alcohol.

  13. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  14. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  15. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  16. Study on the short-term effects of increased alcohol and cigarette consumption in healthy young men’s seminal quality

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Joana Vieira; Cruz, Daniel; Gomes, Mariana; Correia, Bárbara Regadas; Freitas, Maria João; Sousa, Luís; Silva, Vladimiro; Fardilha, Margarida

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have reported a negative impact of lifestyle factors on testicular function, spermatozoa parameters and pituitary-gonadal axis. However, conclusions are difficult to draw, since studies in the general population are rare. In this study we intended to address the early and late short-term impact of acute lifestyle alterations on young men’s reproductive function. Thirty-six healthy male students, who attended the Portuguese academic festivities, provided semen samples and answered questionnaires at three time-points. The consumption of alcohol and cigarette increased more than 8 and 2 times, respectively, during the academic festivities and resulted in deleterious effects on semen quality: one week after the festivities, a decrease on semen volume, spermatozoa motility and normal morphology was observed, in parallel with an increase on immotile spermatozoa, head and midpiece defects and spermatozoa oxidative stress. Additionally, three months after the academic festivities, besides the detrimental effect on volume, motility and morphology, a negative impact on spermatozoa concentration was observed, along with a decrease on epididymal, seminal vesicles and prostate function. This study contributed to understanding the pathophysiology underlying semen quality degradation induced by acute lifestyle alterations, suggesting that high alcohol and cigarette consumption are associated with decreased semen quality in healthy young men. PMID:28367956

  17. Early social isolation augments alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; Spoelder, Marcia; Rotte, Marthe D; Janssen, Martijn J; Hesseling, Peter; Lozeman-van't Klooster, José G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-10-01

    There is a considerable degree of individual vulnerability for alcohol use disorder (AUD) as only a subpopulation of individuals who regularly consume alcohol develop AUD. It is therefore very important to understand the factors and mechanisms that contribute towards the individual risk for AUD. In this respect, social influences, in particular during development, may be relevant for AUD as disruptions in early social experiences are associated with an increased risk for AUD. Social play, the most prominent form of social behaviour shown by young mammals, is rewarding and considered to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development. Recent studies suggest that early social isolation, effectively depriving animals from social play, increases the risk for addictive behaviour. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the long-term consequences of early social isolation on alcohol consumption and motivation for alcohol. To this end, rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21-42, followed by 4 weeks of social housing, and voluntary alcohol consumption and operant responding for alcohol were determined in adulthood. We observed enhanced levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood in previously isolated rats, whereas operant responding for alcohol was not altered. The impact of early social isolation was independent of the individual variation in alcohol consumption. These data indicate that social isolation, during a developmental period when social play is highly abundant, enhances the propensity to consume alcohol in adulthood. This implies that early social experience may be a protective factor against excessive alcohol use.

  18. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  19. Trajectories of Alcohol Consumption Following Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    DiMartini, Andrea; Dew, Mary Amanda; Day, Nancy; Fitzgerald, Mary Grace; Jones, Bobby L.; deVera, Michael; Fontes, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Any use of alcohol in the years following liver transplantation (LTX) approaches 50% of patients transplanted for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We collected detailed prospective data on alcohol consumption following LTX for ALD to investigate ongoing patterns of use. Using trajectory modeling we identified four distinct alcohol use trajectories. One group had minimal use over time. Two other groups developed early onset moderate to heavy consumption and one group developed late onset moderate use. These trajectories demonstrate that alcohol use varies based on timing of onset, quantity, and duration. Using discriminant function analysis, we examine characteristics of recipient’s pre-LTX alcohol histories and early post-LTX psychological stressors to identify the profile of those at risk for these specific trajectories. We discuss the relevance of these findings to clinical care and preliminarily to outcomes. PMID:20726963

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  2. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  3. Patterns of alcohol consumption after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tang, H; Boulton, R; Gunson, B; Hubscher, S; Neuberger, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Uncertainty exists about the extent and consequences of a return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease (ALD). 
Aims—To determine the prevalence and consequences of alcohol consumption in patients transplanted for ALD. 
Methods—A retrospective case controlled study of all patients transplanted for ALD at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, between 1987 and 1996. 
Results—Seventy patients with ALD were transplanted, of which 59 survived more than three months; 56 were interviewed. Twenty eight had consumed some alcohol after transplantation; for the nine "heavy drinkers" (HD), the median time to resumption of alcohol intake was six months and for the 19 "moderate drinkers" (MD) it was eight months. There was no significant difference in episodes of acute rejection or compliance with medication between those who were abstinent, MD, or HD. Histological evidence of liver injury was common in ALD patients who had returned to drink. Mild fatty change was found in 1/11 biopsy specimens from abstinent patients but moderate to severe fatty change and ballooned hepatocytes were seen in 3/5 MD and 2/5 HD specimens. Two HD patients had early fibrosis. One HD patient has died of alcohol related complications. 
Conclusions—Moderate to heavy alcohol consumption occurs in patients transplanted for ALD. Patient recall of abstinence advice is unreliable, and patients return to alcohol mainly within the first year after liver transplantation. Return to alcohol consumption after liver transplantation is associated with rapid development of histological liver injury including fibrosis. 

 Keywords: alcohol consumption; liver transplantation PMID:9771419

  4. Impact of alcohol consumption on clinical aspects of gambling disorder.

    PubMed

    Del Pino-Gutiérrez, Amparo; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Valdepérez, Ana; Agüera, Zaida; Håkansson, Anders; Sauvaget, Anne; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Moragas, Laura; Baño, Marta; Honrubia, María; Menchón, José M; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Similarities between gambling disorder and substance use disorders have been extensively described. To date, however, few studies using large clinical samples have been carried out that reliably assess the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and gambling disorders. The present study aimed to assess the impact of baseline alcohol consumption levels on the clinical profile in a large sample of treatment-seeking individuals. Nine hundred and fifty-one consecutive outpatients diagnosed with gambling disorder according to DSM-IV criteria were compared after being included in three alcohol consumption groups (low risk, abuse and risk of dependence) based on their total raw scores on the AUDIT questionnaire. Results showed a high prevalence of risk of alcohol dependence in GD patients who were immigrants, unemployed, and had a low level of education. A positive linear trend was also found between alcohol consumption level and the prevalence of other current and life-time comorbid mental disorders, and for the presence of drug abuse. Statistically significant differences were found between the three alcohol consumption groups in terms of the evolution and severity of the gambling disorder, self-directedness personality trait, and levels of general psychopathology, hostility and paranoid ideation. In conclusion, the results showed an association between increased alcohol consumption and greater dysfunction.

  5. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption.

  6. [Alcohol consumption and self esteem in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Alicia Alvarez; Alonso Castillo, María Magdalena; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship of levels of self esteem and alcohol consumption in adolescents, by carrying out a transversal, descriptive study, in a college of nursing of Queretaro in Mexico, in the month of July 2008, with a sample of 109 adolescents, between 17 and 20 years old. For attainment of the data two instruments were applied: AUDIT and the Rosemberg self esteem scale. The majority of the participating adolescents had high self esteem (94.5%) and none presented low self esteem. Of the adolescents in the study 80.7% did not consume alcohol hazardously. It was concluded that the adolescents presented high self esteem and low alcohol consumption. Therefore, it is necessary to implement preventive programs related to alcohol consumption and to identify the protective factors to guarantee the maintenance of healthy habits for the adolescents.

  7. Alcohol Consumption Indices of Genetic Risk for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Todd, Richard D.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported a significant genetic correlation between heaviness of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence (AD), but this association might be driven by the influence of AD on consumption rather than the reverse. We test the genetic overlap between AD symptoms and a heaviness of consumption measure among individuals who do not have AD. A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk. Methods Factor analysis of 5 alcohol use measures was used to create a measure of heaviness of alcohol consumption. Quantitative genetic analyses of interview data from the 1989 Australian Twin Panel (n=6257 individuals; M=29.9 years) assessed the genetic overlap between heaviness of consumption, DSM-IV AD symptoms, DSM-IV AD symptom clustering, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Results Genetic influences accounted for 30–51% of the variance in the alcohol measures and genetic correlations were 0.90 or higher for all measures, with the correlation between consumption and dependence symptoms among non-dependent individuals estimated at 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Heaviness of consumption and AD symptoms have a high degree of genetic overlap even among non-dependent individuals in the general population, implying that genetic influences on dependence risk in the general population are acting to a considerable degree through heaviness of use, and that quantitative measures of consumption will likely have a useful role in the identification of genes contributing to AD. PMID:19576574

  8. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  9. Vascular effects of maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Magness, Ronald R.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant field of scientific exploration primarily because of its negative effects on the developing fetus, which is specifically defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Though the effects on the mother are less explored compared with those on the fetus, alcohol produces multiple effects on the maternal vascular system. Alcohol has major effects on systemic hemodynamic variables, endocrine axes, and paracrine factors regulating vascular resistance, as well as vascular reactivity. Alcohol is also reported to have significant effects on the reproductive vasculature including alterations in blood flow, vessel remodeling, and angiogenesis. Data presented in this review will illustrate the importance of the maternal vasculature in the pathogenesis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and that more studies are warranted in this field. PMID:22730388

  10. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  11. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  12. Impact of Maspin Polymorphism rs2289520 G/C and Its Interaction with Gene to Gene, Alcohol Consumption Increase Susceptibility to Oral Cancer Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Po-Yu; Miao, Nae-Fang; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chou, Ying-Erh; Yang, Shun-Fa; Huang, Hui-Chuan; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to identify gene polymorphisms of mammary serine protease inhibitor (Maspin) specific to patients with oral cancer susceptibility and clinicopathological status. Methodology/Principal Findings Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the Maspin gene from 741 patients with oral cancer and 601 non-cancer controls were analyzed by real-time PCR. The participants with G/G homozygotes or with G/C heterozygotes of Maspin rs2289520 polymorphism had a 2.07-fold (p = 0.01) and a 2.01-fold (p = 0.02) risk of developing oral cancer compared to those with C/C homozygotes. Moreover, gene-gene interaction increased the risk of oral cancer susceptibility among subjects expose to oral cancer related risk factors, including areca, alcohol, and tobacco consumption. Conclusion G allele of Maspin rs2289520 polymorphism may be a factor that increases the susceptibility to oral cancer. The interactions of gene to oral cancer-related environmental risk factors have a synergetic effect that can further enhance oral cancer development. PMID:27525723

  13. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  14. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  15. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  16. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  17. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  18. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  19. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  20. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  1. The Self-Awareness Reducing Effects of Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Jay G.; And Others

    According to a recent model of some of the causes and effects of alcohol consumption, alcohol interferes with cognitive processes fundamental to a state of self-awareness. The effects of alcohol consumption and the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol on the self-awareness state were examined. Male subjects (N=46) consumed either alcohol or…

  2. The neurobiology of alcohol consumption and alcoholism: an integrative history.

    PubMed

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L

    2013-11-15

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a "disease" of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol's effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol's actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol's properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one's point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism.

  3. The density of alcohol outlets and adolescent alcohol consumption: An Australian longitudinal analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowland, B; Evans-Whipp, Tracy; Hemphill, Sheryl; Leung, Rachel; Livingston, M; Toumbourou, J W

    2016-01-01

    Higher density of alcohol outlets has been linked to increased levels of adolescent alcohol-related behaviour. Research to date has been cross-sectional. A longitudinal design using two waves of annual survey data from the Australian arm of the International Youth Development Study was used. The sample comprised 2835 individuals with average age at wave 2 of 14 years (SD=1.67; range=11-17 years). GSEM was used to examine how absolute levels of alcohol outlet density was associated with student-reported alcohol use one year later, while controlling for prior alcohol use, risk factors at wave one and changes in density over the 2 years. Adolescents' perception of alcohol availability and friends' alcohol use were tested as potential mediators of the association between alcohol outlet density and adolescent alcohol use. Elasticity modelling identified a 10% increase in overall density at wave one was associated with an approximately 17% increase in odds of adolescent alcohol consumption at wave two. Living in areas with a higher density of outlets was associated with a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of adolescents developing early age alcohol consumption.

  4. [Effects of alcohol consumption on traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Katada, Ryuichi

    2011-10-01

    It has been well known that alcohol consumption affects traumatic brain injury. The mechanism of detrimental effect of ethanol on traumatic brain injury has not been clarified. This review focused on the relationship among traumatic brain injury, ethanol and aquaporin-4. We have reported that ethanol increased brain edema after brain contusion and decreased survival rates in rats. It was suggested that increasing brain edema by ethanol after brain contusion may be caused by oxidative stress. Brain edema consists of cytotoxic brain edema, vasogenic brain edema, interstitial brain edema and osmotic edema. Ethanol mainly increases cytotoxic brain edema. Both alcohol consumption and brain contusion cause oxidative stress. Antioxidant treatment decreases cytotoxic brain edema. Aquaporin-4, an water channel, was increased by ethanol 24 hr after traumatic brain injury in rat. The aquaporin-4 inhibitor decreased brain edema after brain contusion and increased survival rates under ethanol consumption. Aquaporin-4 may have strict relation between ethanol and brain edema increasing after brain contusion.

  5. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  6. OLDER MALES, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Areheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the question, how do older men who drink alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measures of cognitive function, memory, affect, and health? Of the nonprobability sample of male participants (N = 60), 35 (58%) of the males reported some degree of alcohol consumption. Eleven men had one or more drinks per day, 14 had one or more drinks per week, and 9 were occasional drinkers. The drinkers reported significantly less depression, had higher self-reported general health and vitality, and had higher cognitive performance, cognitive flexibility, and verbal memory, and greater knowledge of memory processes. PMID:16546934

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption--need for intervention programs in pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Meberg, A; Halvorsen, B; Holter, B; Ek, I J; Askeland, A; Gaaserud, W; Steinsvåg, J

    1986-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol was investigated in two groups of pregnant women: an intervention group (n = 58) (two structured interviews during pregnancy including counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption and potential benefits to the fetus, and interview after delivery), and a control group (n = 74) (interview after delivery). Prepregnancy 80% of the women were light or moderate alcohol consumers, and 20% teetotalers. Pregnancy considerably reduced alcohol consumption in both groups. 66% abstained from alcohol during pregnancy, and use of liquor nearly ceased. The changes in alcohol consumption occurred independently to the intervention program. Strategy for reducing alcohol consumption during pregnancy should include a structured alcohol anamnesis at the first ante-natal visit, accompanied by counseling focused on reduction of alcohol consumption. More extensive intervention programs may be reserved for pregnancies at higher risk (high-consumers, abusers).

  8. Alcohol Consumption at Any Level Increases Risk of Injury Caused by Others: Data from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Thomas; Martinez, Priscilla; Towers, Andy; Greenfield, Thomas; Kowal, Paul

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use is a well-known risk factor for injury. However, information is needed about alcohol drinking patterns and the risk of injury among older adults in low- and middle-income countries as this population grows. We aimed to examine the influence of drinking patterns on the burden of injury and investigate factors associated with different types of injury in older populations in six emerging economies. METHODS Data from more than 37,000 adults aged 50 years and older were included from the Study on Global AGEing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1 conducted in six emerging economies, namely, China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. We investigated past-year reported injuries from falls, traffic accidents, and being hit or stabbed. Alcohol drinking patterns were measured as lifetime abstinence, ever but not past- week use, and gender-specific past-week low-risk and high-risk use. We stratified by gender and used logistic regression models to observe the association between alcohol drinking pattern and risk of injury by controlling for other factors. RESULTS During the year prior to interview, 627 (2.2%) subjects reported bodily injury resulting from a car accident, 1,156 (4.2%) from a fall, and 339 (0.9%) from being hit or stabbed during the past year. For women, only being a high-risk drinker increased the risk of being hit or stabbed, whereas for men, all levels of drinking were associated with an increased risk of being hit or stabbed. We observed a higher risk of being hit or stabbed from past-week high-risk drinking among women (odds ratio [OR] = 6.09, P < 0.01) than among men (OR = 3.57, P < 0.01). We observed no association between alcohol drinking pattern and injury due to car accidents for either women or men. CONCLUSIONS The risk of experiencing injury due to violence increased with level of alcohol exposure of the victim. The increase in alcohol use in emerging economies calls for further study into the consequences of alcohol

  9. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  11. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, Kathleen B.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women’s health concern. PMID:26293593

  12. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Haley A; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women's health concern.

  13. A spontaneous deletion of α-synuclein is associated with an increase in CB1 mRNA transcript and receptor expression in the hippocampus and amygdala: effects on alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    López-Jiménez, Alejandro; Walter, Nicole A. R.; Giné, Elena; Santos, Ángel; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Olmos, Pedro; Giezendanner, Stéphanie; Moratalla, Rosario; Montoliu, Lluis; Buck, Kari J.; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2014-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-syn) protein and endocannabinoid CB1 receptors are primarily located in presynaptic terminals. An association between α-syn and CB1 receptors has recently been established in Parkinson’s disease, but it is completely unknown whether there is an association between these two proteins in alcohol addiction. Therefore, we aimed to examine the α-syn mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in the prefrontal cortex, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus. These brain regions are the most frequently implicated in alcohol and other drug addiction. In these studies, we used C57BL/6 mice carrying a spontaneous deletion of the α-syn gene (C57BL/6Snca−/−) and their respective controls (C57BL/6Snca+/+). These animals were monitored for spontaneous alcohol consumption (3–10%) and their response to a hypnotic-sedative dose of alcohol (3 g/kg) was also assessed. Compared with the C57BL/6Snca+/+ mice, we found that the C57BL/6Snca−/− mice exhibited a higher expression level of the CB1 mRNA transcript and CB1 receptor in the hippocampus and amygdala. Furthermore, C57BL/6Snca−/− mice showed an increase in alcohol consumption when offered a 10% alcohol solution. There was no significant difference in sleep time after the injection of 3 g/kg alcohol. These results are the first to reveal an association between α-syn and the CB1 receptor in the brain regions that are most frequently implicated in alcohol and other drug addictions. PMID:23345080

  14. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  15. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol–cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents’ alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  16. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and susceptibility to the common cold.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, S; Tyrrell, D A; Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Smith, A P

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study was conducted to test the supposition that both smoking and consuming alcohol suppress host resistance to viral infections. METHODS. The relations between smoking, alcohol consumption, and the incidence of documented clinical colds were prospectively studied among 391 subjects intentionally exposed to one of five respiratory viruses and 26 subjects given saline. Clinical colds were defined as clinical symptoms verified by the isolation of virus or by an increase in virus-specific antibody titer. Analyses included control variables for demographics; body weight; virus; and environmental, immunological and psychological factors. RESULTS. Smokers were at greater risk for developing colds than nonsmokers because smokers were more likely both to develop infections and to develop illness following infection. Greater numbers of alcoholic drinks (up to three or four per day) were associated with decreased risk for developing colds because drinking was associated with decreased illness following infection. However, the benefits of drinking occurred only among nonsmokers. CONCLUSIONS. Susceptibility to colds was increased by smoking. Although alcohol consumption did not influence risk of clinical illness for smokers, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with decreased risk for nonsmokers. PMID:8363004

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Baloch, Zulqarnain; He, Ting-Ting; Xia, Xueshan

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to determine by meta-analysis the relationship between drinking alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. Material/Methods A systematic Medline search was performed to identify all published reports of drinking alcohol and the associated risk of gastric cancer. Initially we retrieved 2,494 studies, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis showed that alcohol consumption elevated the risk of gastric cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 (95% CI 1.20–1.61). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that only a nested case-control report from Sweden did not support this observation. Subgroup analysis of moderate drinking and heavy drinking also confirmed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of gastric cancer. Publication bias analysis (Begg’s and Egger’s tests) showed p values were more than 0.05, suggesting that the 10 articles included in our analysis did not have a publication bias. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of gastric cancer; suggesting that effective moderation of alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:28087989

  18. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  20. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode.

  1. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  2. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  4. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  5. Beer Consumption Increases Human Attractiveness to Malaria Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thierry; Gouagna, Louis-Clément; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Elguero, Eric; Fontenille, Didier; Renaud, François; Costantini, Carlo; Thomas, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria and alcohol consumption both represent major public health problems. Alcohol consumption is rising in developing countries and, as efforts to manage malaria are expanded, understanding the links between malaria and alcohol consumption becomes crucial. Our aim was to ascertain the effect of beer consumption on human attractiveness to malaria mosquitoes in semi field conditions in Burkina Faso. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a Y tube-olfactometer designed to take advantage of the whole body odour (breath and skin emanations) as a stimulus to gauge human attractiveness to Anopheles gambiae (the primary African malaria vector) before and after volunteers consumed either beer (n = 25 volunteers and a total of 2500 mosquitoes tested) or water (n = 18 volunteers and a total of 1800 mosquitoes). Water consumption had no effect on human attractiveness to An. gambiae mosquitoes, but beer consumption increased volunteer attractiveness. Body odours of volunteers who consumed beer increased mosquito activation (proportion of mosquitoes engaging in take-off and up-wind flight) and orientation (proportion of mosquitoes flying towards volunteers' odours). The level of exhaled carbon dioxide and body temperature had no effect on human attractiveness to mosquitoes. Despite individual volunteer variation, beer consumption consistently increased attractiveness to mosquitoes. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that beer consumption is a risk factor for malaria and needs to be integrated into public health policies for the design of control measures. PMID:20209056

  6. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  7. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  8. The Association between Alcohol Consumption and β-Cell Function and Insulin Sensitivity in Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Min-Gyu; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Han Byul; Lee, Hye-Ja; Park, Sang Ick

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to examine the association between alcohol consumption and insulin secretion and sensitivity using the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study. Alcohol consumption levels were categorized into four groups: (i) abstainers, (ii) low (<5 g/day), (iii) intermediate (<30 g/day), and (iv) high (≥30 g/day) alcohol consumption. β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were estimated using the insulinogenic index (IGI60), and Matsuda insulin sensitivity index (ISI), respectively. IGI60 and ISI were dichotomized into high and low groups using median cut-off values and four groups were defined (G-I: high IGI60/high ISI; G-II: high IGI60/low ISI; G-III: low IGI60/high ISI; and G-IV: low IGI60/low ISI). Men consumed 26.5 g alcohol per day on average, whereas women only consumed 5.7 g/day, so women were excluded from subsequent analyses due to their low drinking levels. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and triglycerides (TG) in men, but was negatively associated with IGI60 (p < 0.05). TG levels were only increased in individuals with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II) or decreased β-cell function (G-III) with high alcohol consumption. In addition, alcohol consumption increased HDL cholesterol in the four groups (p < 0.001). In subjects with decreased insulin sensitivity (G-II), intermediate and high alcohol consumption increased the risk of high cholesterol and TG. In individuals with decreased β-cell function (G-III), alcohol consumption increased the risk of high TG and high AST levels. High alcohol consumption was significantly associated with reduced insulin secretion. In addition, alcohol consumption was related to some metabolic risk factors depending on insulin secretion or sensitivity. PMID:27854254

  9. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  10. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  11. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  12. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and processing of emotion in faces: Implications for understanding alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2014-08-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.

  13. Mixing an Energy Drink with an Alcoholic Beverage Increases Motivation for More Alcohol in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink (AmED), or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire. Results The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of “desire” for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmED compared to alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. Conclusions An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. PMID:22724427

  14. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania.

  15. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  16. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  17. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  18. An Intimate Look at Contraception and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…

  19. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  20. Alcohol consumption and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus: a comprehensive meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Lin-Lin; Yan, Ting-Ting; Wang, Zhen-Hua; Bian, Zhao-Lian; Yang, Fan; Hong, Jie; Chen, Hao-Yan; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have been proposed to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), but as of yet, no quantitative summary of the literature to clarify the relationship between them. In our study, twenty eligible cohort studies involving 42925 participants were identified. Combined relative risk (RR) ratios for the highest versus lowest alcohol consumption levels were calculated. The alcohol dose-response analysis was performed to investigate the association between the increment consumption of 10 g/d alcohol and the risk of developing BE. Subgroup analyses were used to examine heterogeneity across the studies. A combined RR of 0.98 (0.62–1.34) was found when comparing highest vs. lowest alcohol consumption levels for BE. An inverse association between alcohol and incidence of BE (RR 0.51; 95% CI: 0.055–0.96) was demonstrated in women. Moreover, Asian drinkers had a relative higher risk of BE (RR 1.34; 95% CI: 1.11–1.56) compared with Western drinkers. In conclusion, our results showed that overall alcohol consumption was not associated with increased BE incidence. The limited data available on alcohol consumption supports a tentative inversion of alcohol consumption with BE risk in women, while Asian drinkers tend to have a higher risk of BE. PMID:26542211

  1. Alcohol consumption and high risk sexual behaviour among female sex workers in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Mbonye, Martin; Rutakumwa, Rwamahe; Weiss, Helen; Seeley, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol consumption has been associated with high risk sexual behaviour among key populations such as female sex workers. We explored the drivers of alcohol consumption and its relationship to high risk sexual behaviour. Participants were drawn from a cohort of 1027 women selected from 'hot spots' in the suburbs of Kampala city. We conducted 3 in-depth interviews with 40 female sex workers between 2010 and 2011. Data were analysed thematically, focusing on alcohol use within the context of sex work. Alcohol consumption was very high with only seven women reporting that they did not drink. Alcohol consumption was driven by the emotional and economic needs of the participants, but also promoted by clients who encouraged consumption. Many sex workers only started drinking alcohol when they joined sex work on the advice of more experienced peers, as a way to cope with the job. Alcohol was blamed for unsafe sex, acts of violence and poor decision making which increased sexual and physical violence. Alcohol was reported to affect medication adherence for HIV-positive women who forgot to take medicine. The findings suggest that the drivers of alcohol consumption are multifaceted in this group and require both individual and structural interventions. Alcohol reduction counselling can be supportive at the individual level and should be an integral part of HIV prevention programmes for female sex workers and others such as patrons in bars. The counselling should be addressed in a sensitive manner to bar owners and managers.

  2. Alcohol consumption in men is influenced by qualitatively different genetic factors in adolescence and adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, A. C.; Kendler, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is influenced by genetic factors. Previous studies have examined the heritability of alcohol consumption, or related phenotypes, from adolescence into adulthood, frequently finding that total heritability changes over time. However, it remains unclear whether the same genes underlie liability to alcohol consumption across development versus whether novel risk genes become important over time. Method A population-based study of adult male twins (n=1790) born in Virginia, USA, retrospectively reported on their average monthly alcohol consumption from early adolescence through adulthood. We used twin modeling methods to explore genetic and environmental influences on alcohol consumption over time. Results One latent genetic factor accounted for the majority of the heritability in alcohol consumption during mid-to late adolescence, but its influence declined thereafter ; from young adulthood forward, heritability was largely attributable to a second genetic factor. The total heritability of alcohol consumption increased from 0 at ages 12–14 years to 0.40 by ages 18–21 years. Shared environmental factors declined in influence over time. Conclusions The heritability of alcohol consumption over time is dynamic both quantitatively and qualitatively. These results have important implications for gene identification endeavors. Furthermore, these findings could inform efforts to elucidate developmentally dynamic behaviors, such as antisocial behavior. PMID:23282961

  3. Pilots' knowledge of the relationship between alcohol consumption and levels of blood alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Widders, R; Harris, D

    1997-06-01

    The U.K. Civil Aviation Authority is currently proposing that a maximum BAC (Blood Alcohol Concentration) limit of just 0.02% should be imposed on United Kingdom pilots. In this survey of 477 pilots, it was found that a large proportion could not determine when their BAC was likely to fall below this level after drinking alcohol and could, therefore, potentially inadvertently infringe the proposed regulation. Another large proportion of pilots felt that they were safe to fly before their BAC had dropped below 0.02%, which may be indicative of a willingness to infringe the regulations. Estimates of when it was safe to fly also became more inaccurate as the amount drunk increased and varied with the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. It was also found that the conclusions drawn were heavily dependent upon the formula used to estimate BAC. This methodological problem identified has considerable implications for the study of alcohol consumption when flying.

  4. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy

  5. [Attitudes towards consumption and non-consumption of alcohol among high school students in Mexico].

    PubMed

    López-Cisneros, Manuel Antonio; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar; Castillo, María Magdalena Alonso; Castillo, María Teresa de Jesús Alonso; Aguilar, Lucio Rodríguez

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences in high school students' attitudes towards the consumption or non-consumption of alcohol using the theory of planned behavior. This was a qualitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study that included a sample of 131 students. We found that 74% of students had consumed alcohol, and 18.3% exhibited a harmful level of consumption. We also found that behavioral beliefs towards consumption were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=29.32, median=27.50) than those who did not consume alcohol. Moreover, positive beliefs towards consumption were higher among alcohol consumers (mean=17.72, median=9.52) than non-consumers, which demonstrates a need for preventative programs to strengthen adolescents' beliefs concerning alcohol as well as protective factors and healthy lifestyles.

  6. Retinal-Image Quality and Night-Vision Performance after Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Castro, José J.; Pozo, Antonio M.; Anera, Rosario G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  7. Alcohol consumption modulates host defense in rhesus macaques by altering gene expression in circulating leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) >80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (BEC <50 mg/dl) enhanced T and B-cell responses to Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-MVA vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T-cell and antibody responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing, and increased expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced expression of genes involved in cancer. In order to uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our dataset. PMID:26621857

  8. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  9. Alcohol consumption by youth: Peers, parents, or prices?

    PubMed

    Ajilore, Olugbenga; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Egan, Keven

    2016-12-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent to Adult Health, we estimate the effect of peers' alcohol consumption and alcohol prices on the drinking habits of high-school-age youth. We use the two-stage residual inclusion method to account for the endogeneity of peer drinking in nonlinear models. For our sample of high school students, we find that peer effects are statistically and economically significant regarding the choice to participate in drinking but are not significant for the frequency of drinking, including binge drinking. Regarding alcohol prices, even though we have good price variation in our sample, alcohol prices are not found to be significant. The results are important for policymakers who are considering policies to reduce underage drinking, as we conclude that no significant impact on underage drinking will result from low-tax states' increasing excise taxes on alcohol so they are similar to those of high-tax states. Policymakers may choose to focus instead on the influence of peers and changing the social norm behavior.

  10. Alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure as independent predictors of social drinkers' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Cox, W Miles

    2008-10-01

    Prior studies aimed at explaining cognitive-motivational reasons for drinking have focused on either cognitive or motivational factors, but not on both. This study examined the ability of both alcohol-attentional bias and motivational structure to predict alcohol consumption. Participants were university students (N=87) who completed a battery of tests, including the Personal Concerns Inventory (a measure of adaptive and maladaptive motivation), an alcohol Stroop test (a measure of alcohol-attentional bias), and an alcohol-use inventory. Regression, moderation, and mediation analyses showed that (a) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias were positive predictors of alcohol consumption after participants' age, gender, and executive cognitive functioning had been controlled, and (b) maladaptive motivation and alcohol-attentional bias independently predicted alcohol consumption. The implications of the results for both theory and practice are discussed.

