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Sample records for alcohol consumption prior

  1. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  2. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Fritz, Brandon M; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predisposed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance.

  3. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  4. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  5. Relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex, unprotected sex and prevalence of STI/HIV among socially marginalized men in three coastal cities of Peru.

    PubMed

    Maguiña, Jorge L; Konda, Kelika A; Leon, Segundo R; Lescano, Andrés G; Clark, Jesse L; Hall, Eric R; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Coates, Tom J; Caceres, Carlos F

    2013-06-01

    This article presents data about the relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and unprotected sex and the prevalence of at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) including HIV among socially marginalized men in three coastal Peruvians cities. During an epidemiological survey with 2,146 men, we assessed their STI prevalence, frequency of alcohol consumption prior to sex, unprotected sex and other sexual risk behaviors. The overall prevalence of at least one STI/HIV was 8.5 % (95 % CI 7.3-9.7), the prevalence of unprotected sex was 79.1 % (95 % CI 77.8-80.3) and alcohol consumption prior to sex with any of the last five sex partners in the previous 6 months was 68.9 % (95 % CI 66.9-70.9). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that alcohol consumption of participants or their partners prior to sex were associated with the prevalence of at least one STI, adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) = 1.3 (95 % CI 1.01-1.68). Unprotected sex was significantly associated with alcohol consumption prior to sex when both partners used alcohol, aPR = 1.15 (95 % CI 1.10-1.20) or when either one of them used alcohol aPR = 1.14 (95 % CI 1.09-1.18). These findings concur with previous literature suggesting a relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and STI and HIV. These data improve our understanding of this relationship in this context and could be used to enhance STI and HIV prevention strategies for socially marginalized men in Peru.

  6. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption Prior to Sex, Unprotected Sex and Prevalence of STI/HIV Among Socially Marginalized Men in Three Coastal Cities of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Leon, Segundo R.; Lescano, Andrés G.; Clark, Jesse L.; Hall, Eric R.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Coates, Tom J.; Caceres, Carlos F.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents data about the relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and unprotected sex and the prevalence of at least one sexually transmitted infection (STI) including HIV among socially marginalized men in three coastal Peruvians cities. During an epidemiological survey with 2,146 men, we assessed their STI prevalence, frequency of alcohol consumption prior to sex, unprotected sex and other sexual risk behaviors. The overall prevalence of at least one STI/HIV was 8.5 % (95 % CI 7.3–9.7), the prevalence of unprotected sex was 79.1 % (95 % CI 77.8–80.3) and alcohol consumption prior to sex with any of the last five sex partners in the previous 6 months was 68.9 % (95 % CI 66.9–70.9). Bivariate and multivariate analysis showed that alcohol consumption of participants or their partners prior to sex were associated with the prevalence of at least one STI, adjusted Prevalence Ratio (aPR) = 1.3 (95 % CI 1.01–1.68). Unprotected sex was significantly associated with alcohol consumption prior to sex when both partners used alcohol, aPR = 1.15 (95 % CI 1.10–1.20) or when either one of them used alcohol aPR = 1.14 (95 % CI 1.09–1.18). These findings concur with previous literature suggesting a relationship between alcohol consumption prior to sex and STI and HIV. These data improve our understanding of this relationship in this context and could be used to enhance STI and HIV prevention strategies for socially marginalized men in Peru. PMID:23054035

  7. Prior alcohol consumption does not impair go/no-go discrimination learning, but causes over-responding on go trials, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Charles L; Fisher, Hayley; Bright, Nicholas; Gallo, Mark; Ray, Madelyn H; Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Prior alcohol use is associated with impaired response inhibition in humans, including in laboratory go/no-go discrimination tasks. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol would alter go/no-go discrimination learning. Rats received 4-6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol (alone or accompanied by saline or 1.5g/kg alcohol injections) or water. Rats then began discrimination training 4-5days after the end of the alcohol access. Each lever was available for 40s with one lever intermittently reinforced ("active lever") and the other lever non-reinforced ("inactive lever"). The rats given access to alcohol without concurrent alcohol injections drank ∼10g/kg/24-h on average during the last three weeks of alcohol access. The groups given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection groups) exhibited suppressed drinking, but the Alcohol+Injection groups exhibited higher blood alcohol spikes than all other alcohol groups (195 vs. 85-90mg/dl, respectively). We found no evidence for impaired go/no-go discrimination learning in either experiment. However, the alcohol access groups with moderate-to-high average alcohol consumption (>3g/kg/24-h) exhibited over-responding to the active lever compared to the water-only groups. One group given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection group) that exhibited very low voluntary drinking (<1g/kg/24-h) did not exhibit the over-responding effect, suggesting that the total 24-h alcohol dose matters more than short-lived blood alcohol spikes. Our findings are in accord with previous research showing that repeated alcohol withdrawal causes over-responding for responses that lead to limited reinforcement. Future work will determine the psychological and neurobiological basis of this behavioral change.

  8. Prior alcohol consumption does not impair go/no-go discrimination learning, but causes over-responding on go trials, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pickens, Charles L; Fisher, Hayley; Bright, Nicholas; Gallo, Mark; Ray, Madelyn H; Anji, Antje; Kumari, Meena

    2016-10-01

    Prior alcohol use is associated with impaired response inhibition in humans, including in laboratory go/no-go discrimination tasks. In two experiments, we determined whether chronic intermittent access to alcohol would alter go/no-go discrimination learning. Rats received 4-6 weeks of chronic intermittent access to 20% alcohol (alone or accompanied by saline or 1.5g/kg alcohol injections) or water. Rats then began discrimination training 4-5days after the end of the alcohol access. Each lever was available for 40s with one lever intermittently reinforced ("active lever") and the other lever non-reinforced ("inactive lever"). The rats given access to alcohol without concurrent alcohol injections drank ∼10g/kg/24-h on average during the last three weeks of alcohol access. The groups given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection groups) exhibited suppressed drinking, but the Alcohol+Injection groups exhibited higher blood alcohol spikes than all other alcohol groups (195 vs. 85-90mg/dl, respectively). We found no evidence for impaired go/no-go discrimination learning in either experiment. However, the alcohol access groups with moderate-to-high average alcohol consumption (>3g/kg/24-h) exhibited over-responding to the active lever compared to the water-only groups. One group given alcohol injections (Alcohol+Injection group) that exhibited very low voluntary drinking (<1g/kg/24-h) did not exhibit the over-responding effect, suggesting that the total 24-h alcohol dose matters more than short-lived blood alcohol spikes. Our findings are in accord with previous research showing that repeated alcohol withdrawal causes over-responding for responses that lead to limited reinforcement. Future work will determine the psychological and neurobiological basis of this behavioral change. PMID:27327103

  9. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  10. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  11. Alcohol consumption on pancreatic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations. PMID:23429423

  12. Prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil

    2011-09-01

    The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.

  13. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  14. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area.

  15. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  16. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  17. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  18. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  19. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  1. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  2. Alcohol consumption: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2008-12-01

    Alcohol has had a long and complicated role in human society and health. Excessive use of alcohol causes enormous morbidity and mortality worldwide, but the health effects of alcohol use within recommended guidelines are diverse and complex. Established effects include increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and antithrombotic activity, providing plausible mechanisms for the observed association of moderate drinking with lower risk of coronary heart disease but higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke. However, moderate drinking increases sex steroid hormone levels and may interfere with folate metabolism, both of which are potential mechanisms for the observed associations of moderate drinking with several forms of cancer, particularly breast and colorectal. Genetic susceptibility to the effects of alcohol on cancer and coronary heart disease also differs across the population. Recommendations regarding moderate drinking must be individualized to reflect the potentially competing effects of alcohol on several chronic diseases.

  3. [Benefits in reducing alcohol consumption: how nalmefene can help].

    PubMed

    Bendimerad, P; Blecha, L

    2014-12-01

    the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Decreasing stigmatisation of alcohol use disorder through public service announcements, in addition to more flexible physician attitudes concerning personal alcohol intake objectives may be key in getting increased numbers of patients into treatment programmes. In one study in Great Britain, 50% of patients in treatment for alcohol use disorder would prefer an initial objective of reduced consumption. A recent addition to the pharmacotherapy arsenal is nalmefene, which has been recently released as a medication to aid in reducing alcohol consumption. It is a strong μ and δ opioid receptor antagonist and a partial κ opioid receptor agonist. Opioid receptor antagonism is associated with reduced reward in relation to alcohol use, thus helping patients in reducing their consumption. Patients are instructed to take one nalmefene tablet two hours prior to each drinking occasion. Nalmefene therapy is to be accompanied by a specific psychosocial programme called BRENDA. BRENDA consists of a biopsychosocial evaluation, restitution of the evaluation to the patient, an empathetic approach that responds to patient needs, offering direct advice and adjusting goals and treatment programmes as the patient makes progress. Nalmefene has been associated with decreased heavy drinking days in two clinical trials. Overall, the treatment is well tolerated; adverse effects are fairly mild and short-lived. In conclusion, an approach that integrates reduced alcohol consumption makes sense from both a public and personal standpoint. Medications such as nalmefene have shown efficacy in association with a biopsychosocial approach to help patients attain their personal objectives with respect to alcohol use.

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update.

    PubMed

    Traversy, Gregory; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-03-01

    Recreational alcohol intake is a widespread activity globally and alcohol energy (7 kcal/g) can be a contributing factor to weight gain if not compensated for. Given that both excessive alcohol intake and obesity are of public health interest, the present paper provides an update on the association between alcohol consumption and body weight. In general, recent prospective studies show that light-to-moderate alcohol intake is not associated with adiposity gain while heavy drinking is more consistently related to weight gain. Experimental evidence is also mixed and suggests that moderate intake of alcohol does not lead to weight gain over short follow-up periods. However, many factors can explain the conflicting findings and a better characterization of individuals more likely to gain weight as a result of alcohol consumption is needed. In particular, individuals who frequently drink moderate amounts of alcohol may enjoy a healthier lifestyle in general that may protect them from weight gain. In conclusion, despite the important limitations of current studies, it is reasonable to say that alcohol intake may be a risk factor for obesity in some individuals, likely based on a multitude of factors, some of which are discussed herein.

  5. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied.

  6. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  7. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  8. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  9. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  10. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  11. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  12. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  13. College Student Perceptions on Campus Alcohol Policies and Consumption Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Brenda L.; Roberts, Katherine J.; Donnelly, Joseph W.; Rutledge, Imani N.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422…

  14. Social Psychological Bases for College Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Leonard

    1990-01-01

    College students (n=234) completed questionnaires on social and psychological predictors of alcohol consumption and satisfaction as step toward creating nonalcoholic social activities. Among multiple factors affecting drinking were wanting to release emotional tension, wanting to meet new people, belonging to a fraternity or sorority, low academic…

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  16. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  17. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations.

  18. Gender comparisons of alcohol consumption in alcoholic and nonalcoholic populations.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Welte, J W

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the similarities and differences between male and female drinkers in terms of the estimated functional impact of alcohol intake on drinking occasions. Alcohol consumption on drinking occasions was documented in male and female alcoholics and occasional drinkers in face-to-face interviews and also in a general population statewide sample by means of a telephone survey. Expression of ethanol intake in terms of grams of ethanol consumed per kilogram of total body water yielded data consistent with the notion that blood concentrations of ethanol achieved by females on drinking occasions may have been quite similar to the values achieved by males. However, important gender differences were also found in terms of an older age of onset of regular drinking, less frequent alcohol intake and a higher percentage of abstainers among females.

  19. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  20. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  1. Alcohol in Greenland 1951–2010: consumption, mortality, prices

    PubMed Central

    Aage, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in alcohol consumption in Greenland have been extreme since alcohol became available to the Greenland Inuit in the 1950s, increasing from low levels in the 1950s to very high levels in the 1980s – about twice as high as alcohol consumption in Denmark. Since then, consumption has declined, and current consumption is slightly below alcohol consumption in Denmark, while alcohol prices are far above Danish prices. Objective Description of historical trends and possible causal connections of alcohol prices, alcohol consumption and alcohol-related mortality in Greenland 1951–2010 as a background for the evaluation of the impact of various types of policy. Design Time series for Greenland 1951–2010 for alcohol prices, consumption and mortality are compiled, and variation and correlations are discussed in relation to various policies aimed at limiting alcohol consumption. Corresponding time series for Denmark 1906–2010 are presented for comparison. Results The trends in alcohol prices and consumption followed each other rather closely until the 1990s in Greenland and the 1980s in Denmark. At this time, consumption stabilised while prices decreased further, but the effect of prices upon consumption is strong, also in recent years. A trend in Greenlandic mortality similar to consumption is discernible, but not significant. Among alcohol-related deaths cirrhosis of the liver is less prevalent whilst accidents are more prevalent than in Denmark. Conclusions The effect of alcohol excise taxes and rationing upon consumption is evident. The stabilisation and subsequent decline in consumption since the mid-1990s, while alcohol prices decreased persistently, does not preclude continued effects of prices. On the contrary, price effects have been neutralised by other stronger causes. Whether these are government anti-alcohol campaigns or a cultural change is not clear. PMID:23256091

  2. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  3. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  4. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN REASONS FOR DRINKING ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: AN INTERACTIONAL APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SMITH, MARY JO; SCOTT, RICHARD O.

    2015-01-01

    Two motives for alcohol consumption have been emphasized in the etiological and the reasons-for-drinking literature: (a) people drink alcohol to cope with stress, and (b) people drink alcohol because of social influences. There is support for both of these hypotheses, but the results are usually modest and most authors agree that more complex theories of alcohol consumption are needed. This study examined the interactional effects of reasons for drinking alcohol and situational factors on alcohol consumption. Standardized telephone interviews were conducted with 781 randomly selected Michigan drinkers. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that gender, friends’ alcohol consumption, coping, and social motives for drinking were significant predictors of study participants’ alcohol consumption. As predicted, there was a significant interaction between drinking to cope with stress and perceived stress, and there was also a significant interaction between drinking for social reasons and friends’ alcohol consumption. Similarities and differences in the results for women, men, Blacks, and Whites are described. PMID:8178704

  5. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  6. Association Between Alcohol Sports Sponsorship and Consumption: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Aim Concerns have been raised about the impact of alcohol sports sponsorship on harmful consumption, with some countries banning this practice or considering a ban. We review evidence on the relationship between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and alcohol consumption. Methods Search of electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and International Alcohol Information Database) supplemented by hand searches of references and conference proceedings to locate studies providing data on the impact of exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and outcomes relating to alcohol consumption. Results Seven studies met inclusion criteria, presenting data on 12,760 participants from Australia, New Zealand, the UK, Germany, Italy, Netherlands and Poland. All studies report positive associations between exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship and self-reported alcohol consumption, but the statistical significance of results varies. Two studies found indirect exposure to alcohol sports sponsorship was associated with increased levels of drinking amongst schoolchildren, and five studies found a positive association between direct alcohol sports sponsorship and hazardous drinking amongst adult sportspeople. Conclusion These findings corroborate the results of previous systematic reviews that reported a positive association between exposure to alcohol marketing and alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol sports sponsorship and increased drinking amongst schoolchildren will concern policymakers. Further research into the effectiveness of restrictions on alcohol sports sponsorship in reducing harmful drinking is required. PMID:26911984

  7. The Burden of Cancer Attributable to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    TESTINO, Gianni

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many epidemiological studies have demonstrated a correlation between alcohol intake and the occurrence of cancer in humans. All types of alcoholic beverages are associated with an increased risk which suggests that ethanol itself is the crucial compound which causes that effect. The International Agency for Research for Cancer classified alcohol consumption and acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption as carcinogenic for humans (group 1): oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectal, liver and female breast. The mechanisms by which alcohol consumption exerts its carcinogenic effect have not been defined fully, although plausible events include: a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde; increased estrogen concentration, which is important for breast carcinogenesis; a role as solvent of tobacco carcinogens; production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species; and change in folate metabolism. Most alcohol-induced diseases increases in a linear fashion as intake increases: oral, esophagus and colon cancer fall into this pattern: very little is known about safe margins of alcohol consumption. Given the linear dose-response relation between alcohol intake and risk of cancer, control of heavy drinking remains the main target for cancer control. In healthy subjects, European Code Against Cancer recommends keeping daily consumption within two drinks for man and one drink for women. In our opinion, there are not enough data to support the actually safe intake of alcohol. Any level of alcohol consumption increase the risk of developing an alcohol related cancer. The level of risk increases in line with the level consumption. PMID:22879847

  8. Alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide).

    PubMed

    Lester, D

    1989-12-01

    The present study examined the association between alcohol consumption and rates of personal violence (suicide and homicide) over regions within a nation. Although suicide rates were higher in regions with a higher per capital consumption of alcohol, other social variables were also found to be associated with both alcohol consumption and suicide rates, such as divorce rates and inter-region migration. Thus, it appears that alcohol consumption may be but one index of a broader sociocultural dimension that is associated with regional rates of suicidal behavior.

  9. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

    PubMed

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  10. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  11. An Intimate Look at Contraception and Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathias, Angela S.; Turrentine, Cathryn G.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the relationship between alcohol consumption and contraceptive methods used by 364 heterosexually active undergraduate students at a large public university. Twenty-six percent of the respondents reported drinking alcohol before their last sexual encounter. Found that men who combined alcohol and sex were less likely to report that their…

  12. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  13. Alcohol issues prior to training in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Derefinko, Karen J; Klesges, Robert C; Bursac, Zoran; Little, Melissa A; Hryshko-Mullen, Ann; Talcott, Gerald W

    2016-07-01

    The negative impact of alcohol is a significant concern to the US military given the costs associated with alcohol-related offenses. Despite considerable research in active duty personnel, relatively little is known about the current extent of alcohol use among incoming recruits. We examined the history of alcohol use and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption among recruits entering the United States Air Force (USAF; N=50,549) over the span of 4 years (2010-2014). Across all years, drinking rates reflected national average trends for those aged 18-24 (NIDA, 2014). However, when abstainers were excluded, those under 21 (n=10,568) reported an average of 18.4 drinks per week, whereas those age 21 and over (n=14,188) reported an average of 14.1 drinks per week, suggesting that for those who drink, those under 21 are exhibiting more risky drinking rates. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Task (AUDIT) scores for drinkers reflected these same trends. For those under 21, 58% scored in risk categories of 2 or higher (risky drinking warranting attention), compared with 40% for those age 21 and over. These scores indicate that for recruits in the USAF, approximately half report alcohol use immediately prior to basic training, resulting in the inheritance of these potential alcohol related issues for those conducting training of these recruits. Based upon these numbers, brief alcohol interventions could have a potential positive impact on individuals in their initial training stages of the USAF to prevent these baseline issues from resulting in problems later in their military careers. PMID:26945450

  14. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  15. Social anxiety and alcohol consumption: the role of alcohol expectancies and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Hasking, Penelope

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been the subject of extensive exploration, previous studies have failed to draw consistent conclusions about the nature of this relationship. Gray [Gray, J.A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] suggested that individuals who are sensitive to reward are likely to place themselves in potentially rewarding environments (e.g. pubs and clubs). As such these individuals will have a greater chance to experience and vicariously observe the effects of alcohol in these environments, leading to the formation and modification of alcohol expectancies. Consequently, reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol expectancies are inherently related, yet have remained disparate areas of research. In this study, a total of 454 young adults responded to a questionnaire assessing social anxiety, alcohol consumption, reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity, expectations of tension reduction and increased confidence, and alcohol consumption. Expectations of tension reduction were observed to moderate the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. In addition, three-way relationships between reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies and social anxiety were observed to predict alcohol consumption. Overall, these results suggest that both reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies play a role in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption, and that inclusion of these constructs in further research may aid in further clarifying the mechanisms underlying comorbid social anxiety and alcohol abuse.

  16. Early social isolation augments alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; Spoelder, Marcia; Rotte, Marthe D; Janssen, Martijn J; Hesseling, Peter; Lozeman-van't Klooster, José G; Baars, Annemarie M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2015-10-01

    There is a considerable degree of individual vulnerability for alcohol use disorder (AUD) as only a subpopulation of individuals who regularly consume alcohol develop AUD. It is therefore very important to understand the factors and mechanisms that contribute towards the individual risk for AUD. In this respect, social influences, in particular during development, may be relevant for AUD as disruptions in early social experiences are associated with an increased risk for AUD. Social play, the most prominent form of social behaviour shown by young mammals, is rewarding and considered to be important for social, emotional and cognitive development. Recent studies suggest that early social isolation, effectively depriving animals from social play, increases the risk for addictive behaviour. The aim of this study was therefore to explore the long-term consequences of early social isolation on alcohol consumption and motivation for alcohol. To this end, rats were socially isolated from postnatal days 21-42, followed by 4 weeks of social housing, and voluntary alcohol consumption and operant responding for alcohol were determined in adulthood. We observed enhanced levels of alcohol consumption in adulthood in previously isolated rats, whereas operant responding for alcohol was not altered. The impact of early social isolation was independent of the individual variation in alcohol consumption. These data indicate that social isolation, during a developmental period when social play is highly abundant, enhances the propensity to consume alcohol in adulthood. This implies that early social experience may be a protective factor against excessive alcohol use.

  17. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  18. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs.

  19. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  20. Why has alcohol consumption declined in countries of southern Europe?

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Colom, J

    1997-03-01

    Alcohol consumption seems to be decreasing in the traditional wine countries of southern Europe. This paper describes the evolution of alcohol consumption over the last 30 years in France, Greece, Italy, Portugal and Spain. For this purpose, data on alcohol production and per capita alcohol consumption in southern Europe are examined, and their reliability discussed. To analyse alcohol-related mortality, liver cirrhosis death rates are also reviewed. Since 1980 overall alcohol production has increased by 10%, while wine production has decreased by 13%. The consumption of pure alcohol equivalent per capita has continually decreased, from a peak of 14 litres per year in 1974 to 10.4 litres in 1992. The reduction is dramatic for wine (42.3%) and slight for spirits (4.7%), while beer consumption has grown by 36.6%. These data seem to confirm a European trend towards the homogenization of drinking patterns. Marketing factors, public health policies, the evolution of prices and taxation, European Union agricultural policies, a growing awareness of public opinion about the toxicity of alcohol and competition from non-alcoholic drinks are all factors that may partially explain these observed changes. PMID:9167284

  1. Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Geil, Chelsea Rhea; Nixon, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration which some hypothesize is caused by neuroinflammation. One characteristic of neuroinflammation is microglial activation, but it is now well accepted that microglial activation may be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Recent work indicates that the Majchrowicz model of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration results in anti-inflammatory microglia, while intermittent exposure models with lower doses and blood alcohol levels produce microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the effect of a repeated binge alcohol exposure, rats received two cycles of the four-day Majchrowicz model. One hemisphere was then used to assess microglia via immunohistochemistry and while the other was used for ELISAs of cytokines and growth factors. A single binge ethanol exposure resulted in low-level of microglial activation; however, a second binge potentiated the microglial response. Specifically, double binge rats had greater OX-42 immunoreactivity, increased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1+) cells, and upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the single binge ethanol group. These data indicate that prior ethanol exposure potentiates a subsequent microglia response, which suggests that the initial exposure to alcohol primes microglia. In summary, repeated ethanol exposure, independent of other immune modulatory events, potentiates microglial activity. PMID:27240410

  2. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  3. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses. PMID:23390804

  4. The Russian food, alcohol and tobacco consumption patterns during transition.

    PubMed

    Rizov, Marian; Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya K

    2012-12-01

    The paper presents evidence on the impact of individual characteristics as well as regional macroeconomic factors on changes in fat, protein, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and on diet's diversity during the transition period 1994 - 2004 in Russia. The results from estimating first difference demand functions using Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS) data suggest that individual characteristics such as initial consumption patterns, gender, education, household income, and access to a garden plot all have a significant impact on the consumption behaviour. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, inflation has a significant impact on alcohol and tobacco consumption, while unemployment significantly impacts only smoking behaviour. Russian consumers respond to own prices of fat and protein as well as to own prices of alcohol and tobacco but to a lesser extent. Analysis of subsamples based on different initial consumption patterns reveals significant heterogeneity in consumption responses.

  5. Social separation increases alcohol consumption in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, G W; McKinney, W T

    1985-01-01

    This study used 16 socially reared juvenile rhesus monkeys as subjects to test the hypothesis that social separation promotes alcohol consumption in this species. In the first part of the study, 12 monkeys were intermittently separated from their social groups, while 4 were separated before the beginning of the study and remained continuously separated. Refrigerated water or aspartame-sweetened water (vehicle) containing 6% alcohol (w/v) were presented after 4.5 h of fluid deprivation. Intermittently separated monkeys drank more alcohol during separation than when they were socially housed, and more than the continuously separated monkeys. Stable individual differences in consumption rate developed over repeated separations. These differences were not correlated with consumption of refrigerated water or vehicle, or with differential behavioral (locomotor) responses to social separation. This suggested that some monkeys were predisposed to drink more alcohol than others. The second part of the study determined whether established alcohol/vehicle consumption rates for all 16 monkeys were altered when the monkeys were not water deprived, and then when water and the vehicle were available at the same time as alcohol/vehicle. Among monkeys that drank the most (mean of 2.4 g/kg/h) and the least (mean of 0.8 g/kg/h), alcohol consumption was not affected. These results, combined with previous reports, suggest a neurobiological linkage between genetically based social attachment mechanisms, social stressors, and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and addiction in primates.

  6. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption. PMID:22666813

  7. [Biochemical markers for acute and chronic alcohol consumption].

    PubMed

    Geppert, Bogna; Tezyk, Artur; Zaba, Czesław

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the fact, that ethyl alcohol is a legal and socially accepted recreational drug its abuse may cause numerous problems for the individual and society. Casualties of car accidents caused by drunk drivers, aggressive behavior, family problems and effective less work are the main problems connected with alcohol abuse. The easiest and most effective way of proving recent alcohol consumption is confirming its presence in biological samples taken from the individual. However, the main disadvantage of this method is a short window detection for ethanol, because of its high speed of elimination process. Nowadays, in order to prevent and have a better control of alcohol abuse, markers that could provide a better view of short and long term ethanol consumption are in frequent use. Ethyl alcohol present in the body cause many qualitative and quantitative disturbances in biochemical metabolites that could be used as markers of its consumption. In practice markers of ethanol consumption are usually divided into acute (tests confirm single alcohol intake) and chronic (confirm long term alcohol consumption or lack of teetotalism). Markers of ethanol consumption are valuable alternative and complementation to customary examinations performed in medical practice and forensic medicine.

  8. SY 16-3 HEALTHY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    The health effects of alcohol have been studied for decades. While it is clear that excessive alcohol consumption is harmful, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that light to moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions. Light to moderate alcohol consumption has been consistently associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among a wide variety of population groups including men and women, those with hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. Alcohol has been associated with increases in HDL cholesterol and lower risks of diabetes. It is felt that this is one important mechanism by which alcohol could lower the risk of heart disease.A key issue to understanding the complex relationships of alcohol intake is the shape of the relationship. For example, the shape of the associations appears to be bimodal with lower risk at light to moderate levels of consumption and higher risk at heavy levels of consumption. This strongly suggests that mechanisms for benefit and harm may be distinct. These types of relationships are unusual in epidemiology and make recommendations challenging.Cardiovascular disease is only one component of total mortality. Alcohol has other health effects. For example heavy alcohol has been shown to increase the risk of certain cancers and can cause cardiomyopathy. This makes the overall relationship of alcohol intake on total mortality complicated. Recent meta-analyses suggest that careful attention to the subpopulation may need to be taken when considering specific alcohol recommendations. In this presentation, the factors that go into the complex relationship of alcohol and other conditions will be carefully explored. PMID:27643266

  9. SY 16-3 HEALTHY ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION: MYTH OR REALITY?

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2016-09-01

    The health effects of alcohol have been studied for decades. While it is clear that excessive alcohol consumption is harmful, hundreds of studies have demonstrated that light to moderate alcohol consumption may reduce the risk of certain cardiovascular conditions. Light to moderate alcohol consumption has been consistently associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) among a wide variety of population groups including men and women, those with hypertension, diabetes and heart disease. Alcohol has been associated with increases in HDL cholesterol and lower risks of diabetes. It is felt that this is one important mechanism by which alcohol could lower the risk of heart disease.A key issue to understanding the complex relationships of alcohol intake is the shape of the relationship. For example, the shape of the associations appears to be bimodal with lower risk at light to moderate levels of consumption and higher risk at heavy levels of consumption. This strongly suggests that mechanisms for benefit and harm may be distinct. These types of relationships are unusual in epidemiology and make recommendations challenging.Cardiovascular disease is only one component of total mortality. Alcohol has other health effects. For example heavy alcohol has been shown to increase the risk of certain cancers and can cause cardiomyopathy. This makes the overall relationship of alcohol intake on total mortality complicated. Recent meta-analyses suggest that careful attention to the subpopulation may need to be taken when considering specific alcohol recommendations. In this presentation, the factors that go into the complex relationship of alcohol and other conditions will be carefully explored.

  10. Protective effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal on acute alcohol consumption related cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kartkaya, Kazim; Kanbak, Güngör; Oğlakçı, Ayşegül; Burukoğlu, Dilek; Ozer, Mehmet Caner

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and alcoholism cause medical problems with high mortality and morbidity rates. In this study we aimed to decrease the alcohol related tissue damage by inhibiting calpain activation which plays an important role in apoptosis and necrosis, in rats with cardiomyopathy induced by acute alcohol consumption. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into four groups (control, vehicle, alcohol and alcohol + inhibitor) with 10 rats in each. Control group received isocaloric maltose while vehicle group received isocaloric maltose with DMSO, and alcohol group received 8 g/kg absolute ethanol by gavage. Inhibitor group received 20 mg/kg calpain inhibitor 1 intraperitonally prior to alcohol administration. Calpain activities, cathepsin L levels and cytochrome c release rates were significantly increased in alcohol group compared to control group (p < 0.05). Serum CK MB and BNP levels of alcohol group were excessively increased compared to control group (respectively p < 0.001 and p < 0.01). Serum BNP levels of alcohol + inhibitor group were significantly (p < 0.05) decreased compared to alcohol group. In addition to these, histological evaluation of light microscope images and the results of DNA fragmentation and immunohistochemical caspase-3 activity results showed significant improvement of these parameters in alcohol + inhibitor group compared to alcohol group. Results of our biochemical and histological evaluation results revealed that the calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-leu-leu-norleucinal may have an ameliorating effect on acute alcohol consumption related cardiac tissue damage due to its effects on cell death pathways. PMID:24996291

  11. Influence of unrecorded alcohol consumption on liver cirrhosis mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Monakhova, Yulia B; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Unrecorded alcohol includes illegally distributed alcohol as well as homemade or surrogate alcohol which is unintended for consumption by humans (e.g., cosmetics containing alcohol). The highest unrecorded alcohol consumption occurs in Eastern Europe and some of these countries have an over proportional liver cirrhosis mortality. Compounds besides ethanol have been hypothesized as being responsible for this observation. On the other hand, chemical investigations were unable to prove that unrecorded alcohol regularly contains contaminants above toxicological thresholds. However, illegally produced spirits regularly contain higher percentages of alcohol (above 45% by volume), but for considerably less costs compared with licit beverages, potentially causing more problematic patterns of drinking. In this review, it is investigated whether patterns of drinking rather than product composition can explain the liver cirrhosis mortality rates. Statistical examination of World Health Organization country data shows that the originally detected correlation of the percentage of unrecorded alcohol consumption and liver cirrhosis mortality rates disappears when the data is adjusted for the prevalence of heavy episodic drinking. It may be concluded that there is currently a lack of data to demonstrate causality between the composition of illicit spirits (e.g., higher levels of certain contaminants in home-produced products) and liver toxicity on a population scale. Exceptions may be cases of poisoning with antiseptic liquids containing compounds such as polyhexamethyleneguanidine, which were reported to be consumed as surrogate alcohol in Russia, leading to an outbreak of acute cholestatic liver injury, histologically different from conventional alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24966592

  12. Alcohol questionnaires and HDL: screening scores as scaled markers of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Berger, Douglas; Williams, Emily C; Bryson, Chris L; Rubinsky, Anna D; Bradley, Katharine A

    2013-09-01

    Improving the quality of alcohol-related care requires practical approaches to assessing alcohol consumption to guide management and monitor outcomes. Given the increasing use of alcohol screening questionnaires to identify alcohol misuse it would be ideal if scores on screening questionnaires were also indicators of average alcohol consumption. However, the questionnaires were not designed for this purpose and include dimensions of drinking that may not reflect average consumption (e.g. heavy episodic drinking, alcohol-related problems). In a general population sample, scores on the AUDIT-C screen correlated with reports of alcohol consumption in detailed interviews, but the relationship is unknown for clinical populations and other questionnaires. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) is a biomarker routinely obtained in clinical care and is known to rise with average alcohol consumption. This cross-sectional study of 11,175 male U.S. Veterans Affairs patients enrolled in a primary care study used HDL as an objective biomarker to evaluate whether average alcohol consumption increased as scores increased on 3 brief alcohol screens - the AUDIT-C, AUDIT Question #3 (a single-item screen), and the CAGE questionnaire. Mean HDL progressively increased as screening scores increased for the AUDIT-C and AUDIT Question #3: about 12 mg/dL from the lowest to the highest scores. The association was much weaker for the CAGE questionnaire. Results were minimally affected by adjustment for covariates (e.g. age, race, medical comorbidity, smoking, medication count, and depression) but the association was modified (p = 0.008) and mildly attenuated by adherent use of lipid-lowering medications. This study using HDL as a biomarker of average alcohol consumption adds to evidence that some alcohol screening scores may also serve as scaled markers of average alcohol consumption.

  13. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  14. Alcohol consumption in arthritic patients: clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, A; Mowat, A G

    1985-01-01

    In popular belief patients with chronic arthritis take alcohol for its analgesic effect. To test this we studied by validated questionnaire the past and present alcohol consumption of 103 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA), 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 90 orthopaedic non-arthritic controls. OA men were most likely and RA men least likely to have been heavy drinkers at any time of their lives. Mean red corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and serum uric acid (SUA) levels did not correlate with reported alcohol consumption. Two of 93 OA femoral heads examined had avascular change; both were from heavy drinkers. The abstemiousness of RA men compared with their OA counterparts was due to a striking increase in joint pain after drinking alcohol (p = 0.004), fear of adverse drug reactions with alcohol, and a widespread belief not expressed by OA men that 'alcohol and arthritis do not mix'. PMID:2858181

  15. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  16. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2016-09-15

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency.

  17. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  18. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  19. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  20. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption.

  1. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  2. Effects of Trait Anger on Alcohol Consumption and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibsohn, Matthew T.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compared alcohol consumption and its consequences for high- and low-anger college students. High-anger students exhibited more frequent drinking and intoxication, and experienced severer physical, emotional, and behavioral alcohol-related consequences than low-anger students. Some gender differences were noted. Results are discussed in terms of…

  3. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  4. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  5. The Relationship among Alcohol Consumption, Tailgating, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Shawn A.; Hall, Thomas; Lancey, Patrice

    2012-01-01

    Tailgating has been associated with both problem drinking and high-risk behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if student participation in game day on-campus tailgating activities is associated with increased alcohol consumption. Employing a convenience sample of 567 university students, the authors compared the alcohol use patterns…

  6. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain.