  11. Prospective Effects of Possible Selves on Alcohol Consumption in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-Kuei; Corte, Colleen; Stein, Karen F.; Park, Chang G.; Finnegan, Lorna; McCreary, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    Possible selves, cognitions about the self that reflect hopes, fears, and expectations for the future, are reliable predictors of health risk behaviors but have not been explored as predictors of adolescents’ alcohol use. In a secondary analysis of data from 137 adolescents, we examined the influence of possible selves assessed in eighth grade on alcohol consumption (yes/no and level of use) in ninth grade. Having a most important feared possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted alcohol abstinence in ninth grade. Among those who reported alcohol use, having many hoped-for possible selves and a most important hoped-for possible self related to academics in eighth grade predicted lower level of alcohol consumption in ninth grade. Interventions that foster the personal relevance and importance of academics and lead to the development of hoped-for possible selves may reduce adolescents’ alcohol consumption. PMID:25545451

  12. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  13. Exploring factors influencing alcohol consumption patterns among Chinese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Li, H Z; Rosenblood, L

    1994-07-01

    Past research on alcohol consumption patterns comparing Chinese and Caucasians indicates that significant group differences exist. Chinese, as a group, consume significantly less alcohol than their Caucasian counterparts. Explanations for these differences have been controversial. Some argue that it is due to cultural differences, whereas others contend that it is because of physiological differences. The present study explores this controversy using a new approach: model testing via path analysis. With a sample size of 178 Canadian Chinese and 161 Caucasian university students, the present study found that in both ethnic groups, cultural norms rather than physical symptoms were a significant predictor of alcohol consumption patterns. This finding strongly suggests that alcohol consumption behavior can be better understood by a social/psychological rather than a biomedical approach. To effect changes in alcohol assumption patterns, it is suggested that cultural interpretations of alcohol use should be examined.

  14. Pre-pregnancy alcohol experience attenuates typical decrease in gestational alcohol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Becker, H C; Randall, C L; Anton, R F

    1986-01-01

    The influence of pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption on alcohol self-selection during pregnancy and lactation was examined in C57BL mice. One group of animals was given a two-bottle choice between water and a 10% w/v ethanol solution for three weeks prior to breeding, throughout pregnancy, and during lactation, while a second group was given the alcohol-water choice beginning on the first day of pregnancy. Relative alcohol intake (g ethanol/kg body weight) as well as alcohol "preference" decreased below pre-pregnancy levels during both pregnancy and lactation. That is, voluntary alcohol consumption was attenuated in pregnant and lactating mice, regardless of strain-typical pre-pregnancy high consumption. However, mice given a choice between alcohol and water prior to pregnancy did not decrease their alcohol consumption during pregnancy as much as mice not given the pre-pregnancy alcohol choice. There was no correlation between pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and subsequent intake. The mechanism underlying decreased voluntary alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains to be elucidated, but it is clear that prior experience with alcohol influences the phenomenon.

  15. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence.

  16. Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

  17. Paternal alcohol exposure reduces alcohol drinking and increases behavioral sensitivity to alcohol selectively in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. "epigenetic inheritance," is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors.

  18. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  19. Alcohol Consumption as a Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Response to Anxiety Level and Alcohol Expectancy 6. AUTHOR (S) Robert E. Steed, Captain 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING... definitons are used: Alcohol abuse refers to ingestion of alcohol which causes any personal, physical, psychological, familial, social, legal, employment...alcohol is decried. Moralists debate whether or not alcohol has any appropriate purpose for human consumption while legal and medical authorities try to

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Urges to Smoke among Women during a Smoking Cessation Attempt

    PubMed Central

    Businelle, Michael S.; Lam, Cho Y.; Kendzor, Darla E.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; McClure, Jennifer B.; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Wetter, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory and ad libitum smoking studies have indicated that alcohol consumption increases the frequency and intensity of smoking urges. However, few studies have examined the relation between smoking urges and alcohol use in natural settings during a quit attempt. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between smoking urge and alcohol use in women who reported drinking on at least one occasion during the first 7 days of a smoking quit attempt (N = 134). Participants were asked to use a palmtop computer to complete assessments that recorded smoking urges and recent alcohol use. Multilevel analyses examined the relation between smoking urge parameters and alcohol use. Smoking urges were higher during assessments where alcohol had been recently consumed compared to assessments where no alcohol had been consumed. Interestingly, the first urge rating of the day was higher and urges were more volatile on days where alcohol would eventually be consumed as compared to days where no alcohol was consumed. A closer examination of urge parameters on drinking days indicated that smoking urge trajectory was significantly flatter and urge volatility was significantly higher following alcohol consumption. However, smoking urge trajectory also flattened later in the day on nondrinking days. The findings suggest that there may be reciprocal relations between smoking urge and alcohol use (e.g., higher initial urges and more volatile urges may increase the likelihood of alcohol use; and, alcohol use may impact within day smoking urge parameters), and these relations could potentially impact smoking cessation and relapse. PMID:23379613

  1. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  2. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D.; Goldberg, Ira J.; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body’s retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minorRE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

  3. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses.

  4. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  5. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  6. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  7. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption: a case-crossover study in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Mittleman, Murray

    2004-03-01

    This paper reports a case-crossover analysis in a sample of 961 patients who consulted the emergency department (ED) due to an injury in Santa Clara, California, and in Pachuca, Mexico. In the analysis in which usual alcohol consumption during the last 12 months served as the control value, the estimated relative risk of injury in the hour after alcohol consumption, as compared with no alcohol consumption during that time, was 4.33 (CI, 3.55-5.27). After controlling for alcohol use in the 1-h period before injury, the relative risks for consecutive 1-h periods (2-6 h) before the injury were not significantly greater than one, indicating that the induction time was less than 1 h. The relative risk varied greatly depending on race-ethnicity and acculturation among the Hispanics in Santa Clara, with Mexicans in Pachuca showing the highest risk and the high acculturation group in Santa Clara showing the lowest risk. Violence-related injuries were associated with higher relative risk. Relative risk also varied depending on the presence of alcohol dependence and usual frequency of drunkenness: patients with alcohol dependence and patients with high frequency of usual drunkenness had lower risks than patients without alcohol dependence and with lower self-reported episodes of drunkenness in the last year. When blood alcohol content at ED admission was used instead of self-reported alcohol consumption, similar results were obtained. These findings have important public health consequences. Each episode of alcohol consumption results in an increase in the short-term risk for an injury, especially for a violence-related injury. Patients with the lowest usual involvement with alcohol are subject to a higher elevation in their risk for an injury immediately after alcohol consumption compared to patients who drink more heavily.

  8. Depressed affect as a predictor of increased desire for alcohol in current drinkers of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Greeley, J; Swift, W; Heather, N

    1992-07-01

    Male drinkers (n = 45) were asked to rate their desire for a drink of alcohol when presented with the sight, smell and taste of their preferred alcoholic beverage and of a lemon cordial drink. The subjects' level of depressed affect on that day and their average daily consumption of alcohol over the last 30 days were measured prior to exposure to these cues. Both level of depressed affect and log of mean daily alcohol consumption predicted increased desire for alcohol when alcohol cues were present, accounting for 40% of the variance in desire. When presented with the lemon cordial cues only 14% of the variance in desire for alcohol was explained by these variables. Also, Spearman's rank order correlations were calculated between heavy drinkers' (n = 19) ratings of self-efficacy to resist drinking and desire for alcohol in the presence of the alcohol cues. There were significant negative correlations between desire for alcohol and self-efficacy ratings on the 'urges and temptations' and 'positive social situations' subscales of the Situational Confidence Questionnaire-39. Several alternative accounts of these findings are discussed.

  9. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  10. Alcohol consumption and antitumor immunity: dynamic changes from activation to accelerated deterioration of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhu, Zhaohui; Zhang, Faya; Meadows, Gary G

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of how alcohol and its metabolites induce cancer have been studied extensively. However, the mechanisms whereby chronic alcohol consumption affects antitumor immunity and host survival have largely been unexplored. We studied the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on the immune system and antitumor immunity in mice inoculated with B16BL6 melanoma and found that alcohol consumption activates the immune system leading to an increase in the proportion of IFN-γ-producing NK, NKT, and T cells in mice not injected with tumors. One outcome associated with enhanced IFN-γ activation is inhibition of melanoma lung metastasis. However, the anti-metastatic effects do not translate into increased survival of mice bearing subcutaneous tumors. Continued growth of the subcutaneous tumors and alcohol consumption accelerates the deterioration of the immune system, which is reflected in the following: (1) inhibition in the expansion of memory CD8+ T cells, (2) accelerated decay of Th1 cytokine-producing cells, (3) increased myeloid-derived suppressor cells, (4) compromised circulation of B cells and T cells, and (5) increased NKT cells that exhibit an IL-4 dominant cytokine profile, which is inhibitory to antitumor immunity. Taken together, the dynamic effects of alcohol consumption on antitumor immunity are in two opposing phases: the first phase associated with immune stimulation is tumor inhibitory and the second phase resulting from the interaction between the effects of alcohol and the tumor leads to immune inhibition and resultant tumor progression.

  11. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  12. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  13. Alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Schonlau, Matthias; Scribner, Richard; Farley, Thomas A; Theall, Katherine; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Scott, Molly; Cohen, Deborah A

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between alcohol availability, as measured by the density of off-premise alcohol outlets, and alcohol consumption in Los Angeles county and southern Louisiana, USA. Consumption information was collected through a telephone survey of 2,881 households in Los Angeles county and pre-Katrina southern Louisiana, nested within 220 census tracts. Respondents' addresses were geo-coded and both neighbourhood (census tracts and buffers of varying sizes) and individual (network distance to the closest alcohol outlet) estimates of off-sale alcohol outlet density were computed. Alcohol outlet density was not associated with the percentage of people who were drinkers in either site. Alcohol outlet density was associated with the quantity of consumption among drinkers in Louisiana but not in Los Angeles. Outlet density within a one-mile buffer of the respondent's home was more strongly associated with alcohol consumption than outlet density in the respondent's census tract. The conclusion is that the relationship between neighbourhood alcohol outlet density and alcohol consumption is complex and may vary due to differences in neighbourhood design and travel patterns.

  14. Alcohol consumption in young adults: the role of multisensory imagery.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jason P; Kavanagh, David J; Andrade, Jackie; May, Jon; Feeney, Gerald F X; Gullo, Matthew J; White, Angela M; Fry, Marie-Louise; Drennan, Judy; Previte, Josephine; Tjondronegoro, Dian

    2014-03-01

    Little is known about the subjective experience of alcohol desire and craving in young people. Descriptions of alcohol urges continue to be extensively used in the everyday lexicon of young, non-dependent drinkers. Elaborated Intrusion (EI) Theory contends that imagery is central to craving and desires, and predicts that alcohol-related imagery will be associated with greater frequency and amount of drinking. This study involved 1535 age stratified 18-25 year olds who completed an alcohol-related survey that included the Imagery scale of the Alcohol Craving Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Imagery items predicted 12-16% of the variance in concurrent alcohol consumption. Higher total Imagery subscale scores were linearly associated with greater drinking frequency and lower self-efficacy for moderate drinking. Interference with alcohol imagery may have promise as a preventive or early intervention target in young people.

  15. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Hepatitis B Carriers: A Nationwide Study in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. “Monthly alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol at least once per month during the past year, and “high-risk alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol twice or more per week and, for males, having consumed at least 60 g of alcohol on one occasion or, for females, having consumed at least 40 g of alcohol on more than one occasion. The prevalence of monthly alcohol consumption was 53.2%, and that of high-risk alcohol consumption was 11.8% among HBV carriers. Less education was associated with both monthly and high-risk alcohol consumption(OR = 1.75 [95% CI = 1.02−3.02] for monthly alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education; OR = 2.48 [95% CI = 1.19−5.17] for high-risk alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education and OR = 2.02 [95% CI = 1.12−3.64] among those with a high school education). Additionally, smoking and being male increased the risk of alcohol consumption, and older age and having a normal body mass index decreased the risk. HBV carriers who were less educated, overweight, and smokers were more likely to consume alcohol or meet criteria for high-risk drinking. Health policies and intervention programs aimed at promoting a generally healthy lifestyle in HBV carriers should consider educational inequalities and alcohol consumption. PMID:25387237

  16. Western Australian students' alcohol consumption and expenditure intentions for Schoolies.

    PubMed

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole; Hagger, Martin S

    2016-12-19

    In Australia, the immediate post-school period (known as 'Schoolies') is associated with heavy drinking and high levels of alcohol-related harm. This study investigated students' intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies to inform interventions to reduce alcohol-related harm among this group. An online survey was administered to students in their senior year of schooling. Included items related to intended daily alcohol consumption during Schoolies, amount of money intended to be spent on alcohol over the Schoolies period, and past drinking behaviour. On average, participants (n=187) anticipated that they would consume eight standard drinks per day, which is substantially higher than the recommended maximum of no more than four drinks on a single occasion. Participants intended to spend an average of A$131 on alcohol over the Schoolies period. Although higher than national guidelines, intended alcohol consumption was considerably lower than has been previously documented during Schoolies events. The substantial amounts of money expected to be spent during Schoolies suggest this group has adequate spending power to constitute an attractive target market for those offering alternative activities that are associated with lower levels of alcohol-related harm.

  17. Alcohol consumption, female sexual behavior and contraceptive use.

    PubMed

    Harvey, S M; Beckman, L J

    1986-07-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol consumption on female sexuality and contraceptive use, 69 sexually active women between the ages of 18 and 34 completed daily logs of their drinking behavior, sexual activity and contraceptive use over three consecutive menstrual cycles. In addition, participants completed a post-study questionnaire that assessed personal beliefs regarding alcohol use and sexual behavior. Although the results from the daily logs failed to show any significant effects of alcohol on subsequent sexual arousal, sexual pleasure or orgasm, female-initiated sexual activity appeared to be inversely related to alcohol use with women initiating significantly fewer sexual activities following the consumption of alcohol. On the contrary, the retrospective questionnaire data indicated that women believed alcohol enhanced sexual desire, enjoyment and activity. The findings further indicated that alcohol consumption immediately prior to sexual intercourse did not significantly alter the use of coitus-dependent contraceptives. These data suggest that women view alcohol as an aphrodisiac despite their physiological and reported behavioral responses.

  18. Nonmedical prescription pain reliever and alcohol consumption among cannabis users

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Scott P.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Zarkin, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This study examined poly-drug use involving the use of cannabis with nonmedical prescription pain reliever use (NMPR) and alcohol use. Methods Computer-assisted survey data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were examined. The NSDUH is an annual, cross-sectional survey of non-institutionalized citizens in the United States (ages 12+). Replicate analyses were conducted using the 2013 and 2003 survey waves. Results Higher levels of cannabis use were consistently associated with more frequent consumption of prescription pain relievers, with findings replicating in both 2013 and 2003. While the prevalence of dual users declined from 2003 (2.5%) to 2013 (2.3%), the average number of days used among dual users increased by an average of 20 days over that period. These changes largely occurred among those aged 35 or older, males, whites, and non-illicit drug users. Past-year marijuana use increased by 16% (10.8–12.6%, p-value < .001) whereas NMPR decreased by 15% (4.9–4.2%, p-value < .001). The largest changes occurred after 2011. Persons using the most cannabis generally had higher levels of alcohol use relative to those using the least amount of cannabis. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of dual use between 2003 (10.2%) and 2013 (11.6%), while the prevalence of past-year alcohol use remained relatively stable. Conclusions Clinical efforts and public health interventions should consider the possible co-ingestion of cannabis with NMPR and alcohol, as concomitant use may portend negative health effects in the short and long-term. PMID:26748409

  19. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  20. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  1. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  2. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  3. Structural and diffusional brain abnormality related to relatively low level alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hiroki; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Fukuda, Rin; Yamada, Haruyasu; Takei, Kunio; Suga, Motomu; Takao, Hidemasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Aoki, Shigeki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2009-06-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol intake results in alcohol-related brain damage. Many previous reports have documented alcohol-related global or local brain shrinkage or diffusional abnormalities among alcoholics and heavy to moderate drinkers; however, the influence of relatively low levels of alcohol consumption on brain structural or diffusional abnormality is unclear. We investigated structural or diffusional abnormalities related to lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) among Japanese non-alcohol-dependent individuals (114 males, 97 females). High-resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired in all subjects. The collected images were normalized, segmented, and smoothed using SPM 5. Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) were normalized for each total intracranial volume (TIV), and partial correlation coefficients were estimated between normalized GMV or WMV and lifetime alcohol consumption (LAC) adjusted for age. To investigate regional GMV or WMV abnormalities related to LAC, multiple regression analyses were performed among regional GMV or WMV and LAC, age, and TIV. To investigate subtle regional abnormalities, multiple regression analyses were performed among fractional anisotropy (FA) or mean diffusivity (MD), and LAC and age. No LAC-related global or regional GMV or WMV abnormality or LAC-related regional FA abnormality was found among male or female subjects. Significant LAC-related MD increase was found in the right amygdala among female subjects only. The current results suggest female brain vulnerability to alcohol, and a relation between subtle abnormality in the right amygdala and alcohol misuse.

  4. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  5. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups.

  6. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  7. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed.

  8. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  9. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  10. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  11. Israel 2000: immigration and gender differences in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Rahav, Giora; Teichman, Meir

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the association between immigration from the former Soviet Union (FSU) and gender and alcohol consumption among a representative sample of young adults in Israel 2000. Previous studies that were conducted on FSU immigrants to Israel indicate higher consumption than that of resident Israelis and immigrants of earlier periods. The current study aims to assess alcohol consumption among FSU and resident Israelis five years later to determine whether the discrepancy in alcohol consumption stays consistent or reduces. In addition, gender differences in alcohol consumption among the Israeli society were examined as well, as a special case of socio-culture differences. The data came from the 2000 national survey of drinking in Israel. Of 5,004 Jewish Israelis, 532 were immigrants from the FSU who arrived since 1989, and 4,472 were resident Israelis. The FSU group was compared with resident Israelis, and males were compared to females on several drinking variables. Logistic regression was the principal method of analysis. Demographics and cultural variables as main effects or in interaction with FSU and gender were controlled. The FSU group was significantly more likely to report drinking in the last twelve months plus drinking in the last thirty days than resident Israelis. Women's reported drinking in the last twelve months was one fourth of men's and during the past thirty days was one fifth of men's. Further investigation on the associations between the success of FSU acculturation in the Israeli society and drinking patterns as well as attitudes toward women and gender differences in alcohol consumption may provide explanations for gender and immigration gaps in alcohol consumption.

  12. Drinkers and Bettors: Investigating the Complementarity of Alcohol Consumption and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100 percent increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities. PMID:18430523

  13. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  14. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and alcohol consumption in US white and black adults: data from NHANES II.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S; Carroll, M; Johnson, C; Fulwood, R; Kalsbeek, W; Briefel, R

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known to be positively related to moderate alcohol consumption from studies in selected populations. This study describes the association in a representative sample of the US adult population. METHODS. Stratification and multivariate regression analyses were used to examine HDL cholesterol levels and alcohol consumption. RESULTS. Fewer women than men reported consumption of alcohol at any frequency. Similar percentages of Whites and Blacks reported alcohol consumption. Age-adjusted mean HDL cholesterol levels were higher among alcohol drinkers than among nondrinkers in all sex-race strata. Mean HDL cholesterol levels of Whites and Blacks of both sexes increased consistently with increased frequency of consumption of beer, wine, and liquor. With age, education, body mass index, smoking, and physical activity controlled for, there were higher age-adjusted HDL cholesterol levels with increasing reported quantities of alcohol consumed. Daily or weekly use of alcohol led to an increase of 5.1 mg/dL in mean HDL cholesterol level, whereas consumption of 1 g of alcohol led to an increase of 0.87 mg/dL. CONCLUSION. Even if there is a causal association between alcohol consumption and higher HDL cholesterol levels, it is suggested that efforts to reduce coronary heart disease risks concentrate on the cessation of smoking and weight control. PMID:8498617

  15. The effects of moderate alcohol consumption on female hormone levels and reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Gill, J

    2000-01-01

    Studies that have investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the level of oestrogens and progesterone in both pre- and post-menopausal women are reviewed. It is concluded that several lines of evidence point to an alcohol-induced rise in natural or synthetic oestrogen levels in women. Proposed mechanisms include an increased rate of aromatization of testosterone or a decreased rate of oxidation of oestradiol to oestrone. Moderate alcohol consumption has also been linked to decreased progesterone levels in pre-menopausal women. The relevance of these findings to female health, fertility and the timing of the menopause is considered.

  16. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  17. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research.

  18. A case-crossover study of alcohol consumption, meals and the risk of road traffic crashes

    PubMed Central

    Di Bartolomeo, Stefano; Valent, Francesca; Sbrojavacca, Rodolfo; Marchetti, Riccardo; Barbone, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Background The case-crossover (CC) design has proved effective to investigate the association between alcohol use and injuries in general, but has never been applied to study alcohol use and road traffic crashes (RTCs) specifically. This study aims at investigating the association between alcohol and meal consumption and the risk of RTCs using intrapersonal comparisons of subjects while driving. Methods Drivers admitted to an Italian emergency room (ER) after RTCs in 2007 were interviewed about personal, vehicle, and crash characteristics as well as hourly patterns of driving, and alcohol and food intake in the 24 hours before the crash. The odds ratio (OR) of a RTC was estimated through a CC, matched pair interval approach. Alcohol and meal consumption 6 and 2 hours before the RTC (case exposure window) were compared with exposures in earlier control windows of analogous length. Results Of 574 patients enrolled, 326 (56.8%) reported previous driving from 6 to 18 hours before the RTC and were eligible for analysis. The ORs (mutually adjusted) were 2.25 (95%CI 1.11-4.57) for alcohol and 0.94 (0.47-1.88) for meals. OR for alcohol was already increased at low (1-2 units) doses - 2.17 (1.03-4.57) and the trend of increase for each unit was significant - 1.64 (95%CI 1.05-2.57). In drivers at fault the OR for alcohol was 21.22 (2.31-194.79). The OR estimate for meal consumption seemed to increase in case of previous sleep deprivation, 2.06 (0.25-17.00). Conclusion Each single unit of acute alcohol consumption increases the risk of RTCs, in contrast with the 'legal' threshold allowed in some countries. Meal consumption is not associated with RTCs, but its combined effects with sleepiness need further elucidation. PMID:19723319

  19. Long-lasting reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis by alcohol consumption in adolescent nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Crean, Rebecca D; Crawford, Elena F; Edwards, Scott; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2010-06-15

    Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics.

  20. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Methods The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Conclusions Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. PMID:28301483

  1. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  2. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  3. User characteristics of a smartphone app to reduce alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Garnett, Claire; Crane, David; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Brown, Jamie; Winstock, Adam

    2017-03-17

    Digital interventions are available to help people reduce their alcohol consumption, but it is not known who uses these interventions and how this treatment-seeking group compares with the general population of drinkers. The study objective was to compare the socio-demographic and drinking characteristics of users of the 'Drinks Meter' smartphone app with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Data were used from the Drinks Meter app and website, and a nationally representative cross-sectional survey in England (Alcohol Toolkit Study). Participants were drinkers aged 16+ in England. Data were collected on participants' age, gender, region, sexual orientation, social grade and AUDIT score. Regression analyses were conducted to assess differences in socio-demographic and drinking characteristics between samples. Drinks Meter app users, compared with drinkers of the general population, were younger, more likely to be from the South, not heterosexual, less likely to be of a lower social grade and had a higher mean AUDIT score. Drinks Meter app users were younger than website users and reported greater alcohol consumption and related harms. Drinkers using the Drinks Meter app are more likely to be younger and report greater alcohol consumption and related harms compared with the general population of drinkers in England and website users of the same intervention. Apps that provide feedback on drinking appear to be reaching those who report greater alcohol consumption and related harms.

  4. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking: effect on pregnancy.

    PubMed

    King, J C; Fabro, S

    1983-06-01

    Both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy remain an important concern for the practicing obstetrician, who should provide current information on the potential detrimental effects of these habits. There appears to be a wide spectrum of fetal phenotypic response to the effects of alcohol. This phenotypic variability may be partially explained by the dose, timing, and pattern of gestational exposure, the metabolism of mother or fetus, or other environmental and genetic factors. At the most severe end of the spectrum are infants with the unique combination of anomalies termed the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). The abnormalities most typically associated with alcohol teratogenicity can be grouped into 4 categories: central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions; growth deficiencies; a characteristic cluster of facial abnormalites, and variable major and minor malformations. To make a diagnosis of fullblown FAS, abnormalities in all 4 categories must be present. Along the continuum toward normal are infants with various combinations of FAS anomalies. One of the most common and serious defects associated with ethanol teratogenicity is mental retardation. Recent evidence supports the concept of a prenatal origin to the problem. At birth infants with FAS are deficient for both length and weight, usually at or below the 3rd percentile for both parameters. Growth and mental deficiency are seen in many conditions, but the rather striking facial appearance of children with FAS secures the diagnosis. The characteristic face in small children includes short palpebral fissures, short upturned nose, hypoplastic philtrum, hypoplastic maxilla, and thinned upper vermilion. A table lists the variety of malformations that may be found in other organ systems in patients with FAS. The likelihood of miscarriage increases directly with alcohol consumption. Risk of abortion is twice as high in women consuming 1 ounce of absolute alcohol (AA) as infrequently as twice a week

  5. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  6. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  7. Alcohol consumption over time and mortality in the Swedish Women’s Lifestyle and Health cohort

    PubMed Central

    Licaj, Idlir; Sandin, Sven; Skeie, Guri; Adami, Hans-Olov; Roswall, Nina; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is steadily increasing in high-income countries but the harm and possible net benefits of light-to-moderate drinking remain controversial. We prospectively investigated the association between time-varying alcohol consumption and overall and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged women. Methods Among 48 249 women at baseline (33 404 at follow-up) in the prospective Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort, age 30–49 years at baseline, we used repeated information on alcohol consumption and combined this method with multiple imputation in order to maximise the number of participants and deaths included in the analyses. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to calculate HRs for overall and cause-specific mortality. Results During >900 000 person/years, a total of 2100 deaths were recorded through Swedish registries. The median alcohol consumption increased from 2.3 g/day in 1991/1992 (baseline) to 4.7 g/day in 2004 (follow-up). Compared with light drinkers (0.1–1.5 g/day), a null association was observed for all categories of alcohol consumption with the exception of never drinkers. The HR comparing never with light drinkers was 1.46 (95% CI 1.22 to 1.74). There was a statistically significant negative trend between increasing alcohol consumption and cardiovascular and ischaemic heart diseases mortality. The results were similar when women with prevalent conditions were excluded. Conclusions In conclusion, in a cohort of young women, light alcohol consumption was protective for cardiovascular and ischaemic heart disease mortality but not for cancer and overall mortality. PMID:27807087

  8. Effects of Alcohol-Induced Working Memory Decline on Alcohol Consumption and Adverse Consequences of Use

    PubMed Central

    Lechner, William V.; Day, Anne M.; Metrik, Jane; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol use appears to decrease executive function acutely in a dose dependent manner, and lower baseline executive function appears to contribute to problematic alcohol use. However, no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the relationship between individual differences in working memory (a subcomponent of executive function) after alcohol consumption and drinking behaviors and consequences. Objectives The current study assessed the relationship between drinking behavior, alcohol-related consequences, and alcohol-induced changes in working memory (as assessed by Trails Making Test-B). Method Participants recruited from the community (n = 41), 57.3% male, mean age 39.2, took part in a three-session, within-subjects, repeated-measures design. Participants were administered a placebo, 0.4 g/kg, or 0.8 g/kg dose of alcohol. Working memory, past 30 day alcohol consumption, and consequences of alcohol use were measured at baseline; working memory was measured again after each beverage administration. Results Poorer working memory after alcohol administration (controlling for baseline working memory) was significantly associated with a greater number of drinks consumed per drinking day. Additionally, we observed a significant indirect relationship between the degree of alcohol-induced working memory decline and adverse consequences of alcohol use, which was mediated through greater average drinks per drinking day. Conclusions It is possible that greater individual susceptibility to alcohol-induced working memory decline may limit one’s ability to moderate alcohol consumption as evidenced by greater drinks per drinking day, and that this results in more adverse consequences of alcohol use. PMID:26407604

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Binh Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Hashibe, Mia; Vecchia, Carlo La; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the IARC Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently supported that alcohol consumption is strongly associated with an increase in risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. The relative risks are 3.2–9.2 for more than 60 grams/day (or more than 4 drinks/day) when adjusted for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. A strong dose-response relationship on intensity of alcohol use is reported in most of the studies. However, no apparent association is observed for the duration of alcohol use. Compared with current drinkers, a decreased risk is associated with alcohol cessation for about 10–15 years. Similar associations have been observed among non-smokers in over 20 studies. Generally, the dominant type of alcohol consumption in each population is associated with the greatest increases in risk. A large number of studies on joint exposure of alcohol and tobacco consumption demonstrate a more than multiplicative synergistic effect. PMID:20679896

  10. [Alcohol consumption and domestic violence against women: a study with university students from Mexico].

    PubMed

    Paredes, José Manuel Herrera; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence against women and alcohol consumption are considered public health problems. This descriptive study aimed at determining the occurrence of domestic violence against women enrolled in the Nursing and Midwifery Program at the University of Celaya, Mexico and its relation with alcohol consumption by their partners. A sample of 73 students was randomly selected. Data were collected using the CASIQUE-QUEJ TUN questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS. With respect to physical violence, results showed that 91.9% were not maltreated by their partners. Regarding alcohol consumption, 57.5% of the women interviewed and 67.1% of their partners drank alcohol, especially at social events. Results also showed that 41.1% of the subjects did not know about their rights in cases of domestic violence. Thus, there is a need for actions which increase women's awareness of their rights and the possibilities of legal support in cases of violence.

  11. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  13. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Lung Carcinoma by Histological Subtype.

    PubMed

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol is a carcinogen suspected of increasing lung cancer risk. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma in 492,902 persons from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. Between 1995/1996 and December 31, 2006, there were 10,227 incident cases of lung carcinoma, classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 4,036), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,998), small cell carcinoma (n = 1,524), undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 559), and other (n = 2,110). Compared with nondrinking, alcohol consumption was associated with a modest nonlinear reduction in total lung carcinoma risk at lower levels of consumption (for 0.5-<1 drink/day, HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.96) but a modest increase in risk in the highest category (for ≥7 drinks/day, HR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.24). Regarding histological type, alcohol was associated with a nonlinear reduction in squamous cell carcinoma that became attenuated as consumption increased and a modest increase in adenocarcinoma among heavier drinkers. Cubic spline models confirmed these findings. Our data suggest that the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma differs by histological subtype.

  14. Interaction of cannabinoid receptor 2 and social environment modulates chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Bruno; Erxlebe, Edda; Markert, Astrid; Rácz, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute nearly in equal power to the development of alcoholism. Environmental factors, such as negative life events or emotionally disruptive conditions, initiate and promote alcohol drinking and relapse. The endocannabinoid system is involved in hedonic control and modulates stress reactivity. Furthermore, chronic alcohol drinking alters endocannabinoid signalling, which in turn influences the stress reactivity. Recently, it has been shown that CB2 receptor activity influences stress sensitivity and alcohol drinking. We hypothesized that CB2 receptors influence the impact of environmental risk factors on alcohol preference and consumption. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the alcohol-drinking pattern of wild-type and CB2-deficient animals under single- and group-housing conditions using different alcohol-drinking models, such as forced drinking, intermittent forced drinking and two-bottle choice paradigms. Our data showed that CB2 receptor modulates alcohol consumption and reward. Interestingly, we detected that lack of CB2 receptors led to increased alcohol drinking in the intermittent forced drinking paradigm under group-housing conditions. Furthermore, we found that CB2 knockout mice consumed more food and that their body weight gain was modulated by social environment. On the basis of these data, we conclude that social environment critically affects the modulatory function of CB2 receptors, especially in alcohol intake. These findings suggest that a treatment strategy targeting CB2 receptors may have a beneficial effect on pathological drinking, particularly in situations of social stress and discomfort.

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1) those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total) and (2) those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total). The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997) was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old) subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present) was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old) subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline) associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic) drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia) and to cognitive impairment (low test scores), but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores) was found. Both light and moderate drinking provided a similar benefit, but heavy drinking was associated with nonsignificantly higher cognitive risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the meta

  16. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  17. Intoxicated prejudice: The impact of alcohol consumption on implicitly and explicitly measured racial attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Manning, Mark; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Although beverage condition did not affect prejudice levels on either measure, it did change the correlation between them. Implicitly measured attitudes significantly predicted explicit reports of prejudice and discrimination only for participants who consumed alcohol. We discuss the implications of our findings for debates regarding dissociations between implicit and explicit measures and the cultural phenomenon of intoxicated individuals attributing prejudiced statements to alcohol consumption rather than personal attitudes. PMID:26330762

  18. Translational models of interactions between stress and alcohol consumption: strengths and limitations.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Sparta, Dennis R; Bonci, Antonello

    2011-01-01

    Much has been written about the interaction of stressors (physical, social, and psychological) and alcohol addiction based on studies in humans and preclinical models. We begin by considering the significance and complexity of alcoholism and the options for effectively modeling it in animals, particularly rodents. We then focus on the following aspects of stress-alcohol interactions: (1) compulsive alcohol consumption, characterized by continued intake despite the presence of stressful or aversive consequences; (2) the possible relationship between acute stress and increased alcohol intake; (3) an apparent cross sensitization of stress and alcohol exposure, which increases both future reactivity to stress and the risk of developing alcohol addiction; and (4) efforts to target stress in therapeutic interventions for alcoholism. We also describe possible neuroadaptations and genetic factors that may interact with stress to increase susceptibility to alcoholism. Throughout, we describe the challenges and inconsistencies inherent in both human and animal studies of alcoholism, its etiology, and its impacts. We believe the relationship between preclinical and human studies is of paramount importance to understand addiction-related behavior in humans and to direct, improve, and expand animal models. It is our hope that a full understanding of the mechanistic bases of pathological alcohol intake will have translational benefits for the development of behavioral and pharmacological therapies.

  19. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  1. The dimensionality of alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in a cross-national perspective

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Cremonte, Mariana; Moskalewicz, Jacek; Swiatkiewicz, Grazyna; Rubio-Stipec, Maritza

    2009-01-01

    Aims To replicate the finding that there is a single dimension trait in alcohol use disorders and to test whether usual 5+ drinks for men and/4+ drinks for women and other measures of alcohol consumption help to improve alcohol use disorder criteria in a series of diverse patients from Emergency Departments (EDs) in four countries. Design Cross-sectional surveys of patient 18 and older that reflected consecutive arrival at the ED. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview Core was used to obtain a diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse. Quantity and frequency of drinking and drunkenness as well as usual number of drinks consumed during the last year. Setting Participants were 5,195 injured and non-injured patients attending 7 EDs in 4 countries, Argentina, Mexico, Poland the U.S., (between 1995-2001). Findings Using exploratory factor analyses alcohol use disorders can be described as a single, unidimensional continuum without any clear cut distinction between the criterions for dependence and abuse in all sites. Results from item response theory analyses showed that the current DSM-IV criterions tap people in the middle-upper end of the alcohol use disorder continuum. Alcohol consumption (amount and frequency of use) can be used in all EDs with the current DSM-IV diagnostic criterions to help tap the middle-lower part of this continuum. Even though some specific diagnostic criterions and some alcohol consumption variables showed differential item function across sites, test response curves were invariant for ED sites and their inclusion would not impact the final (total) performance of the diagnostic system. Conclusions DSM-IV abuse and dependence form a unidimensional continuum in ED patients regardless of country of survey. Alcohol consumption variables, if added, would help to tap patients with more moderate severity. DSM diagnostic system for alcohol use disorders showed invariance and performed extremely well in these samples. PMID

  2. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  3. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  4. A review of military research into alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verrall, N G

    2011-06-01

    Alcohol consumption is a part of military history. The impacts in terms of both short-term and long-term consequences require modern militaries to develop and instigate a duty of care for its personnel, which informs the military's 'cradle to the grave' approach in addressing alcohol consumption and other risky health behaviours (e.g. smoking, driving, sex, drugs, obesity, etc.). Thus, in recent years there have been numerous studies that have either focused on, or included, measures of alcohol consumption among various military populations. Therefore, a synthesis of this research is warranted in order to provide a contemporary understanding of this topic. This review addresses the military research regarding alcohol consumption. It reviews the methodological issues associated with the breadth of research, as well as commenting on a range of factors that need to be considered when interpreting and comparing the different research studies; for example, (1) when comparing findings across military to civilian and pan-military populations, (2) deployment-related research, (3) military groups at risk, and (4) the impact on readiness, operational effectiveness and force sustainability.

  5. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  6. Effects of moderate consumption of distilled and fermented alcohol on some aspects of neuroimmunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ligia Esperanza; Cano, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Vanesa; Nova, Esther; Romeo, Javier; Marcos, Asunción; Esquifino, Ana Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are characterized by their fermented versus distilled origin and also by their degree of alcohol. The toxic effects of chronic alcohol consumption have been widely studied. However, there is less evidence about possible beneficial effects of moderate alcohol intake. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of moderate alcohol consumption (beer or ethanol) on plasma hormone concentrations, blood and thymus lymphocyte phenotypes and brain neurotransmitter levels. For this purpose, 40 adult Wistar male rats were administered ethanol or beer for 4 weeks (experimental groups). Age-matched rats were administered beer without alcohol or water to be used as controls. Rats were killed by decapitation and plasma from the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH concentrations by homologous specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Thymus and blood lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Neurotransmitter concentrations [dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine] were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in the median eminence and the pituitary. Blood and thymus lymphocyte subsets were not significantly changed by either ethanol or beer consumption, compared to controls. Plasma prolactin levels significantly decreased in ethanol-administered groups (p < 0.05) compared to control animals drinking water, although plasma levels of growth hormone and ACTH were not modified by either alcohol used. Dopamine and GABA concentrations in the median eminence or in the adenohypophysis remained unmodified by moderate beer or ethanol consumption. However, taurine concentration was significantly increased in the pituitary (p < 0.05) in the group drinking ethanol compared to those groups drinking beer with or without alcohol. These data suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may change the regulatory mechanism of prolactin secretion. Whether these modifications have a physiological

  7. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  8. Collaboration among sectors to increase pulse consumption.

    PubMed

    Curran, Julianne; McLachlan, Milla; Black, Richard; Widders, Irv; Manary, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The United Nations declaration of 2016 as the International Year of Pulses (IYP) provided an unprecedented opportunity to showcase pulses on the global stage for their contribution to affordable nutrition, health, and sustainability. Despite the IYP's successes in stakeholder engagement, continuing to foster and strengthen partnerships and collaborations is necessary to meet the IYP goals of increased pulse production and consumption for human benefit. Shifting consumer behavior to increase pulse consumption emerged during IYP meetings as a shared priority for all stakeholders. Focusing on this shared priority provides an opportunity to strengthen collaboration among all stakeholder groups for research, education, marketing, and ingredient/food production. Although the IYP officially closed at the end of 2016, the pulse community has an opportunity to continue building successful collaborations. The future research agenda can foster increased pulse production and consumption to address global nutrition, health, and sustainability challenges, provided that it is developed with multisectorial perspectives and cross-disciplinary collaborations. But, most importantly, the research agenda for pulses must be centered more deliberately on the end consumer and how to drive shifts in behavior toward increased pulse consumption, as this is the common shared priority around which all stakeholders can rally.

  9. Chemosensory Factors Influencing Alcohol Perception, Preferences, and Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Kiefer, Stephen W.; Molina, Juan Carlos; Tordoff, Michael G.; Duffy, Valerie B.; Bartoshuk, Linda M.; Mennella, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2002 RSA/ISBRA Meeting in San Francisco, California, co-organized by Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov of the Monell Chemical Senses Center. The goal of this symposium was to review the role that chemosensory factors (taste, smell, and chemical irritation) play in the perception, preference, and consumption of alcohol. The presented research focused on both humans and laboratory animals and used a variety of approaches including genetic, developmental, pharmacological, behavioral, and psychophysical studies. The presentations were as follows: (1) Introduction and overview of the chemical senses (Julie A. Mennella and Alexander A. Bachmanov); (2) Taste reactivity as a measure of alcohol palatability and its relation to alcohol consumption in rats (Stephen W. Kiefer); (3) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in laboratory animals (Juan Carlos Molina); (4) Early learning about the sensory properties of alcohol in humans (Julie A. Mennella); (5) Genetic dissection of the ethanol-sweet taste relationship in mice (Alexander A. Bachmanov and Michael Tordoff); and (6) Human genetic variation in taste: connections with alcohol sensation and intake (Valerie B. Duffy and Linda M. Bartoshuk). The symposium concluded with a general discussion. PMID:12605071

  10. The impact of parenthood on alcohol consumption trajectories: variations as a function of timing of parenthood, familial alcoholism, and gender.

    PubMed

    Little, Michelle; Handley, Elizabeth; Leuthe, Eileen; Chassin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the impact of the transition to parenthood on growth in alcohol consumption from early adolescence through emerging adulthood. We measured age-related discontinuity in trajectories of alcohol consumption associated with timing of the parenthood transition, above and beyond the effects of accrued educational status, gender, and time-varying marital status. We also examined the impact of a familial selection factor for the transmission of alcohol use problems, family history density of alcoholism (FHD), on both risk for adolescent parenthood and risk for adolescent parents' continuity in alcohol consumption after the parent transition within a mediation structural equation model. Premature timing of parenthood had a distinct effect on emerging adult alcohol trajectories. Although participants who became parents as emerging adults showed role-related decline in alcohol consumption, those who became parents during adolescence showed a role-related rise in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Gender moderated adolescent parents' role-related growth in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Adolescent fathers showed an adverse rise in alcohol consumption after becoming parents, whereas adolescent mothers' alcohol consumption did not change significantly. FHD was related to high adolescent alcohol consumption, which mediated risk for the incidence of early parenthood. Finally, the adverse effect of FHD on trajectories of emerging adult alcohol use was mediated by a dual pathway: (a) developmental continuity of conduct problems and (b) early transition to parenthood.

  11. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  12. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction.

  13. Alcohol Consumption and Long-Term Labor Market Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Maczulskij, Terhi

    2017-03-01

    This paper examines whether alcohol consumption is related to long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women matched to register-based individual information on employment and earnings. The twin data allow us to account for the shared environmental and genetic factors. The quantity of alcohol consumption was measured by weekly average consumption using self-reported data from three surveys (1975, 1981 and 1990). The average of an individual's employment months and earnings were measured in adulthood over the period 1990-2009. The models that account for the shared environmental and genetic factors reveal that former drinkers and heavy drinkers both have almost 20% lower earnings compared with moderate drinkers. On average, former drinkers work annually approx. 1 month less over the 20-year observation period. These associations are robust to the use of covariates, such as education, pre-existing health endowment and smoking. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Alcohol consumption and risk of melanoma among women: pooled analysis of eight case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Miura, Kyoko; Zens, Michael S; Peart, Tessa; Holly, Elizabeth A; Berwick, Marianne; Gallagher, Richard P; Mack, Thomas M; Elwood, J Mark; Karagas, Margaret R; Green, Adèle C

    2015-11-01

    While alcohol consumption is known to increase the risk of several types of cancer, evidence regarding the association between alcohol and melanoma is inconclusive. This pooled analysis was conducted to examine total alcohol consumption (grams per day), and type of alcohol consumed (beer, wine, beer and wine combined, and liquor) in relation to melanoma among women using original data from eight completed case-control studies (1886 cases and 2113 controls), with adjustment for the potential confounding effects of sun exposure-related factors. We found a positive association with ever consuming alcohol [adjusted pooled odds ratio (pOR) 1.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.5]. Specifically the pORs were 1.4 (95 % CI 1.1-1.8) for wine, 1.1 (95 % CI 0.9-1.5) for beer and 1.2 (95 % CI 1.0-1.4) for liquor. However, the pOR for the highest fourth of consumption compared with never consumption was 1.0 (95 % CI 0.7-1.3) without evidence of a trend with increasing amount of total alcohol, or separately with amount of beer, wine or liquor consumed. Stratifying by anatomic site of lesion, number of nevi, age group, or histologic subtype did not alter these results. Although the results showed a weak positive association between ever consuming alcohol and melanoma occurrence, our findings do not provide strong support for the hypothesis that alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of melanoma in women.

  15. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  16. Non-pharmacological modification of cardiac risk factors: part 3. Smoking cessation and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Eagles, C J; Martin, U

    1998-02-01

    Smoking cessation (SC) is probably the single most important risk factor modification for both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Interventions to stop smoking are highly cost effective. SC produces reductions in mortality and morbidity that generally outweigh any increase in risk due to weight gain, unless the gain is so great that it is accompanied by adverse changes in blood pressure, lipid profile or glucose tolerance. There is clear evidence that SC improves the lipid profile, decreases thrombotic tendency, reduces vascular endothelial damage and improves insulin sensitivity. Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate a reduced risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD) with moderate alcohol consumption (showing protection at < or = 2 drinks per day), but an increased risk at higher alcohol consumption levels. Potential mediators of these cardioprotective effects include an increase in high-density cholesterol (HDL-C), decreased clotting propensity, enhanced insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and a possible lowering of blood pressure at low consumption levels in women. Alcohol consumption may not, however, compensate for the large increase in risk produced by smoking. Whereas moderate alcohol consumption slightly reduces the risk of death between the ages of 35 and 69 years, cigarette smoking approximately doubles the risk.

  17. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  18. Alcohol consumption and health status in very old veterans.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Lasarev, Michael R; Dickinson, Kathryn C; Dobscha, Steven K

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has linked drinking with health, but has yet to address alcohol consumption and the relationship between drinking and health among very old veterans. To help fill this gap, the authors present a cross-sectional self-report study on 1105 veterans age 90 and older who completed the national Veteran's Affairs (VA) Survey of the Health Experiences of Patients (SHEP) for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Alcohol consumption was measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores (AUDIT-C). Health status was measured using the Veterans Rand Health Survey: VR-12. Among men (n = 1063), 60% were abstainers. No significant differences in mental health component (MCS; F(3,1040) = 1.80, P = .15) or physical health component (PCS; F(3,1040) = 1.48, P = .22) scores were detected across consumption categories. Among women (n = 42), 47% were abstainers. These results suggest many very old veterans abstain from alcohol and, among men, the associations between health status and drinking observed in younger groups may not be present in very old age.

  19. A single alcohol drinking session is sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A; Yu, Ji-Hwan; Simms, Jeffrey A; Hopf, F Woodward

    2016-09-01

    Addiction is mediated in large part by pathological motivation for rewarding, addictive substances, and alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) continue to extract a very high physical and economic toll on society. Compulsive alcohol drinking, where intake continues despite negative consequences, is considered a particular obstacle during treatment of AUDs. Aversion-resistant drives for alcohol have been modeled in rodents, where animals continue to consume even when alcohol is adulterated with the bitter tastant quinine, or is paired with another aversive consequence. Here, we describe a two-bottle choice paradigm where C57BL/6 mice first had 24-h access to 15% alcohol or water. Afterward, they drank quinine-free alcohol (alcohol-only) or alcohol with quinine (100 μM), in a limited daily access (LDA) two-bottle-choice paradigm (2 h/day, 5 days/week, starting 3 h into the dark cycle), and achieved nearly binge-level blood alcohol concentrations. Interestingly, a single, initial 24-h experience with alcohol-only enhanced subsequent quinine-resistant drinking. In contrast, mice that drank alcohol-quinine in the 24-h session showed significantly reduced alcohol-quinine intake and preference during the subsequent LDA sessions, relative to mice that drank alcohol-only in the initial 24-h session and alcohol-quinine in LDA sessions. Thus, mice could find the concentration of quinine we used aversive, but were able to disregard the quinine after a single alcohol-only drinking session. Finally, mice had low intake and preference for quinine in water, both before and after weeks of alcohol-drinking sessions, suggesting that quinine resistance was not a consequence of increased quinine preference after weeks of drinking of alcohol-quinine. Together, we demonstrate that a single alcohol-only session was sufficient to enable subsequent aversion-resistant consumption in C57BL/6 mice, which did not reflect changes in quinine taste palatability. Given the rapid development of quinine

  20. Alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy and correlated factors among indigenous pregnant women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Mei-Sang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Chen, Cheng-Chih; Yeh, Yi-Chun; Wang, Peng-Wei

    2012-02-01

    To examine the rates and factors associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women, as well as the rates and factors associated with continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan. A total of 806 indigenous women who had just given birth in 10 hospitals in southern and eastern Taiwan were recruited. They were interviewed to collect their substance use information, demographic characteristics, psychological health status, history of physical abuse, and pregnancy history. The rates of alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy in all indigenous pregnant women and the rates of continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy among those who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were calculated. The factors relating to alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy were examined using logistic regression analyses. The results of this study found that 26.6% of indigenous pregnant women drank alcohol at any stage after the recognition of pregnancy, and 52.5% of indigenous pregnant women who drank alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy persisted in drinking alcohol after the recognition of pregnancy. Multiple parities, smoking or chewing betel quid after the recognition of pregnancy, and a higher frequency of drinking alcohol before the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. Meanwhile, being single or divorced, and intimate partner violence after the recognition of pregnancy were significantly associated with alcohol consumption after the recognition of pregnancy. High prevalence rates of alcohol consumption and continuing alcohol consumption after the recognition of

  1. GENDER AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: PATTERNS FROM THE MULTINATIONAL GENACIS PROJECT

    PubMed Central

    Wilsnack, Richard W.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kristjanson, Arlinda F.; Vogeltanz-Holm, Nancy D.; Gmel, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Aims To evaluate multinational patterns of gender- and age-specific alcohol consumption. Design and participants Large general-population surveys of men’s and women’s drinking behavior (N’s > 900) in 35 countries in 1997–2007 used a standardized questionnaire (25 countries) or measures comparable to those in the standardized questionnaire. Measurements Data from men and women in three age groups (18–34, 35–49, 50–65) showed the prevalence of drinkers, former drinkers, and lifetime abstainers; and the prevalence of high-frequency, high-volume, and heavy episodic drinking among current drinkers. Analyses examined gender ratios for prevalence rates and the direction of changes in prevalence rates across age groups. Findings Drinking per se and high-volume drinking were consistently more prevalent among men than among women, but lifetime abstention from alcohol was consistently more prevalent among women. Among respondents who had ever been drinkers, women in all age groups were consistently more likely to have stopped drinking than men were. Among drinkers, the prevalence of high-frequency drinking was consistently greatest in the oldest age group, particularly among men. Unexpectedly, the prevalence of drinking per se did not decline consistently with increasing age, and declines in high-volume and heavy episodic drinking with increasing age were more typical in Europe and English-speaking countries. Conclusions As expected, men still exceed women in drinking and high-volume drinking, although gender ratios vary. Better explanations are needed for why more women than men quit drinking, and why aging does not consistently reduce drinking and heavy drinking outside Europe and English-speaking countries. PMID:19686518

  2. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  3. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  4. Alcohol consumption and escalatory aggression in intoxicated and sober dyads.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E

    1984-01-01

    It has been suggested that alcohol ingestion facilitates escalatory processes in aggressive interactions. The present study examined interaction patterns in intoxicated, sober and mixed dyads. Thirty pairs of men college students were randomly assigned to these conditions. Subjects who received alcohol received .964 g of absolute alcohol per kg of body weight. At the beginning of each trial in a reaction-time competition, each member of the dyad selected the shock level that he wanted his opponent to receive if the opponent was slower on the trial. Further, each member was informed by feedback lights of the shock level that his opponent had selected for him. The results indicated that the intoxicated dyads selected higher shock levels than did the sober dyads. Mixed dyads tended to select lower shock levels than intoxicated dyads but higher shock levels than sober dyads. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Additionally, intoxicated dyads escalated in aggression over the first block of six trials, whereas neither sober nor mixed dyads evidenced such an escalation. One interpretation of these findings is that the cognitive disruption caused by the alcohol interfered with the subjects' ability to evaluate the consequences of their behavior and to interpret the behavior of their opponents. A second interpretation is that, because of the expectancy effects associated with alcohol consumption, intoxicated dyads did not feel constrained to a nonaggressive stance. Finally, the value of the dyadic-interaction paradigm in the study of alcohol-related violence was discussed.

  5. [Epidemiology of alcohol consumption among women].

    PubMed

    Scafato, Emanuele

    2004-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the lifestyles of the Italian population have changed radically, especially those of women, who have adopted behavioural models traditionally associated with men. One of the most important changes has been the increasing number of women who smoke, and more recently, those who drink, habits that can be considered to reflect the changing role of women in society yet which obviously have an important impact on the health status of the female population.

  6. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L.; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. Method we conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113) or quit (n = 290), and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124) or quit (n = 1403) during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. Findings severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: ‘conflict with loved ones’ (OR = 10.4, p<0.01), ‘crime related’ (OR = 35.7, p<0.05), ‘pregnancy-specific’ (OR = 13.4, p<0.05), and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05). Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level) did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. Conclusions Our

  7. Nitrogen narcosis and alcohol consumption--a scuba diving fatality.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, E; Patsalis, A

    1987-07-01

    Nitrogen narcosis can cause death among experienced scuba divers. Nitrogen under pressure affects the brain by acting as an anesthetic agent. Furthermore, the consumption of ethanol along with diving will cause the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis to occur at depths less than 30 m. Our case deals with an experienced diver who drank alcoholic beverages before diving and developed symptoms of nitrogen narcosis at a shallow depth. These two conditions contributed to his death by drowning.

  8. Hybrid mice as genetic models of high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Blednov, Y A; Ozburn, A R; Walker, D; Ahmed, S; Belknap, J K; Harris, R A

    2010-01-01

    We showed that F1 hybrid genotypes may provide a broader variety of ethanol drinking phenotypes than the inbred progenitor strains used to create the hybrids (Blednov et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1949-1958, 2005). To extend this work, we characterized alcohol consumption as well as intake of other tastants (saccharin, quinine and sodium chloride) in five inbred strains of mice (FVB, SJL, B6, BUB, NZB) and in their reciprocal F1 hybrids with B6 (FVBxB6; B6xFVB; NZBxB6; B6xNZB; BUBxB6; B6xBUB; SJLxB6; B6xSJL). We also compared ethanol intake in these mice for several concentrations before and after two periods of abstinence. F1 hybrid mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB and also B6 and SJL drank higher levels of ethanol than their progenitor strains, demonstrating overdominance for two-bottle choice drinking test. The B6 and NZB hybrid showed additivity in two-bottle choice drinking, whereas the hybrid of B6 and BUB demonstrated full or complete dominance. Genealogical origin, as well as non-alcohol taste preferences (sodium chloride), predicted ethanol consumption. Mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB showed high sustained alcohol preference and the B6 and NZB hybrids showed reduced alcohol preference after periods of abstinence. These new genetic models offer some advantages over inbred strains because they provide high, sustained, alcohol intake, and should allow mapping of loci important for the genetic architecture of these traits.

  9. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states.

  10. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012.

  11. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  12. Alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown inconsistent results regarding alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver. We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and fatty liver disease (FLD). Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese databases, identifying studies that reported an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of FLD. Results A total of 16 studies with 76,608 participants including 13 cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and one cohort study met the inclusion criteria. For light to moderate alcohol consumption (LMAC), there was a 22.6% reduction in risk of FLD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.774, 95% confidence interval CI [0.695–0.862], P <0.001), and subgroup analysis showed that a greater reduction in risk of FLD was found in the female drinkers (30.2%) and the drinkers with BMI ≥25 kg/m2(31.3%) compared with the male drinkers (22.6%) and the drinkers with BMI <25 kg/m2(21.3%), respectively. For heavy alcohol consumption, there was no significant influence on risk of FLD (OR = 0.869, 95% CI [0.553–1.364], P = 0.541) in Japanese women, but there was a 33.7% reduction in risk of FLD (OR = 0.663, 95% CI [0.574–0.765], P < 0.001) in Japanese men and a significant increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.785, 95% CI [1.064–2.996], P = 0.028) in Germans. Conclusion LMAC is associated with a significant protective effect on FLD in the studied population, especially in the women and obese population. However, the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on FLD remains unclear due to limited studies and small sample sizes. PMID:27812428

  13. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  14. Female alcohol consumption, motivations for aggression and aggressive incidents in licensed premises.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Michelle; Williams, Nikki; Caulfield, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Research into the relationship between alcohol and aggression has previously focused on men. However, in recent years there has been an increase in binge drinking and violent crime among women, behaviours which have been labelled 'ladette' culture in the UK. The current study advances the literature in this area by investigating the relationship between alcohol consumption and aggressive behaviour of females in licensed premises, including the type of aggression and motivations for aggressive incidents. Ninety-three female university students completed the Student Alcohol Questionnaire (SAQ; Engs, 2002), the Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992) and a questionnaire developed to measure self-reported aggressive incidents. Females who had been involved in an aggressive incident reported spending more time on average in licensed premises per week and higher levels of aggression as well as consuming significantly more alcohol on the day of the incident than females who had not been involved in an aggressive incident. Contrary to expectations, however, those who had been involved in an aggressive incident did not report drinking more beer (a male-orientated drink) than those who had not. Verbally aggressive incidents were reported more than physically aggressive incidents, and aggression was commonly motivated by an emotional reaction or to address a grievance. The finding that average alcohol consumption per week was significantly associated with female aggression in licensed premises highlights the importance of developing interventions to reduce alcohol consumption among young females.

  15. Twelve Months of Voluntary Heavy Alcohol Consumption in Male Rhesus Macaques Suppresses Intracortical Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gaddini, Gino W.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n = 21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22 h/d, 7 d/wk for 12 months. Control monkeys (n = 13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3 days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7 ± 0.2 g alcohol/kg/d (mean ± SE) during the 12 months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77 ± 9 mg/dl from samples taken at 7 h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250 mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8 ± 0.5 % versus 0.6 ± 0.1 %, p = 0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41 ± 0.2/mm2 versus 0.04 ± 0.01/mm2, p < 0.003) in alcohol-consuming monkeys compared to controls, indicating a reduced rate of intracortical bone remodeling

  16. Twelve months of voluntary heavy alcohol consumption in male rhesus macaques suppresses intracortical bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Gaddini, Gino W; Grant, Kathleen A; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T; Iwaniec, Urszula T

    2015-02-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n=21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22h/d, 7 d/wk for 12months. Control monkeys (n=13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7±0.2g alcohol/kg/d (mean±SE) during the 12months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77±9mg/dl from samples taken at 7h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8±0.5 % versus 0.6±0.1 %, p=0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41±0.2/mm(2)versus 0.04±0.01/mm(2), p<0.003) in alcohol-consuming monkeys compared to controls, indicating a reduced rate of intracortical bone remodeling. In concordance, plasma CTx

  17. Hardiness, avoidance coping, and alcohol consumption in war veterans: A moderated-mediation study.

    PubMed

    Bartone, Paul T; Johnsen, Bjorn H; Eid, Jarle; Hystad, Sigurd W; Laberg, Jon C

    2016-11-24

    Military personnel often engage in excessive alcohol use after returning from deployments. Thus far, research has paid scant attention to personality factors that may increase or diminish the risk for increased alcohol consumption in this population. The present study explores how psychological hardiness, avoidance coping, and stress exposure may interact to influence alcohol consumption patterns in soldiers following deployment. U.S. Army National Guard soldiers (N = 357) were surveyed shortly after returning from combat operations in Afghanistan. Conditional process analysis was used to test for mediation and moderation effects. Mediation effects were further tested in a replication sample of Norwegian Army soldiers (N = 230) deployed to Kosovo. Findings show that hardiness is a significant (negative) predictor of increased alcohol use and that this relation is mediated by avoidance coping. Further, this effect was moderated by combat stress exposure in the U.S. sample, such that the mediation is stronger for those with greater exposure (moderated-mediation). Avoidance coping also mediated the effects of hardiness on alcohol consumption in the Norwegian sample. These findings suggest that avoidance coping and hardiness may be fruitful areas for interventions aimed at reducing risky drinking in high-stress groups like the military.

  18. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BURDEN OF DISEASE - AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Baliunas, Dolly; Borges, Guilherme L. G.; Graham, Kathryn; lrving, Hyacinth; Kehoe, Tara; Parry, Charles D.; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Poznyak, Vladimir; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Taylor, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS As part of a larger study to estimate the global burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol: To evaluate the evidence for a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption and pattern of drinking on diseases and injuries;To quantify relationships identified as causal based on published meta-analyses;To separate the impact on mortality vs. morbidity where possible; andTo assess the impact of the quality of alcohol on burden of disease. METHODS Systematic literature reviews were used to identify alcohol-related diseases, birth complications and injuries using standard epidemiologic criteria to determine causality. The extent of the risk relations was taken from meta-analyses. RESULTS Evidence of a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption was found for the following major diseases: tuberculosis, mouth, nasopharynx, other pharynx and oropharynx cancer, oesophageal cancer, colon and rectum cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders, unipolar depressive disorders, epilepsy, hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, conduction disorders and other dysrhythmias, lower respiratory infections (pneumonia), cirrhosis of the liver, preterm birth complications, foetal alcohol syndrome. Dose-response relationships could be quantified for all disease categories except for depressive disorders, with the relative risk increasing with increased level of alcohol consumption for most diseases. Both average volume and drinking pattern were causally linked to IHD, foetal alcohol syndrome, and unintentional and intentional injuries. For IHD, ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus beneficial effects were observed for patterns of light to moderate drinking without heavy drinking occasions (as defined by 60+ grams pure alcohol per day). For several disease and injury categories, the effects were stronger on mortality compared to morbidity. There was insufficient

  19. Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: a look at the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Nguyen, Nhi; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association. PMID:25581056

  20. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  1. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  2. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  3. Alcohol Consumption, Beverage Preference, and Diet in Middle-Aged Men from the STANISLAS Study

    PubMed Central

    Herbeth, Bernard; Samara, Anastasia; Stathopoulou, Maria; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The question about differences in dietary patterns associated with beer, wine, and spirits is still unresolved. We used diet data from 423 middle-aged males of the STANISLAS Study. Using adjusted values for covariates, we observed a negative significant association between increasing alcohol intakes and the consumption of milk, yogurt, and fresh/uncured cheese, sugar and confectionery, vegetables and fruits, and a significant positive relationship with cheese, meat and organs, pork-butcher's meat, and potatoes. In addition, the first dietary pattern identified by factor analysis (characterized a more prudent diet) was inversely related to alcohol intakes. Conversely, when analyzing daily consumption of specific food groups and diet patterns according to beverage preference (wine, beer, and spirits), no significant difference was observed. In conclusion, in this sample of middle-aged French males, there was a linear trend between increasing alcohol intakes and worsening of quality of diet, while no difference was observed according to beverage preference. PMID:23056930

  4. How Harmonious and Obsessive Passion for Alcohol and Marijuana Relate to Consumption and Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Neighbors, Clayton; Christina Hove, M.; Olson, Nichole; Lee, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Although the concepts of harmonious and obsessive passion have been productive in explaining why people eagerly engage in such activities as sports, Internet use, and gambling, previous research has not yet extended these models to explain alcohol and marijuana use among college students. The current research was conducted to clarify the relationships among harmonious and obsessive passion, alcohol and marijuana use, and negative consequences. Method: Two studies were conducted using online assessments. In Study 1, 748 heavy drinking college students (58% female) were recruited and completed measures of passion for drinking alcohol, alcohol use, and alcohol-related negative consequences. In Study 2, 352 regular marijuana-using students (54% female) were recruited and completed assessments of marijuana passion, marijuana use, and marijuana-related consequences. Results: Study 1 found that among heavy drinking college students, harmonious passion was a stronger predictor of increased consumption than was obsessive passion, whereas obsessive passion was a stronger predictor of alcohol-related problems than was harmonious passion. Study 2 revealed similar findings with regard to harmonious passion predicting marijuana consumption; however, unlike Study 1, no significant difference between the passions was found in predicting marijuana-related problems. Conclusions: This research provides a novel perspective on motivation for alcohol and marijuana use. Findings suggest that understanding the locus of young adults’ passion for substance use may be helpful in identifying those who are likely to develop a substance use disorder and therefore may be the most in need of assistance and intervention. PMID:26402355

  5. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  6. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment on oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue.