  7. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  8. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and subjective health in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Guallar-Castillon, P; Rodriguez-Artalej..., F; Ganan, L; Banegas, J; Urdinguio, P; Cabrera, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To examine the relation between alcohol and main alcoholic beverage consumption and subjective health in Spain.
DESIGN—Logistic regression analysis using a cross sectional survey based on self reported data on alcohol and alcoholic beverage consumption, subjective health and the principal confounding factors (age, sex, civil status, educational level, job status, social support, region of residence, size of town or city, tobacco consumption, physical activity during leisure time and work hours, and chronic disease).
SETTING—The 1993 Spanish National Health Survey.
PARTICIPANTS—A 19 573 person sample, representative of the non-institutionalised Spanish population aged 16 years and over.
MAIN RESULTS—Among Spaniards, 31.4% reported their health as suboptimal (fair, poor or very poor) and 56.9% consumed alcohol regularly, with the majority having a preference for wine. Light (1-2 drinks per day) or moderate consumption (3-4 drinks per day) was the most frequent pattern. After adjusting for confounding factors, a negative dose-response relation was observed between consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, and prevalence of suboptimal health (linear trend: p<0.001 for total alcohol, p=0.023 for wine, and p=0.030 for beer). In contrast, for consumption of spirits the prevalence of ill health in moderate drinkers was lower than in non-drinkers, with no clear relation at higher consumption. While persons reporting a preference for wine had a lower frequency of suboptimal health than did abstainers, they showed no difference in frequency of subjective ill health with respect to persons with preference for other types of drink or no preference whatsoever.
CONCLUSIONS—The higher the consumption of total alcohol, wine and beer, the lower the prevalence of suboptimal health. These results differ from those obtained in several Nordic countries, where a "J shaped" relation has been observed for total alcohol and wine, and suggest that

  9. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  10. A Venue Analysis of Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Sexual Intercourse among Female Sex Workers in Senggigi, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Safika, Iko; Johnson, Timothy P.; Levy, Judith A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Female sex workers' (FSWs') use of alcohol, a known disinhibitor to risk behavior, has been largely understudied. Knowledge of how various sex work venues influence FSW's alcohol consumption before engaging in commercial sex is even rarer. Our analysis identifies those factors across three types of sex-work venues that predict alcohol use among FSWs prior to paid sexual intercourse with clients. Our data were collected through structured interviews with FSWs engaging in commercial sex in Senggigi Beach, Lombok Island in the eastern Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara. Methods Employing a cross sectional and multilevel design, three categories of venues where FSWs meet clients in Senggigi were sampled: (1) discotheques and bars (freelance), (2) brothels, and (3) recreational enterprises such as karaoke establishments and massage parlors. The sample consisted of 115 women “nested” within 16 sex work venues. The FSWs reported on 326 clients interactions. Results Results show that FSWs consumed alcohol before commercial sex with 157 (48%) of the 326 clients interactions. Alcohol use varied by differences in HIV policies and services offered at the sex work venue, the FSW's educational level and age, and client characteristics. Conclusion Alcohol use is common prior to sexual intercourse among FSWs and their clients in Senggigi, and the venue where FSWs meet their clients influences the women's alcohol use. Freelancers were likelier to use alcohol than those who work at brothels and recreational enterprises. Given the recognized links between alcohol use prior to sex and high risk behavior, HIV prevention programs that discourage alcohol use should be introduced to both women who engage in commercial sex and also sex-work venue managers, owners, and clients. PMID:20956075

  11. Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol: a possible marker of recent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Voltaire, A; Beck, O; Borg, S

    1992-04-01

    Urinary 5-hydroxytryptophol (5-HTOL) is currently being evaluated as a marker of recent alcohol consumption. To compensate for urinary dilution, the molar ratio between 5-HTOL and 5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid (5-HIAA) is used. The 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio showed a satisfactory degree of individual stability when it was followed in a group of teetotallers for 1 month. The mean value of 5-HTOL/5-HIAA in a group of 69 persons abstaining from alcohol was 7.6 (pmoles 5-HTOL/nmoles 5-HIAA). Ninety-seven percent had values ranging from 4 to 17, with no value exceeding 20. A group of healthy volunteers were tested 12 hr after alcohol consumption and showed a dose-dependent and statistically significant elevation in the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio. Four regular alcohol consumers who were followed during a period of 3 months of drinking had elevated values of the 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio in 60% of their urine samples. The present study indicates that urinary 5-HTOL/5-HIAA is a sensitive and reliable marker of recent alcohol consumption. We propose that a 5-HTOL/5-HIAA ratio greater than 20 (pmoles/nmoles) can be used to indicate recent alcohol consumption. This limit gives a low frequency of false positives; the statistical probability of having a value greater than 20 during abstinence from alcohol was calculated to be less than 0.001. PMID:1375446

  12. Cancer cases attributable to alcohol consumption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Menezes, Raquel Ferreira; Bergmann, Anke

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study specifically estimating the proportion of new cancer cases that could be attributable to alcohol consumption in the year 2012 in Brazil. The proportion of exposed cases and the association between alcohol and lip and oral cavity, nasopharynx, other pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, liver, and intrahepatic bile ducts cancers was based on data made available by the Integrator System of Hospital Cancer Registries. The cancer incidence was obtained from the estimates produced by GLOBOCAN. In 2012 there were 437,592 new cancer cases in Brazil, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Of these, alcohol consumption was responsible for 4.8% of all new cases. The alcohol-attributable fraction was higher for men (7.0%) than for women (2.6%). A total of 21,000 new cancer cases, 15,554 in men and 5,646 in women, could be attributable to alcohol consumption. In Brazil, a significant fraction of cancer cases can be attributed to alcohol consumption, and public health measures to prevent heavy alcohol use should be implemented. PMID:27565752

  13. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  14. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:21999498

  15. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  16. College student employment and drinking: a daily study of work stressors, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Butler, Adam B; Dodge, Kama D; Faurote, Eric J

    2010-07-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by sex. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking.

  17. Neighbourhood availability of alcohol outlets and hazardous alcohol consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ayuka, Francis; Barnett, Ross; Pearce, Jamie

    2014-09-01

    The socio-spatial arrangement of alcohol retailers is potentially important in understanding the relationship between neighbourhood context and 'excessive' alcohol consumption. This New Zealand study examines whether the availability of alcohol products is associated with individual-level alcohol consumption. Measures capturing the availability of alcohol retailers were calculated for neighbourhoods across the country and then appended to a national health survey. At the national level there was no evidence for an association between hazardous consumption and alcohol outlet access. However, there was evidence of associations with neighbourhood retailing for younger Māori and Pacific peoples males; younger European females; middle-aged European men; and older men. The findings provide evidence that 'alcogenic' environments are associated with excessive drinking in New Zealand, albeit that the associations are restricted to particular vulnerable groups. PMID:25128780

  18. Pre-College Matriculation Risk Profiles and Alcohol Consumption Patterns during the First Semesters of College

    PubMed Central

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J.; Ray, Anne E.; Lu, Shou-En

    2013-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation and alcohol use was measured with 5 assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled “Anti-Drinking”, “Unfavorable”, “Mixed”, and “Risky”. Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  19. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs. PMID:23928750

  20. Pre-college matriculation risk profiles and alcohol consumption patterns during the first semesters of college.

    PubMed

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Turrisi, Rob; Cleveland, Michael J; Ray, Anne E; Lu, Shou-En

    2014-10-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption represents a significant concern on U.S. college campuses, and there is a need to identify students who may be at risk for engaging in risky alcohol use. The current study examined how variables measured prior to college matriculation, specifically alcohol-related decision-making variables drawn from the Theory of Reasoned Action (i.e., alcohol expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs), were associated with patterns of alcohol use prior to and throughout the first semesters of college. Participants were 392 undergraduate students (56% female) from a large Northeastern U.S. university. Decision-making variables were assessed prior to college matriculation, and alcohol use was measured with five assessments before and throughout freshman and sophomore semesters. Latent profile analysis was used to identify types of students with distinct patterns of decision-making variables. These decision-making profiles were subsequently linked to distinct patterns of alcohol use using latent transition analysis. Four distinct decision-making profiles were found and were labeled "Anti-Drinking," "Unfavorable," "Mixed," and "Risky." Five drinking patterns were observed and included participants who reported consistently low, moderate, or high rates of alcohol use. Two patterns described low or non-drinking at the pre-college baseline with drinking escalation during the measurement period. Students' likelihood of following the various drinking patterns varied according to their decision-making. Findings suggest the early identification of at-risk students may be improved by assessing decision-making variables in addition to alcohol use. The findings also have implications for the design of early identification assessments to identify at-risk college students and for the targeting of alcohol prevention efforts to students based on their alcohol-related attitudes and beliefs.

  1. [Trends in alcohol consumption in Switzerland from 1975-1992].

    PubMed

    Schmid, H; Gmel, G

    1996-06-22

    Based on four representative surveys independently conducted at 6-year intervals, the study presented here delineates the development of alcohol consumption in the general population of Switzerland between 1975 and 1992. A description of changes in the frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption by sex is presented, as well as specific changes by beverage type. Even though Switzerland remains one of the high consumption countries, a marked decline can be observed. Compared to 1975 when 28% of respondents reported daily alcohol consumption, this figure dropped to 20% in 1992. Although 10% consumed more than 60 grams of pure alcohol in the 1975 sample, this proportion fell to only 3% in 1992. This downward trend, which is also reflected in secondary statistics such as sales and mortality figures, can be mainly attributed to male consumers. In contrast to international trends, which in general demonstrate converging drinking patterns, reduced consumption in Switzerland, a wine-producing country, is mainly due to a decline in beer consumption and not in wine consumption.

  2. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  3. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed. PMID:3166631

  4. A community survey of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Farrow, S C; Charny, M C; Lewis, P C

    1988-01-01

    A survey by 150 trained medical students was carried out in 1986 on a random sample of adults from the electoral register of Cardiff. The survey explored attitudes, knowledge and behaviour over a wide range of health related topics. 4266 self-completed questionnaires were returned for analysis and this paper reports the answers to the question 'how much did you drink last week'. The total units of alcohol were calculated and the drinking characteristics of the respondents are presented by age, sex, marital status, social class, accommodation and occupation. The contribution that such community surveys play in the development of local alcohol policy is discussed.

  5. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  6. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress. Images PMID:1871131

  7. Nonhuman primate model of alcohol abuse: effects of early experience, personality, and stress on alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Hasert, M F; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1991-08-15

    Twenty-two 50-month-old rhesus monkeys were provided concurrent free access to an aspartame-sweetened 7% ethanol solution and an aspartame-sweetened vehicle before, during, and after social separation. Subjects had been reared for their first 6 months of life either without access to adults but with constant access to age mates (peer reared), a condition producing reduced exploration and increased fear-related behaviors, or as controls with their mothers; thereafter, all subjects received identical treatment. During home-cage periods, for 1 hr each day, 4 days a week, when the ethanol solution and vehicle were freely available, peer-reared subjects consumed significantly more alcohol than mother-reared subjects. When stress was increased via social separation, mother-reared animals increased their alcohol consumption to a level nearly as high as that of peer-reared monkeys. Average individual differences in alcohol consumption were markedly stable over time. In addition, there were strong positive correlations between alcohol consumption and distress behaviors. Biological indices of increased stress, such as plasma cortisol and corticotropin, were higher in peer-reared subjects. Within the peer- and mother-reared groups, these indices were positively correlated with alcohol consumption. The results suggest that early rearing experiences that predispose monkeys to increased fear-related behaviors produce excessive alcohol consumption under normal living conditions. Furthermore, a major challenge such as social separation increases alcohol consumption to levels producing intoxication even in monkeys not particularly vulnerable to stress.

  8. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  9. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  10. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  11. Music increases alcohol consumption rate in young females.

    PubMed

    Stafford, Lorenzo D; Dodd, Hannah

    2013-10-01

    Previous field research has shown that individuals consumed more alcohol and at a faster rate in environments paired with loud music. Theoretically, this effect has been linked to approach/avoidance accounts of how music influences arousal and mood, but no work has tested this experimentally. In the present study, female participants (n = 45) consumed an alcoholic (4% alcohol-by-volume) beverage in one of three contexts: slow tempo music, fast tempo music, or a no-music control. Results revealed that, compared with the control, the beverage was consumed fastest in the two music conditions. Interestingly, whereas arousal and negative mood declined in the control condition, this was not the case for either of the music conditions, suggesting a downregulation of alcohol effects. We additionally found evidence for music to disrupt sensory systems in that, counterintuitively, faster consumption was driven by increases in perceived alcohol strength, which, in turn, predicted lower breath alcohol level (BrAL). These findings suggest a unique interaction of music environment and psychoactive effects of alcohol itself on consumption rate. Because alcohol consumed at a faster rate induces greater intoxication, these findings have implications for applied and theoretical work.

  12. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  13. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    AIM To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. METHODS Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. RESULTS A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results. PMID:27803869

  14. Is alcohol consumption associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease?*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shao-hua; Wang, Jie-wei; Li, You-ming

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders with an increasing incidence and prevalence. Alcohol consumption may be a risk factor for GERD; however, the relationship remains to be fully elucidated. The results of different studies are diverse and contradictory. Systematic investigations concerning this matter are inappropriate and further well-designed prospective studies are needed to clarify the effect of alcohol on GERD. PMID:20506572

  15. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  16. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  17. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  18. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  19. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  20. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  1. Optimum alcohol taxation: balancing consumption and external costs.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J; Crowley, S

    1994-01-01

    This paper considers alternative approaches to the evaluation of the total cost of alcohol consumption in Australia. It calculates the impact of alternative tax rates on beer, wine and spirits separately and the 'consumption cost' of these taxes in terms of the distortion caused to consumption patterns. Two separate analyses are carried out. First optimal taxation is calculated which minimises the total loss from the 'consumption cost' of taxation plus the external cost of alcohol consumption. Secondly, the benefits of life are separated from other benefits and the impact of tax expressed in terms of the cost per life year gained. Conceptualised in this way, the results of this 'tax' program may be expressed in the same way as other health programs, namely as a net cost per life year gained. Alcohol taxation may then be compared with other life saving interventions. The chief conclusion reached is that in Australia there is a very compelling case for a new tax base and for a very significant increase in the rate of alcohol taxation. PMID:8044214

  2. Temporal pattern of alcohol consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Arfken, C L

    1988-02-01

    Alcohol is a major risk factor for many causes of injuries. A preliminary assessment of alcohol's involvement in specific causes of injuries must take into account when people are drinking. This study quantified the weekly and diurnal rhythm of alcohol consumption for the general U.S. population using data collected in a national survey. The data showed a strong temporal pattern consisting of more drinking on weekends with daily peaks in the early evening and troughs in the early morning. The national temporal drinking pattern was positively correlated (0.22 to 0.56) with national temporal patterns of motor vehicle accidents, a cause of injury commonly associated with drinking.

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  4. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents' alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  5. Twelve Months of Voluntary Heavy Alcohol Consumption in Male Rhesus Macaques Suppresses Intracortical Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Gaddini, Gino W.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Woodall, Andrew; Stull, Cara; Maddalozzo, Gianni F.; Zhang, Bo; Turner, Russell T.; Iwaniec, Urszula T.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for cortical bone fractures in males. The increase in fracture risk may be due, in part, to reduced bone quality. Intracortical (osteonal) bone remodeling is the principle mechanism for maintaining cortical bone quality. However, it is not clear how alcohol abuse impacts intracortical bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of long-duration heavy alcohol consumption on intracortical bone remodeling in a non-human primate model. Following a 4-month induction period, male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta, n = 21) were allowed to voluntarily self-administer water or alcohol (4% ethanol w/v) for 22 h/d, 7 d/wk for 12 months. Control monkeys (n = 13) received water and an isocaloric maltose-dextrin solution. Tetracycline hydrochloride was administered orally 17 and 3 days prior to sacrifice for determination of active mineralization sites. Animals in the alcohol group consumed 2.7 ± 0.2 g alcohol/kg/d (mean ± SE) during the 12 months of self-administration, resulting in a mean daily blood alcohol concentration of 77 ± 9 mg/dl from samples taken at 7 h after the start of a daily session. However, blood alcohol concentration varied widely from day to day, with peak levels exceeding 250 mg/dl, modeling a binge-drinking pattern of alcohol consumption. The skeletal response to alcohol was determined by densitometry, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometry. Significant differences in tibial bone mineral content, bone mineral density, and cortical bone architecture (cross-sectional volume, cortical volume, marrow volume, cortical thickness, and polar moment of inertia) in the tibial diaphysis were not detected with treatment. However, cortical porosity was lower (1.8 ± 0.5 % versus 0.6 ± 0.1 %, p = 0.021) and labeled osteon density was lower (0.41 ± 0.2/mm2 versus 0.04 ± 0.01/mm2, p < 0.003) in alcohol-consuming monkeys compared to controls, indicating a reduced rate of intracortical bone remodeling

  6. Moderate Alcohol Consumption is Protective Against Colorectal Adenomas in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Galanko, Joseph A.; Martin, Christopher F.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2009-01-01

    Background Although some studies have shown an association between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas, the effect of moderate alcohol consumption is not well-defined, nor is the interaction between alcohol and smoking. Aim To investigate the relationship between different levels of alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas and to determine whether smoking modifies this relationship. Methods Eligible patients who underwent a complete colonoscopy were included (179 cases and 466 controls). Alcohol consumption was obtained from a lifestyle questionnaire. Patients were divided into three groups: 1) Abstainers: 0 drinks/week; 2) Moderate drinkers: >0-<7 drinks/week; 3) Heavy drinkers: >=7 drinks/week. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated using logistic regression, controlling for gender, age, body mass index, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. Results were stratified by the number of years smoked. Results The proportion of patients with adenomas was 29.6% in abstainers, 22.1% in moderate drinkers, and 36.7% in heavy drinkers. There was significant modification of the relationship between alcohol consumption and colorectal adenomas by smoking. For individuals who had never smoked, heavy drinkers were at significantly increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 3.08; 95% CI: 1.50-6.32), while no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.52-1.89). Similarly, among individuals who had smoked 1-14 years, heavy drinkers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.61; 95% CI: 1.04-6.51), and no difference was seen for abstainers (OR 1.02; 95% CI: 0.33-3.10). Somewhat unexpectedly, among individuals who had smoked for 15 or more years, abstainers were at increased odds of having an adenoma compared to moderate drinkers (OR 2.04; 95% CI: 0.91-4.59), while heavy drinkers were not at increased odds of having an adenoma (OR 0.73; 95% CI: 0.27-1.97). Conclusions Consumption of less

  7. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  8. Impulsive Choice, Alcohol Consumption, and Pre-Exposure to Delayed Rewards: II. Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Hinnenkamp, Jay E.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In a prior study (Stein et al., 2013), we reported that rats pre-exposed to delayed rewards made fewer impulsive choices, but consumed more alcohol (12% wt/vol), than rats pre-exposed to immediate rewards. To understand the mechanisms that produced these findings, we again pre-exposed rats to either delayed (17.5 s; n = 32) or immediate (n = 30) rewards. In post-tests, delay-exposed rats made significantly fewer impulsive choices at both 15- and 30-s delays to a larger, later food reward than the immediacy-exposed comparison group. Behavior in an open-field test provided little evidence of differential stress exposure between groups. Further, consumption of either 12% alcohol or isocaloric sucrose in subsequent tests did not differ between groups. Because Stein et al. introduced alcohol concentration gradually (3–12%), we speculate that their group differences in 12% alcohol consumption were not determined by alcohol’s pharmacological effects, but by another variable (e.g., taste) that was preserved as an artifact from lower concentrations. We conclude that pre-exposure to delayed rewards generalizes beyond the pre-exposure delay; however, this same experimental variable does not robustly influence alcohol consumption. PMID:25418607

  9. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  11. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Undergraduates: The Impact of Family Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study concerning college student characteristics and alcohol consumption. In general, family income was positively associated with likelihood of drinking. In the lowest income category, men were more likely to drink than women; in the highest income category, women were more likely to drink than men. (LKS)

  12. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  13. Alcohol Consumption and Risky Sexual Behavior Among Persons Attending Alcohol Consumption Venues in Gaborone, Botswana.

    PubMed

    Lama, Tsering Pema; Kumoji, E 'Kuor; Ketlogetswe, Ditsotlhe; Anderson, Marina; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol use is a known key risk factor associated with risky sexual behavior that contributes to HIV transmission. This cross-sectional study used time location sampling to investigate alcohol use and risky sexual behaviors that occurred after ingesting alcohol among 609 patrons of alcohol venues in Gaborone, Botswana. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) scores were categorized as low (1-7), medium (8-15), and high (16+) for analysis. Logistic regression models stratified by gender assessed the association between alcohol use and condom use at last sex after drinking alcohol. Among females, the odds of condom use during last sex after drinking alcohol were significantly lower for high compared to low AUDIT scores (AOR = 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.54). Among males, factors significantly associated with condom use at last sex after alcohol use were low levels of education (primary level compared to university and above AOR = 0.13; 95% CI 0.03-0.55) and beliefs that alcohol use did not increase risky sexual behaviors (AOR = 0.26; 95% CI 0.11-0.62). HIV prevention interventions should target females and emphasize sexual risks associated with alcohol use.

  14. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  15. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  16. Intake of volatile nitrosamines from consumption of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Castegnaro, M; Garren, L; Toussaint, G; Kowalski, B

    1979-10-01

    Volatile nitrosamines were determined in alcoholic drinks during epidemiologic studies on the relationship between esophageal cancer incidence and alcohol consumption in Normandy, France. Nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was found commonly in most alcoholic drinks tested, with the exception of wine. The average level, about 2 micrograms/liter in beers, was higher than that for other drinks; the range was 0.2--8.6 micrograms/liter. Traces of nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) were also detected in spirits and ciders. No significant increases in levels were found after nitrosation. Calculation of daily intake in the study region showed that the main intake of volatile nitrosamine is from NDMA in beer. The intake of NDEA through consumption of cider is about one-third that of NDMA from all sources. PMID:480387

  17. An explanation for enhanced perceptions of attractiveness after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halsey, L G; Huber, J W; Bufton, R D J; Little, A C

    2010-06-01

    Acute alcohol consumption increases ratings of attractiveness to faces. This may help to explain increased frequencies of sexual encounters during periods of alcohol intoxication. At least in part, such increased attraction may be the result of alcohol consumption decreasing ability to detect bilateral asymmetry, presumably because of the reductions in the levels of visual function. We tested the hypotheses that acute alcohol consumption decreases ability to detect asymmetry in faces and reduces preference for symmetrical faces over asymmetrical faces. Twenty images of a pair of faces and then 20 images of a single face were displayed on a computer, one at a time. Participants were instructed to state which face of each of the face pairs displayed was most attractive and then whether the single face being displayed was symmetrical or not. Data were collected near campus bars at Roehampton University. Sixty-four self-selecting students who undertook the study were classified as either sober (control) or intoxicated with alcohol. For each face pair or single face displayed, participant response was recorded and details of the alcohol consumption of participants that day were also obtained. Sober participants had a greater preference for symmetrical faces and were better at detecting whether a face was symmetrical or otherwise, supporting the hypotheses. A further, unexpected finding was that males made fewer mistakes than did females when determining whether individual faces were asymmetrical. The reduced ability of inebriated people to perceive asymmetry may be an important mechanism underlying the higher ratings of facial attractiveness they give for members of the opposite sex and hence their increased frequency of mate choice. PMID:20570085

  18. Alcohol consumption in Chinese, Malays and Indians in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K; Yeo, P P; Lun, K C; Thai, A C; Wang, K W; Cheah, J S

    1990-05-01

    A population based survey has measured alcohol consumption by questionnaire in persons aged 18 to 69 years in Singapore. The majority were "occasional/none" drinkers, being males (Chinese 87%, Malays 99% and Indians 80%) and females (Chinese 98%, Malays 100% and Indians 100%). "Heavy" consumption was uncommon in males (Chinese 0.6%, Malays 0% and Indians 1.3%) and absent in females, while "heavy/moderate" drinking was males (Chinese 5.7%, Malays 0.5% and Indians 3.8%) and females (Chinese 0.3%, Malays 0% and Indians 0%). For males, "light" drinking was highest in Indians (15.9%), then Chinese (7.8%) and then Malays (0.5%). This survey indicates that alcohol consumption is not yet a major public health problem in Singapore.

  19. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption and loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed Central

    Karhunen, P. J.; Erkinjuntti, T.; Laippala, P.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the dose-response effect of alcohol consumption on the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells. DESIGN--A prospective necropsy study combined with detailed reports on use of alcohol from a relative or friend. The number of Purkinje cells was counted in the anterior midsagittal section of the cerebellar vermis, the area of which was measured by computer assisted morphometry. SETTING--Department of forensic medicine, University of Helsinki. SUBJECTS--66 men, aged 35 to 69 years, subjected to medicolegal necropsy because of sudden or violent death. The average all year daily alcohol consumption over the year was 0 to 10 g in 17 men, 11 to 80 g in 24 men, and more than 80 g in 25 men. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Number of Purkinje cells, alcohol consumption. RESULTS--The numbers and density of Purkinje cells in the cross section of vermis showed a consistent but weak decrease with increasing daily alcohol intake but not with age. A wide variation in the cell counts was observed, especially in men drinking more than 80 g, suggesting differences in the susceptibility to effects of alcohol. Compared with men drinking 40 g or less, a long term moderate consumption of an average of 41 to 80 g daily was associated with a significant average loss of 242 (95% confidence interval 45 to 439) Purkinje cells (15.2%) from a mean of 1583 to 1341 cells. In those drinking 81 to 180 g the average loss was 535 (259 to 811) cells (33.4%) to a mean of 1048 cells. The density of cells in the cross section of vermis also fell significantly by 0.9 cell/mm (0.1 to 1.7) when the daily consumption exceeded 40 g and by 1.4 cell/mm (0.3 to 2.5) when the intake was 81 to 180 g. Only three cases (4.5%) in the series showed macroscopical cerebellar atrophy. CONCLUSION--Long term intake of moderate doses of alcohol daily for 20-30 years may damage the cerebellum before the onset of macroscopical atrophy. Despite distinct individual differences an all year average daily alcohol intake of

  1. Fraction of stroke mortality attributable to alcohol consumption in Russia.

    PubMed

    Y E, Razvodovsky

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is an international health problem with high associated human and economic costs. The mortality rate from stroke in Russia is one of the highest in the world. Risk factors identification is therefore a high priority from the public health perspective. Epidemiological evidence suggests that binge drinking is an important determinant of high stroke mortality rate in Russia. The aim of the present study was to estimate the premature stroke mortality attributable to alcohol abuse in Russia on the basis of aggregate-level data of stroke mortality and alcohol consumption. Age-standardized sex-specific male and female stroke mortality data for the period 1980-2005 and data on overall alcohol consumption were analyzed by means ARIMA time series analysis. The results of the analysis suggest that 26.8% of all male stroke deaths and 18.4% female stroke deaths in Russia could be attributed to alcohol. The estimated alcohol-attributable fraction for men ranged from 16.2% (75+ age group) to 57,5% (30-44 age group) and for women from 21.7% (60-74 age group) and 43.5% (30- 44 age group). The outcomes of this study provide support for the hypothesis that alcohol is an important contributor to the high stroke mortality rate in Russian Federation. Therefore prevention of alcohol-attributable harm should be a major public health priority in Russia. Given the distribution of alcohol-related stroke deaths, interventions should be focused on the young and middle-aged men and women.

  2. Determinants of positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students: alcohol use, gender, and psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Grant, Christoffer

    2005-05-01

    To examine the influence of alcohol consumption, gender, and psychological risk and protective factors on college students' experiences of negative and positive consequences, the present study of 181 students assessed frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, negative and positive consequences of alcohol use, positive alcohol expectancies, constructive thinking, and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that men and women differed in their experience of some consequences and that while alcohol consumption was generally more strongly related to consequences for women than for men, it was unrelated to most consequences. Further, when controlling for alcohol consumption, positive alcohol expectancies and negative affect were positively related to experiencing positive and negative consequences while constructive thinking was related to fewer positive and fewer negative consequences. Results indicate that consequences are much more strongly related to psychological risk and protective factors than to alcohol consumption. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for intervention efforts.

  3. The Effect of Pre-Diagnostic Alcohol Consumption on Survival after Breast Cancer in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Reding, Kerryn W.; Daling, Janet R.; Doody, David R.; O’Brien, Cecilia A.; Peggy, L. Porter; Malone., Kathleen E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption has been comprehensively investigated as an etiologic risk factor for breast cancer but has received little attention in terms of its impact on prognosis after breast cancer, particularly for young women. Methods 1286 women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at or before 45 years of age from two population-based case-control studies in the Seattle-Puget Sound region were followed from their diagnosis of breast cancer (between January 1983 and December 1992) for survival through June 2002, during which time 364 women had died. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to assess the effect of pre-diagnostic alcohol consumption on the risk of dying. Results After adjusting for age and diagnosis year, compared to non-drinkers, women who consumed alcohol in the 5 years prior to diagnosis had a decreased risk of death [>0 to <3 drinks per week: HR(hazard ratio) = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.6–0.95); 3 to <7 drinks per week: RR = 0.6 (95% CI: 0.4–0.8); ≥ 7 drinks per week: RR = 0.7 (95% CI: 0.5–0.9)]. This association was unchanged upon additional adjustment for potential confounders including most notably treatment, stage at diagnosis, and mammogram history. Conclusion These results suggest that women who consume alcohol prior to a diagnosis of breast cancer have improved survival which does not appear to be attributable to differences in stage, screening or treatment. PMID:18664549

  4. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  5. College Student Employment and Drinking: A Daily Study of Work Stressors, Alcohol Expectancies, and Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Adam B.; Dodge, Kama D.; Faurote, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the within-person relationships between daily work stressors and alcohol consumption over 14 consecutive days in a sample of 106 employed college students. Using a tension reduction theoretical framework, we predicted that exposure to work stressors would increase alcohol consumption by employed college students, particularly for men and those with stronger daily expectancies about the tension reducing properties of alcohol. After controlling for day of the week, we found that hours worked were positively related to number of drinks consumed. Workload was unrelated to alcohol consumption, and work-school conflict was negatively related to consumption, particularly when students expressed strong beliefs in the tension reducing properties of alcohol. There was no evidence that the effects of work stressors were moderated by gender. The results illustrate that employment during the academic year plays a significant role in college student drinking and suggest that the employment context may be an appropriate intervention site to address the problem of student drinking. PMID:20604635

  6. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  7. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Dietary Patterns: The FinDrink Study

    PubMed Central

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O.; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53–73 years were included in the study in 1998–2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12–167.9 grams for men, 12–83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥168 grams for men, ≥84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to

  9. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  10. Nitrogen narcosis and alcohol consumption--a scuba diving fatality.

    PubMed

    Michalodimitrakis, E; Patsalis, A

    1987-07-01

    Nitrogen narcosis can cause death among experienced scuba divers. Nitrogen under pressure affects the brain by acting as an anesthetic agent. Furthermore, the consumption of ethanol along with diving will cause the symptoms of nitrogen narcosis to occur at depths less than 30 m. Our case deals with an experienced diver who drank alcoholic beverages before diving and developed symptoms of nitrogen narcosis at a shallow depth. These two conditions contributed to his death by drowning.

  11. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior.

  12. Hybrid Mice as Genetic Models of High Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ozburn, A. R.; Walker, D.; Ahmed, S.; Belknap, J. K.; Harris, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    We showed that F1 hybrid genotypes may provide a broader variety of ethanol drinking phenotypes than the inbred progenitor strains used to create the hybrids (Blednov et al. in Alcohol Clin Exp Res 29:1949–1958–2005). To extend this work, we characterized alcohol consumption as well as intake of other tastants (saccharin, quinine and sodium chloride) in five inbred strains of mice (FVB, SJL, B6, BUB, NZB) and in their reciprocal F1 hybrids with B6 (FVBxB6; B6xFVB; NZBxB6; B6xNZB; BUBxB6; B6xBUB; SJLxB6; B6xSJL). We also compared ethanol intake in these mice for several concentrations before and after two periods of abstinence. F1 hybrid mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB and also B6 and SJL drank higher levels of ethanol than their progenitor strains, demonstrating overdominance for two-bottle choice drinking test. The B6 and NZB hybrid showed additivity in two-bottle choice drinking, whereas the hybrid of B6 and BUB demonstrated full or complete dominance. Genealogical origin, as well as non-alcohol taste preferences (sodium chloride), predicted ethanol consumption. Mice derived from the crosses of B6 and FVB showed high sustained alcohol preference and the B6 and NZB hybrids showed reduced alcohol preference after periods of abstinence. These new genetic models offer some advantages over inbred strains because they provide high, sustained, alcohol intake, and should allow mapping of loci important for the genetic architecture of these traits. PMID:19798565

  13. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  14. Overcoming mixed messages on alcohol consumption: a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Willsher, Kerre A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this discussion paper is to outline the teaching of nursing students using a health promotion approach to guide young people on issues involving alcohol consumption. Health promotion uses a holistic approach involving the individual, attempts to understand complexities of human behaviour and attempts to address environmental and social issues which impact upon health. There are several models of health promotion but the health assessment tool chosen was HEEADSSS which focuses upon assessment of the Home environment, Education and Employment, eating disorders, peer related activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression and Safety from injury or violence . Society's approach to alcohol consumption is considered ambiguous therefore it is essential to teach health promotion. Research based on demographic and epidemiological information and anecdotal media reports indicates a high incidence of binge drinking among young people on the Eyre Peninsula. The plan was to develop and provide developmentally appropriate health promotion using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Recommendations on alcohol consumption and the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council Competencies for the Registered Nurse. PMID:20181532

  15. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  16. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  17. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  18. The impact of television advertising on alcohol consumption: an experiment.

    PubMed

    Kohn, P M; Smart, R G

    1984-07-01

    A videotaped indoor soccer game was shown to 125 men college students, ostensibly to evaluate the sport's televiewing appeal. Different versions of the videotape included zero, four or nine beer commercials. Refreshments, including beer, were available to the subjects. Half the subjects had immediate access to beer, and half had access delayed by one half hour. Exposure to the first few commercials increased consumption; however, continued exposure did not. Over the entire experiment, advertising had no significant effect on total beer consumption. Delayed access to beer led to compensatory beer consumption, notably in the third half hour. The results of the present study were interpreted as not supporting strong concern about television advertising's impact on immediate consumption of available alcohol. The results suggest that experiments on alcohol advertising are likely to produce negative results where drinking is measured over a substantial period (e.g., an hour or more), and positive results where drinking is measured over a brief period (e.g., half an hour or less). PMID:6482432

  19. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  20. Alcohol consumption and negative sex-related consequences among college women: the moderating role of alcohol protective behavioral strategies.

    PubMed

    Moorer, Kayla D; Madson, Michael B; Mohn, Richard S; Nicholson, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS-controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction strategies-on the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risky sexual behavior and sexual victimization. Participants were 459 undergraduate women (ages 18-25) who had consumed alcohol within the past 30 days. Both types of PBS significantly qualified the alcohol-sexual victimization link, but neither type of PBS qualified the alcohol-risky sexual behavior link.

  1. Cigarette smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Dawes, Piers; Cruickshanks, Karen J; Moore, David R; Edmondson-Jones, Mark; McCormack, Abby; Fortnum, Heather; Munro, Kevin J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this large population-based cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, and hearing loss. The study sample was a subset of the UK Biobank Resource, 164,770 adults aged between 40 and 69 years who completed a speech-in-noise hearing test (the Digit Triplet Test). Hearing loss was defined as speech recognition in noise in the better ear poorer than 2 standard deviations below the mean with reference to young normally hearing listeners. In multiple logistic regression controlling for potential confounders, current smokers were more likely to have a hearing loss than non-smokers (odds ratio (OR) 1.15, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.09-1.21). Among non-smokers, those who reported passive exposure to tobacco smoke were more likely to have a hearing loss (OR 1.28, 95 %CI 1.21-1.35). For both smoking and passive smoking, there was evidence of a dose-response effect. Those who consume alcohol were less likely to have a hearing loss than lifetime teetotalers. The association was similar across three levels of consumption by volume of alcohol (lightest 25 %, OR 0.61, 95 %CI 0.57-0.65; middle 50 % OR 0.62, 95 %CI 0.58-0.66; heaviest 25 % OR 0.65, 95 %CI 0.61-0.70). The results suggest that lifestyle factors may moderate the risk of hearing loss. Alcohol consumption was associated with a protective effect. Quitting or reducing smoking and avoiding passive exposure to tobacco smoke may also help prevent or moderate age-related hearing loss. PMID:24899378

  2. The influence of alcohol expectancy priming and mood manipulation on subsequent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Stein, K D; Goldman, M S; Del Boca, F K

    2000-02-01

    Studies showing that verbal priming can implicitly affect alcohol consumption have been used to support cognitive models of expectancies. However, because expectancy words reflect affective states as well as drinking outcomes, mediation through an affective pathway remains theoretically plausible (i.e., such words inadvertently may affect mood, which in turn influences drinking). The primary pathway was identified (and expectancy theory was tested) by comparing memory priming (using alcohol expectancy or neutral words) with mood induction (using positive or neutral music); an unrelated experiment paradigm allowed the priming manipulation to implicitly affect drinking. Men in the alcohol priming group drank significantly more than men in each of the other conditions, and, consistent with theory, men with histories of heavier drinking drank the most when primed with alcohol expectancies, indicating that expectancies can function as automatic memory processes.

  3. Alcohol consumption in relation to food intake and smoking habits in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey.

    PubMed

    Veenstra, J; Schenkel, J A; van Erp-Baart, A M; Brants, H A; Hulshof, K F; Kistemaker, C; Schaafsma, G; Ockhuizen, T

    1993-07-01

    The interrelationships between alcohol consumption, energy and food intake and smoking habits were studied in 1145 men and 1171 women, aged 22-49 years, in the Dutch National Food Consumption Survey, in which a 48-h dietary record method was used. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption on dietary habits and smoking. A strong relationship between alcohol consumption and energy intake was found. The energy derived from alcohol was not compensated for by lower intake of other nutrients. There was no increase in Quetelet's index with increasing alcohol consumption, except for non-smoking men who were heavy drinking on midweek days. Possible explanations for this apparent lack of an overall effect of alcohol calories are discussed. Alcohol consumption was much higher on weekend days than on midweek days. No differences in nutrient intake were found between non-drinkers, moderate drinkers and heavy drinkers on midweek days. On weekend days, however, there was a slightly higher total fat and saturated fat intake in moderately drinking men. For women cholesterol intake was found to be higher in moderate and heavy drinkers. Finally, a strong positive relationship between alcohol consumption and smoking was observed. It is concluded that the observations with respect to energy and nutrient intake and smoking habits are not indicative of a healthier lifestyle in moderate alcohol users between 22 and 49 years of age. Consequently, the more favourable prognosis of moderate drinkers cannot be ascribed to a more healthy lifestyle.

  4. A pilot survey of aquatic activities and related consumption of alcohol, with implications for drowning.

    PubMed Central

    Howland, J; Mangione, T; Hingson, R; Levenson, S; Winter, M; Altwicker, A

    1990-01-01

    The investigators considered the relationship between participation in aquatic activities and the consumption of alcohol, with their implications for the risk of drowning. In a telephone survey with random-digit dialing, interviewers asked Massachusetts residents ages 20 years and older how often they engaged in various aquatic activities, in what settings, and how often they drank alcohol in connection with participation in aquatic activities. Of 294 respondents, 79 percent of the men and 72 percent of the women reported participating in aquatic activities during August 1988, the month prior to the interview. Respondents were asked to identify their most recent aquatic activity. The mean number of days of participation in the month was 13. The most frequently reported aquatic activities were swimming (76 percent), followed by sunbathing (74 percent), power boating (25 percent), and fishing from shore (15 percent). Among those persons reporting participation in aquatic activities, 55 percent had been at the ocean on the most recent occasion, 26 percent at lakes or ponds, 17 percent at pools, and 2 percent at rivers. Among those persons reporting aquatic activities, 36 percent of the men and 11 percent of the women reported having drunk alcohol on the most recent occasion. Those who reported drinking in aquatic settings were more likely to report driving after drinking than those who did not drive. Implementation of new Federal regulations and State laws concerning drinking and boating should be accompanied by public education on the risks of drowning if aquatic activities and alcohol consumption are combined. PMID:2116646

  5. [Alcohol consumption and stress in second year nursing students].

    PubMed

    Tam Phun, Elena; dos Santos, Claudia Benedita

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the consumption of alcohol and academic stress in nursing students. This was a descriptive, cross-sectional study, performed in 2005. The questionnaires Academic Stress Inventory and AUDIT were applied to 82 students of a private University in Lima, Peru. The students had a mean age of 20.4 years, 92.7% were single, 69.5% did not work, 91.5% had no children and 86.6% lived with their parents. The academic overload represented the stressor of highest prevalence. Regarding the consumption of alcohol, 56.1% consumed alcohol once a month, 48.0% consumed 1-2 glasses a day, and 51.2% more than three glasses during a normal day; 11.0% failed to comply with their obligations. One third reported smoking, drinking or eating in excess. All situations, related to the factor activity/time, generated various levels of stress, with worry reported as the main response to stress.

  6. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing. PMID:26709855

  7. Impact of Prior Consumption on Sour, Sweet, Salty, and Bitter Tastes.

    PubMed

    Christina, Josephine; Palma-Salgado, Sindy; Clark, Diana; Kahraman, Ozan; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    Food sensory tests generally require panelists to abstain from food or beverage consumption 30 min to an hour before a tasting session. However, investigators do not have a complete control over panelists' intentional or unintentional consumption prior to a tasting session. Currently, it is unclear how prior consumption impacts the results of the tasting session. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of temporary and lingering mouth irritation caused by the consumption of coffee, orange juice, and gum within 1, 15, or 30 min prior to the tasting session on the perception of 4 basic tastes: sweet, salty, sour, and bitter. Fifty-two panelists were served a beverage (orange juice, coffee, and water) or were asked to chew a piece of gum, and then, remained in the waiting room for 1, 15, or 30 min. They were then asked to report taste intensities using 15-cm unstructured line scales. Mean intensities of all tastes were not significantly different when orange juice was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min when compared to water. Mean intensities of bitter were significantly lower when coffee was a primer at 1, 15, and 30 min than when water was a primer. Mean intensities of sweet were significantly lower when gum was a primer at 1 and 15 min than when water was a primer. The findings showed that it is necessary for 30 min or more waiting period of no food or beverage consumption prior to sensory testing.

  8. A clinical laboratory paradigm for evaluating medication effects on alcohol consumption: naltrexone and nalmefene.

    PubMed

    Drobes, David J; Anton, Raymond F; Thomas, Suzanne E; Voronin, Konstantin

    2003-04-01

    Opiate antagonist medications have been shown to improve alcoholism treatment, but few human laboratory-based studies investigating mechanisms for these effects have been conducted on alcohol dependent persons. The present study was designed to determine the impact of two opiate antagonists on alcohol consumption among nontreatment-seeking alcoholics (n=125) and social drinkers (n=90). Participants were randomly assigned to receive placebo, naltrexone (titrated to 50 mg/day), or nalmefene (titrated to 40 mg/day) for 8 days with an alcohol laboratory session on the final day. Alcohol consumption was monitored in the natural environment during the first 5 medication days, and during a choice consumption paradigm following a standard 'priming' alcohol dose in a bar-laboratory setting. Social drinkers consumed less alcohol than alcoholics during the prelab medication period and the laboratory choice consumption paradigm, and they attained lower blood alcohol levels than alcoholics following the priming drink. Both opiate antagonist medications equally reduced drinking amounts and frequency among alcoholics but not social drinkers, relative to placebo, during natural environment and bar-lab alcohol consumption evaluations. Greater medication side effects, mostly mild in nature, were observed in participants taking nalmefene. These findings demonstrate that both naltrexone and nalmefene can lead to reductions in alcohol consumption among alcoholics who are not attempting to reduce drinking. Similar laboratory paradigms may offer substantial advantages for observing these effects during evaluation of other medications as well.

  9. Alcohol consumption enhances antiretroviral painful peripheral neuropathy by mitochondrial mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Luiz F.; Levine, Jon D.

    2010-01-01

    A major dose-limiting side effect of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) chemotherapies, such as the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), is a small-fiber painful peripheral neuropathy, mediated by its mitochondrial toxicity. Co-morbid conditions may also contribute to this dose-limiting effect of HIV/AIDS treatment. Alcohol abuse, which alone also produces painful neuropathy, is one of the most important co-morbid risk factors for peripheral neuropathy in patients with HIV/AIDS. Despite the prevalence of this problem and its serious impact on the quality of life and continued therapy in HIV/AIDS patients, the mechanisms by which alcohol abuse exacerbates highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced neuropathic pain has not been demonstrated. In this study, performed in rats, we investigated the cellular mechanism by which consumed alcohol impacts antiretroviral-induced neuropathic pain. NRTI 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC) (50 mg/kg) neuropathy was mitochondrial dependent and PKCε independent, and alcohol-induced painful neuropathy, PKCε dependent and mitochondrial independent. At low doses, ddC (5 mg/kg) and alcohol (6.5% ethanol diet for one week), which alone do not affect nociception, together produce profound mechanical hyperalgesia. This hyperalgesia is mitochondrial dependent but PKCε independent. These experiments, which provide the first model for studying the impact of co-morbidity in painful neuropathy, support the clinical impression that alcohol consumption enhances HIV/AIDS therapy neuropathy, and provide evidence for a role of mitochondrial mechanisms underlying this interaction. PMID:20726883

  10. Seasonal variation in survey and sales estimates of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Knibbe, R A

    1993-03-01

    Time variation of drinking is substantial and has an effect on aggregate estimates of consumption. In this article it is shown that because of a considerable seasonal variation in consumption (+/- 20%) a serious bias in annual consumption estimates can be expected in surveys with a limited time frame. The present study analyzes drinking data collected in the general population of the Netherlands from March 1985 through December 1985 (including Christmas and New Year's Eve). Since it was expected that sensitivity to temporal fluctuations might not be equal for different methods of measurement, several indices of consumption were compared. Although the assessed seasonal effect varies indeed across types of measurement, across male and female subsample and across types of alcoholic beverage, the general tendency is for consumption to be highest in the spring season and lowest in the autumn. Sales figures fluctuate accordingly. It is evident that the risk of biased estimates is larger the shorter the time frame of the survey. Seasonal variation was highest in the frequency domain. Furthermore, exclusion from the time frame of collective holidays, during which people drink more often and more per occasion (viz., Christmas), increases the risk of biased estimates. Even estimates of abstention, but also regular heavy drinking among women, appear to vary considerably over the three seasons in this study. The main conclusion is that results of comparisons of survey data on drinking, particularly those over time, are more or less invalid if the respective time frames of the surveys do not correspond.

  11. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  12. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Haley A; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women's health concern.

  13. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  14. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  15. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in Busselton, 1966-1978.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Stenhouse, N S; McCall, M G; Wearne, K L; Murphy, B P

    1980-07-26

    In Busselton, mass health examination (MHE) questionnaires about alcohol consumption indicate that more people are drinking wine and fewer people are drinking beer. The evidence suggests an increase in the number of women consuming alcohol. The proportion of drinkers was higher among patients attending doctors with interests in wineries and/or vineyards compared with those patients attending doctors without such interests. More patients of doctors who smoked were smokers compared with those patient of doctors who were non-smokers. Smoking in Busselton appears to be declining at the rate of 0.5% to 1% of the population per annum; this decline is more marked in people who had attended one or more MHEs than in newcomers to MHEs. These trends have encouraged a more active approach to the prevention of smoking in school children.

  16. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Injury among Canadian Adolescents: Variations by Urban-Rural Geographic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xuran; Li, Dongguang; Boyce, William; Pickett, William

    2008-01-01

    Context: The impact of alcohol consumption on risks for injury among rural adolescents is an important and understudied public health issue. Little is known about whether relationships between alcohol consumption and injury vary between rural and urban adolescents. Purpose: To examine associations between alcohol and medically attended injuries by…

  18. Predictors of Alcohol Use Prior to Pregnancy Recognition among Township Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Tomlinson, Mark; LeRoux, Ingrid M.; Stewart, Jacqueline; Greco, Erin; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    South Africa has the highest prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in the world. The purpose of this study was to identify high risk factors associated with drinking alcohol prior to pregnancy recognition in 24 neighborhoods in the Cape Flats outside Cape Town, South Africa. An interviewer assessed risk among 619 pregnant Black/African women between the ages of 18 and 41 years. Logistic regression analyses explored factors associated with drinking alcohol post conception but prior to pregnancy recognition. Forced multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that drinking prior to pregnancy recognition was associated with being younger, single, having better living conditions, smoking, having a longer gestation prior to pregnancy recognition, having a greater number of sexual partners, and a higher incidence of intimate partner violence. Depressive symptoms tended to be higher among alcohol users. These risk factors were consistent with other research on the characteristics of South African women having children with a diagnosis of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and/or of non pregnant women at high risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy. These findings highlight the need for women of child-bearing age to be routinely screened for alcohol use and its associated risk factors. Intervention efforts could be integrated into health initiatives already present in South Africa including the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malnutrition. Preconception care is particularly important since pregnancy recognition often occurs several weeks to months following conception and could be implemented by South African community health workers. These endeavors should facilitate national goals of healthier pregnancies and the elimination of FASDs in South Africa. PMID:21084142

  19. Nursing students' premature pregnancy and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Martha Lucio

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive research aimed to analyze pregnancy dynamics, experienced by a group of women who, at the time, were at most 19 years old, and identify the role attributed to the consumption of alcohol in such dynamics. The research was developed with a group of 20 students from the Colombia National University. Six of them were selected for in dept investigation through interviews, which were analyzed by content analysis. Based on the literature and the subjects' life history, the study examines the following categories: pregnancy, making love, maternity, being a woman, and drinking. Through these categories, was possible to identify the dynamics experienced by these women during pregnancy.

  20. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  1. Exploring the motives and mental health correlates of intentional food restriction prior to alcohol use in university students.

    PubMed

    Roosen, Kaley M; Mills, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of and motivations behind 'drunkorexia' – restricting food intake prior to drinking alcohol. For both male and female university students (N = 3409), intentionally changing eating behaviour prior to drinking alcohol was common practice (46%). Analyses performed on a targeted sample of women (n = 226) revealed that food restriction prior to alcohol use was associated with greater symptomology than eating more food. Those who restrict eating prior to drinking to avoid weight gain scored higher on measures of disordered eating, whereas those who restrict to get intoxicated faster scored higher on measures of alcohol abuse. PMID:26032803

  2. The associations among prior drinking consequences, subjective evaluations, and subsequent alcohol outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zaso, Michelle J.; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A.; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (68% female, 74% White, mean age = 18.95 years [SD = 1.35]) who completed two online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days [SD = 10.22] between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. PMID:27214171

  3. The associations among prior drinking consequences, subjective evaluations, and subsequent alcohol outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zaso, Michelle J; Park, Aesoon; Kim, Jueun; Gellis, Les A; Kwon, Hoin; Maisto, Stephen A

    2016-05-01

    Although the many positive and negative psychosocial consequences of alcohol use are well documented, evidence of the association between prior drinking consequences and subsequent alcohol-related outcomes is mixed. Social learning theory highlights that cognitive appraisals of prior drinking consequences play a crucial intermediate role in the relation of prior drinking consequences with subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. This prospective study was designed to test the mediating effects of subjective evaluations (i.e., perceived valence and controllability) in the association of prior drinking consequences with change in binge drinking and drinking consequences over time. Participants were 171 college students (69% female, 74% White, M age = 18.95 years, SD = 1.35) who completed 2 online surveys, with an average interval of 68 days (SD = 10.22) between assessments. Path analyses of the data did not support mediational effects of perceived valence or controllability of prior drinking consequences on subsequent alcohol-related outcomes. Specifically, greater frequency of negative consequences was associated with lower perceived valence and controllability, and greater frequency of positive consequences was associated with lower perceived controllability of the experienced consequences. However, perceptions of valence and controllability were not in turn associated with subsequent binge drinking and drinking consequences. Instead, greater frequency of positive consequences was directly associated with greater subsequent frequency of binge drinking. Findings highlight the importance of prior positive consequences in the escalation of binge drinking over a short period of time, although this relation may not be accounted for by perceptions of valence and controllability of the prior drinking consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214171

  4. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption - a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage?

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Selin, Klara Hradilova

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have found a positive effect of low/moderate alcohol consumption on wages. This has often been explained by referring to epidemiological research showing that alcohol has protective effects on certain diseases, i.e., the health link is normally justified using selected epidemiological information. Few papers have tested this link between alcohol and health explicitly, including all diseases where alcohol has been shown to have either a protective or a detrimental effect. Aim Based on the full epidemiological information, we study the effect of low alcohol consumption on health, in order to determine if it is reasonable to explain the positive effect of low consumption on wages using the epidemiological literature. Methods We apply a non-econometrical cost-of-illness approach to calculate the medical care cost and episodes attributable to low alcohol consumption. Results Low alcohol consumption carries a net cost for medical care and there is a net benefit only for the oldest age group (80+). Low alcohol consumption also causes more episodes in medical care then what is saved, although inpatient care for women and older men show savings. Conclusion Using health as an explanation in the alcohol-wage literature appears invalid when applying the full epidemiological information instead of selected information. PMID:19852776

  5. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  6. [Alcohol consumption in patients with psychiatric disorders: assessment and treatment].

    PubMed

    Lang, J-P; Bonnewitz, M-L; Kusterer, M; Lalanne-Tongio, L

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol consumption in France exceeds the European average (12.7L of pure alcohol/habitant/year in 2009 for an average of 12.5 L). This consumption has a major professional, social and health impact on the individuals and their families. The cost of such, estimated in Europe to be of 155.8 billion Euros in 2010, is the highest among the central nervous system diseases in Europe, far higher than that of depression or dementia. Patients suffering from psychiatric disorders are more frequently affected by problems related to alcohol use than the general population. They are also more vulnerable to the immediate and subsequent consequences of their consumption. The alcohol related disorders that are often accompanied by risk taking and other addictive behaviour require a global assessment of the addiction, with and without substance, and of the complications. These have a strong impact on risk taking, compliance with care, and the morbidity of somatic and psychiatric disorders, as well as access to optimal care and the life span of patients suffering from psychiatric disorders. The development of addictology care, with integrative treatment programs, is recommended in response to these public health issues. Nevertheless, specific addictology practices and partners with addictology care structures are still scarcely developed in psychiatry. Firstly, it would be necessary to set up such integrated treatments through the systematisation of an "addictology" checkup on admission, a global assessment of addictive behaviour and cognitive disorders, using pragmatic tools that are user-friendly for the care teams, maintain the reduction in risk taking, and apply prescriptions for addiction to psychotropic treatments, in liaison with the referring general practitioner. As early as possible, accompanied by specific training in addictology for the psychiatrists and the mental health nursing teams, such care could be enhanced by the development of liaison and advanced psychiatric

  7. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  8. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  9. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  10. Attributional style and life events: a diathesis-stress theory of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, B I; Abela, J R; Buchanan, G M; Seligman, M E

    2000-12-01

    The role of a cognitive diathesis-stress model in predicting changes in alcohol consumption was examined. This study evaluated the interaction of attributional style with negative life events in predicting changes in beer, wine, spirits, and overall alcohol consumption. 93 undergraduate participants completed the Khavari Alcohol Test, Negative Life Events Questionnaire, and Attributional Style Questionnaire. The interaction of attributional style with negative life events predicted increases in spirits consumption between Time 1 and Time 2.

  11. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  12. Rational decision perspectives on alcohol consumption by youth. Revising the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kuther, Tara L

    2002-01-01

    Cognitive and developmental approaches have made great strides in describing and predicting alcohol consumption by youth. The present review examines several theories of decision making with regard to alcohol consumption, including subjective expected utility (SEU) theory, the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory. In addition, the developmental literature on the contribution of parents and peers to adolescent alcohol consumption is reviewed. A model is proposed, which integrates the theory of planned behavior and alcohol-related outcome expectancy theory with modifications based on findings from the developmental literature. Implications for further research are discussed.

  13. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  14. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  15. Continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy distinctively associated with personality.

    PubMed

    Beijers, Chantal; Burger, Huibert; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L H; Ormel, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Pregnancy is a unique period to quit smoking and alcohol consumption and although motivated, not all women succeed at this. We investigated the associations of personality with continued smoking and continued alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. In addition, we studied whether antenatal anxiety and depressive symptoms can explain these associations. Two antenatal measurements from the population-based Pregnancy Anxiety and Depression cohort study were used. Pregnant women in their first trimester were recruited via midwifery practices and hospitals. We analyzed a sample of women who continued (n=101) or quit smoking (n=254), and a sample of women who continued (n=110) or quit alcohol consumption (n=1230). Measures included questions about smoking, alcohol consumption, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (personality), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. We found associations between continued alcohol consumption and higher levels of openness to experience, and lower levels of conscientiousness (p<0.05). The association between conscientiousness and continued alcohol consumption was partly explained by both anxiety and depressive symptoms. No associations between personality and continued smoking emerged. This study contributes to the limited literature on personality differences between women who continue and quit smoking and alcohol consumption during early pregnancy. General population studies have not confirmed the association between openness to experience and alcohol consumption which implies that pregnancy is indeed a unique period. Increased insight in how personality influences continued smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can help health professionals to improve lifestyle interventions targeted at pregnant women.

  16. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems.

  17. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  18. [The analysis of structure of alcohol consumption in Russia in professional groups].

    PubMed

    Ankudinov, A B; Lebedev, O V

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of study of character of consumption of alcohol products by representatives of different professional groups. The research data was obtained from representative sampling of working population of Russia. On the basis of probit-modeling estimates of possibility of even if once consumption of alcohol were calculated. On the basis of tobit-modeling relative volume of consumed alcohol was evaluated. The results of analysis indicate that professional membership exerts significant but not determining influence on the character of alcohol consumption. The clear-cut age structure of volume consumption of particular alcohol beverages was established. The stable decrease of consumption of alcohol beverages during last years is mainly determined by financial economic crisis and not by measures of antialcoholic campaign.

  19. Occupational level of the father and alcohol consumption during adolescence; patterns and predictors

    PubMed Central

    Droomers, M; Schrijvers, C; Casswell, S; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: This paper describes and attempts to explain the association between occupational level of the father and high alcohol consumption among a cohort of New Zealand adolescents from age 11 to 21. Design: Data were obtained from the longitudinal Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study. At each measurement wave, those who then belonged to the quartile that reported the highest usual amount of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion were categorised as high alcohol consumers. Potential predictors of high alcohol consumption included environmental factors, individual factors, and educational achievement measured at age 9, 11, or 13. Longitudinal logistic GEE analyses described and explained the relation between father's occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption. Setting: Dunedin, New Zealand. Participants: About 1000 children were followed up from birth in 1972 until adulthood. Main results: A significant association between fathers' occupation and adolescent alcohol consumption emerged at age 15. Overall adolescents from the lowest occupational group had almost twice the odds of being a large consumer than the highest occupational group. The association between father's occupation and high alcohol consumption during adolescence was explained by the higher prevalence of familial alcohol problems and friends approving of alcohol consumption, lower intelligence scores, and lower parental attachment among adolescents from lower occupational groups. Conclusions: Socioeconomic background affects adolescent alcohol consumption substantially. This probably contributes to cumulation of disadvantage. Prevention programmes should focus on adolescents from lower socioeconomic groups and make healthier choices the easier choices by means of environmental change. PMID:12933777

  20. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear.

  1. Comparing distributions of alcohol consumption: empirical probability plots.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Tan, E S; Knibbe, R A

    1990-06-01

    Parametric approaches to the problem of the distribution of alcohol consumption have not been very successful. In this article, it is shown that regulatory in distribution can be studied without making assumptions about a distribution model underlying the data. For this purpose, a method is used with which distributions are compared graphically in so-called probability plots. It appears that, up to a proper linear transformation on a logarithmic scale, a surprisingly large regularity over time can be observed between distributions taken from Dutch samples in 1970, 1981 and 1985. Equally, distributions from male and female sub-samples do not appear to differ up to a linear shift. The finding of a relative equality in distributional form is in accordance with the Ledermann model. However, the difference with the Ledermann's model is that no assumptions about the exact shape of the distributions are being made.

  2. Alcohol consumption in older adults and Medicare costs.

    PubMed

    Mukamal, Kenneth J; Lumley, Thomas; Luepker, Russell V; Lapin, Pauline; Mittleman, Murray A; McBean, A Marshall; Crum, Rosa M; Siscovick, David S

    2006-01-01

    We determined the relationship of alcohol consumption and Medicare costs among 4,392 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of adults age 65 or over in four U.S. communities. We assessed 5-year Parts A and B costs and self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at baseline. Among both sexes, total costs were approximately $2,000 lower among consumers of > 1-6 drinks per week than abstainers. The lower costs associated with moderate drinking were most apparent among participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for hospitalization costs for CVD among healthy participants. Former drinkers had the highest costs. PMID:17290648

  3. Reactance theory and alcohol consumption laws: further confirmation among collegiate alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Allen, D N; Sprenkel, D G; Vitale, P A

    1994-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the United States legal drinking age had increased to 21 years. Based on psychological reactance theory, one would predict that these law changes would cause underage collegiate consumers to drink more alcohol because of the belief that their behavioral freedom was being reduced. It was hypothesized that underage collegiate alcohol consumers (UC) would drink more than their legal-age peers (LC) if psychological reactance was a contributing factor to consumption, whereas no differences would be present between the UC and LC groups' usage of illicit drugs, as these had not been affected by recent law changes. To test this hypothesis, a sample of 2,142 college students from 10 midwestern postsecondary educational facilities responded to the Alcohol and Other Drug Use Needs Assessment Survey in the spring of 1990. Mann-Whitney U analyses revealed significant differences between groups on alcohol use measures, but no differences were present on illicit substance use measures. These results are interpreted as supporting reactance theory. PMID:8189723

  4. A Review of Epigenetic Markers of Tobacco and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Philibert, Robert; Erwin, Cheryl

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, advances in genetic technologies have posed unexpected challenges to the ethical and legal framework guiding the application of the most recent advances in healthcare technologies. By and large, these challenges have been successfully met by the introduction by statutes such as the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA). However, over the past several years, these advances in the ability to measure genetic (or heritable) contributions to medical illness have been joined by advances in epigenetic (or acquired) contributions to common medical illnesses. Unfortunately, the moral and legal framework for the use of these epigenetic technologies, which can objectively determine the presence of medical illnesses such as diabetes or the consumption of substances of abuse, is not as well developed. This communication provides an introduction to the fundamentals of epigenetics and then reviews how some of the latest advances in this technology can now be used to assess the consumption of alcohol and tobacco. Next, the possible mechanisms through which these tools could be employed clinically are discussed. Finally, the authors outline the potential for misuse of this technology and suggest that well-informed policy could play a critical role in shaping the optimal implementation of epigenetic technologies.

  5. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  6. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  7. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  8. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Abuse among College Students: Alarming Rates among the Best and the Brightest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Hoffman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption at two college campuses, a "dry" urban campus and a "wet" rural campus. We examined alcohol consumption as a function of students' membership in: Greek Organizations, NCAA Varsity Athletic teams, or as being Unaffiliated in these groups. Participants: Two hundred eighty-eight…

  10. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  11. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  12. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  13. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  14. Personality Correlates of Alcohol Consumption and Aggression in a Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Grange, Linda; Hojnowski, Natalya; Nesterova, Svitlana

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the association between alcohol consumption and aggression from a personality trait perspective with 92 self-identified Hispanic college students. They partially replicated a study by Quigley, Corbett, and Tedeshi, which examined the relationships between desired image of power, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol-related…

  15. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  16. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH. PMID:27699009

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage: A meta-analysis of 14 observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiyang; Zhang, Kai; Bian, Jieyong; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is inconsistent. Thus, meta- and a dose-response analyses are presented with the purpose of assessing their associations. A systematic literature search was performed using Pubmed and Embase electronic databases for pertinent observational studies. Random-effects or fixed-effect models were employed to combine the estimates of the relative risks (RRs) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A dose-response pattern was conducted for further analysis. The current meta-analysis includes 14 observational studies reporting data on 483,553 individuals and 2,556 patients. The combined RRs of light alcohol consumption (<15 g/day) and moderate alcohol consumption (15–30 g/day) compared with teetotal individuals were 1.27 (95% CI: 0.95, 1.68) and 1.33 (95% CI: 0.84, 2.09), respectively, which indicated no significant association between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and SAH. An increased risk of SAH was noted in heavy alcohol consumption (>30 g/day) when compared with no alcohol consumption, as demonstrated by a result of 1.78 (95% CI: 1.46, 2.17). Dose-response analysis showed evidence of a linear association (P=0.0125) between alcohol consumption and SAH. The risk of SAH increased by 12.1% when alcohol consumption was increased by 10 g/day. Therefore, heavy alcohol consumption was found to be associated with an increased risk of SAH. Furthermore, the association between SAH and alcohol consumption has clinical relevance with regard to risk factor modification and the primary and secondary prevention of SAH.

  18. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  19. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development.

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy in South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, Chidinma Ifechi; Dim, Cyril Chukwudi; Menuba, Ifeanyi Emmanuel; Iloghalu, Emeka Ifeanyi; Onwuka, Chidozie Ifechi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major public health problem because of the enormous deleterious effects on a developing fetus. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is among the highest per capita rates of alcohol consumption in the world, thus suggesting a high burden of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorder (FASD) in the sub-region. Despite this, there is limited data on alcohol exposed pregnancies for most SSA countries including Nigeria. Aim To determine the prevalence and predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria. Materials and Methods It was a cross-sectional study of 380 consecutive consenting parturients accessing antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria. The information sought for, included the women’s socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol use in pregnancy, awareness of the harmful effects of alcohol on the babies including FASD, sources of initial information on awareness, type and quantity of alcohol ingested, reasons for taking alcohol and willingness to stop alcohol ingestion in pregnancy after counseling on the risk of alcohol use in pregnancy. Statistical analysis was both descriptive and inferential at 95% confidence level. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of alcohol consumption in pregnancy was 22.6%. The most common brand of alcoholic beverage consumed was stout beer (62.8%, 54/86). A total of 135 (35.5%) respondents were aware that alcohol is harmful to the fetus. Maternal age 30 years or less, nulliparity, less than tertiary education, pre-pregnancy alcohol consumption and lack of awareness of the harmful effect of alcohol on the fetus, were associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy (p< 0.05). Conclusion The prevalence of alcohol consumption during pregnancy among women in Enugu, South-Eastern Nigeria is high and lack of awareness of harmful effect of alcohol on fetus was a major

  1. Baseline research for action: adolescent alcohol consumption in Los Palacios Municipality, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Yolanda; Espinosa, Yairelis

    2013-04-01

    In Cuba, alcohol is an important contributor to morbidity, mortality and social problems. The foundation of Cuba's universal primary health care coverage, family doctor-and-nurse offices play a critical role in prevention, early detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. Los Palacios Municipality of the westernmost province of Pinar del Río, Cuba, is a socially complex, periurban area where alcohol abuse and alcoholism have been identified as important health problems. Adolescents constitute a population at high risk for alcohol abuse because of their receptivity to social influences, but the precise extent of the problem is unknown. This paper reports baseline findings from a survey and direct observation of alcohol consumption in the catchment area of a primary care center, conducted to inform planning for an educational intervention. KEYWORDS Alcohol, alcoholism, alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, adolescence, primary health care, Cuba.

  2. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set.

  3. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. PMID:26621857

  4. A nonhuman primate model of type II excessive alcohol consumption? Part 1. Low cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations and diminished social competence correlate with excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Higley, J D; Suomi, S J; Linnoila, M

    1996-06-01

    Developmental, biochemical, and behavioral concomitants of excessive alcohol consumption were investigated using a nonhuman primate model. The variables of interest were: (1) interindividual stability of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) from infancy to adulthood, (2) effect of parental deprivation early in life on adult CSF 5-HIAA concentrations; (3) correlations between CSF 5-HIAA and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG) concentrations and alcohol consumption; and (4) correlation between the frequency of competent social behaviors and alcohol consumption. Twenty-nine rhesus macaques were reared for their first 6 months either with their mothers or without adults in peer-only conditions. At 6 and 50 months of age, each subject underwent a series of four, 4-day social separations. Cisternal CSF was sampled before and during the first and last separations; concomitantly, observational data were collected on social dominance behavior in the home-cage. When they reached 50 months of age, the monkeys were provided free access to a palatable alcohol solution daily for 1-hr periods before, during, and after the social separations. Before and after the 50-month separations, data were collected on all types of social behavior in the home-cage. Results showed that peer-reared subjects consumed more alcohol than mother-reared subjects during baseline conditions. Mother-reared subjects, however, increased their rates of consumption to equal peer-reared subjects' rates of consumption during the conditions of a social separation stressor. Peer-reared subjects also exhibited lower CSF 5-HIAA concentrations in infancy and adulthood than their mother-reared counterparts. With rearing condition held constant, interindividual differences in CSF 5-HIAA, MHPG, and homovanillic acid were stable from infancy to adulthood, and high rates of alcohol were consumed by the young adult monkeys with low CSF 5-HIAA and MHPG concentrations, particularly when the CSF

  5. Association of Alcohol Consumption and Sleep Disordered Breathing In Men And Women

    PubMed Central

    Peppard, Paul E.; Austin, Diane; Brown, Richard L

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: Experimental evidence indicates that alcohol use near bedtime may exacerbate sleep disordered breathing (SDB). However, scarce research has examined the relation between moderate habitual alcohol use and objectively assessed SDB, and it is unclear whether patients with SDB, or those at risk for SDB, should be counseled to avoid alcohol regardless of proximity to bedtime. In this population-based epidemiology study, our objective is to measure the association of SDB with usual alcohol consumption habits. Methods: Men (N = 775) and women (N = 645)—initially randomly selected from a working population—participating in the Wisconsin Sleep Cohort Study were evaluated for alcohol consumption and SDB. The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI, events/hour) was determined by in-laboratory polysomnography. AHI>5 defined “mild or worse” SDB and AHI>15 defined “moderate or worse” SDB. Alcohol consumption (drinks/day) was assessed by questionnaire. Potential confounding or interacting variables such as smoking, body mass index, and medication use, were measured by clinical assessment and questionnaire. Results: Relative to men who consumed less alcohol, for each increment of one drink per day, men who consumed more alcohol had 25% greater odds of mild or worse SDB (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.07–1.46, p = 0.006). Among women, minimal to moderate alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with increased risk of SDB. Discussion: In men, increased usual alcohol consumption was associated with increased risk of mild or worse SDB. Persons with SDB might benefit from generally reduced alcohol consumption and not just avoidance near bedtime. Citations: Peppard P; Austin D; Brown R. Association of Alcohol Consumption and Sleep Disordered Breathing In Men And Women. J Clin Sleep Med 2007;3(3):265–270 PMID:17561593

  6. U.S. mortality from liver cirrhosis and alcoholic liver disease in 1999-2004: regional and state variation in relation to per capita alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Polednak, Anthony P

    2012-02-01

    Apparent per-capita alcohol consumption in 2001 in four U.S. regions (West, Northeast, South, and Midwest), and in 50 states was examined in relation to mortality rates (1999-2004) from liver cirrhosis and for the subcategory alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol consumption and mortality rates were highest in the west. The alcoholic liver disease mortality rate by state was strongly correlated with alcohol consumption, but several outlier or mismatch states were identified. Per-capita alcohol consumption should be useful for US public health policy, as suggested for Europe and Canada, but outlier states require further study.