    PubMed

    Carrard, V C; Pires, A S; Mendez, M; Mattos, F; Moreira, J C F; Sant'Ana Filho, M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue. Thirty-eight, Wistar rats were separated into five groups (alcohol, alcohol/vitamin E, control, Tween, vitamin E). Alcohol and alcohol vitamin E groups had the standard diet, and 40% alcohol on drinking water. Other groups were fed with the same standard diet and water ad libitum. Vitamin E was given by gavage to vitamin E and alcohol/vitamin E rats twice a week. Alcohol and control groups were subjected to saline gavage and Tween group to 5% Tween 80 solution, the vitamin E vehicle. At day 14, the animals were anesthetized and specimens were obtained from tongue. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidative damage, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. Alcohol group decreased TBARS in relation to control group and alcohol vitamin-treated animals decreased TBARS when compared to Tween and vitamin E groups. SOD activity was lower and CAT activity was higher in animals treated with both alcohol and vitamin E. These results suggest that short-term alcohol consumption decreases lipid peroxidation levels. Alternatively, alcohol/vitamin E group increased CAT, showing the toxicity of this association.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Consumption in Denmark

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Veerman, Lennert; Cobiac, Linda; Ekholm, Ola; Diderichsen, Finn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption increases the risk of many diseases and injuries, and the Global Burden of Disease 2010 study estimated that 6% of the burden of disease in Denmark is due to alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption thus places a considerable economic burden on society. Methods We analysed the cost-effectiveness of six interventions aimed at preventing alcohol abuse in the adult Danish population: 30% increased taxation, increased minimum legal drinking age, advertisement bans, limited hours of retail sales, and brief and longer individual interventions. Potential health effects were evaluated as changes in incidence, prevalence and mortality of alcohol-related diseases and injuries. Net costs were calculated as the sum of intervention costs and cost offsets related to treatment of alcohol-related outcomes, based on health care costs from Danish national registers. Cost-effectiveness was evaluated by calculating incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) for each intervention. We also created an intervention pathway to determine the optimal sequence of interventions and their combined effects. Results Three of the analysed interventions (advertising bans, limited hours of retail sales and taxation) were cost-saving, and the remaining three interventions were all cost-effective. Net costs varied from € -17 million per year for advertisement ban to € 8 million for longer individual intervention. Effectiveness varied from 115 disability-adjusted life years (DALY) per year for minimum legal drinking age to 2,900 DALY for advertisement ban. The total annual effect if all interventions were implemented would be 7,300 DALY, with a net cost of € -30 million. Conclusion Our results show that interventions targeting the whole population were more effective than individual-focused interventions. A ban on alcohol advertising, limited hours of retail sale and increased taxation had the highest probability of being cost-saving and should thus

  8. Maternal Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Metabolism Genes, and the Risk of Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Norway, 1996–2001

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466

  9. Drug and Alcohol Arrests Increased in 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Department of Education (DOE) data showed a 1999 increase in drug and alcohol arrests on college campuses. Also, the number of reported sex offenses rose by 6 percent from 1998-99. Some experts question the validity of the year-to-year comparisons and the DOE data. Presents statistics on sex offenses, drug use, and drinking and football. (SM)

  10. Tracking Biases: An Update to the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Estimating Population Consumption in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Audrey; Robinson, Mark; McAdams, Rachel; McCartney, Gerry; Beeston, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Aims To highlight the importance of monitoring biases when using retail sales data to estimate population alcohol consumption. Methods Previously, we identified and where possible quantified sources of bias that may lead to under- or overestimation of alcohol consumption in Scotland. Here, we update findings by using more recent data and by quantifying emergent biases. Results Underestimation resulting from the net effect of biases on population consumption in Scotland increased from −4% in 2010 to −7% in 2013. Conclusion Biases that might impact on the validity and reliability of sales data when estimating population consumption should be routinely monitored and updated. PMID:26419684

  11. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level.

  12. The moderating role of social networks in the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Mowbray, Orion

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals wait until alcohol use becomes severe before treatment is sought. However, social networks, or the number of social groups an individual belongs to, may play a moderating role in this relationship. Logistic regression examined the interaction of alcohol consumption and social networks as a predictor of treatment utilization while adjusting for sociodemographic and clinical variables among 1,433 lifetime alcohol-dependent respondents from wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol Related Conditions (NESARC). Results showed that social networks moderate the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization such that for individuals with few network ties, the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization was diminished, compared to the relationship between alcohol consumption and treatment utilization for individuals with many network ties. Findings offer insight into how social networks, at times, can influence individuals to pursue treatment, while at other times, influence individuals to stay out of treatment, or seek treatment substitutes.

  13. Alcohol consumption and genetic variation in MTHFR and MTR in relation to breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Platek, Mary E.; Shields, Peter G.; Marian, Catalin; McCann, Susan E.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Nie, Jing; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Millen, Amy E.; Ochs-Balcom, Heather M.; Quick, Sylvia K.; Trevisan, Maurizio; Russell, Marcia; Nochajski, Thomas H.; Edge, Stephen B.; Freudenheim, Jo L.

    2010-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that effects of alcohol consumption on one-carbon metabolism may explain, in part, the association of alcohol consumption with breast cancer risk. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate-homocysteine methyltransferease (MTR) genes express key enzymes in this pathway. We investigated the association of polymorphisms in MTHFR (rs1801133 and rs1801131) and MTR (rs1805087) with breast cancer risk and their interaction with alcohol consumption in a case-control study, the Western New York Exposures and Breast Cancer (WEB) study. Cases (n=1063) were women with primary, incident breast cancer and controls (n= 1890) were frequency matched to cases on age and race. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression. We found no association of MTHFR or MTR genotype with risk of breast cancer. In the original case control study, there was a nonsignificant increased odds of breast cancer among women with higher lifetime drinking. In the current study, there was no evidence of an interaction of genotype and alcohol in premenopausal women. However, among postmenopausal women there was an increase in breast cancer risk for women who were homozygote TT for MTHFR C677T and had high lifetime alcohol intake (≥1161.84 ounces) (OR=1.92, CI=1.13–3.28) and for those who had a high number of drinks per drinking day (> 1.91 drinks/day) (OR=1.80, CI=1.03–3.28) compared to nondrinkers who were homozygote CC. Our findings indicate that among postmenopausal women, increased breast cancer risk with alcohol consumption may be as a result of effects on one-carbon metabolism. PMID:19706843

  14. Alcohol consumption and dementia risk: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Huifu; Wan, Yu; Tan, Chenchen; Li, Jieqiong; Tan, Lan; Yu, Jin-Tai

    2017-01-01

    It is widely believed that light-to-moderate alcohol intake may protect against dementia while excessive drinking may instead increase the risk. Nonetheless, these findings need cautious interpretations due to varying methodologies and lack of standard definition, which hindered our transferring into preventative practice. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential dose-response association between alcohol consumption and risk of dementia. A systematic search was conducted in electronic databases to identify relevant studies. Risk estimates were combined using a random-effect model. Eleven studies with 73,330 participants and 4586 cases for all-cause dementia (ACD), five studies with 52,715 participants and 1267 cases for Alzheimer's dementia (AD) and four studies with 49,535 participants and 542 cases for vascular dementia were included. We observed a nonlinear association between alcohol consumption and ACD risk (p nonlinearity < 0.05). The alcohol dose associated with lower risk of dementia was confined to at most 12.5 g/day, with the risk hitting bottom (RR ≈ 0.9) at roughly 6 g/day. Of note, the ACD risk seemed to be elevated (≈10%) when the dose surpasses certain levels: 23 drinks/week or 38 g/day. For the alcohol type, recommendation for wine is prioritized. The subgroup analysis further indicated that the effect of alcohol may be greater in younger adults (<60 years old) with regard to fighting against dementia. Modest alcohol consumption (≤12.5 g/day) is associated with a reduced risk of dementia with 6 g/day of alcohol conferring a lower risk than other levels while excessive drinking (≥38 g/day) may instead elevate the risk.

  15. Alcohol consumption enhances antiretroviral painful peripheral neuropathy by mitochondrial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Luiz F; Levine, Jon D

    2010-09-01

    A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial-dependent and PKCε-independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy was PKCε-dependent and mitochondrial-independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for 1 week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial-dependent but PKCε-independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction.

  16. Caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and drug consumption among medical students in Barcelona.

    PubMed

    Laporte, J R; Cami, J; Gutiérrez, R; Laporte, J

    1977-07-19

    A survey of medical students was conducted at the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona in 1974. Out of 1029 students, 808 present at lectures (78.5%) returned properly completed questionnaires. These showed that mean caffeine consumption was 8.3 g per month and increased with the length of stay at the university. Tobacco consumption (general mean, 190 cigarettes per month, 216 for males and 150 for females) and alcohol consumption (8.8 litres/year for males and 4.1 litres/year for females) also increased with time spent at university. Alcohol consumption was not as high as in the general population. Amphetamine consumption was very high (22% of students had taken amphetamines on more than one occasion in the six months prior to the survey). Marihuana and hashish were by far the most commonly used drugs (9.6%), the use of these drugs being much less common than at other European universities. The use of "harder" drugs was very limited. Appraisal of alcohol, tobacco and amphetamine abuse is necessary, since the authorities have not employed adequate measures to stop or limit them.

  17. Is it possible to reduce tobacco consumption via alcohol taxation?

    PubMed

    Jimenez, S; Labeaga, J M

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies with Spanish data suggest that indirect taxation is a potential instrument to reduce tobacco consumption but the magnitude of the estimated price elasticity limits the effectiveness of the taxes. However, if the separability restriction does not hold between tobacco and other goods, the results obtained could be misleading. This shortcoming of previous analyses leads us to formulate a demand system with alcohol, tobacco and other goods so as to estimate and test complementary effects and to assess the possibility for reducing consumption by indirect taxation of complementary commodities. We use the Spanish Family Expenditure Survey to carry out a cross-section study which allows us to estimate demand models under different assumptions about the nature of zero expenditures and to test the effectiveness of indirect taxation. The findings tend to support our initial suspicions about the inadequacy of imposing separability and point out the importance of alcohol taxation to reduce tobacco consumption. However, given the structure of the data used, these results should be viewed with caution and must be confirmed by additional evidence.

  18. An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite intense investigation, the temporal sequence between alcohol consumption and mental health remains unclear. This study explored the relationship between alcohol consumption and mental health over multiple occasions, and compared a series of competing theoretical models to determine which best reflected the association between the two. Methods Data from phases 5 (1997 to 1999), 7 (2002 to 2004), and 9 (2007 to 2009) of the Whitehall II prospective cohort study were used, providing approximately 10 years of follow-up for 6,330 participants (73% men; mean ± SD age 55.8 ± 6.0 years). Mental health was assessed using the Short Form (SF)-36 mental health component score. Alcohol consumption was defined as the number of UK units of alcohol drunk per week. Four dynamic latent change score models were compared: 1) a baseline model in which alcohol consumption and mental health trajectories did not influence each other, 2) and model in which alcohol consumption influenced changes in mental health but mental health exerted no effect on changes in drinking and 3) vice versa, and (4) a reciprocal model in which both variables influenced changes in each other. Results The third model, in which mental health influenced changes in alcohol consumption but not vice versa, was the best fit. In this model, the effect of previous mental health on upcoming change in alcohol consumption was negative (γ = -0.31, 95% CI -0.52 to -0.10), meaning that those with better mental health tended to make greater reductions (or shallower increases) in their drinking between occasions. Conclusions Mental health appears to be the leading indicator of change in the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and weekly alcohol consumption in this sample of middle-aged adults. In addition to fuelling increases in alcohol consumption among low-level consumers, poor mental health may also be a maintaining factor for heavy alcohol consumption. Future work

  19. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  20. Difficulties with telephone-based surveys on alcohol consumption in high-income countries: the Canadian example.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    Accurate information concerning alcohol consumption level and patterns is vital to formulating public health policy. The objective of this paper is to critically assess the extent to which survey design, response rate and alcohol consumption coverage obtained in random digit dialling, telephone-based surveys impact on conclusions about alcohol consumption and its patterns in the general population. Our analysis will be based on the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS) 2008, a national survey intended to be representative of the general population. The conclusions of this paper are as follows: (1) ignoring people who are homeless, institutionalized and/or do not have a home phone may lead to an underestimation of the prevalence of alcohol consumption and related problems; (2) weighting of observations to population demographics may lead to a increase in the design effect, does not necessarily address the underlying selection bias, and may lead to overly influential observations; and (3) the accurate characterization of alcohol consumption patterns obtained by triangulating the data with the adult per capita consumption estimate is essential for comparative analyses and intervention planning especially when the alcohol coverage rate is low like in the CADUMS with 34%.

  1. Effect of alcohol consumption in prenatal life, childhood, and adolescence on child development.

    PubMed

    Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Franchin, Laura; Verduci, Elvira; Giovannini, Marcello

    2011-11-01

    The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.

  2. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  3. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  5. Acculturation and alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans: a three-generation study.

    PubMed Central

    Markides, K S; Krause, N; Mendes de Leon, C F

    1988-01-01

    Data from a three-generation study of Mexican Americans conducted in the San Antonio, Texas area are utilized to examine the influence of acculturation into the larger society on alcohol consumption. Acculturation was not related to alcohol consumption in the older generation. In the middle generation, it was related to lower alcohol consumption among men, as well as among women. In the younger generation, acculturation was related to more drinking among women, but not among men. Within-family analysis showed that the alcohol consumption of members of the younger generation was associated with the consumption of their parents, particularly in the case of younger women. PMID:3407815

  6. Macro-level gender equality and alcohol consumption: a multi-level analysis across U.S. States.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Sarah C M

    2012-07-01

    Higher levels of women's alcohol consumption have long been attributed to increases in gender equality. However, only limited research examines the relationship between gender equality and alcohol consumption. This study examined associations between five measures of state-level gender equality and five alcohol consumption measures in the United States. Survey data regarding men's and women's alcohol consumption from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were linked to state-level indicators of gender equality. Gender equality indicators included state-level women's socioeconomic status, gender equality in socioeconomic status, reproductive rights, policies relating to violence against women, and women's political participation. Alcohol consumption measures included past 30-day drinker status, drinking frequency, binge drinking, volume, and risky drinking. Other than drinker status, consumption is measured for drinkers only. Multi-level linear and logistic regression models adjusted for individual demographics as well as state-level income inequality, median income, and % Evangelical Protestant/Mormon. All gender equality indicators were positively associated with both women's and men's drinker status in models adjusting only for individual-level covariates; associations were not significant in models adjusting for other state-level characteristics. All other associations between gender equality and alcohol consumption were either negative or non-significant for both women and men in models adjusting for other state-level factors. Findings do not support the hypothesis that higher levels of gender equality are associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption by women or by men. In fact, most significant findings suggest that higher levels of equality are associated with less alcohol consumption overall.

  7. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use.

  8. Examining the Associations among Severity of Injunctive Drinking Norms, Alcohol Consumption, and Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences: The Moderating Roles of Alcohol Consumption and Identity

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Melissa A.; Neighbors, Clayton; Geisner, Irene Markman; Lee, Christine M.; Kilmer, Jason R.; Atkins, David C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined a range of injunctive norms for alcohol use and related consequences from less severe behaviors (e.g., drinking with friends) to more severe behaviors (e.g., drinking enough alcohol to pass out), and their relationship with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences among college students. In addition, this research aimed to determine if these relationships between injunctive norms and consequences were moderated by alcohol consumption and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. A random sample (N = 1,002) of undergraduates (56.9% female) completed a Web–based survey that was comprised of measures of drinking behavior, perceived approval of drinking behaviors that ranged in severity (i.e., injunctive norms), and level of identification with the typical same-sex college student. Results suggest that the association between negative consequences and injunctive drinking norms depend on one's own drinking behavior, identification with other students, and the severity of the alcohol use and related consequences for which injunctive norms are assessed. Findings are discussed in terms of false consensus and false uniqueness effects, and deviance regulation perspectives. Implications for preventative interventions are discussed. PMID:20565144

  9. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  10. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component.

  11. Does moderate alcohol consumption affect fertility? Follow up study among couples planning first pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T K; Hjollund, N H; Henriksen, T B; Scheike, T; Kolstad, H; Giwercman, A; Ernst, E; Bonde, J P; Skakkebaek, N E; Olsen, J

    1998-08-22

    The effect of alcohol consumption on the probability of conception was investigated in a prospective study of 430 Danish couples seeking to achieve pregnancy for the first time. Couples were recruited through a national mailing to trade union members and followed for six menstrual cycles after contraception discontinuation or until a clinically recognized pregnancy occurred. Mean weekly alcohol intake was 4.0 drinks among women and 9.5 drinks among their male partners; 73 women (17%) abstained from alcohol drinking throughout the six cycles. During the study period, 179 (64%) of the 280 women with an average weekly alcohol intake of less than five drinks and 75 (55%) of the 136 women with a higher intake conceived. Among male partners, these rates were 67% and 58%, respectively. After adjustment for cycle number, smoking, enrollment center, diseases of the reproductive system, body mass index, sperm concentration, and menstrual cycle duration, the odds ratio decreased with increasing alcohol consumption from 0.61 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.93) among women who consumed 1-5 drinks a week to 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36-0.85) among those reporting 6-10 drinks a week to 0.34 (95% CI, 0.22-0.52) among women consuming 11-15 drinks a week compared with women with no alcohol intake. No dose-response relationship was found in male partners after adjustment for the same confounders. Although these findings require further corroboration, they suggest that even moderate alcohol consumption has a significant adverse effect on fecundability.

  12. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  13. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders.

  14. Alcohol consumption in late-life--the first Brazilian National Alcohol Survey (BNAS).

    PubMed

    Castro-Costa, E; Ferri, C P; Lima-Costa, M F; Zaleski, M; Pinsky, I; Caetano, R; Laranjeira, R

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the alcohol consumption in later life in Brazil and its association with socio-demographic characteristics. This study was a cross-sectional analysis of nationally representative survey data. A multistage cluster sampling procedure was used to select 3007 individuals of 14 years of age and older from the Brazilian household population. In this study we analyzed data from all 400 participants who were over 60 years old. Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Syndrome was established according to DSM-IV and Risky Drinking was defined in two ways: heavy drinkers (>7 drinks/week) and as binge drinkers (>3 drinks/one occasion). Twelve percent of participants reported heavy drinking behavior while 10.4% and 2.9% were binge drinkers and alcohol dependent respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression only gender was associated with heavy drinking behavior. Males, the youngest and the wealthiest were more likely to report binge drinking behaviors. In conclusion, alcohol related-problems are common but under recognized among older adults. Health professionals should be aware that common definitions of alcohol abuse and dependence may not apply as readily to older people, who have had biological changes for alcohol tolerance and its effects on the Central Nervous System.

  15. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  16. Characteristics of social drinkers with and without a hangover after heavy alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Hogewoning, A; Van de Loo, AJAE; Mackus, M; Raasveld, SJ; De Zeeuw, R; Bosma, ER; Bouwmeester, NH; Brookhuis, KA; Garssen, J; Verster, JC

    2016-01-01

    Background A number of social drinkers claim that they do not experience next-day hangovers despite consuming large quantities of alcohol. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of drinkers who claim to be hangover immune and compare them with drinkers who do report having hangovers. Methods A total of 36 social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study consisting of a hangover day (alcohol consumed) and a control day (no alcohol consumed). Data were collected on alcohol consumption, demographics, sleep, next-day adverse effects, and mood. Data from drinkers with a hangover (N=18) were compared with data from drinkers who claim to be hangover immune (N=18). Results Drinkers with a hangover reported drowsiness-related symptoms, symptoms related to reduced cognitive functioning, and classic hangover symptoms such as headache, nausea, dizziness, weakness, and stomach pain. Corresponding mood changes comprised increased feelings of depression, anger–hostility, fatigue, and reduced vigor–activity. In contrast, hangover-immune drinkers reported relatively few hangover symptoms, with only mild corresponding severity scores. The reported symptoms were limited to drowsiness-related symptoms such as sleepiness and being tired. The classic hangover symptoms were usually not reported by these drinkers. Conclusion In contrast to drinkers with a hangover, for those who claim to be hangover immune, next-day adverse effects of alcohol consumption are limited to a mild increase in drowsiness-related symptoms. PMID:27895524

  17. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  18. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  19. Effects of smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption on smoking-related outcome expectancies in heavy smokers and tobacco chippers

    PubMed Central

    Kirchner, Thomas R.; Sayette, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation interventions often target expectancies about the consequences of smoking. Yet little is known about the way smoking-related expectancies vary across different contexts. Two internal contexts that are often linked with smoking relapse are states associated with smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption. This report presents a secondary analysis of data from two experiments designed to examine the influence of smoking abstinence, and smoking abstinence combined with alcohol consumption, on smoking-related outcome expectancies among heavy smokers and tobacco chippers (smokers who had consistently smoked no more than 5 cigarettes/day for at least 2 years). Across both experiments, smoking abstinence and alcohol consumption increased expectancies of positive reinforcement from smoking. In addition, alcohol consumption increased negative reinforcement expectancies among tobacco chippers, such that the expectancies became more similar to those of heavy smokers as tobacco chippers’ level of subjective alcohol intoxication increased. Findings suggest that these altered states influence the way smokers evaluate the consequences of smoking, and provide insight into the link between smoking abstinence, alcohol consumption, and smoking behavior. PMID:17365768

  20. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  1. Living under the influence: normalisation of alcohol consumption in our cities.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Xisca; Villalbí, Joan R; Espelt, Albert; Franco, Manuel

    Harmful use of alcohol is one of the world's leading health risks. A positive association between certain characteristics of the urban environment and individual alcohol consumption has been documented in previous research. When developing a tool characterising the urban environment of alcohol in the cities of Barcelona and Madrid we observed that alcohol is ever present in our cities. Urban residents are constantly exposed to a wide variety of alcohol products, marketing and promotion and signs of alcohol consumption. In this field note, we reflect the normalisation of alcohol in urban environments. We highlight the need for further research to better understand attitudes and practices in relation to alcohol consumption. This type of urban studies is necessary to support policy interventions to prevent and control harmful alcohol use.

  2. Increased cancer risk among Swedish female alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Sigvardsson, S; Hardell, L; Przybeck, T R; Cloninger, R

    1996-03-01

    We evaluated site-specific cancer risks in alcoholic women. We identified 15,508 alcoholic women from the records of the Temperance Boards in Sweden and obtained a comparison group by selecting for each alcoholic woman one female individual matched for region and day of birth. We obtained incidence data from the Swedish Cancer Registry. We found an increased relative risk (RR) for any cancer [RR = 1.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-1.8]; site-specific risks were increased for tongue (RR = 8.5; 95% CI = 2.0-37), mouth (RR = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-92), tonsil (RR = 11; 95% CI = 1.4-85), hypopharynx (RR = 9.0; 95% CI = 1.1-71), larynx (RR = 7.0; 95% CI = 0.9-57), liver (RR = 4.6; 95% CI = 1.8-12), pancreas (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.6-4.6), lung (RR = 5.0; 95% CI = 3.3-7.5), breast (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.2-1.7), cervix uteri (RR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.8-5.4), and vulva, vagina, and unspecified female genital organs (RR = 4.0; 95% CI = 1.3-12). We found a decreased risk for malignant melanoma of the skin (RR = 0.5; 95% CI = 0.3-1.0). Since this was a register study, the results may be confounded by differences in smoking, dietary habits, and/or other factors in the cohort of alcoholic women and the comparison group.

  3. Pharmacologically Counteracting a Phenotypic Difference in Cerebellar GABAA Receptor Response to Alcohol Prevents Excessive Alcohol Consumption in a High Alcohol-Consuming Rodent Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Josh Steven; Nipper, Michelle A.; Richardson, Ben D.; Jensen, Jeremiah; Helms, Melinda; Finn, Deborah Ann

    2016-01-01

    Cerebellar granule cell GABAA receptor responses to alcohol vary as a function of alcohol consumption phenotype, representing a potential neural mechanism for genetic predilection for alcohol abuse (Kaplan et al., 2013; Mohr et al., 2013). However, there are numerous molecular targets of alcohol in the cerebellum, and it is not known how they interact to affect cerebellar processing during consumption of socially relevant amounts of alcohol. Importantly, direct evidence for a causative role of the cerebellum in alcohol consumption phenotype is lacking. Here we determined that concentrations of alcohol that would be achieved in the blood after consumption of 1–2 standard units (9 mm) suppresses transmission through the cerebellar cortex in low, but not high, alcohol consuming rodent genotypes (DBA/2J and C57BL/6J mice, respectively). This genotype-selective suppression is mediated exclusively by enhancement of granule cell GABAA receptor currents, which only occurs in DBA/2J mice. Simulating the DBA/2J cellular phenotype in C57BL/6J mice by infusing the GABAA receptor agonist, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride, into cerebellar lobules IV–VI, in vivo, significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentrations achieved. 4,5,6,7-Tetrahydroisoxazolo-[5,4-c]pyridine-3-ol hydrochloride infusions also significantly decreased sucrose consumption, but they did not affect consumption of water or general locomotion. Thus, genetic differences in cerebellar response to alcohol contributes to alcohol consumption phenotype, and targeting the cerebellar GABAA receptor system may be a clinically viable therapeutic strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of preventable death and illness; and although alcohol use disorders are 50%–60% genetically determined, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such genetic influences are largely unknown. Here we

  4. Alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability: a gene × environment interaction study.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Stuart J; Bates, Timothy C; Corley, Janie; McNeill, Geraldine; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David C; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J

    2014-06-01

    Studies of the effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive ability are often confounded. One approach to avoid confounding is the Mendelian randomization design. Here, we used such a design to test the hypothesis that a genetic score for alcohol processing capacity moderates the association between alcohol consumption and lifetime change in cognitive ability. Members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed the same test of intelligence at age 11 and 70 years. They were assessed for recent alcohol consumption in later life and genotyped for a set of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three alcohol dehydrogenase genes. These variants were unrelated to late-life cognition or to socioeconomic status. We found a significant gene × alcohol consumption interaction on lifetime cognitive change (p = 0.007). Individuals with higher genetic ability to process alcohol showed relative improvements in cognitive ability with more consumption, whereas those with low processing capacity showed a negative relationship between cognitive change and alcohol consumption with more consumption. The effect of alcohol consumption on cognitive change may thus depend on genetic differences in the ability to metabolize alcohol.

  5. Relation Between Alcohol Consumption and Cardiac Structure and Function in the Elderly: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Alexandra; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Claggett, Brian; Shah, Amil M.; Konety, Suma; Butler, Kenneth; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Rosamond, Wayne; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with cardiomyopathy, but the influence of moderate alcohol use on cardiac structure and function is largely unknown. Methods and Results We studied 4466 participants from visit 5 of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (76±5 years and 60% women) who underwent transthoracic echocardiography, excluding former drinkers and those with significant valvular disease. Participants were classified into 4 categories based on self-reported alcohol intake: non-drinkers, drinkers of up to 7 drinks per week, ≥7 to 14 and ≥ 14 drinks per week. We related alcohol intake to measures of cardiac structure and function, stratified by sex, and fully adjusted for covariates. In both genders, increasing alcohol intake was associated with larger left ventricular (LV) diastolic and systolic diameters and larger left atrial diameter (p values <0.05). In men, increasing alcohol intake was associated with greater LV mass (8.2 ± 3.8 g per consumption category, p = 0.029) and higher E/E’ ratio (0.82±0.33 per consumption category, p= 0.014). In women, increasing alcohol intake was associated with lower LV ejection fraction (−1.9% ± 0.6% per consumption category, p=0.002) and a tendency for worse LV global longitudinal strain (0.45% ±0.25% per consumption category, p=0.07). Conclusions In an elderly community-based population, increasing alcohol intake is associated with subtle alterations in cardiac structure and function, with women appearing more susceptible than men to the cardiotoxic effects of alcohol. PMID:26015266

  6. Key Findings on Alcohol Consumption and a Variety of Health Outcomes From the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Giovannucci, Ed L.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review critical contributions from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) on alcohol consumption and health outcomes. Methods. We performed a narrative review of NHS (1980–2012) and NHS II (1989–2011) publications. Results. Using detailed information on self-reported alcohol drinking patterns obtained approximately every 4 years combined with extensive information on diet, lifestyle habits, and physician-diagnosed health conditions, NHS investigators have prospectively examined the risks and benefits associated with alcohol consumption. Moderate intake, defined as up to 1 drink a day, is associated with a lower risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, gallstones, cognitive decline, and all-cause mortality. However, even moderate intake places women at higher risk for breast cancer and bone fractures, and higher intake increases risk for colon polyps and colon cancer. Conclusions. Regular alcohol intake has both risks and benefits. In analyses using repeated assessments of alcohol over time and deaths from all causes, women with low to moderate intake and regular frequency (> 3 days/week) had the lowest risk of mortality compared with abstainers and women who consumed substantially more than 1 drink per day. PMID:27459455

  7. Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Alcohol Consumption Across Youth and Early Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Daniel E; Clark, Shaunna L; Copeland, William E; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Liu, Youfang; Kumar, Gaurav; Erkanli, Alaattin; Patkar, Ashwin A; Silberg, Judy; Brown, Tyson H; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Eaves, Lindon; van den Oord, Edwin J C G; Sullivan, Patrick F; Costello, E J

    2015-08-01

    The public health burden of alcohol is unevenly distributed across the life course, with levels of use, abuse, and dependence increasing across adolescence and peaking in early adulthood. Here, we leverage this temporal patterning to search for common genetic variants predicting developmental trajectories of alcohol consumption. Comparable psychiatric evaluations measuring alcohol consumption were collected in three longitudinal community samples (N=2,126, obs=12,166). Consumption-repeated measurements spanning adolescence and early adulthood were analyzed using linear mixed models, estimating individual consumption trajectories, which were then tested for association with Illumina 660W-Quad genotype data (866,099 SNPs after imputation and QC). Association results were combined across samples using standard meta-analysis methods. Four meta-analysis associations satisfied our pre-determined genome-wide significance criterion (FDR<0.1) and six others met our 'suggestive' criterion (FDR<0.2). Genome-wide significant associations were highly biological plausible, including associations within GABA transporter 1, SLC6A1 (solute carrier family 6, member 1), and exonic hits in LOC100129340 (mitofusin-1-like). Pathway analyses elaborated single marker results, indicating significant enriched associations to intuitive biological mechanisms, including neurotransmission, xenobiotic pharmacodynamics, and nuclear hormone receptors (NHR). These findings underscore the value of combining longitudinal behavioral data and genome-wide genotype information in order to study developmental patterns and improve statistical power in genomic studies.

  8. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  9. Alcohol, poverty and social exclusion: Alcohol consumption among the homeless and those at risk of social exclusion in Madrid.

    PubMed

    Panadero, Sonia; Vázquez, José Juan; Martín, Rosa María

    2016-06-14

    The work analyzes different aspects related to alcohol consumption among homeless people and people at risk of social exclusion. The data was gathered from a representative sample of homeless people in Madrid (n = 188) and a sample of people at risk of social exclusion (n = 164) matched in sex, age, and origin (Spaniards vs. foreigners). The results showed that homeless people present a greater consumption of alcohol and have experienced more problems derived from its consumption than people at risk of social exclusion. Most of the homeless people who had alcohol-related problems had had them prior to their homelessness, and they stated they had poorer health and had experienced a greater number of homelessness episodes. Despite the relevance of problems related to alcohol among our sample, only a small percentage of the sample had participated in treatment programs for alcohol consumption.

  10. A Single Dose of Kudzu Extract Reduces Alcohol Consumption in a Binge Drinking Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637

  11. Analysis of NHANES 1999-2002 data reveals noteworthy association of alcohol consumption with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankar

    2014-01-01

    Background With the obesity pandemic sweeping the globe and alcohol use on the rise worldwide, there is growing interest in how the two might be linked epidemiologically. The aim of the study was to use data from the NHANES registry from 1999-2002 to analyze the association between obesity and alcohol use. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between alcohol use and obesity. Risk was assessed separately for men and women. Results Of the 9,193 individuals (49% males), 26.8% of males and 33.6% of females were obese. About 17% of males and 12% of females were never drinkers (less than 12 drinks in their lifetime). After adjusting for age, race, marital status, highest level of education of the individual and spouse, country of origin, annual household income and duration of physical activity in the past 30 days, the odds of obesity were higher in never drinkers compared to ever drinkers in both men and women. Consumption of alcohol for more than 45 days, binge drinking (>5 drinks/day) for more than 90 days and being “ever binge drinker” were associated with significantly higher odds of obesity (in both genders) than those who drank for shorter duration or were “never binge drinkers”. Consumption of alcohol more than the recommended limit for moderate drinking (3 drinks/day in females and 4 drinks/day in males) was associated with increased (OR 1.074, 95% CI 1.072-1.076) and decreased (OR 0.970, 95%CI 0.968-0.972) obesity in females and males respectively. Conclusion Frequent or heavy alcohol consumption is associated with greater odds of being obese. PMID:24974978

  12. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use.

  13. Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a known antecedent to cocaine relapse. Through associative conditioning, it is hypothesized that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine and thus the salience of cocaine-related cues, which are important in maintaining drug-taking behavior. Cocaine-using individuals display a robust cocaine cue attentional bias as measured by fixation time during the visual probe task. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol administration on cocaine cue attentional bias using eye-tracking technology to directly measure attentional allocation. Methods Twenty current cocaine users completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study that tested the effect of three doses of alcohol (0.00, 0.325, 0.65 g/kg alcohol) on cocaine cue attentional bias using the visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. The participant-rated and physiological effects of alcohol were also assessed. Results Participants displayed a robust cocaine cue attentional bias following both placebo and alcohol administration as measured by fixation time, but not response time. Alcohol administration did not influence cocaine cue attentional bias, but increased craving for cocaine in a dose dependent manner. Alcohol produced prototypic psychomotor and participant-rated effects. Conclusions Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias. Alcohol-induced cocaine craving suggests that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine but not the salience of cocaine-related cues. PMID:26331880

  14. Drinking to Distraction: Does Alcohol Increase Attentional Bias in Adults with ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Walter; Fillmore, Mark T.; Milich, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that social drinkers continue to show attentional bias towards alcohol-related stimuli even after consuming a moderate dose of alcohol. In contrast, little is known about how alcohol acutely affects attentional bias in groups at risk to develop alcohol-related problems, such as adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Such individuals may show increased attentional bias following alcohol relative to nonclinical controls. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining acute alcohol effects on attentional bias in 20 social drinkers with ADHD and 20 social drinkers with no history of ADHD. Participants performed a visual-probe task after receiving the following doses of alcohol: 0.64 g/kg, 0.32 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Those in the ADHD group showed increased attentional bias under active alcohol doses, whereas attentional bias was similar across doses in the control group. Attentional bias predicted ad libitum alcohol consumption during a taste-rating session. This relation was observed only in the ADHD group. These findings indicate that an acute alcohol dose increases attentional bias in adults with ADHD. Further, attentional bias appears to be a predictor of ad libitum consumption in this group. PMID:22121850

  15. Daily assessment of alcohol consumption and condom use with known and casual partners among young female bar drinkers.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Collins, R Lorraine; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristina

    2011-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol and condom use has been studied extensively over the past several decades. Reviews of event-level studies suggest that alcohol's effect on risky sexual behavior are not due to simple main effects, but appear to be dependent upon individual characteristics, and situational or contextual factors. In the current study, we assessed the temporal relationship between daily alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual behavior, taking into account sexual partner type (casual or known) as well as individual and situational characteristics among a group of young female bar drinkers. Greater alcohol consumption was not associated with unprotected sex. However, greater alcohol consumption was associated with an increase in sex (protected and unprotected) with casual partners. Having less HIV knowledge was associated with increased unprotected sex, while greater frequency of drinking in bars was associated with increased protected sex with casual partners. These findings are discussed in terms of possible prevention programs that increase HIV knowledge and decrease alcohol consumption to reduce young women's risky sexual behavior.

  16. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: Effects on neuropsychological performance

    PubMed Central

    ROTHLIND, JOHANNES C.; GREENFIELD, TANYA M.; BRUCE, ANNE V.; MEYERHOFF, DIETER J.; FLENNIKEN, DEREK L.; LINDGREN, JOSELYN A.; WEINER, MICHAEL W.

    2008-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV− controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV− light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV− heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV− light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease. PMID:15686610

  17. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: effects on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Rothlind, Johannes C; Greenfield, Tanya M; Bruce, Anne V; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Flenniken, Derek L; Lindgren, Joselyn A; Weiner, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV- controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV- light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV- heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV- light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease.

  18. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a comprehensive accreditation intervention to reduce alcohol consumption at community sports clubs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Tindall, Jennifer; Gillham, Karen E; McElduff, Patrick; Rogerson, John C; Wiggers, John H

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs consume alcohol at levels above that of communities generally. Despite the potential benefits of interventions to address alcohol consumption in sporting clubs, there have been no randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive accreditation intervention with community football clubs (Rugby League, Rugby Union, soccer/association football and Australian Rules football) in reducing excessive alcohol consumption by club members. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in New South Wales, Australia, and employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Half of the football clubs recruited to the trial will be randomised to receive an intervention implemented over two and a half winter sporting seasons. The intervention is based on social ecology theory and is comprehensive in nature, containing multiple elements designed to decrease the supply of alcohol to intoxicated members, cease the provision of cheap and free alcohol, increase the availability and cost-attractiveness of non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages, remove high alcohol drinks and cease drinking games. The intervention utilises a three-tiered accreditation framework designed to motivate intervention implementation. Football clubs in the control group will receive printed materials on topics unrelated to alcohol. Outcome data will be collected pre- and postintervention through cross-sectional telephone surveys of club members. The primary outcome measure will be alcohol consumption by club members at the club, assessed using a graduated frequency index and a seven day diary. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (reference: H-2008-0432). Study

  19. Use of oral contraceptives in relation to dietary habits and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lund, E; Jacobsen, B K

    1990-08-01

    The relationship between oral contraceptive (OC) use, dietary habits and alcohol consumption in young women was studied in Tromsø, Norway. A total of 5,800 women aged 20-39 years answered a questionnaire in 1986/1987. Women with long-term duration of OC use reported more frequent intake of meat for dinner, preferred low-fat milk and drank less coffee. For other food items such as intake of fats, fish, fruit and vegetables, no differences were found. Strong associations were found for alcohol consumption, with increasing frequency of use among long-term users of OCs. These results are discussed in relation to the possible association between OC use and breast cancer in young women.

  20. A changed America? The effects of September 11th on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Roman, Paul M; Johnson, J Aaron; Ducharme, Lori J

    2005-09-01

    In the weeks following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, social commentators argued that America had profoundly "changed." In light of these arguments and the literature on disasters, we examine the immediate and longer-term mental health consequences of September 11th using a national sample of full-time American workers. We model the effects of temporal proximity to the attacks on depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Our data revealed a significant increase in the number of depressive symptoms reported during the 4 weeks after the attacks. In the subsequent weeks, levels of depressive symptoms returned to pre-September 11th levels. Contrary to expectations, there was some indication of decreased alcohol consumption after September 11th, although these effects were modest. These analyses provide little support for popular assertions that September 11th resulted in lasting and measurable impacts on Americans' well-being.

  1. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Population from Maracaibo City, Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Bermúdez, Valmore; Martínez, María Sofía; Chávez-Castillo, Mervin; Olivar, Luis Carlos; Morillo, Jessenia; Mejías, José Carlos; Rojas, Milagros; Salazar, Juan; Rojas, Joselyn; Añez, Roberto; Cabrera, Mayela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Although the relationships between alcohol and disorders such as cancer and liver disease have been thoroughly researched, its effects on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between alcohol consumption, the Metabolic Syndrome (MS), and its components in our locality. Materials and Methods. Descriptive, cross-sectional study with randomized, multistaged sampling, which included 2,230 subjects of both genders. Two previously determined population-specific alcohol consumption pattern classifications were utilized in each gender: daily intake quartiles and conglomerates yielded by cluster analysis. MS was defined according to the 2009 consensus criteria. Association was evaluated through various multiple logistic regression models. Results. In univariate analysis (daily intake quartiles), only hypertriacylglyceridemia was associated with alcohol consumption in both genders. In multivariate analysis, daily alcohol intake ≤3.8 g/day was associated with lower risk of hypertriacylglyceridemia in females (OR = 0.29, CI 95%: 0.09–0.86; p = 0.03). Among men, subjects consuming 28.41–47.33 g/day had significantly increased risk of MS, hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hypertriacylglyceridemia, and elevated waist circumference. Conclusions. The relationship between drinking, MS, and its components is complex and not directly proportional. Categorization by daily alcohol intake quartiles appears to be the most efficient method for quantitative assessment of alcohol consumption in our region. PMID:26779349

  2. The Relationship between Brand-Specific Alcohol Advertising on Television and Brand-Specific Consumption among Underage Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S.; Maple, Emily; Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Ostroff, Joshua; Padon, Alisa A.; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Being able to investigate the relationship between underage drinkers' preferences for particular brands and their exposure to advertising for those brands would represent a significant advance in alcohol marketing research. However, no previous national study has examined the relationship between underage youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising and consumption of those brands. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, internet-based survey of a national sample of 1,031 youths, ages 13-20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. We ascertained all alcohol brands consumed by respondents in the past 30 days. The main outcome measure was brand-specific consumption during the past 30 days, measured as a dichotomous variable. The main predictor variable was exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising on television. The respondents reported which of 20 television shows popular with youth they had watched during the past 30 days. For each respondent, we calculated a standard measure of potential exposure to the brand-specific alcohol advertising that aired on those shows during the preceding 12 months, based on Nielsen (New York, NY) estimates of the youth audience for each show's telecasts. Results Compared to no brand-specific advertising exposure, any exposure was associated with an increased likelihood of brand-specific consumption (adjusted odds ratio 3.02; 95% confidence interval: 2.61-3.49) after controlling for several individual- and brand-level variables. When measured as a continuous variable, the relationship between advertising exposure and brand consumption was nonlinear, with a large association at lower levels of exposure and diminishing incremental effects as the level of exposure increased. Conclusions There is a robust relationship between youth's brand-specific exposure to alcohol advertising on television and their consumption of those same alcohol brands during the past 30 days. This study provides

  3. Facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Sunfu; Song, Yanlin; Ma, Guangzhi; Meng, Yu; Ye, Zengpanpan; Ma, Xuelei; Liu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between facial flushing after alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer remains controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between facial flushing and cancer risk. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched for relevant literature. The patients’ baseline characteristics and estimated risks were extracted. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the risk of facial flushing in cancer, and subgroup analysis was performed. Results: Ten studies with 89,376 participants from East Asia were included. The pooled OR of facial flushing in all cancers was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.08–1.91), with the pooled ORs of 1.94 (95% CI, 1.33–2.83) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.80–1.12) in men and women, respectively. The pooled ORs were also estimated in different cancer types. Conclusion: Our results showed that facial flushing response to alcohol was associated with higher cancer risk in men in East Asia, especially in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, yet facial flushing was not significantly associated with cancer risk among women. PMID:28353603

  4. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Fergus G.; Williams, Damien J.; Goodall, Christine A.; Murer, Jeffrey S.; Donnelly, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Method Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants’ experiences of the trial. Results Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. Conclusions The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour. PMID:23825656

  5. Potential impact of Thailand's alcohol program on production, consumption, and trade of cassava, sugarcane, and corn

    SciTech Connect

    Boonserm, P.

    1985-01-01

    On the first of May 1980, Thailand's fuel-alcohol program was announced by the Thai government. According to the program, a target of 147 million liters of ethanol would be produced in 1981, from cassava, sugarcane, and other biomasses. Projecting increases in output each year, the target level of ethanol produciton was set at 482 million liters of ethanol for 1986. The proposed amount of ethanol production could create a major shift up in the demand schedule of energy crops such as cassava, sugarcane, and corn. The extent of the adjustments in price, production, consumption, and exports for these energy crops need to be evaluated. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential impact of Thailand's fuel-alcohol program on price, production, consumption, and exports of three potential energy crops: cassava, sugarcane, and corn. Econometric commodity models of cassava, sugarcane, and corn are constructed and used as a method of assessment. The overall results of the forecasting simulations of the models indicate that the fuel-alcohol program proposed by the Thai government will cause the price, production, and total consumption of cassava, sugarcane, and corn to increase; on the other hand, it will cause exports to decline. In addition, based on the relative prices and the technical coefficients of ethanol production of these three energy crops, this study concludes that only cassava should be used to produce the proposed target of ethanol production.

  6. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  7. [Prevalence of hepatitis C virus and excessive consumption of alcohol in a nonhospital worker population].

    PubMed

    Prieto Domingo, J J; Carrión Bolaños, J A; Bandrés Moya, F

    1997-12-01

    The aim of the study was to know the prevalence of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a non hospital work population by ELISA 3.0 and PCR-Amplicor, as well as its relationship with excessive alcohol intake (more than 280 g/week in men and 168 g/week in women). A transversal seroepidemiologic study was carried out in 1,109 workers of the Empresa Nacional de Electricidad, S.A. (ENDESA). During the annual medical examinations (April 1993-October 1994) the amount of alcoholic beverages each worker had consumed over the 7 days prior to the medical examination was obtained by anamnesis together with a blood sample for different laboratory tests. Sixteen percent of the workers had had excessive alcohol intake. The prevalence of anti HCV antibodies in the study population was 2.4% being up to 4.6% in the workers declaring excessive alcohol consumption and 10.4% if they also presented an elevation in any of the transaminases. The prevalence of the potentially ineffective workers was 1.46%. The prevalence of anti C antibodies by ELISA 3.0 was greater than expected (2.4%) significantly increasing in the population group which declared excessive alcohol intake, thereby demonstrating the relationship between alcohol and hepatitis C.

  8. The psychological benefits of moderate alcohol consumption: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Baum-Baicker, C

    1985-08-01

    A review of the literature on the positive psychological benefits of light and moderate alcohol consumption suggests the following: (1) Alcohol in moderate amounts is effective in reducing stress. This has been found in both physiologic and self-report measures. (2) Low and moderate doses of alcohol have been reported to increase overall affective expression, happiness, euphoria, conviviality and pleasant and carefree feelings. Tension, depression and self-consciousness have been reported to decrease with equal doses. (3) Low alcohol doses have been found to improve certain types of cognitive performance. Included here are problem-solving and short-term memory. (4) Heavy drinkers and abstainers have higher rates of clinical depression than do regular moderate drinkers. (5) Alcohol in low and moderate doses has been effective in the treatment of geropsychiatric problems. As indicated in the text, results from many of the studies reviewed suggest that light or moderate drinking may be beneficial to psychological well-being. Liber (N. Engl. J. Med., 310(13) (1984) 846) has commented that the subject of control of alcohol intake evokes strong emotional responses, which can overshadow a logical assessment of whether or not to include 'healthy' drinking in a dietary plan. It is hoped that this review of data from available research can help provide a basis for making such an assessment.

  9. Longitudinal study of alcohol consumption and HDL concentrations: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shue; Li, Junjuan; Shearer, Gregory C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Zheng, Xiaoming; Wu, Yuntao; Jin, Cheng; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    potential confounders. Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with the slowest increase in total-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride:HDL-cholesterol ratios. We observed a similar association between hard-liquor consumption and the HDL-cholesterol change. In contrast, greater beer consumption was associated with slower HDL-cholesterol decreases in a dose-response manner.Conclusion: Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with slower HDL-cholesterol decreases; however, the type of alcoholic beverage had differential effects on the change in the HDL-cholesterol concentration.

  10. Heterogeneous impact of alcohol consumption according to treatment method on survival in head and neck cancer: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Michi; Ito, Hidemi; Oze, Isao; Hosono, Satoyo; Kawakita, Daisuke; Tanaka, Hideo; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Murakami, Shingo; Matsuo, Keitaro

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor, and also a potential prognostic factor, for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). However, little is known about whether the prognostic impact of alcohol consumption differs by treatment method. We evaluated the association between alcohol drinking and survival by treatment method to the primary site in 427 patients with HNSCC treated between 2005 and 2013 at Aichi Cancer Center Central Hospital (Nagoya, Japan). The impact of alcohol on prognosis was measured by multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusted for established prognostic factors. Among all HNSCC patients, the overall survival rate was significantly poorer with increased levels of alcohol consumption in multivariable analysis (trend P = 0.038). Stratification by treatment method and primary site revealed that the impact of drinking was heterogeneous. Among laryngopharyngeal cancer (laryngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancer) patients receiving radiotherapy (n = 141), a significant dose-response relationship was observed (trend P = 0.034). In contrast, among laryngopharyngeal cancer patients treated with surgery (n = 80), no obvious impact of alcohol was observed. This heterogeneity in the impact of alcohol between surgery and radiotherapy was significant (for interaction, P = 0.048). Furthermore, among patients with oral cavity cancer treated by surgery, a significant impact of drinking on survival was seen with tongue cancer, but not with non-tongue oral cancer. We observed a significant inverse association between alcohol drinking and prognosis among HNSCC patients, and its impact was heterogeneous by treatment method and primary site.

  11. Effect of different levels of alcohol consumption on natural killer and lymphokine activated killer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Klassen, L.W.; DeVasure, J.M.; Lemley-Gillespie, S.D.; Thiele, G.M. Omaha VA Hospital, NE )

    1991-03-11

    The effect of alcohol consumption on natural killer (NK) cell activity is controversial as both increased and decreased levels have been reported. It was the purpose of this study to determine the effects of feeding BDF1 mice different levels of alcohol on NK and lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell activity. After four-six weeks of chronic alcohol feeding, mice were sacrificed, spleen cells obtained and assayed for NK and IL-2 boosted NK activity against YAC-1 cells in a traditional {sup 51}chromium release assay. Cells were also cultured in the presence of IL-2 for five days and tested for cytolytic activity using P815 cells as targets. Cells from each group were passed over a nylon wool column and the adherent (AD) and nonadherent (NAD) populations collected and tested as above. Increased NK, 24 hour IL-2 boosted NK and 5 day LAK activity were observed only in the spleen cells obtained from mice on 20% alcohol. Also, NAD populations had a 2-4 fold higher lytic unit values (LU{sub 20}) at all levels of alcohol consumption and in all assays, as compared with the unseparated spleen cells. Analysis of cell surface markers on these three populations of cells show that there were differences in MAC-2, Asialo GM-1, Thy 1.2, B220 and NK 1.1 that may correlate with the differences observed in the cytolytic assays. These data suggest that different levels of alcohol affect the cytolytic activity of NK and LAK cells and may result from alterations in the cell subset populations.

  12. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  13. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  14. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  15. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  16. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  17. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  18. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  19. Alcohol consumption negates estrogen-mediated myocardial repair in ovariectomized mice by inhibiting endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and function.

    PubMed

    Mackie, Alexander R; Krishnamurthy, Prasanna; Verma, Suresh K; Thorne, Tina; Ramirez, Veronica; Qin, Gangjian; Abramova, Tatiana; Hamada, Hiromichi; Losordo, Douglas W; Kishore, Raj

    2013-06-21

    We have shown previously that estrogen (estradiol, E2) supplementation enhances voluntary alcohol consumption in ovariectomized female rodents and that increased alcohol consumption impairs ischemic hind limb vascular repair. However, the effect of E2-induced alcohol consumption on post-infarct myocardial repair and on the phenotypic/functional properties of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) is not known. Additionally, the molecular signaling of alcohol-estrogen interactions remains to be elucidated. This study examined the effect of E2-induced increases in ethanol consumption on post-infarct myocardial function/repair. Ovariectomized female mice, implanted with 17β-E2 or placebo pellets were given access to alcohol for 6 weeks and subjected to acute myocardial infarction. Left ventricular functions were consistently depressed in mice consuming ethanol compared with those receiving only E2. Alcohol-consuming mice also displayed significantly increased infarct size and reduced capillary density. Ethanol consumption also reduced E2-induced mobilization and homing of EPCs to injured myocardium compared with the E2-alone group. In vitro, exposure of EPCs to ethanol suppressed E2-induced proliferation, survival, and migration and markedly altered E2-induced estrogen receptor-dependent cell survival signaling and gene expression. Furthermore, ethanol-mediated suppression of EPC biology was endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent because endothelial nitric oxide synthase-null mice displayed an exaggerated response to post-acute myocardial infarction left ventricular functions. These data suggest that E2 modulation of alcohol consumption, and the ensuing EPC dysfunction, may negatively compete with the beneficial effects of estrogen on post-infarct myocardial repair.

  20. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption.

  1. Joint associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Soedamah-Muthu, Sabita S; De Neve, Melissa; Shelton, Nicola J; Tielemans, Susanne M A J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel

    2013-08-01

    Individual associations of alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular disease are relatively established, but the joint associations are not clear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine prospectively the joint associations between alcohol consumption and physical activity with cardiovascular mortality (CVM) and all-cause mortality. Four population-based studies in the United Kingdom were included, the 1997 and 1998 Health Surveys for England and the 1998 and 2003 Scottish Health Surveys. In men and women, respectively, low physical activity was defined as 0.1 to 5 and 0.1 to 4 MET-hours/week and high physical activity as ≥5 and ≥4 MET-hours/week. Moderate or moderately high alcohol intake was defined as >0 to 35 and >0 to 21 units/week and high levels of alcohol intake as >35 and >21 units/week. In total, there were 17,410 adults without prevalent cardiovascular diseases and complete data on alcohol and physical activity (43% men, median age 55 years). During a median follow-up period of 9.7 years, 2,204 adults (12.7%) died, 638 (3.7%) with CVM. Cox proportional-hazards models were adjusted for potential confounders such as marital status, social class, education, ethnicity, and longstanding illness. In the joint associations analysis, low activity combined with high levels of alcohol (CVM: hazard ratio [HR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28 to 2.96, p = 0.002; all-cause mortality: HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.03, p <0.001) and low activity combined with no alcohol (CVM: HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.35 to 2.76, p <0.001; all-cause mortality: HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.81, p <0.001) were linked to the highest risk, compared with moderate drinking and higher levels of physical activity. Within each given alcohol group, low activity was linked to increased CVM risk (e.g., HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.03, p = 0.014, for the moderate drinking group), but in the presence of high physical activity, high alcohol intake was not linked to increased CVM

  2. A cross-cultural investigation of college student alcohol consumption: a classification tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kitsantas, Anastasia; Anagnostopoulou, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    In this cross-cultural study, the authors attempted to identify high-risk subgroups for alcohol consumption among college students. American and Greek students (N = 132) answered questions about alcohol consumption, religious beliefs, attitudes toward drinking, advertisement influences, parental monitoring, and drinking consequences. Heavy drinkers in the American group were younger and less religious than were infrequent drinkers. In the Greek group, heavy drinkers tended to deny the negative results of drinking alcohol and use a permissive attitude to justify it, whereas infrequent drinkers were more likely to be monitored by their parents. These results suggest that parental monitoring and an emphasis on informing students about the negative effects of alcohol on their health and social and academic lives may be effective methods of reducing alcohol consumption. Classification tree analysis revealed that student attitudes toward drinking were important in the classification of American and Greek drinkers, indicating that this is a powerful predictor of alcohol consumption regardless of ethnic background.

  3. Personality, lifestyles, alcohol and drug consumption in a sample of British medical students.

    PubMed

    Ashton, C H; Kamali, F

    1995-05-01

    Personality characteristics and lifestyle variables were assessed in two cohorts of second-year medical students at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK as part of a psychopharmacology 'teach-in' in 1993 and 1994. The pooled sample included 186 students: 77 men, 109 women, mean age 20.4 +/- 1.8 years. Measures included the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and a questionnaire concerning consumption of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other illicit drugs, and physical exercise. The results were compared, where possible, with a similar survey in Newcastle upon Tyne medical students in 1983 and 1984. Personality variables, prevalence of cigarette smoking, levels of caffeine consumption and participation in sports had not changed significantly over the decade. There appeared to be a modest overall increase in alcohol consumption and in the 1993 and 1994 cohorts of students, 25.5% of those who drank alcohol exceeded recommended low risk levels (comparable data not available for 1983 and 1984). Reported use of cannabis and other illicit drugs had more than doubled, and in the present survey 49.2% of students recorded using cannabis and 22% had tried other illicit drugs. Corresponding figures for 1983 and 1984 were 20.9% for cannabis and 3.3% for other illicit drugs. Anxiety levels were not measured in 1983 and 1984 but in the present survey 39.3% of the students had anxiety ratings within the clinically significant range. The high levels of alcohol consumption and illicit drug use, and the high anxiety ratings, in this sample of medical students are a cause for concern.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. [Methodological issues in the measurement of alcohol consumption: the importance of drinking patterns].

    PubMed

    Valencia Martín, José L; González, M José; Galán, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    Measurement of alcohol consumption is essential for proper investigation of its effects on health. However, its estimation is extremely complex, because of the diversity of forms of alcohol consumption and their highly heterogeneous classification. Moreover, each form may have different effects on health; therefore, not considering the most important drinking patterns when estimating alcohol intake could mask the important role of consumption patterns in these effects. All these issues make it very difficult to compare the results of different studies and to establish consistent associations for understanding the true effects of alcohol consumption, both overall and specific to each drinking pattern. This article reviews the main methods and sources of information available in Spain for estimating the most important aspects of alcohol consumption, as well as the most frequent methodological problems encountered in the measurement and classification of drinking patterns.

  5. Alcohol consumption and psoriatic risk: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun-Ju; Zhu, Cheng-Yao; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2012-09-01

    Psoriasis is one of the most common dermatological disorders. The association between alcohol consumption and psoriasis has been inconsistent among studies. To examine the magnitude of the risk of developing psoriasis for drinking populations compared to those with non-drinking, and to determine causes of the variation in odds ratios (OR) between various case-control studies, we performed a comprehensive published work search and a meta-analysis of case-control studies considering prevalence. We did electronic searches on Medline, and searched reports to identify case-control studies of prevalent of psoriasis. We did meta-analyses of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of psoriasis associated with drinking. The magnitude of the OR was analyzed by combining 15 case-control studies that matched defined criteria. The variance in OR between studies was explored. The overall OR of psoriasis for drinking persons compared to those with non-drinking was 1.531 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.164-2.014, P = 0.002) and the association remains statistically significant across a number of stratified analyses in European descent subgroup (OR = 1.432, 95% CI = 1.085-1.889, P = 0.011) and also persists in sensitivity analyses performed to assess the potential effect of varying psoriasis outcome definitions. Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of psoriasis. These epidemiological observations should inform the exploration of biological mechanisms that link alcohol consumption with psoriasis.

  6. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  7. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  8. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  9. Heavy Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Impaired Endothelial Function: The Circulatory Risk in Communities Study (CIRCS)

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Aoi; Cui, Renzhe; Kitamura, Akihiko; Liu, Keyang; Imano, Hironori; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Kiyama, Masahiko; Okada, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Previous studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is protective against cardiovascular disease, but heavy alcohol consumption increases its risk. Endothelial dysfunction is hypothesized to contribute to the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, few population-based studies have examined a potential effect of alcohol consumption on endothelial function. Methods: This study included 404 men aged 30–79 years who were recruited from residents in 2 communities under the Circulatory Risk in Communities Study in 2013 and 2014. We asked the individuals about the frequency and volume of alcohol beverages and converted the data into grams of ethanol per day. Endothelial function was assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measurements during reactive hyperemia. We performed cross-sectional analysis of alcohol consumption and %FMD by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, baseline brachial artery diameter, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, smoking, antihypertensive medication use, and community. Results: Individuals who drank ≥ 46 g/day ethanol had a lower age-adjusted mean %FMD than non-drinkers (p<0.01). Compared with non-drinkers, the age-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval) of low %FMD (<5.3%) for former, light (<23.0 g/day ethanol), moderate (23.0–45.9 g/day ethanol), and heavy (≥ 46.0 g/day ethanol) drinkers were 1.61 (0.67–3.89), 0.84 (0.43–1.66), 1.09 (0.52–2.25), and 2.99 (1.56–5.70), respectively. The corresponding multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.76 (0.69–4.50), 0.86 (0.42–1.76), 0.98 (0.45–2.12), and 2.39 (1.15–4.95), respectively. Conclusions: Heavy alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor of endothelial dysfunction in Japanese men. PMID:27025680

  10. Driving under the influence of alcohol in Cali, Colombia: prevalence and consumption patterns, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco J; Herrera-López, Martha L; Ortega-Lenis, Delia; Medina-Murillo, Jhon J; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Jaramillo-Molina, Ciro; Naranjo-Lujan, Salome; Izquierdo, Edda P; Vanlaar, Ward; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María I

    2016-01-01

    This study's goal was to establish the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUI) and alcohol consumption patterns among drivers in Cali, Colombia, in 2013. A cross-sectional study based on a roadside survey using a stratified and multi-stage sampling design was developed. Thirty-two sites were chosen randomly for the selection of drivers who were then tested for blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and asked to participate in the survey. The prevalence of DUI was 0.88% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 0.26%-1.49%) with a lower prevalence when BAC was increasing. In addition, a higher prevalence was found during non-typical checkpoint hours (1.28, 95% CI -0.001%-0.03%). The overall prevalence is considered high, given the low alcohol consumption and vehicles per capita. Prevention measures are needed to reduce DUI during non-typical checkpoints and ongoing studies are required to monitor the trends and enable the assessment of interventions.