  7. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol's pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All the participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (the Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index, respectively) validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients' perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general U.S. population. Specifically, of the 90 inactive IBD patients, 56 (62%) were current drinkers, compared with 61% in the general U.S. population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42) and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (P=.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared with quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  8. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status.

  9. Association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a meta-analysis of five observational studies.

    PubMed

    E, Meng; Yu, Sufang; Dou, Jianrui; Jin, Wu; Cai, Xiang; Mao, Yiyang; Zhu, Daojian; Yang, Rumei

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Published literature on the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was retrieved from the PubMed and Embase databases. Two authors independently extracted the data. The quality of the identified studies was evaluated according to the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses were performed and publication bias was assessed. Five articles, including one cohort study and seven case-control studies, and a total of 431,943 participants, were identified. The odds ratio for the association between alcohol consumption and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was 0.57 (95 % confidence interval 0.51-0.64). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses confirmed the result. Evidence for publication bias was detected. Alcohol consumption reduced the risk of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis compared with non-drinking. Alcohol, therefore, has a potentially neuroprotective effect on the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  10. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  11. Alcohol consumption, strength of religious beliefs, and risky sexual behavior in college students.

    PubMed

    Poulson, R L; Eppler, M A; Satterwhite, T N; Wuensch, K L; Bass, L A

    1998-03-01

    Relationships among alcohol use, strength of religious convictions, and unsafe sexual practices of 210 students at a large public university in the "bible belt" were examined. The women with strong religious beliefs consumed less alcohol and were less likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than were female participants with weaker religious convictions. Among the men, religious conviction was not significantly correlated with alcohol consumption or risky sexual behavior, but alcohol consumption and inconsistent use of condoms and multiple sexual partners were significantly correlated. Men had higher rates of alcohol consumption and unprotected sexual activity than women did, yet the two groups did not differ in overall frequency of sexual activity. Future research is needed to (a) provide greater understanding of gender differences in alcohol use, risky sexual behavior, and religious beliefs of college students in the region and (b) determine whether similar correlations exist in other areas of the country.

  12. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  13. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2.

    PubMed

    Graw, Jan A; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  14. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  15. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  16. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  17. How many versus how much: 52 weeks of alcohol consumption in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Mark S; Greenbaum, Paul E; Darkes, Jack; Brandon, Karen Obremski; Del Boca, Frances K

    2011-03-01

    In previous research using timeline follow-back methods to closely monitor drinking and related variables over the first year of college (9 months), we showed that drinking varied considerably over time in accord with academic requirements and holidays. In a new community sample (N = 576) of emerging adults (18- and 19-year-olds who reported having begun drinking prior to recruitment), we used similar methods to compare drinking patterns in college and noncollege individuals over a full calendar year (including summer). To reduce the extreme distortion in computations of average drinking over restricted time spans (i.e., 1 week) that arise because large numbers of even regular drinkers may not consume any alcohol, we analyzed data using recently developed two-part latent growth curve modeling. This modeling distinguished consumption levels from numbers of individuals drinking in a given period. Results showed that drinking levels and patterns generally did not differ between college and noncollege drinkers, and that both groups responded similarly to even those contexts that may have seemed unique to one (i.e., spring break). We also showed that computation of drinking amounts without accounting for "zero drinkers" could seriously distort estimates of mean drinking on some occasions; for example, mean consumption in the total sample appeared to increase on Thanksgiving, whereas actual average consumption for those who were drinking diminished.

  18. Alcohol consumption and non-communicable diseases: epidemiology and policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Charles; Patra, Jayadeep; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Aims This paper summarises the relationships between different patterns of alcohol consumption and various on non-communicable disease (NCD) outcomes and estimates the overall impact of alcohol consumption on global mortality and burden of disease. Methods A narrative review, based on published meta-analyses of alcohol consumption-disease relations, together with an examination of the Comparative Risk Assessment estimates applied to the latest available revision of Global Burden of Disease study. Results Alcohol is causally linked (to varying degrees) to eight different cancers, with the risk increasing with the volume consumed. Similarly alcohol use is detrimentally related to many cardiovascular outcomes, including hypertension, haemorrhagic stroke and atrial fibrillation. For other cardiovascular outcomes the relationship is more complex. Alcohol is furthermore linked to various forms of liver disease (particularly with fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis) and pancreatitis. For diabetes the relationship is also complex. Conservatively of the global NCD-related burden of deaths, net years of life lost (YLL) and net disability adjusted life years (DALYs), 3.4%, 5.0% and 2.4% respectively can be attributed to alcohol consumption, with the burden being particularly high for cancer and liver cirrhosis. This burden is especially pronounced in countries of the former Soviet Union. Conclusions There is a strong link between alcohol and NCDs, particularly cancer, cardiovascular disease, liver disease, pancreatitis and diabetes and these findings support calls by WHO to implement evidence-based strategies to reduce harmful use of alcohol. PMID:21819471

  19. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

    2013-07-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:24046868

  20. Altered hepatic retinyl ester concentration and acyl composition in response to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Clugston, Robin D; Jiang, Hongfeng; Lee, Man Xia; Berk, Paul D; Goldberg, Ira J; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S

    2012-07-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its metabolites) are essential micronutrients that regulate many cellular processes. Greater than 70% of the body's retinoid reserves are stored in the liver as retinyl ester (RE). Chronic alcohol consumption induces depletion of hepatic retinoid stores, and the extent of this has been correlated with advancing stages of alcoholic liver disease. The goal of this study was to analyze the mechanisms responsible for depletion of hepatic RE stores by alcohol consumption. A change in the fatty-acyl composition of RE in alcohol-fed mice was observed within two weeks after the start of alcohol consumption. Specifically, alcohol-feeding was associated with a significant decline in hepatic retinyl palmitate levels; however, total RE levels were maintained by a compensatory increase in levels of usually minor RE species, particularly retinyl oleate. Our data suggests that alcohol feeding initially stimulates a futile cycle of RE hydrolysis and synthesis, and that the change in RE acyl composition is associated with a change in the acyl composition of hepatic phosphatidylcholine. The alcohol-induced change in RE acyl composition was specific to the liver, and was not seen in lung or white adipose tissue. This shift in hepatic RE fatty acyl composition is a sensitive indicator of alcohol consumption and may be an early biomarker for events associated with the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:23583843

  1. [Alcohol consumption in administrative and service personnel in an Ecuadorian university].

    PubMed

    Bravo Ortiz, Carmita María; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to characterize the consumption of alcohol among workers in the administrative and service sectors at an Ecuadorian university and to determine differences in consumption between the two groups of workers. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to 102 participants. The results showed that the service personnel consumed more alcohol than the administrative personnel with a mean total score of 7.26 against 1.84. The total prevalence of non-prejudicial consumption was 79.41%, prejudicial consumption 19.61% and dependency 0.98%. The total scores of 76.47% of the participants were within risk zone one; 18.63% risk zone two; 3.92% risk zone three; 0.98% risk zone four. In conclusion, due to the identification of hazardous consumption, it is necessary to implement a program of alcohol use prevention in the institution studied. PMID:20694416

  2. Alcohol consumption in relation to residence status and ethnicity in college students.

    PubMed

    Cacciola, Eleanora E T; Nevid, Jeffrey S

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the roles of gender, ethnicity, and residence status in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduate students who completed the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey. Gender, ethnicity, and residential status were associated with likelihood of binge drinking among students who reported consuming alcohol (non-Hispanic). White students were more likely to report using alcohol than Black students and Asian students. Ethnicity moderated the effects of both residence status and gender on alcohol consumption. Living with one's parents was associated with a lower likelihood of reported alcohol use among Hispanic students, but not among (non-Hispanic) White students. Hispanic women were more likely to report using alcohol than were Hispanic men, but no gender difference in likelihood of alcohol consumption was found among (non-Hispanic) White students.

  3. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  4. [Alcohol consumption in women and the elderly : When does it induce heart failure?].

    PubMed

    Pankuweit, S

    2016-09-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the etiology and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases has been the focus of attention and also the subject of controversial discussions for many years. This is particularly true for heart failure, which can be induced by coronary artery disease (CAD), arterial hypertension, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Acute effects of high doses of alcohol can lead to impairment of the cardiac contraction strength with rhythm disturbances (holiday heart syndrome), transient ischemic attacks and in rare cases to sudden cardiac death. The chronic effects of high alcohol consumption include in particular, ventricular dysfunction, chronic rhythm disturbances, alcoholic cardiomyopathy and CAD. In contrast, light to moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of CAD and ischemic stroke; however, even moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a greater risk for atrial fibrillation. The unfavorable effects of alcohol occur at much lower levels of acute or chronic consumption in women than in men. In the elderly just as in young people, a moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure. PMID:27491766

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  6. Reduced alcohol consumption in mice with access to a running wheel.

    PubMed

    Ehringer, Marissa A; Hoft, Nicole R; Zunhammer, Matthias

    2009-09-01

    Studies of the behavioral effects of alcohol in humans and rodent models have implicated a number of neurological pathways and genes. Separate studies have shown that certain regions of the brain are involved in behavioral responses to exercise. The aim of this study was to determine whether mice which normally voluntarily consume high amounts of alcohol (C57BL/6 strain) would exhibit reduced alcohol consumption when given access to a running wheel under two different models of voluntary consumption: unlimited access two-bottle choice and limited access drinking in the dark (DID). Under the two-bottle choice model, the animals voluntarily consumed less alcohol when a wheel was present in their cage. However, sex-specific differences emerged because female mice voluntarily consumed less alcohol when they have the opportunity to exercise on a running wheel, whereas male mice consumed less alcohol even if the running wheel was locked. There were no significant differences observed in alcohol metabolism or food consumption. Under the DID protocol, no differences in alcohol consumption were observed in the presence of a running wheel. These results suggest that exercise may be a useful approach to consider for treatment for some types of chronic human alcohol problem behaviors, but may be less applicable to human binge drinking. PMID:19801274

  7. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  8. Alcohol consumption and binge drinking in adolescents: comparison of different migration backgrounds and rural vs. urban residence - a representative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Binge drinking is a constant problem behavior in adolescents across Europe. Epidemiological investigations have been reported. However, epidemiological data on alcohol consumption of adolescents with different migration backgrounds are rare. Furthermore representative data on rural-urban comparison concerning alcohol consumption and binge drinking are lacking. The aims of the study are the investigation of alcohol consumption patterns with respect to a) urban-rural differences and b) differences according to migration background. Methods In the years 2007/2008, a representative written survey of N = 44,610 students in the 9th. grade of different school types in Germany was carried out (net sample). The return rate of questionnaires was 88% regarding all students whose teachers respectively school directors had agreed to participate in the study. Weighting factors were specified and used to make up for regional and school-type specific differences in return rates. 27.4% of the adolescents surveyed have a migration background, whereby the Turkish culture is the largest group followed by adolescents who emigrated from former Soviet Union states. The sample includes seven large cities (over 500,000 inhabitants) (12.2%), independent smaller cities ("urban districts") (19.0%) and rural areas ("rural districts") (68.8%). Results Life-time prevalence for alcohol consumption differs significantly between rural (93.7%) and urban areas (86.6% large cities; 89.1% smaller cities) with a higher prevalence in rural areas. The same accounts for 12-month prevalence for alcohol consumption. 57.3% of the rural, re-spectively 45.9% of the urban adolescents engaged in binge drinking in the 4 weeks prior to the survey. Students with migration background of the former Soviet Union showed mainly drinking behavior similar to that of German adolescents. Adolescents with Turkish roots had engaged in binge drinking in the last four weeks less frequently than adolescents of German

  9. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L.; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B.; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy+/− but not Npy−/− rats, while Npy−/− rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy+/+ rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy−/− rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy+/− rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  10. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight.

  11. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  12. WHO Expert Committee on Problems Related to Alcohol Consumption. Second report.

    PubMed

    2007-01-01

    The disease burden attributable to alcohol consumption is significant and, in many countries, public health problems caused by harmful use of alcohol represent a substantial health, social and economic burden. Reduction of the alcohol-attributable burden is becoming a priority area for international public health. Alcohol-related harm can be reduced through the implementation of proven alcohol strategies, including at a global level. This report of a WHO Expert Committee reviews the health and social consequences of alcohol consumption and disease burden attributable to alcohol in the context of alcohol-related harm and recent trends in alcohol consumption worldwide. Based on the reviews of available evidence, including the latest data on the contribution of alcohol consumption to the global disease burden, the Committee makes several recommendations emphasizing WHO's role in coordinating a global response, and the need for global action to reduce alcohol-related harm through effective mechanisms of international action and country support. The Committee recommends a range of strategies and policy options that have a sound evidence base and global relevance for reducing alcohol-related harm, emphasizing that their adaptation and implementation at the national and sub-national levels should take into account specific cultural and legal contexts and the local configuration of alcohol problems. The Committee also recommends that WHO should support governments, particularly in low- and middle-income countries, in developing, implementing and evaluating national and sub-national evidence-based policies, action plans and programmes. The Committee's conclusions and recommendations have significant implications for future developments in this area.

  13. Social Imitation of Alcohol Consumption and Ingratiation Motives in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants’ alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants’ alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. PMID:27322802

  14. Social imitation of alcohol consumption and ingratiation motives in young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Eric; Oldham, Melissa; Sharps, Maxine; Cunliffe, Alexandra; Scott, Jade; Clark, Emma; Piercy, Katie; Field, Matt

    2016-06-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants' alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants' alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate's drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322802

  15. Comparison of the offspring of three serial pregnancies during voluntary alcohol consumption in Sinclair (S-1) miniature swine.

    PubMed

    Dexter, J D; Tumbleson, M E; Decker, J D; Middleton, C C

    1983-01-01

    The offspring of serial breedings of voluntary alcohol consuming Sinclair (S-1) miniature swine have been evaluated over the past three years. The first and second litters of 12 dams and the third litter of 6 dams were examined. All study animals had been consuming alcohol for at least 18 months prior to the first breeding. Alcohol consumption was continuous throughout the ninth study. Twelve non-alcohol-consuming sows were used as controls. The results of the study revealed a progressive decrease in mean litter size from controls of 6.66 in the control litters to 1.8 piglets per litter in the third litter born to alcohol-consuming dams. Perinatal deaths showed a progressive increase from 10% in the controls to 36.4% in the L3 litter. The birth weight showed a decline from a mean of 719 +/- 186 g in the control group to 467 +/- 122 g in the L3 litter. Abortions were not seen in control, first litter or second litter; however, there were 3 aborted fetuses in the third litter. Observation revealed no additional anomalies beyond the previous reports of anomalies seen in litters of alcohol-consuming S-1 miniature swine dams.

  16. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  17. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  18. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  20. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and its Effect on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth R.; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol’s pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn’s Disease, 38 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and 39 patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). All participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity, the CDAI or UCAI respectively, validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by NIAAA criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients’ perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general US population. Specifically, 56 of 90 (62%) of inactive IBD patients were current drinkers, compared to 61% in the general US population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42), and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (p=0.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared to quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  1. [After the booze comes the hangover: a perspective of alcohol consumption in young].

    PubMed

    Pombo, Samuel; Sampaio, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Until today, little relevance has been given to the main cause of alcohol consumption related morbidity in young population, the so called "the next day morning alcohol hangover". The hangover is defined by the presence of symptoms connected to excessive alcohol consumption and its total metabolism, with severity enough to disturb responsibilities and daily life activities. Numerous observations show us that generally the young populations tend to be involved in a series of behaviors to cope with the unpleasant effects of a night of immoderate alcohol consumption. Through an empirical evaluation, it will be argued in this study the circumstances implicated in alcohol hangover and which behaviors the young population normally tends to be involved in order to attenuate it. The sample comprised 134 university students (1º year). It can be concluded that the frequency of the behaviors to cope with alcohol hangover translates the need to remove or alleviate in an accurate and symptomatic way the most reiterated effects of aversive alcohol hangover cluster. This work provides reliable information that could be employed from an educational point of view, while we profound which cognitive, behavior and physiological mechanisms occurs during an episode of alcohol hangover. Taken into account that the consumption of alcoholic beverage is a normative behavior in adolescence, we propose a realistic perspective of the phenomenon (more than ideological and utopic), that encompass the maximum delay of the beginning of alcohol consumption in young, educating them in what concerns the potential harm of its consumption, incorporated in a broad perspective of promotion of an healthy life style and of proximity with the adolescent.

  2. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study. PMID:25449391

  3. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. PMID:24210683

  4. Use of artificial sweeteners to promote alcohol consumption by rats.

    PubMed

    Plummer, J L; Hall, P M; Cmielewski, P L; Ilsley, A H; Ahern, M J

    1997-02-01

    Cirrhosis may be reliably produced in rats by exposing them intermittently to low levels of carbon tetrachloride vapour while feeding alcohol in the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet. Providing the alcohol in drinking water that has been sweetened with sucrose is a cheaper and more convenient method but it does not yield reliable results. This study aimed to determine whether alcohol in drinking water sweetened with artificial sweeteners would give adequate alcohol intake to achieve the desired hepatic effects. Rats were fed alcohol (8% v/v) in drinking water sweetened with sucrose (5% w/v) (n = 12), or with one of the artificial sweeteners aspartame (0.025%), saccharin (0.025%) or cyclamate (0.05%) (n = 8 per agent). During the alcohol treatment the animals were exposed to carbon tetrachloride vapour, 40 ppm, six hours per night for five nights per week, over a period of 14 weeks. All groups achieved good alcohol intakes of 5-6 g/kg/day. Only one rat, in the aspartame group, became cirrhotic; all the others had varying degrees of fibrosis which did not differ significantly among the treatments. Although it was not effective in reliably achieving cirrhosis, sweetening the alcohol solution with artificial sweeteners led to reasonable alcohol intakes with resultant hepatic fibrosis, and without the high carbohydrate intake which occurs when sucrose is used.

  5. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  6. Consumption of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age: the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Nooyens, Astrid C J; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; van Gelder, Boukje M; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2014-02-01

    Accelerated cognitive decline increases the risk of dementia. Slowing down the rate of cognitive decline leads to the preservation of cognitive functioning in the elderly, who can live independently for a longer time. Alcohol consumption may influence the rate of cognitive decline. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations between the total consumption of alcoholic beverages and different types of alcoholic beverages and cognitive decline at middle age. In 2613 men and women of the Doetinchem Cohort Study, aged 43-70 years at baseline (1995-2002), cognitive function (global cognitive function and the domains memory, speed and flexibility) was assessed twice, with a 5-year time interval. In linear regression analyses, the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages was analysed in relation to cognitive decline, adjusting for confounders. We observed that, in women, the total consumption of alcoholic beverages was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function over a 5-year period (P for trend = 0·02), while no association was observed in men. Regarding the consumption of different types of alcoholic beverages in men and women together, red wine consumption was inversely associated with the decline in global cognitive function (P for trend < 0·01) as well as memory (P for trend < 0·01) and flexibility (P for trend = 0·03). Smallest declines were observed at a consumption of about 1·5 glasses of red wine per d. No other types of alcoholic beverages were associated with cognitive decline. In conclusion, only (moderate) red wine consumption was consistently associated with less strong cognitive decline. Therefore, it is most likely that non-alcoholic substances in red wine are responsible for any cognition-preserving effects.

  7. Moderate alcohol consumption and breast cancer in women: from epidemiology to mechanisms and interventions.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Philip J; Zakhari, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that moderate alcohol consumption increases breast cancer risk in women. Understanding the mechanistic basis of this relationship has important implications for women's health and breast cancer prevention. In this commentary, we focus on some recent epidemiologic studies linking moderate alcohol consumption to breast cancer risk and place the results of those studies within the framework of our current understanding of the temporal and mechanistic basis of human carcinogenesis. This analysis supports the hypothesis that alcohol acts as a weak cumulative breast carcinogen and may also be a tumor promoter. We discuss the implications of these mechanisms for the prevention and treatment of alcohol-related breast cancer and present some considerations for future studies. Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to benefit cardiovascular health and recently been associated with healthy aging. Therefore, a better understanding of how moderate alcohol consumption impacts breast cancer risk will allow women to make better informed decisions about the risks and benefits of alcohol consumption in the context of their overall health and at different stages of their life. Such mechanistic information is also important for the development of rational clinical interventions to reduce ethanol-related breast cancer mortality.

  8. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  9. The administration of atomoxetine during alcohol deprivation induces a time-limited increase in alcohol consumption after relapse.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Serrano, Antonia; Gorriti, Miguel Ángel; Pavón, Francisco Javier; Orio, Laura; de Heras, Raquel Gómez; Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Antón, María; Pozo, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2014-11-01

    The administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) typically used as antidepressants increases alcohol consumption after an alcohol deprivation period in rats. However, the appearance of this effect after the treatment with selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) has not been studied. In the present work we examined the effects of a 15-d treatment with the SNRI atomoxetine (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) in male rats trained to drink alcohol solutions in a 4-bottle choice test. The treatment with atomoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) during an alcohol deprivation period increased alcohol consumption after relapse. This effect only lasted one week, disappearing thereafter. Treatment with atomoxetine did not cause a behavioral sensitized response to a challenge dose of amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, i.p.), indicating the absence of a supersensitive dopaminergic transmission. This effect is markedly different from that of SSRI antidepressants that produced both long-lasting increases in alcohol consumption and behavioral sensitization. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:25025529

  10. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  11. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  12. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  13. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  14. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence.

  15. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  16. THE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION IS AMENDED AFTER BARIATRIC SURGERY? AN INTEGRATIVE REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    GREGORIO, Valeria Duarte; LUCCHESE, Roselma; VERA, Ivânia; SILVA, Graciele C.; SILVA, Andrecia; MORAES, Rayrane Clarah Chaveiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Bariatric surgery has been an alternative when conservative methods of weight loss fail. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery have an increased risk of up to 6.5% of problems related to alcohol Objective: Integrative review out to analyze the change of alcohol consumption in this public Method: Database was accessed from June of 2015 to January of 2016 by searching "bariatric surgery" AND "alcoholism", and their Portuguese equivalents. ScienceDirect, PubMed, Lilacs and Medline, besides manual search, were searched. To be included, the paper should have been published between 2005-2016 and related to bariatric surgery and alcoholism. Theses, dissertations, unpublished papers, case reports and theoretical studies were excluded, and a database was subsequently composed Results: In 2005 there was only a review of change in alcohol metabolism in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. There were no publications in 2006. In 2007, only one study was published, and it did not meet the inclusion criteria. In 2010, there was an increase of 13% in publications and of 20% in 2012, reaching 40% in 2013 Conclusion: The prevalence and incidence of alcohol consumption in relation to the postoperative time was six months to three years with higher incidence for follow-up treatment by men. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass showed greater association with increased consumption of alcohol during the postoperative period. Alcohol consumption proved to be essential to be faced in bariatric surgery. PMID:27683790

  17. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  18. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  19. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  20. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence.

  1. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  2. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  3. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Alain; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Blanc, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21845153

  4. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  5. Ethnic group and alcohol consumption: the case of 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire.

    PubMed

    Denscombe, M

    1995-03-01

    In recent years a number of research projects have reported on the level of alcohol use by young people. The research to date, however, has tended to overlook the ethnic origins of the young people as a factor associated with the level of alcohol use. Against this background, this paper reports findings on the use of alcohol by 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire with specific reference to ethnic group. A survey of over 1000 young people revealed significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of their attitudes to alcohol consumption and the frequency of alcohol consumption. As expected, South Asians tended to hold less favourable attitudes to drinking alcohol than their White counterparts and reported a far lower frequency of alcohol consumption. The extent of the divergence between the two ethnic groups is detailed, revealing a stark contrast between the groups at age 15-16 years. Attitudes to alcohol consumption and reported frequency of alcohol consumption were also analysed in relation to the religion of the respondents. This analysis was undertaken to see if there were differences within the broader ethnic groups which would be disguised by aggregating the results under the headings of 'South Asian' and 'White'. Within the South Asian group, some differences in attitudes to the consumption of alcohol were found between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, with the Muslims exhibiting particular sensitivity to their religion's proscription of drinking alcohol. Despite this, the reported level of drinking by the Hindus and Sikhs was not much greater than that of the Muslims. The three groups tended to have a similar frequency of alcohol consumption which was markedly lower than that reported by the White 15-16-year-olds. The findings from the DART research have certain substantive and certain methodological implications in relation to epidemiological studies of alcohol consumption. Substantively, the findings reinforce the need to include ethnic group as a key

  6. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  7. Demographic Predictors of Event-Level Associations between Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wells, Brooke E; Rendina, H Jonathon; Kelly, Brian C; Golub, Sarit A; Parsons, Jeffrey T

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with sexual behavior and outcomes, though research indicates a variety of moderating factors, including demographic characteristics. To better target interventions aimed at alcohol-related sexual risk behavior, our analyses simultaneously examine demographic predictors of both day- and event-level associations between alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in a sample of young adults (N = 301) who are sexually active and consume alcohol. Young adults (aged 18-29) recruited using time-space sampling and incentivized snowball sampling completed a survey and a timeline follow-back calendar reporting alcohol consumption and sexual behavior in the past 30 days. On a given day, a greater number of drinks consumed was associated with higher likelihood of sex occurring, particularly for women and single participants. During a given sexual event, number of drinks consumed was not associated with condom use, nor did any demographic predictors predict that association. Findings highlight associations between alcohol and sexual behavior, though not between alcohol and sexual risk behavior, highlighting the need for additional research exploring the complex role of alcohol in sexual risk behavior and the need to develop prevention efforts to minimize the role of alcohol in the initiation of sexual encounters.

  8. Associations Between Human Values and Alcohol Consumption Among Norwegians in the Second Half of Life.

    PubMed

    Nordfjaern, Trond; Brunborg, Geir Scott

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies investigating human values and alcohol consumption have focused on adolescents, so the current study examined associations between human values and alcohol consumption in a cohort of Norwegians in the second half of life (40 years and above). Human values were studied within Schwartz' theory.(1) A survey was conducted in 2002/2003 among Norwegians aged 40 to 79 years (n = 4 149). The respondents completed measures of human values, drinking frequency and typical drinking quantity. Females (9%) were more likely to report abstinence than males (3%). Males also reported a higher consumption level. Individuals with high education had lower levels of abstinence (4%) than those with basic education (7%), and high education was also related to more consumption. People aged 40-60 years were less likely to abstain from alcohol (3%) than individuals aged 61 years and above (10%). Unmarried individuals were more likely to report abstinence, but also reported somewhat higher consumption than married individuals. Multivariate analyses adjusting for demographics as well as somatic and mental health showed that hedonistic values were related to lower probability of abstaining, while Conformity and Universalism values were associated with a higher probability of abstaining. Achivement and Hedonism values were associated with more alcohol consumption, whereas Universialism, Tradition, and Conformity were related to lower alcohol consumption.

  9. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  10. The AA and ANA rat lines, selected for differences in voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Lê, A D; Kiianmaa, K

    1989-09-15

    The offspring of rats that voluntarily select larger quantities of alcohol are heavier consumers of alcohol than the offspring of rats that tend to avoid it. Such selective breeding, repeated over many generations, was used to develop the AA (Alko, Alcohol) line of rats which prefer 10% alcohol to water, and the ANA (Alko, Non-Alcohol) line of rats which choose water to the virtual exclusion of alcohol. In addition to demonstrating the likely role of genetic factors in alcohol consumption, these lines have been used to find behavioral, metabolic, and neurochemical correlates of differential alcohol intake. Some of the line differences that have been found involve the reinforcing effects of ethanol, the changes in consumption produced by alcohol deprivation and nutritional factors, the behavioral and adrenal monoamine reactions to mild stress, the development of tolerance, the accumulation of acetaldehyde during ethanol metabolism, and the brain levels of serotonin. It is hoped that these studies will lead to a better understanding of the genetically-determined mechanisms that influence the selection of alcohol.

  11. Taste preferences in rat lines selected for low and high alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, J D; Kampov-Polevoy, A; Stewart, R; Li, T K

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol-avoiding (ANA), alcohol-preferring (AA), and control Wistar rats were tested sequentially for their initial preferences for single concentration solutions of quinine, saccharin, salt, and citric acid, and then for an ascending series of saccharin concentrations. A similar study was subsequently conducted with the alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) and alcohol-preferring (P) rat lines. Both lines developed for low alcohol consumption drank much less saccharin than their respective lines developed for high alcohol intake when tested with the single concentration and with the ascending series. The ANAs also generally drank less of the bitter, salty, and sour solutions than the AAs or Wistars but little difference was found between the NPs and Ps with the other tastes. The curve relating saccharin consumption to concentration reached a maximum at about the same concentrations for AAs, Wistars, NPs, and Ps but for the ANAs, was shifted to the left. The results support a close relationship between the genetic factors influencing alcohol and saccharin intake in both line pairs. This relationship is probably not caused by saccharin tasting like alcohol to a rat, because other results indicate that the NPs do not have more negative reactions initially to the taste of alcohol, but it might be related to similar mechanisms mediating the reinforcement from sweet tastes and from systemic alcohol. PMID:1599627

  12. Interaction of cannabinoid receptor 2 and social environment modulates chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Bruno; Erxlebe, Edda; Markert, Astrid; Rácz, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute nearly in equal power to the development of alcoholism. Environmental factors, such as negative life events or emotionally disruptive conditions, initiate and promote alcohol drinking and relapse. The endocannabinoid system is involved in hedonic control and modulates stress reactivity. Furthermore, chronic alcohol drinking alters endocannabinoid signalling, which in turn influences the stress reactivity. Recently, it has been shown that CB2 receptor activity influences stress sensitivity and alcohol drinking. We hypothesized that CB2 receptors influence the impact of environmental risk factors on alcohol preference and consumption. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the alcohol-drinking pattern of wild-type and CB2-deficient animals under single- and group-housing conditions using different alcohol-drinking models, such as forced drinking, intermittent forced drinking and two-bottle choice paradigms. Our data showed that CB2 receptor modulates alcohol consumption and reward. Interestingly, we detected that lack of CB2 receptors led to increased alcohol drinking in the intermittent forced drinking paradigm under group-housing conditions. Furthermore, we found that CB2 knockout mice consumed more food and that their body weight gain was modulated by social environment. On the basis of these data, we conclude that social environment critically affects the modulatory function of CB2 receptors, especially in alcohol intake. These findings suggest that a treatment strategy targeting CB2 receptors may have a beneficial effect on pathological drinking, particularly in situations of social stress and discomfort.

  13. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  14. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  15. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  16. Per Capita Alcohol Consumption and Suicide Rates in the U.S., 1950-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landberg, Jonas

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to estimate how suicide rates in the United States are affected by changes in per capita consumption during the postwar period. The analysis included Annual suicide rates and per capita alcohol consumption data (total and beverage specific) for the period 1950-2002. Gender- and age-specific models were estimated using the…

  17. Suppression of alcohol consumption by fenfluramine in Fawn-Hooded rats with serotonin dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A H; Grady, D R

    1994-05-01

    The high preference for alcohol intake observed in Fawn-Hooded rats has been attributed to the central serotonin (5-HT) dysfunction in this strain. To further characterize the involvement of 5-HT in alcohol-seeking behavior in Fawn-Hooded rats, the effect of both acute and subchronic administration of fenfluramine, a 5-HT releaser, on alcohol intake and preference was determined. Rats were individually housed and provided free access to a solution of 10% alcohol, food, and water. After establishing a stable baseline, rats were injected twice daily for 1 day or for 5 consecutive days either with saline or 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/kg of fenfluramine at 0930 h and 1600 h, and their consumption of alcohol, food, and water was measured for 24 h. Another group of rats scheduled with a limited access (1 h/day) to alcohol and free access to food and water were injected with either saline or 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0 mg/kg fenfluramine 20 min before exposure to alcohol, and their alcohol consumption was measured at the end of 1 h exposure. Further, to determine the effect of fenfluramine on alcohol metabolism, rats were injected with 1.0 mg/kg fenfluramine or saline and 15 min later with 2.5 g/kg alcohol (16%, v/v). Blood alcohol levels were then measured at 1, 3, and 5 h after alcohol administration. Our results demonstrate that both acute and subchronic administration of fenfluramine dose-dependently attenuate alcohol intake and increased water intake without a significant effect on food intake. Fenfluramine did not affect the pharmacokinetics of alcohol, indicating a central effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Predictors of alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy in the US: the role of maternal stressors.

    PubMed

    Witt, Whitney P; Mandell, Kara C; Wisk, Lauren E; Cheng, Erika R; Chatterjee, Debanjana; Wakeel, Fathima; Park, Hyojun; Zarak, Dakota

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to understand the association between stressful life events prior to conception (PSLEs) and women's alcohol and tobacco use prior to and during pregnancy, and the continuation of such use through pregnancy. Data were from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 9,350). Data were collected in 2001. Exposure to PSLEs was defined by indications of death of a parent, spouse, or previous live born child, divorce or marital separation, or fertility problems prior to conception. Survey data determined alcohol and tobacco usage during the 3 months prior to and in the final 3 months of pregnancy. Weighted regressions estimated the effect of PSLEs on alcohol and tobacco use at each time point and on the continuation of use, adjusting for confounders. Experiencing any PSLE increased the odds of tobacco use prior to (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.52, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.23-1.87) and during pregnancy (AOR 1.57, 95 % CI 1.19-2.07). Women exposed to PSLEs smoked nearly five additional packs of cigarettes in the 3 months prior to pregnancy (97 cigarettes, p = 0.011) and consumed 0.31 additional alcoholic drinks during the last 3 months of pregnancy than unexposed women. PSLEs are associated with tobacco use before pregnancy and alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy. Alcohol and tobacco screening and cessation services should be implemented prior to and during pregnancy, especially for women who have experienced PSLEs.

  19. A gender-specific analysis of adolescent dietary caffeine, alcohol consumption, anger, and violent behavior.

    PubMed

    James, Jack E; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported dietary caffeine and alcohol consumption were examined in relation to anger and violent behavior in Icelandic tenth-graders. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate direct and indirect effects of measured and latent variables in the population sample of 3,670, controlling for parental financial standing, family structure, ADHD, and peer delinquency. Gender differences were observed that have not been reported previously, especially in relation to anger as a possible mediator of violent behavior against a background of caffeine and alcohol consumption. Study findings suggest the need to take account of caffeine consumption in relation to adolescent anger and violence.