  11. Alcohol consumption and in vitro fertilization: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nicolau, Pau; Miralpeix, Ester; Solà, Ivan; Carreras, Ramon; Checa, Miguel Angel

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study is to determine whether alcohol consumption affects the results of in vitro fertilization. A review of the literature was performed to find prospective cohort studies of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization in which alcohol intake was recorded. A primary search returned 389 studies, 2 of which were finally considered eligible. A total of 2908 couples were analyzed in terms of pregnancy outcomes depending on drinking habits. The risk of IVF failure increased 4.14-fold and 2.86-fold with an increased alcohol intake of 12 gr/d in women during the week and month before, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of live birth rate in women who drank at least four drinks per week compared with women who drank fewer was 0.84; this difference was statistically significant. Paternal alcohol use levels 1 month, 1 week and during the attempts were also associated with worse reproductive effects. Our review, though including a small number of studies that were heterogeneous in design, revealed decreased rates of pregnancy and fertilization outcomes for couples who drank before or during their in vitro fertilization techniques. This suggests that couples undergoing IVF should be advised to abstain from alcohol prior to and during their procedures.

  12. A Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking and the Risk of Major Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Men

    PubMed Central

    Strate, Lisa L.; Singh, Prashant; Boylan, Matthew R.; Piawah, Sorbarikor; Cao, Yin; Chan, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Data regarding smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) are sparse and conflicting. We assessed the risk of major GIB associated with smoking and alcohol consumption in a large, prospective cohort. Methods We prospectively studied 48,000 men in the Health Professional follow-up Study (HPFS) who were aged 40–75 years at baseline in 1986. We identified men with major GIB requiring hospitalization and/or blood transfusion via biennial questionnaires and chart review. Results We documented 305 episodes of major GIB during 26 years of follow-up. Men who consumed >30 g/day of alcohol had a multivariable relative risk (RR) of 1.43 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.88–2.35; P for trend 0.006) for major GIB when compared with nondrinkers. Alcohol consumption appeared to be primarily related to upper GIB (multivariable RR for >30 g/day vs. nondrinkers was 1.35; 95% CI, 0.66–2.77; P for trend 0.02). Men who consumed ≥ 5 drinks/week vs. < 1 drink/month of liquor had a multivariable RR of 1.72 (95% CI, 1.26–2.35, P for trend <0.001). Wine and beer were not significantly associated with major GIB. The risk of GIB associated with NSAIDs/aspirin use increased with greater alcohol consumption (multivariable RR 1.37; 95% CI, 0.85–2.19 for 1-14g/day of alcohol, RR 1.75; 95% CI, 1.07–2.88 for ≥ 15g/day compared to nondrinkers). Smoking was not significantly associated with GIB. Conclusions Alcohol consumption, but not smoking, was associated with an increased risk of major GIB. Associations were most notable for upper GIB associated with liquor intake. Alcohol appeared to potentiate the risk of NSAID-associated GIB. PMID:27824864

  13. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  14. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  15. Alcohol and tea consumption are associated with asymptomatic erosive esophagitis in Taiwanese men

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chung-Hsin; Wu, Cheng-Pin; Wang, Jung-Der; Lee, Shou-Wu; Chang, Chi-Sen; Yeh, Hong-Zen; Ko, Chung-Wang; Lien, Han-Chung

    2017-01-01

    Objective Asymptomatic erosive esophagitis (AEE) is commonly found in men, and might be a risk factor of developing esophageal adenocarcinoma. We aimed to determine if specific dietary habits increase the risk of AEE in asymptomatic Taiwanese men. Methods We recruited male adults undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for health check. We excluded subjects with reflux symptoms, or taking anti-reflux medications or drugs that potentially impair lower esophageal sphincter function or cause mucosal injury. The frequency of consuming reflux-provoking diets including alcohol, tea, coffee, tomato/citric juice, chocolate, sweet food, and spicy food was assessed. The erosive esophagitis was diagnosed based on the Los Angeles Classification after endoscopy. Frequent consumption of a specific diet was defined as ≥4 days/week of consuming that diet. Results A total of 1256 participants were recruited. After excluding 424 ineligible subjects, AEE was identified in 180 (22%) among 832 asymptomatic subjects. The risk of AEE increased with the number of days per week of consuming alcohol or tea: nondrinkers (19%, 17%), occasional drinkers (<1 day/week; 19%, 15%), regular drinkers (1–3 days/week; 26%, 21%), frequent drinkers (4–6 days/week; 32%, 22%), and daily drinkers (42%, 28%), respectively (trend test P < 0.001 for both). Multivariate analysis showed that hiatus hernia (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.6–9.6), drinking alcohol ≥4 days/week (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0), and drinking tea ≥4 days/week (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) are independent risk factors of AEE. The risk of AEE was 3.8 times greater for those drinking both alcohol and tea ≥4 days/week than the non-drinkers. Conclusions Frequent alcohol and tea consumption increased the risk of AEE in Taiwanese men. PMID:28264069

  16. Effect of the alcohol consumption on osteocyte cell processes: a molecular imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Maurel, Delphine B; Benaitreau, Delphine; Jaffré, Christelle; Toumi, Hechmi; Portier, Hugues; Uzbekov, Rustem; Pichon, Chantal; Benhamou, Claude L; Lespessailles, Eric; Pallu, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown microarchitectural tissue changes with cellular modifications in osteocytes following high chronic alcohol dose. The aim of this study was to assess the dose effect of alcohol consumption on the cytoskeleton activity, the cellular lipid content and modulation of differentiation and apoptosis in osteocyte. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups: Control (C), Alcohol 25% v/v (A25) or Alcohol 35% v/v (A35) for 17 weeks. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed by DXA, osteocyte empty lacunae, lacunae surface, bone marrow fat with bright field microscopy. Osteocyte lipid content was analysed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and epifluorescence microscopy. Osteocyte apoptosis was analysed with immunolabelling and TEM. Osteocyte differentiation and cytoskeleton activity were analysed with immunolabelling and real time quantitative PCR. At the end of the protocol, BMD was lower in A25 and A35 compared with C, while the bone marrow lipid content was increased in these groups. More empty osteocyte lacunae and osteocyte containing lipid droplets in A35 were found compared with C and A25. Cleaved caspase-3 staining and chromatin condensation were increased in A25 and A35 versus C. Cleaved caspase-3 was increased in A35 versus A25. CD44 and phosphopaxillin stainings were higher in A35 compared with C and A25. Paxillin mRNA expression was higher in A35 versus A25 and C and sclerostin mRNA expression was higher in A35 versus C. We only observed a dose effect of alcohol consumption on cleaved caspase-3 osteocyte immunostaining levels and on the number of lipid droplets in the bone marrow. PMID:23947793

  17. Increased impulsivity in rats as a result of repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication and abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Irimia, Cristina; Wiskerke, Joost; Natividad, Luis A.; Polis, Ilham Y.; de Vries, Taco J.; Pattij, Tommy; Parsons, Loren H.

    2014-01-01

    Impulsivity is a risk factor for alcoholism and long-term alcohol exposure may further impair impulse control in a manner that propels problematic alcohol use. The present study employed the rat 5-Choice Serial Reaction Time Task (5-CSRTT) to measure behavioral inhibition and attentional capacity during abstinence from repeated 5d cycles of alcohol liquid diet consumption. Task performance was not disrupted following the first cycle of alcohol exposure, however, evidence of impaired behavioral inhibition emerged following the third cycle of alcohol exposure. In comparison with controls, alcohol rats exhibited deficits in inhibitory control during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT tests employing variable inter-trial intervals (varITI). This behavioral disruption was not present during early abstinence (3d) but was evident by 7d abstinence and persisted for at least 34d. Interestingly, renewed alcohol consumption ameliorated these disruptions in impulse control, though deficient behavioral inhibition re-emerged during subsequent abstinence. Indices of increased impulsivity were no longer present in tests conducted after 49 days of abstinence. Alcohol-related impairments in impulse control were not evident in sessions employing highly familiar task parameters regardless of abstinence period and control experiments confirmed that performance deficits during the challenge sessions were unlikely to result from alcohol-related disruption in the adaptation to repeated varITI testing. Together, the current findings demonstrate that chronic intermittent alcohol consumption results in decreased behavioral inhibition in rats that is temporally similar to clinical observations of disrupted impulsive control in abstinent alcoholics performing tasks of behavioral inhibition. PMID:24341858

  18. Increased impulsivity in rats as a result of repeated cycles of alcohol intoxication and abstinence.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Cristina; Wiskerke, Joost; Natividad, Luis A; Polis, Ilham Y; de Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy; Parsons, Loren H

    2015-03-01

    Impulsivity is a risk factor for alcoholism, and long-term alcohol exposure may further impair impulse control in a manner that propels problematic alcohol use. The present study employed the rat 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) to measure behavioral inhibition and attentional capacity during abstinence from repeated 5-day cycles of alcohol liquid diet consumption. Task performance was not disrupted following the first cycle of alcohol exposure; however, evidence of impaired behavioral inhibition emerged following the third cycle of alcohol exposure. In comparison with controls, alcoholic rats exhibited deficits in inhibitory control during cognitively challenging 5-CSRTT tests employing variable intertrial interval (varITI). This behavioral disruption was not present during early abstinence (3 days) but was evident by 7 days of abstinence and persisted for at least 34 days. Interestingly, renewed alcohol consumption ameliorated these disruptions in impulse control, although deficient behavioral inhibition re-emerged during subsequent abstinence. Indices of increased impulsivity were no longer present in tests conducted after 49 days of abstinence. Alcohol-related impairments in impulse control were not evident in sessions employing highly familiar task parameters regardless of the abstinence period, and control experiments confirmed that performance deficits during the challenge sessions were unlikely to result from alcohol-related disruption in the adaptation to repeated varITI testing. Together, the current findings demonstrate that chronic intermittent alcohol consumption results in decreased behavioral inhibition in rats that is temporally similar to clinical observations of disrupted impulsive control in abstinent alcoholics performing tasks of behavioral inhibition.

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  20. As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking As Blood Alcohol Content (BAC) Increases, So Does Impairment Past Issues / ... of Contents For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content (BAC) is used to define intoxication and ...

  1. The Impact of Stressful Life Events on Excessive Alcohol Consumption in the French Population: Findings from the GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamers, Sara L.; Okechukwu, Cassandra; Bohl, Alex A.; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background Major life changes may play a causative role in health through lifestyle factors, such as alcohol. The objective was to examine the impact of stressful life events on heavy alcohol consumption among French adults. Methods Trajectories of excessive alcohol consumption in 20,625 employees of the French national gas and electricity company for up to 5 years before and 5 years after an event, with annual measurements from 1992. We used repeated measures analysis of time series data indexed to events, employing generalized estimating equations. Results For women, excessive alcohol use increased before important purchase (p = 0.021), children leaving home (p<0.001), and death of loved ones (p = 0.03), and decreased before widowhood (p = 0.015); in the year straddling the event, increased consumption was observed for important purchase (p = 0.018) and retirement (p = 0.002); at the time of the event, consumption decreased for marriage (p = 0.002), divorce, widowhood, and death of loved one (all p<0.001), and increased for retirement (p = 0.035). For men, heavy alcohol consumption increased in the years up to and surrounding the death of loved ones, retirement, and important purchase (all p<0.001), and decreased after (all p<0.001, except death of loved one: p = 0.006); at the time of the event, consumption decreased for all events except for children leaving home and retirement, where we observed an increase (all p<0.001). For women and men, heavy alcohol consumption decreased prior to marriage and divorce and increased after (all p<0.001, except for women and marriage: p = 0.01). Conclusion Stressful life events promote healthy and unhealthy alcohol consumption. Certain events impact alcohol intake temporarily while others have longer-term implications. Research should disentangle women's and men's distinct perceptions of events over time. PMID:24475318

  2. Affective cue-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration and increased 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations during alcohol withdrawal: role of kappa-opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Anthony L; Williams, Angela M; McGinnis, Molly M; Walker, Brendan M

    2013-03-01

    Negative affect promotes dysregulated alcohol consumption in non-dependent and alcohol-dependent animals, and cues associated with negative affective states induce withdrawal-like symptoms in rats. This study was designed to test the hypotheses that: (1) the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) system mediates phenotypes related to alcohol withdrawal and withdrawal-like negative affective states and (2) cues associated with negative affective states would result in dysregulated alcohol consumption when subsequently presented alone. To accomplish these goals, intracerebroventricular infusion of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) was assessed for the ability to attenuate the increase in 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) associated with alcohol withdrawal and KOR activation in adult male wistar rats. Furthermore, cues associated with a KOR agonist-induced negative affective state were assessed for the ability to dysregulate alcohol consumption and the efficacy of intracerebroventricular KOR antagonism to reduce such dysregulation was evaluated. KOR antagonism blocked the increased number of 22-kHz USVs observed during acute alcohol withdrawal and a KOR agonist (U50,488) resulted in a nor-BNI reversible increase in 22-kHz USVs (mimicking an alcohol-dependent state). Additionally, cues associated with negative affective states resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration, an effect that was nor-BNI sensitive. Taken together, this study implicates negative affective states induced by both alcohol withdrawal and conditioned stimuli as being produced, in part, by activity of the DYN/KOR system.

  3. FERROPORTIN Q248H, DIETARY IRON AND SERUM FERRITIN IN COMMUNITY AFRICAN AMERICANS WITH LOW TO HIGH ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    Gordeuk, Victor R.; Diaz, Sharmin F.; Onojobi, Gladys O.; Kasvosve, Ishmael; Debebe, Zufan; Edossa, Amanuel; Pantin, Jeremy M.; Xiong, Shigang; Nekhai, Sergei; Nouraie, Mehdi; Tsukamoto, Hidekazu; Taylor, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is associated with increased iron stores. In sub-Saharan Africa, high dietary ionic iron and the ferroportin Q248H allele have also been implicated in iron accumulation. We examined the associations of ferroportin Q248H, alcohol and dietary iron with serum ferritin, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) concentrations in African Americans. Methods Inner-city African Americans (103 men, 40 women) were recruited from the community according to reported ingestion of >4 alcoholic drinks per day or <2 per week. Typical daily heme iron, non-heme iron and alcohol were estimated using University of Hawaii’s multiethnic dietary questionnaire. Based on dietary questionnaire estimates we established categories of < versus ≥56 g alcohol per day, equivalent to 4 alcoholic drinks per day assuming 14 g alcohol per drink. Results Among 143 participants, 77% drank <56 g alcohol/day and 23% ≥56 g/d as estimated by the questionnaire. The prevalence of ferroportin Q248H was 23.3% with alcohol >56 g/d versus 7.5% with lower amounts (P=0.012). Among subjects with no history of HIV disease, serum ferritin concentration had positive relationships with male gender (P=0.041), alcohol consumption (P=0.021) and ALT concentration (P=0.0001) but not with dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Serum AST and ALT concentrations had significant positive associations with male gender and hepatitis C seropositivity but not with alcohol or dietary iron intake or ferroportin Q248H. Conclusions Our findings suggest a higher prevalence of ferroportin Q248H with greater alcohol consumption, and this higher prevalence raises the possibility that the allele might ameliorate the toxicity of alcohol. Our results suggest that alcohol but not dietary iron contributes to higher body iron stores in African Americans. Studies with larger numbers of participants are needed to further clarify the relationship of ferroportin Q248H with the

  4. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew H.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Hall, Lynsey S.; Fernandez‐Pujals, Ana M.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Smith, Blair H.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol dependence is frequently co‐morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale‐Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population‐based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = −0.027; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.001, β = −0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = −0.036; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.00005, β = −0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10−7, β = −0.054; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.000012, β = −0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. PMID:25865819

  5. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  6. Reasons Why People Change Their Alcohol Consumption in Later Life: Findings from the Whitehall II Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie; Bell, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Harmful alcohol consumption among the ageing population is an important public health issue. Very few studies ask drinkers why they change their consumption in later life. The aim of this paper was to determine whether a group of people aged over 60 years increased or decreased their alcohol consumption over the past decade and to determine the reasons for their change. We also examined whether the responses varied by age, sex and socio-economic position (SEP). Subjects and Methods Data were taken from 6,011 participants (4,310 men, 1,701 women, age range 61 to 85 years) who completed questionnaires at phase 11 (2012-2013) of the Whitehall II Cohort Study. Results Over half the study members reported a change in alcohol consumption over the past decade (40% decreased, 11% increased). The most common reasons given for decreases were as a health precaution and fewer social occasions. Common reasons for increases were more social occasions and fewer responsibilities. The lowest SEP group was less likely to increase consumption compared to high SEP (RR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.81). Women were more likely to increase consumption in response to stress/depression than men (RR1.53, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.25). Compared to high SEP, the lowest SEP group was less likely to reduce as a health precaution (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.76). Conclusions Alcohol consumption in late life is not fixed. Reasons for change vary by age, sex and SEP. Such information could be used to tailor intervention strategies to reduce harmful consumption. PMID:25756213

  7. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  8. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-09-12

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  9. Prohibition of e-cigarettes in the US: Are prohibitions where alcohol is consumed related to lower alcohol consumption?

    PubMed

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; Cyders, Melissa A

    2016-12-01

    Recently, research has suggested negative consequences related to electronic cigarette (e-cig) use, including the increased risk for alcohol use and abuse. Previous work found that cigarette smoking ban legislation lowered overall smoking and alcohol use rates; however, researchers have not yet examined the potential effects of prohibiting e-cig use. The present study surveyed 617 individuals from a community-based online sample in the US (mean age = 33.33, SD = 10.50, 54.7 per cent female) who reported their smoking/e-cig use status, alcohol consumption, and the presence of e-cig prohibitions where they consume alcohol. E-cig prohibition was associated with a lower likelihood of being an e-cig user (OR = 0.12, p < 0.001) or dual user (use both cigarettes and e-cigs) (OR = 0.07, p < 0.001). Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test scores (b = -1.92, p < 0.001), total drinks consumed over 14 days (b = -4.58, p = 0.002), and average drinks per drinking day (b = -0.71, p < 0.001) were all lower when e-cigs were prohibited. Findings are an initial step in this line of research and suggest important future work examining implications of e-cig prohibition recommendations and policy.

  10. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  11. Association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of five observational studies.

    PubMed

    E, Meng; Yu, Sufang; Dou, Jianrui; Jin, Wu; Cai, Xiang; Mao, Yiyang; Zhu, Daojian; Yang, Rumei

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Published literature on the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of the identified studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed and publication bias was assessed. Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed the result. Evidence for publication bias was detected. Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  12. Heavy alcohol consumption and physical health problems: a review of the epidemiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, W; Popham, R E

    1975-09-01

    A review of morbidity and mortality studies bearing on the hazards to physical health of chronic heavy alchol use indicates that such use carries a risk of premature death greatly exceeding normal expectancy. While the life style typical of many heavy drinker contributes to this risk, the effects of alcohol per se account for a substantial part of the excess mortality. The lowest level of consumption at which there is a significant increase in the death rate has yet to be determined. It is certainly below 120 g/day- the lower limit of consumption of most clinical alcoholics-and quite possibly below 35-60g: levels which appear to carry an increased likelihood of cirrhosis and certain cancers. On the other hand, the mortality experience of drinkers commonly identified as 'moderate' in the literature does not seem to differ notably from that of life-long abstainers. The relationship between heavy drinking and elevated mortality is exhibited in populations at large by the generally close covariation of cirrhosis death rates and per capita alcohol sales. There are also indications of co-variation between the latter and the excess of male over female general mortality in the middle age range.

  13. Public acceptability of population-level interventions to reduce alcohol consumption: a discrete choice experiment.

    PubMed

    Pechey, Rachel; Burge, Peter; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Suhrcke, Marc; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-07-01

    Public acceptability influences policy action, but the most acceptable policies are not always the most effective. This discrete choice experiment provides a novel investigation of the acceptability of different interventions to reduce alcohol consumption and the effect of information on expected effectiveness, using a UK general population sample of 1202 adults. Policy options included high, medium and low intensity versions of: Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) for alcohol; reducing numbers of alcohol retail outlets; and regulating alcohol advertising. Outcomes of interventions were predicted for: alcohol-related crimes; alcohol-related hospital admissions; and heavy drinkers. First, the models obtained were used to predict preferences if expected outcomes of interventions were not taken into account. In such models around half of participants or more were predicted to prefer the status quo over implementing outlet reductions or higher intensity MUP. Second, preferences were predicted when information on expected outcomes was considered, with most participants now choosing any given intervention over the status quo. Acceptability of MUP interventions increased by the greatest extent: from 43% to 63% preferring MUP of £1 to the status quo. Respondents' own drinking behaviour also influenced preferences, with around 90% of non-drinkers being predicted to choose all interventions over the status quo, and with more moderate than heavy drinkers favouring a given policy over the status quo. Importantly, the study findings suggest public acceptability of alcohol interventions is dependent on both the nature of the policy and its expected effectiveness. Policy-makers struggling to mobilise support for hitherto unpopular but promising policies should consider giving greater prominence to their expected outcomes.

  14. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A

    1998-03-01

    Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.

  15. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria

    2009-04-21

    The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.

  16. A Systematic Review of Naltrexone for Attenuating Alcohol Consumption in Women with Alcohol Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Canidate, Shantrel S; Carnaby, Giselle D; Cook, Christa L; Cook, Robert L

    2017-03-01

    Several clinical trials have evaluated naltrexone as a treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs), but few have focused on women. The aim of this review was to systematically review and summarize the evidence regarding the impact of naltrexone compared to placebo for attenuating alcohol consumption in women with an AUD. A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, Cochrane, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Alcohol Studies Database to identify relevant peer-reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published between January 1990 and August 2016. Seven published trials have evaluated the impact of naltrexone on drinking outcomes in women distinct from men; 903 alcohol-dependent or heavy drinking women were randomized to receive once daily oral or depot (injectable) naltrexone or placebo with/without behavioral intervention. Two studies examining the quantity of drinks per day observed trends toward reduction in drinking quantity among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. The 4 studies examining the frequency of drinking had mixed results, with 1 study showing a trend that favored naltrexone, 2 showing a trend that favored placebo, and 1 that showed no difference. Two of the 3 studies examining time to relapse observed trends that tended to favor naltrexone for time to any drinking and time to heavy drinking among women who received naltrexone versus placebo. While the growing body of evidence suggests a variety of approaches to treat AUD, the impact of naltrexone to combat AUD in women is understudied. Taken together, the results suggest that naltrexone may lead to modest reductions in quantity of drinking and time to relapse, but not on the frequency of drinking in women. Future research should incorporate sophisticated study designs that examine gender differences and treatment effectiveness among those diagnosed with an AUD and present data separately for men and women.

  17. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  18. Regular Alcohol Consumption Mimics Cardiac Preconditioning by Protecting against Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamae, Masami; Diamond, Ivan; Weiner, Michael W.; Camacho, S. Albert; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    1997-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that long-term alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of coronary disease and may improve outcome after myocardial infarction. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion injury after myocardial infarction improves survival. This study investigates the possibility that alcohol consumption can improve survival after myocardial infarction by reducing ischemia-reperfusion injury. Hearts were isolated from guinea pigs after drinking ethanol for 3-12 weeks and subjected to global ischemia and reperfusion. Hearts from animals drinking ethanol showed improved functional recovery and decreased myocyte damage when compared with controls. Adenosine A1 receptor blockade abolished the protection provided by ethanol consumption. These findings indicate that long-term alcohol consumption reduces myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury and that adenosine A1 receptors are required for this protective effect of ethanol. This cardioprotective effect of long-term alcohol consumption mimics preconditioning and may, in part, account for the beneficial effect of moderate drinking on cardiac health.

  19. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  20. Developing a Quantitative Measure of Alcohol Consumption for Genomic Studies on Prospective Cohorts*

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Grant, Julia D.; Littlefield, Andrew; Waldron, Mary; Pergadia, Michele L.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Todorov, Alexandre; Trull, Timothy; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Todd, Richard D.; Sher, Kenneth; Heath, Andrew C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to develop a quantitative measure of alcohol consumption for gene-mapping studies. Method: Using a sample of 3,787 young-adult twin women and an independent sample of 489 men and women from a college drinking study, we developed an alcohol-consumption factor score indexed by (1) maximum typical consumption (log-transformed quantity frequency [LQNTFRQ]), (2) maximum drinks in a 24-hours period (LMAXALC), (3) frequency of drinking five or more drinks per day (FIVE), and (4) frequency of drinking to intoxication (INTOX). We tested (1) for factorial and psychometric equivalence across samples and genders; (2) for construct validity and its equivalence, across samples and genders, using measures of tobacco and cannabis use and family history of alcoholism; and (3) to determine the heritability of the alcohol-consumption factor score using a genetic psychometric model. Results: A single-factor model fit well with factor loadings ranging from .60 to .90. With rare exception, we found support for measurement invariance across the two samples and across genders. Measures of nicotine and cannabis use as well as family history of alcoholism were associated, to a similar extent across samples and genders, with the underlying alcohol-consumption factor. Psychometric twin modeling revealed that each of the alcohol-consumption measures (h 2 = 34%-47%) and the underlying factor score (h 2 = 50%) were heritable, with the remainder of the variance attributable to individual-specific environmental factors. This moderately heritable alcohol-consumption factor also accounted for a majority of the genetic variance in LQNTFRQ, LMAXALC, FIVE, and INTOX. Conclusions: Quantitative measures of alcohol consumption with the favorable attributes of measurement invariance, construct validity, and moderate heritability can greatly enhance future gene-mapping efforts, supplementing information afforded by conventional diagnostic measures of alcohol abuse

  1. [Relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death based on the forensic autopsy cases in Yamaguchi].

    PubMed

    Hakucho, Ayako; Kawamura, Haruka; Liu, Jinyao; Liu, Xu; Takase, Izumi; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2014-06-01

    We analyzed forensic autopsy cases to assess the relationship between alcohol consumption and external causes of death. We divided 605 autopsy cases which had been performed from 2000 to 2011 at our department into Alcohol group (n = 172, 28.4%) and Non-alcohol group (n = 433, 71.6%) according to whether alcohol could be detected in the deceased's blood. The individuals' sex and age, season when the death occurred, cause of death, type of death and circumstances of death were analyzed. Alcohol group had a significantly higher ratio of males and younger ages (both p < 0.05). There was no significant between-group difference regarding the seasons when the deaths occurred. Alcohol group had significantly greater rates of spinal injuries, abdominal injuries, traffic accidents, and accidental drowning. "Bicycling" was revealed as a related factor of the traffic accidents only in Alcohol group. In contrast, "accident on the expressway," "riding a motorcycle," and "a passenger in a vehicle" were related factors only in Non-alcohol group. We concluded that the factors of male gender and middle-to-senior age are responsible for the increased risk of external causes of death after alcohol consumption, and that alcohol consumption is one of the risk factors for accidental death. In Japan, drunk-driving-related accidents have shown a downward trend whereas bicycling-related accidents have shown an upward trend, and similar results were obtained in the present study. The low awareness of drinking-induced pitfalls may be responsible for drinking-related bicycle accidents.

  2. Frequency of alcohol consumption in humans; the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors and downstream signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, J L; Salling, M C; Almli, L M; Ratanatharathorn, A; Uddin, M; Galea, S; Wildman, D E; Aiello, A E; Bradley, B; Ressler, K; Koenen, K C

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models implicate metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and downstream signaling pathways in addictive behaviors through metaplasticity. One way mGluRs can influence synaptic plasticity is by regulating the local translation of AMPA receptor trafficking proteins via eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2). However, genetic variation in this pathway has not been examined with human alcohol use phenotypes. Among a sample of adults living in Detroit, Michigan (Detroit Neighborhood Health Study; n=788; 83% African American), 206 genetic variants across the mGluR–eEF2–AMPAR pathway (including GRM1, GRM5, HOMER1, HOMER2, EEF2K, MTOR, EIF4E, EEF2, CAMK2A, ARC, GRIA1 and GRIA4) were found to predict number of drinking days per month (corrected P-value <0.01) when considered as a set (set-based linear regression conducted in PLINK). In addition, a CpG site located in the 3′-untranslated region on the north shore of EEF2 (cg12255298) was hypermethylated in those who drank more frequently (P<0.05). Importantly, the association between several genetic variants within the mGluR–eEF2–AMPAR pathway and alcohol use behavior (i.e., consumption and alcohol-related problems) replicated in the Grady Trauma Project (GTP), an independent sample of adults living in Atlanta, Georgia (n=1034; 95% African American), including individual variants in GRM1, GRM5, EEF2, MTOR, GRIA1, GRIA4 and HOMER2 (P<0.05). Gene-based analyses conducted in the GTP indicated that GRM1 (empirical P<0.05) and EEF2 (empirical P<0.01) withstood multiple test corrections and predicted increased alcohol consumption and related problems. In conclusion, insights from rodent studies enabled the identification of novel human alcohol candidate genes within the mGluR–eEF2–AMPAR pathway. PMID:26101849

  3. Causal Role of Alcohol Consumption in an Improved Lipid Profile: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Khanh N.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Hoogeveen, Ron C.; Nambi, Vijay; Volcik, Kelly A.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Health benefits of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption may operate through an improved lipid profile. A Mendelian randomization (MR) approach was used to examine whether alcohol consumption causally affects lipid levels. Methods This analysis involved 10,893 European Americans (EA) from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Common and rare variants in alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase genes were evaluated for MR assumptions. Five variants, residing in the ADH1B, ADH1C, and ADH4 genes, were selected as genetic instruments and were combined into an unweighted genetic score. Triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) and its subfractions (HDL2-c and HDL3-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), small dense LDL-c (sdLDL-c), apolipoprotein B (apoB), and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) levels were analyzed. Results Alcohol consumption significantly increased HDL2-c and reduced TG, total cholesterol, LDL-c, sdLDL-c, and apoB levels. For each of these lipids a non-linear trend was observed. Compared to the first quartile of alcohol consumption, the third quartile had a 12.3% lower level of TG (p < 0.001), a 7.71 mg/dL lower level of total cholesterol (p = 0.007), a 10.3% higher level of HDL2-c (p = 0.007), a 6.87 mg/dL lower level of LDL-c (p = 0.012), a 7.4% lower level of sdLDL-c (p = 0.037), and a 3.5% lower level of apoB (p = 0.058, poverall = 0.022). Conclusions This study supports the causal role of regular low-to-moderate alcohol consumption in increasing HDL2-c, reducing TG, total cholesterol, and LDL-c, and provides evidence for the novel finding that low-to-moderate consumption of alcohol reduces apoB and sdLDL-c levels among EA. However, given the nonlinearity of the effect of alcohol consumption, even within the range of low-to-moderate drinking, increased consumption does not always result in a larger benefit. PMID:26849558

  4. Sex-dependent influence of chronic mild stress (CMS) on voluntary alcohol consumption; study of neurobiological consequences.