  20. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT)--a biomarker for long-term alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Golka, Klaus; Wiese, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT) is a biomarker for chronic alcohol intake of more than 60 g ethanol/d. It has been reported to be superior to conventional markers like gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and mean corpuscular volume MCV). This review covers theoretical and analytical aspects, with data from controlled drinking experiments and from different population subgroups such as subjects with different liver diseases or different drinking patterns. CDT determinations are particularly indicated in (1) cases of chronic alcohol consumption and relapses after withdrawal, (2) license reapplication after driving under alcohol influence, (3) differentiating patients with enzyme-inducing medication from those with alcohol abuse, 4) congenital disorders of glycosylation such as carbohydrate-deficient glycoprotein syndrome Ia (CDGS Ia), and (5) patients treated for galactosemia. The main advantage of CDT is its high specificity, as evidenced in combination with increased alcohol consumption. CDT values are not markedly influenced by medication except in immunosuppressed patients, who may show low CDT values. In general, CDT values appear less elevated after alcohol intake in women. The main disadvantage is the relatively low sensitivity. Hence, this parameter is not suitable for screening for subjects with alcohol abuse in the general population. As CDT, GGT, and MCV are connected with chronic alcohol consumption by different pathophysiological mechanisms, a combination of these parameters will further improve the diagnostic value.

  1. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Male Adults at a Slum in Kolkata, India

    PubMed Central

    Samanta, Amrita; Mukherjee, Shuvankar

    2012-01-01

    Globally, alcohol-abuse is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Consumption of alcohol has increased in India in the recent decades. It is imperative to know the patterns of alcohol consumption among different types of consumers to launch a well-planned nationwide programme for the prevention and control of this devastating social pathology. This community-based, cross-sectional study was undertaken to identify the patterns of alcohol intake among different types of alcohol consumers and to assess the clinical signs of chronic harmful alcohol-use. A predesigned, pretested, semi-structured alcohol-use disorders identification test (AUDIT) questionnaire was used for interviewing males, aged >18 years, selected by random sampling from an updated household list of a randomly-selected sector of the service area of the Urban Health Centre in Chetla, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Written informed consents were obtained from all the respondents. Relevant clinical examination for chronic harmful alcohol-use was done according to the AUDIT clinical screening procedures. The results revealed that 65.8% (150/228) were current consumers of alcohol; 14% were alcohol-dependents; 8% were hazardous or harmful consumers, and 78% were non-hazardous non-harmful consumers. The mean age of the respondents at the initiation of drinking alcohol was 20.8+5.9 years. Eighty-six percent of dependents (n=21) took both Indian-made foreign liquor and locally-made alcoholic beverages. The proportions of alcohol consumers who drank alone among alcohol-dependents, hazardous or harmful consumers, and non-hazardous non-harmful consumers were 71.4%, 50%, and 7.7% respectively, and the difference was significant (p<0.01). Forty-one percent of the consumers drank at public places and workplaces, which may be socially harmful. About 38% of the dependents purchased alcohol from unlicensed liquor shops. Only 16% expressed concerns for their drinking habit mainly to the past illness. The proportion of

  2. Alcohol consumption and its effect on the dietary patterns of Hualapai Indian women.

    PubMed

    Teufel, N I

    1994-11-01

    Studies of Native American diet have ignored the nutritional and dietary effects of alcohol consumption. Studies of Native American alcohol consumption have largely ignored the socioeconomic characteristics and drinking behaviors of women. Seven-day 24-hour dietary recalls collected from 28 Hualapai Indian women revealed that 12 participants (43%) drank alcoholic beverages. Drinkers frequently skipped meals, yet maintained an energy intake higher than non-drinkers by consuming high calorie alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and by eating large restaurant meals. Despite energy intake differences, drinkers and non-drinkers did not differ in body weight or percent body fat. Drinkers were not at risk for protein malnutrition as reported for other female drinkers, but Hualapais' tendency to fast while drinking may increase their risk of liver disease. In contrast to reports of Native American males, female drinkers in this sample were often high school graduates with full-time jobs. PMID:7877465

  3. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  4. Drinkers and Bettors: Investigating the Complementarity of Alcohol Consumption and Problem Gambling

    PubMed Central

    Maclean, Johanna Catherine; Ettner, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Regulated gambling is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States with greater than 100 percent increases in revenue over the past decade. Along with this rise in gambling popularity and gaming options comes an increased risk of addiction and the associated social costs. This paper focuses on the effect of alcohol use on gambling-related problems. Variables correlated with both alcohol use and gambling may be difficult to observe, and the inability to include these items in empirical models may bias coefficient estimates. After addressing the endogeneity of alcohol use when appropriate, we find strong evidence that problematic gambling and alcohol consumption are complementary activities. PMID:18430523

  5. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  6. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk.

  7. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35-69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (P trend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (P trend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (P trend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  8. Consumption of alcoholic beverages in adolescence and adulthood and risk of testicular germ cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Mary L; Doody, David R; Trabert, Britton; Starr, Jacqueline R; Chen, Chu; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2016-12-01

    The etiology of testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) remains obscure and accumulating evidence suggests that postnatal environmental or lifestyle factors may play a role. To investigate whether consumption of alcoholic beverages during adolescence or adulthood is associated with TGCT risk, we analyzed data from a USA population-based case-control study of 540 18-44 year-old TGCT cases and 1,280 age-matched controls. Participants were queried separately about consumption of beer, wine and liquor during grades 7-8, grades 9-12 and the 5 years before reference date (date of diagnosis for cases and corresponding date for controls). We used logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of TGCT risk with alcoholic beverage consumption during the different periods, both total and by specific beverage types and separately for seminomas and nonseminomas. Compared with nondrinkers in the 5 years before reference date, the OR (95% CI) for 1-6, 7-13 and ≥14 drinks per week were 1.20 (0.85, 1.69), 1.23 (0.81, 1.85) and 1.56 (1.03, 2.37), respectively (p-trend = 0.04). The corresponding results for alcohol consumption in grades 9-12 were 1.39 (1.06, 1.82), 1.07 (0.72, 1.60), 1.53 (1.01, 2.31) (p-trend = 0.05). Alcohol consumption in grades 7-8 was uncommon and no statistically significant associations with TGCT were observed. Associations with alcohol consumption in the 5 years before reference date appeared stronger for nonseminomas than for seminomas, but the differences were not statistically significant (p≥0.10). Associations were similar across different alcoholic beverage types. Consumption of alcoholic beverages may be associated with an increased TGCT risk. PMID:27474852

  9. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  10. Neuroimmune regulation of alcohol consumption: Behavioral validation of genes obtained from genomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Blednov, Yuri A.; Ponomarev, Igor; Geil, Chelsea; Bergeson, Susan; Koob, George F.; Harris, R. Adron

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of mouse brain gene expression, using strains that differ in alcohol consumption, provided a number of novel candidate genes that potentially regulate alcohol consumption. We selected six genes [beta-2-microglobulin (B2m), cathepsin S (Ctss), cathepsin F (Ctsf), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn), CD14 molecule (Cd14) and interleukin 6 (Il6)] for behavioral validation using null mutant mice. These genes are known to be important for immune responses but were not specifically linked to alcohol consumption by previous research. Null mutant mice were tested for ethanol intake in three tests: 24 hr two-bottle choice, limited access two-bottle choice and limited access to one bottle of ethanol. Ethanol consumption and preference were reduced in all the null mutant mice in the 24 hr two-bottle choice test, the test that was the basis for selection of these genes. No major differences were observed in consumption of saccharin in the null mutant mice. Deletion of B2m, Ctss, Il1rn, Cd14 and Il6 also reduced ethanol consumption in the limited access two bottle choice test for ethanol intake; with the Il1rn and Ctss null mutants showing reduced intake in all three tests (with some variation between males and females). These results provide the most compelling evidence to date that global gene expression analysis can identify novel genetic determinants of complex behavioral traits. Specifically, they suggest a novel role for neuroimmune signaling in regulation of alcohol consumption. PMID:21309947

  11. Converging action of alcohol consumption and cannabinoid receptor activation on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Alén, Francisco; Mouret, Aurélie; Viveros, Maria-Paz; Llorente, Ricardo; Lepousez, Gabriel; Lledo, Pierre-Marie; López-Moreno, José Antonio

    2010-03-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by successive periods of abstinence and relapse, resulting from long-lasting changes in various circuits of the central nervous system. Accumulating evidence points to the endocannabinoid system as one of the most relevant biochemical systems mediating alcohol addiction. The endocannabinoid system regulates adult neurogenesis, a form of long-lasting adult plasticity that occurs in a few areas of the brain, including the dentate gyrus. Because exposure to psychotropic drugs regulates adult neurogenesis, it is possible that neurogenesis might be implicated in the pathophysiology, and hence treatment, of neurobiological illnesses related to drugs of abuse. Here, we investigated the sensitivity of adult hippocampal neurogenesis to alcohol and the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (WIN). Specifically, we analysed the potential link between alcohol relapse, cannabinoid receptor activation, and adult neurogenesis. Adult rats were exposed to subchronic alcohol binge intoxication and received the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN. Another group of rats were subjected to an alcohol operant self-administration task. Half of these latter animals had continuous access to alcohol, while the other half were subjected to alcohol deprivation, with or without WIN administration. WIN treatment, when administered during alcohol deprivation, resulted in the greatest increase in alcohol consumption during relapse. Together, forced alcohol binge intoxication and WIN administration dramatically reduced hippocampal neurogenesis. Furthermore, adult neurogenesis inversely correlated with voluntary consumption of alcohol. These findings suggest that adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a key factor involved in drug abuse and that it may provide a new strategy for the treatment of alcohol addiction and dependence.

  12. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Hepatitis B Carriers: A Nationwide Study in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. “Monthly alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol at least once per month during the past year, and “high-risk alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol twice or more per week and, for males, having consumed at least 60 g of alcohol on one occasion or, for females, having consumed at least 40 g of alcohol on more than one occasion. The prevalence of monthly alcohol consumption was 53.2%, and that of high-risk alcohol consumption was 11.8% among HBV carriers. Less education was associated with both monthly and high-risk alcohol consumption(OR = 1.75 [95% CI = 1.02−3.02] for monthly alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education; OR = 2.48 [95% CI = 1.19−5.17] for high-risk alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education and OR = 2.02 [95% CI = 1.12−3.64] among those with a high school education). Additionally, smoking and being male increased the risk of alcohol consumption, and older age and having a normal body mass index decreased the risk. HBV carriers who were less educated, overweight, and smokers were more likely to consume alcohol or meet criteria for high-risk drinking. Health policies and intervention programs aimed at promoting a generally healthy lifestyle in HBV carriers should consider educational inequalities and alcohol consumption. PMID:25387237

  13. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  14. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms.

  15. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms. PMID:25318009

  16. Sub-diagnostic Alcohol Use by Depressed Men and Women Seeking Outpatient Psychiatric Services: Consumption Patterns and Motivation to Reduce Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Eisendrath, Stuart; Weisner, Constance

    2010-01-01

    Background This study examined alcohol use patterns among men and women with depression seeking outpatient psychiatric treatment, including factors associated with recent heavy episodic drinking and motivation to reduce alcohol consumption. Methods The sample consisted of 1183 patients ages 18 and over who completed a self-administered, computerized intake questionnaire and who scored ≥ 10 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Additional measures included current and past alcohol questions based on the Addiction Severity Index, heavy episodic drinking (≥ 5 drinks on one or more occasions in the past year), alcohol-related problems on the Short Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (SMAST), and motivation to reduce drinking using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES). Results Among those who consumed any alcohol in the past year (73.9% of the sample), heavy episodic drinking in the past year was reported by 47.5% of men and 32.5% of women. In logistic regression, prior-year heavy episodic drinking was associated with younger age (p=.011), male gender (p=.001) and cigarette smoking (p=.002). Among patients reporting heavy episodic drinking, motivation to reduce alcohol consumption was associated with older age (p=.008), greater usual quantity of alcohol consumed (p<.001), and higher SMAST score (p<.001). Conclusions In contrast to prior clinical studies, we examined sub-diagnostic alcohol use and related problems among psychiatric outpatients with depression. Patients reporting greater drinking quantities and alcohol-related problems also express more motivation to reduce drinking, providing intervention opportunities for mental health providers that should not be overlooked. PMID:21223306

  17. [IMSS in numbers. Consumption of alcohol and psyhoactive substances].

    PubMed

    2005-01-01

    One of the main public health problems in the world are alcohol and drug abuse. Health impact of addictions is clearly evidenced by the increasing numbers of suicides, depression, domestic violence, accidents and injuries. The mental and behavioral problems derived by the abuse of alcohol and psychoactive drugs are under reported. From 1991 to 2003 around 13,000 cases for problems due to alcohol abuse were reported annually in Family Medicine services, nearly 4000 cases in specialized services and an average of 20,000 cases were attended in the emergency areas of the social security system in Mexico (IMSS). The data indicates that this health problems are becoming evident in young populations under 25 years old and the trend is increasing. Professional resources that are specialized in the treatment of such behavioral problems are not sufficient and the institution faces an upcoming health threat that demands prevention programs and a more integrated health care programs.

  18. Alcohol consumption amongst South African farm workers: a challenge for post-apartheid health sector transformation.

    PubMed

    London, L

    2000-05-01

    A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted amongst farm workers in the deciduous fruit industry in South Africa to assess levels of alcohol consumption and abuse, and to explore the impact of the DOP system, whereby farm workers are paid in part with alcohol, on indicators of alcohol consumption. High levels of alcohol consumption were found. On the CAGE and a shortened version of the MAST questionnaires, 87 and 65%, respectively, had responses indicating problem drinking. Close to half of the sample consumed more grams of alcohol per week than considered safe drinking (210 g) and 9.3% consumed amounts in excess of dangerous drinking (>490 g/week). Almost one-fifth (19.4%) of workers interviewed reported current use of the DOP system, and 47.8% of workers had experience of one or more farms in the past where the DOP system had been used. Workers with past experience of the DOP system were 9.8 times less likely to be asbstainers than colleagues without exposure to the DOP system. The pervasive effects of excessive alcohol consumption, and its relationship to past and current DOP practices pose substantial public health challenges to the transformation of health services currently underway in South Africa.

  19. Presence of Fatty Liver and the Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Markers of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kächele, Martin; Wolff, Stefan; Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark; Homann, Jörg; Trischler, Gerlinde; Koenig, Wolfgang; Imhof, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Local and systemic inflammation represent a major feature of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) and are also linked to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies indicate that NAFLD might be a risk factor for CVD whereas low-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared to abstainers and heavy drinkers. We hypothesize that FLD interacts with the effect of alcohol intake on markers of inflammation, and thus potentially on cardiovascular risk. Methods and Results. We evaluated alcohol consumption, markers of inflammation and sonographic criteria of FLD in 515 subjects, representing a subsample of a cross-sectional population based study (Echinococcus multilocularis and Internal Diseases in Leutkirch (EMIL) Study). Presence of FLD was markedly reduced in subjects drinking 0–20 g alcohol/d (19%), compared to nondrinkers (35%) and heavy drinkers (34–44.9%). Serum concentrations of inflammatory markers were substantially higher in subjects with FLD. However, presence of FLD showed no effect on the association between alcohol consumption and inflammatory biomarkers. Conclusions. Based on data from a population-based sample, there is no evidence for a link between FLD, alcohol consumption, and inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers. However, larger prospective studies are needed to confirm this. PMID:25788761

  20. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers.

  1. [Alcohol consumption patterns among patients in primary health care and detection by health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taufick, Maíra Lemos de Castro; Evangelista, Lays Aparecida; Silva, Michelle da; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated patterns of alcohol consumption among patients enrolled in the Family Health Program (FHP) in a city in Southeast Brazil, as well as the detection of such consumption by FHP professionals. A total of 932 adult patients were evaluated from November 2010 to November 2011. Of this total, 17.5% were considered at risk for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8); increased risk was associated with male gender, younger age, and chronic illness. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 98 patients (10.5%), with a higher proportion in men. Health professionals were more likely to ask about alcohol consumption in men, individuals aged ≥ 55 years, those with chronic illnesses, and heavier drinkers (438/932; 47.8%). Positive diagnosis of alcoholism was more frequent in men, individuals aged 35-54 years, and those with serious alcohol abuse (22/175; 12.6%). The study concluded that alcohol consumption is common among patients treated by FHP teams (although insufficiently recognized by professionals) and that a minority of alcoholics is instructed on the risks of drinking.

  2. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case–control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2–3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance – contrary to various specific phobias – is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns. PMID:24392279

  3. Fear of heights and mild visual height intolerance independent of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Huppert, Doreen; Grill, Eva; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter; Brandt, Thomas

    2013-09-01

    Background Visual height intolerance occurs when a visual stimulus causes apprehension of losing balance and falling from some height. Affecting one-third of the population, it has a broad spectrum of symptoms, ranging from minor distress to fear of heights, which is defined as a specific phobia. Specific phobias are associated with higher alcohol consumption. This has not been specifically shown for susceptibility to the more general visual height intolerance. Methods Representative case-control study nested within a population-based cross-sectional telephone survey to assess epidemiologically 1253 individuals ≥14 years, using a questionnaire on sociodemographic data, typical symptoms, precipitating visual stimuli, and alcohol drinking patterns (overall frequency of alcohol consumption, the daily quantities, and the motives). Results Individuals susceptible or nonsusceptible to visual height intolerance showed no significant differences in drinking patterns. The daily average alcohol consumption was slightly higher in persons susceptible to visual height intolerance (4.1 g/day vs. 3.7 g/day). Of those consuming alcohol, cases and controls reported on average consuming 2.3 glasses per day. The prevalence of visual height intolerance was insignificantly higher in the small minority of those drinking 2-3 times per week versus teetotalers. Conclusions Our study does not provide evidence that visual height intolerance - contrary to various specific phobias - is significantly associated with individual alcohol consumption patterns.

  4. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

  5. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  6. [Alcohol consumption patterns among patients in primary health care and detection by health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taufick, Maíra Lemos de Castro; Evangelista, Lays Aparecida; Silva, Michelle da; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated patterns of alcohol consumption among patients enrolled in the Family Health Program (FHP) in a city in Southeast Brazil, as well as the detection of such consumption by FHP professionals. A total of 932 adult patients were evaluated from November 2010 to November 2011. Of this total, 17.5% were considered at risk for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8); increased risk was associated with male gender, younger age, and chronic illness. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 98 patients (10.5%), with a higher proportion in men. Health professionals were more likely to ask about alcohol consumption in men, individuals aged ≥ 55 years, those with chronic illnesses, and heavier drinkers (438/932; 47.8%). Positive diagnosis of alcoholism was more frequent in men, individuals aged 35-54 years, and those with serious alcohol abuse (22/175; 12.6%). The study concluded that alcohol consumption is common among patients treated by FHP teams (although insufficiently recognized by professionals) and that a minority of alcoholics is instructed on the risks of drinking. PMID:24627069

  7. [How to have a clear vision when considering all the different recommendations of moderate alcohol consumption?].

    PubMed

    Pasche, S; Broers, B; Favrod-Coune, T

    2012-09-26

    Although use of important amounts of alcohol has clearly been proven to have a negative health impact, large epidemiological studies show that a moderate quantity of alcohol might be beneficial in terms of total mortality, probably through cardiovascular protection. Many countries propose their own official recommandations with regard to moderate or low risk alcohol consumption. In this review, we compare some of these recommandations. Furthermore, risks and benefits of alcohol for the main groups of disease are analysed according to alcohol quantities and drinking patterns. Our final objective is to evaluate the small margin between potentially beneficial use of alcohol versus low risk use, and provide some practical recommandations for the physician advising an individual patient. PMID:23097868

  8. Alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Alexandra; Claggett, Brian; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Rosamond, Wayne; Deswal, Anita; Aguilar, David; Shah, Amil M.; Cheng, Susan; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Alcohol is a known cardiac toxin and heavy consumption can lead to heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and risk for HF, in either men or women, remains unclear. Methods and results We examined 14 629 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (54 ± 6 years, 55% women) without prevalent HF at baseline (1987–89) who were followed for 24 ± 1 years. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed as the number of drinks/week (1 drink = 14 g of alcohol) at baseline, and updated cumulative average alcohol intake was calculated over 8.9 ± 0.3 years. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the relation of alcohol intake with incident HF and assessed whether associations were modified by sex. Overall, most participants were abstainers (42%) or former drinkers (19%), with 25% reporting up to 7 drinks per week, 8% reporting ≥7 to 14 drinks per week, and 3% reporting ≥14–21 and ≥21 drinks per week, respectively. Incident HF occurred in 1271 men and 1237 women. Men consuming up to 7 drinks/week had reduced risk of HF relative to abstainers (hazard ratio, HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.94, P = 0.006); this effect was less robust in women (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–1.00, P = 0.05). In the higher drinking categories, the risk of HF was not significantly different from abstainers, either in men or in women. Conclusion In the community, alcohol consumption of up to 7 drinks/week at early-middle age is associated with lower risk for future HF, with a similar but less definite association in women than in men. These findings suggest that despite the dangers of heavy drinking, modest alcohol consumption in early-middle age may be associated with a lower risk for HF. PMID:25602025

  9. Association of alcohol consumption with specific biomarkers: a cross-sectional study in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Pisa, Pedro T; Vorster, Hester H; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T

    2015-03-01

    Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (± 30.0) and 23.3 (± 29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p ≤ 0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p ≤ 0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans.

  10. Association of Alcohol Consumption with Specific Biomarkers: A Cross-sectional Study in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Vorster, Hester H.; Kruger, Annamarie; Margetts, Barrie; Loots, Du T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alcohol consumption plays an important role in the health transition associated with urbanization in developing countries. Thus, reliable tools for assessing alcohol intake levels are necessary. We compared two biological markers of alcohol consumption and self-reported alcohol intakes in participants from urban and rural South African communities. This cross-sectional epidemiological survey was part of the North West Province, South African leg of the 12-year International Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study which investigates the health transition in urban and rural subjects. A total of 2,010 apparently healthy African volunteers (35 years and older) were recruited from a sample of 6,000 randomly-selected households. Alcohol consumption was assessed through self-reports (24-hour recalls and quantitative food frequency questionnaire) and by two biological markers: percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT). Of the 716 men and 1,192 women volunteers, 64% and 33% respectively reported regular alcohol consumption. Reported mean habitual intakes of drinker men and women were 29.9 (±30.0) and 23.3 (±29.1) g of pure alcohol per day. Reported habitual intake of the whole group correlated positively and significantly with both %CDT (R=0.32; p≤0.01) and GGT (R=0.43; p≤0.01). The correlation between the two biomarkers was low (0.211; p≤0.01). GGT and %CDT values should be interpreted with care in Africans as self-reported non-drinker men and women had elevated levels of GGT (19% and 26%) and %CDT (48% and 38%). A need exists for a more specific biological marker for alcohol consumption in black Africans. PMID:25995731

  11. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  12. Establishment of the MethyLight Assay for Assessing Aging, Cigarette Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Nakanishi, Michio; Asada, Takashi; Ikesue, Masahiro; Goto, Yoichi; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    The environmental factors such as aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption have been reported to influence DNA methylation (DNAm). However, the versatility of DNAm measurement by DNAm array systems is low in clinical use. Thus, we developed the MethyLight assay as a simple method to measure DNAm. In the present study, we isolated peripheral blood DNA from 33 healthy volunteers and selected cg25809905, cg02228185, and cg17861230 as aging, cg23576855 as smoking, and cg02583484 as alcohol consumption biomarkers. The predicted age by methylation rates of cg25809905 and cg17861230 significantly correlated with chronological age. In immortalized B-cells, DNAm rates of two sites showed a younger status than the chronological age of donor. On the other hand, the predicted age of the patients with myocardial infarction (MI) was not accelerated. The methylation rate of cg23576855 was able to discriminate the groups based on the smoking status. The DNAm rate of cg02583484 was reduced in subjects with habitual alcohol consumption compared to that of subjects without habitual alcohol consumption. In conclusion, our MethyLight assay system reconfirms that aging, smoking, and alcohol consumption influenced DNAm in peripheral blood in the Japanese. This MethyLight system will facilitate DNAm measurement in epidemiological and clinical studies.

  13. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators.

  14. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Early Age Leukemia Risk in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Jeniffer Dantas; Couto, Arnaldo Cézar; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the association between the maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy and early age leukemia (EAL) in offspring. Methods. Datasets were analyzed from a case-control study carried out in Brazil during 1999–2007. Data were obtained by maternal interviews using a standardized questionnaire. The present study included 675 children (193 acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 59 acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and 423 controls). Unconditional logistic regression was performed, and adjusted odds ratios (adj. OR) on the association between alcohol consumption and EAL were ascertained. Results. Alcohol consumption was reported by 43% of ALL and 39% of AML case mothers and 35.5% of controls'. Beer consumption before and during pregnancy was associated with ALL in crude analysis (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.08–2.19), although in adjusted analysis no statistical significance was found. For weekly intake of ≤1 glass (adj. OR = 1.30, 95% CI, 0.71–2.36) and ≥1 glass/week (adj. OR = 1.47, 95% CI, 0.88–2.46) a potential dose-response was observed (P trend < 0.03). Conclusion. This study failed to support the hypothesis of an increased risk of EAL associated with maternal alcohol intake during pregnancy, neither with the interaction with tobacco nor with alcohol consumption. PMID:26090439

  15. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    PubMed

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking.

  16. MUTATIONS IN THE GABRB1 GENE PROMOTE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION THROUGH INCREASED TONIC INHIBITION

    PubMed Central

    Anstee, Quentin M.; Knapp, Susanne; Maguire, Edward P.; Thomas, Philip; Mortensen, Martin; Bhome, Rohan; Martinez, Alonso; Walker, Sophie E.; Dixon, Claire I.; Ruparelia, Kush; Montagnese, Sara; Kuo, Yu-Ting; Herlihy, Amy; Bell, Jimmy D; Robinson, Iain; Guerrini, Irene; McQuillin, Andrew; Fisher, Elizabeth M.C.; Ungless, Mark A.; Gurling, Hugh M.D.; Morgan, Marsha Y.; Brown, Steve D.M.; Stephens, David N.; Belelli, Delia; Lambert, Jeremy J.; Smart, Trevor G.; Thomas, Howard C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is a common, complex and debilitating disorder with genetic and environmental influences. Here we show that alcohol consumption increases following mutations to the γ-aminobutyric acidA receptor (GABAAR) β1 subunit gene (Gabrb1). Using N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis on an alcohol-averse background (F1 BALB/cAnN × C3H/HeH), we develop a mouse model exhibiting strong heritable preference for ethanol resulting from a dominant mutation (L285R) in Gabrb1. The mutation causes spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increases GABA sensitivity of recombinant GABAARs, coupled to increased tonic currents in the nucleus accumbens, a region long-associated with alcohol reward. Mutant mice work harder to obtain ethanol, and are more sensitive to alcohol intoxication. Another spontaneous mutation (P228H) in Gabrb1 also causes high ethanol consumption accompanied by spontaneous GABA ion channel opening and increased accumbal tonic current. Our results provide a new and important link between GABAAR function and increased alcohol consumption that could underlie some forms of alcohol abuse. PMID:24281383

  17. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous system and whether it can reverse alcohol damages on developed brain later in life. This study aims to investigate protective roles of taurine against maternal alcohol consumption on growth and development of offspring. The experimental protocol was conducted using ICR-outbred pregnant mice given 10 % alcohol, with or without maternal taurine supplementation during gestation and lactation. Pregnancy outcomes, offspring mortality and successive bodyweight until adult were monitored. Adult offspring is supplemented taurine to verify its ability to reverse damages on learning and memory through a water maze task performance. Our results demonstrate that offspring of maternal alcohol exposure, together with maternal taurine supplementation show conserved learning and memory, while that of offspring treated taurine later in life are disturbed. Taurine provides neuroprotective effects and preserves learning and memory processes when given together with maternal alcohol consumption, but not shown such effects when given exclusively in offspring. PMID:26648819

  18. Psychosocial Correlates of Alcohol Consumption among Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Denyce S.; Carr, Peggy G.

    1990-01-01

    Examined impact of psychosocial variables on drinking among 505 Black college students. Lack of social support was best predictor of drinking of hard alcoholic beverages among Black college males. Respondents who began drinking at younger age, had parents who approved of drinking, and had friends who drank were more likely to drink light and hard…

  19. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Consequences on Prime Time Network TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowry, Dennis T.

    A study was conducted to establish a baseline of facts concerning the extent, nature, and social functions of the drinking of alcoholic beverages as depicted on prime time network television programing. A content analysis was undertaken of a random sample of programs drawn from the three major networks over a period of 14 evenings. The primary…

  20. Factors related to alcohol and drug consumption in Swedish widows.

    PubMed

    Grimby, Agneta; Johansson, Asa K

    2009-01-01

    The use of alcohol and medications among Swedish widows was analyzed in relation to various background variables. In Total, 1053 widows (640 widows younger than 65 years and 413 widows older than 65 years) answered the questionnaire. Many reported increased fatigue and sleeping problems. Around one-third of the widows reported drinking alcohol for relief of grief and inadequate support. Association existed between grief and increased intake of sedatives and sleeping pills, and between grief and drinking for relief of grief, as well as increase in intake of sedatives. In widows older than 65 years, perception of bad health, negative outlook for the future, and insufficient support seemed to increase the risk of more sedatives and sleeping pills. Negative outlook for the future also tended to lead to a heightened risk for increased intake of alcohol. There seems to be remaining health problems a long time after bereavement, and counseling may be needed especially when drugs and alcohol are extensively used. PMID:18550778

  1. Effect of Korean pear (Pyruspyrifolia cv. Shingo) juice on hangover severity following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sun; Isse, Toyohi; Kawamoto, Toshihiro; Baik, Hyun Wook; Park, Jong Y; Yang, Mihi

    2013-08-01

    Korean pear has been used as a traditional prophylactic agent for alcohol hangover. However, its mechanism was not investigated in human yet. Therefore, we performed a randomized single blind crossover trial with 14 healthy young men to examine effects of Korean pear juice on alcohol hangover. All subjects consumed 540 ml of spirits (alcohol conc. 20.1 v/v%) after 30 min from the intervention, i.e. placebo or Korean pear juice treatment. Blood and urine specimens were collected in time-courses (9 time-points for 15 h after alcohol consumption). The total and average of hangover severity were alleviated to 16% and 21% by Korean pear juice at 15 h after the alcohol consumption, respectively (ps<0.05). Particularly, 'trouble concentrating' was significantly improved by the pear juice treatment (p<0.05). Impaired memory, and sensitivity to light and sound were significantly improved by Korean pear juice among the subjects with ALDH2*1/*1 or ALDH2*1/*2 genotypes (ps<0.05) but not in the subjects with ALDH2*2/*2 genotype. In addition, the pear juice treatment lowered levels of blood alcohol (p<0.01). Therefore, Korean pear juice may alleviate alcohol-hangover and its detoxification of alcohol seems to be modified by the genetic variation of ALDH2.

  2. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot. PMID:26196073

  3. Alcohol and cocaine co-consumption in two European cities assessed by wastewater analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Álvarez, Tania; Racamonde, Inés; González-Mariño, Iria; Borsotti, Andrea; Rodil, Rosario; Rodríguez, Isaac; Zuccato, Ettore; Quintana, José Benito; Castiglioni, Sara

    2015-12-01

    The quantitative determination of urinary biomarkers in raw wastewater has emerged in recent years as a promising tool for estimating the consumption of illicit drugs, tobacco and alcohol in a population and for comparing local and temporal trends. In this study, a three-year monitoring campaign (2012-2014) was conducted to compare alcohol and cocaine use in two European cities (Santiago de Compostela, Spain, and Milan, Italy) by wastewater analysis. Ethyl sulphate and benzoylecgonine were used, respectively, as biomarkers of ethanol and cocaine consumption and cocaethylene as an indicator of co-consumption of both substances. Biomarkers were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and concentrations were converted to rates of consumption using specific correction factors. Results were statistically compared in terms of geographic and temporal tendencies. Alcohol intake was significantly higher in Santiago than in Milan (13.6L versus 5.1L ethanol/1000 people day, averages). Cocaine use was higher in Milan than in Santiago de Compostela (800 versus 632 mg/1000 people day, averages). A significant higher consumption of both alcohol and cocaine was observed during the weekends (~23-75% more than on weekdays) in both cities. In terms of years, slight changes were observed, but no clear trends as representative of the whole year could be identified because of the limited number of days sampled. Co-consumption was evaluated using the cocaethylene/benzoylecgonine ratio, which was higher during the weekend in both cities (58% in Santiago and 47% in Milan over the non-weekend day means), indicating a greater co-consumption when cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Wastewater-based epidemiology gave estimates of alcohol and cocaine use in agreement with previous wastewater studies and with recent European surveillance and prevalence data, and weekly profiles of use and preferential patterns of consumption could be plot.

  4. Chronic voluntary alcohol consumption results in tolerance to sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of alcohol in hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Ozburn, Angela Renee; Harris, R Adron; Blednov, Yuri A

    2013-03-01

    The continuous two-bottle choice test is the most common measure of alcohol consumption but there is remarkably little information about the development of tolerance or dependence with this procedure. We showed that C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ and FVB/NJ×C57BL/6JF1 hybrid mice demonstrate greater preference for and consumption of alcohol than either parental strain. In order to test the ability of this genetic model of high alcohol consumption to produce neuroadaptation, we examined development of alcohol tolerance and dependence after chronic self-administration using a continuous access two-bottle choice paradigm. Ethanol-experienced mice stably consumed about 16-18 g/kg/day of ethanol. Ethanol-induced withdrawal severity was assessed (after 59 days of drinking) by scoring handling-induced convulsions; withdrawal severity was minimal and did not differ between ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 71 days of drinking, the rate of ethanol clearance was similar for ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice. After 77 days of drinking, ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) was tested daily for 5 days. Ethanol-experienced mice had a shorter duration of LORR. For both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice, blood ethanol concentrations taken at gain of righting reflex were greater on day 5 than on day 1, indicative of tolerance. After 98 days of drinking, ethanol-induced hypothermia was assessed daily for 3 days. Both ethanol-experienced and -naïve mice developed rapid and chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced hypothermia, with significant group differences on the first day of testing. In summary, chronic, high levels of alcohol consumption in F1 hybrid mice produced rapid and chronic tolerance to both the sedative/hypnotic and hypothermic effects of ethanol; additionally, a small degree of metabolic tolerance developed. The development of tolerance supports the validity of using this model of high alcohol consumption in genetic studies of alcoholism.

  5. Alcohol consumption and hormonal alterations related to muscle hypertrophy: a review.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Antonino; Thomas, Ewan; Pomara, Francesco; Tabacchi, Garden; Karsten, Bettina; Paoli, Antonio; Palma, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Detrimental effects of acute and chronic alcohol (ethanol) consumption on human physiology are well documented in the literature. These adversely influence neural, metabolic, cardiovascular, and thermoregulatory functions. However, the side effects of ethanol consumption on hormonal fluctuations and subsequent related skeletal muscle alterations have received less attention and as such are not entirely understood. The focus of this review is to identify the side effects of ethanol consumption on the major hormones related to muscle metabolism and clarify how the hormonal profiles are altered by such consumption. PMID:24932207

  6. Negative Affect, Alcohol Consumption, and Female-to-Male Intimate Partner Violence: A Daily Diary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Crane, Cory; Eckhardt, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    While research suggests that both negative affect and alcohol use are related to the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) in male samples, less is known about the status of these risk factors in female samples. Forty-three college-age females who reported a recent history of IPV perpetration submitted six weeks of on-line daily reports pertaining to their levels of negative affect, alcohol consumption habits, and the occurrence of both male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male IPV (FMPV). Results indicated that negative affect significantly predicted increases in the daily risk of FMPV. MFPV also significantly predicted FMPV risk. Alcohol consumption failed to predict FMPV perpetration on both levels of analysis. Results are discussed in terms of prevailing models of alcohol use, negative affect, and IPV. PMID:26413212

  7. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  8. Alcohol consumption and social network ties among adolescents: evidence from Add Health.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mir M; Amialchuk, Aliaksandr; Nikaj, Silda

    2014-05-01

    Although many studies have estimated the influence of peers on risky health behaviors, few have estimated the gains that adolescents receive from such behaviors, particularly in terms of social payoffs for complying with peer behavior. In this paper, we explore the extent to which alcohol consumption increases popularity of adolescents. Using data from a nationally-representative sample of adolescents, we estimate endogeneity-corrected models with school-level fixed effects to identify the effect of alcohol consumption on social network ties. We find that alcohol consumption leads to an increase in popularity, with the largest gains experienced by white males and females. Our results provide new evidence on the motivation behind adolescent drinking and have important implications for substance abuse interventions.

  9. Alcohol consumption by orientals in North America is predicted largely by a single gene.

    PubMed

    Tu, G C; Israel, Y

    1995-01-01

    Orientals consume significantly less alcohol, and show a lower prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence, than Caucasians. Sociological theories propose that this difference is due mainly to cultural factors. Physiological theories have suggested that the flushing reaction experienced by some Orientals serves as a deterrent to ethanol consumption. The flushing reaction is observed mainly in individuals who possess a mutation in the high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) which renders the enzyme inactive. However, the tendency to flush correlates poorly with alcohol consumption, thus casting doubt on the physiological interpretations. The present study investigates the influence of the ALDH2 allele and of acculturation in North America on alcohol consumption by Orientals born in Canada or the United States. Oriental males carrying the inactive ALDH2(-) allele drink two-thirds less alcohol (6.1 +/- 1.5 vs. 18.2 +/- 2.8 drinks/4 weeks; p < 0.001), show one-third the prevalence of binge drinking (15.2 vs. 42.2%; p < 0.01), and are three times more likely to be abstainers (39.4 vs. 13.3%; p < 0.01) than Oriental ALDH2(+) males carrying the gene for the active enzyme. There were no significant differences in binge drinking or abstinence rates between ALDH2(+) Orientals and Caucasian males. Acculturation in North American society accounted for only 7-11% of the variance in overall consumption (p < 0.02). It is concluded that a single mutation in the high-affinity aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) gene predicts two-thirds of the alcohol consumption and excessive alcohol use by Oriental males born in North America. PMID:7755519

  10. Risk of end-stage renal disease associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Perneger, T V; Whelton, P K; Puddey, I B; Klag, M J

    1999-12-15

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to kidney disorders in selected patient groups, but whether it contributes to the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population is unknown. The authors conducted a population-based case-control study to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of ESRD. The study took place in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, DC, in 1991. Participants were 716 patients who had started treatment for ESRD and 361 control subjects of similar age (20-64 years) selected by random digit dialing. The main risk factor of interest was self-reported consumption of alcoholic beverages (frequency of drinking days and number of drinks consumed per drinking day). In univariate analysis, consumption of alcohol exhibited a J-shaped association with risk of ESRD. The J shape disappeared after exclusion of persons who had ever consumed home-distilled whiskey ("moonshine") and adjustment for age, race, sex, income, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, use of acetaminophen, use of opiates, and cigarette smoking; however, the odds ratio for ESRD remained significantly increased (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 13.0) among persons who consumed an average of >2 alcoholic drinks per day. The corresponding population attributable risk was 9 percent. Thus, consumption of more than two alcoholic drinks per day, on average, was associated with an increased risk of kidney failure in the general population. A lower intake of alcohol did not appear to be harmful. Because these results are based on self-reports in a case-control study, they should be seen as preliminary. PMID:10604769

  11. Alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Background Observational studies have shown inconsistent results regarding alcohol consumption and risk of fatty liver. We performed a meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the association between alcohol consumption and fatty liver disease (FLD). Methods We searched Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and several Chinese databases, identifying studies that reported an association between alcohol consumption and the risk of FLD. Results A total of 16 studies with 76,608 participants including 13 cross-sectional studies, two cross-sectional following longitudinal studies, and one cohort study met the inclusion criteria. For light to moderate alcohol consumption (LMAC), there was a 22.6% reduction in risk of FLD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.774, 95% confidence interval CI [0.695–0.862], P <0.001), and subgroup analysis showed that a greater reduction in risk of FLD was found in the female drinkers (30.2%) and the drinkers with BMI ≥25 kg/m2(31.3%) compared with the male drinkers (22.6%) and the drinkers with BMI <25 kg/m2(21.3%), respectively. For heavy alcohol consumption, there was no significant influence on risk of FLD (OR = 0.869, 95% CI [0.553–1.364], P = 0.541) in Japanese women, but there was a 33.7% reduction in risk of FLD (OR = 0.663, 95% CI [0.574–0.765], P < 0.001) in Japanese men and a significant increased risk of FLD (OR = 1.785, 95% CI [1.064–2.996], P = 0.028) in Germans. Conclusion LMAC is associated with a significant protective effect on FLD in the studied population, especially in the women and obese population. However, the effect of heavy alcohol consumption on FLD remains unclear due to limited studies and small sample sizes. PMID:27812428

  12. A pilot study of memory impairment associated with discrepancies between retrospective and daily recall of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lincoln, Randi; Rosenthal, Christina F; Malte, Carol A; Simpson, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Prior studies have found discrepancies between daily report and retrospective recall of alcohol use. One possible explanation is that there may be an association between memory impairment and alcohol consumption recall errors. Should this possibility be substantiated it could have implications for the types of assessments conducted in alcohol treatment trials. The current study evaluated the degree to which memory impairment, as measured by the California Verbal Learning Test-II, predicted day-to-day discrepancies between daily Interactive Voice Response monitoring and retrospective recall of alcohol use assessed with a 42-day version of the Form-90. Significant differences were detected in absolute difference in days drinking across the two measurement methods between participants scoring above and below population means on two measures of immediate memory ability. Correlations between the absolute difference in days drinking and immediate memory ability and long-delay memory indices approached significance. There were no significant associations between memory indices and discrepancies in reports of standard drink units. These preliminary results suggest that verbal memory difficulties common in this population may result in inaccurate reports of days drinking for some individuals.

  13. An assessment of community capacity to prevent adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca J; Kittinger, Daniela Spoto; Ta, Van M; Nihoa, Wendy K; Payne, Christine; Nigg, Claudio R

    2012-09-01

    To effectively address the issue of youth alcohol use, communities need to have sufficient infrastructure and capacity in place to operate effective prevention programs. This study evaluates community capacity in the state of Hawai'i, using the Capacity Assessment Survey administered to stakeholders in the youth alcohol prevention system. Capacity is quantified with gap scores, which measure the discrepancy between an agency's performance of an attribute and the attribute's relative importance. Six assessment areas, termed capacity domains, are defined. Results are given for each county and the state overall. Based on these results, communities need to prioritize capacity-building efforts specifically in the domains of effectiveness, funding/resource availability, and sustainability. Organization, workforce skills/knowledge, and cultural competency were categorized as relative strengths in comparison, but gap scores are nevertheless significantly greater than 0 ("ideal"; p < .001), indicating these areas need improvement as well. Suggestions for improvement in each capacity domain are given. This assessment is the first step in a five-step planning process to implement youth alcohol prevention programs in communities in Hawai'i. PMID:22467663

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption on hormones involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Law, J.S.; Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Berlin, E.; Judd, J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Alcohol consumption alters carbohydrate and lipid metabolism which are in part regulated by pancreatic and adrenal hormones. The menstrual cycle per se produces changes in several peptide and steroid hormones besides the sex hormones. The authors investigated the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma hormone levels in 40 premenopausal women. The subjects were fed controlled diets containing 35% of calories from fat. In a random crossover design women were given either alcohol or a soft-drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles. Fasting blood samples were collected in the third cycle during follicular, ovulatory and luteal phases. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEA-S), insulin, glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Moderate alcohol consumption had no effect on plasma insulin and DHEA-S levels but significantly increased glucagon and cortisol levels. Menstrual cycle per se affected plasma glucagon level in that the levels were higher during follicular phase than luteal phase. Thus, changes in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism following alcohol consumption are mediated in part by alterations in hormones involved in their metabolism.

  15. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012.

  16. Years of life lost (Yll) attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Eduardo; Cruz-López, Leonardo; Hernández-Llanes, Norberto Francisco; Gallegos-Cari, Andrea; Camacho-Solís, Rafael Edgardo; Mendoza-Meléndez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the YLL attributable to alcohol consumption in Mexico City from 2006 - 2012. Vital statistics on mortality attributable to alcohol consumption from the INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía) were used to determine YLL as well as the average age of death in relation to different age ranges by sex. A total estimate of 168,607 YLL was obtained, with an average loss of 18.32 years being observed for men and 17.54 years for women. Men accounted for a higher proportion of the YLL than women. According to the ICD-10 (Tenth Revision of International Classification of Diseases), liver disease attributable to alcohol consumption was found to be responsible for more than 80% of the total YLL. There was a cyclical trend in YLL from 2006 to 2012. The YLL attributable to alcohol suggest that alcohol consumption is a public health problem that involves losses in productivity and economic costs, and the decline in YLL could be explained by the decrease in income caused by the economic crisis of 2008, just as the increase could be explained by economic improvement in 2012. PMID:26816161

  17. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states. PMID:25863003

  18. Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in the EPIC study

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Abhijit; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Allen, Naomi E; Rinaldi, Sabina; Appleby, Paul N; Almquist, Martin; Schmidt, Julie A; Dahm, Christina C; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Rostgaard-Hansen, Agnetha L; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Tilman; Katze, Verena A; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Tsironis, Christos; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB(as); Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Lund, Eiliv; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Quirós, J Ramón; Agudo, Antonio; Sánchez, María- José; Arriola, Larraitz; Gavrila, Diana; Gurrea, Aurelio Barricarte; Tosovic, Ada; Hennings, Joakim; Sandström, Maria; Romieu, Isabelle; Ferrari, Pietro; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nicholas J; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc; Franceschi, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results from several cohort and case–control studies suggest a protective association between current alcohol intake and risk of thyroid carcinoma, but the epidemiological evidence is not completely consistent and several questions remain unanswered. Methods: The association between alcohol consumption at recruitment and over the lifetime and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was examined in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Among 477 263 eligible participants (70% women), 556 (90% women) were diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma over a mean follow-up of 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. Results: Compared with participants consuming 0.1–4.9 g of alcohol per day at recruitment, participants consuming 15 or more grams (approximately 1–1.5 drinks) had a 23% lower risk of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (HR=0.77; 95% CI=0.60–0.98). These findings did not differ greatly when analyses were conducted for lifetime alcohol consumption, although the risk estimates were attenuated and not statistically significant anymore. Similar results were observed by type of alcoholic beverage, by differentiated thyroid carcinoma histology or according to age, sex, smoking status, body mass index and diabetes. Conclusions: Our study provides some support to the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with a lower risk of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas. PMID:26313664

  19. BMI, physical inactivity, cigarette and alcohol consumption in female nursing students: a 5-year comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nursing staff are often involved in counseling patients with regard to health behavior. Although care promoting healthy lifestyle choices is included in the curriculum of nursing students in Germany, several studies of nursing students have reported a high prevalence of unhealthy behavior. This paper focuses on the behavior of female nursing students with regard to body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. It describes trends through the comparison of results from 2008 and 2013. Methods Data was collected in two waves at a regional medical training college. First, 301 nursing students were asked to fill out a 12 page questionnaire on health behavior in 2008. The questioning was repeated in 2013 with 316 participating nursing students using the previous questionnaire. Results 259 female nursing students completed the questionnaire in 2013. 31.6% of them were either overweight or obese, 28.5% exercised less than once a week, 42.9% smoked between 10 and 20 cigarettes a day and 72.6% drank alcohol, wherefrom 19.7% consumed alcohol in risky quantities. In comparison to the data of 266 female nursing students from 2008, there were significant differences in the BMI and alcohol consumption: The percentage of overweight and obese students and the percentage of alcohol consumers at risk increased significantly. Conclusions Health behavior of female nursing students is often inadequate especially in regard to weight and cigarette and alcohol consumption. Strategies are required to promote healthy lifestyle choices. PMID:24742064

  20. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether underage drinkers with varied media use patterns differentially consume popular brands of alcohol. A survey was conducted with a national online panel of 1,032 underage youth 13-20 years of age who had consumed at least 1 drink in the past 30 days. A latent class analysis identified four distinct media use patterns. Further analyses explored whether these media use groups differentially consumed the most frequently used alcohol brands. The results showed that past 30-day consumption of specific alcohol brands differed significantly across the four media use clusters, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, U.S. geographic region, frequency of parent's alcohol overconsumption, cigarette smoking, and seatbelt use. This study shows that youth use media in different ways, and this differential use is significantly associated with the consumption of specific alcohol brands. The media clusters revealed in this analysis may inform future research about the association between specific alcohol media exposures and individual brand consumption.

  1. Integrative epigenetic profiling analysis identifies DNA methylation changes associated with chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Weng, Julia Tzu-Ya; Wu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin; Lee, Chau-Shoun; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Cheng, Andrew T A

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism has always been a major public health concern in Taiwan, especially in the aboriginal communities. Emerging evidence supports the association between DNA methylation and alcoholism, though very few studies have examined the effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the epignome. Since 1986, we have been following up on the mental health conditions of four major aboriginal peoples of Taiwan. The 993 aboriginal people who underwent the phase 1 (1986) clinical interviews were followed up through phase 2 (1990-1992), and phase 3 (2003-2009). Selected individuals for the current study included 10 males from the phase 1 normal cohort who remained normal at phase 2 and became dependent on alcohol by phase 3 and 10 control subjects who have not had any drinking problems throughout the study. We profiled the DNA methylation changes in the blood samples collected at phases 2 and 3. Enrichment analyses have identified several biological processes related to immune system responses and aging in the control group. In contrast, differentially methylated genes in the case group were mostly associated with susceptibility to infections, as well as pathways related to muscular contraction and neural degeneration. The methylation levels of six genes were found to correlate with alcohol consumption. These include genes involved in neurogenesis (NPDC1) and inflammation (HERC5), as well as alcoholism-associated genes ADCY9, CKM, and PHOX2A. Given the limited sample size, our approach uncovered genes and disease pathways associated with chronic alcohol consumption at the epigenetic level. The results offer a preliminary methylome map that enhances our understanding of alcohol-induced damages and offers new targets for alcohol injury research. PMID:25555412

  2. The Raising of Minimum Alcohol Prices in Saskatchewan, Canada: Impacts on Consumption and Implications for Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhui; Giesbrecht, Norman; Macdonald, Scott; Thomas, Gerald; Wettlaufer, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We report impacts on alcohol consumption following new and increased minimum alcohol prices in Saskatchewan, Canada. Methods. We conducted autoregressive integrated moving average time series analyses of alcohol sales and price data from the Saskatchewan government alcohol monopoly for 26 periods before and 26 periods after the intervention. Results. A 10% increase in minimum prices significantly reduced consumption of beer by 10.06%, spirits by 5.87%, wine by 4.58%, and all beverages combined by 8.43%. Consumption of coolers decreased significantly by 13.2%, cocktails by 21.3%, and liqueurs by 5.3%. There were larger effects for purely off-premise sales (e.g., liquor stores) than for primarily on-premise sales (e.g., bars, restaurants). Consumption of higher strength beer and wine declined the most. A 10% increase in minimum price was associated with a 22.0% decrease in consumption of higher strength beer (> 6.5% alcohol/volume) versus 8.17% for lower strength beers. The neighboring province of Alberta showed no change in per capita alcohol consumption before and after the intervention. Conclusions. Minimum pricing is a promising strategy for reducing the public health burden associated with hazardous alcohol consumption. Pricing to reflect percentage alcohol content of drinks can shift consumption toward lower alcohol content beverage types. PMID:23078488

  3. Externalities from Alcohol Consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: Implications for Policy

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-01-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse––family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property––all from another’s drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  4. Alcohol intake, wine consumption and the development of depression: the PREDIMED study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcoholic beverages are widely consumed. Depression, the most prevalent mental disorder worldwide, has been related to alcohol intake. We aimed to prospectively assess the association between alcohol intake and incident depression using repeated measurements of alcohol intake. Methods We followed-up 5,505 high-risk men and women (55 to 80 y) of the PREDIMED Trial for up to seven years. Participants were initially free of depression or a history of depression, and did not have any history of alcohol-related problems. A 137-item validated food frequency questionnaire administered by a dietician was repeated annually to assess alcohol intake. Participants were classified as incident cases of depression when they reported a new clinical diagnosis of depression, and/or initiated the use of antidepressant drugs. Cox regression analyses were fitted over 23,655 person-years. Results Moderate alcohol intake within the range of 5 to 15 g/day was significantly associated with lower risk of incident depression (hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.72 (0.53 to 0.98) versus abstainers). Specifically, wine consumption in the range of two to seven drinks/week was significantly associated with lower rates of depression (HR (95% CI) = 0.68 (0.47 to 0.98)). Conclusions Moderate consumption of wine may reduce the incidence of depression, while heavy drinkers seem to be at higher risk. PMID:23988010

  5. Nonconsensual Sexual Experiences and Alcohol Consumption among Women Entering College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Lisa Thomson; Kolars, Candace L. Kurth; Krahn, Dean D.; Gomberg, Edith S. Lisansky; Clark, Ginna; Niehaus, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between precollege nonconsensual sexual experiences (NSEs) and drinking among women entering college. College women (N = 797) at a midwestern university participated. Eighteen percent reported one or more NSE prior to arriving at college. Having a precollege NSE was associated with recent drinking, binge…

  6. Assessment of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates and recipients: the best combination of the tools available.

    PubMed

    Piano, Salvatore; Marchioro, Lucio; Gola, Elisabetta; Rosi, Silvia; Morando, Filippo; Cavallin, Marta; Sticca, Antonietta; Fasolato, Silvano; Forza, Giovanni; Chiara Frigo, Anna; Plebani, Mario; Zanus, Giacomo; Cillo, Umberto; Gatta, Angelo; Angeli, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    The detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplant candidates (LTCs) and liver transplant recipients (LTRs) is required to enable a proper assessment of transplant eligibility and early management of alcohol relapse, respectively. In this clinical setting, urinary ethyl glucuronide (uEtG), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test for Alcohol Consumption (AUDIT-c), serum ethanol, urinary ethanol, carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), and other indirect markers of alcohol consumption were evaluated and compared prospectively in 121 LTCs and LTRs. Alcohol consumption was diagnosed when AUDIT-c results were positive or it was confirmed by a patient's history in response to abnormal results. Alcohol consumption was found in 30.6% of the patients. uEtG was found to be the strongest marker of alcohol consumption (odds ratio = 414.5, P < 0.001) and provided a more accurate prediction rate of alcohol consumption [area under receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curve = 0.94] than CDT (area under ROC curve = 0.63, P < 0.001) and AUDIT-c (area under ROC curve = 0.73, P < 0.001). The combination of uEtG and AUDIT-c showed higher accuracy in detecting alcohol consumption in comparison with the combination of CDT and AUDIT-c (area under ROC curve = 0.98 versus 0.80, P < 0.001). Furthermore, uEtG was the most useful marker for detecting alcohol consumption in patients with negative AUDIT-c results. In conclusion, the combination of AUDIT-c and uEtG improves the detection of alcohol consumption in LTCs and LTRs. Therefore, they should be used routinely for these patients.

  7. Decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Luchtmann, Michael; Jachau, Katja; Adolf, Daniela; Baecke, Sebastian; Lützkendorf, Ralf; Müller, Charles; Tempelmann, Claus; Bernarding, Johannes

    2013-05-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allows observing cerebral activity not only in separated cortical regions but also in functionally coupled cortical networks. Although moderate doses of ethanol slowdown the neurovascular coupling, the functions of the primary sensorimotor and the visual system remain intact. Yet little is known about how more complex interactions between cortical regions are affected even at moderate doses of alcohol. Therefore the method of psychophysiological interaction (PPI) was applied to analyze ethanol-induced effects on the effective connectivity in the visuomotor system. Fourteen healthy social drinkers with no personal history of neurological disorders or substance abuse were examined. In a test/re-test design they served as their own controls by participating in both the sober and the ethanol condition. All participants were scanned in a 3 T MR scanner before and after ingestion of a body-weight-dependent amount of ethanol calculated to achieve a blood alcohol concentration of 1.0‰. PPIs were calculated for the primary visual cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the left and right primary motor cortex using the statistical software package SPM. The PPI analysis showed selective disturbance of the effective connectivity between different cortical areas. The regression analysis revealed the influence of the supplementary motor area on connected regions like the primary motor cortex to be decreased yet preserved. However, the connection between the primary visual cortex and the posterior parietal cortex was more severely impaired by the influence of ethanol, leading to an uncoupled regression between these regions. The decreased effective connectivity in the visuomotor system suggests that complex tasks requiring interaction or synchronization between different brain areas are affected even at moderate levels of alcohol. This finding may have important consequences for determining which components of demanding tasks such

  8. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIFFERENT DIMENSIONS OF ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BURDEN OF DISEASE - AN OVERVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Baliunas, Dolly; Borges, Guilherme L. G.; Graham, Kathryn; lrving, Hyacinth; Kehoe, Tara; Parry, Charles D.; Patra, Jayadeep; Popova, Svetlana; Poznyak, Vladimir; Roerecke, Michael; Room, Robin; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Taylor, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AIMS As part of a larger study to estimate the global burden of disease and injury attributable to alcohol: To evaluate the evidence for a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption and pattern of drinking on diseases and injuries;To quantify relationships identified as causal based on published meta-analyses;To separate the impact on mortality vs. morbidity where possible; andTo assess the impact of the quality of alcohol on burden of disease. METHODS Systematic literature reviews were used to identify alcohol-related diseases, birth complications and injuries using standard epidemiologic criteria to determine causality. The extent of the risk relations was taken from meta-analyses. RESULTS Evidence of a causal impact of average volume of alcohol consumption was found for the following major diseases: tuberculosis, mouth, nasopharynx, other pharynx and oropharynx cancer, oesophageal cancer, colon and rectum cancer, liver cancer, female breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, alcohol use disorders, unipolar depressive disorders, epilepsy, hypertensive heart disease, ischaemic heart disease (IHD), ischaemic and haemorrhagic stroke, conduction disorders and other dysrhythmias, lower respiratory infections (pneumonia), cirrhosis of the liver, preterm birth complications, foetal alcohol syndrome. Dose-response relationships could be quantified for all disease categories except for depressive disorders, with the relative risk increasing with increased level of alcohol consumption for most diseases. Both average volume and drinking pattern were causally linked to IHD, foetal alcohol syndrome, and unintentional and intentional injuries. For IHD, ischaemic stroke and diabetes mellitus beneficial effects were observed for patterns of light to moderate drinking without heavy drinking occasions (as defined by 60+ grams pure alcohol per day). For several disease and injury categories, the effects were stronger on mortality compared to morbidity. There was insufficient

  9. The influence of physical activity on alcohol consumption among heavy drinkers participating in an alcohol treatment intervention.

    PubMed

    Kendzor, Darla E; Dubbert, Patricia M; Olivier, Jake; Businelle, Michael S; Grothe, Karen B

    2008-10-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that physical activity may be beneficial for individuals attempting to reduce their alcohol consumption, although few studies have actually tested this relationship. The purpose of the present study was to describe the physical activity of 620 male veterans enrolled in a treatment intervention study for heavy drinkers, and to determine whether greater involvement in physical activity was associated with greater reductions in alcohol consumption. Participants endorsed moderate physical activity at the baseline visit (median=1.65 kcal/kg/day expended from physical activity), although physical activity declined during over time, p=.011. The most frequently endorsed activities included walking, gardening/yardwork, calisthenics, biking, swimming, weight lifting, golfing, and dancing. Regression analyses revealed no significant relationships between energy expenditure from physical activity and reductions in alcohol consumption at the six- and 12-month visits. Findings suggest that engaging in physical activity does not enhance treatment outcomes within interventions that do not specifically aim to increase physical activity. However, commonly endorsed activities may be easily incorporated into interventions in which physical activity is a desired component. PMID:18639987

  10. Impact of the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake on the resumption of alcohol consumption after living-donor liver transplantation for alcoholic cirrhosis: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, C; Kawagishi, N; Sato, K; Miyagi, S; Takeda, I; Ohuchi, N

    2014-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a leading indication for liver transplantation (LT) in Western countries. The rate of resumption of alcohol abuse is 7% to 95% after LT for ALD. A high prevalence of alcohol abuse has been observed in disaster-exposed populations; however, little is known about the association between resumption of alcohol abuse after LT and disasters. Between June 2007 and March 2011, 3 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis (2 men and 1 woman) underwent living-donor LT (LDLT) at Tohoku University Hospital, Sendai, Japan. The female patient died of graft failure 6 months after LDLT. The other patients (ages 55 and 56 years), who survived to discharge, resumed alcohol abuse after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Before transplantation, both patients had been abusing alcohol for >35 years, with a daily ethanol intake of 110 g and 140 g, respectively. The period of abstinence from alcohol consumption ranged from 4 to 6 months. After transplantation, patients showed good compliance with treatment and seemed at low risk of relapse until the earthquake. One patient was living in the nuclear evacuation zone at Fukushima, and resumed alcohol consumption after the evacuation. Another patient resumed alcohol consumption while temporarily living apart from his family during restoration work after the disaster. Extreme stress and changes in living arrangements after the Great East Japan Earthquake seemed to trigger the desire to drink. This is the first report on patients who underwent LT for ALD and who resumed alcohol consumption after a disaster.

  11. ‘Wired’, yet intoxicated: Modeling binge caffeine and alcohol co-consumption in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Companion, Michel; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The combination of highly caffeinated ‘energy drinks’ with alcohol (ethanol) has become popular among young adults and intoxication via such beverages has been associated with an elevated risk for harmful behaviors. However, there are discrepancies in the human literature regarding the effect of caffeine on alcohol intoxication, perhaps due to confounding factors such as personality type, expectancy, and history of exposure. Animal models of co-exposure are resistant to such issues, however, the consequences of voluntary co-consumption have been largely ignored in the animal literature. The primary goal of this work was to characterize a mouse model of binge caffeine and ethanol co-consumption employing the limited-access ‘Drinking-in-the-Dark’ paradigm (DID). Methods Caffeine was added to a 20% alcohol solution via DID. Alcohol/caffeine intake, locomotor behavior, ataxia, anxiety-like behavior, and cognitive function were evaluated as a consequence of co-consumption in adult male C57BL/6J mice. Results Caffeine did not substantially alter binge alcohol intake or resultant BECs, nor did it alter alcohol’s anxiolytic effects on the elevated plus maze or cognitive interfering effects in a novel object recognition task. However, no evidence of alcohol-induced sedation was observed in co-consumption groups that instead demonstrated a highly stimulated state similar to that of caffeine alone. The addition of caffeine was also found to mitigate alcohol-induced ataxia. Conclusions Taken together, our mouse model indicates that binge co-consumption of caffeine and alcohol produces a stimulated, less ataxic and anxious, as well as cognitively altered state; a state that could be of great public health concern. These results appear to resemble the colloquially-identified ‘wide awake drunk’ state that individuals seek via consumption of such beverages. This self-administration model therefore offers the capacity for translationally-valid explorations

  12. Brief intervention and decrease of alcohol consumption among women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gebara, Carla Ferreira de Paula; Bhona, Fernanda Monteiro de Castro; Ronzani, Telmo Mota; Lourenço, Lelio Moura; Noto, Ana Regina

    2013-01-01

    Problems related to alcohol consumption are priority public health issues worldwide and may compromise women's health. The early detection of risky alcohol consumption combined with a brief intervention (BI) has shown promising results in prevention for different populations. The aim of this study was to examine data from recent scientific publications on the use of BI toward reducing alcohol consumption among women through a systematic review. Electronic searches were conducted using Web of Science, PubMed(Medline) and PsycInfo databases. In all databases, the term "brief intervention" was associated with the words "alcohol" and "women", and studies published between the years 2006 and 2011 were selected. Out of the 133 publications found, the 36 scientific articles whose central theme was performing and/or evaluating the effectiveness of BI were included. The full texts were reviewed by content analysis technique. This review identified promising results of BI for women, especially pregnant women and female college students, in different forms of application (face-to-face, by computer or telephone) despite a substantial heterogeneity in the clinical trials analyzed. In primary care, which is a setting involving quite different characteristics, the results among women were rather unclear. In general, the results indicated a decrease in alcohol consumption among women following BI, both in the number of days of consumption and the number of doses, suggesting that the impact on the woman's reproductive health and the lower social acceptance of female consumption can be aspects favorable for the effectiveness of BI in this population. PMID:24016074

  13. Influence of circadian typology on drug consumption, hazardous alcohol use, and hangover symptoms.

    PubMed

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the influence of circadian typology on drug use, and none has considered the use of illegal drugs and hazardous alcohol consumption. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on several types of drug consumption (habitual or sporadic), hangover symptoms (past 12 mos), and, more specifically, hazardous alcohol consumption of young adults. Five hundred seventeen university students (173 males), between 17 and 30 yrs of age, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a self-referred questionnaire on drug consumption during the previous month and on the prevalence of different hangover symptoms during the previous year. Our results confirm a higher prevalence of consumption of addictive substances, both legal (nicotine and cola drinks) and illegal (cannabis and ecstasy), in evening- compared to morning- and neither-type subjects (p < .001 in all cases). Evening-type subjects also obtained a higher total score on the AUDIT (p < .001) and showed a greater prevalence in the subscales of potential alcohol problems (p < .02), as well as more frequent different hangover symptoms (learning difficulties, thirst, tiredness, headaches, sensorial hypersensitivity, anxiety, and irritability; p < .04 in all cases) compared with morning- and neither-type subjects, except for sensorial hypersensitivity and anxiety, for which the evening-type did not differ from the neither-type. Our results provide substantial evidence that the evening circadian typology is a risk factor for the development of drug consumption and that it should be taken into account both in preventive and treatment approaches. Moreover, the data regarding hazardous alcohol use and hangover symptoms emphasize the need to include circadian typology in future studies on the pattern of heavy episodic drinking.

  14. The aversive control of excessive alcohol consumption by chronic alcoholics in the laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G T; Leaf, R C; Nathan, P E

    1975-01-01

    The efficacy of several methods of aversive control of excessive alcoholic drinking was investigated in a semi-naturalistic setting that permitted objective measurement of the drinking behavior of chronic alcoholics. Studies 1A and 1B compared an excape-conditioning precedure with a control procedure in which aversive electrical shocks were administered before drinking. Neither procedure effectively decreased subjects' pretreatment, baseline alcoholic drinking behavior. In Study 2, aversive response-contingent shocks effectively suppressed alcoholic drinking, but drinking subsequently returned to its former levels after withdrawal of punishment. Self-administered shock appeared to be as effective as experimenter-administered punishment for controlling drinking, even when the punishment contingency was faded out over time. Study 3 replicated the suppressant effect of punishment, and demonstrated that contingent shock was significantly more effective than yoked, noncontingent shock. A direct comparison of self-versus experimenter-administered punishment suggested a possible slight advantage for the latter. PMID:1141079

  15. Alcohol, drug and other prior crimes and risk of arrest in handgun purchasers: protocol for a controlled observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316

  16. Is expectancy reality? Associations between tension reduction beliefs and mood following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2009-12-01

    The present study investigated whether tension reduction expectancies were uniquely associated with self-reported mood following in-lab alcohol administration, given that little research has addressed this association. We also tested whether level of experience with alcohol, which may influence the learning of expectancies, moderated expectancy-mood associations. Regularly drinking college students (N = 145) recruited through advertisements completed self-report measures of positive alcohol expectancies, alcohol involvement, demographics, and pre- and post-drinking mood, and then consumed alcohol ad libitum up to four drinks in the laboratory. Regression analyses controlling for pre-consumption mood, blood alcohol concentration, and all other positive expectancies showed tension reduction expectancies to be a marginally significant positive predictor of negative mood post-drinking. This association was significant only for those who achieved lower blood alcohol concentrations in lab and those who reported less involvement with alcohol (i.e., lower typical quantity, heavy episodic drinking frequency, and years of regular drinking). Findings suggest that associations between expectations for mood and actual post-drinking mood outcomes may operate differently for less versus more involved drinkers. Clinical implications pertain to early intervention, when expectancies may be less ingrained and perhaps more readily modified.

  17. The Influence of a Web-Based Course on Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking Behavior among First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Lillian D.

    2011-01-01

    Underage drinking and risky alcohol consumption are issues that have garnered a great deal of national and local attention and subsequently many prevention efforts. The consumption of alcohol and binge drinking by minors jeopardizes not only their quality of life and academic success, but also places the individual and others at an increased risk…

  18. Gender, Self-Monitoring, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Behavior: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; Abbey, Antonia

    For this study, college students were asked to describe their sexual histories and how their sexual behavior related to alcohol consumption, contraceptive use, and concern over Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) so that more could be learned about gender and self-monitoring differences in sexual behavior. College undergraduates (N=94)…

  19. The Effects of Fear Appeal and Communication Upon Attitudes Toward Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritzen, Robert D.

    1975-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between two independent variables, the fear appeal of the message and the character of the communicator; and the attitudes, behavior and information retention of seventh and eighth grade pupils with respect to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. A number of significant findings are reported. (Author)

  20. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  1. Alcohol Consumption among Kansas State University Freshmen by Probation and Non-Probation Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Janis L.

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between consumption of alcoholic beverages and probation/non-probation status of college freshmen. Data revealed that males drank more than did females; students on probation drank more than did non-probation students; and students in the College of Business Administration drank more than students in Arts and Sciences and…

  2. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  3. Prenatal exposure to binge pattern of alcohol consumption: mental health and learning outcomes at age 11.

    PubMed

    Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Draper, Elizabeth; Alati, Rosa; Lewis, Sarah J; Fraser, Robert; Barrow, Margaret; Golding, Jean; Emond, Alan; Davey Smith, George; Gray, Ron

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate whether episodic binge pattern of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is independently associated with child mental health and academic outcomes. Using data from the prospective, population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we investigated the associations between binge patterns of alcohol consumption during pregnancy (≥4 drinks per day) and child mental health [as rated by both parent (n = 4,610) and teacher (n = 4,274)] and academic outcomes [based on examination results (n = 6,939)] at age 11 years. After adjusting for prenatal and postnatal risk factors, binge pattern of alcohol consumption (≥4 drinks in a day on at least one occasion) during pregnancy was associated with higher levels of mental health problems (especially hyperactivity/inattention) in girls at age 11 years, according to parental report. After disentangling binge-pattern and daily drinking, binge-pattern drinking was independently associated with teacher-rated hyperactivity/inattention and lower academic scores in both genders. Episodic drinking involving ≥4 drinks per day during pregnancy may increase risk for child mental health problems and lower academic attainment even if daily average levels of alcohol consumption are low. Episodic binge pattern of drinking appears to be a risk factor for these outcomes, especially hyperactivity and inattention problems, in the absence of daily drinking.