    PubMed

    Marco, Eva M; Ballesta, Javier Antonio; Irala, Carlos; Hernández, María-Donina; Serrano, María Elisa; Mela, Virginia; López-Gallardo, Meritxell; Viveros, María-Paz

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder and depression are highly comorbid, and both conditions exhibit important sexual dimorphisms. Here, we aimed to investigate voluntary alcohol consumption after 6weeks of chronic mild stress (CMS) in Wistar rats - employed as an animal model of depression. Male and female rats were investigated, and changes in several molecular markers were analysed in frontal cortex (FCx) and hippocampal formation (HF). CMS induced depressive-like responses in the forced swimming test - increased immobility time - in male and female animals, without affecting anhedonia (sucrose preference test) nor motor activity (holeboard); body weight gain and food intake were diminished only among CMS males. Voluntary alcohol consumption was evaluated in a two-bottle choice paradigm (ethanol 20% versus tap water) for 4 consecutive days; females exhibited a higher preference for alcohol compared to male animals. In particular, alcohol consumption was significantly higher among CMS females compared to CMS male animals. Remarkably, similar changes in both male and female animals exposed to CMS were observed regarding the expression levels of NCAM-140KDa (decrease), GFAP and CB1R expression (increase) within the FCx as well as for HF PSD-95 levels (increase). However, contrasting effects in males and females were reported in relation to synaptophysin (SYN) protein levels within the FCx, HF CB1R expression (a decrease among male animals but an increase in females); while the opposite pattern was observed for NCAM-140KDa protein levels in the HF. A decrease in CB2R expression was only observed in the HF of CMS-females. The present study suggests that male and female animals might be differentially affected by CMS regarding later voluntary alcohol consumption. In this initial approach, cortical SYN, and NCAM-140KDa, CB1R and CB2R expression within the HF have arisen as potential candidates to explain such sex differences in behaviour. However, the depression-alcoholism

  5. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and the risk of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiao-Hua; Huai, Jia-Ping; Ding, Jin; Chen, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To assess the association between smoking and alcohol consumption and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC) through a meta-analysis of clinical observational studies. METHODS: A literature search was conducted using Embase and MEDLINE databases from inception to 31 May 2013 without language limitations, and by manually searching the references of retrieved articles. Case-control and cohort studies that investigated the association between smoking or alcohol consumption and ECC were included. The quality of these studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Summary relative risks and corresponding 95%CI were calculated using a random-effects model. Publication bias was assessed by Begg’s funnel plot and Egger’s test. RESULTS: A total of 12 eligible articles (11 case-control studies and one cohort study) were included in this meta-analysis. Eleven studies reported the association between smoking and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that smokers had an increased risk of ECC development as compared with non-smokers (summary RR = 1.23; 95%CI: 1.01-1.50). This correlation was present in population-based studies (n = 5; summary RR = 1.47; 95%CI: 1.06-2.05) but not in hospital-based studies (n = 6; summary RR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.88-1.37) and in non-Asian regions (n = 7; summary RR = 1.39; 95%CI: 1.03-1.87) but not in Asia (n = 4; summary RR = 1.08; 95%CI: 0.85-1.38). Seven studies reported an association between consuming alcohol and ECC. Pooled analysis indicated that alcohol drinkers had a similar risk of ECC development as did individuals who did not drink alcohol (summary RR = 1.09; 95%CI: 0.87-1.37). There was moderate heterogeneity among the studies and no evidence of publication bias. CONCLUSION: Smoking is associated with an increased risk of ECC, but alcohol consumption is not. Further population-based studies, particularly cohort studies, are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24379600

  6. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of

  7. Alcohol consumption among university students: a typology of consumption to aid the tailoring of effective public health policy

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P; Cronin, Mary; Perry, Ivan J; O'Connor, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated levels of alcohol consumption among university students are well documented. Policymakers have attempted to combat this issue at a university, national and international level. Tailoring public health policy to effectively tackle alcohol use is crucial. Using Q-methodology, the current study aims to develop a typology of alcohol consumption in the Irish university student population. Setting A large Irish university. Participants Hundreds of possible statements on types of consumption were generated from a systematic review and a set of one-on-one interviews. These were reduced to 36 statements, 6 statements which define each of the 6 previously defined consumption types. Participants were advised to scan through the 36 statements and fill the statements into a ‘forced choice, standardised distribution’. Following this, a 45–90 min interview was conducted with students to illuminate subjectivity surrounding alcohol consumption. Analysis was conducted using PQ Method and NVivo software. Principal component analysis, followed by varimax rotation, was conducted to uncover the final factor information. Results In total, 43 students completed the Q-study: 19 men and 24 women. A typology describing 4 distinct groupings of alcohol consumer was uncovered: the guarded drinker, the calculated hedonist, the peer-influenced drinker and the inevitable binger. Factor loadings of each of the consumer groupings were noted for type description. Conclusions This is the first study to propose ideal types of alcohol consumption among a university student population. Further research is required to investigate the degree to which each of these ideal types is subscribed. However, this typology, in addition to informing public policy and strategies, will be a valuable analytic tool in future research. PMID:27852707

  8. K(Ca)2 channels: novel therapeutic targets for treating alcohol withdrawal and escalation of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Mulholland, Patrick J

    2012-06-01

    Small-conductance, calcium-activated potassium (K(Ca)2) channels influence neuronal firing properties, intrinsic excitability, and NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic responses and plasticity. In this mini-review, we discuss new evidence that chronic alcohol-associated plasticity critically involves K(Ca)2 channels in hippocampus, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens. K(Ca)2 channel activity can modulate the magnitude of excitation of midbrain dopamine neurons induced by acute alcohol exposure. Emerging evidence indicates that K(Ca)2 channels regulate neuroadaptations to chronic alcohol that contribute to withdrawal hyperexcitability and escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Restoring K(Ca)2 channel activity can attenuate the severity of the alcohol withdrawal syndrome in vivo and withdrawal-associated neurotoxicity in vitro. Pharmacological modulation of K(Ca)2 channels can bi-directionally influence drinking behavior in rat and mouse models of voluntary alcohol consumption. Collectively, these studies using various rodent models have clearly indicated a central role for K(Ca)2 channels in the neuroplasticity of chronic alcohol exposure. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that K(Ca)2 channels are a novel therapeutic target to alleviate the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal and reduce high amounts of alcohol drinking.

  9. Iron Supplementation Reverses the Reduction of Hydroxymethylcytosine in Hepatic DNA Associated With Chronic Alcohol Consumption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tammen, Stephanie A.; Park, Jung Eun; Shin, Phil Kyung; Friso, Simonetta; Chung, Jayong; Choi, Sang-Woon

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol is known to affect two epigenetic phenomena, DNA methylation and DNA hydroxymethylation, and iron is a cofactor of ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes that catalyze the conversion from methylcytosine to hydroxymethylcytosine. In the present study we aimed to determine the effects of alcohol on DNA hydroxymethylation and further effects of iron on alcohol associated epigenetic changes. Methods Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed either Lieber-DeCarli alcohol diet (36% calories from ethanol) or Lieber-DeCarli control diet along with or without iron supplementation (0.6% carbonyl iron) for 8 weeks. Hepatic non-heme iron concentrations were measured by colorimetric assays. Protein levels of hepatic ferritin and transferrin receptor were determined by Western blotting. Methylcytosine, hydroxymethylcytosine and unmodified cytosine in DNA were simultaneously measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. Results Iron supplementation significantly increased hepatic non-heme iron contents (P < 0.05) but alcohol alone did not. However, both alcohol and iron significantly increased hepatic ferritin levels and decreased hepatic transferrin receptor levels (P < 0.05). Alcohol reduced hepatic DNA hydroxymethylation (0.21% ± 0.04% vs. 0.33% ± 0.04%, P = 0.01) compared to control, while iron supplementation to alcohol diet did not change DNA hydroxymethylation. There was no significant difference in methylcytosine levels, while unmodified cytosine levels were significantly increased in alcohol-fed groups compared to control (95.61% ± 0.08% vs. 95.26% ± 0.12%, P = 0.03), suggesting that alcohol further increases the conversion from hydroxymethylcytosine to unmodified cytosine. Conclusions Chronic alcohol consumption alters global DNA hydroxymethylation in the liver but iron supplementation reverses the epigenetic effect of alcohol. PMID:28053961

  10. Estimation of alcohol consumption during "Fallas" festivity in the wastewater of Valencia city (Spain) using ethyl sulfate as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Escrivá, Úrsula; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol consumption has been increasing in the last years and it has become a sociological problem due its derived health and safety problems. Ethyl sulfate is a secondary metabolite of the alcohol degradation that is excreted through the urine (0.010-0.016%) after alcohol ingestion and it is quite stable in water. In this study, a new methodology to determine ethyl sulfate by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Different ion-pairs and additives were tested directly in the sample extracts or in the mobile phase. The best ion-pair was set up adding 0.5M of tributylamine and 0.1% of formic acid to the sample. The limit of quantification was 0.3 μg L(-1) and the intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were ≤ 2.8 and ≤ 3.0%, respectively. Good linearity (r(2)<0.999) and low matrix effect (<30% corrected by using internal isotopically labelled internal standard) were achieved. The sampling campaign was from 4th to 20th March of 2014 covering the festivity of Fallas (15th to 19th March). Ethyl sulfate was determined in all influents of the 3 wastewater treatment plants (Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger) belonging to Valencia and surrounding area. Ethyl sulfate concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 19.85 μg L(-1) and alcohol consumption ranged from 1.07 to 56.11 mL day(-1) inhab(-1), being the highest value of alcohol consumption determined during Fallas. This study presents a reliable and alternative method to traditional ones to determine alcohol consumption by population that provides real-time information of alcohol consumption.

  11. “I Have No Clue What I Drunk Last Night” Using Smartphone Technology to Compare In-Vivo and Retrospective Self-Reports of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Monk, Rebecca Louise; Heim, Derek; Qureshi, Adam; Price, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Aim This research compared real-time measurements of alcohol consumption with retrospective accounts of alcohol consumption to examine possible discrepancies between, and contextual influences on, the different accounts. Method Building on previous investigations, a specifically designed Smartphone technology was utilized to measure alcohol consumption and contextual influences in de facto real-time. Real-time data (a total of 10,560 data points relating to type and number of drinks and current social / environmental context) were compared with daily and weekly retrospective accounts of alcohol consumption. Results Participants reported consuming more alcoholic drinks during real-time assessment than retrospectively. For daily accounts a higher number of drinks consumed in real-time was related to a higher discrepancy between real-time and retrospective accounts. This effect was found across all drink types but was not shaped by social and environmental contexts. Higher in-vivo alcohol consumption appeared to be related to a higher discrepancy in retrospectively reported weekly consumption for alcohol beverage types other than wine. When including contextual factors into the statistical models, being with two or more friends (as opposed to being alone) decreased the discrepancy between real-time and retrospective reports, whilst being in the pub (relative to being at home) was associated with greater discrepancies. Conclusions Overall, retrospective accounts may underestimate the amount of actual, real-time alcohol consumed. Increased consumption may also exacerbate differences between real-time and retrospective accounts. Nonetheless, this is not a global effect as environmental and social contexts interact with the type of alcohol consumed and the time frame given for reporting (weekly vs. daily retrospective). A degree of caution therefore appears warranted with regards to the use of retrospective self-report methods of recording alcohol consumption. Whilst real

  12. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice with access to a running wheel.

    PubMed

    Ehringer, Marissa A; Hoft, Nicole R; Zunhammer, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Studies of the behavioral effects of alcohol in humans and rodent models have implicated a number of neurological pathways and genes. Separate studies have shown that certain regions of the brain are involved in behavioral responses to exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether mice which normally voluntarily consume high amounts of alcohol (C57BL/6 strain) would exhibit reduced alcohol consumption when given access to a running wheel under two different models of voluntary consumption: unlimited access two-bottle choice and limited access drinking in the dark (DID). Under the two-bottle choice model, the animals voluntarily consumed less alcohol when a wheel was present in their cage. However, sex-specific differences emerged because female mice voluntarily consumed less alcohol when they have the opportunity to exercise on a running wheel, whereas male mice consumed less alcohol even if the running wheel was locked. There were no significant differences observed in alcohol metabolism or food consumption. Under the DID protocol, no differences in alcohol consumption were observed in the presence of a running wheel. These results suggest that exercise may be a useful approach to consider for treatment for some types of chronic human alcohol problem behaviors, but may be less applicable to human binge drinking.

  13. Factors influencing the temporal relationship between alcohol consumption and experiences with aggression among college women.

    PubMed

    Parks, Kathleen A; Hsieh, Ya-Ping; Bradizza, Clara M; Romosz, Ann M

    2008-06-01

    The authors assessed temporal relationships among alcohol use, aggression, and mood using daily data from 179 college women. Participants called an interactive voice response system over an 8-week period. The odds of experiencing verbal, sexual, and physical aggression (odd ratios = 2.25, 19.44, and 11.84, respectively) were significantly higher on heavy drinking days (M = 7.46 drinks) compared to nondrinking days. Both a history of victimization and greater psychological symptom severity influenced the odds of involvement in verbal aggression. The odds of alcohol consumption were 3 times higher during the 24 hr following verbal aggression compared with days in which verbal aggression did not occur. On the day immediately following involvement in either verbal or physical aggression, positive mood decreased and negative mood increased. During the week (2-7 days) following sexual aggression, women's positive mood was decreased. These findings reinforce the need for interventions aimed at reducing heavy episodic drinking on college campuses.

  14. Dutch adolescent private drinking places: prevalence, alcohol consumption, and other risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    van Hoof, Joris J; Mulder, Joost; Korte, Jojanneke; Postel, Marloes G; Pieterse, Marcel E

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the increasingly popular Dutch health phenomenon of 'gathering in private peer group settings (barracks)', with a focus on the prevalence and characteristics of barracks, alcohol consumption, and other (risk) behaviors of their visitors. Three studies were conducted. The first consisted of field research in which 51 barracks were visited and group-interviews were held. The second was an Internet study in which 442 barracks' websites were analyzed using content analysis. The third consisted of a questionnaire completed by 1457 adolescents, aged 15-17, in order to explore differences in behavior between barracks visitors and non-visitors. There was wide variation in barracks' characteristics and culture. Barracks' members and visitors also organize diverse activities that are publicly shown on the websites. Barracks are associated with various legal issues, such as alcohol sales to minors, lack of parental supervision, and illicit drug use. Barracks' visitors drink alcohol more frequently, drink more alcohol per occasion (up to fifteen bottles of beer a night), and have been drunk more frequently than non-visitors. Policymakers must be aware of the barracks phenomenon and use their powers in adjacent political and legal areas (such as in binge drinking, illicit drug use, and public safety) to intervene and create solid, responsible, and tailor-made policies.

  15. Social imitation of alcohol consumption and ingratiation motives in young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Sharps, Maxine; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Scott, Jade; Clark, Emma; Piercy, Katie; Field, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants' alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants' alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Social Imitation of Alcohol Consumption and Ingratiation Motives in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants’ alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants’ alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. PMID:27322802

  17. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small ... time by developing new, healthy activities, hobbies, and relationships, or renewing ones you've missed. If you ...

  18. Effectiveness of general practice interventions for patients with harmful alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P

    1993-01-01

    Harmful alcohol consumption can have severe consequences for both the individual and society. A review of the six published studies on the effectiveness of general practitioner interventions for individuals with harmful alcohol consumption suggests that between five and 10 minutes of advice leads to reductions of alcohol consumption of around 25-35% at follow up six months or one year later. Two of the three studies which failed to demonstrate an intervention effect had inadequate sample sizes and in two of the studies the control group was a comparison group which received minimal advice to reduce alcohol consumption. There was greater evidence for an intervention effect among men than women. The methodological problems of the studies are discussed. PMID:8251237

  19. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  20. Chronic alcohol consumption leads to neurochemical changes in the nucleus accumbens that are not fully reversed by withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro A; Neves, João; Vilela, Manuel; Sousa, Sérgio; Cruz, Catarina; Madeira, M Dulce

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY)- and acetylcholine-containing interneurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) seem to play a major role in the rewarding effects of alcohol. This study investigated the relationship between chronic alcohol consumption and subsequent withdrawal and the expression of NPY and acetylcholine in the NAc, and the possible involvement of nerve growth factor (NGF) in mediating the effects of ethanol. Rats ingesting an aqueous ethanol solution over 6months and rats subsequently deprived from ethanol during 2months were used to estimate the total number and the somatic volume of NPY and cholinergic interneurons, and the numerical density of cholinergic varicosities in the NAc. The tissue content of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and catecholamines were also determined. The number of NPY interneurons increased during alcohol ingestion and returned to control values after withdrawal. Conversely, the number and the size of cholinergic interneurons, and the amount of ChAT were unchanged in ethanol-treated and withdrawn rats, but the density of cholinergic varicosities was reduced by 50% during alcohol consumption and by 64% after withdrawal. The concentrations of dopamine and norepinephrine were unchanged both during alcohol consumption and after withdrawal. The administration of NGF to withdrawn rats significantly increased the number of NPY-immunoreactive neurons, the size of cholinergic neurons and the density of cholinergic varicosities. Present data show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to long-lasting neuroadaptive changes of the cholinergic innervation of the NAc and suggest that the cholinergic system is a potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies in alcoholism and abstinence.

  1. Alterations in alcohol consumption, withdrawal seizures, and monoamine transmission in rats treated with phentermine and 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan.

    PubMed

    Halladay, A K; Wagner, G C; Sekowski, A; Rothman, R B; Baumann, M H; Fisher, H

    2006-04-01

    We have previously shown that coadministration of the dopamine (DA) agonist phentermine plus the serotonergic agonist fenfluramine suppresses alcohol intake and withdrawal seizures in rats. In the present study, phentermine and the serotonin (5-HT) precursor, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP), were administered alone, or in combination, to rats fed on a 6% alcohol-containing diet or an isocaloric control diet. Following a 9-h withdrawal period from the alcohol-containing diet, phentermine enhanced the effects of 5-HTP on both reduction of alcohol withdrawal seizures as well as changes in striatal serotonin. Food intake was monitored for 24 h after drug treatment, and neurochemical measures were examined at various time points. Phentermine alone reduced food intake in all diet conditions, but this anorectic effect was followed by hyperphagia in control rats. Phentermine plus 5-HTP reduced the consumption of the alcohol-containing diet, while its effects on consumption of control diets were mixed. In vivo microdialysis in rat nucleus accumbens revealed that phentermine increased extracellular DA, whereas 5-HTP caused marked elevations in extracellular 5-HT. Coadministration of phentermine and 5-HTP evoked simultaneous elevations in extracellular DA and 5-HT that mirrored the effects of each drug alone. Collectively, these findings show that coadministered phentermine plus 5-HTP is effective in reducing alcohol intake and suppressing alcohol withdrawal seizures. These therapeutic actions may be related to elevations in synaptic DA and 5-HT in critical brain regions.

  2. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  3. Increased caffeine consumption is associated with reduced hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Modi, Apurva A; Feld, Jordan J; Park, Yoon; Kleiner, David E; Everhart, James E; Liang, T Jake; Hoofnagle, Jay H

    2010-01-01

    Although coffee consumption has been associated with reduced frequency of liver disease, it is unclear whether the effect is from coffee or caffeine and whether there is an effect on hepatic fibrosis specifically. This study was undertaken to use a food-frequency instrument for dietary caffeine consumption to evaluate the relationship between caffeine intake and liver fibrosis. Patients undergoing liver biopsy completed a detailed caffeine questionnaire on three occasions over a 6-month period. Caffeine intake was compared between patients with mild and advanced liver fibrosis (bridging fibrosis/cirrhosis). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between caffeine consumption and hepatic fibrosis. One hundred seventy-seven patients (99 male, 104 white, 121 with chronic hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) undergoing liver biopsy completed the caffeine questionnaire on up to three occasions. Results from repeated questionnaires were consistent. Daily caffeine consumption above the 75(th) percentile for the cohort (308 mg = approximately 2.25 cups of coffee equivalents) was associated with reduced liver fibrosis (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-0.80; P = 0.015) and the protective association persisted after controlling for age, sex, race, liver disease, body mass index, and alcohol intake in all patients (OR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.09-0.67; P = 0.006), as well as the subset with HCV infection (OR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05-0.66; P = 0.009). Despite a modest trend, consumption of caffeine from sources other than coffee or of decaffeinated coffee was not associated with reduced liver fibrosis. A reliable tool for measurement of caffeine consumption demonstrated that caffeine consumption, particularly from regular coffee, above a threshold of approximately 2 coffee-cup equivalents per day, was associated with less severe hepatic fibrosis.

  4. Exploration of a Polygenic Risk Score for Alcohol Consumption: A Longitudinal Analysis from the ALSPAC Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Simpkin, Andrew J.; Haycock, Philip C.; Dudbridge, Frank; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Uncertainty remains about the true extent by which alcohol consumption causes a number of health outcomes. Genetic variants, or combinations of variants built into a polygenic risk score (PGRS), can be used in an instrumental variable framework to assess causality between a phenotype and disease outcome of interest, a method known as Mendelian randomisation (MR). We aimed to identify genetic variants involved in the aetiology of alcohol consumption, and develop a PGRS for alcohol. Methods Repeated measures of alcohol consumption from mothers and their offspring were collected as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We tested the association between 89 SNPs (identified from either published GWAS data or from functional literature) and repeated measures of alcohol consumption, separately in mothers (from ages 28–48) and offspring (from ages 15–21) who had ever reported drinking. We modelled log units of alcohol using a linear mixed model and calculated beta coefficients for each SNP separately. Cross-validation was used to determine an allelic score for alcohol consumption, and the AVENGEME algorithm employed to estimate variance of the trait explained. Results Following correction for multiple testing, one SNP (rs1229984) showed evidence for association with alcohol consumption (β = -0.177, SE = 0.042, p = <0.0001) in the mothers. No SNPs showed evidence for association in the offspring after correcting for multiple testing. The optimal allelic score was generated using p-value cut offs of 0.5 and 0.05 for the mothers and offspring respectively. These scores explained 0.3% and 0.7% of the variance. Conclusion Our PGRS explains a modest amount of the variance in alcohol consumption and larger sample sizes would be required to use our PGRS in an MR framework. PMID:27902751

  5. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  6. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  7. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Jargin, S V

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities.

  8. The price of a drink: levels of consumption and price paid per unit of alcohol by Edinburgh's ill drinkers with a comparison to wider alcohol sales in Scotland

    PubMed Central

    Black, Heather; Gill, Jan; Chick, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Aim To compare alcohol purchasing and consumption by ill drinkers in Edinburgh with wider alcohol sales in Scotland. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Two hospitals in Edinburgh in 2008/09. Participants A total of 377 patients with serious alcohol problems; two-thirds were in-patients with medical, surgical or psychiatric problems due to alcohol; one-third were out-patients. Measurements Last week's or typical weekly consumption of alcohol: type, brand, units (1 UK unit 8 g ethanol), purchase place and price. Findings Patients consumed mean 197.7 UK units/week. The mean price paid per unit was £0.43 (lowest £0.09/unit) (£1 = 1.6 US$ or 1.2€), which is below the mean unit price, £0.71 paid in Scotland in 2008. Of units consumed, 70.3% were sold at or below £0.40/unit (mid-range of price models proposed for minimum pricing legislation by the Scottish Government), and 83% at or below £0.50/unit proposed by the Chief Medical Officer of England. The lower the price paid per unit, the more units a patient consumed. A continuous increase in unit price from lower to higher social status, ranked according to the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (based on postcode), was not seen; patients residing in postcodes in the mid-quintile paid the highest price per unit. Cheapness was quoted commonly as a reason for beverage choice; ciders, especially ‘white’ cider, and vodka were, at off-sales, cheapest per unit. Stealing alcohol or drinking alcohol substitutes was only very rarely reported. Conclusions Because patients with serious alcohol problems tend to purchase very cheap alcohol, elimination of the cheapest sales by minimum price or other legislation might reduce their consumption. It is unknown whether proposed price legislation in Scotland will encourage patients with serious alcohol problems to start stealing alcohol or drinking substitutes or will reduce the recruitment of new drinkers with serious alcohol problems and produce predicted longer-term gains in

  9. Alcohol consumption and risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma in women and men: 3 prospective cohort studies12

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A; Cho, Eunyoung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption has been associated with an increased prevalence of sunburn, which is an established skin cancer risk factor. Objective: We investigated whether alcohol consumption is associated with risk of cutaneous basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Design: We conducted a prospective analysis on alcohol consumption and risk of BCC on the basis of data from 167,765 women in the NHS (Nurses’ Health Study) (1984–2010) and NHS II (1991–2011) and 43,697 men in the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (1986–2010). Alcohol intake was repeatedly assessed every 2–4 y over the follow-up period. HRs and 95% CIs for BCC in association with alcohol intake were computed with the use of Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for sun exposure and other skin cancer risk factors. Results: A total of 28,951 incident BCC cases were documented over 3.74 million person-years of follow-up. Increased alcohol intake was associated with increased BCC risk in both women and men (both P-trend < 0.0001). Pooled multivariable-adjusted HRs over increasing cumulative averaged alcohol intake categories were 1.00 (reference) for nondrinkers, 1.13 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.20) for 0.1–9.9 g/d, 1.24 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.35) for 10.0–19.9 g/d, 1.27 (95% CI: 1.20, 1.35) for 20.0–29.9 g/d, and 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30) for ≥30.0 g/d (P-trend < 0.0001, P-heterogeneity by study = 0.10 ). The association remained consistent when we used alcohol intakes over different latency periods (0–4, 4–8, 8–12, and 12–16 y) as exposures and over categories of sun exposure–related factors. In the individual alcoholic beverages, white wine and liquor were positively associated with BCC risk. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of cutaneous BCC in both women and men. PMID:26423390

  10. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  11. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  13. Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

  14. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  15. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  16. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  17. Health Education in Practice. Let's Party: Teaching Responsible Alcohol Consumption Through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyde, Adrian R.; Temple, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Role play can teach college students responsible alcohol consumption behavior. The paper presents a technique to help students develop skills and attitudes that lead to responsible alcohol use behaviors. The technique models appropriate behaviors for party hosts, helps students put knowledge into action, and lets students explore the potential…

  18. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  19. Prevalence of obesity, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption by socioeconomic status among six communities in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    Laux, Timothy S.; Bert, Philip J.; González, Marvin; Unruh, Mark; Aragon, Aurora; Lacourt, Cecilia Torres

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of noncommunicable disease (NCD) risk factors (overweight/obesity, tobacco smoking, and alcohol consumption) and identify correlations between these and sociodemographic characteristics in western and central Nicaragua. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 1 355 participants from six communities in Nicaragua conducted in September 2007–July 2009. Demographic and NCD risk-related health behavior information was collected from each individual, and their body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, diabetes status, and renal function were assessed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, bivariate analyses, and (non-stratified and stratified) logistic regression models. Results Of the 1 355 study participants, 22.0% were obese and 55.1% were overweight/obese. Female sex, higher income, and increasing age were significantly associated with obesity. Among men, lifelong urban living correlated with obesity (Odds Ratio [OR] = 4.39, 1.18–16.31). Of the total participants, 31.3% reported ever smoking tobacco and 47.7% reported ever drinking alcohol. Both tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption were strikingly more common among men (OR = 13.0, 8.8–19.3 and 15.6, 10.7–22.6, respectively) and lifelong urban residents (OR = 2.42, 1.31–4.47 and 4.10, 2.33–7.21, respectively). Conclusions There was a high prevalence of obesity/overweight across all income levels. Women were much more likely to be obese, but men had higher rates of tobacco and alcohol use. The rising prevalence of NCD risk factors among even the poorest subjects suggests that an epidemiologic transition in underway in western and central Nicaragua whereby NCD prevalence is shifting to all segments of society. Raising awareness that health clinics can be used for chronic conditions needs to be priority. PMID:23183562

  20. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Strother, Wendy N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-hr dark-cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24 hr/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hr after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p < 0.01; Storey false discovery rate = 0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity® analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal. PMID:19666046

  1. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Strother, Wendy N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Mayfield, R Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J; McBride, William J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-h dark cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24h/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hours after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p<0.01; Storey false discovery rate=0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal.

  2. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  3. The role of social drinking motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halim, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Allen, Felicity

    2012-12-01

    Social norms are key predictors of college student drinking. Additionally, the social reasons for consumption (i.e. social drinking motives) are important to understanding drinking behaviour. This study investigated the effects of social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption. A total of 229 college students completed an online questionnaire assessing their drinking behaviour, social drinking motives and their perceived drinking social norms. Drinking social norms were assessed as descriptive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption), and injunctive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived approval of drinking by their peers). Additionally, injunctive norms were further separated into distal (socially distant peers) and proximal (socially close peers). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed descriptive norms, proximal injunctive norms and social motives all independently predicted alcohol consumption. Additionally, the relationship between proximal injunctive norms and consumption, and descriptive norms and consumption was mediated by social motives. Lastly, there was a significant three-way interaction between descriptive norms, distal injunctive norms and social motives on drinking. Consideration of both the individual factors and the complex interplay between social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption is necessary to further understand drinking behaviour, and to develop more effective alcohol harm-reduction strategies.

  4. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  5. Alcohol consumption and partner violence among women entering substance use disorder treatment.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Vyga G; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Murphy, Christopher M; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-06-01

    To test the hypothesized role of alcohol consumption as a proximal risk factor for partner violence, a within-subjects analysis compared levels of alcohol consumption in violent versus nonviolent conflict events among substance-abusing women and their male partners. Participants were married or cohabiting women (N = 145) who had recently begun a substance abuse treatment program and reported both a violent and a nonviolent relationship conflict event with their male partner in the prior 6 months. The average age was 38, and 83% were White. Male partners did not participate in the study. The female participant provided information about the male partner. Women were interviewed regarding a violent conflict event in which physical violence occurred and a nonviolent conflict event in which psychological aggression occurred without physical violence. The interview assessed quantity of alcohol consumed and use of other drugs prior to each conflict. Alcohol consumption was significantly greater prior to violent versus nonviolent conflict events for all measures of women's alcohol consumption examined: any drinking, heavy drinking, number of drinks in the 12 hr preceding the conflict event, and estimated blood alcohol concentration at time of the event. Male partners' alcohol consumption showed similar results. Use of other drugs in women, but not men, was significantly more likely prior to physical conflicts. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that the quantity of alcohol consumption is an important proximal risk factor for partner violence in substance-abusing women and their male partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  7. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  8. [General practitioners' commitment to treating excessive alcohol consumption: A question of role security in treating affected patients?].