  4. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-02-23

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women.

  5. Maternal Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy and Infant Social, Mental, and Motor Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Carole Williams; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Croninger, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a significant social problem associated with developmental difficulties in young children. Child developmental and behavioral characteristics were examined from the 9-month data point of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Studies-Birth Cohort, a prospective nationally representative study. Several…

  6. Television and Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Rand Paper Series No. P-562l.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comstock, George

    This article examines the contribution of television and other mass media to alcohol consumption and its abuse. The author notes that there is no scientific evidence available that addresses this point directly, and the importance of such an issue is not recognized in the scientific literature. The absence of this information interferes with the…

  7. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  8. Alcohol Consumption among Athletes and Non-Athletes in Christian Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, William S.; Allen, Bert; Drinnon, Joy

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to be a pilot study that examined the differences in heavy episodic drinking and perceptions of drinking between athletes and non-athletes. To the authors' knowledge, this study is the first of alcohol consumption between these groups at Christian-affiliated colleges. A random sample of participants comprised…

  9. Do Negative Emotions Predict Alcohol Consumption, Saturated Fat Intake, and Physical Activity in Older Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Miller, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined anger, depression, and stress as related to alcohol consumption, saturated fat intake, and physical activity. Participants were 23 older adults enrolled in either an outpatient or in-residence executive health program. Participants completed (a) a health-risk appraisal assessing medical history and current health habits, (b)…

  10. Low-dose ethanol consumption allows strength recovery in chronic alcoholic myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, J; Nicolás, J M; Sacanella, E; Robert, J; Cofan, M; Estruch, R; Urbano-Márquez, A

    2000-01-01

    Chronic skeletal myopathy may affect one third of chronic alcohol misusers. It is generally accepted that abstinence allows partial recovery, and that continued high-dose ethanol consumption progressively deteriorates muscle function. However, the effect of low-dose ethanol consumption in alcoholic myopathy has not been studied. We studied 58 chronic alcoholic male patients with biopsy-proven chronic alcoholic myopathy over 5 years. We evaluated ethanol intake, biochemical and nutritional parameters, and assessed muscle strength. Eighteen patients who remained abstinent showed marked improvement in muscle strength. As expected, the 19 patients who persisted in high-dose ethanol consumption further diminished in their muscle strength. In the 11 patients who maintained low-dose (consumption, and moderate controlled drinking of up to 60 g ethanol/day still allows improvement in muscle strength.

  11. UK Student Alcohol Consumption: A Cluster Analysis of Drinking Behaviour Typologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craigs, Cheryl L.; Bewick, Bridgette M.; Gill, Jan; O'May, Fiona; Radley, Duncan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which university students are following UK Government advice regarding appropriate consumption of alcohol, and to investigate if students can be placed into distinct clusters based on their drinking behaviour. Design: A descriptive questionnaire study. Setting: One hundred and nineteen undergraduate students from…

  12. Drunkorexia: Understanding the Co-Occurrence of Alcohol Consumption and Eating/Exercise Weight Management Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Adam E.; Piazza-Gardner, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine the co-occurrence of alcohol consumption, physical activity, and disordered eating behaviors via a drunkorexia perspective. Participants: Nationally representative sample (n = 22,488) of college students completing the Fall 2008 National College Health Assessment. Methods: Hierarchical logistic regression was employed to…

  13. Associations of Truancy, Perceived School Performance, and Mental Health with Alcohol Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtes, Muriel; Bannink, Rienke; Joosten-van Zwanenburg, Evelien; van As, Els; Raat, Hein; Broeren, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study examined associations of truancy, perceived school performance, and mental health with adolescents' week, weekend, and binge drinking. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1167 secondary school students of Dutch ethnicity (mean age, 15.9 years, SD?=?0.69). Alcohol consumption, truancy, perceived school…

  14. Trends in Alcohol Consumption among Undergraduate Students at a Northeastern Public University, 2002-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulmer, Sandra Minor; Irfan, Syed; Mugno, Raymond; Barton, Barbara; Ackerman, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined alcohol consumption patterns and trends at a public university in the Northeast from 2002 to 2008. Participants: Stratified random sampling was used to select undergraduate students enrolled in courses during spring semesters in 2002, 2004, 2006, and 2008. Methods: Data were collected during regularly scheduled…

  15. School-Related Assets and Youth Risk Behaviors: Alcohol Consumption and Sexual Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, Cheryl B.; Vesely, Sara K.; Oman, Roy F.; Tolma, Eleni; Rodine, Sharon; Marshall, LaDonna; Fluhr, Janene

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two risk behaviors, alcohol consumption and early initiation of sexual intercourse (ISI), can have devastating consequences for youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of school connectedness and school-related behaviors (eg, academic performance, skipping school, getting into trouble at school) with these 2…

  16. Future prospects for biomarkers of alcohol consumption and alcohol-induced disorders

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Willard M.; Vrana, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of reliable measures of alcohol intake is a major obstacle to the diagnosis, treatment, and research of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Successful development of a biomarker that allows for accurate assessment of alcohol intake and drinking patterns would not only be a major advance in clinical care but also a valuable research tool. A number of advances have been made in testing the validity of proposed biomarkers as well as in identifying potential new biomarkers through systems biology approaches. This commentary will examine the definition of a biomarker of heavy drinking, the types of potential biomarkers, the steps in biomarker development, the current state of biomarker development, and critical obstacles for the field. The challenges in developing biomarkers for alcohol treatment and research are similar to those found in other fields. However, the alcohol research field must reach a competitive level of rigor and organization. We recommend that NIAAA consider taking a leadership role in organizing investigators in the field and providing a common set of clinical specimens for biomarker validation studies. PMID:20374220

  17. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  18. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35-74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74-0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61-0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11-1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29-1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol-metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference-wine or beer-appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations extend these

  19. The effects of dehydration, moderate alcohol consumption, and rehydration on cognitive functions.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Christopher; Leveritt, Michael; Shum, David; Desbrow, Ben

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the impact of mild-moderate dehydration on alcohol-induced deteriorations in cognitive functions. Sixteen healthy males participated in a single-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design study involving 4 experimental trials (separated by ≥7 d). In each trial, participants were dehydrated by 2.5% body mass through exercise. After 1 h recovery in a thermo-neutral environment (22 ± 2 °C, 60-70% relative humidity) 4 tasks from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were administered to the participants (test 1). In two of the trials, participants were provided with water equivalent to either 50% or 150% body mass loss and given salt (NaCl) capsules (50 mmol/L). A set volume of alcohol or placebo was then consumed in each trial, incorporating the conditions: dehydration-placebo (DP), dehydration-alcohol (DA), partial rehydration-alcohol (PA), and full rehydration-alcohol (FA). The same 4 CANTAB tasks were then re-administered (test 2). Subjective ratings of mood and estimates of alcohol intoxication and driving impairment were also recorded in each trial. Alcohol consumption caused deterioration on 3 of the 4 CANTAB measures (viz., choice reaction time, executive function and response inhibition). This reduction in performance was exacerbated when participants were dehydrated compared to trials where full rehydration occurred. Subjective ratings of impairment and intoxication were not significantly different between any of the trials where alcohol was consumed; however ratings for alcohol trials were significantly higher than in the placebo trial. These findings suggest that rehydration after exercise that causes fluid loss can attenuate alcohol-related deterioration of cognitive functions. This may pose implications for post match fluid replacement if a moderate amount of alcohol is also consumed.

  20. Prevalence, comorbidities, and cofactors associated with alcohol consumption among school-going adolescents in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Mala A; Abdul Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B; Abdul Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Kamaruddin, Rozanim Bt; Sabtu, Mohd Yusoff B

    2014-09-01

    Alcohol is deleterious to physical and mental health as well as social well-being. This study aims to examine the prevalence of alcohol consumption and factors associated with its use among school-going Malaysian adolescents. The Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS) 2012 employed 2-stage clustering design to Malaysian secondary school respondents aged 12 to 17 years. The prevalence of current alcohol usage was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.8-10.07) overall, 11.2% (95% CI: 9.80-12.80) among males, and 23.4 (95% CI: 21.40-25.50) among Chinese students. Multivariate logistic regression showed that adolescents who had used alcohol were more likely to have used substance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3.39; 95% CI: 2.33-4.99), experienced injury (aOR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.20-1.95), and engaged in sexual behaviors (aOR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.12-1.79), and fights (aOR = 1.23; 95% CI: 1.08-1.41). The current national policies on alcohol should be strengthened to curb alcohol consumption among adolescents.

  1. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults.

  2. Sociodemographic Correlates of Energy Drink Consumption With and Without Alcohol: Results of a Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa K.; Fendrich, Michael; Chen, Han-Yang; Arria, Amelia M.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the sociodemographic correlates of energy drink use and the differences between those who use them with and without alcohol in a representative community sample. Methods A random-digit-dial landline telephone survey of adults in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area responded to questions about energy drink and alcohol plus energy drink use. Results Almost one-third of respondents consumed at least one energy drink in their lifetime, while slightly over 25% used energy drinks in the past year and 6% were past-year alcohol plus energy drink users. There were important racial/ethnic differences in consumption patterns. Compared to non-users, past-year energy drink users were more likely to be non-Black minorities; and past-year alcohol plus energy drink users when compared to energy drink users only were more likely to be White and younger. Alcohol plus energy drink users also were more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Conclusions Our results which are among the first from a community sample suggest a bifurcated pattern of energy drink use highlighting important population consumption differences between users of energy drinks only and those who use alcohol and energy drinks together. PMID:21276661

  3. Alcohol Consumption as a Risk Factor for Atrial Fibrillation: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Irving, Hyacinth M.; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    Background Alcohol exposure is one of the major risk factors for global burden of disease, but atrial fibrillation (AF) had not yet been included in these estimates. The purpose of this contribution was to examine the dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and AF and to explore potential causal pathways. Design and methods Systematic literature review and meta-analyses Results Overall, a consistent dose-response relationship between the amount of alcohol consumed daily and the probability of the onset of AF was found. Women consuming 24, 60, and 120 grams of alcohol daily had RRs of 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04,1.10), 1.42 (95% CI: 1.23,1.64) and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.60,2.97) respectively, relative to non-drinkers. Among men, the corresponding RRs were 1.08 (95% CI: 1.04,1.11), 1.44 (95% CI: 1.23,1.69) and 2.09 (95% CI: 1.52,2.86). Based on the categorical analyses, we could not exclude the existence of a threshold (3 drinks a day for men and 2 drinks a day for women). Several pathogenic mechanisms for the development of atrial fibrillation in alcohol users were identified. Conclusions Epidemiological criteria for causality were met to conclude a causal impact of alcohol consumption on the onset of AF with a monotonic dose-response relationship. However, the impact of light drinking is not clear. PMID:21461366

  4. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college.

  5. Alcohol Brine Freezing of Japanese Horse Mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for Raw Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Toshimichi; Yuki, Atsuhiko; Sakurai, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Koichiro; Itoh, Nobuo; Inui, Etsuro; Seike, Kazunori; Mizukami, Yoichi; Fukuda, Yutaka; Harada, Kazuki

    In order to test the possible application of alcohol brine freezing to Japanese horse mackerel (Trachurus japonicus) for raw consumption, the quality and taste of fish frozen by direct immersion in 60% ethanol brine at -20, -25 and -30°C was compared with those by air freezing and fresh fish without freezing. Cracks were not found during the freezing. Smell of ethanol did not remain. K value, an indicator of freshness, of fish frozen in alcohol brine was less than 8.3%, which was at the same level as those by air freezing and fresh fish. Oxidation of lipid was at the same level as air freezing does, and lower than that of fresh fish. The pH of fish frozen in alcohol brine at -25 and -30°C was 6.5 and 6.6, respectively, which were higher than that by air freezing and that of fresh fish. Fish frozen in alcohol brine was better than that by air and at the same level as fresh fish in total evaluation of sensory tests. These results show that the alcohol brine freezing is superior to air freezing, and fish frozen in alcohol brine can be a material for raw consumption. The methods of thawing in tap water, cold water, refrigerator, and at room temperature were compared. Thawing in tap water is considered to be convenient due to the short thaw time and the quality of thawed fish that was best among the methods.

  6. Alcohol consumption decreases the protection efficiency of the antioxidant network and increases the risk of sunburn in human skin.

    PubMed

    Darvin, M E; Sterry, W; Lademann, J; Patzelt, A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological data has demonstrated that alcohol consumption is a risk factor for sunburn, melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer. We hypothesized that if the concentration of the antioxidants in the skin has already decreased due to alcohol consumption, then an adequate neutralization of the free radicals induced by ultraviolet light cannot be performed. Based on this hypothesis, we determined the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the minimal erythema dose (MED) of 6 male human volunteers before and after consumption of alcohol or alcohol and orange juice combined. The results showed a significant decrease in the carotenoid concentration in the skin and the MED after alcohol consumption, but no significant decrease after a combined intake of alcohol and orange juice.

  7. Does Self-Esteem Moderate the Associations between Protective Behavioral Strategies and Negative Outcomes Associated with Alcohol Consumption?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Madson, Michael B.; Ricedorf, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that protective behavioral strategies tend to be associated with lower levels of alcohol consumption and fewer negative alcohol-related consequences. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-esteem would moderate the association between protective behavioral strategies and alcohol-related outcomes.…

  8. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  9. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  10. Moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women: a review.

    PubMed

    Purohit, V

    1998-08-01

    This report reviews the literature to evaluate association between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in healthy postmenopausal women. Of the eight studies available in literature on postmenopausal women who were not on estrogen therapy, two analyzed urine samples and six analyzed blood samples for estrogen levels. Of the two urine sample studies, only one reported positive association (p < 0.05) between alcohol consumption and estrogen (estrone and estradiol) levels that increased by 16 to 20%. Of the six blood sample studies, only two--one in American women and one in European women--reported significant increases (p < 0.05) in estradiol levels in response to alcohol consumption. In the American women study, estradiol levels increased only with wine and not with beer or whiskey. In the European women study, estradiol levels increased in Danish and Portuguese women, but not in Spanish women. Thus, further studies are required to establish correlation between moderate alcohol consumption and estrogen levels in postmenopausal women. Of the two studies on postmenopausal women who were on estrogen replacement therapy, one administered estradiol through transdermal patch (0.15 mg) and one orally (1 mg/day). In both studies, blood estradiol levels were measured after administering a single dose of ethanol orally (0.7-0.75 g/kg of body weight). Estradiol levels were increased by 22 and 300% in the transdermal patch and oral studies, respectively. These results suggest that alcohol consumption may increase blood estradiol levels in postmenopausal women who are on estrogen replacement therapy, and this may increase the risk of breast cancer. PMID:9726268

  11. The effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in a naturalistic setting: a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Troy, David M.; Maynard, Olivia M.; Hickman, Matthew; Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related harms are a major public health concern, and population-level interventions are needed to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. Glass shape is an easily modifiable target for public health intervention. Laboratory findings show beer is consumed slower from a straight glass compared to a curved glass, but these findings have not been replicated in a naturalistic setting. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility of conducting a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of glass shape on alcohol consumption in public houses. Methods Straight and curved half-pint and pint glasses were delivered to three public houses over two weekends. Glass type was counterbalanced over the two weekends and between the public houses. Monetary takings were recorded as an indirect measure of consumption. Results Replacing stocks of glassware in public houses was feasible and can be enacted in a short space of time. One landlord found the study too disruptive, possibly due to a laborious exchange of glassware and complaints about the new glassware from some customers. One public house’s dishwasher could not accommodate the supplied curved full-pint glasses. Obtaining monetary takings from public house staff was a feasible and efficient way of measuring consumption, although reporting absolute amounts may be commercially sensitive. Monetary takings were reduced by 24 % (95 % confidence interval 77 % reduction to 29 % increase) when straight glasses were used compared to curved glasses. Conclusions This study shows that it is feasible to carry out a trial investigating glass shape in a naturalistic environment, although a number of challenges were encountered. Brewery owners and landlords are willing to engage with public health research in settings where alcohol is consumed, such as public houses. Good communication with stakeholders was vital to acquire good data, and highlighting the potential commercial benefits of

  12. Moderate alcohol consumption does not impair overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Jennifer L; Gordon, Bradley S; Lang, Charles H

    2015-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to muscle weakness and atrophy in part by suppressing protein synthesis and mTORC1-mediated signaling. However, it is unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption also prevents overload-induced muscle growth and related anabolic signaling. Hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle was induced by removal of a section of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles from one leg of C57BL/6 adult male mice while the contralateral leg remained intact as the sham control. A nutritionally complete alcohol-containing liquid diet (EtOH) or isocaloric, alcohol-free liquid diet (Con) was provided for 14 days post-surgery. EtOH intake was increased progressively (day 1-5) before being maintained at ~20 g/day/kg BW. The plantaris muscle from the sham and OL leg was removed after 14 days at which time there was no difference in body weight between Con and EtOH-fed mice. OL increased muscle weight (90%) and protein synthesis (125%) in both Con and EtOH mice. The overload-induced increase in mTOR (Ser2448), 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46), S6K1 (Thr389), rpS6 (Ser240/244), and eEF2 (Thr56) were comparable in muscle from Con and EtOH mice. Modulation of signaling upstream of mTORC1 including REDD1 protein expression, Akt (Thr308), PRAS40 (Thr246), and ERK (Thr202/Tyr204) also did not differ between Con and EtOH mice. Markers of autophagy (ULK1, p62, and LC3) suggested inhibition of autophagy with overload and activation with alcohol feeding. These data show that moderate alcohol consumption does not impair muscle growth, and therefore imply that resistance exercise may be an effective therapeutic modality for alcoholic-related muscle disease. PMID:25780086

  13. Alcohol consumption, helmet use and head trauma in cycling collisions in Germany.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Chiara; Ferraro, Ottavia E; Montomoli, Cristina; Otte, Dietmar; Morandi, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Cycling, being easy, inexpensive and healthy, is becoming one of the most popular means of transport. Cyclists, however, are among the most vulnerable road users in traffic collisions. The aims of this study were to establish which cyclist and cycling accident characteristics are associated with alcohol consumption and helmet use in Germany and to identify risk factors related to head trauma sustained in cycling accidents. The source used for the present analysis was the database of the German in-depth accident study (GIDAS). All cyclists who had been involved in a road accident between 2000 and 2010 and submitted to an alcohol test were selected. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to evaluate various aspects: alcohol consumption, helmet use, head trauma, and cyclist/accident characteristics. Female riders were less likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=0.23, 95% CI: 0.08-0.66); cyclists who did not wear a helmet were more likely to have consumed alcohol (OR=2.41, 95% CI: 1.08-5.38); cyclists who were not responsible for the collision were less likely to have consumed alcohol than those who were partially responsible for the accident (OR=0.22, 95% CI: 0.08-0.61). Cyclists involved in collisions with another vehicle, motorised or not, had a lower risk of suffering a head injury compared with those involved in single-vehicle accidents (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.12-0.62, and OR=0.08, 95% CI: 0.03-0.22, respectively). The prevention or limiting of alcohol consumption among cyclists and the corresponding testing of cyclists must be improved. Training initiatives on helmet protection should be encouraged. PMID:24448470

  14. Daily Stress and Alcohol Consumption: Modeling Between-Person and Within-Person Ethnic Variation in Coping Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge-Gerry, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Villodas, Feion; McCabe, Cameron; Leung, Queenie K.; Da Costa, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Using a daily diary approach, the current study evaluated the relationship between coping and alcohol consumption using a large, multiethnic sample. The primary goals of this study were to (a) identify coping strategies that are either protective or risk factors for alcohol consumption and (b) model between-ethnic and within-ethnic group variation for these relations. Method: College students (N = 365, 69.0% female) were recruited via flyers, course/club presentations, and university seminars. Participants completed Internet-based daily diaries over the course of 5 days and reported specifically on a target stressful event, how they coped with the stressful event, and the amount of alcohol consumed on a daily level. Results: Use of more avoidance-oriented coping strategies (minimization of stressor, emotional rumination) and social support were significantly associated with more alcohol consumption. Ethnicity, however, did moderate some coping—alcohol associations. Use of religious coping was associated with less alcohol consumption and minimization of the stressor was associated with more alcohol consumption in African Americans; use of social support was associated with more alcohol consumption in Asian Americans; and use of problem-focused coping was associated with less alcohol consumption in Whites. Conclusions: Three maladaptive or risky coping strategies with respect to alcohol consumption were identified using an ecologically valid methodology. However, ethnic-specific variation of these risky (and protective) coping factors was identified. The findings highlight the importance of considering both between-ethnic and within-ethnic group variation with respect to the stress/coping and alcohol consumption. PMID:21138719

  15. Is marriage a buzzkill? A twin study of marital status and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Dinescu, Diana; Turkheimer, Eric; Beam, Christopher R; Horn, Erin E; Duncan, Glen; Emery, Robert E

    2016-09-01

    Married adults have consistently been found to drink less than their single or divorced counterparts. This correlation may not be causal, however, as people nonrandomly "select" into marriage and into alcohol use. The current study uses a sample of 2,425 same-sex twin pairs (1,703 MZ; 722 DZ) to control for genetic and shared environmental selection, thereby eliminating a great many third variable, alternative explanations to the hypothesis that marriage causes less drinking. Married twins were compared with their single, divorced, and cohabiting cotwins on drinking frequency and quantity. Married cotwins consumed fewer alcoholic beverages than their single or divorced cotwins, and drank less frequently than their single cotwins. Alcohol use patterns did not differ among married and cohabiting twins. These findings provide strong evidence that intimate relationships cause a decline in alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27336180

  16. Alcohol consumption and health: synergistic interaction with personality.

    PubMed

    Grossarth-Maticek, R; Eysenck, H J; Boyle, G J

    1995-10-01

    In this study, 6,386 males and 5,990 females, with a mean age of 55 years, constituting a random sample, were administered questionnaires by interviewers relating to amount of self-regulation and drinking status. They were then followed up over a 20-yr. period, and health status (living well, chronically ill, or deceased) was ascertained. It was hypothesized that the deleterious effect of alcohol would be worse for those low on self-regulation; that health status would be worse for those in whom drinking diminished self-regulation, as compared with those for whom drinking improved self-regulation; and that smoking would have greater effects in lowering health status in those in whom drinking diminished self-regulation than in those in whom drinking improved self-regulation. All predictions were borne out by the data at high statistical significance. The results confirmed findings from an earlier study to the effect that psychological factors like self-regulation powerfully influence the kind of effects drinking has with respect to health.

  17. Timing and Type of Alcohol Consumption and the Metabolic Syndrome - ELSA-Brasil

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Bruna Angelo; Luft, Vivian Cristine; Schmidt, Maria Inês; Chambless, Lloyd Ellwood; Chor, Dora; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome is rising worldwide. Its association with alcohol intake, a major lifestyle factor, is unclear, particularly with respect to the influence of drinking with as opposed to outside of meals. We investigated the associations of different aspects of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome and its components. In cross-sectional analyses of 14,375 active or retired civil servants (aged 35–74 years) participating in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), we fitted logistic regression models to investigate interactions between the quantity of alcohol, the timing of its consumption with respect to meals, and the predominant beverage type in the association of alcohol consumption with the metabolic syndrome. In analyses adjusted for age, sex, educational level, income, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, smoking, body mass index, and physical activity, light consumption of alcoholic beverages with meals was inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome (≤4 drinks/week: OR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.74–0.97; 4 to 7 drinks/week: OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.61–0.92), compared to abstention/occasional drinking. On the other hand, greater consumption of alcohol consumed outside of meals was significantly associated with the metabolic syndrome (7 to 14 drinks/week: OR = 1.32, 95%CI 1.11–1.57; ≥14 drinks/week: OR = 1.60, 95%CI 1.29–1.98). Drinking predominantly wine, which occurred mostly with meals, was significantly related to a lower syndrome prevalence; drinking predominantly beer, most notably when outside of meals and in larger quantity, was frequently associated with a greater prevalence. In conclusion, the alcohol—metabolic syndrome association differs markedly depending on the relationship of intake to meals. Beverage preference—wine or beer—appears to underlie at least part of this difference. Notably, most alcohol was consumed in metabolically unfavorable type and timing. If further investigations

  18. The burden of alcohol use: excessive alcohol consumption and related consequences among college students.

    PubMed

    White, Aaron; Hingson, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    Research shows that multiple factors influence college drinking, from an individual's genetic susceptibility to the positive and negative effects of alcohol, alcohol use during high school, campus norms related to drinking, expectations regarding the benefits and detrimental effects of drinking, penalties for underage drinking, parental attitudes about drinking while at college, whether one is member of a Greek organization or involved in athletics, and conditions within the larger community that determine how accessible and affordable alcohol is. Consequences of college drinking include missed classes and lower grades, injuries, sexual assaults, overdoses, memory blackouts, changes in brain function, lingering cognitive deficits, and death. This article examines recent findings about the causes and consequences of excessive drinking among college students relative to their non-college peers and many of the strategies used to collect and analyze relevant data, as well as the inherent hurdles and limitations of such strategies.

  19. Alcohol consumption inhibits bone growth and development in young actively growing rats.

    PubMed

    Sampson, H W; Perks, N; Champney, T H; DeFee, B

    1996-11-01

    Adolescence is an age of widespread alcohol abuse, but the effect of alcohol consumption on bone formation has not been studied in the young population. This study addresses the effect of alcohol on the early phases of bone growth and development in an animal model. Four-week-old, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Alcohol-treated animals were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet ad libitum containing 35% ethanol-derived calories, whereas the pair-fed animals (weight-matched to ethanol rats) received an isocaloric liquid diet in which maltose-dextrin substituted calories supplied by ethanol. Chow animals were fed a standard rat chow ad libitum. Proximal tibiae (primarily cancellous bone) and femora (primarily cortical bone) were removed for analysis after 2, 4, 6, or 8 weeks on the diets. Serum was collected for analysis of calcium levels, osteocalcin, corticosterone, growth hormone, parathyroid hormone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. The most rapid weight gain occurred between 6 and 8 weeks of age, it was significantly delayed in alcohol and pair-fed animals. Almost all morphological parameters of bone were lower in the alcohol groups. No significant difference in serum calcium levels, osteocalcin, or growth hormone levels were found, and small difference in calciotropic hormone levels was found between groups. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during the age of bone development reduces bone density and peak bone mass in both cortical and cancellous bone. The mechanism whereby this effect occurs is not fully understood, but, our results suggest that the negative impact of alcohol on growing bone is not due to the secondary effects of altered bone mineral regulating hormones.

  20. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  1. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  2. Chronic alcohol consumption has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid loss

    PubMed Central

    Clugston, Robin D.; Huang, Li-Shin; Blaner, William S.

    2015-01-01

    The alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic retinoid stores correlates with the progression of liver injury; however, the mechanisms underlying alcohol’s effects have not been fully elucidated. Our goal was to gain a mechanistic understanding of alcohol-induced hepatic retinoid depletion. Wild-type and mutant mice were continuously fed alcohol through Lieber-DeCarli liquid diets, with matched control animals pair fed an isocaloric alcohol-free diet to ensure equal nutrient and calorie intake between groups. A systematic analysis of tissue retinol and retinyl ester levels was performed with HPLC, complemented by gene and protein expression analyses. Our results delineated 2 phases of alcohol-induced depletion of hepatic retinoid. Initially, ∼15% of hepatic retinoid content was mobilized from the liver, causing extrahepatic tissue retinoid levels to increase. Subsequently, there was a precipitous drop in hepatic retinoid content (>60%), without further retinoid accumulation in the periphery. Follow-up studies in mutant mice revealed roles for RBP, CRBP1, and CD36 in retinoid mobilization and extrahepatic retinoid uptake, as well as a role for CYP2E1 in the catabolism of hepatic retinoid. In summary, alcohol has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid stores, characterized by an initial phase of rapid mobilization to extrahepatic tissues followed by extensive catabolism within the liver.—Clugston, R. D., Huang, L.-S., Blaner, W. S. Chronic alcohol consumption has a biphasic effect on hepatic retinoid loss. PMID:25985802

  3. The Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Incidence of Glycometabolic Abnormality in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese Men.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Siwen; Liu, Yujia; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Xianchao; Gang, Xiaokun; Li, Fei; Sun, Chenglin; Gao, Ying; Wang, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality is controversial, especially in different ethnic population. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was carried out to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and glycometabolic abnormality in middle-aged and elderly Chinese men. Methods. Using cluster random sampling, Chinese men aged more than 40 years from Changchun, China, were given standardized questionnaires. In total, 1996 individuals, for whom complete data was available, were recruited into the study. We calculated the incidence of prediabetes and newly diagnosed diabetes by three levels of alcohol consumption: light, moderate, and heavy. Multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for socioeconomic variables and diabetes-related risk factors were used to analyze the association between alcohol consumption and the onset of prediabetes and diabetes. Results. The univariate analysis revealed higher incidence of prediabetes among drinkers (32.8%) compared with nondrinkers (28.6%), particularly in heavy alcohol consumers. The logistic regression analysis showed that alcohol consumption, especially heavy consumption, was an independent risk factor for prediabetes. Conclusions. Alcohol consumption, heavy consumption in particular, is an independent risk factor for the development of prediabetes, but not for diabetes. PMID:26981121

  4. Alcohol consumption patterns among American Indian and white college students.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S P; Dodder, R A

    1984-09-01

    College students in Oklahoma completed a self-administered questionnaire to compare the drinking behaviors of culturally active American Indians (N = 34 men and 24 women) an Whites (N = 181 men and 250 women). Significantly more Indians were classified as drinkers, but they had begun drinking at a somewhat later age. Both groups indicated a preference for beer, and they were quite similar in quantity and frequency of beer consumption. White students reported drinking significantly more wine and distilled spirits, and drinking more often in public places, such as bars, pubs, restaurants and parked cars; Indians drank more in their own homes and in the homes of friends. White students tended to cite hedonistic reasons for drinking whereas Indians reported escapist or social reasons and drinking to "get high." Drinking-related problems were reported somewhat more often by Indian students, notably so by Indian women. Indians were more inclined to report the more serious drinking problems of being arrested, blacking out, interference with school or work, an difficulties in human relationships. White students more often cited problems of nausea or vomiting, drinking and driving, doing something that was later regretted and damaging property. It was suggested that the higher Indian arrest rate could be indicative of police bias and that the reports of problem drinking among Indian women be investigated further.

  5. Alcohol consumption as self-medication against blood-borne parasites in the fruit fly.

    PubMed

    Milan, Neil F; Kacsoh, Balint Z; Schlenke, Todd A

    2012-03-20

    Plants and fungi often produce toxic secondary metabolites that limit their consumption, but herbivores and fungivores that evolve resistance gain access to these resources and can also gain protection against nonresistant predators and parasites. Given that Drosophila melanogaster fruit fly larvae consume yeasts growing on rotting fruit and have evolved resistance to fermentation products, we decided to test whether alcohol protects flies from one of their common natural parasites, endoparasitoid wasps. Here, we show that exposure to ethanol reduces wasp oviposition into fruit fly larvae. Furthermore, if infected, ethanol consumption by fruit fly larvae causes increased death of wasp larvae growing in the hemocoel and increased fly survival without need of the stereotypical antiwasp immune response. This multifaceted protection afforded to fly larvae by ethanol is significantly more effective against a generalist wasp than a wasp that specializes on D. melanogaster. Finally, fly larvae seek out ethanol-containing food when infected, indicating that they use alcohol as an antiwasp medicine. Although the high resistance of D. melanogaster may make it uniquely suited to exploit curative properties of alcohol, it is possible that alcohol consumption may have similar protective effects in other organisms.

  6. Association of Alcohol Consumption with Perception of Attractiveness in a Naturalistic Environment

    PubMed Central

    Maynard, Olivia M.; Skinner, Andrew L.; Troy, David M.; Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between objectively-assessed alcohol consumption and perception of attractiveness in naturalistic drinking environments, and to determine the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a large-scale study in these environments. Methods Observational study conducted simultaneously across three public houses in Bristol, UK. Participants were required to rate the attractiveness of male and female face stimuli and landscape stimuli administered via an Android tablet computer application, after which their expired breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) was measured. Results Linear regression revealed no clear evidence for relationships between alcohol consumption and either overall perception of attractiveness for stimuli, for faces specifically, or for opposite-sex faces. The naturalistic research methodology was feasible, with high levels of participant engagement and enjoyment. Conclusions We found no evidence for a relationship between alcohol consumption and perception of attractiveness in our large-scale naturalistic study. Our study is important given the large sample size, the successful translation of an experimental, laboratory-based paradigm to a naturalistic drinking environment and the high level of public engagement with the study. Future studies should use similarly ecologically-valid methodologies to further explore the conditions under which this effect may be observed and identify the mechanisms underlying any relationships. PMID:26282686

  7. Performance Measurement: A Proposal to Increase Use of SBIRT and Decrease Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption during pregnancy has negative implications for maternal and child health. Appropriate early universal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for pregnant women is necessary to identify women at risk and reduce the likelihood of continued drinking. Because SBIRT is not consistently used, the development and use of performance measures to assure implementation of SBIRT are key steps towards intervention and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Methods Practice guidelines provide ample support for specific instruments designed for SBIRT in prenatal care. An examination of existing performance measures related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy, however, reveals no comprehensive published performance measure designed to quantify the use of SBIRT for alcohol use in prenatal care. Results Process performance measures were developed that can determine the proportion of pregnant women who are screened during the course of prenatal care and the proportion of women requiring either brief intervention or referral to substance use disorder treatment who received those interventions. The measures require use of screening instruments validated for use with pregnant women. Conclusions The two proposed measures would represent a significant step in efforts to assure appropriate intervention for women who drink during pregnancy, hold accountable providers who do not employ SBIRT, and provide a basis from which necessary systemic changes might occur. Pregnancy is a time when many women are motivated to stop drinking. That opportunity should be seized, with timely intervention offering assistance for pregnant women who have not stopped drinking of their own accord. PMID:23483413

  8. The Nature and Extent of Flavored Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Underage Youth: Results of a National Brand-specific Survey

    PubMed Central

    Giga, Noreen M.; Binakonsky, Jane; Ross, Craig; Siegel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Flavored alcoholic beverages are popular among underage drinkers. Existing studies that assessed flavored alcoholic beverage use among youth relied upon respondents to correctly classify the beverages they consume, without defining what alcohol brands belong to this category. Objectives To demonstrate a new method for analyzing the consumption of flavored alcoholic beverages among youth on a brand-specific basis, without relying upon youth to correctly classify brands they consume. Methods Using a pre-recruited internet panel developed by Knowledge Networks, we measured the brands of alcohol consumed by a national sample of youth drinkers, ages 16-20 years, in the United States. The sample consisted of 108 youths who had consumed at least one drink of an alcoholic beverage in the past 30 days. We measured the brand-specific consumption of alcoholic beverages within the past 30 days, ascertaining the consumption of 380 alcohol brands, including 14 brands of flavored alcoholic beverages. Results Measuring the brand-specific consumption of flavored alcoholic beverages was feasible. Based on a brand-specific identification of flavored alcoholic beverages, nearly half of youth drinkers in the sample reported having consumed such beverages in the past 30 days. Flavored alcoholic beverage preference was concentrated among the top four brands, which accounted for nearly all of the consumption volume reported in our study. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings underscore the need to assess youth alcohol consumption at the brand level and the potential value of such data in better understanding underage youth drinking behavior and the factors that influence it. PMID:21517708

  9. Key Findings on Alcohol Consumption and a Variety of Health Outcomes From the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Giovannucci, Ed L.; Stampfer, Meir J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review critical contributions from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) on alcohol consumption and health outcomes. Methods. We performed a narrative review of NHS (1980–2012) and NHS II (1989–2011) publications. Results. Using detailed information on self-reported alcohol drinking patterns obtained approximately every 4 years combined with extensive information on diet, lifestyle habits, and physician-diagnosed health conditions, NHS investigators have prospectively examined the risks and benefits associated with alcohol consumption. Moderate intake, defined as up to 1 drink a day, is associated with a lower risk of hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death, gallstones, cognitive decline, and all-cause mortality. However, even moderate intake places women at higher risk for breast cancer and bone fractures, and higher intake increases risk for colon polyps and colon cancer. Conclusions. Regular alcohol intake has both risks and benefits. In analyses using repeated assessments of alcohol over time and deaths from all causes, women with low to moderate intake and regular frequency (> 3 days/week) had the lowest risk of mortality compared with abstainers and women who consumed substantially more than 1 drink per day. PMID:27459455

  10. Additional deleterious effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Pourentezari, M; Talebi, A R; Mangoli, E; Anvari, M; Rahimipour, M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to survey the impact of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and DNA integrity in experimentally induced diabetic mice. A total of 32 adult male mice were divided into four groups: mice of group 1 served as control fed on basal diet, group 2 received streptozotocin (STZ) (200 mg kg(-1) , single dose, intraperitoneal) and basal diet, group 3 received alcohol (10 mg kg(-1) , water soluble) and basal diet, and group 4 received STZ and alcohol for 35 days. The cauda epididymidis of each mouse was dissected and placed in 1 ml of pre-warm Ham's F10 culture medium for 30 min. The swim-out spermatozoa were analysed for count, motility, morphology and viability. Sperm chromatin quality was evaluated with aniline blue, toluidine blue, acridine orange and chromomycin A3 staining. The results showed that all sperm parameters had significant differences (P < 0.05), also when sperm chromatin was assessed with cytochemical tests. There were significant differences (P < 0.001) between the groups. According to our results, alcohol and diabetes can cause abnormalities in sperm parameters and chromatin quality. In addition, alcohol consumption in diabetic mice can intensify sperm chromatin/DNA damage. PMID:26358836

  11. A Single Dose of Kudzu Extract Reduces Alcohol Consumption in a Binge Drinking Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Penetar, David M.; Toto, Lindsay H.; Lee, David Y.-W.; Lukas, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Overconsumption of alcohol has significant negative effects on an individual's health and contributes to an enormous economic impact on society as a whole. Pharmacotherapies to curb excessive drinking are important for treating alcohol use disorders. Methods Twenty (20) men participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, between subjects design experiment (n=10/group) that tested the effects of kudzu extract (Alkontrol-Herbal™) for its ability to alter alcohol consumption in a natural settings laboratory. A single dose of kudzu extract (2 grams total with an active isoflavone content of 520 mg) or placebo was administered 2.5 hours before the onset of a 90 minute afternoon drinking session during which participants had the opportunity to drink up to 6 beers ad libitum; water and juice were always available as alternative beverages. Results During the baseline session, the placebo-randomized group consumed 2.7 ± 0.78 beers before treatment and increased consumption to 3.4 ± 1.1 beers after treatment. The kudzu group significantly reduced consumption from 3.0 ± 1.7 at baseline to 1.9 ± 1.3 beers after treatment. The placebo-treated group opened 33 beers during baseline conditions and 38 following treatment whereas the kudzu-treated group opened 32 beers during baseline conditions and only 21 following treatment. Additionally, kudzu-treated participants drank slower. Conclusion This is the first demonstration that a single dose of kudzu extract quickly reduces alcohol consumption in a binge drinking paradigm. These data add to the mounting clinical evidence that kudzu extract may be a safe and effective adjunctive pharmacotherapy for alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:26048637

  12. Alcohol consumption and quitting smoking in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Christopher W; Borland, Ron; Hyland, Andrew; McKee, Sherry A; Thompson, Mary E; Cummings, K Michael

    2009-03-01

    Although greater alcohol consumption has been associated with decreased odds of quitting smoking in prospective studies, the aspects of drinking most strongly associated with quitting have not been fully explored and examination of potential confounder variables has been limited. Further studies are needed to inform efforts to enhance smoking cessation among the substantial portion of smokers who drink alcohol. The present study examines: (a) drinking frequency, average weekly quantity of alcohol consumption, and frequency of heavy drinking as prospective predictors of quit smoking behaviors, (b) difference across countries in this prediction, and (c) third variables that might account for the association between alcohol consumption and quitting smoking. Data were drawn from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective cohort study of smokers in Australia, Canada, the UK, and the US. A total of 4831 participants provided alcohol data at one study wave and were re-interviewed 1 year later. Individuals who drank heavily (4+/5+ drinks for women and men, respectively) more than once a week had significantly lower rates of quitting smoking than all other participants, in part due to the fact that a significantly lower proportion of those making a quit attempt remained quit for more than 1 month at follow-up. The role of frequent heavy drinking did not differ by country or sex and was not accounted for by demographics, smoking dependence, or attitudes regarding quitting smoking. Neither drinking frequency nor weekly quantity of consumption showed robust associations with quitting behaviors. Results indicate further study of interventions to address heavy drinking among smokers is warranted.

  13. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use.

  14. Effects of ostracism and sex on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Amy K; Cranford, Alexi N; Blumenthal, Heidemarie

    2015-09-01

    Drinking to cope with negative affect is a drinking pattern that leads to problematic alcohol use both in college and after graduation. Despite theory and correlational evidence to this effect, establishing a link between stress and alcohol consumption among college students in the laboratory has yielded both a limited number of studies and, at times, inconsistent results. The present study attempts to resolve these issues through investigating the effects of an ecologically relevant stressor-ostracism-on alcohol consumption in a clinical laboratory setting. Social drinking college students (N = 40; 55% female) completed a 5-min game of Cyberball and were randomly assigned either to be included or excluded in the virtual ball-toss game. The amount (in ml) of beer consumed in a subsequent mock taste test served as our primary dependent variable, with breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) as a secondary dependent variable. Results indicated that excluded participants reported a trend toward an increase in negative affect from pre- to post-Cyberball, and endorsed significantly lower self-esteem, belonging, control, and belief in a meaningful existence compared to included participants. A significant Sex × Condition effect indicated that excluded women consumed less beer than both included women and excluded men, supported by a nonsignificant trend in BrAC. Men did not differ in their consumption of beer as a result of Cyberball condition. Implications of sex and social context on alcohol use are discussed, as well as ostracism as a method for investigating relationships between social stress and alcohol use. PMID:25642585

  15. Analysis of NHANES 1999-2002 data reveals noteworthy association of alcohol consumption with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Subhankar

    2014-01-01

    Background With the obesity pandemic sweeping the globe and alcohol use on the rise worldwide, there is growing interest in how the two might be linked epidemiologically. The aim of the study was to use data from the NHANES registry from 1999-2002 to analyze the association between obesity and alcohol use. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between alcohol use and obesity. Risk was assessed separately for men and women. Results Of the 9,193 individuals (49% males), 26.8% of males and 33.6% of females were obese. About 17% of males and 12% of females were never drinkers (less than 12 drinks in their lifetime). After adjusting for age, race, marital status, highest level of education of the individual and spouse, country of origin, annual household income and duration of physical activity in the past 30 days, the odds of obesity were higher in never drinkers compared to ever drinkers in both men and women. Consumption of alcohol for more than 45 days, binge drinking (>5 drinks/day) for more than 90 days and being “ever binge drinker” were associated with significantly higher odds of obesity (in both genders) than those who drank for shorter duration or were “never binge drinkers”. Consumption of alcohol more than the recommended limit for moderate drinking (3 drinks/day in females and 4 drinks/day in males) was associated with increased (OR 1.074, 95% CI 1.072-1.076) and decreased (OR 0.970, 95%CI 0.968-0.972) obesity in females and males respectively. Conclusion Frequent or heavy alcohol consumption is associated with greater odds of being obese. PMID:24974978

  16. Genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal alcohol consumption across youth and early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Adkins, Daniel E.; Clark, Shaunna L.; Copeland, William E.; Kennedy, Martin; Conway, Kevin; Angold, Adrian; Maes, Hermine; Liu, Youfang; Kumar, Gaurav; Erkanli, Alaattin; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Silberg, Judy; Brown, Tyson H.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Eaves, Lindon; van den Oord, Edwin J.C.G.; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Costello, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    The public health burden of alcohol is unevenly distributed across the life course, with levels of use, abuse and dependence increasing across adolescence and peaking in early adulthood. Here we leverage this temporal patterning to search for common genetic variants predicting developmental trajectories of alcohol consumption. Comparable psychiatric evaluations measuring alcohol consumption were collected in three, longitudinal community samples (N=2,126, obs=12,166). Consumption repeated measurements spanning adolescence and early adulthood were analyzed using linear mixed models, estimating individual consumption trajectories, which were then tested for association with Illumina 660W-Quad genotype data (866,099 SNPs after imputation and QC). Association results were combined across samples using standard meta-analysis methods. Four meta-analysis associations satisfied our pre-determined genome-wide significance criterion (FDR<0.1) and 6 others met our “suggestive” criterion (FDR<0.2). Genome-wide significant associations were highly biological plausible, including associations within GABA transporter 1, SLC6A1 (solute carrier family 6, member 1), and exonic hits in LOC100129340 (mitofusin-1-like). Pathway analyses elaborated single marker results, indicating significant enriched associations to intuitive biological mechanisms including neurotransmission, xenobiotic pharmacodynamics and nuclear hormone receptors. These findings underscore the value of combining longitudinal behavioral data and genome-wide genotype information in order to study developmental patterns and improve statistical power in genomic studies. PMID:26081443

  17. Predictors of experiencing aggression in clubs: Beyond alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Brenda A.; Bourdeau, Beth; Johnson, Mark; Voas, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To examine the social drinking group's influence on the individual's experiences of physical or sexual aggression at clubs, data were collected from 368 groups (N=986 individuals). Both group and individual level indicators were examined for impact on self-reports of physical and sexual aggression experiences while at the club. Recent aggressive experiences and perpetration, concerns for group safety, one's own plans and assessment of other group members' plans to drink to the point of intoxication, and personal characteristics were examined, using both individual and group indicators. At exit, participants reported experiencing physical aggression (12.3%) and sexual aggression (12.6%) at the club. Using generalized linear mixed modeling to account for nested data (club, event, and group), group level indicators predicted both the individual's physical and sexual aggression experiences. Especially for experiences of physical aggression, group effects are notable. Being in a group whose members recently experienced physical aggression, increased the risk for the individual. Interestingly, groups that had higher levels of planned intoxication decreased risks of experiencing aggression, while a discrepancy in these intentions among group members increased the risks. Group effects were also noted for experiencing sexual aggression. High levels of prior experiences for sexual aggression in the group increased the risks for the individual during the event. Also, being in a group that is identified as having at least one member who is frequently drunk, increases the risk for experiencing sexual aggression. These findings inform prevention strategies for young adults engaged in high risk behaviors by targeting social drinking groups who frequent clubs. PMID:24838821

  18. Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Bladder Cancer: Case-Control Study from a Nationwide Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tonooka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Takumi; Homma, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common in Western countries, but not in Japan. Established risk factors are smoking and high-risk jobs such as printing and manufacturing. The risk of alcohol consumption in bladder cancer has been the recent focus; however, available literature on alcohol consumption and bladder cancer has been limited from Japanese population, thought to have a weak genetic tolerance to acetaldehyde. We aimed to determine whether alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for bladder cancer among Japanese. The study was a matched case-control study from the nationwide Japanese clinical database administered by the Rosai Hospital group. We identified 739 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 2005 (when the database was established) and 2014 and 7,196 controls matched by sex, age, hospital, and admission period. We estimated the odds ratio of alcohol consumption for bladder cancer adjusted for the amount of smoking, high-risk occupations, and comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and obesity) with conditional logistic regression. The risk of bladder cancer was significantly higher in ever drinkers than in never drinkers (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.66). Furthermore, the risk threshold for alcohol consumption was more than 15 g of alcohol intake per day (one, 180-mL cup equivalent to 6 ounces of Japanese sake containing 23 grams of alcohol). Among Japanese, alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor for bladder cancer, with a lower risk threshold. PMID:27098227

  19. Alcohol consumption and the risk of renal cancers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Magdalena B; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Darren R; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Katzke, Verena; Kühn, Tilman; Boeing, Heiner; Bergmann, Manuela M; Steffen, Annika; Naska, Androniki; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Saieva, Calogero; Grioni, Sara; Panico, Salvatore; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Peeters, Petra H; Hjartåker, Anette; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Arriola, Larraitz; Molina-Montes, Esther; Duell, Eric J; Santiuste, Carmen; Alonso de la Torre, Ramón; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Stocks, Tanja; Johansson, Mattias; Ljungberg, Börje; Wareham, Nick; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Travis, Ruth C; Cross, Amanda J; Murphy, Neil; Riboli, Elio; Scelo, Ghislaine

    2015-10-15

    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend  = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.

  20. TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels: neurobiological markers of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients?

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Käser, Marius; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Rhein, Mathias; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 30 male alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them with the levels obtained from 18 healthy male controls. IL-6 (day 1: T = 2,593, p = 0.013; day 7: T = 2,315, p = 0.037; day 14: T = 1,650, p = 0.112) serum levels were significantly increased at the beginning of alcohol withdrawal. TNF-α (T = 3,202, p = 0.03) serum levels were significantly elevated in the patients' group during the whole period of withdrawal. IL-6 serum levels decreased significantly during withdrawal (F = 16.507, p < 0.001), whereas TNF-α levels did not change significantly (day 1-14). IL-6 serum levels were directly associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.392, p = 0.047) on day 1. Moreover, the IL-6 serum levels were associated with alcohol craving (PACS total score day 1: r = -0.417, p = 0.022, the score of the obsessive subscale of the OCDS on day 14 [r = -0.549, p = 0.022]), depression (r = -0.507, p = 0.005), and trait anxiety (r = -0.674, p < 0.001) on day 1. We found an association with the duration of active drinking following the last period of abstinence and the TNF-α serum levels (day 1:r = 0.354, p = 0.009; day 7: r = 0.323, p = 0.022; day 14: r = 0.303, p = 0.034) as well as an association with the severity of alcohol dependence measured by the SESA scale (r = 0.454, p = 0.015). Moreover, we found a significant association between the BDNF serum levels and the TNF-α serum levels (r = -0.426, p = 0.021). Our results support an association between alterations in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels and alcohol consumption. PMID:25262503

  1. BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain function in adolescents: role for early alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nees, F; Witt, S H; Dinu-Biringer, R; Lourdusamy, A; Tzschoppe, J; Vollstädt-Klein, S; Millenet, S; Bach, C; Poustka, L; Banaschewski, T; Barker, G J; Bokde, A L W; Bromberg, U; Büchel, C; Conrod, P J; Frank, J; Frouin, V; Gallinat, J; Garavan, H; Gowland, P; Heinz, A; Ittermann, B; Mann, K; Martinot, J-L; Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Robbins, T W; Smolka, M N; Rietschel, M; Schumann, G; Flor, H

    2015-03-01

    Changes in reward processing have been identified as one important pathogenetic mechanism in alcohol addiction. The nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene (rs6265/Val66Met) modulates the central nervous system activity of neurotransmitters involved in reward processing such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate. It was identified as crucial for alcohol consumption in healthy adults and, in rats, specifically related to the function in the striatum, a region that is commonly involved in reward processing. However, studies in humans on the association of BDNF Val66Met and reward-related brain functions and its role for alcohol consumption, a significant predictor of later alcohol addiction, are missing. Based on an intermediate phenotype approach, we assessed the early orientation toward alcohol and alcohol consumption in 530 healthy adolescents that underwent a monetary incentive delay task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found a significantly lower response in the putamen to reward anticipation in adolescent Met carriers with high versus low levels of alcohol consumption. During reward feedback, Met carriers with low putamen reactivity were significantly more likely to orient toward alcohol and to drink alcohol 2 years later. This study indicates a possible effect of BDNF Val66Met on alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adolescence. PMID:25650137

  2. Alcohol consumption in university students: the role of reasons for drinking, coping strategies, expectancies, and personality traits.

    PubMed

    Williams, A; Clark, D

    1998-01-01

    Despite the popularity of the social learning perspective of alcohol abuse, there have been limited efforts devoted to developing comprehensive models that delineate the roles of the constituent components of this approach. In the present study, we determined whether reasons for drinking, coping strategies, alcohol expectancies, and personality traits predict binge drinking and alcohol consumption levels in university students. Escape drinking was the sole positive direct predictor of binge drinking. Social drinking predicted alcohol consumption and thereby exerted an indirect influence on binge drinking. Alcohol expectancies played a significant role in the model but only by influencing reasons for drinking. Although the use of alcohol and/or drugs to cope predicted alcohol consumption, none of a variety of other coping strategies exerted a significant influence in the model. Stress responsivity-related personality traits played a significant role, primarily via an influence on alcohol expectancies. These findings provide support for the social learning perspective of alcohol abuse and offer further insight into the factors that contribute to the development of risky alcohol consumption patterns.

  3. Test-Retest Reliability and Validity of Life-Course Alcohol Consumption Measures: The 2005 National Alcohol Survey Follow Up

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason; Kerr, William C.; Ye, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies assess reliability and validity of lifetime alcohol measures. We undertook extended test-retest analyses of retrospective lifetime drinking measures and of incremental predictive ability of lifetime heavy drinking (days 5+ drinks) in teens, 20s and 30s for current (12-month) alcohol use disorders. Methods A subset (31.4%; 962 men, 1220 women) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey (NAS; N11) completed a follow-up survey (N11T) by phone or mail (mean delay of 2.7 years). Both surveys assessed lifetime drinking. Results In N11T, drinking status was reported consistently by 94.7% of N11 current drinkers, 85.5% of ex-drinkers and 74.4% of lifetime abstainers (93.5% overall). Cumulative number of prior heavy drinking days (teens through 30s) were moderately consistent (Pearson's ρ=0.6, p<0.001, n=1,636). Reliability was lower for younger respondents under 30 and higher for Whites versus Blacks and Hispanics (ρ=0.68 vs. ρ=0.56 vs. ρ=0.56, both p=0.01), but did not differ by gender. Heavy drinking days in teens correlated 0.63 (p < 0.001) for those aged 20 or older, higher for women than men and for Whites versus ethnic minorities. Heavy drinking days in the twenties and thirties reported by those 30 and older and 40 and older correlated at 0.63 and 0.67, respectively, being higher for Whites. Age of drinking onset and of lifetime maximum quantity reports were also consistent (0.65, 0.73), higher for women versus men, for those older than 29 versus younger, and for Whites versus Blacks and Hispanics. In N11, controlling for gender, age, ethnicity and current 5+ frequency, cumulative prior 5+ days (teens to age 39) predicted current alcohol-related consequences and dependence (both p=0.003). Conclusions Measurements of earlier heavy drinking is feasible, efficient, and reasonably reliable, albeit with some individual imprecision. Prior drinking data improve prediction of current alcohol use disorders, adjusting for demographics and current

  4. The Role of Context-Specific Norms and Group Size in Alcohol Consumption and Compliance Drinking During Natural Drinking Events

    PubMed Central

    Cullum, Jerry; O’Grady, Megan; Armeli, Stephen; Tennen, Howard

    2016-01-01

    Using experience sampling methods we examined how group size and context-specific drinking norms corresponded to alcohol consumption and compliance with drinking offers during natural social drinking events. For 30 days, 397 college students reported daily on their alcohol consumption during social events, the size of the group they were with, the average alcohol consumption of its’ members, and the number of drinks they accepted that came directly from the group they were with during these social drinking events. Larger groups corresponded with greater alcohol consumption, but only when context-specific norms were high. Furthermore, larger groups increased compliance with drinking offers when context-specific norms were high, but decreased compliance with drinking offers when context-specific norms were low. Thus, subtle features of the social-context may influence not only overall consumption behavior, but also compliance with more overt forms of social influence. PMID:27536009

  5. Oxygen Consumption in the First Stages of Strenuous Work as a Function of Prior Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutin, Bernard; And Others

    This study examined the extent to which 10 minutes of prior exercise (PE) at a workload adjusted to maintain a heart rate (HR) of 140 beats per minute could facilitate the mobilization of the oxygen transport system in a strenuous criterion task (CT). The control treatment involved completion of the CT following 10 minutes of rest on the…

  6. Maternal Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Metabolism Genes, and the Risk of Oral Clefts: A Population-based Case-Control Study in Norway, 1996–2001

    PubMed Central

    Boyles, Abee L.; DeRoo, Lisa A.; Lie, Rolv T.; Taylor, Jack A.; Jugessur, Astanand; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Wilcox, Allen J.

    2010-01-01

    Heavy maternal alcohol consumption during early pregnancy increases the risk of oral clefts, but little is known about how genetic variation in alcohol metabolism affects this association. Variants in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1C (ADH1C) gene may modify the association between alcohol and clefts. In a population-based case-control study carried out in Norway (1996–2001), the authors examined the association between maternal alcohol consumption and risk of oral clefts according to mother and infant ADH1C haplotypes encoding fast or slow alcohol-metabolizing phenotypes. Subjects were 483 infants with oral cleft malformations and 503 control infants and their mothers, randomly selected from all other livebirths taking place during the same period. Mothers who consumed 5 or more alcoholic drinks per sitting during the first trimester of pregnancy had an elevated risk of oral cleft in their offspring (odds ratio (OR) = 2.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 4.7). This increased risk was evident only in mothers or children who carried the ADH1C haplotype associated with reduced alcohol metabolism (OR= 3.0, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.8). There was no evidence of alcohol-related risk when both mother and infant carried only the rapid-metabolism ADH1C variant (OR = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.1). The teratogenic effect of alcohol may depend on the genetic capacity of the mother and fetus to metabolize alcohol. PMID:20810466

  7. [Patterns of alcohol consumption among users of primary health care services in a Brazilian city].

    PubMed

    de Vargas, Divane; Bittencourt, Marina Nolli; Barroso, Lúcia Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this paper was to identify alcohol consumption patterns among users of primary health care services in the city of Bebedouro in the state of São Paulo, verifying the association between usage patterns and demographic and behavioral variables of the sample. It is a cross-sectional study involving 755 subjects over 18 years of age who sought primary health care services in the city of Bebedouro. To investigate patterns of alcohol use, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used. For statistical analysis the chi-square and binary logistic regression tests were used. The results showed that 78% of users were abstainers or low risk users, 22% had problems with alcohol, 10% were risk cases, 2% were high-risk users and 10% probable addicts. The greatest predictors of usage risk were males, income > than 6 minimum wages and smokers; for addicts the most important predictors were: males, working in commerce and smokers. A significant proportion of users showed patterns of problematic use of alcohol, which reinforces the need for preventive actions, since the primary health care services are an excellent opportunity to combine opportunities for screening and usage strategies for reducing harmful effects related to the problematic use of alcohol.

  8. Rural, Suburban, and Urban Variations in Alcohol Consumption in the United States: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Alcohol consumption is a major public health problem nationally, but little research has investigated drinking patterns by rurality of residence. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of abstinence, alcohol use disorders, and risky drinking in rural, suburban, and urban areas of the United States. Methods: Analyses of the 2001-2002 National…

  9. Effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment on oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue.

    PubMed

    Carrard, V C; Pires, A S; Mendez, M; Mattos, F; Moreira, J C F; Sant'Ana Filho, M

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of acute alcohol consumption and vitamin E co-treatment upon oxidative stress parameters in rats tongue. Thirty-eight, Wistar rats were separated into five groups (alcohol, alcohol/vitamin E, control, Tween, vitamin E). Alcohol and alcohol vitamin E groups had the standard diet, and 40% alcohol on drinking water. Other groups were fed with the same standard diet and water ad libitum. Vitamin E was given by gavage to vitamin E and alcohol/vitamin E rats twice a week. Alcohol and control groups were subjected to saline gavage and Tween group to 5% Tween 80 solution, the vitamin E vehicle. At day 14, the animals were anesthetized and specimens were obtained from tongue. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS), protein oxidative damage, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were quantified. Alcohol group decreased TBARS in relation to control group and alcohol vitamin-treated animals decreased TBARS when compared to Tween and vitamin E groups. SOD activity was lower and CAT activity was higher in animals treated with both alcohol and vitamin E. These results suggest that short-term alcohol consumption decreases lipid peroxidation levels. Alternatively, alcohol/vitamin E group increased CAT, showing the toxicity of this association.

  10. Cost of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; Bahia, Luciana; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Malhão, Thainá Alves; Pepe, Camila Ribeiro; Araujo, Denizar Vianna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To estimate the direct costs associated to outpatient and hospital care of diseases related to alcohol consumption in the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS Attributable populational risks were estimated for the selected diseases related to the use of 25 g/day or more of ethanol (risk consumption), considering a relative risk (RR) ≥ 1.20. The RR estimates were obtained from three meta-analysis. The risk consumption rates of the Brazilian population ≥ 18 years old were obtained by a national survey. Data from the Hospital Information System of SUS (HIS-SUS) were used to estimate the annual costs of the health system with the diseases included in the analysis. RESULTS The total estimated costs for a year regarding diseases related to risk consumption were U$8,262,762 (US$4,413,670 and US$3,849,092, for outpatient and hospital care, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Risk consumption of alcohol is an important economic and health problem, impacting significantly the health system and society. PMID:27305403

  11. Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: data from NHANES 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-03-01

    Association of arsenic exposure with smoking, alcohol, and caffeine consumption was investigated. Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2005-2010 were used for this investigation. Urinary levels of total arsenic (UAS) and dimethylarsonic acid (UDMA) were evaluated for children aged 6-12 years and adolescents and adults aged ≥ 12 years. Urinary levels of arsenobetaine (UAB) were evaluated for adolescents and adults only. Regression models were fitted for log transformed values of UAB, UAS, and UDMA. For the models for children, however, gender, race/ethnicity, SES, and fish/shell fish consumption during the last 30 days were the only independent variables that were included in the models. Nonsmokers were found to have higher levels of UAS and UDMA than smokers. Elevated levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA were associated with higher amounts of daily alcohol consumption. The associations were in the opposite direction for daily caffeine consumption. Females were found to have statistically significantly lower adjusted levels of UDMA than males for those aged ≥ 12 years. Irrespective of age, those with unclassified race/ethnicity had the highest levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA and non-Hispanic whites had the lowest levels. Adolescents had the higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA than adults. Higher SES was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA among adolescents and adults. Irrespective of age, fish consumption was associated with higher levels of UAB, UAS, and UDMA.

  12. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor.

  13. Drinking reasons, alcohol consumption levels, and drinking locations among drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E

    1986-06-01

    In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed.

  14. What influences changes in alcoholic beverage consumption over time? Poland in the light of the European Union Amphora study.

    PubMed

    Swiątkiewicz, Grażyna; Wieczorek, Lukasz; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    This paper is based on the Polish country-level final report of the European Union Amphora study: contextual determinants and alcohol polices. The authors present the results of a time series analysis model designed to explore and explain the influence of selected alcoholic beverage control policy measures and unplanned sociodemographical determinants on changes in alcoholic beverage consumption from 1960 to the 2000s in Poland. Complex historical and social changes are described, which occurred during the 50 years covered by the study. The study findings confirmed that sociodemographical determinants have an important influence on alcoholic beverage consumption. Study limitations are noted and future research is suggested.

  15. Chronic alcohol consumption from adolescence to adulthood in mice--hypothalamic gene expression changes in insulin-signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke; Song, Huaiguang; Jin, Meilei; Xiao, Huasheng; Zhao, Guoping; Zou, Hong; Yu, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Adolescence is a developmental stage vulnerable to alcohol drinking-related problems, and alcohol exposure during adolescence may lead to long-lasting consequences. The hypothalamus is a key brain region for food and water intake regulation as well as weight control, and is one of the alcohol-sensitive brain regions. However, it is not known what the alcohol effect is on the hypothalamus following adolescent alcohol intake, chronically over adolescent development, at moderate levels. We employed a model of chronic moderate alcohol intake from adolescence to adulthood in mice, and analyzed the effect of alcohol on growth and weight gain, as well as hypothalamic gene expression patterns. The results indicated that chronic alcohol consumption during adolescence, even at moderate levels, led to both a reduction in weight gain in mice, and considerable gene expression changes in the hypothalamus. Pathway analysis and real-time PCR identified the type II diabetes mellitus and the insulin-signaling pathways as being the hypothalamic pathways affected by chronic alcohol. Our findings from the mouse alcohol consumption study therefore serve as a potential warning against alcohol consumption during adolescence, such as in teens and college students.

  16. Police officer job satisfaction in relation to mood,well-being, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Kohan, Andrea; O'Connor, Brian P

    2002-05-01

    The authors examined job satisfaction, job stress, and thoughts of quitting in relation to positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, self-esteem, and alcohol consumption among police officers. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that 2 dimensions, positive affect and negative affect, provided a clear family-tree organizational framework for representing the otherwise confusing pattern of associations between job and well-being variables. Job satisfaction was primarily associated with positive affect, life satisfaction, and self-esteem; job stress was primarily associated with negative affect and alcohol consumption; thoughts of quitting had moderate loadings on both factors. The 2-dimensional framework may prove useful as a guide in reviewing research in this field and in selecting constructs and measures for inclusion in future research. PMID:12206279

  17. Alcohol Consumption, Dating Relationships, and Preliminary Sexual Outcomes in Collegiate Natural Drinking Groups

    PubMed Central

    Devos-Comby, Loraine; Daniel, Jason; Lange, James E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the effects of committed relationships and presence of dates on alcohol consumption and preliminary sexual outcomes in natural drinking groups (NDGs). Undergraduate drinkers (N = 302) answered an online questionnaire on their most recent participation in a NDG. The interaction between relationship commitment and presence of a date on alcohol consumption was significant. Among students not in committed relationships, those dating within their NDG reported heavier drinking than those not dating. Students in committed relationships drank less than those who were not committed only when their partners were present. The positive correlation between drinking and sexual contact was significant only for those who were not in committed relationships. Implications for future research and interventions are discussed. PMID:26236043

  18. Smoking and alcohol consumption patterns among elderly Canadians with mobility disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobility disability is a major adverse health outcome associated with aging and an impediment to older adults’ well-being and behaviors in social and leisure activities. It has been shown that lifestyle factors, including smoking and alcohol consumption, have been used as coping strategies to deal with the negative impact of disability. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption among older Canadians with different levels of mobility disabilities and to examine factors associated with these two lifestyle patterns among those with disabilities. Methods Secondary data analysis was performed using individuals (n = 6,038) aged 65 years and older from both the 2001 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey and the 2003 Canadian Community Health Survey. Multivariate logistic regressions examined the relationship between disability severity and smoking as well as alcohol consumption while controlling for potential confounding socioeconomic factors. Results The proportion of current smokers among seniors with less-severe and more-severe mobility disabilities and those in the general population was comparable with 12.55%, 11.57% and 11.93%, respectively. Forty-eight percent of seniors in the general population consumed alcohol regularly, compared to only 12.85% with more-severe mobility disabilities. No significant association was shown between the severity level of mobility disabilities and smoking (odds ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence interval: 0.75, 1.08). However, seniors having more-severe disability were less likely to consume alcohol regularly (odds ratio = 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.89). Other variables including age, gender, income, living status, and social participation also impacted these lifestyle patterns among the study population. Conclusions Smoking and alcohol patterns present different associations with the severity level of mobility disabilities. Compared with the general

  19. The Relation of Moderate Alcohol Consumption to Hyperuricemia in a Rural General Population

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Liu, Yamin; Chang, Ye; Sun, Yingxian; Zhu, Guangshuo; Abraham, Maria Roselle

    2016-01-01

    Background: although alcohol abuse is known to increase serum uric acid, the relation between moderate drinking and uric acid have remained poorly understood. We performed this study to evaluate whether different alcohol consumption level has different effects on the risk of hyperuricemia based on a rural general population. Method: multi-stage cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample of individuals aged 35 years or older. Participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Data regarding the demographic and lifestyle characteristics and the blood biochemical indexes of these participants were collected by well-trained personnel. Results: in total, 11,039 participants aged 35 years or older were included (4997 men and 6042 women). The prevalence of hyperuricemia in the different male alcohol consumption groups was 11.9% in non-drinkers, 12.6% in moderate drinkers, and 16.3% in heavy drinkers (p < 0.001). In females, the rates were 6.3% in non-drinkers, 8.1% in moderate drinkers, and 6.6% for heavy drinkers (p = 0.818). In males, multivariate logistic regression analyses shows heavy drinkers had an approximately 1.7-fold higher risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.657, 95% CI: 1.368 to 2.007, p < 0.001) than non-drinkers; moderate drinkers did not experience a significant increase in risk (OR: 1.232, 95% CI: 0.951 to 1.596, p = 0.114)). Multivariate logistic regression analyses of females showed that, compared with non-drinkers, neither moderate nor heavy drinkers had a significantly increased risk of hyperuricemia (OR: 1.565, 95% CI: 0.521 to 4.695, p = 0.425 for heavy drinkers; OR: 0.897, 95% CI: 0.117 to 6.855, p = 0.916 for moderate drinkers). Conclusions: heavy alcohol consumption increased the risk of hyperuricemia for males but not for females. Among both males and females, moderate alcohol consumption did not increase the risk of hyperuricemia. PMID:27447659

  20. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  1. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs. PMID:23428971

  2. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  3. Effect of Prepregnancy Alcohol Consumption on Postpartum Relationship Satisfaction and Divorce among Norwegian Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Mellingen, Sonja; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Thuen, Frode

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of prepregnancy level of alcohol use among mothers on relationship breakups with young children at 36 months after birth and the extent to which relationship satisfaction (RS) throughout the postpartum period could mediate any association between alcohol use and divorce. The data were part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, and analyses of the present article were based on a total of 69,117 mothers divided into low-, medium-, and high-risk consumption groups. All the three groups experienced a decrease in RS, but the largest effect was observed for the high-risk group. Mothers in this group had 55% higher odds for divorce as compared to the low-risk group. The findings supported a conceptual model whereby the effects of alcohol use on divorce were mediated through lowered RS. PMID:26740743

  4. Acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior among African American women.

    PubMed

    Hines, A M; Snowden, L R; Graves, K L

    1998-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between acculturation, alcohol consumption and AIDS-related risky sexual behavior in a national probability sample of 533 African American women. Results indicated that women who were the heaviest drinkers were also the least acculturated. However, women most likely to engage in risky sexual behavior, including having multiple partners, being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship, and being nonmonogamous or in a nonmonogamous relationship and not using a condom consistently, were high in acculturation rather than low. Alcohol use proved related to risky sexual behavior when considered in conjunction with respondents' level of acculturation. Women at risk for contracting AIDS were not low acculturated African American women who drank heavily, but high acculturated African American women. Findings from this study extend our understanding of risk and contain implications for research and prevention efforts in the area of alcohol use and AIDS-related sexual behavior among African American women.

  5. Heavy Alcohol Consumption with Alcoholic Liver Disease Accelerates Sarcopenia in Elderly Korean Males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Chang, U Im; Choi, Sooa; Jung, Yun Duk; Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Seung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim Although a few studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), no studies have investigated this association in a large sample representative of the elderly Korean population. Methods This was a cross-sectional study that used data from the Fourth and Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) on subjects aged 65 years and older. Sarcop