    PubMed

    Fankhänel, Thomas; Rascher, Anja; Thiel, Carolin; Schulz, Katrin; Klement, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Only a few general practitioners (GPs) are committed to screen their patients for alcohol consumption and, in case of excessive alcohol consumption conduct by a brief intervention according to WHO recommendations. Apart from inadequate compensation and work load, another barrier identified by the GPs was their uncertainty about how to deal with affected patients. Most German universities presently spend no more than 90minutes lecture time on addiction medicine teaching. Our research aims to investigate the question whether medical studies and advanced medical education increases the role security of medical students and physicians and their commitment to implementing alcohol screening and brief intervention. Moreover, we will explore whether lack of therapeutic commitment can be related to lack of role security. Questionnaires were administered to pre-clinical and clinical medical students as well as senior house officers. Role security and therapeutic commitment of students and senior house officers were assessed using the Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Questionnaire (SAAPPQ) subscales "Role Security" and "Therapeutic Commitment". Analysis was based on 367 questionnaires. As expected, senior house officers reported more Role Security than clinical medical students who showed a higher level of Role Security than pre-clinical medical students. No differences could be found for Therapeutic Commitment. An association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment was only revealed for clinical medical students. Medical studies and advanced medical education can increase students' and senior house officers' Role Security to treat patients with excessive alcohol consumption, but not Therapeutic Commitment. Moreover, no association between Role Security and Therapeutic Commitment could be found for senior house officers. Hence, it may be assumed that educational activities aiming to increase Role Security do not promote the development of motivational aspects such as

  9. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Results in Greater Damage to the Pancreas Than to the Liver in the Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seong-Su; Hong, Oak-Kee; Ju, Anes; Kim, Myung-Jun; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Sung-Rae; Kim, Won-Ho; Cho, Nam-Han; Kang, Moo-Il; Kang, Sung-Koo

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, its effects on prediabetes or early diabetes have not been studied. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pancreas and liver resulting from chronic alcohol consumption in the prediabetes and early stages of diabetes. We separated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type-2 diabetic animal model, into two groups based on diabetic stage: prediabetes and early diabetes were defined as occurrence between the ages of 11 to 16 weeks and 17 to 22 weeks, respectively. The experimental group received an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 weeks. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after 16 and 22 weeks for the prediabetic and early diabetes groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight between the control and ethanol groups. Fasting and 120-min glucose levels were lower and higher, respectively, in the ethanol group than in the control group. In prediabetes rats, alcohol induced significant expression of ER stress markers in the pancreas; however, alcohol did not affect the liver. In early diabetes rats, alcohol significantly increased most ER stress-marker levels in both the pancreas and liver. These results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption increased the risk of diabetes in prediabetic and early diabetic OLETF rats; the pancreas was more susceptible to damage than was the liver in the early diabetic stages, and the adaptive and proapoptotic pathway of ER stress may play key roles in the development and progression of diabetes affected by chronic alcohol ingestion. PMID:26170734

  10. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Results in Greater Damage to the Pancreas Than to the Liver in the Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong-Su; Hong, Oak-Kee; Ju, Anes; Kim, Myung-Jun; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Sung-Rae; Kim, Won-Ho; Cho, Nam-Han; Kang, Moo-Il; Kang, Sung-Koo; Kim, Dai-Jin; Yoo, Soon-Jib

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol consumption increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. However, its effects on prediabetes or early diabetes have not been studied. We investigated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the pancreas and liver resulting from chronic alcohol consumption in the prediabetes and early stages of diabetes. We separated Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a type-2 diabetic animal model, into two groups based on diabetic stage: prediabetes and early diabetes were defined as occurrence between the ages of 11 to 16 weeks and 17 to 22 weeks, respectively. The experimental group received an ethanol-containing liquid diet for 6 weeks. An intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test was conducted after 16 and 22 weeks for the prediabetic and early diabetes groups, respectively. There were no significant differences in body weight between the control and ethanol groups. Fasting and 120-min glucose levels were lower and higher, respectively, in the ethanol group than in the control group. In prediabetes rats, alcohol induced significant expression of ER stress markers in the pancreas; however, alcohol did not affect the liver. In early diabetes rats, alcohol significantly increased most ER stress-marker levels in both the pancreas and liver. These results indicate that chronic alcohol consumption increased the risk of diabetes in prediabetic and early diabetic OLETF rats; the pancreas was more susceptible to damage than was the liver in the early diabetic stages, and the adaptive and proapoptotic pathway of ER stress may play key roles in the development and progression of diabetes affected by chronic alcohol ingestion.

  11. Colleges Report Increases in Arrests for Drug and Alcohol Violations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1999-01-01

    Arrests for violations of drug/alcohol laws at colleges and universities rose 7.2 and 3.6%, respectively, from 1996 to 1997. Campus police attribute the increases not to increased drug and alcohol use but to more aggressive enforcement. However, some health researchers feel usage has risen. Campus weapons violations and forcible rape arrests have…

  12. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  13. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  14. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  15. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  16. The Cumulative Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption, Individual Differences and Situational Perceptions on Sexual Decision Making*

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SAENZ, CHRISTOPHER; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Past alcohol administration research has produced mixed findings regarding the role of acute alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more complex theoretical model that places alcohol's acute effects in context, through the inclusion of background measures as well as affective and cognitive responses to the specific situation. Method College students (90 men, 90 women) completed a survey that included measures of individual difference characteristics and past experiences; approximately 1 month later, they participated in an alcohol administration study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three drink conditions (sober, placebo, alcohol), after which they read a story about a couple that wanted to have sex, but had no condoms available. Results In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, acute alcohol consumption significantly predicted participants’ perceived likelihood that they would have sex without a condom in such a situation; an earlier step included gender, impulsivity, self-reported alcohol expectancies, frequency of heavy drinking, lifetime number of sexual partners and frequency of condom use. There was no significant effect associated with the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol. Neither was there a significant interaction between drink condition and self-reported alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Through the inclusion of measures of individual differences and responses to the specific situation, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the factors that affect college students’ sexual decision making, compared with laboratory studies that examine the effects of acute alcohol consumption in isolation. Alcohol consumption explained a significant yet relatively small amount of variance. Researchers need to consider the broader context to understand how intoxication influences sexual decision making. PMID:15830907

  17. Increased voluntary alcohol drinking concurrent with REM-sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1984-01-01

    The alcohol intake of twenty adult Long-Evans male rats was recorded before, during and after rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation produced with the flowerpot technique modified by using a cuff pedestal and an electrified grid floor instead of water. The alcohol intake reached a steady level of 2.8 g/kg/day in the 3 weeks before REM deprivation. During seven REM-sleep deprivation days the alcohol intake was significantly elevated, finally increasing to 3.7 g/kg/day. A rebound decrease in alcohol drinking was then observed during the "REM-rebound" phase immediately after the termination of REM-sleep deprivation. The results suggest a possible vicious circle of REM-sleep deprivation increasing alcohol drinking and alcohol intake causing REM-sleep deprivation.

  18. The relationship of alcohol consumption with left ventricular mass in people 35 years old or older in rural areas of Western China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yunjing; Zhang, Nan; Huang, Wei; Feng, Rui; Feng, Panpan; Gu, Jun; Liu, Gang; Lei, Han

    2017-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between alcohol intake and left ventricular mass (LVM) independent of the effects of blood pressure and other factors in rural areas of Western China. The present study included 1007 subjects (487 men and 520 women) aged ≥35 years from the Tongan district, Chongqing, China. The quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption were estimated from a validated questionnaire. Echocardiography was used to assess left ventricular dimensions. Drinkers was associated with higher LVM compared with nondrinkers (β = 6.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.5, P = .015). A dose-dependent higher LVM across increasing alcohol consumption was observed (P < .05). LVM was significantly correlated with regular drinking (β = 10.0, 95% confidence interval: 3.6-16.4). In subjects with hypertension, quantity of alcohol consumption (P for interaction = .013) and frequency of alcohol consumption (P for interaction = .025) were strongly associated with higher LVM when stratified by blood pressure. However, interactions linked to age, body mass index, and gender were found to be no significant difference. These results indicate that both quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption are independent predictors of LVM in rural areas of Western China. The effects of alcohol consumption on LVM are enhanced among subjects with hypertension.

  19. Congenital brain serotonin deficiency leads to reduced ethanol sensitivity and increased ethanol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Benjamin D; Salahi, A Ayten; Caron, Marc G

    2014-02-01

    Serotonergic dysfunction has been hypothesized to play an important role in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. However, whether congenital serotonin (5-HT) deficiency leads to increased alcohol consumption or affects ethanol-related behaviors has not been established. Here, we use a transgenic mouse line that expresses a hypofunctional variant of the 5-HT synthesis enzyme, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, to examine the impact of 5-HT deficiency on responses to alcohol. We demonstrate that these 5-HT-deficient transgenic animals (Tph2KI mice) recover their righting reflex more rapidly than wild-type controls following a high dose of ethanol and exhibit blunted locomotor retardation in response to repeated ethanol administration. In addition, compared to WT controls, 5-HT-deficient animals consume significantly more ethanol and exhibit increased preference for ethanol in two-bottle choice tests. Our data also suggest that 5-HT plays a critical role in mediating the effects of ethanol on Akt/GSK3β signaling in the nucleus accumbens. Overall, our results corroborate previous theories regarding the importance of brain 5-HT levels in mediating responsiveness to alcohol and demonstrate, for the first time, that congenital 5-HT deficiency leads to increased ethanol consumption and decreased sensitivity to the sedative-like effects of ethanol, perhaps in part through modulating Akt/GSK3β signaling.

  20. Mice increased target biting behaviors 24 hours after co-administration of alcohol and fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Mamiya, Ping Chao; Matray-Devoti, Judith; Fisher, Hans; Wagner, George C

    2017-02-10

    Increased alcohol consumption has been linked to social isolation. Individuals showed heightened aggression following social isolation. Animals treated with alcohol following social separation showed higher aggression and lower serotonin transmission. Although reduced serotonin transmission in the brain may be related to alcohol induced heightened aggression, it remains unclear whether there are specific brain regions where changes in serotonin transmission are critical for animal aggression following alcohol treatment. In the present study, we isolated mice for 4 - 6 weeks and injected them with alcohol, fluoxetine and alcohol with fluoxetine. We studied their aggression by using two types of behavioral paradigms: isolation-induced attack behavior towards a naïve mouse in a neutral cage, or shock-induced target biting aggression. We observed that alcohol administered at 500 mg/kg significantly increased animal attack behaviors towards naïve mice 30 minutes after injections. This dose of alcohol co-administered with a low dose of fluoxetine (2 mg/kg) further increased the attack behaviors, but with higher doses of fluoxetine decreased the attack behaviors. Alcohol administered at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg significantly decreased the shock-induced target biting rates 24 hours after injections. Interestingly, we observed a significant increase in target biting rates when alcohol was co-administered with fluoxetine at a dose of 16 mg/kg 24 hours after injections. We also observed the same heightened target biting rates when animals were injected with fluoxetine alone. This heightened biting attack engendered by the fluoxetine (alone or in combination with the alcohol) occurred at a time when brain serotonin activity was reduced by these drugs in the frontal lobe and hypothalamus. These observations indicate that heightened biting attack behavior may be associated with reduced serotonergic activity in brain regions regulating aggression.

  1. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.

  2. The Biphasic Effects of Moderate Alcohol Consumption with a Meal on Ambiance-Induced Mood and Autonomic Nervous System Balance: A Randomized Crossover Trial

    PubMed Central

    Schrieks, Ilse C.; Stafleu, Annette; Kallen, Victor L.; Grootjen, Marc; Witkamp, Renger F.; Hendriks, Henk F. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-drinking mood state has been indicated to be an important factor in the mood effects of alcohol. However, for moderate alcohol consumption there are no controlled studies showing this association. Also, the mood effects of consuming alcohol combined with food are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate alcohol combined with a meal on ambiance-induced mood states. Furthermore effects on autonomic nervous system activity were measured to explore physiological mechanisms that may be involved in changes of mood state. Methods In a crossover design 28 women (age 18–45 y, BMI 18.5–27 kg/m2) were randomly allocated to 4 conditions in which they received 3 glasses of sparkling white wine (30 g alcohol) or alcohol-free sparkling white wine while having dinner in a room with either a pleasant or unpleasant created ambiance. Subjects filled out questionnaires (B-BAES, POMS and postprandial wellness questionnaire) at different times. Skin conductance and heart rate variability were measured continuously. Results Moderate alcohol consumption increased happiness scores in the unpleasant, but not in the pleasant ambiance. Alcohol consumption increased happiness and stimulation feelings within 1 hour and increased sedative feelings and sleepiness for 2.5 hour. Skin conductance was increased after alcohol within 1 hour and was related to happiness and stimulation scores. Heart rate variability was decreased after alcohol for 2 hours and was related to mental alertness. Conclusion Mood inductions and autonomic nervous system parameters may be useful to evaluate mood changes by nutritional interventions. Moderate alcohol consumption elevates happiness scores in an unpleasant ambiance. However, drinking alcohol during a pleasant mood results in an equally positive mood state. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01426022. PMID:24465955

  3. Intravenous Ghrelin Administration Increases Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Heavy Drinkers: a Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Edwards, Steven M.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify novel pharmacological targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role of ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory proof-of-concept study. Non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin 1mcg/kg, 3 mcg/kg or 0 mcg/kg (placebo), followed by a cuereactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol cues. The primary outcome variable was the increase in alcohol craving (also called “urge”) for alcohol, assessed by the Alcohol Visual Analogue Scale. Results Out of 103 screenings, 45 individuals received the study drug. Repeated measures of ANCOVA revealed a group effect across ghrelin doses in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05). A dose-specific examination revealed a significant effect of ghrelin 3 mcg/kg vs. placebo in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05) with a large effect size (d = .94). By contrast, no significant ghrelin effect was found in increasing either urge to drink juice or food craving (p: n.s.). No significant differences in side effects were found (p: n.s.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin increased alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals. Although the small sample requires confirmatory studies, these findings provide preliminary evidence that ghrelin may play a role in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, thus demonstrating a novel pharmacological target for treatment. PMID:24775991

  4. The Relationship Between rs3779084 in the Dopa Decarboxylase (DDC) Gene and Alcohol Consumption is Mediated by Drinking Motives in Regular Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansson, Sean D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Cooper, M. Lynne; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Sher, Kenneth J.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Motivational models of alcohol use propose that the motivation to consume alcohol is the final common pathway to its use. Both alcohol consumption and drinking motives are influenced by latent genetic factors that partially overlap. This study investigated whether drinking motives mediate the associations between alcohol consumption and 2 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genes involved in serotonin (TPH2; rs1386496) and dopamine synthesis (DDC; rs3779084). Based on earlier work showing that enhancement and coping motives were heritable in regular smokers but not in nonregular smokers, we hypothesized these motives would mediate the relationships between alcohol consumption and these SNPs in regular smokers. Methods Drinking motives data were available from 830 young adult female twins (n = 344 regular smokers and n = 486 never/nonregular smokers). We used confirmatory factor analyses to model enhancement, coping, and alcohol consumption factors and to conduct mediation analyses in the regular smoker and never/nonregular smoker groups. Results Our hypothesis was partially supported. The relationship between alcohol consumption and rs1386496 was not mediated by drinking motives in either group. However, in the regular smokers, the relationship between alcohol consumption and rs3779084 was mediated by enhancement and coping motives. Carriers of the rs3779084 minor allele who were regular smokers reported more motivation to consume alcohol. Given this pattern of results was absent in the never/nonregular smokers, our results are consistent with a gene × smoking status interaction. Conclusions In regular smokers, variability at the locus marked by rs3779084 in the DDC gene appears to index biologically based individual differences in the motivation to consume alcohol to attain or improve a positive affective state or to relieve a negative one. These results could be because of increased sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of alcohol among minor

  5. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  6. Chronic alcohol consumption decreases brown adipose tissue mass and disrupts thermoregulation: a possible role for altered retinoid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Blaner, William S.; Gao, Madeleine A.; Jiang, Hongfeng; Dalmer, Timothy R. A.; Hu, Xueyuan J.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Clugston, Robin D.

    2017-01-01

    Retinoic acid, an active metabolite of dietary vitamin A, acts as a ligand for nuclear receptor transcription factors with more than 500 known target genes. It is becoming increasingly clear that alcohol has a significant impact on cellular retinoic acid metabolism, with resultant effects on its function. Here, we test the hypothesis that chronic alcohol consumption impairs retinoic acid signaling in brown adipose tissue (BAT), leading to impaired BAT function and thermoregulation. All studies were conducted in age-matched, male mice consuming alcohol-containing liquid diets. Alcohol’s effect on BAT was assessed by histology, qPCR, HPLC, LC/MS and measures of core body temperature. Our data show that chronic alcohol consumption decreases BAT mass, with a resultant effect on thermoregulation. Follow-up mechanistic studies reveal a decreased triglyceride content in BAT, as well as impaired retinoic acid homeostasis, associated with decreased BAT levels of retinoic acid in alcohol-consuming mice. Our work highlights a hitherto uncharacterized effect of alcohol on BAT function, with possible implications for thermoregulation and energy metabolism in drinkers. Our data indicate that alcohol’s effects on brown adipose tissue may be mediated through altered retinoic acid signaling. PMID:28262768

  7. Defining the role of corticotropin releasing factor binding protein in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Haass-Koffler, C L; Henry, A T; Melkus, G; Simms, J A; Naemmuddin, M; Nielsen, C K; Lasek, A W; Magill, M; Schwandt, M L; Momenan, R; Hodgkinson, C A; Bartlett, S E; Swift, R M; Bonci, A; Leggio, L

    2016-11-15

    The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exerts its effects by acting on its receptors and on the binding protein (CRFBP), and has been implicated in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, identification of the exact contribution of each protein that mediates CRF effects is necessary to design effective therapeutic strategies for AUD. A series of in vitro/in vivo experiments across different species were performed to define the biological discrete role of CRFBP in AUD. First, to establish the CRFBP role in receptor signaling, we developed a novel chimeric cell-based assay and showed that CFRBP full length can stably be expressed on the plasma membrane. We discovered that only CRFBP(10 kD) fragment is able to potentiate CRF-intracellular Ca(2+) release. We provide evidence that CRHBP gene loss increased ethanol consumption in mice. Then, we demonstrate that selective reduction of CRHBP expression in the center nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) decreases ethanol consumption in ethanol-dependent rats. CRFBP amygdalar downregulation, however, does not attenuate yohimbine-induced ethanol self-administration. This effect was associated with decreased hemodynamic brain activity in the CRFBP-downregulated CeA and increased hemodynamic activity in the caudate putamen during yohimbine administration. Finally, in alcohol-dependent patients, genetic variants related to the CRFBP(10 kD) fragment were associated with greater risk for alcoholism and anxiety, while other genetic variants were associated with reduced risk for anxiety. Taken together, our data provide evidence that CRFBP may possess both inhibitory and excitatory roles and may represent a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of AUD.

  8. Defining the role of corticotropin releasing factor binding protein in alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Haass-Koffler, C L; Henry, A T; Melkus, G; Simms, J A; Naemmuddin, M; Nielsen, C K; Lasek, A W; Magill, M; Schwandt, M L; Momenan, R; Hodgkinson, C A; Bartlett, S E; Swift, R M; Bonci, A; Leggio, L

    2016-01-01

    The corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) exerts its effects by acting on its receptors and on the binding protein (CRFBP), and has been implicated in alcohol use disorder (AUD). Therefore, identification of the exact contribution of each protein that mediates CRF effects is necessary to design effective therapeutic strategies for AUD. A series of in vitro/in vivo experiments across different species were performed to define the biological discrete role of CRFBP in AUD. First, to establish the CRFBP role in receptor signaling, we developed a novel chimeric cell-based assay and showed that CFRBP full length can stably be expressed on the plasma membrane. We discovered that only CRFBP(10 kD) fragment is able to potentiate CRF-intracellular Ca2+ release. We provide evidence that CRHBP gene loss increased ethanol consumption in mice. Then, we demonstrate that selective reduction of CRHBP expression in the center nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) decreases ethanol consumption in ethanol-dependent rats. CRFBP amygdalar downregulation, however, does not attenuate yohimbine-induced ethanol self-administration. This effect was associated with decreased hemodynamic brain activity in the CRFBP-downregulated CeA and increased hemodynamic activity in the caudate putamen during yohimbine administration. Finally, in alcohol-dependent patients, genetic variants related to the CRFBP(10 kD) fragment were associated with greater risk for alcoholism and anxiety, while other genetic variants were associated with reduced risk for anxiety. Taken together, our data provide evidence that CRFBP may possess both inhibitory and excitatory roles and may represent a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of AUD. PMID:27845775

  9. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  10. Alcoholic beverages and carbonated soft drinks: consumption and gastrointestinal cancer risks.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Rosario; Andreozzi, Paolo; Zito, Francesco Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages (ABs) and carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) are widely consumed worldwide. Given the high consumption of these beverages, the scientific community has increased its focus on their health impact. There is epidemiological evidence of a causal association between AB intake and digestive cancer, but the role of alcohol in determining cancer is not fully defined. Experimental studies have so far identified multiple mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis; ethanol itself is not carcinogenic but available data suggest that acetaldehyde (AA) and reactive oxygen species-both products of ethanol metabolism-have a genotoxic effect promoting carcinogenesis. Other carcinogenetic mechanisms include nutritional deficits, changes in DNA methylation, and impaired immune surveillance. As CSDs are often suspected to cause certain gastrointestinal disorders, consequently, some researchers have hypothesized their involvement in gastrointestinal cancers. Of all the ingredients, carbon dioxide is prevalently involved in the alteration of gastrointestinal physiology by a direct mucosal effect and indirect effects mediated by the mechanical pressure determined by gas. The role of sugar or artificial sweeteners is also debated as factors involved in the carcinogenic processes. However, several surveys have failed to show any associations between CSDs and esophageal, gastric, or colon cancers. On the other hand, a slight correlation between risk of pancreatic cancer and CSD consumption has been found.

  11. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  12. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  13. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  14. Alcohol consumption, genetic variants in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways and colorectal cancer risk: the JPHC Study

    PubMed Central

    Svensson, Thomas; Yamaji, Taiki; Budhathoki, Sanjeev; Hidaka, Akihisa; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sawada, Norie; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Shimazu, Taichi; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) may vary secondary to single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in two pathways related to alcohol intake. 375 cases of CRC were identified among 38 373 Japan Public Health Center-based prospective Study (JPHC Study) participants who had returned a baseline questionnaire, reported no diagnosis of any cancer and provided blood samples. For each case, two controls were selected on matching variables. Logistic regression models were used to determine matched Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for the association between alcohol consumption, genetic polymorphisms of enzymes in the alcohol- and folate metabolic pathways (e.g. methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) rs1801133) and CRC risk. Compared to never/occasional alcohol intake, moderate to heavy alcohol intake was associated with CRC (OR = 2.12, 95% CI, 1.34–3.36). When compared to the CC genotype, the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype was inversely associated with CRC (OR = 0.72, 95% CI, 0.54–0.97). Never/occasional consumers of alcohol with the MTHFR rs1801133 CT/TT genotype were also at a reduced risk of CRC compared to never/occasional drinkers with the CC genotype (OR = 0.68, 95% CI, 0.47–0.98) (P for interaction = 0.27). The results indicate that the folate pathway is likely to be involved in alcohol-related CRC development. PMID:27827401

  15. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed

    Poppitt, Sally D

    2015-08-11

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of "liquid" energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity.

  16. Beverage Consumption: Are Alcoholic and Sugary Drinks Tipping the Balance towards Overweight and Obesity?

    PubMed Central

    Poppitt, Sally D.

    2015-01-01

    The role that energy-containing beverages may play in the development of overweight and obesity remains highly controversial, in particular the alcoholic and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). Both of these beverage formats have been increasing as a percentage of the westernized diet over the past 20 years, and both have contributed significantly to an increase in energy consumed in liquid form. Data from epidemiology and intervention studies however have long been contradictory, despite mechanistic evidence pointing towards poor compensation for addition of “liquid” energy from these two sources into the diet providing a strong rational for the balance to be tipped towards weight gain. Regulatory and government intervention has been increasing globally, particularly with respect to intake of SSBs in children. This narrative review presents evidence which both supports and refutes the link between alcohol and carbohydrate-containing liquids and the regulation of body weight, and investigates mechanisms which may underpin any relationship between increased beverage consumption and increased energy intake, body weight and adiposity. PMID:26270675

  17. Mechanisms involved in the neurotoxic, cognitive, and neurobehavioral effects of alcohol consumption during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guerri, Consuelo; Pascual, María

    2010-02-01

    Studies over the last decade demonstrate that adolescence is a brain maturation period from childhood to adulthood. Plastic and dynamic processes drive adolescent brain development, creating flexibility that allows the brain to refine itself, specialize, and sharpen its functions for specific demands. Maturing connections enable increased communication among brain regions, allowing greater integration and complexity. Compelling evidence has shown that the developing brain is vulnerable to the damaging effects of ethanol. It is possible to infer, therefore, that alcohol exposure during the critical adolescent developmental stages could disrupt the brain plasticity and maturation processes, resulting in behavioral and cognitive deficits. Recent neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of the impact of human adolescent drinking in brain structure and functions. Findings in experimental animals have also given new insight into the potential mechanisms of the toxic effects of ethanol on both adolescent brain maturation and the short- and long-term cognitive consequences of adolescent drinking. Adolescence is also characterized by the rapid maturation of brain systems mediating reward and by changes in the secretion of stress-related hormones, events that might participate in the increasing in anxiety and the initiation pattern of alcohol and drug consumption. Studies in human adolescents demonstrate that drinking at early ages can enhance the likelihood of developing alcohol-related problems. Experimental evidence suggests that early exposure to alcohol sensitizes the neurocircuitry of addiction and affects chromatin remodeling, events that could induce abnormal plasticity in reward-related learning processes that contribute to adolescents' vulnerability to drug addiction. In this article, we review the potential mechanisms by which ethanol impacts brain development and lead to brain impairments and cognitive and behavioral dysfunctions as well as the neurobiological

  18. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  19. Alcohol consumption amongst South African farm workers: a challenge for post-apartheid health sector transformation.

    PubMed

    London, L

    2000-05-01

    A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted amongst farm workers in the deciduous fruit industry in South Africa to assess levels of alcohol consumption and abuse, and to explore the impact of the DOP system, whereby farm workers are paid in part with alcohol, on indicators of alcohol consumption. High levels of alcohol consumption were found. On the CAGE and a shortened version of the MAST questionnaires, 87 and 65%, respectively, had responses indicating problem drinking. Close to half of the sample consumed more grams of alcohol per week than considered safe drinking (210 g) and 9.3% consumed amounts in excess of dangerous drinking (>490 g/week). Almost one-fifth (19.4%) of workers interviewed reported current use of the DOP system, and 47.8% of workers had experience of one or more farms in the past where the DOP system had been used. Workers with past experience of the DOP system were 9.8 times less likely to be asbstainers than colleagues without exposure to the DOP system. The pervasive effects of excessive alcohol consumption, and its relationship to past and current DOP practices pose substantial public health challenges to the transformation of health services currently underway in South Africa.

  20. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  1. Neurotransplantation of stem cells genetically modified to express human dopamine transporter reduces alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Regulated neurotransmitter actions in the mammalian central nervous system determine brain function and control peripheral organs and behavior. Although drug-seeking behaviors, including alcohol consumption, depend on central neurotransmission, modification of neurotransmitter actions in specific brain nuclei remains challenging. Herein, we report a novel approach for neurotransmission modification in vivo by transplantation of stem cells engineered to take up the neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) efficiently through the action of the human dopamine transporter (hDAT). As a functional test in mice, we used voluntary alcohol consumption, which is known to release DA in nucleus accumbens (NAC), an event hypothesized to help maintain drug-seeking behavior. We reasoned that reducing extracellular DA levels, by engrafting into NAC DA-sequestering stem cells expressing hDAT, would alter alcohol intake. Methods We have generated a neural stem cell line stably expressing the hDAT. Uptake kinetics of DA were determined to select a clone for transplantation. These genetically modified stem cells (or cells transfected with a construct lacking the hDAT sequence) were transplanted bilaterally into the NAC of wild-type mice trained to consume 10% alcohol in a two-bottle free-choice test for alcohol consumption. Alcohol intake was then ascertained for 1 week after transplantation, and brain sections through the NAC were examined for surviving grafted cells. Results Modified stem cells expressed hDAT and uptaken DA selectively via hDAT. Mice accustomed to drinking 10% ethanol by free choice reduced their alcohol consumption after being transplanted with hDAT-expressing stem cells. By contrast, control stem cells lacked that effect. Histologic examination revealed surviving stem cells in the NAC of all engrafted brains. Conclusions Our findings represent proof of principle suggesting that genetically engineered stem cells can be useful for exploring the role of

  2. Association of alcohol consumption with specific biomarkers: a cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (± 30.0) and 23.3 (± 29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p ≤ 0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p ≤ 0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans.

  3. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat.

  4. Fruits and vegetables: measuring intake and encouraging increased consumption.

    PubMed

    Woodside, Jayne V; Young, Ian S; McKinley, Michelle C

    2013-05-01

    A high intake of fruit and vegetables (FV) is associated with reduced risk of chronic disease, although the evidence base is mostly observational. Blood biomarkers offer an objective indicator of FV intake, potentially improving estimates of intakes based on traditional methods. A valid biomarker of overall FV intake would be able to confirm population intakes, more precisely evaluate the association between intakes and health outcomes and confirm compliance in FV interventions. Several substances have been proposed as biomarkers of FV intake: vitamin C, the carotenoids and polyphenols. Certain biomarkers are strong predictors of single FV; however, the proposed single biomarkers of FV consumption are only modestly predictive of overall FV consumption. This is likely to be due to the complexity of the FV food group. While accurately measuring FV intake is important in nutrition research, another critical question is: how best can an increase in FV intake be achieved? Increased FV intake has been achieved in efficacy studies using intensive dietary advice. Alternative, less intensive methods for encouraging FV consumption need to be developed and tested for population level intervention. Systematic reviews suggest peer support to be an effective strategy to promote dietary change. This review will describe the evidence for a link between increased FV intake and good health, outline possible novel biomarkers of FV consumption, present the most recently available data on population intake of FV and examine the usefulness of different approaches to encourage increased consumption of FV.

  5. Fitting In and Standing Out: Increasing the Use of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies with a Deviance Regulation Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Neighbors, Clayton; Martens, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Heavy alcohol use remains a consistent public health concern on college campuses. The current pilot study used Deviance Regulation Theory (DRT) to modify Protective Behavioral Strategies (PBS) among college student drinkers to reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. METHODS The sample was comprised of current college student drinkers (n = 76; 53.95% female) ranging in age from 18-24 (M = 19.29, SD = 1.42). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a positive or negative framed message. They then reported on use of alcohol protective behavioral strategies (via the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale), alcohol consumption (via the Modified Daily Drinking Questionnaire), and alcohol-related consequences (via the Young Adults Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire) each week for six weeks. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Among drinkers with low PBS use norms, a positively, versus a negatively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently less alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. Among drinkers with high PBS use norms, a negatively, versus positively, framed message resulted in increased PBS use and consequently lower alcohol consumption and fewer alcohol-related consequences. However, these effects were only relevant among those who strongly believed the DRT frame. Findings suggest assigning drinkers to frames based on perceived PBS use norms and increasing belief in the frame may be one approach to increasing responsible drinking patterns among college students. Furthermore, the current data suggests important boundary conditions for norm-based interventions. PUBLIC HEALTH RELEVANCE This study of college student drinkers who received either a positive or negative framed message about reducing their drinking found that a Deviance Regulation intervention might be effective at increasing responsible alcohol use, but only among students with a high acceptance of the intervention materials. PMID:25798727

  6. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.

  7. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  8. Alcohol consumption among men and women with tuberculosis in Tomsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sonya S.; Mathew, Trini A.; Yanova, Galina V.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Livchits, Viktoriya; Yanov, Sergey A.; Strelis, Aivar K.; Mishustin, Sergey P.; Bokhan, Nicolai A.; Lastimoso, Charmaine S.; Connery, Hilary S.; Hart, Jessica E.; Greenfield, Shelly F.

    2010-01-01

    Drinking behavior among Russian women remains poorly described. We analyzed gender differences in alcohol use among 374 tuberculosis patients in Tomsk, Siberia. Twenty-six (28.3%) women had lifetime alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with 70.6% of men. Women with alcohol use disorders drank 12.7 ± 14.0 standard drinks per day and 34.6% drank ≥ three days per week. Among individuals with a lifetime alcohol use disorder, age of onset and typical consumption did not differ significantly by gender. We conclude that Russian women with alcohol use disorders consume almost as much alcohol as men and may be at greater risk for negative social and medical consequences. PMID:21033607

  9. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis