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Sample records for alcohol consumption smoking

  1. Smoking Cessation and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals in Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Friend, Karen B.; Pagano, Maria E.

    2008-01-01

    Most individuals with alcohol use disorders are dependent on both alcohol and nicotine, and combined use of both substances is more damaging to health than use of either alone. Although research indicates that alcoholics can quit smoking, discrepant results have been reported regarding whether smoking cessation is associated with increased risk of alcohol relapse. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between smoking cessation and alcohol consumption using data from Project MATCH. Of the 1,307 participants who smoked at any point during the study, 160 (12%) quit. Quitters consumed less alcohol than those who continued smoking. In addition, quitters demonstrated a significant reduction in alcohol consumption at the time of smoking cessation, which was sustained for six months post-cessation. These findings suggest that individuals in treatment for alcohol use disorders who are motivated to stop smoking can safely be encouraged to do so without jeopardizing their sobriety. PMID:15784524

  2. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  3. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  4. The role of anti-smoking legislation on cigarette and alcohol consumption habits in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, Luca; Chiavarini, Manuela; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca

    2013-07-01

    The short-term effects of public smoking bans on individual smoking and drinking habits were investigated in this paper. In 2005, a smoking ban was introduced in Italy, and we exploited this exogenous variation to measure the effect on both smoking participation and intensity and the indirect effect on alcohol consumption. Using data from the Everyday Life Aspects survey, for the period 2001-2007, we show that the introduction of smoke-free legislation in Italy significantly affected smoking behavior. We also document significant indirect effects on alcohol consumption for the main alcoholic beverage categories. A robustness analysis is also performed, to test the extent to which unobservable variables may bias our estimated parameters. Our results are then used to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of the anti-smoking legislation in Italy. PMID:23642788

  5. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

    PubMed

    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  6. Associations of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption With Disease Activity and Functional Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Frits, Michelle L.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Shadick, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 RA patients followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints (DAS28-CRP3) and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) assessed annually. Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. Results The median follow-up time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in this study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than non-smokers in seropositive RA (p=0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1–10.0 grams/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1–10.0 grams/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (P=0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE positive RA than HLA-SE negative RA. Conclusion We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed. PMID:24293566

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Consumption among Chinese Older Adults: Do Living Arrangements Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998–2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults’ health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  8. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese older adults: do living arrangements matter?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaan; Wu, Liyun

    2015-03-01

    This study used five waves of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey to examine the relationship between living arrangements, smoking, and drinking among older adults in China from 1998-2008. We found that living arrangements had strong implications for cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among the elderly. First, the likelihood of smoking was lower among older men living with children, and older women living either with a spouse, or with both a spouse and children; and the likelihood of drinking was lower among both older men, and women living with both a spouse and children, compared with those living alone. Second, among dual consumers (i.e., being a drinker and a smoker), the amount of alcohol consumption was lower among male dual consumers living with children, while the number of cigarettes smoked was higher among female dual consumers living with others, compared with those living alone. Third, among non-smoking drinkers, the alcohol consumption was lower among non-smoking male drinkers in all types of co-residential arrangements (i.e., living with a spouse, living with children, living with both a spouse and children, or living with others), and non-smoking female drinkers living with others, compared with those living alone. Results highlighted the importance of living arrangements to cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption among Chinese elderly. Co-residential arrangements provided constraints on Chinese older adults' health-risk behaviors, and had differential effects for men and women. PMID:25711361

  9. Stressful Events and Continued Smoking and Continued Alcohol Consumption during Mid-Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Beijers, Chantal; Ormel, Johan; Meijer, Judith L.; Verbeek, Tjitte; Bockting, Claudi L. H.; Burger, Huibert

    2014-01-01

    Aim to examine whether the severity of different categories of stressful events is associated with continued smoking and alcohol consumption during mid-pregnancy. Also, we explored the explanation of these associations by anxiety and depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Finally, we studied whether the severity of stressful events was associated with the amount of cigarettes and alcohol used by continued users. Method we conducted a cross-sectional analysis using data from a population-based prospective cohort study. Pregnant women were recruited via midwifery practices throughout The Netherlands. We analyzed women who continued smoking (n = 113) or quit (n = 290), and women who continued alcohol consumption (n = 124) or quit (n = 1403) during pregnancy. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and perceived severity of stressful events were measured at 19 weeks of gestation. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were filled out at 14 weeks of gestation. Odds ratios were calculated as association measures and indicated the relative increase for the odds of continuation of smoking and alcohol consumption for the maximum severity score compared to the minimum score. Findings severity of the following stressful event categories was associated with continued alcohol consumption: ‘conflict with loved ones’ (OR = 10.4, p<0.01), ‘crime related’ (OR = 35.7, p<0.05), ‘pregnancy-specific’ (OR = 13.4, p<0.05), and the total including all events (OR = 17.2, p<0.05). Adjustment for potential confounders (age, parity and educational level) did not notably change the estimates. There was no association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with continued smoking or alcohol consumption. No associations emerged for continued smoking and severity of stressful events. The amount of cigarettes and alcohol consumption among continued users was not associated with severity of stressful events. Conclusions Our

  10. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor. PMID:9177454

  11. The Effects of Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking during Pregnancy on Acoustic Cry Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, J. Kevin; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Measured the neurobehavioral integrity of Irish infants and maternal alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Subjects were 127 primiparous mothers. Results demonstrated significant cry effects on infants of heavily drinking mothers, supporting the conclusion that newborn infants show functional disturbances in the nervous system resulting from…

  12. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  13. Case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    A case-control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.

  14. Smoking and γ-Glutamyltransferase: Opposite Interactions with Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Background Smoking has recently been suggested to synergistically interact with alcohol intake as a determinant of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT), an emergent powerful predictor of disease and mortality. This study investigated whether this also applies to higher smoking and alcohol exposure ranges and to body mass index (BMI), which likewise is strongly associated with γ-GT. Methodology/Principal Findings Analyses were based on occupational health examinations of more than 15,000 German male workers aged 16–64 years, predominantly from the construction industry. Sociodemographics and other health-related information were collected during the exam. Joint associations of smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with elevated or log-transformed γ-GT were examined by tabulation and multiple adjusted regression models. Cigarette smoking exerted no effect on γ-GT in teetotalers, but there was a statistically significant effect of smoking among participants with higher alcohol consumption intensity, odds of elevated γ-GT being increased by 24% and 27% per additional 10 cigarettes smoked per day in subjects drinking 61–90 and >90 gram alcohol per day, respectively (P for interaction = 0.039). The interaction was opposite for BMI, where no association was seen in obese subjects, whereas odds of elevated γ-GT were increased by 24% per 10 cigarettes below 25 kg/m2 (P for interaction = 0.040). This novel interaction was replicable in an independent cohort. Conclusion The evidence for opposite interactions of smoking with alcohol and BMI as determinants of serum γ-GT suggests that different physiological pathways are responsible for the associations between these factors. PMID:20927196

  15. Opium use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption in relation to pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Ramin; Kamangar, Farin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Tabrizi, Reza; Zamani, Farhad; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Nikfam, Sepideh; Nikmanesh, Arash; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims: Although several studies have suggested opium as a risk factor for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, larynx, lung, and bladder, no previous study has examined the association of opium with pancreatic cancer. We aimed to study the association between opium use and risk of pancreatic cancer in Iran, using a case-control design. We also studied the association of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption with pancreatic cancer, for which little information was available from this population. Methods: Cases and controls were selected from patients who were referred to 4 endoscopic ultrasound centers in Tehran, Iran. We recruited 316 histopathologically (all adenocarcinoma) and 41 clinically diagnosed incident cases of pancreatic cancer, as well as 328 controls from those with a normal pancreas in enodosonography from January 2011 to January 2015. We used logistic regression models to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: After adjustment for potential confounders, opium use (OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.06–3.43) and alcohol consumption (OR 4.16; 95% CI 1.86–9.31) were significantly associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer. We did not find an association between ever tobacco smoking and pancreatic cancer risk (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.62–1.39). Conclusion: In our study, opium use and alcohol consumption were associated with an increased risk of pancreatic cancer, whereas cigarette smoking was not. PMID:27428185

  16. Maternal Periconceptional Smoking and Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Select Congenital Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Grewal, Jagteshwar; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Ma, Chen; Lammer, Edward J.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined the association between maternal smoking and alcohol use (including binge drinking) during the periconceptional period (i.e., 2 months before through 2 months after conception) and the risk of orofacial clefts, NTDs, and conotruncal heart defects in offspring. METHODS Data were drawn from a population-based case-control study of fetuses and live-born infants among a cohort of California births between July 1999 and June 2003. The 1,355 cases comprised of 701 orofacial clefts, 337 NTDs, and 323 conotruncal heart defects. Information on smoking and alcohol consumption was obtained via telephone interviews with mothers of 1,355 (80% of eligibles) cases and 700 (77% of eligibles) nonmalformed, live-born controls. RESULTS Maternal smoking of five cigarettes or less per day was associated with reduced risks of NTDs (OR 0.7; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4), whereas the risk associated with higher cigarette consumption was lower for conotruncal heart defects (OR 0.5; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.2). Maternal intake of alcohol less than 1 day per week was associated with a 1.6- to 2.1-fold higher risk of NTDs (95% CI: 0.9, 2.6), d-transposition of the great arteries (95% CI: 1.1, 3.2), and multiple cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP) (95% CI: 0.8, 4.5). Risks associated with more frequent alcohol intake were 2.1 for NTDs (95% CI: 1.1, 4.0) and 2.6 for multiple CLP (95% CI: 1.1, 6.1). CONCLUSIONS This study observed that maternal alcohol intake increased the risk for d-transposition of the great arteries, NTDs, and multiple CLP in infants. By contrast, smoking was associated with a lower risk of NTDs and conotruncal heart defects. PMID:18481814

  17. The impact of smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity on use of hospital services.

    PubMed Central

    Haapanen-Niemi, N; Miilunpalo, S; Vuori, I; Pasanen, M; Oja, P

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the associations of smoking, excess alcohol consumption, and physical inactivity with the use of hospital care. METHODS: A cohort of 19- to 63-year-old Finnish men (n = 2534) and women (n = 2668) were followed prospectively for 16 years. Number of hospital days was extracted from the national hospital discharge registry, while data concerning exposure variables were derived from the baseline questionnaire. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders, male smokers had 70% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 49%, 95%) and female smokers had 49% (95% CI = 29%, 71%) more hospital days due to my cause than did those who had never smoked. Men consuming a moderate amount of alcohol had 21% (95% CI = 10%, 31%) fewer hospital days due to any cause than did nondrinkers. Men who had the lowest energy expenditure during leisure-time physical activity had 36% (95% CI = 15%, 63%) more hospital days than the most active men. The figure for women was 23% (95% CI = 4%, 44%). CONCLUSIONS: Smoking was strongly associated with an increased use of hospital services. The associations of alcohol consumption and leisure-time physical activity with use of hospital care depended on the diagnosis under study. PMID:10224980

  18. Decreased psychological well-being in late 'chronotypes' is mediated by smoking and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marc; Paulus, Martin; Roenneberg, Till

    2010-01-01

    Individuals are different 'chronotypes' with early 'larks' and late 'owls' forming the limits of a normal distribution in the population. We recently described that late chronotypes who suffer from a conflict between internal and external time ('social jetlag') suffer from more mental distress and are more likely to smoke than early chronotypes (Wittmann, Dinich, Merrow, and Roenneberg, 2006 . Social jetlag: mis-alignment of biological and social time. Chronobiology International, 23:497-509.). We performed a detailed analysis of the same database collected in 2002 comprising 134 daily smokers and 366 nonsmokers, scrutinizing the relationships between chronotype, smoking, and alcohol consumption as well as psychological well-being using a multiple mediation analysis. On average, smokers tend to be later chronotypes, report more sleep-associated psychosomatic symptoms, are more depressed, less balanced, and less vigilant. The mediation analysis suggests that only those late chronotypes who smoke and those who drink more suffer from increased psychological distress. We suggest that 'chronotype' is introduced as an additional factor in substance use, that is, when considering motives for smoking and drinking. PMID:20025436

  19. Liver Enzymes: Interaction Analysis of Smoking with Alcohol Consumption or BMI, Comparing AST and ALT to γ-GT

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Lutz P.; Arndt, Volker; Drath, Christoph; Brenner, Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Background A detrimental interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption with respect serum γ-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) has recently been described. The underlying mechanisms remain unknown. The present work aimed to provide further insights by examining similar interactions pertaining to aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), routine liver markers less prone to enzyme induction. Methodology/Principal Findings The present cross-sectional analysis was based on records from routine occupational health examinations of 15,281 male employees predominantly of the construction industry, conducted from 1986 to 1992 in Southern Germany. Associations of smoking intensity with log-transformed activities of γ-GT, AST, and ALT were examined in regression models adjusted for potential confounders and including an interaction of smoking with alcohol consumption or body mass index (BMI). Statistically significant interactions of smoking were observed with both alcohol consumption (AST and ALT, each with P<0.0001) and BMI (AST only, P<0.0001). The interactions all were in the same directions as for γ-GT, i.e. synergistic with alcohol and opposite with BMI. Conclusion The patterns of interaction between smoking and alcohol consumption or BMI with respect to AST and ALT resembled those observed for γ-GT. This renders enzyme induction a less probable mechanism for these associations, whereas it might implicate exacerbated hepatocellular vulnerability and injury. PMID:22132177

  20. Effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on 5-fluorouracil-related metabolic enzymes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Tomomi; Kato, Keizo; Long, Nguyen Khanh; Makita, Hiroki; Yonemoto, Kazuhiro; Iida, Kazuki; Tamaoki, Naritaka; Hatakeyama, Daijiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki

    2014-05-01

    Lifestyle, particularly smoking and alcohol consumption, may induce and/or inhibit drug metabolism. In order to reveal the effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-related metabolic enzymes, namely thymidylate synthase, dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD; a sole catabolic enzyme of 5-FU), orotate phosphoribosyl transferase (OPRT) and thymidine phosphorylase, in oral squamous cell carcinomas, the mRNA expression of these enzymes was investigated in 29 surgical specimens and compared by the Brinkman index and drinking years. The surgical specimens were divided into normal and tumor regions and were independently analyzed using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. There was a significantly positive correlation between DPD mRNA expression in these tissues and Brinkman index/drinking years, with OPRT mRNA expression being significantly correlated to the Brinkman index in tumor tissues. These results revealed that lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol consumption, may vary the activity of the 5-FU-related metabolic enzymes. DPD is the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the catabolic pathway of 5-FU. Therefore, smoking and alcohol consumption may reduce the anticancer activity of 5-FU, possibly through the induction of DPD activity. PMID:24772313

  1. The lipoprotein lipase S447X polymorphism and plasma lipids: interactions with APOE polymorphisms, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Tan, C S; Chia, K S; Tan, C E; Chew, S K; Ordovas, J M; Tai, E S

    2004-06-01

    We studied 4,058 subjects from a representative sample of the Singapore population 1) to determine the association between the S447X polymorphism at the LPL locus and serum lipid concentration in Chinese, Malays, and Asian Indians living in Singapore and 2) to explore any interactions with apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, exercise, obesity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake. Information on obesity, lifestyle factors (including smoking, alcohol consumption, and exercise frequency), glucose tolerance, and fasting lipids was obtained. Male and female carriers of the X447 allele had lower serum triglyceride concentrations and higher HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations. The association between the X447 allele and serum HDL-C concentration was modulated by APOE genotype in males and cigarette smoking and alcohol intake in females. The effect of the X447 allele was greatest in men who carried the E4 allele and women who smoked or consumed alcohol. The X447 allele at the LPL locus is common and associated with a less atherogenic lipid profile in Asian populations. Interactions with APOE genotype, cigarette smoking, and alcohol intake reinforce the importance of examining genetic associations, such as this one, in the context of the population of interest. PMID:15060087

  2. Validation of survey information on smoking and alcohol consumption against import statistics, Greenland 1993–2010

    PubMed Central

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Becker, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    Background Questionnaires are widely used to obtain information on health-related behaviour, and they are more often than not the only method that can be used to assess the distribution of behaviour in subgroups of the population. No validation studies of reported consumption of tobacco or alcohol have been published from circumpolar indigenous communities. Objective The purpose of the study is to compare information on the consumption of tobacco and alcohol obtained from 3 population surveys in Greenland with import statistics. Design Estimates of consumption of cigarettes and alcohol using several different survey instruments in cross-sectional population studies from 1993–1994, 1999–2001 and 2005–2010 were compared with import statistics from the same years. Results For cigarettes, survey results accounted for virtually the total import. Alcohol consumption was significantly under-reported with reporting completeness ranging from 40% to 51% for different estimates of habitual weekly consumption in the 3 study periods. Including an estimate of binge drinking increased the estimated total consumption to 78% of the import. Conclusion Compared with import statistics, questionnaire-based population surveys capture the consumption of cigarettes well in Greenland. Consumption of alcohol is under-reported, but asking about binge episodes in addition to the usual intake considerably increased the reported intake in this population and made it more in agreement with import statistics. It is unknown to what extent these findings at the population level can be inferred to population subgroups. PMID:23471142

  3. Pre-diagnostic smoking history, alcohol consumption, and colorectal cancer survival: The Seattle Colon Cancer Family Registry

    PubMed Central

    Phipps, Amanda I.; Baron, John; Newcomb, Polly A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking and alcohol consumption are associated with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, it is unclear whether these exposures are associated with survival after colorectal cancer diagnosis. Methods Men and women diagnosed with incident colorectal cancer between 1998-2007 in 13 counties in western Washington State were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Information on smoking history and alcohol consumption was collected by telephone interview. Follow-up for mortality was completed through linkage to the National Death Index. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between smoking, alcohol consumption, and mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis; stratified analyses were conducted by sex, age at diagnosis (<50, ≥50), tumor site (proximal, distal, rectal), stage (I-II, III-IV), and microsatellite instability status (stable/low, high). Results Disease-specific and all-cause mortality were significantly higher for smokers compared to never-smokers (HR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.74; HR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.24-1.83, respectively). However, this association was most prominent in those with tumors exhibiting high microsatellite instability (HR=3.83, 95% CI: 1.32-11.11) and did not extend to those with rectal cancer (HR=1.08, 95% CI: 0.72-1.61) or those diagnosed before age 50 (HR=0.99, 95% CI: 0.67-1.48). Alcohol consumption was not associated with disease-specific or all-cause mortality, regardless of patient or tumor characteristics. Conclusion In addition to an association with disease risk, smoking is associated with increased mortality after colorectal cancer diagnosis. This association is especially pronounced for colorectal cancer with high microsatellite instability. PMID:21495019

  4. Significant differences in demographic, clinical, and pathological features in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption among 1,633 head and neck cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Moyses, Raquel Ajub; López, Rossana Verónica Mendoza; Cury, Patrícia Maluf; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida Coelho; Curioni, Otávio Alberto; de Gois Filho, José Francisco; Figueiredo, David Livingstone Alves; Head; GENCAPO, Neck Genome Project; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Michaluart, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: As a lifestyle-related disease, social and cultural disparities may influence the features of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in different geographic regions. We describe demographic, clinical, and pathological aspects of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck according to the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of patients in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the smoking and alcohol consumption habits of 1,633 patients enrolled in five São Paulo hospitals that participated in the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project – Gencapo. RESULTS: The patients who smoked and drank were younger, and those who smoked were leaner than the other patients, regardless of alcohol consumption. The non-smokers/non-drinkers were typically elderly white females who had more differentiated oral cavity cancers and fewer first-degree relatives who smoked. The patients who drank presented significantly more frequent nodal metastasis, and those who smoked presented less-differentiated tumors. CONCLUSIONS: The patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck demonstrated demographic, clinical, and pathological features that were markedly different according to their smoking and drinking habits. A subset of elderly females who had oral cavity cancer and had never smoked or consumed alcohol was notable. Alcohol consumption seemed to be related to nodal metastasis, whereas smoking correlated with the degree of differentiation. PMID:23778492

  5. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  6. Comparison of brief interventions in primary care on smoking and excessive alcohol consumption: a population survey in England

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; Angus, Colin; Beard, Emma; Brennan, Alan; Drummond, Colin; Hickman, Matthew; Holmes, John; Kaner, Eileen; Michie, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief interventions have a modest but meaningful effect on promoting smoking cessation and reducing excessive alcohol consumption. Guidelines recommend offering such advice opportunistically and regularly but incentives vary between the two behaviours. Aim To use representative data from the perspective of patients to compare the prevalence and characteristics of people who smoke or drink excessively and who receive a brief intervention. Design and setting Data was from a representative sample of 15 252 adults from household surveys in England. Method Recall of brief interventions on smoking and alcohol use, sociodemographic information, and smoking and alcohol consumption patterns were assessed among smokers and those who drink excessively (AUDIT score of ≥8), who visited their GP surgery in the previous year. Results Of 1775 smokers, 50.4% recalled receiving brief advice on smoking in the previous year. Smokers receiving advice compared with those who did not were more likely to be older (odds ratio [OR] 17-year increments 1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.06 to 1.34), female (OR 1.35, 95% CI =1.10 to 1.65), have a disability (OR 1.44, 95% CI = 1.11 to 1.88), have made more quit attempts in the previous year (compared with no attempts: one attempt, OR 1.65, 95% CI = 1.32 to 2.08; ≥2 attempts, OR 2.02, 95% CI =1.49 to 2.74), and have greater nicotine dependence (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.05 to 1.31) but were less likely to have no post-16 qualifications (OR 0.81, 95% CI = 0.66 to 1.00). Of 1110 people drinking excessively, 6.5% recalled receiving advice in their GP surgery on their alcohol consumption in the previous year. Those receiving advice compared with those who did not had higher AUDIT scores (OR 1.17, 95% CI =1.12 to 1.23) and were less likely to be female (OR 0.44, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.87). Conclusion Whereas approximately half of smokers in England visiting their GP in the past year report having received advice on cessation, <10% of those who

  7. Associations of body mass index, smoking, and alcohol consumption with prostate cancer mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium.

    PubMed

    Fowke, Jay H; McLerran, Dale F; Gupta, Prakash C; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D

    2015-09-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963-2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  8. Associations of Body Mass Index, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption With Prostate Cancer Mortality in the Asia Cohort Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Fowke, Jay H.; McLerran, Dale F.; Gupta, Prakash C.; He, Jiang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ramadas, Kunnambath; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Inoue, Manami; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Koh, Woon-Puay; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro; Ozasa, Kotaro; Yuan, Jian-Min; Tanaka, Hideo; Ahn, Yoon-Ok; Chen, Chien-Jen; Sugawara, Yumi; Yoo, Keun-Young; Ahsan, Habibul; Pan, Wen-Harn; Pednekar, Mangesh; Gu, Dongfeng; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Sauvaget, Catherine; Sawada, Norie; Wang, Renwei; Kakizaki, Masako; Tomata, Yasutake; Ohishi, Waka; Butler, Lesley M.; Oze, Isao; Kim, Dong-Hyun; You, San-Lin; Park, Sue K.; Parvez, Faruque; Chuang, Shao-Yuan; Chen, Yu; Lee, Jung Eun; Grant, Eric; Rolland, Betsy; Thornquist, Mark; Feng, Ziding; Zheng, Wei; Boffetta, Paolo; Sinha, Rashmi; Kang, Daehee; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are also associated with prostate cancer screening, which may induce a bias in epidemiologic studies. We investigated the associations of body mass index (weight (kg)/height (m)2), smoking, and alcohol consumption with risk of fatal prostate cancer in Asian countries where prostate cancer screening is not widely utilized. Analysis included 18 prospective cohort studies conducted during 1963–2006 across 6 countries in southern and eastern Asia that are part of the Asia Cohort Consortium. Body mass index, smoking, and alcohol intake were determined by questionnaire at baseline, and cause of death was ascertained through death certificates. Analysis included 522,736 men aged 54 years, on average, at baseline. During 4.8 million person-years of follow-up, there were 634 prostate cancer deaths (367 prostate cancer deaths across the 11 cohorts with alcohol data). In Cox proportional hazards analyses of all cohorts in the Asia Cohort Consortium, prostate cancer mortality was not significantly associated with obesity (body mass index >25: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.85, 1.36), ever smoking (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.21), or heavy alcohol intake (HR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.74, 1.35). Differences in prostate cancer screening and detection probably contribute to differences in the association of obesity, smoking, or alcohol intake with prostate cancer risk and mortality between Asian and Western populations and thus require further investigation. PMID:26243736

  9. [Basic education in the prevention of alcohol consumption and smoking: a reality report].

    PubMed

    Carvajal Chávez, Luz María; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The use of alcohol and drugs is a social issue that constitutes serious problem for the health, with personal, family and social consequences. The present study is exploratory-descriptive nature and its objective was to evaluate the primary school as a predicting factor in the prevention of the consumption of the school and tobacco in students. Interviews to students and professors were made by a pre-established guide, the results demonstrate that the 66.6% age is of 10 to 11 years. Exposed to factors of risks associated to scholastic problems, low self- esteem and familiar problems. Research shows that 15.6% have experienced alcohol and the 13.4% tobacco. The professors say that the children do not consume alcohol, tobacco or drugs, they say the children have conduct problems. PMID:16400443

  10. Social capital in relation to alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use among adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social capital has lately received much attention in public health research. However, few studies have examined the influence of social capital on alcohol consumption, smoking and drug use which have strong influence on public health. The present cross-sectional study investigated whether two measures of social capital were related to substance use in a large population of Swedish adolescents. Methods A total of 7757 13–18 year old students (participation rate: 78.2%) anonymously completed the Survey of Adolescent Life in Vestmanland 2008 which included questions on sociodemographic background, neighbourhood social capital, general social trust, alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Results Individuals within the group with low neighbourhood social capital had an approximately 60% increased odds of high alcohol consumption, more than three times increased odds of smoking and more than double the odds of having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high neighbourhood social capital. Individuals within the group with low general social trust had approximately 50% increased odds of high alcohol consumption and double the odds of smoking and having used illicit drugs compared with individuals with high general social trust. However, social capital at the contextual level showed very weak effects on alcohol consumption, smoking, and illicit drug use. Conclusions Social capital may be an important factor in the future development of prevention programs concerning adolescent substance use. However, further replications of the results as well as identifications of direction of causality are needed. PMID:23688242

  11. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8–2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4–2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6–3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression. PMID:26639938

  12. [Smoking and sexual behavior of junior college students (report II). Relation to alcohol consumption and problematic behavior during adolescence].

    PubMed

    Maruyama, K; Nishi, Y; Yamashita, N

    1991-04-01

    A survey was performed on 581 junior college women regarding smoking, sexual behavior, alcohol use and problem behavior during adolescence to assess possible mutual relationships. The results are as follows: 1) Of these women, 37% experienced smoking; 9% were habitual smokers; 39% experienced kissing; 18% experienced sexual intercourse; 86% experienced alcohol drinking. 2) Many of the women had cross-experience in the combination of smoking, sexual behavior and alcohol drinking. A mutual relationship among these behaviors is suggested. 3) Many of the women who experienced smoking or sexual behavior had either experienced or considered problem behaviors during adolescence including attempted suicide, running away from home, bullying, etc. Poor adaptation to their home or school appears to be a factor associated with tendency toward smoking and sexual behavior. PMID:1958876

  13. Measured Effect of Sexual Activities, Alcohol Consumption, Smoking and Aggression on Health Risk of Students in Rural Communities in Ikenne, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezeokoli, Rita; Ofole, Ndidi M.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the joint and relative contribution of sexual activities, alcohol consumption, smoking and aggression to the prediction of health risk of students in rural communities in Ogun State. Descriptive research design of correlational type was adopted. Multi-stage sampling Technique was used to draw 300 respondents from an…

  14. Association of Visceral Fat Area, Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption with Reflux Esophagitis and Barrett's Esophagus in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Juntaro; Suzuki, Hidekazu; Kobayakawa, Masao; Inadomi, John M.; Takayama, Michiyo; Makino, Kanako; Iwao, Yasushi; Sugino, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Background Central obesity has been suggested as a risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of visceral fat area and other lifestyle factors with reflux esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. Methods Individuals who received thorough medical examinations including the measurement of visceral fat area by abdominal computed tomography were enrolled. Factors associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, the severity of reflux esophagitis, or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus were determined using multivariable logistic regression models. Results A total of 2608 individuals were eligible for the analyses. Visceral fat area was associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis both in men (odds ratio, 1.21 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.01 to 1.46) and women (odds ratio, 2.31 per 50 cm2; 95% confident interval, 1.57 to 3.40). Current smoking and serum levels of triglyceride were also associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis in men. However, significant association between visceral fat area and the severity of reflux esophagitis or the presence of Barrett’s esophagus was not shown. In men, excessive alcohol consumption on a drinking day, but not the frequency of alcohol drinking, was associated with both the severity of reflux esophagitis (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confident interval, 1.03 to 4.41) and the presence of Barrett’s esophagus (odds ratio, 1.71; 95% confident interval, 1.14 to 2.56). Conclusion Visceral fat area was independently associated with the presence of reflux esophagitis, but not with the presence of Barrett’s esophagus. On the other hand, quantity of alcohol consumption could play a role in the development of severe reflux esophagitis and Barrett’s esophagus in Japanese population. PMID:26225858

  15. Genetic Sensitivity to Peer Behaviors: "5HTTLPR", Smoking, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daw, Jonathan; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Smolen, Andrew; Haberstick, Brett; Boardman, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region ("5HTTLPR"), a gene associated with environmental sensitivity, moderates the association between smoking and drinking patterns at adolescents' schools and their corresponding risk for smoking and drinking themselves. Drawing on the school-based design of the National…

  16. Relations Among Caffeine Consumption, Smoking, Smoking Urge, and Subjective Smoking Reinforcement in Daily Life.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley R; Piasecki, Thomas M; McCarthy, Danielle E; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-09-01

    Caffeine consumption and cigarette smoking tend to occur within the same individuals and at the same time. One potential explanation for this co-use is that caffeine consumption increases subjective smoking reinforcement. Electronic diaries were used to collect momentary reports of smoking, caffeine consumption, temptation/urge to smoke, and subjective smoking reinforcement in 74 prequit smokers. Momentary reports of caffeine consumption and smoking were associated, replicating previous findings. These results remained significant when contextual factors (time of day, weekday/weekend, presence of others, presence of others smoking, location, and past hour alcohol consumption) were covaried. Caffeine consumption was also associated with positive cigarette appraisals and reports of strong temptation/urge to smoke and urge reduction from the prior cigarette. Under the conditions of caffeine consumption versus at other times, smokers were significantly more likely to report their last cigarette as producing a rush/buzz, being pleasant, relaxing, and tasting good. The effects for temptation/urge to smoke and rush/buzz varied as a function of latency since smoking. Caffeine consumption increased reports of urge to smoke and rush/buzz only when smoking occurred more than 15 minutes prior to the diary entry. Findings suggest that caffeine consumption influences some aspects of smoking motivation or affects memorial processing of smoking reinforcement. PMID:25229011

  17. The impact of minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use: evidence from a regression discontinuity design using exact date of birth.

    PubMed

    Yörük, Barış K; Yörük, Ceren Ertan

    2011-07-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to estimate the impact of the minimum legal drinking age laws on alcohol consumption, smoking, and marijuana use among young adults. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1997 Cohort), we find that granting legal access to alcohol at age 21 leads to an increase in several measures of alcohol consumption, including an up to a 13 percentage point increase in the probability of drinking. Furthermore, this effect is robust under several different parametric and non-parametric models. We also find some evidence that the discrete jump in alcohol consumption at age 21 has negative spillover effects on marijuana use but does not affect the smoking habits of young adults. Our results indicate that although the change in alcohol consumption habits of young adults following their 21st birthday is less severe than previously known, policies that are designed to reduce drinking among young adults may have desirable impacts and can create public health benefits. PMID:21719131

  18. Sporadic Retinoblastoma and Parental Smoking and Alcohol Consumption before and after Conception: A Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Azary, Saeedeh; Ganguly, Arupa; Bunin, Greta R.; Lombardi, Christina; Park, Andrew S.; Ritz, Beate; Heck, Julia E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retinoblastoma is the most frequent tumor of the eye in children and very little is known about the etiology of non-familial (sporadic) retinoblastoma. In this study we examined whether parental tobacco smoking or alcohol consumption (pre- or post-conception) contribute to the two phenotypes (bilateral or unilateral) of sporadic retinoblastoma. Methods Two large multicenter case-control studies identified 488 cases through eye referral centers in the United States and Canada or through the Children’s Oncology Group. Controls (n = 424) were selected from among friends and relatives of cases and matched by age. Risk factor information was obtained via telephone interview. We employed multivariable logistic regression to estimate the effects of parental tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption on retinoblastoma. Findings Maternal smoking before and during pregnancy contributed to unilateral retinoblastoma risk in the child: year before pregnancy conditional Odds Ratio (OR), 8.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5–51, and unconditional OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3–4.7; month before or during pregnancy, conditional OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.5–20.8, and unconditional OR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.1–7.0. No association was found for maternal or paternal alcohol consumption. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that maternal active smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for sporadic retinoblastoma. Our study supports a role for tobacco exposures in embryonal tumors. PMID:26991078

  19. No Evidence for Genome-Wide Interactions on Plasma Fibrinogen by Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index: Results from Meta-Analyses of 80,607 Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Audrey Y.; Trompet, Stella; Lopez, Lorna M.; Fornage, Myriam; Teumer, Alexander; Tang, Weihong; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Mälarstig, Anders; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kavousi, Maryam; Lahti, Jari; Tanaka, Toshiko; Hayward, Caroline; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Rose, Lynda M.; Basu, Saonli; Rumley, Ann; Stott, David J.; Buckley, Brendan M.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Sanna, Serena; Masala, Marco; Biffar, Reiner; Homuth, Georg; Silveira, Angela; Sennblad, Bengt; Goel, Anuj; Watkins, Hugh; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Rückerl, Regina; Taylor, Kent; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Geus, Eco J. C.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; de Maat, Moniek P. M.; Palotie, Aarno; Davies, Gail; Siscovick, David S.; Kolcic, Ivana; Wild, Sarah H.; Song, Jaejoon; McArdle, Wendy L.; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; Schlessinger, David; Grotevendt, Anne; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Illig, Thomas; Waldenberger, Melanie; Lumley, Thomas; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Räikkönen, Katri; Chasman, Daniel I.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Cucca, Francesco; Wallaschofski, Henri; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Seedorf, Udo; Koenig, Wolfgang; Bis, Joshua C.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van Dongen, Jenny; Widen, Elisabeth; Franco, Oscar H.; Starr, John M.; Liu, Kiang; Ferrucci, Luigi; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Campbell, Harry; Navarro, Pau; Bandinelli, Stefania; Eriksson, Johan; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Dehghan, Abbas; Clarke, Robert; Hamsten, Anders; Boerwinkle, Eric; Jukema, J. Wouter; Naitza, Silvia; Ridker, Paul M.; Völzke, Henry; Deary, Ian J.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Strachan, David P.; Peters, Annette; Smith, Nicholas L.

    2014-01-01

    Plasma fibrinogen is an acute phase protein playing an important role in the blood coagulation cascade having strong associations with smoking, alcohol consumption and body mass index (BMI). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a variety of gene regions associated with elevated plasma fibrinogen concentrations. However, little is yet known about how associations between environmental factors and fibrinogen might be modified by genetic variation. Therefore, we conducted large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide interaction studies to identify possible interactions of genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentration. The present study included 80,607 subjects of European ancestry from 22 studies. Genome-wide interaction analyses were performed separately in each study for about 2.6 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the 22 autosomal chromosomes. For each SNP and risk factor, we performed a linear regression under an additive genetic model including an interaction term between SNP and risk factor. Interaction estimates were meta-analysed using a fixed-effects model. No genome-wide significant interaction with smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI was observed in the meta-analyses. The most suggestive interaction was found for smoking and rs10519203, located in the LOC123688 region on chromosome 15, with a p value of 6.2×10−8. This large genome-wide interaction study including 80,607 participants found no strong evidence of interaction between genetic variants and smoking status, alcohol consumption or BMI on fibrinogen concentrations. Further studies are needed to yield deeper insight in the interplay between environmental factors and gene variants on the regulation of fibrinogen concentrations. PMID:25551457

  20. Adolescent Smoking and Tertiary Education: Opposing Pathways linking Socioeconomic Background to Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael J; Leyland, Alastair H; Sweeting, Helen; Benzeval, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims If socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with more adolescent smoking, but less participation in tertiary education, and smoking and tertiary education are both associated with heavier drinking, these may represent opposing pathways to heavy drinking. This paper examines contextual variation in the magnitude and direction of these associations. Design Comparing cohort studies. Setting UK Participants Were from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS58; N=15,672), 1970 British birth cohort study (BCS70; N=12,735), and the West of Scotland Twenty-07 1970s cohort (T07; N=1,515). Measurements Participants self-reported daily smoking and weekly drinking in adolescence (age 16) and heavy drinking (>14/21 units in past week) in early adulthood (ages 22-26). Parental occupational class (manual vs. non-manual) indicated socioeconomic background. Education beyond age 18 was coded as tertiary. Models were adjusted for parental smoking and drinking, family structure and adolescent psychiatric distress. Findings Respondents from a manual class were more likely to smoke and less likely to enter tertiary education (e.g. in NCDS58 probit coefficients were 0.201 and -0.765 respectively; p<0.001 for both) than respondents from a non-manual class. Adolescent smokers were more likely to drink weekly in adolescence (0.346; p<0.001) and more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.178; p<0.001) than adolescent non-smokers. Respondents who participated in tertiary education were more likely to drink heavily in early adulthood (0.110 for males, 0.182 for females; p<0.001 for both) than respondents with no tertiary education. With some variation in magnitude, these associations were consistent across all three cohorts. Conclusions In Britain, young adults are more likely to drink heavily both if they smoke and participate in tertiary education (college and university) despite socioeconomic background being associated in opposite directions with these

  1. The Perceptions and Habits of Alcohol Consumption and Smoking Among Canadian Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakore, Sidd; Ismail, Zahinoor; Jarvis, Scott; Payne, Eric; Keetbaas, Shayne; Payne, Rob; Rothenburg, Lana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to quantify the extent, and to assess student perception, of alcohol and tobacco use among medical students at the University of Calgary, and the relationship of these attitudes to problem drinking (according to the CAGE questionnaire). Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to first-, second-, and third-year medical…

  2. Associations of cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in early radiographic knee osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zeng, Chao; Wei, Jie; Li, Hui; Yang, Tuo; Yang, Ye; Deng, Zhen-han; Ding, Xiang; Lei, Guanghua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) is possibly related to osteoarthritis (OA) progression and a variety of OA-related symptoms. This study aimed to examine associations between cigarette smoking, betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP in early radiographic knee OA. Design Cross-sectional health examination survey. Setting This primary study was conducted in a health examination centre in China. Participants 936 (656 men and 280 women) patients with early radiographic knee OA were included in this cross-sectional study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Smoking status was classified into four levels based on daily smoking habit: 0/day, 1–10/day, 11–20/day and >20/day. Betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption status was divided into ‘Yes’ or ‘No’. Early radiographic knee OA was defined as Kellgren Lawrence (K-L) grade 1 or 2 in at least one leg, and elevated hsCRP was assessed as ≥3.0 mg/L. Results After adjustment for a number of potential confounding factors, a significant positive association between cigarette smoking and hsCRP was observed in the multivariable model. The multivariable-adjusted ORs (95% CI) of elevated hsCRP (≥3.0 mg/L) in the second (1–10/day, n=133), third (11–20/day, n=59) and highest (>20/day, n=104) cigarette smoking categories were 1.54 (95% CI 0.91 to 2.61), 1.27 (95% CI 0.57 to 2.79) and 2.09 (95% CI 1.20 to 3.64), respectively, compared with the non-smoker category (n=640). In addition, there was a positive dose–response relationship between cigarette smoking and elevated hsCRP (p for trend=0.01). No significant associations between betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption and hsCRP were observed in the multivariable model. Conclusions This study indicated that cigarette smoking was positively associated with serum hsCRP level in patients with early radiographic knee OA. However, in view of the nature of cross-sectional designs, the results need to be confirmed by

  3. Associations Between Anthropometry, Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Troy, Jesse D.; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Oken, Martin M.; Colditz, Graham A.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55–74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993–2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (Ptrend < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI ≥30 vs. 18.5–24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: Ptrend = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  4. Associations between anthropometry, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Troy, Jesse D; Hartge, Patricia; Weissfeld, Joel L; Oken, Martin M; Colditz, Graham A; Mechanic, Leah E; Morton, Lindsay M

    2010-06-15

    Prospective studies of lifestyle and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) are conflicting, and some are inconsistent with case-control studies. The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial was used to evaluate risk of NHL and its subtypes in association with anthropometric factors, smoking, and alcohol consumption in a prospective cohort study. Lifestyle was assessed via questionnaire among 142,982 male and female participants aged 55-74 years enrolled in the PLCO Trial during 1993-2001. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression. During 1,201,074 person-years of follow-up through 2006, 1,264 histologically confirmed NHL cases were identified. Higher body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) at ages 20 and 50 years and at baseline was associated with increased NHL risk (P(trend) < 0.01 for all; e.g., for baseline BMI > or =30 vs. 18.5-24.9, hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval: 1.13, 1.54). Smoking was not associated with NHL overall but was inversely associated with follicular lymphoma (ever smoking vs. never: hazard ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.45, 0.85). Alcohol consumption was unrelated to NHL (drinks/week: P(trend) = 0.187). These data support previous studies suggesting that BMI is positively associated with NHL, show an inverse association between smoking and follicular lymphoma (perhaps due to residual confounding), and do not support a causal association between alcohol and NHL. PMID:20494998

  5. Cigarette smoking, physical activity, and alcohol consumption as predictors of cancer incidence among women at high risk of breast cancer in the NSABP P-1 Trial

    PubMed Central

    Land, Stephanie R.; Liu, Qing; Wickerham, D. Lawrence; Costantino, Joseph P.; Ganz, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    Background NSABP P-1 provides an opportunity to examine the association of behavioral factors with prospectively monitored cancer incidence and interactions with tamoxifen. Methods From 1992–1997, 13,388 women with estimated 5-year breast cancer (BC) risk greater than 1.66% or a history of lobular carcinoma in situ (87% under age 65; 67% post-menopausal) were randomly assigned to tamoxifen versus placebo. Invasive BC, lung (LC), colon (CC), and endometrial cancers (EC) were analyzed with Cox regression. Predictors were baseline cigarette smoking, leisure-time physical activity, alcohol consumption, and established risk factors. Results At median 7 years follow-up, we observed 395, 66, 35, and 74 BC, LC, CC, and EC, respectively. Women who had smoked were at increased risk of BC (P=.007; hazard ratio (HR)=1.3 for 15–35 years smoking, HR=1.6 for ≥35 years), LC (P<.001; HR=3.9 for 15–35 years; HR=18.4 for ≥35 years), and CC (P<.001; HR=5.1 for ≥35 years) versus never-smokers. Low activity predicted increased BC risk only among women assigned to placebo (P=.021 activity main effect, P=.013 activity-treatment interaction; HR=1.4 for placebo group) and EC among all women (P=.026, HR=1.7). Moderate alcohol (>0–1 drink/day) was associated with decreased risk of CC (P=.019; HR=.35) versus no alcohol. There were no other significant associations between these behaviors and cancer risk. Conclusion Among women with elevated risk of BC, smoking has an even greater impact on BC risk than observed in past studies in the general population. Impact Women who smoke or are inactive should be informed of the increased risk of multiple types of cancer. PMID:24569437

  6. The effect of smoking and alcohol consumption on markers of systemic inflammation, immunoglobulin levels and immune response following pneumococcal vaccination in patients with arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this research was to study the influence of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption on immune response to heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, immunoglobulin levels (Ig) and markers of systemic inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) or spondylarthropathy (SpA). Methods In total, 505 patients were vaccinated. Six pre-specified groups were enrolled: RA on methotrexate (MTX) treatment in some cases other disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) (I); RA on anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) as monotherapy (II); RA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (III); SpA on anti-TNF as monotherapy (IV); SpA on anti-TNF+MTX+ possibly other DMARDs (V); and SpA on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and/or analgesics (VI). Smoking (pack-years) and alcohol consumption (g/week) were calculated from patient questionnaires. Ig, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined at vaccination. IgG antibodies against serotypes 23F and 6B were measured at vaccination and after four to six weeks using standard ELISA. Immune response (ratio between post- and pre-vaccination antibodies; immune response (IR)) and positive immune response (≥2-fold increase in pre-vaccination antibodies; posIR) were calculated. Results Eighty-eight patients (17.4%) were current smokers. Smokers had higher CRP and ESR, lower IgG and lower IR for both serotypes (P between 0.012 and 0.045). RA patients on MTX who smoked ≥1pack-year had lower posIR for both serotypes (P = 0.021; OR 0.29; CI 0.1 to 0.7) compared to never-smokers. Alcohol consumption was associated with lower CRP (P = 0.05) and ESR (P = 0.003) but did not influence IR or Ig levels. Conclusion Smoking predicted impaired immune response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in RA patients on MTX. Smokers with arthritis had higher inflammatory markers and lower IgG regardless of diagnosis and treatment. Low to moderate alcohol consumption was related

  7. Alcohol, smoking, and obesity epidemiology in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-03-01

    The health impact of alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and obesity differs between Asian and Western countries. The epidemiology of cancer and death related to these lifestyles are described in this article. In Japan, heavy alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking are rather high in men. While there is a worldwide anti-smoking policy, Japan is still on the way to aiming at this goal, and this delay in health promotion has maintained the high impact of smoking, whether active or passive, on people's health in that country. Public health policy should focus more strongly on the control of smoking and heavy drinking, especially among men. Maintaining the consumption of alcohol at a level below 46 g a day in men and 23 g a day in women appears to minimize the risks of mortality and cancer in the Japanese population. On the other hand, the obesity rate is low and being underweight is common both in men and women. Proportions of cancer attributable to a body mass index of 25 or more are only 0.5% in men and 1.1% in women. Given that many previous studies in Japanese and Asian populations have associated a low body mass index with an increased risk of cancer, the impact of being underweight--not only obese--may warrant further investigation. PMID:22320929

  8. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: Opportunities for lifestyle modification

    PubMed Central

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-01-01

    cancer to find out whether they changed their activity level, alcohol consumption, body mass index, or smoking habits after being diagnosed with prostate cancer. They found that some men increased their activity level and/or decreased their alcohol consumption, but not all. As making positive lifestyle changes may improve prognosis, it’s worth looking for ways to encourage newly diagnosed patients to make healthy changes. PMID:25761662

  9. Prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption and its’ association with tobacco smoking among Sri Lankan adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Most studies on alcohol consumption carried out in Sri Lanka are limited to single/few provinces in the island. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, patterns and correlates of alcohol consumption among a larger sample of adults in Sri Lanka. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in seven of all nine provinces in Sri Lanka, between 2005 and 2006. A nationally representative sample of 5000 adults aged ≥18 years was selected using multi-stage random cluster sampling. Data of 4532 participants were collected using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Data analysis included chi-squared test, multiple logistic regression analysis and Spearman correlation using Stata/SE 10.0 (StataCorp LP., Texas, USA) software package. Results Males were 40%; mean age was 46.1 years (±15.1). The overall, urban and rural prevalence (95% CI) of current drinking was 23.7% (21.7 – 25.7), 29.5% (25.7 – 33.3) and 22.2% (19.8 – 24.7) respectively (p = 0.001). Current (M: 48.1%, F: 1.2%, p < 0.0001) and former (M: 21.4%, F: 0.7%, p < 0.0001) drinking was much higher in males. The highest prevalence of drinking in males (58.9%) and females (2.2%) was in the 30 – 39 and <20 year age groups respectively. Lowest prevalence in men (24.6%) and women (0%) was in the >70 years age-group. Hazardous drinking was seen in 5.2% of men and 0.02% of women. Male sex, urban living and current smoking correlated with both current and hazardous drinking. Lower level of education, and age >70 years positively correlated with hazardous drinking. Conclusions Alcohol is predominantly a problem in Sri Lankan males. In males, both current and hazardous drinking positively correlated with urban living, white collar occupation, Burgher ethnicity and current smoking. Hazardous drinking positively correlated with lower level of education and older age. The data shown here are useful in planning interventions simultaneously targeting alcohol and

  10. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, J; Asp, S; Olkinuora, M; Aärimaa, M; Strid, L; Kauttu, K

    1988-10-15

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  11. Doctors' drinking habits and consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Juntunen, J.; Asp, S.; Olkinuora, M.; Aärimaa, M.; Strid, L.; Kauttu, K.

    1988-01-01

    Alcohol consumption and drinking habits among Finnish doctors were studied as part of a survey of stress and burnout. A questionnaire containing 99 questions or groups of questions was sent to all 3496 practising doctors aged under 66 randomly selected from the registry of the Finnish Medical Association. Altogether 2671 doctors (76%) responded; this sample was representative of the Finnish medical profession. The average weekly consumption of alcohol during the past year and various aspects of drinking behaviour were assessed, and the presence or absence of symptoms and diseases often encountered among heavy drinkers and addicts was determined. The data were analysed separately for men and women, for those aged less than or equal to 40 and greater than 40, and for the men with high and low alcohol consumption and with high and low scores on the index of drinking habits. Selected variables related to work, stress, and coping were correlated with alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour. The median consumption of alcohol among male doctors was 4876 g (6.2 litres) and among female doctors 2226 g (2.8 litres) of absolute alcohol per person per year and was higher in those aged over 40. Beer was most commonly drunk by men and wine by women. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with older age, disappointment with career, heavy smoking, use of benzodiazepines, stress and burnout symptoms, suicidal thoughts, general dissatisfaction, and diseases related to alcohol. Drinking habits were heavier among doctors working in community health centres, those taking long sick leaves, younger doctors disappointed with their careers or the atmosphere at work, and older doctors immersed in their work. Alcohol consumption among doctors seems to be higher than that of the general population in Finland, and heavy drinking seems to be associated with stress and burnout. PMID:3142564

  12. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  13. [Family and risk factors related to alcohol consumption and smoking among children and adolescents (Guayaquil-Ecuador)].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Ruiz, Martha; Andrade, Denise de

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation had as objective identifying in a family the possible factors of risk related to the use of alcohol and tobacco in the children and adolescents. It is important to emphasize that study of this nature within a social and culture perspective expresses the attempt to include/understand the factors of risk for the use of tobacco and to drink alcoholic the environmental influences in the familiar surroundings views to prevent futures cases with dependency. For the study used a sample of one hundred families, to that applied to an instrument pre to them established with the people in charge of the respective families. As result were obtained 51% of the schooling level are low, 54% has inferior wage to the basic one, 61% to drink alcoholic. To emphasize that unquestionable the reduction of the casuistry of alcoholism and/or tabaquismo to influence significantly in the quality of the individuals life. PMID:16400447

  14. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  15. Alcoholic Beverage Consumption and Chronic Diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Pei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have consistently linked alcoholic beverage consumption with the development of several chronic disorders, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and obesity. The impact of drinking is usually dose-dependent, and light to moderate drinking tends to lower risks of certain diseases, while heavy drinking tends to increase the risks. Besides, other factors such as drinking frequency, genetic susceptibility, smoking, diet, and hormone status can modify the association. The amount of ethanol in alcoholic beverages is the determining factor in most cases, and beverage types could also make an influence. This review summarizes recent studies on alcoholic beverage consumption and several chronic diseases, trying to assess the effects of different drinking patterns, beverage types, interaction with other risk factors, and provide mechanistic explanations. PMID:27231920

  16. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  17. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  18. Laryngeal cancer risk associated with smoking and alcohol consumption is modified by genetic polymorphisms in ERCC5, ERCC6 and RAD23B but not by polymorphisms in five other nucleotide excision repair genes.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Rashda; Ramroth, Heribert; Becher, Heiko; Dietz, Andreas; Schmezer, Peter; Popanda, Odilia

    2009-09-15

    Laryngeal cancer is known to be associated with smoking and high alcohol consumption. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a key role in repairing DNA damage induced by these exposures and might affect laryngeal cancer susceptibility. In a population-based case-control study including 248 cases and 647 controls, the association of laryngeal cancer with 14 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 NER genes (XPC, XPA, ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6 and RAD23B) was analyzed with respect to smoking and alcohol exposure. For genotyping, sequence specific hybridization probes were used. Data were evaluated by conditional logistic regression analysis, stratified for age and gender, and adjusted for smoking, alcohol consumption and education. Pro-carriers of ERCC6 Arg1230Pro showed a decreased risk for laryngeal cancer (OR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34-0.85), strongest in heavy smokers and high alcohol consumers. ERCC5 Asp1104His was associated with risk in heavy smokers (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.1-2.5). Val-carriers of RAD23B Ala249Val had an increased cancer risk in heavy smokers (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5) and high alcohol consumers (OR = 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.4). The combined effect of smoking and alcohol intake affected risk, at high exposure level, for ERCC6 1230Pro carriers (OR = 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-0.98) and RAD23B 249Val carriers (OR = 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-4.9). When tested for gene-gene interaction, presence of 3 risk alleles in the XPC-RAD23B complex increased the risk 2.1-fold. SNPs in the other genes did not show a significant association with laryngeal cancer risk. We conclude that common genetic variations in NER genes can significantly modify laryngeal cancer risk. PMID:19444904

  19. Salivary lysozyme in smoking alcohol dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Zalewska, Anna; Waszkiewicz, Magdalena; Szajda, Slawomir Dariusz; Repka, Bernadeta; Szulc, Agata; Kepka, Alina; Minarowska, Alina; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of chronic alcohol intoxication and smoking on the concentration and output of salivary lysozyme. Thirty seven men participated in the study, including 17 male smoking alcohol-dependent patients after chronic alcohol intoxication (AS), and 20 control non-smoking male social drinkers (CNS) with no history of alcohol abuse or smoking. The level of lysozyme was assessed by the radial immunodiffusion method. Significantly lower lysozyme output in the AS group compared to the CNS group was found. Moreover, gingival index was significantly higher in AS than in the CNS group. It appeared that the reduced salivary lysozyme output was more likely the result of ethanol action than smoking. In conclusion, persons addicted to alcohol and nicotine have a poorer periodontal status than non-smoking social drinkers, which may partially be due to the diminished protective effects of lysozyme present in the saliva. PMID:23264227

  20. Occupation, smoking, and alcohol in the epidemiology of bladder cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.; Chang, J.C.; Davis, J.R.

    1987-10-01

    We conducted a case-control study to evaluate the effects of occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption on bladder cancer risk. A total of 823 male cases and 2,469 age-matched controls were identified through the Missouri Cancer Registry. Relative risk estimates of 2.0 or greater were observed for janitors and cleaners, mechanics, miners, and printers. Current cigarette smoking was associated with a two-fold excess risk of bladder cancer, whereas alcohol consumption showed no association with bladder cancer risk.

  1. Elderly Abuse and Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Rusac, Silvia

    2015-12-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the exposure of the elderly to family violence are in close connection. They represent both a general and social problem from a legal, medical and social aspect. The objectives of this study were to 1) test the frequency of alcohol consumption in older persons with respect to certain social and demographic characteristics; and 2) test the correlation between alcohol consumption and family violence towards the elderly. The sample used in this study was constructed as probabilistic with a random selection of participants in order to ensure representativeness for the City of Zagreb population over 65 years. The study included 1000 persons older than 65, among which 38% were male (N = 380) and 62% female (N = 620). The results showed a significantly more frequent consumption of alcohol among older men aged between 65 and 74, elderly people with life partners (unmarried), and financially independent older persons. A correlation between alcohol consumption frequency and exposure to violence was also established, as well as that older persons who consume alcohol are more likely to commit acts of violence. Further research is needed on the risk and protective factors for specific forms of family violence so as to detect the causes of violence within families as well as mechanisms that al- leviate coping with violence. PMID:26987154

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Djoussé, Luc; Gaziano, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) remains a major public health issue. It is estimated that about 500,000 Americans per year are diagnosed with HF. Despite advanced medical and surgical treatments for HF, mortality after the onset of HF is still high, thereby underscoring the importance of primary prevention. Among modifiable lifestyle factors, alcohol consumption appears to play a role in the development of HF. Although excessive drinking has been known to lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy and light-to-moderate drinking may confer some cardiovascular benefits, recent studies suggest it is not only the quantity, but also drinking patterns and genetic factors, that may influence the relation between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular disease. This article reviews current evidence on the association between alcohol consumption and HF. PMID:18417065

  3. ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION AND BODY WEIGHT

    PubMed Central

    FRENCH, MICHAEL T.; NORTON, EDWARD C.; FANG, HAI; MACLEAN, JOHANNA CATHERINE

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared to the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates. PMID:19548203

  4. Alcohol drinking and cigarette smoking: a "partner" for gastric ulceration.

    PubMed

    Ko, J K; Cho, C H

    2000-12-01

    Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are two etiologic factors that have a close relationship with peptic ulcer diseases. Chronic active gastritis is reportedly associated with chronic alcohol ingestion. Nonetheless, the inflammatory changes are likely to be related to concurrent Helicobacter pylori infection that is common among alcoholics. Moreover, chronic alcoholism is also correlated with the presence of gastric metaplasia. Both clinically and experimentally, alcohol had been shown to affect the mucosal barrier and histology. These ulcerogenic effects play a crucial role in altering gastric mucosal defense mechanisms. Cigarette smoking is coupled with the initiation and prolongation of gastric ulcers. Epidemiologic data show that cigarette smoking increases both the incidence and relapse rate of peptic ulcer diseases and also delays ulcer healing in humans. Retrospective studies also indicate that cigarette smoking is a key factor in inducing ulcer diseases rather than a linked behavior. The general detrimental effects of cigarette smoking in the gastric mucosa include reduction of circulating epidermal growth factor, increase in tissue free radical production and the presence of free radicals in smoke, together with reduction of mucosal constitutive nitric oxide synthase activity. Furthermore, the alteration of normal gastric mucosal blood flow and angiogenesis and the suppression of cell proliferation contribute largely to the delay in ulcer healing in cigarette smokers. Concurrent consumption of alcohol and cigarette smoking significantly increases the risk of gastric ulcers. In animal experiments, cigarette smoking potentiated ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. The reduction of mucus secretion, increase in leukotriene B4 level, increased activities of inducible nitric oxide synthase, xanthine oxidase and myeloperoxidase, and the expression of adhesion molecules in the gastric mucosa accompanied such potentiating effects. Substances other than

  5. [Alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Adriano Antonio da Silva; Camacho, Luiz Antonio Bastos; Passos, Sônia Regina Lambert; Oliveira, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de

    2011-08-01

    Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widely encouraged by the mass media, despite the related health risks. Today's students in the health fields are the professionals of tomorrow who will be providing advice and serving as role models for patients. The aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption and related factors among these students. A total of 608 male and female university students from Maceió, the capital of Alagoas State, Brazil, completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Poisson regression and multinomial logistic models. Prevalence of lifetime use of alcohol was 90.4%. Prevalence of alcohol abuse was 18.3% in men and 6.1% in women. Heavier alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse were observed in males, older students, non-natives of Maceió, smokers, and those exposed to alcohol advertising. The results emphasized the vulnerability of these young people to risky health behaviors. Their future social role highlights distinct needs in their university education to enable them to act professionally in this area. PMID:21877009

  6. Serum levels of immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) in a general adult population and their relationship with alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Quintela, A; Alende, R; Gude, F; Campos, J; Rey, J; Meijide, L M; Fernandez-Merino, C; Vidal, C

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations in relation to demographic factors, common habits (alcohol consumption and smoking) and metabolic abnormalities in an adult population-based survey including 460 individuals. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, a marker of inflammation, were also determined. After adjusting for confounders, male sex was associated positively with IgA levels and negatively with IgM levels. Age was associated positively with IgA and IgG levels. Smoking was associated negatively with IgG levels. Heavy drinking was associated positively with IgA levels. Metabolic abnormalities (obesity and metabolic syndrome) were associated positively with IgA levels. Abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridaemia were the components of metabolic syndrome associated most strongly with serum IgA. Heavy drinkers with metabolic syndrome showed particularly high serum IgA levels. Serum IL-6 levels were correlated positively with IgA and IgG concentrations. It is concluded that sex, age, alcohol consumption, smoking and common metabolic abnormalities should be taken into account when interpreting serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM. PMID:18005364

  7. Marijuana Use and Tobacco Smoking Cessation Among Heavy Alcohol Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Whereas problem drinking impedes smoking cessation, less is known whether marijuana use affects smoking cessation outcomes and whether smoking cessation treatment leads to changes in marijuana smoking. Methods In a randomized clinical trial that recruited 236 heavy drinkers seeking smoking cessation treatment, we examined whether current marijuana smokers (n = 57) differed from the rest of the sample in tobacco smoking and alcohol use outcomes and whether the patterns of marijuana use changed during treatment. Results Half of the marijuana users reported smoking marijuana at least weekly (an average of 42% of possible smoking days), the other half used infrequently, an average of 5% of possible days. There were no significant differences between the marijuana use groups and non-users on smoking outcomes and marijuana use did not predict smoking lapses. All participants made large reductions in weekly alcohol consumption during the trial, with weekly marijuana users reducing their drinking by 47% and at a faster rate than non-marijuana users after the 8-week follow-up. Weekly marijuana smokers also steadily decreased their marijuana use over the course of the study (at 8-, 16-, and 26-week follow-ups) by more than 24%. Conclusions These data suggest that frequent marijuana smokers may benefit from smoking cessation interventions, even when marijuana use is not explicitly discussed. These individuals do not show any more difficulty than other cigarette smokers in making efforts to reduce tobacco smoking and in fact, make meaningful changes in marijuana use and heavy drinking. Future clinical trials should examine whether smoking cessation treatment that addresses both marijuana and tobacco smoking leads to substantial reductions in marijuana use. PMID:21724341

  8. Alcohol consumption and plasma homocysteine.

    PubMed

    Sakuta, Hidenari; Suzuki, Takashi

    2005-10-01

    A few reports show that consumption of spirits and of wine correlate with elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), which is associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. We analyzed the relation between tHcy and current daily ethanol consumption cross-sectionally in middle-aged Japanese men (n = 974, age 51-59 years). Plasma tHcy was positively associated with consumption of whiskey but not with consumption of shochu (Japanese spirits), sake, beer, or wine. Odds ratios of an increase in daily intake of 30 ml ethanol (approximately 1 standard deviation) for hyperhomocysteinemia (>14.0 micromol/l) were 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.29-5.14) for whiskey, 1.08 (0.78-1.50) for shochu, 0.99 (0.59-1.66) for sake, 0.98 (0.58-1.63) for beer, and 1.70 (0.31-9.50) for wine in a multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for the daily number of cigarettes smoked, physical activity, vegetable consumption, and serum creatinine levels. After inclusion of plasma folate and vitamin B12 in the multivariate analysis model, the association between whiskey ethanol consumption and hyperhomocysteinemia remained significant with odds ratio of 2.79 (1.36-5.72). These results suggest that whiskey consumption correlates with hyperhomocysteinemia independently of plasma folate or vitamin B12 or lifestyle factors in the population studied. PMID:16584970

  9. Evidence of genotoxicity in lymphocytes of non-smoking alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Santovito, Alfredo; Cervella, Piero; Delpero, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant public health issue. Epidemiological studies conducted on different populations consistently showed that consumption of alcoholic beverages is associated with cytogenetic damages and higher risk for several types of cancer. However, the interpretation of many cytogenetic studies resulted complicated because some confounding factors, such as smoking habit, are not always taken into account. In the present study, the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MNs) in cultured human lymphocytes was assessed on 15 alcoholic and 15 non-alcoholic control male subjects. Moreover, considering the implication of the Glutathione S-transferases gene polymorphisms in the genetic susceptibility to alcoholic liver diseases, we considered an important issue to evaluate the relationship between these gene polymorphisms and the cytogenetic damage. In our sample we exclusively considered individuals that did not smoke nor consume drugs for a period of at least 2 years prior to the analysis. Statistically significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in the frequency of SCEs/cell (P = 0.001), RI value (P = 0.001), CAs (P = 0.002) and CAB (P = 0.002). Vice versa, no significant differences were found between alcoholics and controls in terms of MNs frequency and CBPI value. In both samples, no statistically significant association was found between the analysed GSTs gene polymorphisms and the frequencies of MNs, SCEs and CAs. Finally, among alcoholics we found a positive correlation between SCEs and CAs frequencies and the duration of alcohol abuse. PMID:25223858

  10. The effects of chronic smoking on the pathology of alcohol-related brain damage.

    PubMed

    McCorkindale, A N; Sheedy, D; Kril, J J; Sutherland, G T

    2016-06-01

    Both pathological and neuroimaging studies demonstrate that chronic alcohol abuse causes brain atrophy with widespread white matter loss limited gray matter loss. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that tobacco smoking also causes brain atrophy in both alcoholics and neurologically normal individuals; however, this has not been confirmed pathologically. In this study, the effects of smoking and the potential additive effects of concomitant alcohol and tobacco consumption were investigated in autopsied human brains. A total of 44 cases and controls were divided into four groups: 16 non-smoking controls, nine smoking controls, eight non-smoking alcoholics, and 11 smoking alcoholics. The volumes of 26 gray and white matter regions were measured using an established point-counting technique. The results showed trends for widespread white matter loss in alcoholics (p < 0.007) but no effect on gray matter regions. In contrast, smoking alone had no effect on brain atrophy and the combination of smoking and alcohol showed no additional effect. Neuronal density was analyzed as a more sensitive assay of gray matter integrity. Similar to the volumetric analysis, there was a reduction in neurons (29%) in the prefrontal cortex of alcoholics, albeit this was only a trend when adjusted for potential confounders (p < 0.06). There were no smoking or combinatorial effects on neuronal density in any of the three regions examined. These results do not support the hypothesis that smoking exacerbates alcohol-related brain damage. The trends here support previous studies that alcohol-related brain damage is characterized by focal neuronal loss and generalized white matter atrophy. These disparate effects suggest that two different pathogenic mechanisms may be operating in the alcoholic brain. Future studies using ultrastructural or molecular techniques will be required to determine if smoking has more subtle effects on the brain and how chronic alcohol consumption leads to

  11. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  12. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  13. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  14. Prediction of Alcohol Consumption among Fraternity Pledges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkner, Kim Knox; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated relationship between background characteristics of fraternity pledges (N=108) and alcohol consumption during first month of pledgeship. Found heavier alcohol consumption strongly correlated with positive view of its socialization value and with prior incidences of problems associated with alcohol use. Found lesser relationship between…

  15. Health Warnings on Alcoholic Beverages: Perceptions of the Health Risks and Intentions towards Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Wigg, Sophie; Stafford, Lorenzo D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research has demonstrated that packaging which includes pictorial health warnings are more effective in altering smokers’ perceptions and intentions as well as changing smoking behaviours compared to text-only health warnings. However, very few studies have investigated the effectiveness of health warnings on alcoholic beverages Methods Participants (N = 60) viewed alcoholic beverages presenting one of three health warnings (No health warning, Text-only, Pictorial) and then responded to questions relating to level of fear arousal and their perceptions toward alcohol use. Results We found that pictorial health warnings were associated with significantly higher fear arousal, increased perceptions of the health risks of consuming alcohol as well as greater intentions to reduce and quit alcohol consumption compared to the control. Conclusions These novel findings suggest pictorial health warnings on alcoholic beverages may be an important way of making the public aware of the health risks of alcohol consumption. PMID:27105210

  16. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    MedlinePlus

    ... resources can help you quit. They include: your doctor, friends and family members, stop-smoking support groups, nicotine replacement therapy, and organizations such as Nicotine Anonymous, the American ...

  17. Excess mortality associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, P.

    1988-01-01

    To estimate the excess mortality due to alcohol in England and Wales death rates specific to alcohol consumption that had been derived from five longitudinal studies were applied to the current population divided into categories of alcohol consumption. Because of the J shaped relation between alcohol consumption and death the excess mortality used as a baseline was an alcohol consumption of 1-10 units/week and an adjustment was made for the slight excess mortality of abstainers. The number of excess deaths was obtained by subtracting the number of deaths expected if all the population had the consumption of the lowest risk group; correction for the total observed mortality in the population was made. This resulted in an estimate of 28,000 deaths each year in England and Wales as the excess mortality among people aged 15-74 associated with alcohol consumption. PMID:3140936

  18. Physical activity, alcohol consumption, BMI and smoking status before and after prostate cancer diagnosis in the ProtecT trial: opportunities for lifestyle modification.

    PubMed

    Hackshaw-McGeagh, Lucy E; Penfold, Chris M; Walsh, Eleanor; Donovan, Jenny L; Hamdy, Freddie C; Neal, David E; Jeffreys, Mona; Martin, Richard M; Lane, J Athene

    2015-09-15

    Associations between certain lifestyle characteristics and prostate cancer risk have been reported, and continuation post-diagnosis can adversely affect prognosis. We explored whether men make spontaneous changes to their physical activity and alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) and smoking status, following a diagnosis of localised prostate cancer. A detailed diet, health and lifestyle questionnaire was completed by 511 participants within the Prostate Testing for Cancer and Treatment (ProtecT) randomised controlled trial, both before and 9 months after a diagnosis of prostate cancer. Of 177 men who were insufficiently active before their diagnosis (median 0 activity units/week; IQR 0-9), 40.7% had increased their activity by a median of 22 U week(-1) (IQR 15-35) 9 months later, and there was weak evidence that men were more active after diagnosis than before (p = 0.07). Men categorised as "working" occupational social class and who were insufficiently active before diagnosis were 2.03 (95%, CI = 1.03-3.99, p = 0.04) times more likely to have increased their physical activity levels compared to men classified as "managerial or professional." Similarly, men who were insufficiently active pre-diagnosis and with T-stage 2 compared with T-stage 1 prostate cancer were 2.47 (95%, CI = 1.29-4.71, p = 0.006) times more likely to be sufficiently active post-diagnosis. Following diagnosis, there was an overall reduction in alcohol intake (p = 0.03) and the proportion of current smokers (p = 0.09), but no overall change in BMI. We conclude that some men spontaneously change certain lifestyle behaviours on receiving a diagnosis of prostate cancer. For many men, however, additional support through lifestyle interventions is probably required to facilitate and maintain these changes. PMID:25761662

  19. Consumption of Noncommercial Alcohol among Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Y E

    2013-01-01

    This study explores types of alcohol and surrogates consumed, patterns of consumption, and reasons behind noncommercial alcohol consumption among alcohol-dependent patients in Belarus. The study was conducted in the Belarusian city Grodno in 2012 with 223 alcoholics admitted to narcological clinic using structured interviews. The results suggest that at least 20.2% of alcohol dependent patients regularly consume samogon and 11.8% of patients use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that, according to quality criteria, samogon exceeds licensed vodka is the main motive for its consumption. The results of this study suggest the existence of the problem of consumption of noncommercial alcohol among alcohol dependent patients in Belarus. PMID:24233448

  20. Folate and alcohol consumption and the risk of lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Bandera, E.V.; Graham, S.; Freudenheim, J.L.; Marshall, J.R.; Haughey, B.P.; Swanson, M.; Brasure, J.; Wilkinson, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Because both folate deficiency and alcohol intake have been hypothesized to be lung cancer risk factors, the authors examined the effect of folate and alcohol consumption on risk of lung cancer in a case-control study conducted 1980-1984. Usual dietary intake of 450 histologically confirmed lung cancer cases and 902 controls, all Western New York residents, was ascertained using a modified food frequency questionnaire. Folate intake was not associated with lung cancer risk. After adjusting for age, cigarette smoking, education, and carotene intake, the odds ratio (OR) for the highest category of folate intake was 1.59 in males and 1.34 in females. There was some indication of a protective effect of folate only among women who never smoked. There was a suggestion of a positive association of alcohol intake with lung cancer risk in males, independent of age, education, cigarette smoking, and carotene. Consumers of more than 9 beers per month had an OR of 1.51 compared to non-drinkers. In both sexes, there was an indication of an interaction between beer ingestion and cigarette smoking. While folate intake did not appear to affect risk of lung cancer, the association of alcohol intake with risk independent of cigarette smoking deserves further inquiry.

  1. Effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Iwata, Toyoto; Ishii, Noriko; Murata, Katsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the effects of alcohol consumption on hepatocellular injury, we examined aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), together with weekly alcohol consumption calculated from a self-rating questionnaire, in 1113 Japanese salesmen. The thresholds of associations between alcohol consumption and liver markers were estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The AST, ALT and GGT were positively correlated with alcohol intake (p<0.001), as well as age and body mass index (BMI); the relations to alcohol were statistically significant even when controlling for age, BMI and smoking habit. Although the AST and GGT were associated with four types of alcoholic beverage (p<0.01), it was only whiskey that had close relation to the ALT (p<0.05). The thresholds of alcohol consumption (ethanol g/week), i.e., 95% lower confidence limits of the BMD, were 362 for AST, 660 for ALT, and 252 for GGT. The thresholds for GGT and AST in Japanese men seem to be somewhat higher than those reported in Western countries. It is suggested that hepatocellular injury (i.e., AST elevation) in Japanese men may emerge at the ethanol level of more than 50 g/day. PMID:14738322

  2. Alcohol consumption and gender in rural Samoa

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Shawn S; Small, Christian R; Lauilefue, Tui Agaapapalagi; Bennett, Jillian; Yamada, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and aims There are significant gender differences in alcohol consumption throughout the world. Here we report the results of an alcohol consumption survey on the rural island of Savaii, in the Pacific nation of Samoa. Design and methods Eleven villages were selected for sampling using a randomized stratified cluster sampling methodology. A total of 1049 inhabitants over the age of 40 years (485 males and 564 females) were surveyed about alcohol consumption over the past year, and a 72.2% participation rate was achieved. Results A significant gender difference in alcohol consumption was found: 97.3% of women and 59.4% of men reported no alcohol consumption over the past year. This is one of the most significant gender differences in alcohol consumption in the world. No significant difference between genders was seen in those who consume only 1–5 alcoholic drinks per week (P = 0.8454). However, significantly more males than females consumed 6–25 drinks per week (P < 0.0001), 26–75 drinks per week (P < 0.0001), and 75+ drinks per week (P < 0.0001). Discussion and conclusion This extreme gender difference in alcohol consumption is attributed to several factors, both general (alcoholic metabolism rates, risk-taking behaviors, general cultural taboos, etc) and specific to Samoa (church influence, financial disempowerment, and Samoan gender roles). PMID:24474849

  3. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  4. Consumption of Alcohol Surrogates Among Alcohol-Dependent Women.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first in-depth study of alcohol and surrogate drinking patterns, types, reasons, and correlates among alcohol-dependent women in Belarus. The structured interviews were performed in 2013 with 103 alcohol-dependent women admitted to a narcological clinic in Grodno, Belarus. The results suggest that at least 30.3% of alcohol-dependent women regularly consume samogon (moonshine) and 10.8% of women use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that samogon exceeds licensed vodka in quality is the main motive for its consumption. The results from the present study confirm that noncommercial alcohol use is common among alcohol-dependent women although its use may be underreported. These findings emphasize that the implementation of a comprehensive alcohol policy must take fully into account the consumption of alcohol from illicit sources. PMID:26549001

  5. Sex-related differences in the haematological effects of excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Chalmers, D M; Chanarin, I; Macdermott, S; Levi, A J

    1980-01-01

    Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was measured at presentation in 320 hospital patients with a history of excessive alcohol consumption. The MCV of the 94 women thought to be actively drinking more than 80 g/day of alcohol was 101.3 fl compared with 96.7 fl in their male counterparts. Alcohol consumption, age, smoking habits, prevalence of inadequate diet, or serum and red cell folate levels did not differ significantly between men and women. It is suggested that MCV is a better indicator of excessive alcohol consumption in women than in men, and that women are more susceptible to the haematological toxicity of alcohol. PMID:7358858

  6. Acute effects of low and high dose alcohol on smoking lapse behavior in a laboratory analogue task

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Metrik, Jane; Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne; Leventhal, Adam M.; McKee, Sherry A.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; McGeary, John E.; Knopik, Valerie S.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Smoking lapses (i.e., returns to smoking after quitting) often occur following alcohol consumption with observational data suggesting greater quantities of alcohol lead to greater risk. However, a causal dose-dependent effect of alcohol consumption on smoking lapse behavior has not been established, and the mechanisms that might account for such an effect have not been tested. Objectives In a within-subjects design, we examined effects of low (0.4 g/kg) and high (0.8 g/kg) dose alcohol, relative to placebo, on smokers’ ability to resist initiating smoking after acute smoking abstinence. Methods Participants were 100 heavy alcohol drinkers, smoking 10–30 cigarettes per day. Across three separate days, participants consumed placebo, low, or high dose alcohol following 3 h of smoking abstinence, and 35 min later were offered the opportunity to smoke while resisting smoking was monetarily reinforced proportional to the amount of time delayed. Results Consistent with a dose-response effect, participants smoked 3.35 min (95% CI [−7.09, 0.40], p=.08) earlier following low dose alcohol and 6.36 min (95% CI [−9.99, −2.73], p=.0006) earlier following high dose alcohol compared to drinking a placebo beverage. Effects of dose on smoking behavior were partially mediated by increases in urge to smoke. There was no evidence that alcohol’s effects on urge to smoke or ability to resist smoking were mediated through its stimulating or sedating effects. Conclusions Alcohol can reduce the ability to resist smoking in a dose-dependent fashion, in part, due to its effect on increasing the intensity of smoking urges. PMID:24858377

  7. TLR3 deficiency increases voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yujin; Lee, Min Hee; Park, Jong-Hwan; Han, Seung-Yun; Kim, Dong Kwan

    2016-03-23

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate immunity-related receptors. Many studies have indicated the involvement of TLRs in neurophysiology and neuropathology. One study showed that TLR3 regulates hippocampal memory and is highly expressed in the mesolimbic dopamine system, suggesting that TLR3 signaling may regulate alcohol consumption. The present study assessed the potential role of TLR3 in alcohol intake pattern. We used adult BalbC wild-type mice and TLR3 knockout mice and tested two-bottle alcohol preference over 15 days and one-bottle 2 or 4 h drinking in the dark over 4 consecutive days. The 10% alcohol consumption rate of TLR3 knockout mice increased on the 24 h free-choice test. Our findings support a potential regulatory role of TLR3 in alcohol consumption. PMID:26885867

  8. Alcohol consumption and computer blackjack.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2007-07-01

    The authors considered compliance with a decision aid that E. Thorp (1966) designed to minimize loss in a gambling paradigm under different levels of risk or impairment. Twenty adult men (aged 18-46) completed the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS; H.R. Lesieur & S. B. Blume, 1987) and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; J. P. Allen, D. E Reinert, & R. J. Volk, 2001) and then played a computer blackjack program before and after ingesting alcohol. The decision aid (online Basic advice) increased players' compliance with optimal play and also increased players willingness to wager more at high stakes. Participants attained a mean peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.048%. Alcohol increased the rate of play. After consuming alcohol, participants appeared to spend less time on their decisions and were more reliant on support. The authors explained these results in terms of an alcohol-induced myopia that enhances responses to salient cues. PMID:17824402

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  10. Alcohol Consumption and Health among Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsa, Ana I.; Homer, Jenny F.; Fleming, Michael F.; French, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article estimates the effects of alcohol consumption on self-reported overall health status, injuries, heart problems, emergency room use, and hospitalizations among persons older than the age of 65. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the first wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a…

  11. Student Perceptions of Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Leon F.

    1992-01-01

    Examined college student (n=552) drinking behavior and explored underlying reasons for continued excessive drinking. Results revealed alcohol-related physical symptoms, negative behavioral outcomes, and high incidence of driving while alcohol impaired. Students who were frequent drinkers showed little, if any, concern for their own drinking…

  12. Alcohol consumption, types of alcoholic beverages and risk of venous thromboembolism - the Tromsø Study.

    PubMed

    Hansen-Krone, Ida J; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Enga, Kristin F; Wilsgaard, Tom; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2011-08-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been shown to protect against cardiovascular diseases. The association between alcohol consumption, especially types of alcoholic beverages, and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is less well described. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of alcohol consumption and different alcoholic beverages on risk of VTE. Information on alcohol consumption was collected by a self-administrated questionnaire in 26,662 subjects, aged 25-97 years, who participated in the Tromsø Study, in 1994-1995. Subjects were followed through September 1, 2007 with incident VTE as the primary outcome. There were 460 incident VTE-events during a median of 12.5 years of follow-up. Total alcohol consumption was not associated with risk of incident VTE. However, subjects consuming ≥ 3 units of liquor per week had 53% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotalers in analyses adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, diabetes, cancer, previous cardiovascular disease, physical activity and higher education (HR: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.33). Contrary, subjects with a wine intake of ≥ 3 units/week had 22% reduced risk of VTE (HR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.47-1.30), further adjustment for liquor and beer intake strengthened the protective effect of wine (HR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.30-1.00). Frequent binge drinkers (≥ 1/week) had a 17% increased risk of VTE compared to teetotallers (HR 1.17, 95% CI: 0.66-2.09), and a 47% increased risk compared to non-binge drinkers (HR 1.47, 95% CI: 0.85-2.54). In conclusion, liquor consumption and binge drinking was associated with increased risk of VTE, whereas wine consumption was possibly associated with reduced risk of VTE. PMID:21614415

  13. Alcohol consumption, Lewis phenotypes, and risk of ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hein, H.O.; Suadicani, P.; Gyntelberg, F. . Epidemiological Research Unit); Sorenson, H. . Dept. of Chemical Immunology); Hein, H.O. . Dept. of Internal Medicine)

    1993-02-13

    The authors have previously found an increased risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) in men with the Lewis phenotype Le(a[minus]b[minus]) and suggested that the Lewis blood group has a close genetic relation with insulin resistance. The authors have investigated whether any conventional risk factors explain the increased risk in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men. 3,383 men aged 53-75 years were examined in 1985-86, and morbidity and mortality during the next 4 years were recorded. At baseline, the authors excluded 343 men with a history of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, intermittent claudication, or stroke. The potential risk factors examined were alcohol consumption, physical activity, tobacco smoking, serum cotinine, serum lipids, body-mass index, blood pressure, prevalence of hypertension and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and social class. In 280 (9.6%) men with Le(a[minus]b[minus]), alcohol was the only risk factor significantly associated with risk of IHD. There was a significant inverse dose-effect relation between alcohol consumption and risk; trend tests, with adjustment for age, were significant for fatal IHD (p=0.02), all IHD (p=0.03), and all causes of death (p=0.02). In 2649 (90.4%) men with other phenotypes, there was a limited negative association with alcohol consumption. In Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men, a group genetically at high risk of IHD, alcohol consumption seems to be especially protective. The authors suggest that alcohol consumption may modify insulin resistance in Le(a[minus]b[minus]) men.

  14. Low blood alcohol levels in rats despite chronic alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Sankaran, H.; Deveney, C.W.; Lin, J.C.; Larkin, E.C.; Rao, G.A. )

    1989-02-09

    Rats fed liquid diets containing 36% or 26% of calories from ethanol consume similar amounts of alcohol each day. After 3 weeks on ethanol diet, the blood alcohol levels (BAL) are high in rats fed the 36% alcohol diet, but low or insignificant in those fed the 26% alcohol diet. Rats in either alcohol diet group consume most of their diet in the night. Hence, the low BAL in 26% ethanol diet-fed rats may not be due to a more rapid diet consumption after feeding and clearance of the bulk of ingested alcohol as compared to the rats fed the 36% alcohol diet. BAL at various times during the day (7 AM, 10 AM, 1 PM, 4 PM, 7 PM and 10 PM) are high in rats fed the 36% ethanol diet. However, BAL in those fed the 26% ethanol diet are low during the corresponding times. It appears that the low BAL produced by the enhanced hepatic metabolism of ethanol is related to the improved nutritional status in rats fed the 26% ethanol diet, compared to those fed 36% ethanol diet, because rats fed the 36% ethanol diet ingest reduced amounts of calories and other nutrients. Extrahepatic effects of chronic alcohol consumption caused by high BAL may be abated by an enhanced daily intake of nutrients by the animal.

  15. Brain volumes and neuropsychological performance are related to current smoking and alcoholism history

    PubMed Central

    Luhar, Riya B; Sawyer, Kayle S; Gravitz, Zoe; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2013-01-01

    Background Dual dependence on alcohol and nicotine is common, with many reports suggesting that more than 80% of alcoholics also smoke cigarettes. Even after cessation of alcohol consumption, many recovering alcoholics continue to smoke. In this exploratory study, we examined how current smoking and a history of alcoholism interacted in relation to brain volumes and neuropsychological performance. Methods Participants were 14 abstinent long-term alcoholics (seven current smokers and seven nonsmokers), and 13 nonalcoholics (six current smokers and seven nonsmokers). The groups were equivalent in age, gender, education, and intelligence quotient. Two multiecho magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient echo (MP-RAGE) scans were collected for all participants using a 3T magnetic resonance imaging scanner with a 32 channel head coil. Brain volumes for each gray and white matter region of interest were derived using FreeSurfer. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tests measuring intelligence quotient, memory, executive functions, personality variables, and affect. Results Compared to nonsmoking nonalcoholics, alcoholics who smoke (the comorbid group) had volumetric abnormalities in: pre- and para-central frontal cortical areas and rostral middle frontal white matter; parahippocampal and temporal pole regions; the amygdala; the pallidum; the ventral diencephalic region; and the lateral ventricle. The comorbid group performed worse than nonsmoking nonalcoholics on tests of executive functioning and on visually-based memory tests. History of alcoholism was associated with higher neuroticism scores among smokers, and current smoking was associated with higher sensation seeking scores and lower extraversion scores among nonalcoholics. Conclusion Results from this exploratory study support and extend prior reports showing that alcoholism and smoking, alone and in combination, are associated with structural brain abnormalities and poorer

  16. Effects of alcohol cues on smoking urges and topography among alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Monti, P M; Colby, S M; Gulliver, S B; Sirota, A D; Niaura, R S; Abrams, D B

    1997-02-01

    Although the prevalence of smoking among alcoholics ranges up to 97%, little is known about mechanisms underlying the co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol use, or the role tobacco may play in alcohol treatment recovery. Adult male alcoholics in treatment (n = 30) were randomly assigned to visual and olfactory exposure either to alcohol cues or to control cues, and then were allowed to smoke while continuing visual exposure to the same cues. Exposure to alcohol cues resulted in significantly greater self-reported urge to drink and urge to smoke but had no significant effect on the topography of smoking behavior. When variance due to urge to smoke was controlled, greater urge to drink correlated negatively with number of cigarette puffs. The results provide some support for a priming hypothesis of tobacco's role on alcoholism recovery. Clinical and theoretical implications are discussed. PMID:9046380

  17. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse. PMID:23543880

  18. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  19. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  20. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  1. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  2. 32 CFR 147.9 - Guideline G-Alcohol consumption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Guideline G-Alcohol consumption. 147.9 Section... Adjudication § 147.9 Guideline G—Alcohol consumption. (a) The concern. Excessive alcohol consumption often... that could raise a security concern and may be disqualifying include: (1) Alcohol-related...

  3. Cellular and Mitochondrial Effects of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Manzo-Avalos, Salvador; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is correlated with a wide spectrum of medical, psychological, behavioral, and social problems. Acute alcohol abuse causes damage to and functional impairment of several organs affecting protein, carbohydrate, and fat metabolism. Mitochondria participate with the conversion of acetaldehyde into acetate and the generation of increased amounts of NADH. Prenatal exposure to ethanol during fetal development induces a wide spectrum of adverse effects in offspring, such as neurologic abnormalities and pre- and post-natal growth retardation. Antioxidant effects have been described due to that alcoholic beverages contain different compounds, such as polyphenols as well as resveratrol. This review analyzes diverse topics on the alcohol consumption effects in several human organs and demonstrates the direct participation of mitochondria as potential target of compounds that can be used to prevent therapies for alcohol abusers. PMID:21318009

  4. IS CIGARETTE SMOKING RELATED TO ALCOHOL USE DURING THE 8 YEARS FOLLOWING TREATMENT FOR ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUG ABUSE?

    PubMed Central

    MYERS, MARK G.; DORAN, NEAL M.; BROWN, SANDRA A.

    2007-01-01

    Aims The present study examined the relationship between cigarette smoking and alcohol use outcomes over an 8-year period following treatment for adolescent alcohol and other drug (AOD) use disorders. Methods The present study was based on a sample of 166 adolescents recruited during inpatient AOD abuse treatment. Included in this study were 123 (74% of the full sample) participants, of whom 41% were female, 81% identified themselves as White and who averaged 15.9 years of age (SD = 1.3) when entering treatment. Data for the present study were drawn from interviews conducted at the time of treatment and 2-, 4-, 6- and 8-years post-treatment. Results Twenty six percent of participants had quit smoking for >1 year at the 8-year assessment, while 44% reported persistent smoking over time. Overall smoking rates decreased significantly over time. Subjects associated with the highest alcohol involvement trajectory reported significantly greater likelihood of persistent smoking as well as higher current smoking and cigarette consumption across time points. Conclusions The significant declines observed in smoking from adolescence into young adulthood were contrary to expectations, indicating that this behaviour may be less stable than previously thought among adolescent AOD abusers. Smoking involvement over time was greater within the highest alcohol use trajectory, consistent with previous evidence for a positive relationship between these behaviours. However, when compared with the general population smoking rates remained very high regardless of alcohol involvement. Thus, individuals treated for AOD abuse as adolescents remained at elevated risk for tobacco related disease regardless of post-treatment AOD use outcomes. PMID:17526632

  5. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among College Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Stella P.; Dodder, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    Compared alcohol consumption patterns of Oklahoma students (N=534) with students from Texas and New England. Regional differences were found, with a high incidence reported by all samples. The most abstainers, particularly females, were from Oklahoma. Oklahomans resembled New Englanders more than Texans in greater quantity and frequency of…

  6. Endogenous opioids and excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed Central

    Gianoulakis, C

    1993-01-01

    Alcohol is one of the most popular drugs of abuse in our society, and alcoholism is an important cause of absenteeism at work and a major health and social problem. Ethanol induces a number of effects, such as disinhibition, a feeling of general well-being, tolerance and physical dependence. Since there are no specific receptors with which ethanol interacts, it has been proposed that ethanol exerts its effects by altering the activity of a number of neuronal and neuroendocrine systems. Studies have indicated that alcohol influences the activity of the dopaminergic, serotonergic and opioidergic systems. The implication of the endogenous opioid system in mediating some of the effects of ethanol is indicated by the observations that some of the behavioral and pharmacological effects of ethanol are similar to those of the opiates. Indeed, injections of small amounts of morphine increased ethanol consumption, while the administration of naltrexone decreased ethanol consumption among rats and other experimental animals, in a number of experimental paradigms, suggesting that endogenous opioids may play an important role in controlling voluntary ethanol consumption. This paper reviews studies of the effects of ethanol on the activity of the endogenous opioid system and on the importance of endogenous opioids in controlling alcohol consumption. PMID:7690585

  7. Alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment in older men

    PubMed Central

    Hankey, Graeme J.; Yeap, Bu B.; Golledge, Jonathan; Flicker, Leon

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether alcohol consumption is causally associated with cognitive impairment in older men as predicted by mendelian randomization. Methods: Retrospective analysis of a cohort study of 3,542 community-dwelling men aged 65 to 83 years followed for 6 years. Cognitive impairment was established by a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 23 or less. Participants provided detailed information about their use of alcohol during the preceding year and were classified as abstainers, occasional drinkers, and regular drinkers: mild (<15 drinks/wk), moderate (15–27 drinks/wk), heavy (28–34 drinks/wk), and abusers (≥35 drinks/wk). We genotyped the rs1229984 G→A variant of the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, which is associated with lower prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence. Other measures included age, education, marital status, smoking and physical activity, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Results: At study entry, rs1229984 G→A polymorphism was associated with lower prevalence of regular use of alcohol and decreased consumption among regular users. Six years later, 502 men (14.2%) showed evidence of cognitive impairment. Abstainers and irregular drinkers had higher odds of cognitive impairment than regular drinkers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.00–1.51, after adjustment for other measured factors). The rs1229984 G→A polymorphism did not decrease the odds of cognitive impairment (AA/GG OR = 1.35, 95% CI = 0.29–6.27; GA/GG OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 0.71–1.55). Conclusions: Alcohol consumption, including heavy regular drinking and abuse, is not a direct cause of cognitive impairment in later life. Our results are consistent with the possibility, but do not prove, that regular moderate drinking decreases the risk of cognitive impairment in older men. PMID:24553426

  8. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  9. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Sue Min

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Methods Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Results Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. Conclusion The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation. PMID:26068414

  10. Reinforcement of Smoking and Drinking: Tobacco Marketing Strategies Linked With Alcohol in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Nan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated tobacco companies’ knowledge about concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol, their marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol, and the benefits tobacco companies sought from these marketing activities. Methods. We performed systematic searches on previously secret tobacco industry documents, and we summarized the themes and contexts of relevant search results. Results. Tobacco company research confirmed the association between tobacco use and alcohol use. Tobacco companies explored promotional strategies linking cigarettes and alcohol, such as jointly sponsoring special events with alcohol companies to lower the cost of sponsorships, increase consumer appeal, reinforce brand identity, and generate increased cigarette sales. They also pursued promotions that tied cigarette sales to alcohol purchases, and cigarette promotional events frequently featured alcohol discounts or encouraged alcohol use. Conclusions. Tobacco companies’ numerous marketing strategies linking cigarettes with alcohol may have reinforced the use of both substances. Because using tobacco and alcohol together makes it harder to quit smoking, policies prohibiting tobacco sales and promotion in establishments where alcohol is served and sold might mitigate this effect. Smoking cessation programs should address the effect that alcohol consumption has on tobacco use. PMID:21852637

  11. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  12. Associations between smoking and caffeine consumption in two European cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amy E.; Ware, Jennifer J.; McMahon, George; Hottenga, Jouke‐Jan; Baselmans, Bart M. L.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Vink, Jacqueline M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To estimate associations between smoking initiation, smoking persistence and smoking heaviness and caffeine consumption in two population‐based samples from the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Design Observational study employing data on self‐reported smoking behaviour and caffeine consumption. Setting Adults from the general population in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. Participants Participants from the Netherlands Twin Register [NTR: n = 21 939, mean age 40.8, standard deviation (SD) = 16.9, 62.6% female] and the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC: n = 9086, mean age 33.2, SD = 4.7, 100% female). Measurements Smoking initiation (ever versus never smoking), smoking persistence (current versus former smoking), smoking heaviness (number of cigarettes smoked) and caffeine consumption in mg per day through coffee, tea, cola and energy drinks. Findings After correction for age, gender (NTR), education and social class (ALSPAC), smoking initiation was associated with consuming on average 52.8 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 45.6–60.0; NTR] and 59.5 (95% CI = 51.8–67.2; ALSPAC) mg more caffeine per day. Smoking persistence was also associated with consuming more caffeine [+57.9 (95% CI = 45.2–70.5) and +83.2 (95% CI = 70.2–96.3) mg, respectively]. Each additional cigarette smoked per day was associated with 3.7 (95% CI = 1.9–5.5; NTR) and 8.4 (95% CI = 6.9–10.0; ALSPAC) mg higher daily caffeine consumption in current smokers. Smoking was associated positively with coffee consumption and less strongly with cola and energy drinks. For tea, associations were positive in ALSPAC and negative in NTR. Conclusions There appears to be a positive association between smoking and caffeine consumption in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. PMID:26750569

  13. Active and passive smoking, and alcohol drinking and breast cancer risk in chinese women.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chang-Ming; Ding, Jian-Hua; Li, Su-Ping; Liu, Yan-Ting; Qian, Yun; Chang, Jun; Tang, Jin-Hai; Tajima, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between smoking, alcohol drinking and risk of breast cancer in Chinese women, we conducted a case-control study with 669 cases and 682 population-based controls in Jiangsu Province of China. A structured questionnaire was used to elicit detailed information. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The results revealed that smoking, whether active or passive through the husband, was related to increased risk of breast cancer. The ORs (adjusted for age, menopausal status, educational levels, occupation, body mass index and income) were 3.55 (95%CI: 1.27-9.91) for active smoking and 1.47 (95%CI: 1.18-1.84) for passive smoking from husbands, respectively. A significant positive relationship was observed between breast cancer risk and the degree of husbands' smoking. There were significant increase trend in ORs with the daily smoked number of cigarettes of husbands, the passive smoking years from husbands and the pack-years of husbands' smoking (trend test: p=0.00003, 0.00013 and 0.0001, respectively). Alcohol consumption was also found to be a risk factor. The findings of this study in particular suggest that husbands' smoking increases risk of breast cancer in Chinese women. PMID:23621274

  14. [Alcohol consumption in the emergency room].

    PubMed

    Alderete, Ethel; Bianchini, Pablo

    2008-01-01

    We examined patterns of alcohol consumption and blood alcohol levels in emergency room patients. The study was conducted in a public hospital of the province of Jujuy, Argentina. A survey was conducted among all patients during the 24 hours of 4 consecutive days (N = 500) using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, short version (AUDIT-C). Blood samples were collected in 84% of participants. Results showed that 37% were hazardous drinkers (men 50% vs. women 23%), 29% had symptoms of dependence (men 48% vs. women 11%); 17% of men and 3% of women had high blood alcohol levels, equal or greater than 50 mg/dl. In multivariate logistic regression models men had increased likelihood of hazardous drinking (Adjusted OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.1-5.0), symptoms of dependence (Adjusted OR 7.5; 95% CI 4.4-12.7) and increased blood alcohol levels (Adjusted OR 8.0; 95% CI 2.2-28.8), compared with women. Patients admitted due to accidents, violence, or drug use, had increased likelihood of hazardous drinking (Adjusted OR 2.4; 95% CI 1.5-3.9), dependence symptoms (Adjusted OR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3) and increased blood alcohol levels (Adjusted OR 7.7; 95% CI 3.0-19.8), compared with those admitted for other reasons. Alcoholism has a significant impact on the occurrence of injuries and on the demand imposed on health services. Prevention programs can potentially reduce the negative health and social impact of alcoholism. PMID:18416317

  15. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  16. Alcohol consumption and dietary patterns: the FinDrink study.

    PubMed

    Fawehinmi, Timothy O; Ilomäki, Jenni; Voutilainen, Sari; Kauhanen, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this population-based study was to investigate differences in dietary patterns in relation to the level of alcohol consumption among Finnish adults. This study was part of the FinDrink project, an epidemiologic study on alcohol use among Finnish population. It utilized data from the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. A total of 1720 subjects comprising of 816 men and 904 women aged 53-73 years were included in the study in 1998-2001. Food intake was collected via a 4-day food diary method. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed with quantity-frequency method based on the Nordic Alcohol Consumption Inventory. Weekly alcohol consumption was categorized into three groups: non-drinkers (<12 grams), moderate drinkers (12-167.9 grams for men, 12-83.9 grams for women) and heavy drinkers (≥ 168 grams for men, ≥ 84 grams for women). Data were analyzed for men and women separately using multiple linear regression models, adjusted for age, occupational status, marital status, smoking, body mass index and leisure time physical activity. In women, moderate/heavy drinkers had lower fibre intake and moderate drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Male heavy drinkers had lower fibre, retinol, calcium and iron intake, and moderate/heavy drinkers had higher vitamin D intake than non-drinkers. Fish intake was higher among women moderate drinkers and men moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In men, moderate drinkers had lower fruit intake and heavy drinkers had lower milk intake than non-drinkers. Moderate drinkers had higher energy intake from total fats and monosaturated fatty acids than non-drinkers. In contrast, energy intake from carbohydrates was lower among moderate/heavy drinkers than non-drinkers. In conclusion, especially male heavy drinkers had less favorable nutritional intake than moderate and non-drinkers. Further studies on the relationship between alcohol consumption and dietary habits are needed to plan a

  17. Influence of Holy Month Ramadan on Alcohol Consumption in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Çelen, Aydın

    2015-12-01

    This study utilizes a balanced panel data set covering 50 monthly observations regarding the brewery products to examine the impact of holy month Ramadan on alcohol consumption in Turkey. In addition to the Ramadan, temperature, prices of the products and disposable income are other demand factors which are taken into account in this study. As expected, the Ramadan has been found to be associated with lower alcohol usage. As price of alcoholic drinks increases, the alcohol consumption decreases significantly. In addition, alcohol consumption rises with the enhancements in the disposable income. However, surprisingly, the temperature has not any significant effect on alcohol consumption in Turkey. PMID:24810139

  18. Combined Effects of Smoking and Alcohol on Metabolic Syndrome: The LifeLines Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Slagter, Sandra N.; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V.; Vonk, Judith M.; Boezen, H. Marieke; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Kobold, Anneke C. Muller.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; van Beek, André P.; van der Klauw, Melanie M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The development of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is influenced by environmental factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption. We determined the combined effects of smoking and alcohol on MetS and its individual components. Methods 64,046 participants aged 18–80 years from the LifeLines Cohort study were categorized into three body mass index (BMI) classes (BMI<25, normal weight; BMI 25–30, overweight; BMI≥30 kg/m2, obese). MetS was defined according to the revised criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III). Within each BMI class and smoking subgroup (non-smoker, former smoker, <20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day), the cross-sectional association between alcohol and individual MetS components was tested using regression analysis. Results Prevalence of MetS varied greatly between the different smoking-alcohol subgroups (1.7–71.1%). HDL cholesterol levels in all alcohol drinkers were higher than in non-drinkers (0.02 to 0.29 mmol/L, P values<0.001). HDL cholesterol levels were lower when they were also a former or current smoker (<20 and ≥20 g tobacco/day). Consumption of ≤1 drink/day indicated a trend towards lower triglyceride levels (non-significant). Concurrent use alcohol (>1 drink/day) and tobacco showed higher triglycerides levels. Up to 2 drinks/day was associated with a smaller waist circumference in overweight and obese individuals. Consumption of >2 drinks/day increased blood pressure, with the strongest associations found for heavy smokers. The overall metabolic profile of wine drinkers was better than that of non-drinkers or drinkers of beer or spirits/mixed drinks. Conclusion Light alcohol consumption may moderate the negative associations of smoking with MetS. Our results suggest that the lifestyle advice that emphasizes smoking cessation and the restriction of alcohol consumption to a maximum of 1 drink/day, is a good approach to reduce the prevalence of MetS. PMID:24781037

  19. Alcohol consumption and corresponding factors: A novel perspective on the risk factors of esophageal cancer

    PubMed Central

    PENG, QIAO; CHEN, HUI; HUO, JI-RONG

    2016-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is the eighth most common type of cancer in the world, and the sixth most common cause of mortality from cancer. Alcohol consumption is the major risk factor for esophageal cancer, due to the worldwide prevalence and high carcinogenicity of the ethanol metabolite. In epidemiological studies, the efficiency of alcohol intake to enhance the risk of esophageal cancer is altered by daily ethanol consumption, type of alcoholic beverages ingested, time since quitting drinking, age of drinking initiation, differences in population and subtypes of esophageal cancer. Corresponding factors, including gene polymorphisms, tobacco smoking, oral microorganisms and folate deficiency, reveal a synergistic effect in concurrent alcohol users that may lead to an increased risk of developing esophageal cancer. Consequently, esophageal cancer prevention involves multiple aspects, including quitting drinking and smoking, maintaining an adequate oral health and ingesting adequate quantities of folate, particularly in genetically high-risk populations. PMID:27123096

  20. The Impact of Parenthood on Alcohol Consumption Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michelle; Handley, Elizabeth; Leuthe, Eileen; Chassin, Laurie

    2009-01-01

    The current study tested the impact of the transition to parenthood on growth in alcohol consumption from early adolescence through emerging adulthood. We measured age-related discontinuity in trajectories of alcohol consumption associated with timing of the parenthood transition, above and beyond the effects of accrued educational status, gender and time-varying marital status. We also examined the impact of a familial selection factor for the transmission of alcohol use problems, family history density of alcoholism (FHD), on both risk for adolescent parenthood and risk for adolescent parents’ continuity in alcohol consumption after the parent-transition within a mediation structural equation model. Premature timing of parenthood had a distinct effect on emerging adult alcohol trajectories. Although participants who became parents as emerging adults showed role-related decline in alcohol consumption, those who became parents during adolescence showed a role-related rise in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Gender moderated adolescent parents’ role-related growth in emerging adult alcohol consumption. Adolescent fathers showed an adverse rise in alcohol consumption after becoming parents, while adolescent mothers’ alcohol consumption did not change significantly. FHD was related to high adolescent alcohol consumption, which mediated risk for the incidence of early parenthood. Finally, the adverse effect of FHD on trajectories of emerging adult alcohol use was mediated by a dual pathway: (1) developmental continuity of conduct problems and (2) early transition to parenthood. PMID:19338703

  1. Alcohol consumption significantly influences the MR signal of frontal choline-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Ende, Gabriele; Walter, Sigi; Welzel, Helga; Demirakca, Traute; Wokrina, Tim; Ruf, Matthias; Ulrich, Marco; Diehl, Alexander; Henn, Fritz A; Mann, Karl

    2006-08-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between the amount of alcohol consumption of a group of social drinkers and the magnetic resonance spectroscopy signal of choline-containing compounds (Cho) in the frontal lobe. Two independent long echo (TE = 135 ms) (1)H MRSI studies, the first comprising 24 subjects with very low alcohol consumption, the second 18 subjects with a more widespread alcohol consumption were conducted. Significant correlations of Cho measures from frontal white matter and from the anterior cingulate gyrus with alcohol consumption in the last 90 days prior to the MR examination were found. Age, gender, and smoking did not show significant effects on the metabolite measures. Partialling out the effect of the voxel white matter content did not change the correlation of choline measures with alcohol consumption. The main conclusion from the repeated finding of a positive correlation of alcohol consumption and frontal Cho signals is that monitoring for alcohol consumption is mandatory in MRS studies where pathology depended Cho changes are hypothesized. PMID:16759881

  2. Alcohol consumption is directly associated with circulating oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schroder, Helmut; Marrugat, Jaume; Fíto, Montserrat; Weinbrenner, Tanja; Covas, Maria-Isabel

    2006-04-15

    Findings on the association of alcohol consumption and oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL), which is thought to play a crucial role in the generation of atherosclerotic lesion, are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of total alcohol consumption and type of alcoholic beverage with circulating plasma LDL oxidation. This cross-sectional study included data of circulating oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) from a subpopulation of 587 men and women enrolled in a population-based survey conducted in 2000 in Girona (Spain). Multivariate analysis was performed to describe the independent association of alcohol consumption and ox-LDL. Increasing alcohol consumption was associated with high in vivo ox-LDL levels in the present population. The consumption of 10 g of alcohol was associated with an increase of 2.40 U/L of ox-LDL (p = 0.002). Adjustment for dietary variables, leisure-time physical activity, educational level, smoking, LDL-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, glycemia, triglycerides, diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures only slightly modified this association (p = 0.003). In this full adjusted model the consumption of 10 g of alcohol per day was associated with an increase of 2.11 U/L of ox-LDL. Consumption of wine (ml/day) was associated with increasing ox-LDL levels (p = 0.029), however, attenuated after controlling for alcohol. No significant relationship of ox-LDL with alcohol-independent consumption of wine, beer, and spirits was observed. Alcohol consumption was independently and directly associated with circulating ox-LDL in the present population. PMID:16631537

  3. Consumption of alcoholic beverages among pregnant urban Ugandan women.

    PubMed

    Namagembe, Imelda; Jackson, Leila W; Zullo, Melissa D; Frank, Scott H; Byamugisha, Josaphat K; Sethi, Ajay K

    2010-07-01

    The World Health Organization estimated alcohol consumption in Uganda to be one of the highest in the world. We examined alcohol consumption among Ugandan women prior to and after learning of pregnancy. We developed a screening algorithm using factors that predicted alcohol consumption in this study. In 2006, we surveyed 610 women attending antenatal care at the national referral hospital in Kampala, Uganda about consumption of traditional and commercial alcoholic beverages before and after learning of pregnancy. Predictors of alcohol consumption during pregnancy were examined and a practical screening algorithm was developed for use in antenatal clinics. One hundred eighty women (30%) drank alcohol at least monthly before learning of their pregnancy. Among these women, almost one-third reported usual consumption of at least one beverage type at quantities that equal binging levels for women. Overall, 151 women (25%) consumed alcohol after learning of pregnancy. Commercial beverages, particularly beer, were consumed more often than traditional drinks. A two-stage screening algorithm asking women about their religion, male partner or friends' drinking, and any lifetime drinking predicted self-reported consumption of alcohol during pregnancy with 97% sensitivity and 89% specificity. Alcohol consumption among pregnant Ugandan women attending antenatal care is high. A feasible screening algorithm can help providers target education and counseling to women who are likely drinking during pregnancy. Given the preference for commercial alcoholic beverages, it is recommended that labels be placed prominently on bottled alcoholic beverages warning of the adverse effects of consuming alcohol during pregnancy. PMID:19629663

  4. Disorganization of Attachment in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; And Others

    The relation between maternal alcohol consumption and infant attachment behavior at one year of age was investigated in this study. Alcohol consumption was estimated by self-report questionnaires filled out by mothers who were over 30 years of age. The questionnaire elicited information about the amount of alcohol mothers consumed prior to,…

  5. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  6. [Epidemiology of alcohol consumption in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Míguez, Hugo A

    2003-01-01

    Wine production in Argentina left its mark in alcoholic drinks, placing it much closer to the socio cultural habits of the Mediterranean Europeans of the middle of the 20th century than to the Saxon peoples where the priority was consuming distilled drinks. During the last twenty years a very important economic investment accompanied the changes in the patterns of alcohol use, basically because of the incorporation of adolescent and preadolescent population into the alcoholic drinks market. If the traditional permissive standard, which accepted the enjoyment of alcohol, was modified in the elements of culture that tended to set limits to its excess, evolution has leaned towards a culture that extends tolerance to excess, frequently referred to as an uncontrolled state. It is a change, which weighs even heavier upon those who are more vulnerable. Up to now although this has been evident in educational and economic areas, it can also be supported by other new factors. Historically, the focus of social concern has concentrated on those cases with alcohol dependence, as exemplified by the abstinence syndrome. The cultural trivialization of 'non addictive' levels of consumption, is sustained only by social tolerance. Preventive strategies must establish a system of alarm signals that target early detection, and as a result prompt attention. The variety of methods within the field of rehabilitation, in contrast to the scarce development in the secondary level, offers a sign of considerable bias in health policies. This is true both in the design of preventive programmes as well as in the training and organisation of support resources. PMID:14647544

  7. Does Moderate Level of Alcohol Consumption Produce a Relaxation Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, William; Lockhart, Judy O.

    Although many individuals use alcohol to cope with stress (their behavior being based on the belief that alcohol can produce a relaxation effect), research has reported conflicting results on the effects of alcohol on tension reduction. A study was conducted to examine the psychophysiological effects of moderate levels of alcohol consumption under…

  8. The dynamics of food, alcohol and cigarette consumption in Russia during transition.

    PubMed

    Herzfeld, Thomas; Huffman, Sonya; Rizov, Marian

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents evidence on the impact of individual as well as regional characteristics on the dynamics of fat, protein, alcohol and cigarette consumption, and on the diversity of the diet in Russia between 1994 and 2005. All those aspects of nutritional behavior are important inputs to the production of health. A dynamic panel data model is used to estimate demand functions for fat, protein, alcohol, cigarettes and diversity of the diet. The results suggest the existence of strong habits in drinking and smoking, and the absence of habits in fat and protein consumption. We also found evidence of habit formation for food diversity. Comparing nutritional behavior of younger and older consumers, we find significant differences in the demand for fat and cigarettes. Older consumers seem to be more persistent in their drinking and smoking behavior. Similarly, men show higher habit persistence for alcohol and cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that among individual determinants, especially education, income and employment have statistically significant impacts on consumption behavior. Regarding the macroeconomic variables, economic growth is negatively related to protein consumption, while regional unemployment rate is negatively affecting the demand for protein and food diversity. Finally, Russian consumers react to the price changes of alcohol, cigarettes, fat and protein as suggested by theory. Consumer demand for food diversity responds negatively to price changes of alcohol and cigarettes, but positively to the price of fat. PMID:23562250

  9. Male suicides and alcohol consumption in the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1994-05-01

    A significant decline (34.5%) in the suicide rate occurred in 1984-1988 throughout the USSR. The decline was observed shortly after the introduction of strict restrictions on the sale of alcohol. We tested the hypothesis that the restrictive alcohol policy in the first years of perestroika (June 1985) caused the fall in suicide rates in the former USSR. Data on alcohol consumption, violent death caused by external injury and poisoning (n = 916,315), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 77,837), suicide (n = 192,305) and death undetermined whether accidentally or purposely (n = 54,253) were analyzed for all former Soviet republics for 1984, 1986, 1988 and 1990. Men were chosen for the analysis, since men are more prone to abuse alcohol than women. Regression analysis with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and suicide rates and violent death rates as dependent variables shows that suicide and alcohol consumption were positively correlated as were violet death and alcohol consumption. In the republics with high alcohol consumption (Slavic and Baltic), suicide rates were also high. In the Caucasian republics, low alcohol consumption was associated with low suicide rates. For most republics, alcohol seems to explain more than 50% of suicides. Alcohol also has considerable explanatory value for violent death. Thus, a restrictive alcohol policy might be a way to reduce suicide and violent death. PMID:8067268

  10. Frequency of alcohol and smoking cessation counseling in hepatitis C patients among internists and gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Tanu; Reyes, Mary; Nguyen, Huy; Borum, Marie

    2009-12-21

    Given the overwhelming evidence that both alcohol consumption and smoking accelerate the progression of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-induced liver disease, we evaluated the frequency of alcohol and smoking counseling of patients with HCV-induced liver disease by their primary care internists and gastroenterologists. One hundred and twenty-three medical records of consecutive patients with HCV-induced liver disease referred by an internist to a gastroenterologist for its management were reviewed. Patient gender, race, history of and counseling against alcohol and tobacco use by a physician and a gastroenterologist were obtained. A database was created using Microsoft Excel. There were 105 African-Americans, 12 Caucasians and six patients of other races/ethnicities. Forty-six (37%) patients were daily tobacco users and 34 (28%) patients were daily alcohol consumers. There was a statistically significant difference in the frequencies of alcohol (P = 0.0002) and smoking cessation (P = 0.0022) between gastroenterologists and internists. This study reveals that internists and gastroenterologists, alike, inadequately counsel patients with hepatitis C about tobacco and alcohol use. PMID:20014469

  11. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part II.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-12-01

    An eight-variable model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption in a sample of 289 African American women is evaluated using a structural equation methodology. We found that life events, physical health problems, and internalized racialism played important roles in accounting for variance in alcohol consumption. Marital status did not have the predicted inverse effect on alcohol consumption. While religious orientation did not have the expected inverse effect on alcohol consumption, it had an unexpected direct effect on internalized racialism, which had a direct effect on alcohol consumption. We found that the effects of socioeconomic status and developmental status on alcohol consumption were mediated through other variables specified in the model. Overall the model, which provided partial to complete support for five of eight hypotheses, provided a statistically adequate fit. PMID:2094681

  12. Factors Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Hepatitis B Carriers: A Nationwide Study in the Republic of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Boyoung; Jung, Kyu-Won; Oh, Chang-Mo; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of alcohol consumption and identify the sociodemographic factors associated with alcohol consumption among individuals with hepatitis B virus(HBV) infection. We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, a nationwide survey conducted between 2007 and 2011. “Monthly alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol at least once per month during the past year, and “high-risk alcohol consumption” was defined as having consumed alcohol twice or more per week and, for males, having consumed at least 60 g of alcohol on one occasion or, for females, having consumed at least 40 g of alcohol on more than one occasion. The prevalence of monthly alcohol consumption was 53.2%, and that of high-risk alcohol consumption was 11.8% among HBV carriers. Less education was associated with both monthly and high-risk alcohol consumption(OR = 1.75 [95% CI = 1.02−3.02] for monthly alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education; OR = 2.48 [95% CI = 1.19−5.17] for high-risk alcohol consumption among those with less than a high school education and OR = 2.02 [95% CI = 1.12−3.64] among those with a high school education). Additionally, smoking and being male increased the risk of alcohol consumption, and older age and having a normal body mass index decreased the risk. HBV carriers who were less educated, overweight, and smokers were more likely to consume alcohol or meet criteria for high-risk drinking. Health policies and intervention programs aimed at promoting a generally healthy lifestyle in HBV carriers should consider educational inequalities and alcohol consumption. PMID:25387237

  13. Does maternal tobacco smoking modify the effect of alcohol on fetal growth?

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, J; Pereira, A da C; Olsen, S F

    1991-01-01

    Smoking and drinking habits were registered by a self-administered questionnaire in 36th week of gestation in 11,698 pregnant women, more than 80 percent of all such women in two Danish cities 1984-87. Alcohol consumption of 120 g/week or more was associated with a greater reduction in the average birthweight in the babies of smokers than of non-smokers (about 40 grams for the non-smokers and about 200 grams for the smokers). This is particularly striking considering that the average birthweight for smokers is lower than for non-smokers. A birthweight difference of more than 500 grams was found between babies of mothers who neither smoked nor drank and mothers who smoked and drank heavily. Our data suggest that women's smoking habits should be taken into consideration when giving pregnant women advice about drinking. PMID:1983919

  14. Work and High-Risk Alcohol Consumption in the Canadian Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Marchand, Alain; Parent-Lamarche, Annick; Blanc, Marie-Ève

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the associations between occupational groups; work-organization conditions based on task design; demands, social relations, and gratifications; and weekly high-risk alcohol consumption among Canadian workers. A secondary data analysis was performed on Cycle 2.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2003. The sample consisted of 76,136 employees 15 years of age and older nested in 2,451 neighbourhoods. High-risk alcohol consumption is defined in accordance with Canadian guidelines for weekly low-risk alcohol consumption. The prevalence of weekly high-risk alcohol consumption is estimated to be 8.1% among workers. The results obtained using multilevel logistic regression analysis suggest that increased work hours and job insecurity are associated with elevated odds of high-risk alcohol consumption. Gender female, older age, being in couple and living with children associated with lower odds of high-risk drinking, while increased education, smoking, physical activities, and, and economic status were associated with higher odds. High-risk drinking varied between neighbourhoods, and gender moderates the contribution of physical demands. The results suggest that work made a limited contribution and non-work factors a greater contribution to weekly high-risk alcohol consumption. Limits and implications of these results are discussed. PMID:21845153

  15. Alcohol Consumption and Parkinson’s Disease Risk: A Review of Recent Findings

    PubMed Central

    Bettiol, Silvana S.; Rose, Tanith C.; Hughes, Clarissa J.; Smith, Lesley A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The association between Parkinson’s disease and lifestyle exposures such as smoking, coffee and alcohol consumption have been the focus of research for several decades, with varying and often conflicting results. Objective: This paper reviews the key features of observational studies investigating the relationship between alcohol drinking and PD risk, to determine potential sources of variability between the results. Methods: Relevant literature from 2000–2014 was systematically retrieved using three databases. Primary research articles were included if they reported a measure of association between quantity and frequency of alcohol intake and PD risk, and adjusted at least for the potential confounding factors of smoking and age. Results: Sixteen articles were identified. The seven case-control studies were more likely to report a weak protective association by level of alcohol consumption compared to the studies with prospective designs. Two studies reported the relationship between heavy (harmful to health) drinking and PD. There was weak evidence that associations varied by type of alcoholic beverage. Smoking may modify the association between alcohol intake and PD risk, however, the evidence does not support the theory that a confounder (such as an addiction-avoiding personality trait) produced the inverse associations between smoking, coffee and alcohol intake and PD risk. Methodological weaknesses of the studies, including selection and recall bias, residual confounding and lack of statistical power may in part account for their differences. Conclusion: The weak association between alcohol drinking and PD risk was found in studies at greater risk of selection and recall bias. PMID:26406123

  16. Alcohol Consumption in Demographic Subpopulations: An Epidemiologic Overview.

    PubMed

    Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18-25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807

  17. Alcohol Control Policies and Alcohol Consumption by Youth: A Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Kypri, Kypros

    2009-01-01

    Aims The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Design Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption, and national adolescent survey data. Setting Data are from 26 countries. Participants Adolescents (15-17 years old) who participated in the 2003 ESPAD (European countries) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Measurements Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking, and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys; per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Analysis Correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past-30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking, and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. Findings More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were inversely related to the past-30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking 3-5 times and 6 or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also inversely related to the prevalence of past-30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. Conclusions More comprehensive and

  18. Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Bladder Cancer: Case-Control Study from a Nationwide Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tonooka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Takumi; Homma, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common in Western countries, but not in Japan. Established risk factors are smoking and high-risk jobs such as printing and manufacturing. The risk of alcohol consumption in bladder cancer has been the recent focus; however, available literature on alcohol consumption and bladder cancer has been limited from Japanese population, thought to have a weak genetic tolerance to acetaldehyde. We aimed to determine whether alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for bladder cancer among Japanese. The study was a matched case-control study from the nationwide Japanese clinical database administered by the Rosai Hospital group. We identified 739 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 2005 (when the database was established) and 2014 and 7,196 controls matched by sex, age, hospital, and admission period. We estimated the odds ratio of alcohol consumption for bladder cancer adjusted for the amount of smoking, high-risk occupations, and comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and obesity) with conditional logistic regression. The risk of bladder cancer was significantly higher in ever drinkers than in never drinkers (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.66). Furthermore, the risk threshold for alcohol consumption was more than 15 g of alcohol intake per day (one, 180-mL cup equivalent to 6 ounces of Japanese sake containing 23 grams of alcohol). Among Japanese, alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor for bladder cancer, with a lower risk threshold. PMID:27098227

  19. TIMEVARYING PREDICTORS OF SMOKING CESSATION AMONG INDIVIDUALS IN TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE: FINDINGS FROM PROJECT MATCH

    PubMed Central

    FRIEND, KAREN B.; PAGANO, MARIA E.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Individuals in treatment for alcohol use disorders are more likely to die from cigarette use than from alcohol consumption. Advanced statistical methodologies that increase study power and clinical relevance have been advocated to examine the timevarying nature of substance use relapse and abstinence, including drinking and smoking. The purpose of this investigation was to examine timevarying factors that are associated with smoking cessation among smokers in the general population, including alcohol use, self-efficacy, and depression, to determine if they were also related to smoking cessation during and after treatment for alcohol use disorders. Methods Data were garnered from Project MATCH, a longitudinal prospective study of the efficacy of three behavioural treatments for alcohol use disorders. Timevarying covariate analyses were conducted to examine future smoking cessation. Results Results showed that greater self-efficacy regarding resisting temptations to drink and lower levels of depression were independently associated with increased likelihood of stopping smoking. In contrast, drinks per drinking day and confidence regarding not drinking did not demonstrate such associations. Conclusions Clinical implications of these findings suggest that interventions to help alcoholics in recovery avoid temptations to drink, as well as decrease depression, may be warranted. By using advanced statistical techniques, these results can help clinicians and organizations working with smokers in treatment for alcohol use disorders to make informed decisions regarding how best to use limited resources. PMID:17526633

  20. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  1. "Risky Business": The College Transition, Loneliness, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Elizabeth M.; Fife, Eric M.; Nelson, C. Leigh

    2008-01-01

    A total of 296 students at a large southeastern university completed a series of measures designed to assess the connection between loneliness and alcohol use in the first college year. Results showed a somewhat surprising negative relationship between loneliness and alcohol consumption: As loneliness decreased, consumption increased. The…

  2. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  3. An Examination of Drunkorexia, Greek Affiliation, and Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Rose Marie; Galante, Marina; Trivedi, Rudra; Kahrs, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between Greek affiliation, the College Life Alcohol Salience Scale, alcohol consumption, disordered eating, and drunkorexia (i.e., using disordered eating practices as compensation for calories consumed through alcohol). A total of 349 college students (254 females, 89 males) participated in the…

  4. Problems associated with alcohol consumption by university students

    PubMed Central

    Castaño-Perez, Guillermo Alonso; Calderon-Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: the aim of this study was to analyze alcohol consumption by university students and psychosocial problems related. METHOD: descriptive correlational study that included 396 university students. The "Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test" - (AUDIT) - and an "ad hoc" questionnaire were used as instruments to assess the associated problems. RESULTS: of the total sample, 88.6% drank, 20.5% had harmful consumption and 14.9% were at risk of dependence according to AUDIT. The study showed important results related to harmful alcohol consumption and dependence, with damage to the academic performance, social relationships, psychological status and sexual condition. CONCLUSIONS: complications caused by problematic alcohol consumption by university students, which is high in this group due to the high prevalence of their alcohol consumption, highlights the importance of promoting programs to prevent the abuse and dependence of this substance in universities. PMID:25493668

  5. [Prevalence and psychosocial patterns of alcohol consumption in Cantabria].

    PubMed

    Díez Manrique, J F; Peña Martín, C; García Usieto, E; Vázquez Barquero, J L; Lequerica Puente, J; Alonso Sánchez, M

    1991-01-01

    This is a cross-sectional community survey directed to investigate aspects related ot the alcohol consumption of 1,816 persons, of 16-65 years of age, representative of the population of Cantabria. It was found, among other things, that 7% of the male and 23% of the female were abstinent, being the prevalence for excessive alcohol consumption of 14.36% for males and of 0.22% for females. We also found, especially among the younger age groups, a growing female incorporation into the masculine patterns of alcohol consumption. It was also analyzed in the study the characteristics of the patterns of alcohol consumption. We found, in this respect, for the different socio-demographic groups of this community, specific profiles of alcohol consumption. PMID:1807100

  6. Social anxiety and alcohol consumption: the role of alcohol expectancies and reward sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Booth, Catherine; Hasking, Penelope

    2009-09-01

    Although the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption has been the subject of extensive exploration, previous studies have failed to draw consistent conclusions about the nature of this relationship. Gray [Gray, J.A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] suggested that individuals who are sensitive to reward are likely to place themselves in potentially rewarding environments (e.g. pubs and clubs). As such these individuals will have a greater chance to experience and vicariously observe the effects of alcohol in these environments, leading to the formation and modification of alcohol expectancies. Consequently, reinforcement sensitivity theory and alcohol expectancies are inherently related, yet have remained disparate areas of research. In this study, a total of 454 young adults responded to a questionnaire assessing social anxiety, alcohol consumption, reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies. Regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity, expectations of tension reduction and increased confidence, and alcohol consumption. Expectations of tension reduction were observed to moderate the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption. In addition, three-way relationships between reward sensitivity, alcohol expectancies and social anxiety were observed to predict alcohol consumption. Overall, these results suggest that both reward sensitivity and alcohol expectancies play a role in the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol consumption, and that inclusion of these constructs in further research may aid in further clarifying the mechanisms underlying comorbid social anxiety and alcohol abuse. PMID:19464809

  7. Addressing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ann; Kostadinov, Victoria; Fischer, Jane; Nicholas, Roger; O'Rourke, Kerryn; Pidd, Ken; Trifonoff, Allan

    2015-09-01

    Social determinants, or the conditions in which individuals are born, grow, live, work and age, can result in inequities in health and well-being. However, to-date little research has examined alcohol use and alcohol-related problems from an inequities and social determinants perspective. This study reviewed the evidence base regarding inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health outcomes in Australia and identified promising approaches for promoting health equity. Fair Foundations: the VicHealth framework for health equity was used as an organizing schema. The review found that social determinants can strongly influence inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. In general, lower socioeconomic groups experience more harm than wealthier groups with the same level of alcohol consumption. While Australia has implemented numerous alcohol-related interventions and policies, most do not explicitly aim to reduce inequities, and some may inadvertently exacerbate existing inequities. Interventions with the greatest potential to decrease inequities in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms include town planning, zoning and licensing to prevent disproportionate clustering of outlets in disadvantaged areas; interventions targeting licensed venues; and interventions targeting vulnerable populations. Interventions that may worsen inequities include national guidelines, technological interventions and public drinking bans. There is a need for further research into the best methods for reducing inequities in alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:26420810

  8. Trends in Dietary Patterns, Alcohol Intake, Tobacco Smoking, and Colorectal Cancer in Polish Population in 1960–2008

    PubMed Central

    Jarosz, Mirosław; Sekuła, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the relationships between long-term trends in food consumption, alcohol intake, tobacco smoking, and colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence. Data on CRC incidence rates were derived from the National Cancer Registry, on food consumption from the national food balance sheets; data on alcohol and tobacco smoking reflected official statistics of the Central Statistical Office. It was shown that CRC incidence rates were increasing between 1960 and 1995, which could have been affected by adverse dietary patterns (growing consumption of edible fats, especially animal fats, sugar, red meat, and declining fibre and folate intake), high alcohol consumption, and frequent tobacco smoking noted until the end of the 1980s. Since 1990, the dietary pattern changed favourably (decrease in consumption of red meat, animal fats, and sugar, higher vitamin D intake, increase in vegetables and fruit quantities consumed, and decline in tobacco smoking). These changes could contribute to the stabilisation of CRC incidence among women seen after 1996 and a reduction in the rate of increase among men. PMID:24369529

  9. Increased sister chromatid exchange associated with smoking and coffee consumption.

    PubMed

    Reidy, J A; Annest, J L; Chen, A T; Welty, T K

    1988-01-01

    Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) is a very sensitive cytogenetic assay for detecting exposure to chemical mutagens and carcinogens. One application of SCE is the monitoring of populations believed to be exposed to such agents. We have, however, relatively little knowledge about common lifestyle factors that may influence SCE and therefore complicate any study designed to examine the effects of exposure to genotoxins. In this study, we assessed the effect of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption on SCE. Smoking was associated with an increase of approximately 2 SCEs per cell and a decrease in cell proliferation. A positive linear relationship between SCE and coffee consumption was also observed. This effect was similar for smokers and nonsmokers. Additionally, the folic acid content of cell culture medium seemed to affect neither SCE nor cell proliferation. PMID:3169009

  10. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Lung Carcinoma by Histological Subtype.

    PubMed

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T; Freedman, Neal D; Shebl, Fatma M; Abnet, Christian C

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol is a carcinogen suspected of increasing lung cancer risk. Therefore, we prospectively evaluated the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma in 492,902 persons from the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for tobacco smoking and other potential confounders. Between 1995/1996 and December 31, 2006, there were 10,227 incident cases of lung carcinoma, classified as adenocarcinoma (n = 4,036), squamous cell carcinoma (n = 1,998), small cell carcinoma (n = 1,524), undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 559), and other (n = 2,110). Compared with nondrinking, alcohol consumption was associated with a modest nonlinear reduction in total lung carcinoma risk at lower levels of consumption (for 0.5-<1 drink/day, HR = 0.89, 95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.96) but a modest increase in risk in the highest category (for ≥7 drinks/day, HR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 1.24). Regarding histological type, alcohol was associated with a nonlinear reduction in squamous cell carcinoma that became attenuated as consumption increased and a modest increase in adenocarcinoma among heavier drinkers. Cubic spline models confirmed these findings. Our data suggest that the relationship between alcohol consumption and lung carcinoma differs by histological subtype. PMID:26672017

  11. Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Mistry, Yogita; Cordell, Rebecca; Juren, Tina; Segerbäck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and increased cancer risk. The effect of alcohol consumption on the levels and persistence of N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) formed by acetaldehyde, the oxidative metabolite of ethanol, in human leukocyte DNA was investigated. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples obtained from 30 male non-smoking individuals before consumption of alcohol (0h) and subsequently at 3-5h following the consumption of 150mL of vodka (containing 42% pure ethanol). Additional samples were collected 24h and 48h post-alcohol consumption. The levels of N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) in the DNA were determined following reduction of N(2)-ethylidene-dG with sodium cyanoborohydride using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry selected reaction monitoring method. A slight time-dependent trend showing an increase and decrease in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG was observed following consumption of alcohol compared to time 0h, however, the differences were not statistically significant. The average levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG observed at 0h, 3-5h, 24h and 48h time points following ingestion of alcohol were 34.6±21.9, 35.1±21.0, 36.8±20.7 and 35.6±21.1 per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. In conclusion, alcohol consumption that could be encountered under social drinking conditions, does not significantly alter the levels of the acetaldehyde derived DNA adduct, N(2)-ethyl-dG in human leukocyte DNA from healthy individuals. PMID:22824164

  12. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  13. Cardiovascular risks and benefits of moderate and heavy alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits. PMID:26099843

  14. Effect of alcohol consumption selenium bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol consumption on selenium bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/Kg or at 0.085 mg Se/Kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at three levels: 0%, 10% and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, liver Se concentration, and total liver Se content. Alcohol consumption significantly increased liver Se concentrations and total liver Se in rats fed the adequate Se diet. In rates fed the low Se diet, this pattern was not shown. There was a significant interaction between alcohol and Se level in terms of liver Se concentration and total liver Se. In the first week of Se repletion, fecal Se. Se absorption and Se balance were significantly higher in the 10% alcohol group fed the low Se repletion diet compared to rats given 0% and 20% alcohol in the same Se group. In the final week Se repletion the parameters of Se balance were not affected by alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption did not influence whole blood Se and whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity; however alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  15. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  16. Moderate, Regular Alcohol Consumption is Associated with Higher Cognitive Function in Older Community-Dwelling Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reas, E.T.; Laughlin, G.A.; Kritz-Silverstein, D.; Barrett-Connor, E.; McEvoy, L.K.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that moderate alcohol consumption may protect against cognitive decline and dementia. However, uncertainty remains over the patterns of drinking that are most beneficial. OBJECTIVE To examine associations between amount and frequency of alcohol consumption with multiple domains of cognitive function in a well-characterized cohort of older community-dwelling adults in southern California. DESIGN Observational, cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING A research visit between 1988–1992 in Rancho Bernardo, California. PARTICIPANTS 1624 participants of the Rancho Bernardo Study (mean age ± SD = 73.2 ± 9.3 years). Measurements Participants completed a neuropsychological test battery, self-administered questionnaires on alcohol consumption and lifestyle, and a clinical health evaluation. We classified participants according to average amount of alcohol intake into never, former, moderate, heavy and excessive drinkers, and according to frequency of alcohol intake, into non-drinkers, rare, infrequent, frequent and daily drinkers. We examined the association between alcohol intake and cognitive function, controlling for age, sex, education, exercise, smoking, waist-hip ratio, hypertension and self-assessed health. RESULTS Amount and frequency of alcohol intake were significantly associated with cognitive function, even after controlling for potentially related health and lifestyle variables. Global and executive function showed positive linear associations with amount and frequency of alcohol intake, whereas visual memory showed an inverted U-shaped association with alcohol intake, with better performance for moderate and infrequent drinkers than for non-drinkers, excessive drinkers or daily drinkers. CONCLUSIONS In several cognitive domains, moderate, regular alcohol intake was associated with better cognitive function relative to not drinking or drinking less frequently. This suggests that beneficial cognitive effects of alcohol intake may be

  17. Alcohol consumption in a rural area of Cantabria.

    PubMed

    Herrera Castanedo, S; Vázquez-Barquero, J L; Gaite, L; Diez Manrique, J F; Peña, C; Garcia Usieto, E

    1996-06-01

    A two-stage cross-sectional survey was performed in a representative rural sample of the autonomous community of Cantabria, to investigate the social, medical and psychopathological factors associated with alcohol consumption. Alcohol consumption was investigated by means of a specific questionnaire. Mental and physical health was evaluated in the first-stage sample using: (1) the General Health Questionnaire, (2) the Cornell Medical Index. In the second stage all members of the sample were interviewed at home using the 140-item version of the Present State Examination (PSE-9). We found that 25.4% of males and 0.6% of females were consuming more than 63 alcohol units per week. Alcohol consumption was significantly associated with different social variables. Although it was possible to detect an increase in weekend drinking, especially in the heavy alcohol users, daily alcohol consumption, mainly around meals, was the predominant drinking pattern. We also found a significant inverse association between excessive alcohol consumption and the presence of physical or mental illness. Excessive alcohol use tended to be associated in males with depression and in females, with anxiety. PMID:8766467

  18. [Personality factors as predictors of alcohol consumption by university students].

    PubMed

    Natividade, Jean Carlos; Aguirre, Alba Recalde; Bizarro, Lisiane; Hutz, Claudio Simon

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to verify differences in personality factors between abstainers and drinkers and between individuals with higher versus lower levels of alcohol consumption in the previous three months, and to test the predictive power of factors for any lifetime alcohol consumption and for at least monthly alcohol consumption. A total of 169 university students participated, of whom 66.7% were women, with a mean age of 21.2 years. Lifetime alcohol consumption was 90.1%; 42.3% had consumed at least twice in the previous three months; and 57.7% consumed alcohol at least monthly. Participants with less frequent consumption in the previous three months showed higher mean scores for personality factors involving socialization and achievement, while those that consumed more frequently scored higher on extroversion. A predictive model showed that increments in extroversion contributed to increased odds of drinking alcohol, while increments in achievement decreased the odds of drinking. Personality characteristics were able to distinguish between different groups of drinkers and predict the frequency of alcohol consumption. PMID:22666813

  19. Moderate alcohol consumption and the immune system: a review.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Javier; Wärnberg, Julia; Nova, Esther; Díaz, Ligia E; Gómez-Martinez, Sonia; Marcos, Ascensión

    2007-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that light to moderate amounts of polyphenol-rich alcoholic beverages like wine or beer could have health benefits. Scientists have long debated the effects of alcohol on immune function, showing on the one hand, that high doses of alcohol consumption can directly suppress a wide range of immune responses, and that alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence of a number of infectious diseases. On the other hand, moderate alcohol consumption seems to have a beneficial impact on the immune system compared to alcohol abuse or abstinence. Therefore, the link between alcohol consumption, immune response, as well as infectious and inflammatory processes remains not completely understood. With this in mind, it is important to realise that other factors, unrelated or indirectly related to immune function, like drinking patterns, beverage type, amount of alcohol, or gender differences, will affect the influence that alcohol consumption may have on the immune system. This review summarises published data describing the effects that light to moderate amounts of polyphenol-rich beverages like wine or beer seem to have on immunity in healthy adults. PMID:17922947

  20. Smoking and alcohol drinking during pregnancy as the risk factors for poor child neurodevelopment - A review of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Polańska, Kinga; Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Maternal active and passive smoking and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy, taking into account the level of exposure and developmental or behavioral outcomes, are recognized as a significant issue from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The article aims at evaluating the impact of prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke constituents and low or moderate alcohol drinking during pregnancy on children neurodevelopment by reviewing the most recently published literature. Relevant studies were identified by searching the Pubmed, Medline and Ebsco literature databases. This review is restricted to 29 human studies published in English in peer reviewed journals since 2006. The studies published recently continued to show some relationship between tobacco smoke exposure, from active and passive maternal smoking during pregnancy, and children's psychomotor development independent of other variables, but this relationship is not straightforward. The association is mostly consistent for measures of academic achievements and behavioral problems which require further attention. The results of the studies on low or moderate exposure to alcohol are not fully conclusive, but some of them suggest that consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect children's intelligence quotient (IQ), mental health, memory and verbal or visual performance. As the reviewed studies indicate, maternal lifestyle during pregnancy like alcohol drinking or smoking may affect children neurodevelopment. All effort should be taken to eliminate such exposure to ensure appropriate children's development. PMID:26190723

  1. Patterns of media use and alcohol brand consumption among underage drinking youth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Borzekowski, Dina L G; Ross, Craig S; Jernigan, David H; DeJong, William; Siegel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether underage drinkers with varied media use patterns differentially consume popular brands of alcohol. A survey was conducted with a national online panel of 1,032 underage youth 13-20 years of age who had consumed at least 1 drink in the past 30 days. A latent class analysis identified four distinct media use patterns. Further analyses explored whether these media use groups differentially consumed the most frequently used alcohol brands. The results showed that past 30-day consumption of specific alcohol brands differed significantly across the four media use clusters, even after controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, U.S. geographic region, frequency of parent's alcohol overconsumption, cigarette smoking, and seatbelt use. This study shows that youth use media in different ways, and this differential use is significantly associated with the consumption of specific alcohol brands. The media clusters revealed in this analysis may inform future research about the association between specific alcohol media exposures and individual brand consumption. PMID:25631372

  2. The Synergistic Impact of Excessive Alcohol Drinking and Cigarette Smoking upon Prospective Memory

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Anna-Marie; Heffernan, Thomas; Hamilton, Colin

    2016-01-01

    The independent use of excessive amounts of alcohol or persistent cigarette smoking have been found to have a deleterious impact upon Prospective Memory (PM: remembering future intentions and activities), although to date, the effect of their concurrent use upon PM is yet to be explored. The present study investigated the impact of the concurrent use of drinking excessive amounts of alcohol and smoking cigarettes (a “Polydrug” group) in comparison to the combined effect of the single use of these substances upon PM. The study adopted a single factorial independent groups design. The Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) is a test of both time-based and event-based PM and was used here to measure PM. The CAMPROMPT was administered to 125 adults; an excessive alcohol user group (n = 40), a group of smokers who drink very little alcohol (n = 20), a combined user group (the “Polydrug” group) who drink excessively and smoke cigarettes (n = 40) and a non-drinker/low alcohol consumption control group (n = 25). The main findings revealed that the Polydrug users recalled significantly fewer time-based PM tasks than both excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. Polydrug users (mean = 11.47) also remembered significantly fewer event-based PM tasks than excessive alcohol users p < 0.001 and smokers p = 0.013. With regards to the main aim of the study, the polydrug users exhibited significantly greater impaired time-based PM than the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers p = 0.033. However, no difference was observed between polydrug users and the combined effect of single excessive alcohol users and cigarette smokers in event-based PM p = 0.757. These results provide evidence that concurrent (polydrug) use of these two substances has a synergistic effect in terms of deficits upon time-based PM. The observation that combined excessive drinking and cigarette smoking

  3. Alcohol consumption and prostate cancer: a mini review.

    PubMed

    Rizos, Ch; Papassava, M; Golias, Ch; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-07-01

    Prostate cancer has become a major public health problem worldwide although the etiology of prostate cancer remains largely unknown. Dietary factors, dietary supplements, and physical activity might be important in the prevention of the disease. In the majority of studies published, it was observed that high consumption of meat, alcohol and dairy products has been linked to a greater risk. Specifically, alcohol use, and particularly heavy use, may cause cancers of liver, esophagus, larynx, pharynx and oral cavity, with risks for the aero-digestive cancers. Moderate use among women has been related with increases in breast cancer. Alcohol consumption is a modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect prostate cancer risk. Alcohol alters the hormonal environment and in parallel, containing chemical substances such as flavonoids (red wine), may alter tumor cell growth. In this mini review, the relation between alcohol consumption and prostate cancer risk is analyzed. PMID:20693964

  4. Adolescent elite athletes' cigarette smoking, use of snus, and alcohol.

    PubMed

    Martinsen, M; Sundgot-Borgen, J

    2014-04-01

    The purpose was to examine cigarette smoking, use of snus, alcohol, and performance-enhancing illicit drugs among adolescent elite athletes and controls, and possible gender and sport group differences. First-year students at 16 Norwegian Elite Sport High Schools (n = 677) and two randomly selected high schools (controls, n = 421) were invited to participate. Totally, 602 athletes (89%) and 354 (84%) controls completed the questionnaire. More controls than athletes were smoking, using snus, and drinking alcohol. Competing in team sports was associated with use of snus [odds ratio = 2.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6 to 4.7] and a similar percentage of male and female handball (22.2% vs 18.8%) and soccer players (15.7% vs 15.0%) reported using snus. For controls, not participating in organized sport was a predictor for smoking (odds ratio = 4.9, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.9). Female athletes were more prone to drink alcohol than males (46.3% vs 31.0%, P < 0.001). Only, 1.2% athletes and 2.8% controls reported use of performance-enhancing illicit drugs. In conclusion, use of legal drugs is less common among athletes, but this relationship depends on type of sport and competition level. The association between team sports and use of snus suggests that sport subcultures play a role. PMID:22830488

  5. Alcohol consumption and sport: a cross-sectional study of alcohol management practices associated with at-risk alcohol consumption at community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs participate in at-risk alcohol consumption at levels above that of communities generally. There has been limited research investigating the predictors of at-risk alcohol consumption in sporting settings, particularly at the non-elite level. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the alcohol management practices and characteristics of community football clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Methods A cross sectional survey of community football club management representatives and members was conducted. Logistic regression analysis (adjusting for clustering by club) was used to determine the association between the alcohol management practices (including alcohol management policy, alcohol-related sponsorship, availability of low- and non-alcoholic drinks, and alcohol-related promotions, awards and prizes) and characteristics (football code, size and location) of sporting clubs and at-risk alcohol consumption by club members. Results Members of clubs that served alcohol to intoxicated people [OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.26-3.93)], conducted ‘happy hour’ promotions [OR: 2.84 (95% CI: 1.84-4.38)] or provided alcohol-only awards and prizes [OR: 1.80 (95% CI: 1.16-2.80)] were at significantly greater odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels than members of clubs that did not have such alcohol management practices. At-risk alcohol consumption was also more likely among members of clubs with less than 150 players compared with larger clubs [OR:1.45 (95% CI: 1.02-2.05)] and amongst members of particular football codes. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest a need and opportunity for the implementation of alcohol harm reduction strategies targeting specific alcohol management practices at community football clubs. PMID:23947601

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Lung Cancer Risk in the Environment and Genetics in Lung Cancer Etiology (EAGLE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Randi, Giorgia; Lubin, Jay; Consonni, Dario; Lam, Tram Kim; Subar, Amy F.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Wacholder, Sholom; Bergen, Andrew W.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Decarli, Adriano; Caporaso, Neil E.; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The authors investigated the relation between alcohol consumption and lung cancer risk in the Environment and Genetics in Lung Cancer Etiology (EAGLE) Study, a population-based case-control study. Between 2002 and 2005, 2,100 patients with primary lung cancer were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy and were frequency-matched on sex, area of residence, and age to 2,120 randomly selected controls. Alcohol consumption during adulthood was assessed in 1,855 cases and 2,065 controls. Data on lifetime tobacco smoking, diet, education, and anthropometric measures were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for categories of mean daily ethanol intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Overall, both nondrinkers (odds ratio = 1.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 2.01) and very heavy drinkers (≥60 g/day; odds ratio = 1.44, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 2.07) were at significantly greater risk than very light drinkers (0.1–4.9 g/day). The alcohol effect was modified by smoking behavior, with no excess risk being observed in never smokers. In summary, heavy alcohol consumption was a risk factor for lung cancer among smokers in this study. Although residual confounding by tobacco smoking cannot be ruled out, this finding may reflect interplay between alcohol and smoking, emphasizing the need for preventive measures. PMID:19933698

  7. Alcohol consumption in arthritic patients: clinical and laboratory studies.

    PubMed Central

    Bradlow, A; Mowat, A G

    1985-01-01

    In popular belief patients with chronic arthritis take alcohol for its analgesic effect. To test this we studied by validated questionnaire the past and present alcohol consumption of 103 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip (OA), 95 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 90 orthopaedic non-arthritic controls. OA men were most likely and RA men least likely to have been heavy drinkers at any time of their lives. Mean red corpuscular volume (MCV), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), and serum uric acid (SUA) levels did not correlate with reported alcohol consumption. Two of 93 OA femoral heads examined had avascular change; both were from heavy drinkers. The abstemiousness of RA men compared with their OA counterparts was due to a striking increase in joint pain after drinking alcohol (p = 0.004), fear of adverse drug reactions with alcohol, and a widespread belief not expressed by OA men that 'alcohol and arthritis do not mix'. PMID:2858181

  8. Analyzing Greek Members Alcohol Consumption by Gender and the Impact of Alcohol Education Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown-Rice, Kathleen A.; Furr, Susan; Jorgensen, Maribeth

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Greek community have been found to engage in riskier alcohol drinking behaviors and have higher alcohol- related negative consequences. A sample of Greek members were surveyed in Spring of 2013 (n = 372). It was found that The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) scores were significantly higher for male…

  9. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  10. Alcohol consumption in college students from the pharmacy faculty.

    PubMed

    Miquel, Laia; Rodamilans, Miquel; Giménez, Rosa; Cambras, Trinitat; Canudas, Ana María; Gual, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in university students. Early detection in future health professionals is important: their consumption might not only influence their own health but may determine how they deal with the implementation of preventive strategies in the future. The aim of this paper is to detect the prevalence of risky alcohol consumption in first- and last-degree year students and to compare their drinking patterns.Risky drinking in pharmacy students (n=434) was assessed and measured with the AUDIT questionnaire (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A comparative analysis between college students from the first and fifth years of the degree in pharmacy, and that of a group of professors was carried to see differences in their alcohol intake patterns.Risky drinking was detected in 31.3% of students. The highest prevalence of risky drinkers, and the total score of the AUDIT test was found in students in their first academic year. Students in the first academic level taking morning classes had a two-fold risk of risky drinking (OR=1.9 (IC 95%1.1-3.1)) compared with students in the fifth level. The frequency of alcohol consumption increases with the academic level, whereas the number of alcohol beverages per drinking occasion falls.Risky drinking is high during the first year of university. As alcohol consumption might decrease with age, it is important to design preventive strategies that will strengthen this tendency. PMID:26437317

  11. Do Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Adolescents Differ by Beverage Type?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley; Jobli, Edessa C.; Moore, Michele J.; DiClemente, Carlo C.; Heather, Dore S.; Brown, C. Hendricks

    2006-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to explore the alcohol consumption patterns of adolescents by beverage type. A total of 705 primarily 9th grade students were recruited to participate in this study in the spring of 2002. Alcoholic beverage use differed significantly across gender and ethnicity on a number of beverage-specific drinking…

  12. Cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Praud, Delphine; Rota, Matteo; Rehm, Jürgen; Shield, Kevin; Zatoński, Witold; Hashibe, Mia; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo

    2016-03-15

    Alcohol consumption is a major cause of disease and death. In a previous study, we reported that in 2002, 3.6% of all cases of cancer and a similar proportion of cancer deaths were attributable to the consumption of alcohol. We aimed to update these figures to 2012 using global estimates of cancer cases and cancer deaths, data on the prevalence of drinkers from the World Health Organization (WHO) global survey on alcohol and health, and relative risks for alcohol-related neoplasms from a recent meta-analysis. Over the 10-year period considered, the total number of alcohol-attributable cancer cases increased to approximately 770,000 worldwide (5.5% of the total number of cancer cases)-540,000 men (7.2%) and 230,000 women (3.5%). Corresponding figures for cancer deaths attributable to alcohol consumption increased to approximately 480,000 (5.8% of the total number of cancer deaths) in both sexes combined-360,000 (7.8%) men and 120,000 (3.3%) women. These proportions were particularly high in the WHO Western Pacific region, the WHO European region and the WHO South-East Asia region. A high burden of cancer mortality and morbidity is attributable to alcohol, and public health measures should be adopted in order to limit excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26455822

  13. Alcohol Consumption among Urban, Suburban, and Rural Veterans Affairs Outpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Emily C.; McFarland, Lynne V.; Nelson, Karin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: United States rural residents tend toward poorer health than urban residents. Although alcohol use is associated with multiple medical conditions and can be reduced via brief primary care-based interventions, it is unknown whether alcohol consumption differs by rurality among primary care patients. We sought to describe alcohol…

  14. Disorganization of Attachment in Relation to Maternal Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between maternal alcohol consumption and infant attachment behavior at one year of age. Infants were classified as secure, insecure-avoidant, insecure-ambivalent/resistant, or insecure-disorganized/disoriented. More infants of mothers who had consumed more alcohol were insecure in comparison with infants whose mothers…

  15. The Effects of Learned Helplessness on Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Nora E.; Lisman, Stephen A.

    Widely held cultural beliefs assert that alcohol can offer both an ameliorative and preventive solution to the problem of depression. This study attempted to assess the effects of learned helplessness--a possible laboratory analog to reactive depression--on alcohol consumption. Thirty-eight female undergraduates were randomly assigned (within…

  16. Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption among College Students on Game Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis J.; Dodd, Virginia J.; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Wagenaar, Alex C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and the related consequences associated with college football games are a serious public health issue for university communities. Objective: Examining "Extreme Ritualistic Alcohol Consumption" (ERAC), defined as consuming 10 or more drinks on game day for a male, and 8 or more drinks for a female, is the focus of this study.…

  17. The collectivity of changes in alcohol consumption revisited

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Mäkelä, Pia; Kerr, William

    2014-01-01

    Aim Within-country temporal changes in alcohol consumption in the USA, Finland, and Norway were examined to assess 1) whether a change in mean alcohol consumption is accompanied by a change in the prevalence of heavy drinkers, 2) whether this mean change reflects a collective displacement in the whole distribution of consumption, and 3) whether a collective displacement is found for both an upward and a downward shift in mean consumption. Design, setting, participants We applied repeated cross-sectional survey data on distribution measures for estimated annual alcohol consumption from national population sample surveys covering 30 to 40 years periods in two countries with increasing trends in mean consumption (Finland and Norway) and one country with decreasing trends (the USA). Results There was a strong positive association (P < .001) between changes in mean consumption and changes in the prevalence of heavy drinkers in all three countries. Moreover, a change in mean consumption was accompanied by a consumption change in the same direction in all consumer categories in all three countries, i.e. a collective displacement. The regression coefficients were around 1. Conclusion Drinkers at all levels of consumption appear to move in concert, both up and down the consumption scale in Finland, Norway, and the USA, as predicted by Skog's theory of the collectivity of drinking cultures. PMID:24552460

  18. Effect of alcohol consumption status and alcohol concentration on oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Satpathy, Anurag; Ravindra, Shivamurthy; Porwal, Amit; Das, Abhaya C; Kumar, Manoj; Mukhopadhyay, Indranil

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol exposure alters oral mucosa. Patient compliance with mouthwash use may be reduced by oral pain resulting from rinsing with alcohol-containing mouthwash. However, information regarding the effects of alcohol consumption and mouthwash alcohol concentration on oral pain is limited. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled cross-over study, we investigated the effects of alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration on response to and perception of oral pain induced by alcohol-containing mouthwash. Fifty healthy men aged 33 to 56 years were enrolled and classified as drinkers and nondrinkers according to self-reported alcohol consumption. All subjects rinsed with two commercially available mouthwash products (which contained high and low concentrations of alcohol) and a negative control, in randomized order. Time of onset of oral pain, time of cessation of oral pain (after mouthwash expectoration), and pain duration were recorded, and oral pain intensity was recorded on a verbal rating scale. Drinkers had later oral pain onset and lower pain intensity. High-alcohol mouthwash was associated with earlier pain onset and greater pain intensity. In addition, oral pain cessation was later and pain duration was longer in nondrinkers rinsing with high-alcohol mouthwash. In conclusion, alcohol consumption status and mouthwash alcohol concentration were associated with onset and intensity of oral pain. PMID:23748448

  19. Risk of end-stage renal disease associated with alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Perneger, T V; Whelton, P K; Puddey, I B; Klag, M J

    1999-12-15

    Alcohol consumption has been linked to kidney disorders in selected patient groups, but whether it contributes to the burden of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the general population is unknown. The authors conducted a population-based case-control study to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and risk of ESRD. The study took place in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, DC, in 1991. Participants were 716 patients who had started treatment for ESRD and 361 control subjects of similar age (20-64 years) selected by random digit dialing. The main risk factor of interest was self-reported consumption of alcoholic beverages (frequency of drinking days and number of drinks consumed per drinking day). In univariate analysis, consumption of alcohol exhibited a J-shaped association with risk of ESRD. The J shape disappeared after exclusion of persons who had ever consumed home-distilled whiskey ("moonshine") and adjustment for age, race, sex, income, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, use of acetaminophen, use of opiates, and cigarette smoking; however, the odds ratio for ESRD remained significantly increased (odds ratio = 4.0; 95% confidence interval: 1.2, 13.0) among persons who consumed an average of >2 alcoholic drinks per day. The corresponding population attributable risk was 9 percent. Thus, consumption of more than two alcoholic drinks per day, on average, was associated with an increased risk of kidney failure in the general population. A lower intake of alcohol did not appear to be harmful. Because these results are based on self-reports in a case-control study, they should be seen as preliminary. PMID:10604769

  20. Increased Facial Attractiveness Following Moderate, but not High, Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Abbeele, Jana; Penton-Voak, Ian S.; Attwood, Angela S.; Stephen, Ian D.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol consumption is known to be associated with risky sexual behaviours, but this relationship may be complex and bidirectional. We explored whether alcohol consumption leads to the consumer being rated as more attractive than sober individuals. Methods: Heterosexual social alcohol consumers completed an attractiveness-rating task, in which they were presented with pairs of photographs depicting the same individual, photographed while sober and after having consumed alcohol (either 0.4 or 0.8 g/kg), and required to decide which image was more attractive. Results: Photographs of individuals who had consumed a low dose of alcohol (equivalent to 250 ml of wine at 14% alcohol by volume for a 70 kg individual) were rated as more attractive than photographs of sober individuals. This was not observed for photographs of individuals who had consumed a high dose of alcohol. Conclusion: In addition to perceiving others as more attractive, a mildly intoxicated alcohol consumer may also be perceived as more attractive by others. This in turn may play a role in the relationship between alcohol consumption and risky sexual behaviour. PMID:25716115

  1. [Benefits in reducing alcohol consumption: how nalmefene can help].

    PubMed

    Bendimerad, P; Blecha, L

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol consumption represents a significant factor for mortality in the world: 6.3% in men and 1.1% in women. Alcohol use disorder is also very common: 5.4% in men, 1.5% in women. Despite its high frequency and the seriousness of this disorder, only 8% of all alcohol-dependents are ever treated. Recent meta-analyses have shown that if we can increase current figures by 40%, we could decrease alcohol-related morality rates by 13% in men and 9% in women. Thus, it is important to motivate both physicians and patients to participate in treatment in alcohol use disorder. Recent epidemiological data from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) are currently challenging the notion of alcohol use disorder as a fixed entity. Among a cohort of 4422 subjects initially diagnosed as having alcohol dependency, only 25% of these could still be diagnosed as alcohol-dependent one year later. Among the others, 27% were in partial remission, 12% had risk use, 18% low risk use and 18% were abstinent. Stable remission rates were observed in 30% of these subjects at 5 years. This study also argues in favour of the newer dimensional approach elaborated in the DSM 5. One potentially interesting treatment option is oriented toward reducing alcohol intake. In a study by Rehm and Roerecke (2013), they modelled the impact of reduced consumption in a typical alcoholic patient who drinks 8 glasses of alcohol per day (92 g of pure alcohol). If he decreases his alcohol intake by just one glass per day (12 g of alcohol per day), his one-year mortality risk falls from 180/100,000 to 120/100,000; if he decreases his intake by two glasses per day (24 g), this risk falls to 95/100,000, roughly half his baseline risk. These observations have resulted in integrating reduced consumption as an option into the treatment guidelines of several national institutions such as the National Institute for Clinical Excellence (NICE, UK), European Medicines Agency, as well as

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  3. Risk of Myocardial Infarction Immediately After Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Mostofsky, Elizabeth; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Maclure, Malcolm; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Muller, James E.; Mittleman, Murray A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Habitual moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) whereas heavy (binge) drinking is associated with higher cardiovascular risk. However, less is known about the immediate effects of alcohol consumption on the risk of acute MI and whether any association differs by beverage type or usual drinking patterns. Methods We conducted a case-crossover analysis of 3,869 participants from the Determinants of Myocardial Infarction Onset Study who were interviewed during hospitalization for acute MI in one of 64 medical centers across the United States in 1989–1996. We compared the observed number of times that each participant consumed wine, beer or liquor in the hour preceding MI symptom onset with the expected frequency based on each participant’s control information, defined as the number of times the participant consumed alcohol in the past year. Results Among 3869 participants, 2119 (55%) reported alcohol consumption in the past year, including 76 within 1 hour before acute MI onset. The incidence rate of acute MI onset was elevated 1.72-fold (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.37–2.16) within 1 hour after alcohol consumption. The association was stronger for liquor than for beer or wine. The higher rate was not apparent for daily drinkers. For the 24 hours after consumption, there was a 14% lower rate (relative risk=0.86 [95% CI=0.79–0.95]) of MI compared with periods with no alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol consumption is associated with an acutely higher risk of MI in the subsequent hour among people who do not typically drink alcohol daily. PMID:25563434

  4. Alcohol, Smoking and Drug Use among Inuit Women of Childbearing Age during Pregnancy and the Risk to Children

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Laflamme, Dominique; Gagnon, Jocelyne; Boucher, Olivier; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption during pregnancy, a known teratogen often associated with drug use and smoking, is a well-known public health concern. Aim This study provides prevalence data for alcohol, smoking, and illicit drug use before, during, and after pregnancy among Inuit. Factors associated with alcohol use are also identified. Methods 248 Inuit women from Arctic Quebec were interviewed at mid-pregnancy, and at 1 and 11 months postpartum to provide descriptive data on smoking, alcohol, and drug use during pregnancy, and the year before and after pregnancy. Sociodemographic and family characteristics potentially associated with alcohol use were documented. Results 92% of the women reported smoking and 61% reported drinking during pregnancy. Episodes of binging during pregnancy were reported by 62% of the alcohol users, which corresponds to 38% of pregnant women. 36% of the participants reported using marijuana during pregnancy. Alcohol use and binge drinking during pregnancy were more likely to be reported by women who lived in less crowded houses, had a better knowledge of a second language, drank alcohol more often and in larger amounts prior to pregnancy, and used illicit drugs. Binge drinkers were more likely to be single women and to have had fewer previous pregnancies. Postpartum distress and violence were more likely to be experienced by women who used alcohol during pregnancy. Binge drinking during pregnancy was best predicted by drinking habits before pregnancy, maternal symptoms of depression, the use of illicit drugs during pregnancy and the number of young children living with the mother. Conclusions These results confirm that alcohol is a major risk factor to maternal and child health in this population, underscoring the need for culturally relevant and effective prevention programs. PMID:21332531

  5. Model for voluntary wine and alcohol consumption in rats.

    PubMed

    Arola, L; Roig, R; Cascón, E; Brunet, M J; Fornós, N; Sabaté, M; Raga, X; Batista, J; Salvadó, M J; Bladé, C

    1997-08-01

    It has been suggested that moderate consumption of ethanol and wine has a protective effect on human health. Animal models used to date for alcohol consumption can not mimic real situations in humans because the consumption is forced and/or excessive. The present study proposes to determine the effects of a voluntary and ad lib consumption model more similar to that of human behavior. Male Wistar rats had free access to either standard diet and water or the same diet plus red wine, sweet wine, or a solution equivalent to red wine (13.5% ethanol) or to sweet wine (20% ethanol + 130 g/L sucrose) for 30 days or 6 months. Daily wine consumption was 15.8 +/- 0.9 and 2.0 +/- 0.2 ml/day for sweet and red wines, respectively. The consumption of each of the alcoholic solutions was similar to that of the wine they were simulating. Drinking wine or ethanol did not affect food and water intakes or growth rate. Plasma metabolites were not substantially affected by consumption of wine or ethanol. Although moderate and high wine consumption did not change the activity of plasma marker enzymes of tissue damage, the consumption of the 2 alcoholic solutions caused a long-term increase in the activity of aspartate aminotransferase. It seems that wine consumption protects the organism from hepatic lesions induced by ethanol alone. PMID:9251979

  6. Estimating the Smoking Ban Effects on Smoking Prevalence, Quitting and Cigarette Consumption in a Population Study of Apprentices in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Pieroni, Luca; Muzi, Giacomo; Quercia, Augusto; Lanari, Donatella; Rundo, Carmen; Minelli, Liliana; Salmasi, Luca; dell’Omo, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: We evaluated the effects of the Italian 2005 smoking ban in public places on the prevalence of smoking, quitting and cigarette consumption of young workers. Data and Methods: The dataset was obtained from non-computerized registers of medical examinations for a population of workers with apprenticeship contracts residing in the province of Viterbo, Italy, in the period 1996–2007. To estimate the effects of the ban, a segmented regression approach was used, exploiting the discontinuity introduced by the application of the law on apprentices’ smoking behavior. Results: It is estimated that the Italian smoking ban generally had no effect on smoking prevalence, quitting ratio, or cigarette consumption of apprentices. However, when the estimates were applied to subpopulations, significant effects were found: −1% in smoking prevalence, +2% in quitting, and −3% in smoking intensity of apprentices with at least a diploma. PMID:26287220

  7. High Potency and Other Alcoholic Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobli, Edessa C.; Dore, Heather S.; Werch, Chudley E.; Moore, Michele J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high potency (liquor, malt liquor, fortified wine) and other alcoholic beverage consumption (beer, wine/wine coolers) among adolescents, the impact of gender and ethnicity, and the risk and protective factors that predicted consumption. A confidential survey revealed that, among eighth grade students,…

  8. NUCLEAR AND CORTICAL OPACITIES IN RELATION TO ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We studied lens opacification in relation to alcoholic beverage consumption in 519 nondiabetic Nurses' Health Study participants enrolled in the Nutrition and Vision Project. Odds ratios (ORs) generated by logistic regression analysis (SAS PROC GENMOD) related average weekly consumption of beer, wi...

  9. Cancer cases attributable to alcohol consumption in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Menezes, Raquel Ferreira; Bergmann, Anke

    2016-08-01

    This is the first study specifically estimating the proportion of new cancer cases that could be attributable to alcohol consumption in the year 2012 in Brazil. The proportion of exposed cases and the association between alcohol and lip and oral cavity, nasopharynx, other pharynx, larynx, esophagus, colorectum, female breast, liver, and intrahepatic bile ducts cancers was based on data made available by the Integrator System of Hospital Cancer Registries. The cancer incidence was obtained from the estimates produced by GLOBOCAN. In 2012 there were 437,592 new cancer cases in Brazil, excluding non-melanoma skin cancers. Of these, alcohol consumption was responsible for 4.8% of all new cases. The alcohol-attributable fraction was higher for men (7.0%) than for women (2.6%). A total of 21,000 new cancer cases, 15,554 in men and 5,646 in women, could be attributable to alcohol consumption. In Brazil, a significant fraction of cancer cases can be attributed to alcohol consumption, and public health measures to prevent heavy alcohol use should be implemented. PMID:27565752

  10. Klebsiella pneumoniae Oropharyngeal Carriage in Rural and Urban Vietnam and the Effect of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Trinh Tuyet; Liebenthal, Dror; Tran, Toan Khanh; Ngoc Thi Vu, Bich; Ngoc Thi Nguyen, Diep; Thi Tran, Huong Kieu; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Thi Vu, Huong Lan; Fox, Annette; Horby, Peter; Van Nguyen, Kinh; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Community acquired K. pneumoniae pneumonia is still common in Asia and is reportedly associated with alcohol use. Oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae could potentially play a role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. However, little is known regarding K. pneumoniae oropharyngeal carriage rates and risk factors. This population-based cross-sectional study explores the association of a variety of demographic and socioeconomic factors, as well as alcohol consumption with oropharyngeal carriage of K. pneumoniae in Vietnam. Methods and Findings 1029 subjects were selected randomly from age, sex, and urban and rural strata. An additional 613 adult men from a rural environment were recruited and analyzed separately to determine the effects of alcohol consumption. Demographic, socioeconomic, and oropharyngeal carriage data was acquired for each subject. The overall carriage rate of K. pneumoniae was 14.1% (145/1029, 95% CI 12.0%–16.2%). By stepwise logistic regression, K. pneumoniae carriage was found to be independently associated with age (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.02–1.04), smoking (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.9), rural living location (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.4), and level of weekly alcohol consumption (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.04–2.8). Conclusion Moderate to heavy weekly alcohol consumption, old age, smoking, and living in a rural location are all found to be associated with an increased risk of K. pneumoniae carriage in Vietnamese communities. Whether K. pneumoniae carriage is a risk factor for pneumonia needs to be elucidated. PMID:24667800

  11. Increased alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 deficient male mice.

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Takahira; Aoki, Miku; Watanabe, Ryuji; Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Tanaka, Masaki

    2016-01-26

    Relaxin-3 is a neuropeptide expressed in the brainstem, and predominantly localized in the gray matter of the midline dorsal pons termed the nucleus incertus. Relaxin-3-expressing neurons densely project axons rostrally to various forebrain regions including the septum, hippocampus, and lateral hypothalamus. Several relaxin-3 functions have been reported including food intake, stress responses, neuroendocrine function, emotion, and spatial memory. In addition, recently relaxin-3 and its receptor, RXFP3, were shown to regulate alcohol intake using an RXFP3 antagonist and RXFP3 gene knockout mice. In the present study, we investigated alcohol consumption in relaxin-3 knockout mice, and found that male but not female mice significantly drank more alcohol than wild-type mice in the two-bottle choice test. However, after chronic alcohol vapor exposure, wild-type and mutant mice did not show this difference in alcohol intake, although both genotypes exhibited increased alcohol consumption compared with non-alcohol-exposed control mice. There was no genotype difference in sucrose or quinine preference. These results suggest that the relaxin-3 neuronal system modestly affects alcohol preference and consumption. PMID:26687275

  12. Periconceptional Maternal Alcohol Consumption and Neural Tube Defects

    PubMed Central

    Makelarski, Jennifer A.; Romitti, Paul A.; Sun, Lixian; Burns, Trudy L.; Druschel, Charlotte M.; Suarez, Lucina; Olshan, Andrew F.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Olney, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neural tube defects (NTD)s, which occur when the neural tube fails to close during early gestation, are some of the most common birth defects worldwide. Alcohol is a known teratogen and has been shown to induce NTDs in animal studies, although most human studies have failed to corroborate these results. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, associations between maternal reports of periconceptional (1 month prior through 2 months postconception) alcohol consumption and NTDs were examined. METHODS NTD cases and unaffected live born control infants, delivered from 1997 through 2005, were included. Interview reports of alcohol consumption (quantity, frequency, variability, and type) were obtained from 1223 case mothers and 6807 control mothers. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR)s and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. RESULTS For all NTDs combined, most aORs for any alcohol consumption, one or more binge episodes, and different type(s) of alcohol consumed were near unity or modestly reduced (≥0.7alcohol consumption and NTDs. Underreporting of alcohol consumption, due to negative social stigma associated with alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and limited reports for mothers with early pregnancy loss of a fetus with an NTD may have affected the estimated odds ratios. Future studies should aim to increase sample sizes for less prevalent subtypes, reduce exposure misclassification, and improve ascertainment of fetal deaths and elective terminations. PMID:23456758

  13. Biomarkers for detection of alcohol consumption in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Yegles, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is an established, yet controversial, indication for liver transplantation. Although an abstinence period of up to 6 mo prior to transplantation is mandatory, alcohol relapse after transplantation is a common event. In case of recurrence of heavy drinking, graft survival is significantly impaired. Guidelines on detection and surveillance of alcohol consumption in this patient cohort are lacking. This review summarizes the challenge of patient selection as well as the current knowledge on established and novel alcohol biomarkers with special focus on liver transplant candidates and recipients. PMID:27076757

  14. Neighbourhood availability of alcohol outlets and hazardous alcohol consumption in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ayuka, Francis; Barnett, Ross; Pearce, Jamie

    2014-09-01

    The socio-spatial arrangement of alcohol retailers is potentially important in understanding the relationship between neighbourhood context and 'excessive' alcohol consumption. This New Zealand study examines whether the availability of alcohol products is associated with individual-level alcohol consumption. Measures capturing the availability of alcohol retailers were calculated for neighbourhoods across the country and then appended to a national health survey. At the national level there was no evidence for an association between hazardous consumption and alcohol outlet access. However, there was evidence of associations with neighbourhood retailing for younger Māori and Pacific peoples males; younger European females; middle-aged European men; and older men. The findings provide evidence that 'alcogenic' environments are associated with excessive drinking in New Zealand, albeit that the associations are restricted to particular vulnerable groups. PMID:25128780

  15. Treatment of alcohol dependence: recent progress and reduction of consumption.

    PubMed

    Testino, G; Leone, S; Borro, P

    2014-12-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a major public health problem. Currently, three drugs for the treatment of AD have been approved by both the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA): acamprosate, disulfiram, and oral naltrexone. The FDA also approved the use of long-acting injectable naltrexone. In Austria and in Italy sodium oxybate is also approved. The EMA's Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use has recently granted marketing authorization for nalmefene for the reduction of alcohol consumption. Many patients, while accepting the problem, are unable or unwilling to completely stop consuming alcohol, leading to an inevitable deterioration over time of their psycho-physical state, and social and family relationships. It is appropriate to offer these patients the opportunity to significantly reduce their consumption of alcohol. The reduction may be an opportunity to prepare the individual for achieving complete abstinence. Abstinence should always be the main goal. Currently, nalmefene is the only drug that has been authorized for the reduction of alcohol consumption. Its association with psycho-social support is mandatory; it is taken on an "as-needed" basis, which should preferably be 1-2 hours before the possible intake of alcohol. The trials showed a significant reduction in alcohol consumption, which resulted in a significant reduction in morbidity and mortality. Reducing consumption allows a decrease in the progression of numerous alcohol-induced chronic diseases, as well as a reduction in psycho-physical damage, acts of violence, motor vehicle accidents, and accidents at work, which in turn means fewer healthcare costs. PMID:25392958

  16. Milk Consumption during Adolescence Decreases Alcohol Drinking in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Pian, Jerry P.; Criado, Jose R.; Walker, Brendan M.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2009-01-01

    Early of onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose(S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5%E when it was combined with 10%S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10%E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10%E when it was combined with 10%S, and milk significantly reduced 10%E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5%S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism. PMID:19698741

  17. The economic impact of alcohol consumption: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Information on the economic impact of alcohol consumption can provide important evidence in supporting policies to reduce its associated harm. To date, several studies on the economic costs of alcohol consumption have been conducted worldwide. This study aims to review the economic impact of alcohol worldwide, summarizing the state of knowledge with regard to two elements: (1) cost components included in the estimation; (2) the methodologies employed in works conducted to date. Methods Relevant publications concerning the societal cost of alcohol consumption published during the years 1990-2007 were identified through MEDLINE. The World Health Organization's global status report on alcohol, bibliographies and expert communications were also used to identify additional relevant studies. Results Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria for full review while an additional two studies were considered for partial review. Most studies employed the human capital approach and estimated the gross cost of alcohol consumption. Both direct and indirect costs were taken into account in all studies while intangible costs were incorporated in only a few studies. The economic burden of alcohol in the 12 selected countries was estimated to equate to 0.45 - 5.44% of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Conclusion Discrepancies in the estimation method and cost components included in the analyses limit a direct comparison across studies. The findings, however, consistently confirmed that the economic burden of alcohol on society is substantial. Given the importance of this issue and the limitation in generalizing the findings across different settings, further well-designed research studies are warranted in specific countries to support the formulation of alcohol-related policies. PMID:19939238

  18. Preconception care: caffeine, smoking, alcohol, drugs and other environmental chemical/radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction As providing health education, optimizing nutrition, and managing risk factors can be effective for ensuring a healthy outcome for women and her yet un-conceived baby, external influences play a significant role as well. Alcohol, smoking, caffeine use and other similar lifestyle factors, have now become an integral part of the daily life of most men and women, who use/misuse one or more of these harmful substances regularly despite knowledge of their detrimental effects. The adverse health outcomes of these voluntary and involuntary exposures are of even greater concern in women of child bearing age where the exposure has the potential of inflicting harm to two generations. This paper is examining the available literature for the possible effects of caffeine consumption, smoking, alcohol or exposure to chemicals may have on the maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception usage of caffeine, tobacco, alcohol and other illicit drugs; and exposure to environmental chemicals and radiant on MNCH outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Heavy maternal preconception caffeine intake of >300mg/d significantly increase the risk of a subsequent fetal loss by 31% (95% CI: 8-58%). On the other hand, preconception alcohol consumption leads to non-significant 30% increase in spontaneous abortion (RR 1.30; 95% CI: 0.85-1.97). Preconception counselling can lead to a significant decrease in the consumption of alcohol during the first trimester (OR 1.79; 95% CI: 1.08-2.97). Periconception smoking, on the other hand, was found to be associated with an almost 3 times increased risk of congenital heart defects

  19. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  20. ERICA: patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho, Evandro Silva Freire; França-Santos, Debora; Magliano, Erika da Silva; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Cunha, Cristiane de Freitas; de Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite; Szklo, Moyses

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the patterns of alcohol consumption in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We investigated adolescents who participated in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). This is a cross-sectional, national and school-based study, which surveyed adolescents of 1,247 schools from 124 Brazilian municipalities. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire with a section on alcoholic beverages consumption. Measures of relative frequency (prevalence), and their 95% confidence intervals, were estimated for the following variables: use of alcohol beverages in the last 30 days, frequency of use, number of glasses or doses consumed in the period, age of the first use of alcohol, and most consumed type of drink. Data were estimated for country and macro-region, sex, and age group. The module survey of the Stata program was used for data analysis of complex sample. RESULTS We evaluated 74,589 adolescents, who accounted for 72.9% of eligible students. About 1/5 of adolescents consumed alcohol at least once in the last 30 days and about 2/3 in one or two occasions during this period. Among the adolescents who consumed alcoholic beverages, 24.1% drank it for the first time before being 12 years old, and the most common type of alcoholic beverages consumed by them were drinks based on vodka, rum or tequila, and beer. CONCLUSIONS There is a high prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescents, as well as their early onset of alcohol use. We also identified a possible change in the preferred type of alcoholic beverages compared with previous research. PMID:26910550

  1. Glass Shape Influences Consumption Rate for Alcoholic Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Stothart, George; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2012-01-01

    Background High levels of alcohol consumption and increases in heavy episodic drinking (binge drinking) are a growing public concern, due to their association with increased risk of personal and societal harm. Alcohol consumption has been shown to be sensitive to factors such as price and availability. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of glass shape on the rate of consumption of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Methods This was an experimental design with beverage (lager, soft drink), glass (straight, curved) and quantity (6 fl oz, 12 fl oz) as between-subjects factors. Social male and female alcohol consumers (n = 159) attended two experimental sessions, and were randomised to drink either lager or a soft drink from either a curved or straight-sided glass, and complete a computerised task identifying perceived midpoint of the two glasses (order counterbalanced). Ethical approval was granted by the Faculty of Science Research Ethics Committee at the University of Bristol. The primary outcome measures were total drinking time of an alcoholic or non-alcoholic beverage, and perceptual judgement of the half-way point of a straight and curved glass. Results Participants were 60% slower to consume an alcoholic beverage from a straight glass compared to a curved glass. This effect was only observed for a full glass and not a half-full glass, and was not observed for a non-alcoholic beverage. Participants also misjudged the half-way point of a curved glass to a greater degree than that of a straight glass, and there was a trend towards a positive association between the degree of error and total drinking time. Conclusions Glass shape appears to influence the rate of drinking of alcoholic beverages. This may represent a modifiable target for public health interventions. PMID:22912776

  2. College student perceptions on campus alcohol policies and consumption patterns.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Brenda L; Roberts, Katherine J; Donnelly, Joseph W; Rutledge, Imani N

    2011-01-01

    Environmental strategies for colleges and universities to reduce alcohol consumption among their students include the development and enforcement of campus alcohol policies. This study examines students' knowledge and attitudes toward campus alcohol policies and how they relate to alcohol consumption and alcohol social norms. A sample of 422 freshman students was surveyed during their first month at a 4-year public college. Findings indicated that the majority of students (89%) were aware of campus policies, yet of those who were aware, less than half (44%) were accepting of these campus rules and regulations. In addition, the majority (79%) of students drank at social events, despite this behavior being in direct violation of campus alcohol policies. However, those who supported campus rules consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who opposed or had no opinion of the rules. Also, those who supported the rules perceived that their peers and students in general consumed significantly less alcohol at social events than those who were opposed or had no opinion. This outcome supports the premise established by several theories of behavior change including the theory of planned behavior, which state that behavior is influenced less by knowledge than by attitude and intention. PMID:22455099

  3. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  4. MAST scores, alcohol consumption, and gynecological symptoms in endometriosis patients.

    PubMed

    Perper, M M; Breitkopf, L J; Breitstein, R; Cody, R P; Manowitz, P

    1993-04-01

    Alcohol consumption (quantity, frequency, and pattern) and alcohol-related problems were determined in endometriosis patients (n = 137), patients with other gynecological disorders (n = 91), and normal control subjects (n = 98). Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire, including the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), questions to determine the quantity and frequency of alcohol use, and questions regarding the relationship between gynecological symptoms and alcohol intake. The percentage of endometriosis patients with MAST scores greater than five or seven was significantly greater than that of normal control subjects (p = 0.045 and p = 0.009, respectively), but did not differ from that for patients with other gynecological disorders. Endometriosis patients with high MAST scores (> or = 5) tended to consume more alcohol on a yearly basis than normal control subjects with high MAST scores (p = 0.07). Among participants who experienced gynecological symptoms and were not abstainers, 31% of endometriosis patients, 9.5% of normal control subjects, and 14.3% of patients with other gynecological disorders reported increasing their alcohol consumption when experiencing gynecological symptoms. Endometriosis patients tended to differ in this regard from normal control subjects (p = 0.058) and were significantly different from patients with other gynecological disorders (p = 0.039). The evidence suggests that the gynecological problems of endometriosis may be a major medical correlative of alcoholism in women. PMID:8488967

  5. Effectiveness of Policies Restricting Hours of Alcohol Sales in Preventing Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national policies that limit the hours that alcoholic beverages may be available for sale might be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of such policies. All of the studies included in this review assessed the effects of increasing hours of sale in on-premises settings (in which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) in high-income nations. None of the studies was conducted in the U.S. The review team’s initial assessment of this evidence suggested that changes of less than 2 hours were unlikely to significantly affect excessive alcohol consumption and related harms; to explore this hypothesis, studies assessing the effects of changing hours of sale by less than 2 hours and by 2 or more hours were assessed separately. There was sufficient evidence in ten qualifying studies to conclude that increasing hours of sale by 2 or more hours increases alcohol-related harms. Thus, disallowing extensions of hours of alcohol sales by 2 or more should be expected to prevent alcohol-related harms, while policies decreasing hours of sale by 2 hours or more at on-premises alcohol outlets may be an effective strategy for preventing alcohol-related harms. The evidence from six qualifying studies was insufficient to determine whether increasing hours of sale by less than 2 hours increases excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084080

  6. Smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine: risk of prostate cancer in Utah (United States).

    PubMed

    Slattery, M L; West, D W

    1993-11-01

    Data from a population-based study of newly diagnosed cases of prostate cancer (n = 362) and age-matched controls (n = 685) conducted in Utah (United States) between 1983 and 1986 were used to determine if cigarette smoking, alcohol, coffee, tea, caffeine, and theobromine were associated with prostate cancer risk. These factors were examined since their use differs in the Utah population, which is comprised predominantly of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon), from most other populations. Pack-years of cigarettes smoked, alcohol intake, and consumption of alcohol, coffee, tea, and caffeine were not associated with prostate cancer risk. Compared with men with very low levels of theobromine intake, older men consuming 11 to 20 and over 20 mg of theobromine per day were at increased risk of prostate cancer (odds ratio [OR] for all tumors = 2.06, 95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.20, and OR = 1.47, CI = 0.99-2.19, respectively; OR for aggressive tumors = 1.90, CI = 0.90-3.97, and OR = 1.74, CI = 0.91-3.32, respectively). We present biological mechanisms for a possible association between prostate cancer and theobromine. This finding needs further exploration in studies with a wider range of theobromine exposures and more men with aggressive tumors. PMID:8280834

  7. Is social interaction associated with alcohol consumption in Uganda?

    PubMed

    Tumwesigye, Nazarius Mbona; Kasirye, Rogers; Nansubuga, Elizabeth

    2009-07-01

    Little is documented about the association of alcohol consumption and social interaction in Uganda, a country with one of the highest per capita alcohol consumptions in the world. This paper describes the pattern of social interaction by sex and establishes the relationship between social interaction and alcohol consumption with and without the consideration of confounders. The data used had 1479 records and were collected in a survey in 2003. The study was part of a multinational study on Gender, Alcohol, and Culture International Study (GENACIS). Each question on social interaction had been pre-coded in a way that quantified the extent of social interaction. The sum of responses on interaction questions gave a summative score which was used to compute summary indices on social interaction. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the best combination of variables for a social interaction index. The index was computed by a prediction using a PCA model developed from the selected variables. The index was categorised into quintiles and used in bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis of alcohol consumption and social interaction. The stronger the social interaction the more the likelihood of taking alcohol frequently (chi(trend)(2)=4.72, p<0.001). The strength of the association remains significant even after controlling for sex, age group and education level (p=0.008). The strength of relationship between social interaction and heavy consumption of alcohol gets weak in multivariate analysis. Communication messages meant to improve health, well-being and public order need to incorporate dangers of negative influence of social interaction. PMID:19406589

  8. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  9. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear

    PubMed Central

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods — A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54–78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58–82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results — Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2–3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94–4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation — Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  10. Association between alcohol consumption and rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Passaretti, Daniele; Candela, Vittorio; Venditto, Teresa; Giannicola, Giuseppe; Gumina, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Background and purpose - Long-term alcohol intake is associated with various negative effects on capillary microcirculation and tissue perfusion. We hypothesized that alcohol consumption might be a risk factor for both the occurrence and the severity of rotator cuff tears (RCTs). Patients and methods - A case-control study was performed. We studied 249 consecutive patients (139 men and 110 women; mean age 64 (54-78) years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Tear size was determined intraoperatively. The control group had 356 subjects (186 men and 170 women; mean age 66 (58-82) years) with no RCT. All participants were questioned about their alcohol intake. Participants were divided into: (1) non-drinkers if they consumed less than 0.01 g of ethanol per day, and (2) moderate drinkers and (3) excessive drinkers if women (men) consumed > 24 g (36 g) per day for at least 2 years. Results - Total alcohol consumption, wine consumption, and duration of alcohol intake were higher in both men and women with RCT than in both men and women in the control group. Excessive alcohol consumption was found to be a risk factor for the occurrence of RCT in both sexes (men: OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-3.9; women: OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 0.94-4.1). Massive tears were associated with a higher intake of alcohol (especially wine) than smaller lesions. Interpretation - Long-term alcohol intake is a significant risk factor for the occurrence and severity of rotator cuff tear in both sexes. PMID:26610042

  11. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  12. Impulsivity moderates the association between physical activity and alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Leasure, J. Leigh; Neighbors, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that physical activity and alcohol consumption are positively associated, but potential moderators of this relationship remain unclear. Both physical activity and alcohol drinking are potentially reinforcing and may be more strongly associated among individuals who tend to be higher in reward seeking and related processes governed by the prefrontal cortex. Thus, behaviors linked to the prefrontal cortex, such as impulsivity, may influence the association between physical activity and alcohol intake. The present study therefore evaluated dimensions of impulsivity as moderators of the association between physical activity and alcohol consumption. We surveyed 198 undergraduate students and obtained self-reports of their drinking habits, physical activity, and dimensions of impulsivity. We found that moderate but not vigorous physical activity was positively associated with drinking. Linear regression analyses were used to evaluate dimensions of impulsivity as moderators of the association between physical activity (vigorous or moderate) and drinks per week. Results revealed a consistent pattern of interactions between the positive urgency and sensation seeking dimensions of impulsivity and moderate physical activity on number of drinks per week. For both interactions, there was a significant positive association between moderate physical activity and drinking at higher but not lower levels of impulsivity. We conclude that impulsivity moderates the positive association between physical activity and alcohol consumption. These results have significant implications for the develop ment of prevention and treatment programs for alcohol use disorders. PMID:24525252

  13. [Consumption of alcoholic beverages: cultural revolution is necessary].

    PubMed

    Testino, Gianni

    2015-11-01

    Significant investment in advertising has been made to promote the consumption of alcoholic beverages, but only 0.5% of the GDP is allocated for preventing alcohol use. Although available evidence clearly demonstrates a causal relationship between ethanol and cancer, the perception of risk in the general population remains extremely low. This is partly due to the fact that alcohol consumption is considered as a "normal" habit in our society, mostly as a consequence of the lack of appropriate information. It should also be emphasized the lack of a common language within the healthcare community, in that too often alcohol is identified as a food or a preservative. The fourth edition of the RDA represents a true cultural revolution as it identifies alcohol consumption as a risk, regardless of the amount consumed. Recommended dosages are defined as low-risk dosages. It would be appropriate to correctly apply the Law 125/2001, which provides for inclusion of alcoholism in university education programs. PMID:26668039

  14. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, J; Arends, M A; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  15. Factors affecting alcohol consumption in black women. Part I.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J; Jackson, B

    1990-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the extent to which a general model for understanding and predicting Black mental health problems accounts for the particular problem of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of 289 African American women. The general model consists of eight variables: life events, social support, religious orientation, internalized racialism, physical health problems, marital status, socioeconomic status, and developmental status. In Part I expected interrelationships among variables are presented, from which a structural equation model for understanding and predicting alcohol consumption is formulated. Methods for evaluating the model are described in Part II (International Journal of the Addictions, Vol. 25, No. 12). PMID:2090628

  16. The Effect of Religiosity and Campus Alcohol Culture on Collegiate Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gayle M.

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity and campus culture were examined in relationship to alcohol consumption among college students using reference group theory. Participants and Methods: College students (N = 530) at a religious college and at a state university complete questionnaires on alcohol use and religiosity. Statistical tests and logistic regression were…

  17. [Violence and alcohol consumption in intimate heterosexual relationships].

    PubMed

    Gerevich, József; Bácskai, Erika

    2006-06-25

    Health and addiction harm of violence related to drinking is a very important aspect of the recent research studies. The social exchange theory, the family systems approach of alcoholism, the psychopharmacological model, the economic motivational model, and the tripartitate conceptual framework of Goldstein focus on the phenomenon within different causal contexts. According to recent studies approximately half of the cases is related to the alcohol consumption. Especially the binge drinking can facilitate violence. The problem is moderated by social, cultural, and ethnic specialties. The likelihood of alcohol related aggression increases in a rapidly changing society. Exposure to drinking related violence is frequent among women with pregnancy. PMID:16893133

  18. Effect of alcohol consumption on selenium (Se) bioavailability in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, H.K.; Snook, J.T.; Yang, F.L.

    1986-03-01

    This study was done to determine the effects of alcohol ingestion on Se bioavailability in initially Se-depleted rats. Weanling male rats were fed a Se deficient (0.012 mg/kg) basal diet for 4 weeks and then for the subsequent 4 weeks were supplemented at 0.031 mg Se/kg or at 0.085 mg Se/kg of diet in the form of high Se yeast. During the Se repletion period alcohol replaced medium chain triglycerides in the diet at 3 levels: 0%, 10%, and 20% of calories. Dietary Se level significantly (P < .0001) affected urinary Se, fecal Se, Se absorption, Se balance, whole blood Se, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and liver Se. In rats fed the higher Se diet total liver Se increased 50% when 20% rather than 0% alcohol was given. In rats fed the lower Se diet total liver Se decreased 12% as dietary alcohol increased from 0 to 20%. There was a significant (P < .0015) interaction between alcohol and Se level. All the other parameters for Se bioavailability were not affected by alcohol consumption. However, alcohol consumption significantly reduced growth rate at both Se levels.

  19. The effect of cancer warning statements on alcohol consumption intentions.

    PubMed

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-02-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with attitudinal, intentions and demographic items, the survey included an online simulation that exposed respondents to one of six cancer warning statements delivered across a range of situational contexts. Half of the statements made general reference to cancer and half mentioned specific forms of cancer. Respondents reported on the believability, convincingness and personal relevance of the warning statements. Pre- and post-exposure data were captured relating to respondents' alcohol consumption intentions. Of the six statements tested, Alcohol increases your risk of bowel cancer produced the highest scores across all outcome measures. All statements produced favorable changes in alcohol consumption intentions, including among high-risk drinkers. There is thus the potential for these and similar statements to be used as a suite of rotating warning messages located on alcoholic beverage labels and applied in various public education contexts. PMID:26787351

  20. Attributions for Smoking Behavior: Comparing Smokers with Nonsmokers and Predicting Smokers' Cigarette Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared smokers' (214) and nonsmokers' (220) explanations for cigarette smoking behavior to determine predictors of cigarette consumption. Results showed addiction and affective smoking were the most important motives predicting consumption. Presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 1980. (WAS)

  1. Moderate alcohol consumption and cognitive risk

    PubMed Central

    Neafsey, Edward J; Collins, Michael A

    2011-01-01

    We reviewed 143 papers that described the relationship between moderate drinking of alcohol and some aspect of cognition. Two types of papers were found: (1) those that provided ratios of risk between drinkers and nondrinkers (74 papers in total) and (2) those that, although they did not provide such ratios, allowed cognition in drinkers to be rated as “better,” “no different,” or “worse” than cognition in nondrinkers (69 papers in total). The history of research on moderate drinking and cognition can be divided into two eras: 1977–1997 and 1998–present. Phase I (1977–1997) was the era of neuropsychological evaluation involving mostly young to middle-aged (18–50 years old) subjects. Although initial studies indicated moderate drinking impaired cognition, many later studies failed to confirm this, instead finding no difference in cognition between drinkers and nondrinkers. Phase II (1998–present) was and is the era of mental status exam evaluation involving mostly older (≥55 years old) subjects. These studies overwhelmingly found that moderate drinking either reduced or had no effect on the risk of dementia or cognitive impairment. When all the ratios of risk from all the studies in phase II providing such ratios are entered into a comprehensive meta-analysis, the average ratio of risk for cognitive risk (dementia or cognitive impairment/decline) associated with moderate “social” (not alcoholic) drinking of alcohol is 0.77, with nondrinkers as the reference group. The benefit of moderate drinking applied to all forms of dementia (dementia unspecified, Alzheimer’s disease, and vascular dementia) and to cognitive impairment (low test scores), but no significant benefit against cognitive decline (rate of decline in test scores) was found. Both light and moderate drinking provided a similar benefit, but heavy drinking was associated with nonsignificantly higher cognitive risk for dementia and cognitive impairment. Although the meta

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Mortality in the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, En-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Park, Sue K.; Ma, Seung-Hyun; Cho, In-Seong; Park, Boyoung; Lee, Eun-Ha; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Kang, Daehee

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between alcohol consumption habit, types of beverages, alcohol consumption quantity, and overall and cancer-specific mortality among Korean adults. Methods The alcohol consumption information of a total of 16 320 participants who were 20 years or older from the Korean Multi-center Cancer Cohort were analyzed to examine the association between alcohol consumption habit and mortality (median follow-up of 9.3 years). The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of alcohol consumption to mortality adjusting for age, sex, geographic areas, education, smoking status, and body mass index. Results Alcohol drinkers showed an increased risk for total mortality compared with never drinkers (HR, 1.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 2.14 for past drinkers; HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.39 for current drinkers), while past drinkers only were associated with higher risk for cancer deaths (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.34 to 2.53). The quantity of alcohol consumed per week showed a J-shaped association with risk of mortality. Relative to light drinkers (0.01 to 90 g/wk), never drinkers and heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) had an increased risk for all-cause and cancer deaths: (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.45) and (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.83) for all-cause mortality; and (HR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15 to 2.11) and (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.39 to 3.09) for all cancer mortality, respectively. Heavy drinkers (>504 g/wk) showed an elevated risk for death from stomach and liver cancers. Conclusions The present study supports the existence of a J-shaped association between alcohol consumption quantity and the risk of all-cause and cancer deaths. Heavy drinkers had an increased risk of death from cancer overall and liver and stomach cancer. PMID:23091655

  3. Habitual alcohol consumption is associated with lower cardiovascular stress responses--a novel explanation for the known cardiovascular benefits of alcohol?

    PubMed

    Jones, Alexander; McMillan, Merlin R; Jones, Russell W; Kowalik, Grzegorz T; Steeden, Jennifer A; Pruessner, Jens C; Taylor, Andrew M; Deanfield, John E; Muthurangu, Vivek

    2013-07-01

    In contrast to heavy alcohol consumption, which is harmful, light to moderate drinking has been linked to reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Effects on lipid status or clotting do not fully explain these benefits. Exaggerated cardiovascular responses to mental stress are detrimental to cardiovascular health. We hypothesized that habitual alcohol consumption might reduce these responses, with potential benefits. Advanced magnetic resonance techniques were used to accurately measure cardiovascular responses to an acute mental stressor (Montreal Imaging Stress Task) in 88 healthy adults (∼1:1 male:female). Salivary cortisol and task performance measures were used to assess endocrine and cognitive responses. Habitual alcohol consumption and confounding factors were assessed by questionnaire. Alcohol consumption was inversely related to responses of heart rate (HR) (r = -0.31, p = 0.01), cardiac output (CO) (r = -0.32, p = 0.01), vascular resistance (r = 0.25, p = 0.04) and mean blood pressure (r = -0.31, p = 0.01) provoked by stress, but not to stroke volume (SV), or arterial compliance changes. However, high alcohol consumers had greater cortisol stress responses, compared to moderate consumers (3.5 versus 0.7 nmol/L, p = 0.04). Cognitive measures did not differ. Findings were not explained by variations in age, sex, social class, ethnicity, physical activity, adrenocortical activity, adiposity, smoking, menstrual phase and chronic stress. Habitual alcohol consumption is associated with reduced cardiac responsiveness during mental stress, which has been linked to lower risk of hypertension and vascular disease. Consistent with established evidence, our findings suggest a mechanism by which moderate alcohol consumption might reduce cardiovascular disease, but not high consumption, where effects such as greater cortisol stress responses may negate any benefits. PMID:23425242

  4. Alcohol Consumption and Prehypertension: An Investigation of University Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Randall S.; Maisto, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prehypertension and heavy alcohol consumption increase the risk for primary hypertension (PH), a major predictor of cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Although undergraduate college students have exhibited prehypertensive blood pressure (BP) levels and more than 40% of undergraduates drink heavily, few researchers have examined both…

  5. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use from Preferential Music Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Crystal D.; Garcia, Javier A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that…

  6. MMPI Response Patterns and Alcohol Consumption in DUI Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutker, Patricia B.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Although men arrested for driving under the influence of intoxicants shared mild antisocial tendencies, profile patterns associated with higher levels of self-reported drinking were isolated. The relationship between higher levels of estimated alcohol consumption and patterns of elevated levels of depression and social deviance were most…

  7. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Undergraduates: The Impact of Family Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study concerning college student characteristics and alcohol consumption. In general, family income was positively associated with likelihood of drinking. In the lowest income category, men were more likely to drink than women; in the highest income category, women were more likely to drink than men. (LKS)

  8. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  9. CONTRASTING BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE AND CHRONIC SMOKING IN DETOXIFIED ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Boissoneault, Jeff; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2011-01-01

    Background Current literature suggests that acute nicotine administration provides a compensatory mechanism by which alcoholics might alleviate attentional deficits. In contrast, chronic smoking is increasingly recognized as negatively affecting neurobehavioral integrity. These opposing effects have not been simultaneously examined. Thus, we sought to a) extend previous work by exploring the effects of acute nicotine effects on vigilance components of attention and replicate previous findings suggesting that treatment-seeking alcoholics experience benefit to a greater extent than do other groups; and b) to examine the impact of chronic smoking on these tasks and across subgroups. Methods Substance abusing participants (N=86) were recruited and subgrouped on the basis of dependency criteria as either alcoholics, alcoholics with co-morbid stimulant dependence, or stimulant dependent individuals. Groups of cigarette-smoking (N=17) and non-smoking (N=22) community controls were recruited as comparison groups. Smoking subjects were assigned a placebo, low, or high dose nicotine patch in a double-blind placebo controlled fashion. Non-smoking controls were administered either a placebo or low dose. Testing occurred after dose stabilization. Results General linear models indicated greater sensitivity to acute nicotine administration among alcoholics than other groups when controlling for the effect of intensity of smoking history, as reflected by pack-years. Pack-years correlated negatively with performance measures in alcoholics but not stimulant abusing subgroups or smoking controls. Finally, regression analyses demonstrated that pack-years predicted poorer performance only for the alcoholic subgroup. Conclusions These results support previous work finding a compensatory effect of acute nicotine administration on attentional performance in alcoholics and reinforce the consideration of recent nicotine use as a confound in neurocognitive studies of alcoholics. Of

  10. The possible impact of an alcohol welfare surcharge on consumption of alcoholic beverages in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The abuse of alcoholic beverages leads to numerous negative consequences in Taiwan, as around the world. Alcohol abuse not only contributes to cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes and cancer, but it is also an underlying cause of many other serious problems, such as traffic accidents, lost productivity, and domestic violence. International leaders in health policy are increasingly using taxation as an effective tool with which to lower alcohol consumption. In this study, we assessed how consumption patterns in Taiwan would be affected by levying a welfare surcharge on alcoholic beverages of 20%, 40% or 60% in accordance with the current excise tax. We also assessed the medical savings Taiwan would experience if consumption of alcoholic beverages were to decrease and how much additional revenue a welfare surcharge would generate. Methods We estimated the elasticity of four types of alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, whisky and brandy) using the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) Demand Model. Specifically, we estimated alcohol’s price elasticity by analyzing the sales prices and time statistics of these products from 1974 to 2009. Results Alcoholic beverages in Taiwan have the following price elasticities: beer (−0.820), wine (−0.955), whisky (−0.587), brandy (−0.958). A welfare surcharge tax of 40% in accordance with the excise tax would decrease overall consumption of beer, wine, whisky and brandy between 16.24% and 16.42%. It would also generate New Taiwan Dollar (NT$) revenues of 5.782 billion to 5.993 billion. Savings in medical costs would range from NT$871.07 million to NT$897.46 million annually. Conclusions A social and welfare surcharge of 40% on alcoholic beverages in Taiwan would successfully lower consumption rates, decrease medical costs, and generate revenue that could be used to educate consumers and further decrease consumption rates. Consequently, we strongly recommend that such a tax be imposed in Taiwan. PMID:24010885

  11. Alcohol Consumption in Relation to Risk and Severity of Chronic Widespread Pain: Results From a UK Population‐Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Marcus; Prescott, Gordon J.; McNamee, Paul; Hannaford, Philip C.; McBeth, John; Lovell, Karina; Keeley, Phil; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; Woby, Steve; Norrie, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the reported level of alcohol consumption is associated with the likelihood of reporting chronic widespread pain (CWP) and, among persons with CWP, the associated disability. Methods In a population‐based study in 2 areas of the UK, participants self‐completed a postal questionnaire. They were classified according to whether they met the American College of Rheumatology definition of CWP and whether the pain was disabling (Chronic Pain Grade III or IV). They reported their usual level of alcohol consumption. Potential confounding factors on which information was available included age, sex, cigarette smoking, employment status, self‐reported weight and height, and level of deprivation. Results A total of 13,574 persons participated (mean age 55 years, 57% women) of whom 2,239 (16.5%) had CWP; 28% reported never regularly consuming alcohol, 28% reported consuming up to 5 units/week, 20% reported 6–10 units/week, and 24% reported >10 units/week. Among persons with CWP, disability was strongly linked to level of alcohol consumption. Prevalence of disability decreased with increasing alcohol consumption up to 35 units/week (odds ratio [OR]21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.33 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.19–0.58]) adjusted for confounders. A similar relationship was found between reporting CWP and level of alcohol consumption (adjusted OR21–35 units alcohol/week versus never drinkers 0.76 [95% CI 0.61–0.94]). Conclusion This study has demonstrated strong associations between level of alcohol consumption and both CWP and related disabilities. However, the available evidence does not allow us to conclude that the association is causal. The strength of the associations means that specific studies to examine this potential relationship are warranted. PMID:26212017

  12. Acute Alcohol Consumption Elevates Serum Bilirubin, an Endogenous Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Wu, Ran; Jatlow, Peter I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with both negative and favorable effects on health. The mechanisms responsible for reported favorable effects remain unclear. Higher (not necessarily elevated) concentrations of serum bilirubin, an antioxidant, have also been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. This study tests the hypothesis that single dose alcohol consumption elevates bilirubin providing a potential link between these observations. Methods 18 healthy individuals (8 cigarette smokers) were administered alcohol, calibrated to achieve blood concentrations of 20, 80 and 120 mg/dL, in random order in 3 laboratory sessions separated by a week. Each session was preceded by and followed by 5–7 days of alcohol abstinence. Serum bilirubin was measured at 7:45 am prior to drinking, at 2 pm, and at 7:45 the next morning. Mixed effects regression models compared baseline and 24 hr. post-drinking bilirubin concentrations. Results Total serum bilirubin (sum of indirect and direct) concentration increased significantly after drinking from baseline to 24 hours in non-smokers (from Mean=0.38, SD=0.24 to Mean=0.51 SD=0.30, F(1, 32.2) =24.24, p<.0001) but not in smokers (from Mean=0.25, SD=0.12 to Mean=0.26, SD=0.15, F(1, 31.1) =0.04, p=0.84). In nonsmokers the indirect bilirubin concentration and the ratio of indirect (unconjugated) to direct (conjugated) bilirubin also increased significantly. Conclusions Alcohol consumption leads to increases in serum bilirubin in nonsmokers. Considering the antioxidant properties of bilirubin, our findings suggest one possible mechanism for the reported association between alcohol consumption and reduced risk of some disorders that could be tested in future longitudinal studies. PMID:25707709

  13. Voluntary co-consumption of alcohol and nicotine: Effects of abstinence, intermittency, and withdrawal in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Kyu Y; Touchette, Jillienne C; Hartell, Elizabeth C; Bade, Elizabeth J; Lee, Anna M

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are often used together, and there is a high rate of co-occurrence between alcohol and nicotine addiction. Most animal models studying alcohol and nicotine interactions have utilized passive drug administration, which may not be relevant to human co-addiction. In addition, the interactions between alcohol and nicotine in female animals have been understudied, as most studies have used male animals. To address these issues, we developed models of alcohol and nicotine co-consumption in male and female mice that utilized voluntary, oral consumption of unsweetened alcohol, nicotine and water. We first examined drug consumption and preference in single-drug, sequential alcohol and nicotine consumption tests in male and female C57BL/6 and DBA/2J mice. We then tested chronic continuous and intermittent access alcohol and nicotine co-consumption procedures. We found that male and female C57BL/6 mice readily co-consumed unsweetened alcohol and nicotine. In our continuous co-consumption procedures, we found that varying the available nicotine concentration during an alcohol abstinence period affected compensatory nicotine consumption during alcohol abstinence, and affected rebound alcohol consumption when alcohol was re-introduced. Consumption of alcohol and nicotine in an intermittent co-consumption procedure produced higher alcohol consumption levels, but not nicotine consumption levels, compared with the continuous co-consumption procedures. Finally, we found that intermittent alcohol and nicotine co-consumption resulted in physical dependence. Our data show that these voluntary co-consumption procedures can be easily performed in mice and can be used to study behavioral interactions between alcohol and nicotine consumption, which may better model human alcohol and nicotine co-addiction. PMID:27342124

  14. During pregnancy, recreational drug-using women stop taking ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) and reduce alcohol consumption, but continue to smoke tobacco and cannabis: initial findings from the Development and Infancy Study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Derek G; Turner, John D; Parrott, Andrew C; Goodwin, Julia E; Fulton, Sarah E; Min, Meeyoung O; Fox, Helen C; Braddick, Fleur MB; Axelsson, Emma L; Lynch, Stephanie; Ribeiro, Helena; Frostick, Caroline J; Singer, Lynn T

    2013-01-01

    While recreational drug use in UK women is prevalent, to date there is little prospective data on patterns of drug use in recreational drug-using women immediately before and during pregnancy. A total of 121 participants from a wide range of backgrounds were recruited to take part in the longitudinal Development and Infancy Study (DAISY) study of prenatal drug use and outcomes. Eighty-six of the women were interviewed prospectively while pregnant and/or soon after their infant was born. Participants reported on use immediately before and during pregnancy and on use over their lifetime. Levels of lifetime drug use of the women recruited were high, with women reporting having used at least four different illegal drugs over their lifetime. Most users of cocaine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine (MDMA) and other stimulants stopped using these by the second trimester and levels of use were low. However, in pregnancy, 64% of the sample continued to use alcohol, 46% tobacco and 48% cannabis. While the level of alcohol use reduced substantially, average tobacco and cannabis levels tended to be sustained at pre-pregnancy levels even into the third trimester (50 cigarettes and/or 11 joints per week). In sum, while the use of `party drugs' and alcohol seems to reduce, levels of tobacco and cannabis use are likely to be sustained throughout pregnancy. The data provide polydrug profiles that can form the basis for the development of more realistic animal models. PMID:19939863

  15. Effectiveness of public health programs for decreasing alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Kelly-Weeder, Susan; Phillips, Kathryn; Rounseville, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption and the associated negative consequences are a major public health concern in the United States and throughout the world. Historically, there have been numerous attempts to develop policies and prevention programs aimed at decreasing high-risk alcohol use. Policy initiatives have demonstrated considerable effectiveness and include changes in the minimum legal drinking age, reductions in acceptable legal limits for blood alcohol concentration while operating a motor vehicle, as well as decreasing availability and access to alcohol for underage individuals. Primary prevention programs that have used exclusively educational approaches have received mixed results. Increasing effectiveness has been associated with prevention programs that have utilized a multi-component approach and have included educational initiatives with environmental changes. PMID:23180975

  16. Subjective Responses to Alcohol Prime Event-Specific Alcohol Consumption and Predict Blackouts and Hangover*

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Fromme, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol and the occurrence of blackouts and hangover are associated with the development of alcohol-use disorders. As such, subjective responses to alcohol, blackouts, and hangover may share a biological vulnerability to excessive alcohol consumption. The purpose of the current study was to examine subjective responses to alcohol as predictors of estimated blood alcohol concentration (BAC), blackouts, and hangover for a single heavy drinking event. Method: Data were collected on 150 (50% female) college students at a large, public university who reported consuming alcohol during their 21st birthday celebration. Using semi-structured interviews and self-report measures, subjective responses to alcohol (at midpoint of a 21st birthday celebration) were examined as predictors of final estimated BAC, blackouts, and hangover. Results: Stimulant effects reported for the midpoint of the drinking event predicted final estimated BAC. Both stimulant and sedative alcohol effects directly predicted blackouts during the drinking event and the occurrence of a hangover. Neither stimulant nor sedative effects were mediated by final estimated BAC. Conclusions: Retrospective reports of subjective responses to alcohol were associated with the level of intoxication, blackouts, and hangover during a heavy drinking event. Findings therefore suggest the utility of incorporating subjective responses to alcohol into event-specific interventions that are designed to reduce or prevent heavy episodic drinking. PMID:19515300

  17. Alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence by alcoholic men: comparing violent and nonviolent conflicts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Christopher M; Winters, Jamie; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William; Murphy, Marie

    2005-03-01

    Alcoholic men and their relationship partners were interviewed about a conflict in which physical assault occurred and 1 in which psychological aggression occurred without physical assault. The interview assessed the quantity of alcohol consumed prior to each conflict, other drug use, and the topics, location, timing, duration, and speed of escalation for each conflict. The number of standard drinks consumed by the husband in the previous 12 hr was significantly higher prior to violent versus nonviolent conflicts for both self- and collateral reports, as was blood alcohol concentration estimated from self-report. Other drug use was not significantly different. Greater drinking by wives prior to violent conflicts was found in some analyses. These within-subject comparisons help to rule out individual difference explanations for the alcohol-violence association and indicate that alcohol consumption is a proximal risk factor for partner violence in alcoholic men. PMID:15783276

  18. Predictors of risky alcohol consumption in schoolchildren and their implications for preventing alcohol-related harm

    PubMed Central

    Bellis, Mark A; Hughes, Karen; Morleo, Michela; Tocque, Karen; Hughes, Sara; Allen, Tony; Harrison, Dominic; Fe-Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    Background While alcohol-related health and social problems amongst youths are increasing internationally, both consumption and associated harms are particularly high in British youth. Youth drinking patterns, including bingeing, frequent drinking and drinking in public spaces, are associated with increased risks of acute (e.g. violence) and long-term (e.g. alcohol-dependence) health problems. Here we examine economic, behavioural and demographic factors that predict these risky drinking behaviours among 15–16 year old schoolchildren who consume alcohol. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among schoolchildren in North West England (n = 10,271) using an anonymous questionnaire delivered in school settings. Analysis utilised logistic regression to identify independent predictors of risky drinking behaviour. Results Of all respondents, 87.9% drank alcohol. Of drinkers, 38.0% usually binged when drinking, 24.4% were frequent drinkers and 49.8% drank in public spaces. Binge, frequent and public drinking were strongly related to expendable income and to individuals buying their own alcohol. Obtaining alcohol from friends, older siblings and adults outside shops were also predictors of risky drinking amongst drinkers. However, being bought alcohol by parents was associated with both lower bingeing and drinking in public places. Membership of youth groups/teams was in general protective despite some association with bingeing. Conclusion Although previous studies have examined predictors of risky drinking, our analyses of access to alcohol and youth income have highlighted eradicating underage alcohol sales and increased understanding of children's spending as key considerations in reducing risky alcohol use. Parental provision of alcohol to children in a family environment may also be important in establishing child-parent dialogues on alcohol and moderating youth consumption. However, this will require supporting parents to ensure they develop only moderate drinking

  19. Alcohol consumption and health status in very old veterans.

    PubMed

    Denneson, Lauren M; Lasarev, Michael R; Dickinson, Kathryn C; Dobscha, Steven K

    2011-03-01

    Previous research has linked drinking with health, but has yet to address alcohol consumption and the relationship between drinking and health among very old veterans. To help fill this gap, the authors present a cross-sectional self-report study on 1105 veterans age 90 and older who completed the national Veteran's Affairs (VA) Survey of the Health Experiences of Patients (SHEP) for fiscal year (FY) 2005. Alcohol consumption was measured using Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores (AUDIT-C). Health status was measured using the Veterans Rand Health Survey: VR-12. Among men (n = 1063), 60% were abstainers. No significant differences in mental health component (MCS; F(3,1040) = 1.80, P = .15) or physical health component (PCS; F(3,1040) = 1.48, P = .22) scores were detected across consumption categories. Among women (n = 42), 47% were abstainers. These results suggest many very old veterans abstain from alcohol and, among men, the associations between health status and drinking observed in younger groups may not be present in very old age. PMID:21156988

  20. [Association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Foerster, Maryline; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2010-03-10

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the impact of higher alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is conflicting. We examined the association between alcohol consumption, CVRFs and the estimated 10-year CHD risk in the population-based CoLaus study in Lausanne, Switzerland. Among 5,769 participants without cardiovascular disease, 73% of the participants were alcohol drinkers; 16% consumed 14-34 drinks/week and 2% consumed > or = 35 drinks/week. This article shows the impact of high alcohol consumption on CVRFs and reviews the literature on the associations between alcohol consumption and CVRFs. PMID:20373697

  1. Joint and Independent Effects of Alcohol Drinking and Tobacco Smoking on Oral Cancer: A Large Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira Antunes, José Leopoldo; Toporcov, Tatiana Natasha; Biazevic, Maria Gabriela Haye; Boing, Antonio Fernando; Scully, Crispian; Petti, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking are assumed to have significant independent and joint effects on oral cancer (OC) development. This assumption is based on consistent reports from observational studies, which, however, overestimated the independent effects of smoking and drinking, because they did not account for the interaction effect in multivariable analyses. This case-control study sought to investigate the independent and the joint effects of smoking and drinking on OC in a homogeneous sample of adults. Case patients (N = 1,144) were affected by invasive oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma confirmed histologically, diagnosed between 1998 and 2008 in four hospitals of São Paulo (Brazil). Control patients (N = 1,661) were not affected by drinking-, smoking-associated diseases, cancers, upper aero-digestive tract diseases. Cumulative tobacco and alcohol consumptions were assessed anamnestically. Patients were categorized into never/ever users and never/level-1/level-2 users, according to the median consumption level in controls. The effects of smoking and drinking on OC adjusted for age, gender, schooling level were assessed using logistic regression analysis; Model-1 did not account for the smoking-drinking interaction; Model-2 accounted for this interaction and included the resultant interaction terms. The models were compared using the likelihood ratio test. According to Model-1, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for smoking, drinking, smoking-drinking were 3.50 (95% confidence interval –95CI, 2.76–4.44), 3.60 (95CI, 2.86–4.53), 12.60 (95CI, 7.89–20.13), respectively. According to Model-2 these figures were 1.41 (95CI, 1.02–1.96), 0.78 (95CI, 0.48–1.27), 8.16 (95CI, 2.09–31.78). Analogous results were obtained using three levels of exposure to smoking and drinking. Model-2 showed statistically significant better goodness-of-fit statistics than Model-1. Drinking was not independently associated with OC, while the independent

  2. Alcohol Consumption and Domain-Specific Cognitive Function in Older Adults: Longitudinal Data From the Johns Hopkins Precursors Study

    PubMed Central

    Rebok, George W.; Ford, Daniel E.; Chu, Audrey Y.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Liang, Kung-Yee; Meoni, Lucy A.; Shihab, Hasan M.; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Klag, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The association of alcohol consumption with performance in different cognitive domains has not been well studied. Methods. The Johns Hopkins Precursors Study was used to examine associations between prospectively collected information about alcohol consumption ascertained on multiple occasions starting at age 55 years on average with domain-specific cognition at age 72 years. Cognitive variables measured phonemic and semantic fluency, attention, verbal memory, and global cognition. Results. Controlling for age, hypertension, smoking status, sex, and other cognitive variables, higher average weekly quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed in midlife were associated with lower phonemic fluency. There were no associations with four other measures of cognitive function. With respect to frequency of alcohol intake, phonemic fluency was significantly better among those who drank three to four alcoholic beverages per week as compared with daily or almost daily drinkers. A measure of global cognition was not associated with alcohol intake at any point over the follow-up. Discussion. Results suggest that higher alcohol consumption in midlife may impair some components of executive function in late life. PMID:20937708

  3. Alcohol Use Disorders, Tips to Reduce Consumption | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Tips You Can Try to Reduce Alcohol Consumption Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents Small changes can make a big difference in reducing your chances of having alcohol-related ...

  4. The Association Between Alcohol Consumption and Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhao; Guo, Xiaofan; Bai, Yinglong; Sun, Guozhe; Guan, Yufan; Sun, Yingxian; Roselle, Abraham Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The results of previous studies on the relation between alcohol consumption and heart failure (HF) have been inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in a general population. A total of 10,824 adults were examined using a multistage cluster sampling method to select a representative sample of individuals who were at least 35-years old. The participants were asked to provide information about their alcohol consumption. Echocardiograms were obtained, and LVEF was calculated using modified Simpson's rule. Of the 10,824 participants included in the present study, 46.1% were males, and the mean participant age was 54 years; age ranged from 35 to 93 years. The overall prevalence of LVEF< 0.50 and LVEF < 0.40 in the studied population was 11.6% and 2.9%, respectively. The prevalence of LVEF < 0.5 and LVEF < 0.04 was higher in both the moderate and heavy drinker groups than in the nondrinker group (P <0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analyses corrected according to the different levels of alcohol consumption showed that moderate and heavy drinkers had an –1.3-fold and 1.2-fold higher risk of LVEF <0.5, respectively, than nondrinkers (OR: 1.381, 95% CI: 1.115–1.711, P = 0.003 for moderate drinkers; OR: 1.246, 95% CI: 1.064–1.460, P = 0.006 for heavy drinkers). Heavy drinkers had an ∼1.5-fold higher risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 than nondrinkers (OR: 1.482, 95% CI: 1.117–1.965, P = 0.006). Moderate drinkers did not show a risk of decreased LVEF < 0.4 that was significantly higher than that of nondrinkers (OR: 1.183, 95% CI: 0.774–1.808, P = 0.437). According to these results, we concluded that increased alcohol consumption was associated with decreased LVEF compared with no alcohol consumption in this general population. PMID:27227945

  5. Alcohol consumption and hangover patterns among migraine sufferers

    PubMed Central

    Zlotnik, Yair; Plakht, Ygal; Aven, Anna; Engel, Yael; Am, Neta Bar; Ifergane, Gal

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol hangover is a poorly understood cluster of symptoms occurring following a heavy consumption of alcohol. The term “delayed alcohol-induced headache” is often used synonymously. Our objective was to compare alcohol hangover symptoms in migraine sufferers and nonsufferers. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, university students were asked to fill structured questionnaires assessing headache history, alcoholic consumption, and hangover symptoms (using the Hangover Symptom Scale (HSS)). Subjects were classified as suffering from migraine with or without aura and nonsufferers according the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd Edition (ICHD-II). The 13 hangover symptoms were divided by the researches into migraine-like and other nonmigraine-like symptoms. Results: Hangover symptoms among 95 migraine sufferers and 597 nonsufferers were compared. Migraine sufferers consumed less alcohol compared with the nonsufferers (mean drinks/week 2.34 ± 4.11 vs. 2.92 ± 3.58, P = 0.038) and suffered from higher tendency to migraine-like symptoms after drinking (mean 2.91 ± 3.43 vs. 1.85 ± 2.35, P = 0.002) but not to other hangover symptoms (mean 5.39 ± 6.31 vs. 4.34 ± 4.56, P = 0.1). Conclusions: Migraine sufferers consume less alcohol, especially beer and liquors, and are more vulnerable to migraine-like hangover symptoms than nonsufferers. The finding that the tendency to develop migraine attacks affects the hangover symptomatology may suggest a similarity in pathophysiology, and possibly in treatment options. PMID:24966549

  6. Antecedents and Covariates of Alcohol Consumption among Swiss Male Conscripts

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Mario; Kipke, Ingo; Frey, Franz; Rossler, Wulf; Lupi, Gianpiero; Vetter, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate prevalence and correlates of alcohol consumption frequency in a sample of Swiss conscripts (n=25,611) in order to identify factors that predispose for frequent consumption. A self-report of drinking frequencies, as well as socio-demographic and psychosocial variables, was collected at psychiatric baseline screening. Based on univariate analyses, relevant variables were included in a multivariate multinomial logistic regression model. Six percent were abstainers, 15% reported rarely drinking, 53% occasional drinking, 24% regular drinking and 2% daily drinking. Except for substance use, most associations followed a “J”-shaped curve across the categories of alcohol frequency. Abstinence and frequent drinking can be perceived as deviations from the social norm. Both behaviors are associated with more psychosocial stressors and might be therefore special targets for further studies and new prevention programs. PMID:19440426

  7. [Data quality in surveys on alcohol consumption among university students].

    PubMed

    Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Different survey modalities have been developed to assess alcohol consumption and related problems. Research that compares data quality between survey modalities is scarce in Latin America. The aim of this study was to assess data quality in three survey modalities on alcohol consumption: self-administered online, self-administered hard-copy, and face-to-face interviews. Data were obtained from three probabilistic samples of students (n = 60 each) from the National University of Mar del Plata, Argentina, using the same questionnaire. Data quality was measured for each modality by overall response rate, item response rate, and accuracy. Data accuracy was evaluated as the percentage of self-reported binge drinking, positive results on AUDIT, and internal consistency of AUDIT for each modality. The overall and item response rates were lower in the online modality and similar between the other two. No differences were found between modalities in the accuracy of responses. PMID:25715290

  8. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  9. The Neurobiology of Alcohol Consumption and Alcoholism: An Integrative History1

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Hoffman, Paula L.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the neurobiological predisposition to consume alcohol (ethanol) and to transition to uncontrolled drinking behavior (alcoholism), as well as studies of the effects of alcohol on brain function, started a logarithmic growth phase after the repeal of the 18th Amendment to the United States Constitution. Although the early studies were primitive by current technological standards, they clearly demonstrated the effects of alcohol on brain structure and function, and by the end of the 20th century left little doubt that alcoholism is a “disease” of the brain. This review traces the history of developments in the understanding of ethanol’s effects on the most prominent inhibitory and excitatory systems of brain (GABA and glutamate neurotransmission). This neurobiological information is integrated with knowledge of ethanol’s actions on other neurotransmitter systems to produce an anatomical and functional map of ethanol’s properties. Our intent is limited in scope, but is meant to provide context and integration of the actions of ethanol on the major neurobiologic systems which produce reinforcement for alcohol consumption and changes in brain chemistry that lead to addiction. The developmental history of neurobehavioral theories of the transition from alcohol drinking to alcohol addiction is presented and juxtaposed to the neurobiological findings. Depending on one’s point of view, we may, at this point in history, know more, or less, than we think we know about the neurobiology of alcoholism. PMID:24141171

  10. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. Methods This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity). Results The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP) or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP), followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP), health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP), cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP), and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP), respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214,053.0 million baht (7

  11. Activation of Melatonin Receptors Reduces Relapse-Like Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Noori, Hamid R; Spanagel, Rainer

    2015-12-01

    Melatonin is an endogenous synchronizer of biological rhythms and a modulator of physiological functions and behaviors of all mammals. Reduced levels of melatonin and a delay of its nocturnal peak concentration have been found in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. Here we investigated whether the melatonergic system is a novel target to treat alcohol addiction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to long-term voluntary alcohol consumption with repeated abstinence phases. Circadian drinking rhythmicity and patterns were registered with high temporal resolution by a drinkometer system and analyzed by Fourier analysis. We examined potential antirelapse effect of the novel antidepressant drug agomelatine. Given that agomelatine is a potent MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist and a 5-HT2C antagonist we also tested the effects of melatonin itself and the 5-HT2C antagonist SB242084. All drugs reduced relapse-like drinking. Agomelatine and melatonin administered at the end of the light phase led to very similar changes on all measures of the post-abstinence drinking behavior, suggesting that effects of agomelatine on relapse-like behavior are mostly driven by its melatonergic activity. Both drugs caused a clear phase advance in the diurnal drinking pattern when compared with the control vehicle-treated group and a reduced frequency of approaches to alcohol bottles. Melatonin given at the onset of the light phase had no effect on the circadian phase and very small effects on alcohol consumption. We conclude that targeting the melatonergic system in alcohol-dependent individuals can induce a circadian phase advance, which may restore normal sleep architecture and reduce relapse behavior. PMID:25994077

  12. Overcoming mixed messages on alcohol consumption: a teaching strategy.

    PubMed

    Willsher, Kerre A

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this discussion paper is to outline the teaching of nursing students using a health promotion approach to guide young people on issues involving alcohol consumption. Health promotion uses a holistic approach involving the individual, attempts to understand complexities of human behaviour and attempts to address environmental and social issues which impact upon health. There are several models of health promotion but the health assessment tool chosen was HEEADSSS which focuses upon assessment of the Home environment, Education and Employment, eating disorders, peer related activities, Drugs, Sexuality, Suicide/depression and Safety from injury or violence . Society's approach to alcohol consumption is considered ambiguous therefore it is essential to teach health promotion. Research based on demographic and epidemiological information and anecdotal media reports indicates a high incidence of binge drinking among young people on the Eyre Peninsula. The plan was to develop and provide developmentally appropriate health promotion using the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council Recommendations on alcohol consumption and the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council Competencies for the Registered Nurse. PMID:20181532

  13. Tobacco use, Alcohol Consumption and Self-rated Oral Health among Nigerian Prison Officials

    PubMed Central

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Omili, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background: The oral health condition and lifestyle in term of tobacco use and alcohol consumption of custodian of prisons have been left unstudied. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol consumption and self-rated oral health among Nigerian prison officials. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among prison officials working in Abuja, Nassarawa and Kano prison yards between March and June 2011 using 28-item self-administered questionnaire as a tool of data collection. The questionnaire elicited information on demography, self-rated oral health, oral health behaviors, oral health conditions, tobacco use, pattern and quit attempts, alcohol consumption, type and pattern. Results: The participants were aged between 20 and 51 years, with a mean age of 32.25 ± 6.13 years. The majority of the participants were males (66.4%), Christians (76.7%), junior officials (78.1%) and of Northern origin (50.7%). A total of 50 (34.2%) of the participants indicated that they were tobacco users and 39 (78.0%) indulged in cigarette smoking only. Of the study participants, 67 (45.9%) indicated they consume alcohol, beer majorly and gin rarely with 23 (34.3%) consuming it excessively. The dominant tooth cleaning device utilized by the participants was toothbrush and toothpaste, and 65 (44.5%) had visited the dentists with the majority of the visit done >5 years ago. About one-third 57 (39.0%) reported experiencing one or more forms of oral disease. However, it was only 17 (11.6%) of them that rated their oral health poor/fair, and the determinants of self-rated oral health were age, rank, and oral health condition. Conclusions: Data from this survey revealed that the majority of the participants rated their oral health as good/excellent. The prevalence of tobacco use and alcohol consumption among prison officials was higher than reported values among the general population in Nigeria. This indicates that more surveillance and

  14. Alcohol consumption patterns of shiftworkers compared with dayworkers.

    PubMed

    Dorrian, Jillian; Skinner, Natalie

    2012-06-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive alcohol consumption are well documented. There is some evidence that shiftworkers consume more alcohol than dayworkers as a sleep aid to compensate for sleep difficulties associated with work schedules. This study investigated drinking patterns between shiftworkers and dayworkers using the 2006 and 2007 waves from the Household Income and Labour Dynamics Survey. A subset of workers who were not in full-time study and had a single job were selected; participants who did not drink alcohol (n = 2090) were excluded. Using the 2001 Australian Government alcohol guidelines, alcohol consumption for risk of short-term harm (7+ standard drinks for men, 5+ for women) was investigated. The number of workers who drank alcohol "nearly every day" or "every day" was also examined. Some 13% of shiftworkers and 10% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol at levels risky for short-term harm. Having a child less than 17 yrs (odds ratio [OR] = .39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = .22-.69), higher job demands (OR = .71, 95% CI = .58-.86), being female (OR = .45, 95% CI=. 26-.79), and being older (OR = .89, 95% CI = .87-.92) significantly reduced, whereas being a shiftworker (OR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.08-4.12) significantly increased, the odds of drinking alcohol in short-term risky levels. Nearly 10% of shiftworkers and 8% of those on standard schedules reported consuming alcohol in short-term risky levels at least weekly. Having a child less than 17 yrs (OR = .40, 95% CI = .22-.74), higher job demands (OR = .69, 95% CI = .56-.86), being female (OR = .28, 95% CI = .15-.53), and being older (OR = .92, 95% CI = .89-.94) were associated with a significant reduction in the odds of consuming alcohol at risky levels at least weekly. Being a shiftworker was not associated with a significant increase in the odds of consuming alcohol at such risky levels at least weekly, but a trend was evident (OR = 1.47, 95

  15. Alcohol drinking and cardiovascular risk in a population with high mean alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Foerster, Maryline; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Gmel, Gerhard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Cornuz, Jacques; Hayoz, Daniel; Pécoud, Alain; Mooser, Vincent; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Paccaud, Fred; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. However, data on the CAD risk associated with high alcohol consumption are conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of heavier drinking on 10-year CAD risk in a population with high mean alcohol consumption. In a population-based study of 5,769 adults (aged 35 to 75 years) without cardiovascular disease in Switzerland, 1-week alcohol consumption was categorized as 0, 1 to 6, 7 to 13, 14 to 20, 21 to 27, 28 to 34, and > or =35 drinks/week or as nondrinkers (0 drinks/week), moderate (1 to 13 drinks/week), high (14 to 34 drinks/week), and very high (> or =35 drinks/week). Blood pressure and lipids were measured, and 10-year CAD risk was calculated according to the Framingham risk score. Seventy-three percent (n = 4,214) of the participants consumed alcohol; 16% (n = 909) were high drinkers and 2% (n = 119) very high drinkers. In multivariate analysis, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (from a mean +/- SE of 1.57 +/- 0.01 mmol/L in nondrinkers to 1.88 +/- 0.03 mmol/L in very high drinkers); triglycerides (1.17 +/- 1.01 to 1.32 +/- 1.05 mmol/L), and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (127.4 +/- 0.4 to 132.2 +/- 1.4 mm Hg and 78.7 +/- 0.3 to 81.7 +/- 0.9 mm Hg, respectively) (all p values for trend <0.001). Ten-year CAD risk increased from 4.31 +/- 0.10% to 4.90 +/- 0.37% (p = 0.03) with alcohol use, with a J-shaped relation. Increasing wine consumption was more related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas beer and spirits were related to increased triglyceride levels. In conclusion, as measured by 10-year CAD risk, the protective effect of alcohol consumption disappears in very high drinkers, because the beneficial increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is offset by the increases in blood pressure levels. PMID:19166690

  16. How economic crises affect alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems: a realist systematic review.

    PubMed

    de Goeij, Moniek C M; Suhrcke, Marc; Toffolutti, Veronica; van de Mheen, Dike; Schoenmakers, Tim M; Kunst, Anton E

    2015-04-01

    Economic crises are complex events that affect behavioral patterns (including alcohol consumption) via opposing mechanisms. With this realist systematic review, we aimed to investigate evidence from studies of previous or ongoing crises on which mechanisms (How?) play a role among which individuals (Whom?). Such evidence would help understand and predict the potential impact of economic crises on alcohol consumption. Medical, psychological, social, and economic databases were used to search for peer-reviewed qualitative or quantitative empirical evidence (published January 1, 1990-May 1, 2014) linking economic crises or stressors with alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. We included 35 papers, based on defined selection criteria. From these papers, we extracted evidence on mechanism(s), determinant, outcome, country-level context, and individual context. We found 16 studies that reported evidence completely covering two behavioral mechanisms by which economic crises can influence alcohol consumption and alcohol-related health problems. The first mechanism suggests that psychological distress triggered by unemployment and income reductions can increase drinking problems. The second mechanism suggests that due to tighter budget constraints, less money is spent on alcoholic beverages. Across many countries, the psychological distress mechanism was observed mainly in men. The tighter budget constraints mechanism seems to play a role in all population subgroups across all countries. For the other three mechanisms (i.e., deterioration in the social situation, fear of losing one's job, and increased non-working time), empirical evidence was scarce or absent, or had small to moderate coverage. This was also the case for important influential contextual factors described in our initial theoretical framework. This realist systematic review suggests that among men (but not among women), the net impact of economic crises will be an increase in harmful

  17. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  18. Polymorphisms in Alcohol Metabolism Genes ADH1B and ALDH2, Alcohol Consumption and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Rennert, Gad; Cuadras, Daniel; Salazar, Ramon; Cordero, David; Saltz Rennert, Hedy; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Kopelovich, Levy; Monroe Lipkin, Steven; Bernard Gruber, Stephen; Moreno, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Epidemiological risk factors for CRC included alcohol intake, which is mainly metabolized to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and further oxidized to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase; consequently, the role of genes in the alcohol metabolism pathways is of particular interest. The aim of this study is to analyze the association between SNPs in ADH1B and ALDH2 genes and CRC risk, and also the main effect of alcohol consumption on CRC risk in the study population. Methodology/Principal Findings SNPs from ADH1B and ALDH2 genes, included in alcohol metabolism pathway, were genotyped in 1694 CRC cases and 1851 matched controls from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study. Information on clinicopathological characteristics, lifestyle and dietary habits were also obtained. Logistic regression and association analysis were conducted. A positive association between alcohol consumption and CRC risk was observed in male participants from the Molecular Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer study (MECC) study (OR = 1.47; 95%CI = 1.18-1.81). Moreover, the SNPs rs1229984 in ADH1B gene was found to be associated with CRC risk: under the recessive model, the OR was 1.75 for A/A genotype (95%CI = 1.21-2.52; p-value = 0.0025). A path analysis based on structural equation modeling showed a direct effect of ADH1B gene polymorphisms on colorectal carcinogenesis and also an indirect effect mediated through alcohol consumption. Conclusions/Significance Genetic polymorphisms in the alcohol metabolism pathways have a potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis, probably due to the differences in the ethanol metabolism and acetaldehyde oxidation of these enzyme variants. PMID:24282520

  19. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  20. Links between alcohol consumption and breast cancer: a look at the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Nguyen, Nhi; Colditz, Graham A

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption by adult women is consistently associated with risk of breast cancer. Several questions regarding alcohol and breast cancer need to be addressed. Menarche to first pregnancy represents a window of time when breast tissue is particularly susceptible to carcinogens. Youth alcohol consumption is common in the USA, largely in the form of binge drinking and heavy drinking. Whether alcohol intake acts early in the process of breast tumorigenesis is unclear. This review aims to focus on the influences of timing and patterns of alcohol consumption and the effect of alcohol on intermediate risk markers. We also review possible mechanisms underlying the alcohol-breast cancer association. PMID:25581056

  1. Alcohol consumption and its relation to cardiovascular risk factors in British women.

    PubMed Central

    Razay, G.; Heaton, K. W.; Bolton, C. H.; Hughes, A. O.

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the relation between alcohol consumption and risk factors for coronary heart disease in women. DESIGN--Cross sectional study of a stratified random sample of the population grouped into five categories of habitual alcohol consumption. SETTING--People registered with general practitioners at two large health centres in east Bristol, England. SUBJECTS--1048 women aged 25-69 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Fasting plasma concentrations of insulin, total cholesterol, total triglycerides, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, including its subfractions HDL2 and HDL3, and body mass index. RESULTS--Compared with non-drinkers women consuming a moderate amount of alcohol (1-20 g/day) had lower plasma concentrations of triglycerides, by 0.19 mmol/l (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.35); cholesterol, by 0.4 mmol/l (0.19 to 0.61); and insulin, by 1.4 mU/l (0.43 to 1.97) and a lower body mass index, by 1.2 kg/m2 (0.43 to 1.97). They also had higher concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, by 0.09 mmol/l (0.03 to 0.15); HDL2 cholesterol by 0.05 mmol/l (-0.02 to 0.10) and HDL3 cholesterol, by 0.06 mmol/l (0.06 to 0.11). All these were independent of body mass index, smoking habits, and taking oral contraceptives. CONCLUSIONS--Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors in women. Insulin may have a central role. PMID:1737144

  2. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. PMID:26059200

  3. Brain Regions Affected by Impaired Control Modulate Responses to Alcohol and Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the commonly observed comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use disorders and years of research, the mechanism underlying concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is not yet clear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the relationship between brain responses to alcohol and smoking cues in 45 subjects with episodic drinking and regular smoking. Method: fMRI data were collected from two studies performing an alcohol-craving task and a smoking-craving task. First, we identified brain voxels significantly activated for both substance cues and then associated the activation of these voxels with various alcohol- and nicotine-dependence measures. Significant clusters (cluster-wise p < .05) correlated with behavioral assessments were extracted, and clusters identified from both cues were compared. Results: The association tests with various dependence scores showed that the loss of behavioral control subcategory in the Alcohol Dependence Scale was significantly correlated with brain activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right posterior insula regardless of cue types. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCC and right posterior insula, each playing a role in the salience network, are affected significantly by impaired control for alcohol and in turn influence brain responses to not only alcohol but also smoking cues, providing insight to neuronal mechanisms for concurrent use or comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. PMID:25208199

  4. The Relationship of Smoking Status to Alcohol Use, Problems, and Health Behaviors in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Amie L.; Smith, Shelby K.

    2012-01-01

    Differences in drinking, consequences, and perceptions were examined between alcohol-using college students by smoking status (current, past, and lifetime nonsmoker). Entering freshmen (N = 558: 45% male, 72% Caucasian, age M = 18) completed a questionnaire assessing smoking, drinking and current health perceptions. Results indicated current…

  5. Increased chromosome fragility as a consequence of blood folate levels, smoking status, and coffee consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, A.T.L.; Reidy, J.A.; Annest, J.L.; Welty, T.K.; Zhou, H. )

    1989-01-01

    Chromosome fragility in 96 h, low-folate cultures was found to be associated with smoking status, coffee consumption, and blood folate level. The higher proportion of cells with chromosome aberrations in cigarette smokers was attributable to lower red cell folate levels in smokers compared with nonsmokers. There was a positive linear relationship between the average cups of coffee consumed per day and the proportion of cells with aberrations. This association was independent of the effects of smoking and red cell folate level. These data suggest that smoking history, coffee consumption, and red cell folate level are important considerations for the design and interpretation of fragile site studies in cancer cytogenetics.

  6. P300 and alcohol consumption in normals and individuals at risk for alcoholism. A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Polich, J; Bloom, F E

    1986-01-01

    Pairs of college student subjects (36 male, 36 female) were matched on age, sex, and personal drinking history. One pair member had a parent who met the DSM III criteria of alcoholism, while the other pair member had no close alcoholic relative. The P300 event-related brain potential (ERP) was obtained from each subject with auditory stimuli in an "oddball" paradigm. Target stimuli occurred randomly on 20% of the trials in a frequency discrimination task, a relatively easy intensity discrimination task, and a more difficult intensity discrimination task. Subjects indicated when the target items occurred by moving their index finger. No significant overall effects were obtained for family history for either P300 latency or amplitude. P300 latency increased and amplitude decreased with increases in the reported amount of alcohol consumption in all subjects only for the difficult intensity task but were statistically significant only for individuals with a negative family history for alcoholism. PMID:3749511

  7. Correlates of experimentation with smoking and current cigarette consumption among adolescents* **

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Amanda Gimenes; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Sicchieri, Mayara Piani; Achcar, Jorge Alberto; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Baddini-Martinez, José

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze social characteristics and stress as correlates of cigarette smoking in adolescence. The main intent was to identify elements that distinguish adolescents who had experimented with smoking and did not progress to regular smoking from those who became current smokers. METHODS: Students at 10 high schools in the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, completed a questionnaire based on an instrument employed in a similar large-scale study. The students were classified as never-smokers or experimenters. The experimenters were subcategorized as having become current smokers or nonprogressors. Analyses were performed using adjusted logistic models. RESULTS: A total of 2,014 students (mean age, 16.2 ± 1.1 years; females, 53%) completed the questionnaire. We categorized 1,283 students (63.7%) as never-smokers, 244 (12.1%) as current smokers, and 487 (24.2%) as nonprogressors. We found that experimentation with smoking was associated with being held back a grade in school (OR = 1.80), alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 8.92; high/regular, OR = 2.64), illicit drug use (OR = 9.32), having a sibling or cousin who smokes (OR = 1.39), having a friend who smokes (OR = 2.08), and high levels of stress (in females only, OR = 1.32). Factors associated with an increased risk of transitioning from experimenter to current smoker were alcohol intake (low/occasional, OR = 3.28; high/regular, OR = 2.16), illicit drug use (OR = 3.61), and having a friend who smokes (OR = 7.20). CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking was associated with a profile of socioeconomic correlates different from that associated with experimentation only. Our data (showing that current smoking was associated with having a friend who smokes, alcohol intake, and illicit drug use) suggest the need for comprehensive approaches to discourage substance use during adolescence. PMID:25610504

  8. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  9. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  10. Neuropeptide S receptor gene variant and environment: contribution to alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Laas, Kariina; Reif, Andreas; Akkermann, Kirsti; Kiive, Evelyn; Domschke, Katharina; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Veidebaum, Toomas; Harro, Jaanus

    2015-05-01

    The functional polymorphism Asn(107) Ile (rs324981, A > T) of the neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1) gene is involved in the modulation of traits that affect alcohol use. Hence, we have examined whether the NPSR1 A/T polymorphism is associated with alcohol use disorders (AUD) and alcohol use in a population-representative sample. Lifetime AUD were assessed by the MINI psychiatric interview (n = 501) in the older cohort of the longitudinal Estonian Children Personality Behaviour and Health Study at age 25. Alcohol use, environmental adversities and personality were reported by both the younger (original n = 583) and the older cohort (original n = 593) in three study waves. NPSR1 associations with AUD and alcohol use differed by sex. In females, both AUD [odds ratio (OR) = 7.20 (0.94-55.0), P = 0.029] and harmful alcohol use were more prevalent in A-allele carriers. In contrast, in males, AUD was more frequent in T-allele carriers [OR = 2.75 (1.19-6.36), P = 0.017], especially if exposed to adverse environments at age 15 [OR = 10 (1.18-84.51), P = 0.019]. Alcohol use was higher in male T-allele carriers at ages 15 and 18 as well. Similarly to females, however, the risk allele for higher alcohol use for males at age 25 was the A-allele. Many of the effects on alcohol use were explained by genotype effects on measures of personality. In the general population, the NPSR1 Asn(107) Ile polymorphism is associated with AUD and alcohol consumption, dependent on sex, environment and age. The results are in line with the impulsivity and personality regulating role of the NPSR1. PMID:24754478

  11. Association Between Long-term Alcohol Consumption and Undercarboxylated Osteocalcin.

    PubMed

    Teraoka, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare has focused on enhancing knowldge about the association between alcohol consumption and health, such as early detection of alcohol abuse, the appropriate actions to be taken after detection, and prevention of teenage drinking. They believe that it is necessary to develop and improve the methods for early detection of alcohol-related problems in an easy and effective way. Given this context, we hypothsized that simultaneous determination of osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated osteocalcin ucOC), bone metabolic markers, would facilitate research on the effects of alcohol drinking. We divided volunteers into a group of long-term drinkers (heavy drinking for 20 years or more) and a group of social drinkers (moderate and controlled drinkers), and determined blood DC, ucOC, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoform 5b (TRACP-5b) levels, as bone metabolic markers, and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), mitochondrial GOT (m-GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP) levels, as biochemical markers. In addition, we determined the levels of free and bound ethanol and methanol in urine as markers of alcohol abuse and dependence. The group of long-term drinkers showed significantly higher levels of OC and ucOC than the group of social drinkers (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers also showed a significantly higher level of m-GOT than the social drinkers in the biochemical examinations (p < 0.01). Long-term drinkers showed a tendency to have increased free/bound ethanol and methanol levels in urine compared to social drinkers, but the differences were not statistically significant. The above results suggest that determination of the levels of OC and ucOC can provide useful information for the early detection of heavy drinkers, indicating that OC and ucOC may be used as markers for preventing alcohol dependence. PMID:26946781

  12. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, Kathleen B.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women’s health concern. PMID:26293593

  13. Middle and High School Students’ Exposure to Alcohol- and Smoking-Related Media: A Pilot Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Scharf, Deborah M.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude M.; Staplefoote, B. Lynette; Shadel, William G.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents’ exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a two-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures and an average of per participant during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking) and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students’ real-world exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors. PMID:23772763

  14. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  15. Polygenic risk scores for smoking: predictors for alcohol and cannabis use?

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; Hottenga, Jouke Jan; de Geus, Eco J.C.; Willemnsen, Gonneke; Neale, Michael C.; Furberg, Helena; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A strong correlation exists between smoking and the use of alcohol and cannabis. This paper uses polygenic risk scores to explore the possibility of overlapping genetic factors. Those scores reflect a combined effect of selected risk alleles for smoking. Methods Summary-level p-values were available for smoking initiation, age at onset of smoking, cigarettes per day and smoking cessation from the Tobacco and Genetics Consortium (N between 22,000 and 70,000 subjects). Using different p-value thresholds (.1, .2 and .5) from the meta-analyses, sets of ‘risk alleles’ were defined and used to generate a polygenic risk score (weighted sum of the alleles) for each subject in an independent target sample from the Netherlands Twin Register (N=1583). The association between polygenic smoking scores and alcohol/cannabis use was investigated with regression analyses. Results The polygenic scores for ‘cigarettes per day’ were significantly associated with, the number of glasses alcohol per week (p=.005, R2=.4–.5%) and cannabis initiation (p=.004, R2=0.6–.9%). The polygenic scores for ‘age at onset of smoking’ were significantly associated with ‘age at regular drinking’ (p=.001, R2=1.1–1.5%), while the scores for ‘smoking initiation’ and ‘smoking cessation’ did not significantly predict alcohol or cannabis use. Conclusions Smoking, alcohol and cannabis use are influenced by aggregated genetic risk factors shared between these substances. The many common genetic variants each have a very small individual effect size. PMID:24450588

  16. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  17. Relation of alcohol consumption and coronary heart disease in hypertensive male physicians (from the Physicians' Health Study).

    PubMed

    Britton, Kathryn A; Gaziano, John Michael; Sesso, Howard D; Djoussé, Luc

    2009-10-01

    Alcohol has diverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Moderate drinking is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, yet increasing amounts of alcohol consumption are known to increase blood pressure. These opposing effects have led to interest in the effect of moderate alcohol consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) in patients with hypertension. To test the hypothesis that moderate alcohol consumption decreases the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with hypertension, we used data on 5,164 participants in the Physicians' Health Study who were apparently healthy and free of CHD at baseline. Incident MI was ascertained by annual follow-up questionnaires and validated through review of medical records. Cox proportional hazard model was used to compute multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios with corresponding 95% confidence intervals. From 1982 to 2008, 623 cases of MI occurred. Compared to subjects consuming <1 drink per week, hazard ratios for MI were 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.28), 0.78 (95% confidence interval 0.64 to 0.97), and 0.57 (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.95) for alcohol consumption of 1 to 4, 5 to 7, and >8 drinks per week adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, exercise, diabetes, multivitamin use, vegetable intake, breakfast cereal intake, and cholesterol (p for trend <0.0022). Similar inferences could be made for the secondary outcomes of angina pectoris and any CHD (which included MI, angina pectoris, and previous revascularization). In conclusion, our data demonstrated an inverse relation between moderate alcohol consumption and CHD in hypertensive men. PMID:19766759

  18. Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and the Risk of Being Assaulted With a Gun

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Elliott, Michael R.; Richmond, Therese S.; Culhane, Dennis P.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    Background We conducted a population-based case–control study to better delineate the relationship between individual alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets in the surrounding environment, and being assaulted with a gun. Methods An incidence density sampled case–control study was conducted in the entire city of Philadelphia from 2003 to 2006. We enrolled 677 cases that had been shot in an assault and 684 population-based controls. The relationships between 2 independent variables of interest, alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, and the outcome of being assaulted with a gun were analyzed. Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for numerous confounding variables. Results After adjustment, heavy drinkers were 2.67 times as likely to be shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers (p < 0.10) while light drinkers were not at significantly greater risk of being shot in an assault when compared with nondrinkers. Regression-adjusted analyses also demonstrated that being in an area of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability significantly increased the risk of being shot in an assault by 2.00 times (p < 0.05). Being in an area of high on-premise alcohol outlet availability did not significantly change this risk. Heavy drinkers in areas of high off-premise alcohol outlet availability were 9.34 times (p < 0.05) as likely to be shot in an assault. Conclusions This study finds that the gun assault risk to individuals who are near off-premise alcohol outlets is about the same as or statistically greater than the risk they incur from heavy drinking. The combination of heavy drinking and being near off-premise outlets resulted in greater risk than either factor alone. By comparison, light drinking and being near on-premise alcohol outlets were not associated with increased risks for gun assault. Cities should consider addressing alcohol-related factors, especially off-premise outlets, as highly modifiable and politically feasible approaches

  19. Influence of Smoking Consumption and Nicotine Dependence Degree in Cardiac Autonomic Modulation

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ana Paula Soares; Ramos, Dionei; de Oliveira, Gabriela Martins; dos Santos, Ana Alice Soares; Freire, Ana Paula Coelho Figueira; It, Juliana Tiyaki; Fernandes, Renato Peretti Prieto; Vanderlei, Luiz Carlos Marques; Ramos, Ercy Mara Cipulo

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking consumption alters cardiac autonomic function. Objective Assess the influence of the intensity of smoking and the nicotine dependence degree in cardiac autonomic modulation evaluated through index of heart rate variability (HRV). Methods 83 smokers, of both genders, between 50 and 70 years of age and with normal lung function were divided according to the intensity of smoking consumption (moderate and severe) and the nicotine dependency degree (mild, moderate and severe). The indexes of HRV were analyzed in rest condition, in linear methods in the time domain (TD), the frequency domain (FD) and through the Poincaré plot. For the comparison of smoking consumption, unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney was employed. For the analysis between the nicotine dependency degrees, we used the One-way ANOVA test, followed by Tukey's post test or Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. The significance level was p < 0,05. Results Differences were only found when compared to the different intensities of smoking consumption in the indexes in the FD. LFun (62.89 ± 15.24 vs 75.45 ± 10.28), which corresponds to low frequency spectrum component in normalized units; HFun (37.11 ± 15.24 vs 24.55 ± 10.28), which corresponds to high frequency spectrum component in normalized units and in the LF/HF ratio (2.21 ± 1.47 vs 4.07 ± 2.94). However, in the evaluation of nicotine dependency, significant differences were not observed (p > 0.05). Conclusion Only the intensity of smoking consumption had an influence over the cardiac autonomic modulation of the assessed tobacco smokers. Tobacco smokers with severe intensity of smoking consumption presented a lower autonomic modulation than those with moderate intensity. PMID:27142649

  20. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption - a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage?

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Selin, Klara Hradilova

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have found a positive effect of low/moderate alcohol consumption on wages. This has often been explained by referring to epidemiological research showing that alcohol has protective effects on certain diseases, i.e., the health link is normally justified using selected epidemiological information. Few papers have tested this link between alcohol and health explicitly, including all diseases where alcohol has been shown to have either a protective or a detrimental effect. Aim Based on the full epidemiological information, we study the effect of low alcohol consumption on health, in order to determine if it is reasonable to explain the positive effect of low consumption on wages using the epidemiological literature. Methods We apply a non-econometrical cost-of-illness approach to calculate the medical care cost and episodes attributable to low alcohol consumption. Results Low alcohol consumption carries a net cost for medical care and there is a net benefit only for the oldest age group (80+). Low alcohol consumption also causes more episodes in medical care then what is saved, although inpatient care for women and older men show savings. Conclusion Using health as an explanation in the alcohol-wage literature appears invalid when applying the full epidemiological information instead of selected information. PMID:19852776

  1. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode. PMID:26781580

  2. Alcohol consumption and colon cancer prognosis among participants in north central cancer treatment group phase III trial N0147.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Amanda I; Shi, Qian; Limburg, Paul J; Nelson, Garth D; Sargent, Daniel J; Sinicrope, Frank A; Chan, Emily; Gill, Sharlene; Goldberg, Richard M; Kahlenberg, Morton; Nair, Suresh; Shields, Anthony F; Newcomb, Polly A; Alberts, Steven R

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with a modest increased risk of colon cancer, but its relationship with colon cancer survival has not been elucidated. Using data from a phase III randomized adjuvant trial, we assessed the association of alcohol consumption with colon cancer outcomes. Patients completed a risk factor questionnaire before randomization to FOLFOX or FOLFOX + cetuximab (N = 1984). Information was collected on lifestyle factors, including smoking, physical activity and consumption of different types of alcohol. Cox models assessed the association between alcohol consumption and outcomes of disease-free survival (DFS), time-to-recurrence (TTR) and overall survival (OS), adjusting for age, sex, study arm, body mass, smoking, physical activity and performance status. No statistically significant difference in outcomes between ever and never drinkers were noted [hazard ratio (HR)DFS  = 0.86, HRTTR  = 0.87, HROS  = 0.86, p-values = 0.11-0.17]. However, when considering alcohol type, ever consumers of red wine (n = 628) had significantly better outcomes than never consumers (HRDFS  = 0.80, HRTTR  = 0.81, HROS  = 0.78, p-values = 0.01-0.02). Favorable outcomes were confirmed in patients who consumed 1-30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 601, HR = 0.80-0.83, p-values = 0.03-0.049); there was a suggestion of more favorable outcomes in patients who consumed >30 glasses/month of red wine (n = 27, HR = 0.33-0.38, p-values = 0.05-0.06). Beer and liquor consumption were not associated with outcomes. Although alcohol consumption was not associated with colon cancer outcomes overall, mild to moderate red wine consumption was suggestively associated with longer OS, DFS and TTR in stage III colon cancer patients. PMID:27060850

  3. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  4. Mood and Implicit Alcohol Expectancy Processes: Predicting Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Read, Jennifer P.; Curtin, John J.; Merrill, Jennifer E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Implicit positive alcohol expectancy (PAEs) processes are thought to respond phasically to external and internal stimuli – including mood states – and so they may exert powerful proximal influences over drinking behavior. Although social learning theory contends that mood states activate mood-congruent implicit PAEs, which in turn lead to alcohol use, there is a dearth of experimental research examining this mediation model relative to observable drinking. Moreover, an expectancy theory perspective might suggest that, rather than influencing PAEs directly, mood may moderate the association between PAEs and drinking. To test these models, the present study examined the role of mood in the association between implicitly measured PAE processes (i.e., latency to endorse PAEs) and immediate alcohol consumption in the laboratory. Gender differences in these processes also were examined. Method College students (N=146) were exposed to either a positive, negative, or neutral mood induction procedure, completed a computerized PAE reaction time (RT) task, and subsequently consumed alcohol ad libitum. Results The mood manipulation had no direct effects on drinking in the lab, making the mediation hypothesis irrelevant. Instead, gender and mood condition moderated the association between RT to endorse PAEs and drinking in the lab. For males, RT to tension reduction PAEs was a stronger predictor of volume of beer consumed and peak BAC in the context of general arousal (i.e., positive and negative mood) relative to neutral mood. RT to PAEs did not predict drinking in the lab for females. Conclusions The results show that PAE processes are important determinants of immediate drinking behavior in men, suggesting that biased attention to mood-relevant PAEs – as indicated by longer RTs – predicts greater alcohol consumption in the appropriate mood context. The findings also highlight the need to consider gender differences in PAE processes. This study underscores

  5. Cigarette smoking and rate of gastric emptying: effect on alcohol absorption.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R D; Horowitz, M; Maddox, A F; Wishart, J M; Shearman, D J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the effects of cigarette smoking on alcohol absorption and gastric emptying. DESIGN--Randomised crossover study. SETTING--Research project in departments of medicine and nuclear medicine. SUBJECTS--Eight healthy volunteers aged 19-43 who regularly smoked 20-35 cigarettes a day and drank small amounts of alcohol on social occasions. INTERVENTIONS--Subjects drank 400 ml of a radiolabelled nutrient test meal containing alcohol (0.5 g/kg), then had their rates of gastric emptying measured. Test were carried out (a) with the subjects smoking four cigarettes an hour and (b) with the subjects not smoking, having abstained for seven days or more. The order of the tests was randomised and the tests were conducted two weeks apart. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Peak blood alcohol concentrations, absorption of alcohol at 30 minutes, amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes, and times taken for 50% of the meal to leave the proximal stomach and total stomach. RESULTS--Smoking was associated with reductions in (a) peak blood alcohol concentrations (median values in non-smoking versus smoking periods 13.5 (range 8.7-22.6) mmol/l v 11.1 (4.3-13.5) mmol/l), (b) area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (264 x 10(3) (0-509 x 10(3)) mmol/l/min v 140 x 10(3)) (0-217 x 10(3) mmol/l/min), and (c) amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes (39% (5-86%) v 23% (0-35%)). In addition, smoking slowed both the 50% gastric emptying time (37 (9-83) minutes v 56 (40-280) minutes) and the intragastric distribution of the meal. There was a close correlation between the amount of test meal emptied from the stomach at 30 minutes and the area under the blood alcohol concentration-time curve at 30 minutes (r = 0.91; p less than 0.0001). CONCLUSION--Cigarette smoking slows gastric emptying and as a consequence delays alcohol absorption. PMID:1991182

  6. Determining the best population-level alcohol consumption model and its impact on estimates of alcohol-attributable harms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The goals of our study are to determine the most appropriate model for alcohol consumption as an exposure for burden of disease, to analyze the effect of the chosen alcohol consumption distribution on the estimation of the alcohol Population- Attributable Fractions (PAFs), and to characterize the chosen alcohol consumption distribution by exploring if there is a global relationship within the distribution. Methods To identify the best model, the Log-Normal, Gamma, and Weibull prevalence distributions were examined using data from 41 surveys from Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS) and from the European Comparative Alcohol Study. To assess the effect of these distributions on the estimated alcohol PAFs, we calculated the alcohol PAF for diabetes, breast cancer, and pancreatitis using the three above-named distributions and using the more traditional approach based on categories. The relationship between the mean and the standard deviation from the Gamma distribution was estimated using data from 851 datasets for 66 countries from GENACIS and from the STEPwise approach to Surveillance from the World Health Organization. Results The Log-Normal distribution provided a poor fit for the survey data, with Gamma and Weibull distributions providing better fits. Additionally, our analyses showed that there were no marked differences for the alcohol PAF estimates based on the Gamma or Weibull distributions compared to PAFs based on categorical alcohol consumption estimates. The standard deviation of the alcohol distribution was highly dependent on the mean, with a unit increase in alcohol consumption associated with a unit increase in the mean of 1.258 (95% CI: 1.223 to 1.293) (R2 = 0.9207) for women and 1.171 (95% CI: 1.144 to 1.197) (R2 = 0. 9474) for men. Conclusions Although the Gamma distribution and the Weibull distribution provided similar results, the Gamma distribution is recommended to model alcohol consumption from population

  7. Smoking and caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population: effect on fetal growth.

    PubMed Central

    Godel, J C; Pabst, H F; Hodges, P E; Johnson, K E; Froese, G J; Joffres, M R

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of smoking and of caffeine and alcohol intake during pregnancy in a northern population and to determine the relation of these factors to birth weight, length and head circumference. DESIGN: Questionnaire survey and collection of maternal and newborn measurements. SETTING: Ten communities in the Inuvik Zone, NWT. PATIENTS: A total of 162 women (56 Inuit, 38 Indian, 37 white and 31 mixed race) who presented for prenatal care in their community and gave birth in Inuvik between September 1987 and January 1990 and their newborns. RESULTS: In all, 64% (101/159) of the women smoked, 57% (88/154) ingested more than 300 mg of caffeine daily, and 34% (50/145) drank alcohol during their pregnancy. Smoking, caffeine intake and binge drinking were most frequent among the Inuit and Indian mothers. Smoking was significantly associated with decreased birth weight (p less than 0.001) and length (p less than 0.05). Alcohol intake, especially binge drinking, was significantly associated with decreased head circumference (p less than 0.05). Caffeine was found not to be related to any of the outcome variables after smoking was controlled for through stepwise multiple regression. CONCLUSIONS: The marked prevalence of smoking and alcohol intake during pregnancy and their effects on the newborn are public health concerns in the Northwest Territories and warrant intensive countermeasures. PMID:1623464

  8. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  9. Alcohol consumption and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in women.

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, C; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; Franceschi, S

    1993-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of acute myocardial infarction in women. DESIGN--This was a hospital based, case-control study carried out between 1983 and 1990. Main outcome measures were average daily number of drinks of various alcoholic beverages consumed and corresponding multivariate relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). SETTING--A network including major teaching and general hospitals in northern Italy. SUBJECTS--Cases were 298 women with acute myocardial infarction but no history of ischaemic heart disease and controls 685 women admitted to hospital for acute conditions, unrelated to alcohol consumption or to known or suspected risk factors for ischaemic heart disease. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--Compared with non-drinkers, the estimated relative risks (RR) were 0.7 (95% CI 0.5, 1.0) for one drink or less per day, 0.8 (95% CI 0.6, 1.2) for more than one to two drinks per day, 1.4 (95% CI 0.8, 2.3) for more than two to three, and 2.6 (95% CI 1.5, 4.6) for more than three drinks per day. These estimates were consistent across strata of selected covariates, including age, education, and smoking. Allowance for major identified risk factors for myocardial infarction did not materially modify the risk estimate for light drinkers (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5, 1.1), but reduced the RR in heavy drinkers to 1.8 (95% CI 0.9, 3.5). CONCLUSIONS--This study indicates that women who do not drink alcohol have a risk of myocardial infarction that is higher than that of light drinkers, although the protection of light drinking was not significant. Among drinkers, however, there was a significant direct trend in risk with dose. The raised risks in heavy drinkers may reflect a real association or result from other unfavourable characteristics or habits associated with high alcohol consumption. PMID:8228768

  10. Baboon alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes: phenotypic changes in liver following chronic consumption of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Holmes, R S; VandeBerg, J L

    1987-01-01

    According to the nomenclature of Vallee and Bazzone [1983] for mammalian alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes, baboon ADHs comprise three major classes of activity, which were distinguished according to the following properties: Class I ADHs. These isozymes exhibited low-Km characteristics with ethanol as substrate, high isoelectric points (8.5-9.3), and sensitivity to 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, and were the major liver (ADH-2) and kidney (ADH-1) isozymes in the baboon. Class II ADHs. These isozymes showed high-Km values for ethanol, neutral isoelectric points (7.7 for the liver ADH-4 [pi-ADH] and 7.2 for the major stomach ADH [ADH-3], respectively), and were insensitive to inhibition with 5 mM 4-methyl pyrazole. Class III ADH. This enzyme was characterized by its inactivity with ethanol as substrate (up to 0.5 M), insensitivity to 4-methyl pyrazole inhibition, preference for medium-chain-length alcohols as substrate (trans-2-hexen-1-ol was routinely used in this study), and an isoelectric point (6.5) similar to that of the human liver chi-ADH (pI 6.4). Major activity variation of the liver pi-ADH (ADH-4) isozyme was observed among the 114 liver samples examined, with 34 percent exhibiting a null (or low-activity) phenotype. An electrophoretic variant phenotype for the major class II stomach isozyme (ADH-3) was also found in the population studied. The baboon was used as a model for studying alcohol-induced changes in liver ADH phenotype following chronic alcohol consumption. Prepuberal male baboons were pair-fed nutritionally adequate liquid diets containing ethanol (50 percent of calories) or isocaloric carbohydrates, and liver ADH isozyme patterns from biopsy samples were monitored for 20 weeks. Dramatic decreases in class II liver ADH activity (ADH-4, or pi-ADH) were observed within 4 weeks after the start of alcohol feeding, and a shift in liver class I isozymes was found during the later stages of alcohol consumption. These changes during chronic

  11. Social defeat in adolescent mice increases vulnerability to alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Arias, Marta; Navarrete, Francisco; Blanco-Gandia, Maria Carmen; Arenas, Maria Carmen; Bartoll-Andrés, Adrián; Aguilar, Maria A; Rubio, Gabriel; Miñarro, José; Manzanares, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    This study employs an oral operant conditioning paradigm to evaluate the effects of repeated social defeat during adolescence on the reinforcing and motivational actions of ethanol in adult OF1 mice. Social interaction, emotional and cognitive behavioral aspects were also analyzed, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) experiments were performed to study gene expression changes in the mesocorticolimbic and hypothalamus-hypophysis-adrenal (HHA) axis. Social defeat did not alter anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze or cognitive performance in the passive avoidance and Hebb-Williams tests. A social interaction test revealed depression-like symptoms and social subordination behavior in defeated OF1 mice. Interestingly, social defeat in adolescence significantly increased the number of effective responses, ethanol consumption values and motivation to drink. Finally, real-time PCR analyses revealed that social defeat significantly increased tyrosine hydroxylase and corticotropin-releasing hormone in the ventral tegmental area and paraventricular nucleus, respectively. In contrast, mu-opioid receptor gene expression was decreased in the nucleus accumbens of socially defeated mice. In summary, these findings suggest that exposure to social defeat during adolescence increases vulnerability to the rewarding effects of ethanol without affecting emotional or cognitive performance. The gene expression alterations we have observed in the mesocorticolimbic and HHA axis systems of defeated mice could be related with their increased ethanol consumption. These results endorse future research into pharmacological strategies that modulate these systems for the treatment of social stress-related alcohol consumption problems. PMID:25219790

  12. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  13. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  14. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  15. The effect of prior alcohol consumption on the ataxic response to alcohol in high-alcohol preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, Brandon M.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that ethanol-naïve high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice, genetically predis-posed to consume large quantities of alcohol, exhibited heightened sensitivity and more rapid acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of prior alcohol self-administration on these responses in HAP mice. Naïve male and female adult HAP mice from the second replicate of selection (HAP2) underwent 18 days of 24-h, 2-bottle choice drinking for 10% ethanol vs. water, or water only. After 18 days of fluid access, mice were tested for ataxic sensitivity and rapid AFT following a 1.75 g/kg injection of ethanol on a static dowel apparatus in Experiment 1. In Experiment 2, a separate group of mice was tested for more protracted AFT development using a dual-injection approach where a second, larger (2.0 g/kg) injection of ethanol was given following the initial recovery of performance on the task. HAP2 mice that had prior access to alcohol exhibited a blunted ataxic response to the acute alcohol challenge, but this pre-exposure did not alter rapid within-session AFT capacity in Experiment 1 or more protracted AFT capacity in Experiment 2. These findings suggest that the typically observed increase in alcohol consumption in these mice may be influenced by ataxic functional tolerance development, but is not mediated by a greater capacity for ethanol exposure to positively influence within-session ataxic tolerance. PMID:25454537

  16. Effect of chronic alcohol consumption on the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sebastian; Hellerbrand, Claus; Liangpunsakul, Suthat

    2015-01-01

    A number of epidemiologic studies show a protective effect of light to moderate daily alcohol consumption on the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Although these small amounts of ethanol may prevent fatty liver, they may also be a risk factor for other diseases such as breast and colon cancer. Those individuals who have underlying hepatic steatosis or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) should not use ethanol chronically since the data available at present do not support a beneficial effect of alcohol in this situation. Especially overweight and obese individuals may be more susceptible towards alcohol even at moderate doses. Animal experiments show a negative effect of ethanol on liver histology in either dietary or genetic NASH models. In addition, patients with NASH reveal a significant increased risk for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) even with social alcohol consumption. Thus, subjects with underlying NASH should abstain from alcohol at any amounts. PMID:26151054

  17. Environmental Stressors, Low Well-being, Smoking, and Alcohol Use Among South African Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Brook, David W.; Rubenstone, Elizabeth; Zhang, Chenshu; Morojele, Neo K.; Brook, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    This is the first study to examine the pathways from environmental stressors to substance use among a sample of South African adolescents (N=2,195). The study objective was to assess how environmental stressors might affect cigarette smoking and alcohol use among South African adolescents, and to focus on one mechanism, low well-being, which might mediate this association. Participants consisted of 2,195 Black, mixed ancestry (“Coloured”), Indian, and White youth, aged 12 to 17 years old (mean age=14.6; SD=1.8), recruited via a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure in Durban, Cape Town, and Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected via individual in-person structured interviews, administered by trained interviewers in the participant’s preferred language. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the interrelationships of environmental stressors (violent victimisation, legal and illegal drug availability) and low well-being (depressive symptoms, low self-esteem, health problems) with respect to adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use. The results supported our hypotheses: Environmental stressors were related to low well-being which, in turn, was linked to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. There were also direct pathways from environmental stressors to both adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Smoking and alcohol use were significantly correlated. The findings suggest that environmental stressors may be associated with diminished psychological and physical well-being, as well as smoking and alcohol use, among South African adolescents. Longitudinal research is warranted to further understand the interrelationship of environmental stressors, low well-being, and adolescent substance use, so that these issues may be addressed by South African programmes and policies. PMID:21492977

  18. An Experimental Trial Exploring the Impact of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring upon Alcohol Consumption in a Cohort of Male Students

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Fergus G.; Williams, Damien J.; Goodall, Christine A.; Murer, Jeffrey S.; Donnelly, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring upon alcohol consumption in male students at a Scottish university. Method Using a within-subject mixed-methods design, 60 male university students were randomly allocated into three experimental conditions using AUDIT score stratified sampling. Participants in Conditions A and B were asked not to consume alcohol for a 14-day period, with those in Condition A additionally being required to wear a continuous transdermal alcohol monitoring anklet. Condition C participants wore an anklet and were asked to continue consuming alcohol as normal. Alcohol consumption was measured through alcohol timeline follow-back, and using data collected from the anklets where available. Diaries and focus groups explored participants’ experiences of the trial. Results Alcohol consumption during the 14-day trial decreased significantly for participants in Conditions A and B, but not in C. There was no significant relative difference in units of alcohol consumed between Conditions A and B, but significantly fewer participants in Condition A drank alcohol than in Condition B. Possible reasons for this difference identified from the focus groups and diaries included the anklet acting as a reminder of commitment to the study (and the agreement to sobriety), participants feeling under surveillance, and the use of the anklet as a tool to resist social pressure to consume alcohol. Conclusions The study provided experience in using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors in an experimental context, and demonstrated ways in which the technology may be supportive in facilitating sobriety. Results from the study have been used to design a research project using continuous transdermal alcohol monitors with ex-offenders who recognise a link between their alcohol consumption and offending behaviour. PMID:23825656

  19. Alcohol Consumption in Older Adults and Medicare Costs

    PubMed Central

    Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Lumley, Thomas; Luepker, Russell V.; Lapin, Pauline; Mittleman, Murray A.; McBean, A. Marshall; Crum, Rosa M.; Siscovick, David S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the relationship of alcohol consumption and Medicare costs among 4,392 participants in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a longitudinal, population-based cohort study of adults age 65 or over in four U.S. communities. We assessed 5-year Parts A and B costs and self-reported intake of beer, wine, and liquor at baseline. Among both sexes, total costs were approximately $2,000 lower among consumers of >1-6 drinks per week than abstainers. The lower costs associated with moderate drinking were most apparent among participants with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and for hospitalization costs for CVD among healthy participants. Former drinkers had the highest costs. PMID:17290648

  20. Comparing distributions of alcohol consumption: empirical probability plots.

    PubMed

    Lemmens, P H; Tan, E S; Knibbe, R A

    1990-06-01

    Parametric approaches to the problem of the distribution of alcohol consumption have not been very successful. In this article, it is shown that regulatory in distribution can be studied without making assumptions about a distribution model underlying the data. For this purpose, a method is used with which distributions are compared graphically in so-called probability plots. It appears that, up to a proper linear transformation on a logarithmic scale, a surprisingly large regularity over time can be observed between distributions taken from Dutch samples in 1970, 1981 and 1985. Equally, distributions from male and female sub-samples do not appear to differ up to a linear shift. The finding of a relative equality in distributional form is in accordance with the Ledermann model. However, the difference with the Ledermann's model is that no assumptions about the exact shape of the distributions are being made. PMID:2378992

  1. Alcohol Response and Consumption in Adolescent Rhesus Macaques: Life History and Genetic Influences

    PubMed Central

    Schwandt, Melanie L.; Lindell, Stephen G.; Chen, Scott; Higley, J. Dee; Suomi, Stephen J.; Heilig, Markus; Barr, Christina S.

    2009-01-01

    The use of alcohol by adolescents is a growing problem and has become an important research topic in the etiology of the alcohol use disorders. A key component of this research has been the development of animal models of adolescent alcohol consumption and alcohol response. Due to their extended period of adolescence, rhesus macaques are especially well-suited for modeling alcohol-related phenotypes that contribute to the adolescent propensity for alcohol consumption. In this review, we discuss studies from our laboratory that have investigated both the initial response to acute alcohol administration and the consumption of alcohol in voluntary self-administration paradigms in adolescent rhesus macaques. These studies confirm that adolescence is a time of dynamic change both behaviorally and physiologically, and that alcohol response and alcohol consumption are influenced by life history variables such as age, sex, and adverse early experience in the form of peer-rearing. Furthermore, genetic variants that alter functioning of the serotonin, endogenous opioid, and corticotropin releasing hormone systems are shown to influence both physiological and behavioral outcomes, in some cases interacting with early experience to indicate gene by environment interactions. These findings highlight several of the pathways involved in alcohol response and consumption, namely reward, behavioral dyscontrol, and vulnerability to stress, and demonstrate a role for these pathways during the early stages of alcohol exposure in adolescence. PMID:20113875

  2. Stability of alcohol consumption among youth: a National Longitudinal Survey.

    PubMed

    Grant, B F; Harford, T C; Grigson, M B

    1988-05-01

    The present study draws upon the National Longitudinal Survey (NLS) of Labor Market Experience in Youth (ages 17-24) to describe alcohol use patterns over a 2-year period during the transition years between adolescence and young adulthood. Specifically, turnover in current (using any amount of alcohol in any frequency during the past month) and heavier (drinking six or more drinks on at least 2-3 occasions during the past month) drinking levels among panel members was examined by charting incidence, remission, chronicity, and abstinence between 1982 and 1983. The prevalence of each consumption level increased between the ages of 17 and 22 but declined thereafter for each sex until the age of 24. Changes in prevalence from 1982 to 1983 were shown to be a function of changes in drinking level status. The analysis of turnover in current and heavier drinking levels indicated that there was continuity in drinking behavior over time. Sex differences observed in these trends were examined and their implications to internal and external age- and sex-appropriate constraints and paradigmatic development were explicated. PMID:3374139

  3. Reactance theory and alcohol consumption laws: further confirmation among collegiate alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Allen, D N; Sprenkel, D G; Vitale, P A

    1994-01-01

    By the late 1980s, the United States legal drinking age had increased to 21 years. Based on psychological reactance theory, one would predict that these law changes would cause underage collegiate consumers to drink more alcohol because of the belief that their behavioral freedom was being reduced. It was hypothesized that underage collegiate alcohol consumers (UC) would drink more than their legal-age peers (LC) if psychological reactance was a contributing factor to consumption, whereas no differences would be present between the UC and LC groups' usage of illicit drugs, as these had not been affected by recent law changes. To test this hypothesis, a sample of 2,142 college students from 10 midwestern postsecondary educational facilities responded to the Alcohol and Other Drug Use Needs Assessment Survey in the spring of 1990. Mann-Whitney U analyses revealed significant differences between groups on alcohol use measures, but no differences were present on illicit substance use measures. These results are interpreted as supporting reactance theory. PMID:8189723

  4. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  5. Cancers in Australia in 2010 attributable to the consumption of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Pandeya, Nirmala; Wilson, Louise F; Webb, Penelope M; Neale, Rachel E; Bain, Christopher J; Whiteman, David C

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the proportion and numbers of cancers occurring in Australia in 2010 that are attributable to alcohol consumption. Methods We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF) of cancers causally associated with alcohol consumption using standard formulae incorporating prevalence of alcohol consumption and relative risks associated with consumption and cancer. We also estimated the proportion change in cancer incidence (potential impact fraction [PIF]) that might have occurred under the hypothetical scenario that an intervention reduced alcohol consumption, so that no-one drank >2 drinks/day. Results An estimated 3,208 cancers (2.8% of all cancers) occurring in Australian adults in 2010 could be attributed to alcohol consumption. The greatest numbers were for cancers of the colon (868) and female breast cancer (830). The highest PAFs were for squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity/pharynx (31%) and oesophagus (25%). The incidence of alcohol-associated cancer types could have been reduced by 1,442 cases (4.3%) – from 33,537 to 32,083 – if no Australian adult consumed >2 drinks/day. Conclusions More than 3,000 cancers were attributable to alcohol consumption and thus were potentially preventable. Implications Strategies that limit alcohol consumption to guideline levels could prevent a large number of cancers in Australian adults. PMID:26437723

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Academic Retention in First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liguori, Gary; Lonbaken, Barb

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study attempted to identify relationships between alcohol consumption and first-to-second-year student retention among college students. Methods: 820 students in general education courses completed an online wellness assessment at four separate time points, including questions related to alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed…

  7. Acquaintance Rape and Alcohol Consumption on College Campuses: How Are They Linked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Antonia

    1991-01-01

    Explores the links between acquaintance rape and alcohol consumption among college students, two serious problems on campus. Seven explanations for the relationship focus on alcohol consumption by the perpetrator and by the victim. The need to conduct further studies and develop prevention programs is addressed. (Author/SM)

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption aggravates high fat-diet induced steatohepatitis in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) develops in the absence of chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. However, it remains unknown whether moderate alcohol consumption aggravates liver inflammation in pre-existing NASH condition. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were first fed ad libitum...

  9. Student-Generated Protective Behaviors to Avert Severe Harm Due to High-Risk Alcohol Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sandi W.; LaPlante, Carolyn; Wibert, Wilma Novales; Mayer, Alex; Atkin, Charles K.; Klein, Katherine; Glazer, Edward; Martell, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    High-risk alcohol consumption is a significant problem on college campuses that many students see as a rite of passage in their development into adulthood. Developing effective prevention campaigns designed to lessen or avert the risks associated with alcohol consumption entails understanding how students perceive harmful consequences as well as…

  10. Academic Demands Are Associated with Reduced Alcohol Consumption by College Students: Evidence from a Daily Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Adam B.; Spencer, Desiree; Dodge, Kama

    2011-01-01

    There is little empirical evidence linking academic demands or rigor to alcohol consumption by college students. In a 3-week daily study of full-time college students at a public, residential campus in the United States, both current day and next day's academic demands were negatively related to alcohol consumption, and these relationships were…

  11. CHRONIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION INDUCES TRB3 AND DISRUPTS INSULIN SIGNALING THROUGH INCREASED ER STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prospective cohort studies have shown that chronic and excessive alcohol consumption is an important and modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Alcohol consumption alters insulin signaling, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not well understood. We previously reported that ...

  12. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  13. The effect of interrupted alcohol supply on spontaneous alcohol consumption by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kornet, M; Goosen, C; Van Ree, J M

    1990-01-01

    The alcohol supply (a 16% and a 32%, v/v, ethanol-in-water solution) for eight male rhesus monkeys, who already have had free access to water and ethanol solutions concurrently for about one year, was interrupted for 1, 2 or 7 days. The previously acquired ethanol consuming behaviour appeared very resistant to extinction, because ethanol consumption was immediately resumed after renewed access, even at a temporarily increased level. Since physical withdrawal distress was not observed and the increase was higher when interruption lasted longer, the observed behaviour could be attributed to the reinforcing effects of ethanol, leading to specific ethanol-directed behaviour. PMID:2222574

  14. Age distribution types of bladder cancers and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Aliramaji, Arsalan; Kaseean, Aliakbar; Yousefnia Pasha, Yousef Reza; Shafi, Hamid; Kamali, Sekineh; Safari, Mohsen; Moudi, Emaduddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recognition of the predisposing factors of bladder cancer is very important and provides possible prevention measures. The aim of this study was to investigate the types, distribution of bladder tumors and their relationship with opium consumption and smoking in patients who referred to Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Babol, Iran. Methods: In this case-control study, all patients diagnosed with bladder cancer who underwent surgery during 2001-2012 were enrolled. The subjects of the control group were selected among the patients who underwent ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) for gallstone and had no tumors and genitourinary problems. Data regarding demographic, pathology reports and tumor type, smoking status, history of opium consumption and its duration were collected. Patients and controls were compared using t-test and chi-square test. SPSS software Version 20 was used for analysis. Results: In this study, 175 patients with an average age of 63.30±15.29 years and 175 age- matched controls were studied. A significant association was observed between smoking and opium consumption with bladder cancer (P=0.001 for both). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that opium consumption and smoking are associated with bladder cancer PMID:26221505

  15. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption. PMID:19836901

  16. Alcohol Consumption of Matched and Unmatched Adolescents in a Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichman, Meir; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined adolescent (n=1,900) alcohol use. Found that subjects (n=454) who dropped out of study consumed alcoholic beverages at rates higher than those found among matched subjects. Found significant differences between dropouts and matched subjects in sociodemographic background. In spite of differences in alcohol consumption, sensation seeking,…

  17. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  18. Contextual factors and alcohol consumption control policy measures: the AMPHORA study background.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    Drinking alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in European cultural and economic history, and European consumption trends have varied over time during the decades following WW II. How and why such consumption patterns have changed, and what are the roles that societies' transformations play in these changes are the AMPHORA project's focus. Preventive alcohol consumption control policies have been developed for a long time; during different eras, in different ways and in different countries. How have and do formal policies affect such changes? These questions stimulated a group of 40 researchers from 12 European countries and 14 institutions to investigate the interactions between selected socio-demographic and economic factors, alcohol control policy measures, alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm that occurred in 12 European countries between 1960 and 2008. PMID:24963555

  19. Trends and Social Differences in Alcohol Consumption during the Postcommunist Transition in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994–2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20–64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  20. Trends and social differences in alcohol consumption during the postcommunist transition in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Klumbiene, Jurate; Kalasauskas, Darius; Petkeviciene, Janina; Veryga, Aurelijus; Sakyte, Edita

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the trends and social differences in consumption of various types of alcoholic beverages in Lithuania over the postcommunist transition period (1994-2010). The data were obtained from nine nationally representative postal surveys of Lithuanian population aged 20-64 conducted every second year (n = 17154). Prevalence of regular (at least once a week) consumption of beer, wine, or strong alcoholic beverages and the amount of alcohol consumed per week were examined. Regular beer drinking as well as the amounts consumed increased considerably in both genders. The increase in regular consumption of strong alcohol was found among women. Sociodemographic patterning of regular alcohol drinking was more evident in women than in men. In women, young age and high education were associated with frequent regular drinking of wine and beer. Social differences in regular alcohol drinking should be considered in further development of national alcohol control policy in Lithuania. PMID:22629164

  1. Modifying Alcohol Consumption among High School Students: An Efficacy Trial of an Alcohol Risk Reduction Program (PRIME for Life)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallgren, Mats A.; Sjolund, Torbjorn; Kallmen, Hakan; Andreasson, Sven

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: PRIME for Life is an alcohol risk reduction program that has been used and refined in the USA for over 20 years. A Swedish version of the program has recently been adapted for use among Swedish high-school students (age 18-19). The objective of the study is to evaluate the effects of the program on youth alcohol consumption (including…

  2. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hui Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G.

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1{sup +}CD44{sup hi} mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1{sup −} immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1{sup −} iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1{sup −}CD44{sup lo} Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A{sup +} iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3{sup +} iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. - Highlights: • Chronic alcohol consumption increases iNKT cells in the thymus and liver • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances thymic Stage I iNKT cell proliferation • Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation in thymus and periphery • Chronic alcohol

  3. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  4. Smoking, food, and alcohol cues on subsequent behavior: a qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Jennifer C; Skinner, Kayla D

    2015-03-01

    Although craving is a frequent phenomenon in addictive behaviors, and laboratory paradigms have robustly established that presentation of cues can elicit self-reported craving responses, extant work has not established whether cue exposure influences subsequent behavior. We systematically review extant literature assessing the effects of cue exposure to smoking, food, and alcohol cues on behavioral outcomes framed by three questions: (1) Is there value in distinguishing between the effects of cue exposure on behavior from the responses to cues (e.g., self-reported craving) predicting behavior?; (2) What are the effect of cues on behavior beyond lapse, such as broadly considering both target-syntonic (e.g., do cigarette cues predict smoking-related behaviors) and target-dystonic behaviors (e.g., do cigarette cues predict other outcomes besides smoking)?; (3) What are the lessons to be learned from examining cue exposure studies across smoking, food and alcohol domains? Evidence generally indicates an effect of cue exposure on both target-syntonic and target-dystonic behavior, and that self-report cue-reactivity predicts immediate target-syntonic outcomes. Effects of smoking, food and alcohol cues on behavior are compared to elucidate generalizations about the effects of cue exposure as well as methodological differences that may serve the study of craving in the future. PMID:25618485

  5. Inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Brenner, H; Rothenbacher, D; Bode, G; Adler, G

    1999-03-15

    Alcoholic beverages are known to have strong antibacterial activity. It is unclear, however, to what degree their consumption affects colonization of the human stomach with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a risk factor of various chronic diseases. The authors assessed the relation between alcohol consumption and active infection with H. pylori in a cross-sectional study among employees of a health insurance company and their household members (n = 425) in southern Germany. Quantitative information on alcohol consumption by beverage type and other factors that were known or suspected to be related to infection status was collected by a standardized questionnaire, and active infection was measured by the 13C-urea breath test. After control for confounding factors, there was a monotonic inverse graded relation between alcohol consumption and H. pylori infection (p for trend = 0.017). The odds ratio of infection among subjects who consumed more than 75 g of alcohol per week compared with subjects who did not drink alcohol was 0.31 (95 percent confidence interval 0.12-0.81). The inverse relation with H. pylori infection was stronger for alcohol consumed in the form of wine than for alcohol from beer. Notwithstanding its cross-sectional design, this study seems to support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption, particularly wine consumption, may reduce the odds of active infection with H. pylori. PMID:10084247

  6. Determinants of oral cancer at the national level: just a question of smoking and alcohol drinking prevalence?

    PubMed

    Petti, Stefano; Scully, Crispian

    2010-07-01

    In addition to individual-based prevention strategies, the burden of oral cancer could be decreased by controlling its national level determinants. Population-based studies have found smoking, drinking, and wealth to be associated with oral cancer incidence and mortality rates. However, these studies merely reported trends, or did not account for confounders or for intercorrelation between predictor variables. This ecologic study sought to investigate oral cancer determinants at the country level. The male, age-standardized mortality rate was the dependent variable. The explanatory variables, obtained from reliable international agencies, were life expectancy, frequency of physicians, gross national product (GNP), expenditure on health, literacy rate, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence, smoking prevalence, alcohol drinking prevalence, drinking modality, average daily calorie consumption, and average calorie intake from fruit and vegetables. Common factor analysis was used to generate a new dimension that incorporated all of the strongly intercorrelated variables. These were life expectancy, physician frequency, GNP, expenditure on health, literacy rate, calorie consumption, smoking prevalence, and drinking modality. According to this dimension, arbitrarily called the country development level (CDL), countries were split into quartiles. The ecologic risk for high mortality from oral cancer, estimated using logistic regression analysis, was three to five times higher among the second, third, and fourth CDL quartiles than among the first CDL quartile, which included the highest-income countries. HIV, drinking prevalence, and fruit and vegetable intake did not affect significantly mortality. These results suggest that it might be possible to improve oral cancer mortality by modifying country-based determinants related to aberrant lifestyles (not only smoking and drinking prevalence) and improving healthcare system efficiency, approximately estimated by CDL

  7. Prospective Study of Alcohol Consumption and Self-reported Hearing Loss in Women

    PubMed Central

    Curhan, Sharon G.; Eavey, Roland; Wang, Molin; Stampfer, Meir J.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excess alcohol intake has been associated with irreversible hearing loss and acute alcohol intake may temporarily impair auditory function; however, some evidence suggests that long-term moderate alcohol intake may be related to lower risk of hearing loss. This study prospectively examined the association between total alcohol and individual alcoholic beverage consumption and risk of hearing loss in women. Data were prospectively collected from 65,424 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II) aged 27–44 years at baseline (follow-up 1991–2009). Alcohol consumption was assessed using a validated questionnaire every 4 years. An incident case was defined as self-reported hearing problem that began after 1991. Cox proportional hazards multivariate regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. During 1,024,555 person-years of follow-up, 12,384 cases of hearing loss occurred. After multivariate adjustment, there was no significant association between total alcohol consumption and risk of hearing loss. In exploratory analyses, beer consumption was associated with increased risk and wine consumption was associated with reduced risk. No significant association was observed for consumption of liquor. Total alcohol consumption is not associated with risk of hearing loss in women. The modest associations observed for beer (direct) and wine (inverse) may be due to chance or residual confounding but merit further study. PMID:25468591

  8. Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Related to Experience of Harmful Shops among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinyoung; Sohn, Aeree

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted in order to determine any correlation between experience of harmful shops and adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking in middle and high school students. Methods The survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire online via the homepage of the Ministry of Education student Health Information Center; 1888 and 1563 questionnaires were used for middle and high school students, respectively, for a total of 3451 questionnaires in the final analysis. The collected data were processed using SPSS version 21.0 and examined using frequency analysis and hierarchical linear regression. Results In this research, 8.3% of all participants were found to have experienced smoking and 17.0% alcohol drinking. Regarding the types of harmful shops, 81.8% said they had been to a gaming place; 21.2% to a lodging place; 16.0% to a sex and entertainment place; and 6.8% to a harmful sex industry location. Sociodemographic variables had a significant effect on adolescent smoking and alcohol drinking. Regarding environmental variables, a significant difference was observed for living with parents and school location. Among adolescent experience of harmful shops, both smoking and alcohol drinking showed a significant association with harmful sex industry locations. Conclusion National government-level management and supervision on this issue will be necessary to prevent adolescent access to harmful shops, along with more studies exploring methods for implementation of policies with more systematic control of harmful shops. PMID:25180146

  9. Suggested Activities on Sociological Health Problems: Drugs, Alcoholism, Smoking for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samalonis, Bernice

    This is a list of recommendations for a neophyte teacher for discussions with students on drugs, alcoholism, and smoking. Included are suggested readings, suggested questions for the school's drug education coordinator, recommended readings, and New York sources of information. (Related document is SP 006 468.) (JA)

  10. Mental Health Correlates of Post Disaster Increases in Alcohol and Cigarette Smoking: A Vietnamese Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Juliana D.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Richardson, Lisa; Kilpatrick, Dean; Tran, Trinh L.; Trung, Lam T.; Tam, Nguyen T.; Tuan, Tran; Buoi, La Thi; Ha, Tran Thu; Thach, Tran D.; Acierno, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Previous research in US populations has found associations between disaster-related variables, psychological variables, and post-disaster increases in smoking and alcohol use. To date, no research has examined this association in an international population of disaster exposed individuals. Data used in this study were drawn from a larger study…

  11. After-School Supervision, Psychosocial Impact, and Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Jie Wu; Liu, Ipei; Sussman, Steve; Palmer, Paula; Unger, Jennifer B.; Cen, Steven; Chou, Chih-Ping; Johnson, Anderson

    2006-01-01

    We examined effects of self-care after school hours and psychosocial factors on cigarette smoking and alcohol use among adolescents in China. Survey data were obtained from 4734 7th and 11th grade students from seven cities across China. Students were queried about the frequency and quantity of unsupervised self-care after school in an average…

  12. Retinal-image quality and night-vision performance after alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Castro, José J; Pozo, Antonio M; Rubiño, Manuel; Anera, Rosario G; Jiménez Del Barco, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the influence of alcohol consumption on the retinal-image quality and visual performance under surrounding low-illumination conditions. Methods. A volunteer sample of 67 subjects was analyzed. Optical quality of the eye was evaluated by means of the Strehl ratio, the Objective Scattering Index (OSI), and the tear-film quality. We used the visual disturbance index (VDI) to evaluate visual performance under low-illumination conditions and we measured the pupil size under these conditions. The tear-film volume was also measured. All measurements were made before and after alcohol consumption and patients were classified into two groups depending on their breath alcohol content (BrAC): low-alcohol (BrAC < 0.25 mg/L) and high-alcohol content (BrAC ≥ 0.25 mg/L). Results. The VDI was significantly higher after alcohol consumption: the higher the BrAC, the higher the deterioration of the visual discrimination capacity. The pupil size increased significantly for the high-BrAC group. Parameters evaluating optical quality deteriorated after alcohol consumption. Conclusion. The visual performance under low-illumination conditions and the retinal-image quality were deteriorated after alcohol consumption, especially for the high-alcohol group. Furthermore, some physiological changes were observed under effects for high-alcohol contents, such as an increase in the pupil size and disturbances in the tear film, which deteriorated optical quality. PMID:24949202

  13. The Reciprocal Relation Between Adolescents' School Engagement and Alcohol Consumption, and the Role of Parental Support.

    PubMed

    Roebroek, Lukas; Koning, Ina M

    2016-02-01

    While school engagement and the use of alcohol are subject to change during the course of adolescence, studies have shown that being engaged in school equates with a later onset of alcohol consumption. Cross-sectional studies also indicate that alcohol use correlates to school engagement, but the reciprocal nature of these factors has never been investigated. This study examines the reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption during adolescence. Further, the moderating effect of perceived parental support in this reciprocal relation between school engagement and alcohol consumption is tested. Data were obtained from Dutch high school students (n = 906, 52.5% boys, mean age = 12.19 years) who annually completed a digital questionnaire over 4 years (age 12 to 15). A cross-lagged autoregressive model was applied in AMOS. Results showed that more school engagement at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of alcohol use 1 year later. In addition, more alcohol consumption at ages 12 and 14 predicted lower levels of school engagement 1 year later. Higher school engagement at age 13 predicted less alcohol use at age 14, whereas no significant effect of alcohol use on school engagement was found at this age period. Furthermore, a reciprocal relation was found only for adolescents who perceived high parental support. The reciprocal nature of school engagement and alcohol consumption should be a consideration in future research and prevention program development. PMID:26334710

  14. Reducing alcohol consumption. Comparing three brief methods in family practice.

    PubMed Central

    McIntosh, M. C.; Leigh, G.; Baldwin, N. J.; Marmulak, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of three brief methods of reducing alcohol consumption among family practice patients. DESIGN: Patients randomly assigned to one of three interventions were assessed initially and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up appointments. SETTING: Family practice clinic composed of 12 primary care physicians seeing approximately 6000 adults monthly in a small urban community, population 40,000. PARTICIPANTS: Through a screening questionnaire, 134 men and 131 women were identified as hazardous drinkers (five or more drinks at least once monthly) during an 11-month screening of 1420 patients. Of 265 patients approached, 180 agreed to participate and 159 (83 men and 76 women) actually participated in the study. INTERVENTIONS: Three interventions were studied: brief physician advice (5 minutes), two 30-minute sessions with a physician using cognitive behavioural strategies or two 30-minute sessions with a nurse practitioner using identical strategies. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Quantity and frequency (QF) of drinking were used to assess reduction in hazardous drinking and problems related to drinking over 12 months of follow up. RESULTS: No statistical difference between groups was found. The QF of monthly drinking was reduced overall by 66% (among men) and 74% (among women) for those reporting at least one hazardous drinking day weekly at assessment (N = 96). Men reported drinking significantly more than women. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that offering brief, specific advice can motivate patients to reduce their alcohol intake. There was no difference in effect between brief advice from their own physician or brief intervention by a physician or a nurse. PMID:9386883

  15. Alcohol Consumption Modulates Host Defense in Rhesus Macaques by Altering Gene Expression in Circulating Leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Barr, Tasha; Girke, Thomas; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Nguyen, Christina; Grant, Kathleen; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate that chronic alcohol use disorder leads to increased susceptibility to several viral and bacterial infections, whereas moderate alcohol consumption decreases the incidence of colds and improves immune responses to some pathogens. In line with these observations, we recently showed that heavy ethanol intake (average blood ethanol concentrations > 80 mg/dl) suppressed, whereas moderate alcohol consumption (blood ethanol concentrations < 50 mg/dl) enhanced, T and B cell responses to modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination in a nonhuman primate model of voluntary ethanol consumption. To uncover the molecular basis for impaired immunity with heavy alcohol consumption and enhanced immune response with moderate alcohol consumption, we performed a transcriptome analysis using PBMCs isolated on day 7 post-modified vaccinia Ankara vaccination, the earliest time point at which we detected differences in T cell and Ab responses. Overall, chronic heavy alcohol consumption reduced the expression of immune genes involved in response to infection and wound healing and increased the expression of genes associated with the development of lung inflammatory disease and cancer. In contrast, chronic moderate alcohol consumption upregulated the expression of genes involved in immune response and reduced the expression of genes involved in cancer. To uncover mechanisms underlying the alterations in PBMC transcriptomes, we profiled the expression of microRNAs within the same samples. Chronic heavy ethanol consumption altered the levels of several microRNAs involved in cancer and immunity and known to regulate the expression of mRNAs differentially expressed in our data set. PMID:26621857

  16. Chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Faya; Zhu, Zhaohui; Luong, Dung; Meadows, Gary G

    2015-01-15

    Alcohol consumption exhibits diverse effects on different types of immune cells. NKT cells are a unique T cell population and play important immunoregulatory roles in different types of immune responses. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption on NKT cells remain to be elucidated. Using a mouse model of chronic alcohol consumption, we found that alcohol increases the percentage of NKT cells, especially iNKT cells in the thymus and liver, but not in the spleen or blood. Alcohol consumption decreases the percentage of NK1.1(-) iNKT cells in the total iNKT cell population in all of the tissues and organs examined. In the thymus, alcohol consumption increases the number of NK1.1(+)CD44(hi) mature iNKT cells but does not alter the number of NK1.1(-) immature iNKT cells. A BrdU incorporation assay shows that alcohol consumption increases the proliferation of thymic NK1.1(-) iNKT cells, especially the NK1.1(-)CD44(lo) Stage I iNKT cells. The percentage of NKG2A(+) iNKT cells increases in all of the tissues and organs examined; whereas CXCR3(+) iNKT cells only increases in the thymus of alcohol-consuming mice. Chronic alcohol consumption increases the percentage of IFN-γ-producing iNKT cells and increases the blood concentration of IFN-γ and IL-12 after in vivo α-galactosylceramide (αGalCer) stimulation. Consistent with the increased cytokine production, the in vivo activation of iNKT cells also enhances the activation of dendritic cells (DC) and NK, B, and T cells in the alcohol-consuming mice. Taken together the data indicate that chronic alcohol consumption enhances iNKT cell maturation and activation, which favors the Th1 immune response. PMID:25499027

  17. Protective behavioral strategies, alcohol consumption, and negative alcohol-related consequences: do race and gender moderate these associations?

    PubMed

    Madson, Michael B; Zeigler-Hill, Virgil

    2013-01-01

    White, non-Hispanic college students tend to drink more alcohol and experience more negative consequences than African American college students. However, racial differences have not been examined for protective behavioral strategies. This study examined whether race and gender moderated the associations that protective behavioral strategies had with alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences. In general, the use of protective behavioral strategies were associated with greater deceases in consumption, harmful drinking, and negative consequences for White, non-Hispanic students than African American students, which suggests important racial differences related to protective strategy use. Research and clinical implications are provided. PMID:23967885

  18. Alcohol consumption in upper aerodigestive tract cancer: Role of head and neck surgeons' recommendations.

    PubMed

    López-Pelayo, Hugo; Miquel, Laia; Altamirano, José; Blanch, José Luís; Gual, Antoni; Lligoña, Anna

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption in patients diagnosed with an upper aerodigestive tract cancer (UADTC) and evaluate the clinical impact of head and neck surgeons' recommendations on alcohol intake. An observational, retrospective, and cross-sectional study was conducted. Socio-demographic data, type of cancer, psychiatric history, substance-use history, and DSM-IV-TR criteria for alcohol dependence were recorded. Patients were asked to report their alcohol consumption before UADTC diagnosis and during their follow-up. All patients were asked if they had received from the specialist any recommendation to reduce or stop their alcohol consumption. One hundred ninety-one patients were included. Laryngeal cancer was the most frequent. 85.3% of patients were alcohol consumers before being diagnosed, 39.8% were risky drinkers, and 13.1% had alcohol dependence. The prevalence of alcohol use decreased by 16.7% after the UADTC was diagnosed. The proportion of risky drinkers decreased from 46.6% to 24.5%. Almost half of the patients did not recall having received any recommendation regarding alcohol consumption. Receiving a recommendation was independently associated with a positive response (reduced or stopped alcohol consumption) with an Odds Ratio 3.7; p < 0.001. Prevalence of alcohol dependence and risky drinking (39.8%) is high in UADTC patients, compared to the general population. Otorhinolaryngologists and head and neck surgeons frequently provide recommendations about alcohol consumption, which has a relevant impact on the reduction of alcohol intake. Further prospective studies focused on brief advice should be performed in order to demonstrate effectiveness in this population. PMID:26992700

  19. Alcohol and migraine: trigger factor, consumption, mechanisms. A review.

    PubMed

    Panconesi, Alessandro

    2008-02-01

    This study investigates the importance of alcohol as a migraine trigger factor, the prevalence of alcohol consumers and the mechanism of headache provocation. A MEDLINE search from 1988 to October 2007 was performed for "headache and alcohol", "headache and wine", "migraine and alcohol" and "migraine and wine". In retrospective studies, about one-third of the migraine patients reported alcohol as a migraine trigger, at least occasionally, but only 10% of the migraine patients reported alcohol as a migraine trigger frequently. Regional differences were reported, perhaps depending in part on alcohol habits. No differences were found between migraine and tension headache and different genders. However, prospective studies limit considerably the importance of alcohol as a trigger. Recent studies show that migraine patients consume less alcohol than controls. Red wine was reported to be the principal trigger of migraine, but other studies show that white wine or other drinks are more involved. Then, the discussion based on the different composition of the various alcoholic beverages, in order to discover the content of alcoholic drinks responsible for migraine attack, reflects this uncertainty. Biogenic amines, sulphites, flavonoid phenols, 5-hydroxytryptamine mechanisms and vasodilating effects are discussed. The fact that few headache patients cannot tolerate some alcoholic drinks does not justify the consideration that alcohol is a major trigger and the suggestion of abstinence. In fact, low doses of alcohol can have a beneficial effect on patients such as migraineurs, who were reported to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. PMID:18231712

  20. Hepatoprotection of noni juice against chronic alcohol consumption: lipid homeostasis, antioxidation, alcohol clearance, and anti-inflammation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-Yen; Lin, Yi-Ling; Yang, Deng-Jye; Liu, Chen-Wei; Hsu, Chin-Lin; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2013-11-20

    Chronic alcohol consumption leads to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. Naturally fermented noni juice (NJ) contains polyphenols, polysaccharides, and some trace minerals. This study explored protective effects of NJ against chronic alcohol consumption. Mice were assigned randomly to one of the following groups: (1) control, control liquid diet and distilled water; (2) alcohol, alcohol liquid diet and distilled water; (3) Alc+NJ_1X, alcohol liquid diet and 5 mL NJ/kg BW; (4) Alc+NJ_2X, alcohol liquid diet and 10 mL NJ/kg BW; (5) Alc+NJ_3X, alcohol and 15 mL NJ/kg BW for 4 weeks. NJ decreased (p < 0.05) serum AST, ALT, and alcohol levels and liver lipids, as well as increased (p < 0.05) daily fecal lipid outputs in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ supplementation not only down-regulated (p < 0.05) lipogenesis but also up-regulated (p < 0.05) fatty acid β-oxidation in livers of alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ also accelerated alcohol clearance via increased (p < 0.05) hepatic ADH and ALDH activities. NJ increased (p < 0.05) hepatic TEAC and GSH levels but decreased (p < 0.05) TBARS value and TLR2/4, P38, ERK 1/2, NFκB P65, iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions in alcohol-diet fed mice. NJ promotes hepatoprotection against alcohol-induced injury due to regulations of lipid homeostasis, antioxidant status, alcohol metabolism, and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:24152092

  1. Self-Reported Consumption of Alcohol and Other Drugs in a Spanish University Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaldivar, Flor; Lopez, Francisca; Garcia-Montes, Jose Manuel; Molina, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This study aims to explore the consumption of alcohol and other drugs in university students and to verify whether there are gender differences in the consumption of these substances. Method: A descriptive study using self-reports. Drug consumption was evaluated in 506 students from the University of Almeria (60.9% women and 34.6%…

  2. Concomitant consumption of marijuana, alcohol and tobacco in oral squamous cell carcinoma development and progression: recent advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Caio Fabio Baeta; de Angelis, Bruno Brandão; Prudente, Henrique Maciel; de Souza, Bernardo Vieira Goulart; Cardoso, Sérgio Vitorino; de Azambuja Ribeiro, Rosy Iara Maciel

    2012-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) corresponds to 95% of all malignant tumours of the mouth. The association between alcohol and tobacco is the major risk factor for this disease, increasing the chances for the development of OSCC by 35-fold. The plant, Cannabis sativa is smoked as cigarettes or blunts and is commonly used in association with tobacco and alcohol. Any type of smoking habit exposes individuals to a wide range of carcinogens or pro-carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as some ethanol derived substances such as acetaldehyde (AA), and all are genotoxic in the same way. In addition, ethanol acts in the oral mucosa as a solvent and therefore increases the cellular membrane permeability to carcinogens. Carcinogens found in tobacco are also concentrated in marijuana, but the latter also contains high levels of cannabinoids, bioactive compounds responsible for several effects such as euphoria and analgesia. However, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), the major psychotropic cannabinoid found in plants, causes a reduction of cellular metabolism and induction of apoptosis, both of which are anti-neoplastic properties. Apart from limited epidemiologic and experimental data, the effects of concomitant chronic exposure to marijuana (or Δ(9)-THC), tobacco and alcohol in OSCC development and progression is poorly known. This paper reviews the most recent findings on the effects of marijuana over cellular proliferation, as well as in the risk for OSCC, with emphasis on its interaction with tobacco and ethanol consumption. PMID:22727410

  3. Effects of alcohol consumption on cognition and regional brain volumes among older adults.

    PubMed

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-06-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status. PMID:25202027

  4. Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Cognition and Regional Brain Volumes Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Downer, Brian; Jiang, Yang; Zanjani, Faika; Fardo, David

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized data from the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort to examine the relationship between midlife and late-life alcohol consumption, cognitive functioning, and regional brain volumes among older adults without dementia or a history of abusing alcohol. The results from multiple linear regression models indicate that late life, but not midlife, alcohol consumption status is associated with episodic memory and hippocampal volume. Compared to late life abstainers, moderate consumers had larger hippocampal volume, and light consumers had higher episodic memory. The differences in episodic memory according to late life alcohol consumption status were no longer significant when hippocampal volume was included in the regression model. The findings from this study provide new evidence that hippocampal volume may contribute to the observed differences in episodic memory among older adults and late life alcohol consumption status. PMID:25202027

  5. Condom use and alcohol consumption in adolescents and youth

    PubMed Central

    Mola, Rachel; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Barbosa, Sháyra Anny Moura; Almeida, Layane Sá; de Sousa, Mayara Ruth Marinho; Pio, Wellypâmela Pauliny de Lima; de Araújo, Rodrigo Cappato

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the association between not using the male condom and alcohol consumption in adolescents and schoolchildren. Methods An epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive, and correlation design carried out from March to July 2014. The sample consisted of students in public primary and secondary education, aged between 12 and 24 years. The social and demographic survey and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire were used. Results The study included 1,275 students, of these; 37.0% reported having had sexual relations. The prevalent age of sexual initiation was 14-16 years 55.7% and 65.6% used condom in the last sexual intercourse. Regarding the lack of condom use at the last intercourse, girls showed an association with drunkenness in the previous 30 days (2.19; 95%CI: 1.06-4.54). Conclusion In females, the non-use of condoms was associated with drunkenness in the previous 30 days. PMID:27462887

  6. Effects of MAOA-Genotype, Alcohol Consumption, and Aging on Violent Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Roope; Sjöberg, Rickard L.; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental factors appear to interact with a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) in determining some forms of antisocial behavior. However, how MAOA-LPR modulates the effects of other factors such as alcohol consumption related to antisocial behavior is not completely understood. Methods This study examines the conjunct effect of MAOA-LPR, alcohol consumption, and aging on the risk for violent behavior. Recidivism in severe impulsive violent behavior was assessed after 7 to 15 years in a sample of 174 Finnish alcoholic offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial or borderline personality disorder or both, and featured impulsive temperament traits. Results The risk for committing new acts of violence increased by 2.3% for each kilogram of increase in yearly mean alcohol consumption (p = 0.004) and decreased by 7.3% for every year among offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype. In contrast, alcohol consumption and aging failed to affect violent behavior in the low activity MAOA genotyped offenders. MAOA-LPR showed no main effect on the risk for recidivistic violence. Conclusions Violent offenders carrying the high activity MAOA genotype differ in several ways from carriers with the low activity MAOA risk allele previously associated with antisocial behavior. Finnish high activity MAOA genotyped risk alcoholics exhibiting antisocial behavior, high alcohol consumption, and abnormal alcohol-related impulsive and uncontrolled violence might represent an etiologically distinct alcohol dependence subtype. PMID:19120058

  7. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35–69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (Ptrend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (Ptrend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (Ptrend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  8. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  9. [Alcohol consumption in administrative and service personnel in an Ecuadorian university].

    PubMed

    Bravo Ortiz, Carmita María; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to characterize the consumption of alcohol among workers in the administrative and service sectors at an Ecuadorian university and to determine differences in consumption between the two groups of workers. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was applied to 102 participants. The results showed that the service personnel consumed more alcohol than the administrative personnel with a mean total score of 7.26 against 1.84. The total prevalence of non-prejudicial consumption was 79.41%, prejudicial consumption 19.61% and dependency 0.98%. The total scores of 76.47% of the participants were within risk zone one; 18.63% risk zone two; 3.92% risk zone three; 0.98% risk zone four. In conclusion, due to the identification of hazardous consumption, it is necessary to implement a program of alcohol use prevention in the institution studied. PMID:20694416

  10. Oesophageal cancer mortality: relationship with alcohol intake and cigarette smoking in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Cayuela, A; Vioque, J; Bolumar, F

    1991-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to explore temporal changes in mortality from oesophageal cancer that could be related to tobacco and alcohol consumption. DESIGN--The study used mortality trends from oesophageal cancer over the period 1951-1985. In addition, available trends on per capita consumption of alcohol and cigarettes are also presented. SETTING--Data for this study were derived from Spain's National Institute for Statistics. MAIN RESULTS--Age standardised mortality rates from oesophageal cancer have increased significantly among men in Spain from 1951 to 1985 (p less than 0.01). Mortality rates in women have not changed significantly during the same period, although there is evidence of a certain decrease in recent years. Trends of per capita cigarette consumption from 1957 to 1982 related positively with oesophageal cancer mortality among men, whereas no significant relationship was observed in women. Trends of beer, spirits, and total alcohol consumption were also positively correlated with oesophageal cancer mortality in men. Among women, a weaker relationship was found. Wine consumption showed no relationship with oesophageal cancer mortality either in men or women. CONCLUSIONS--These results are similar to those found in other studies, supporting a role of alcohol (spirits and beer) and cigarette consumption in causation of oesophageal cancer. No relationship was observed with wine consumption. PMID:1795145

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study on Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and Body Mass Index Among Health Institution Students in Bagalkot

    PubMed Central

    Ramadurg, Umesh Y; Dorle, Ashok S; Ghattargi, Chandrasekar H; Banada, Jambaiah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adolescence is a vulnerable period, where they try to initiate new things, sometimes wicked habits or high risk behaviours like smoking or alcohol consumption. Due to change in lifestyle a considerable number of social drinkers have shifted to heavy episodic drinking. Alcohol consumption plays a role in the development of obesity but the relationship between alcohol and weight is still unclear. Objectives To find the association between pattern of drinking and Body Mass Index (BMI). Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 395 students from five health Institutions in Bagalkot. A pre tested, semi structured questionnaire was used and BMI was noted. Results were tabulated using Microsoft excel 2007 and analysis were performed using OpenEpi, version 2.3.1. Chi square tests was used to find the association. Results In the present study 68% were girls and 32% were boys. About one fifth (20.53%) were current alcohol drinkers. Alcohol quantity and frequency had inverse association with BMI. As quantity increases from 1 drink/drinking day to ≥4 drinks/drinking day, BMI increases from 20.49 (95%CL 14.66-26.33) to 22.66 (95%CL 12.62-32.70). As frequency increased from low to high quintiles of drinking days/year, BMI significantly decreases (p <0.003) from 21.44 (95% CI 20.31-22.58) to 20.38 (95% CI 13.05-27.72). Conclusion Alcohol contributes to increase in body weight in certain types of drinking pattern while in others it was not associated. PMID:26814469

  12. Processed meat consumption and lung function: modification by antioxidants and smoking

    PubMed Central

    Okubo, Hitomi; Shaheen, Seif O; Ntani, Georgia; Jameson, Karen A; Syddall, Holly E; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Robinson, Sian M

    2013-01-01

    Unhealthy dietary patterns are associated with poorer lung function. It is not known whether this is due to low consumption of antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetables, or is a consequence of higher intakes of harmful dietary constituents such as processed meat. We examined the individual and combined associations of processed meat, fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) with lung function among 1551 men and 1391 women in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study, UK. Diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. After controlling for confounders, processed meat consumption was negatively associated with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV1/FVC in men and women, while fruit and vegetable consumption and dietary TAC were positively associated with FEV1 and FVC, but not FEV1/FVC. In men the negative association between processed meat consumption and FEV1 was more marked in those who had low fruit and vegetable consumption (Pinteraction=0.035), and low dietary TAC (Pinteraction=0.025). The deficit in FEV1/FVC associated with processed meat consumption was larger in men who smoked (Pinteraction=0.022). Higher processed meat consumption is associated with poorer lung function, especially in men who have lower fruit and vegetable consumption or dietary TAC, and among current smokers. PMID:24176995

  13. Personality and Alcohol Consumption: Pooled Analysis of 72,949 Adults from Eight Cohort Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Batty, G. David; Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Background The role of personality as a determinant of alcohol consumption has long been debated, but prospective evidence is scarce. Methods We performed individual participant meta-analysis to examine the association between the Five-Factor Model personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience) and alcohol consumption using data from eight cohort studies sampled from the USA, UK, Germany, and Australia (total n=72,949; mean age=50 years, 54 % female). Alcohol consumption was categorized into abstinence, moderate consumption, and heavy consumption. Results After adjustment for age, sex, and race, higher extraversion (odds ratio for 1 standard deviation’s increase in the score; 95% confidence interval: 1.14; 1.01–1.29) and lower conscientiousness (0.89; 0.79–1.00) were associated with increased risk of transitioning from moderate to heavy alcohol consumption over time, and also with heavy alcohol consumption. Lower extraversion (0.91; 0.85–0.98), higher agreeableness (1.09; 1.02–1.15), and lower openness (0.90; 0.86–0.95) were associated with increased odds of transitioning from moderate consumption to abstinence as well as with alcohol abstinence. Conclusion Findings from this individual-participant meta-analysis suggest that high and increasing alcohol consumption is more common among extraverts and those low on conscientiousness whereas high agreeableness and low openness to experience may increase odds of reducing alcohol consumption and preferring abstinence. PMID:25823906

  14. The Effect of Cancer Warning Statements on Alcohol Consumption Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Simone; Jongenelis, Michelle I.; Glance, David; Chikritzhs, Tanya; Pratt, Iain S.; Slevin, Terry; Liang, Wenbin; Wakefield, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    In response to increasing calls to introduce warning labels on alcoholic beverages, this study investigated the potential effectiveness of alcohol warning statements designed to increase awareness of the alcohol-cancer link. A national online survey was administered to a diverse sample of Australian adult drinkers (n = 1,680). Along with…

  15. Monitoring population levels of alcohol consumption in pregnant women: a case for using biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Shipton, Deborah; Tappin, David; Sherwood, Roy; Mactier, Helen; Aitken, David; Crossley, Jenny

    2013-06-01

    A challenge to biochemically monitoring alcohol consumption in pregnancy is the prohibitive costs of collecting thousands of blood samples. This pilot study looks at the feasibility of using residual samples to monitor chronic and acute alcohol consumption in pregnancy. Residual anomalies screening samples (n = 150, 2006/7) were tested for carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT, chronic marker) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG, acute marker). Valid readings were obtained for CDT but not EtG. These results pave the way for a larger representative study, to provide, for the first time, a national biochemical baseline estimate of chronic alcohol consumption in the pregnant population. PMID:23750658

  16. Smoking cessation is associated with lower rates of mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Breslau, Naomi; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Grucza, Richard A.; Salyer, Patricia; Hartz, Sarah M.; Bierut, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The psychological outcomes that accompany smoking cessation are not yet conclusive but positive outcomes could help to persuade quitting. Method We use data from the longitudinal National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between cigarette smoking reduction and Wave 2 status of addiction/mental health disorder among daily smokers at Wave 1, stratified by status of the diagnosis of interest at Wave 1. We adjusted for differences in baseline covariates between smokers with different levels of smoking reduction between Wave 1 and Wave 2 using propensity score regression adjustment. Results After adjusting for propensity scores and other mental health/addiction comorbidities at Wave 2, among daily smokers who had current or lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of mood/anxiety disorder (aOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.9) and alcohol disorder (aOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5, 0.99) at Wave 2. Among daily smokers with no lifetime history diagnosis of the outcome of interest at Wave 1, quitting smoking by Wave 2 predicted a decreased risk of drug use disorder at Wave 2 aOR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1, 0.9). Conclusions There is no support in our data for the concern that smoking cessation would result in smokers’ increased risk of some mental disorders. To the contrary, our data suggest that smoking cessation is associated with risk reduction for mood/anxiety or alcohol use disorder, even among smokers who have had a pre-existing disorder. PMID:25055171

  17. Primary oral cancer in a Turkish population sample: association with sociodemographic features, smoking, alcohol, diet and dentition.

    PubMed

    Güneri, Pelin; Cankaya, Hülya; Yavuzer, Atilla; Güneri, E Alpin; Erişen, Levent; Ozkul, Doğan; El, Sedef Nehir; Karakaya, Sibel; Arican, Armağan; Boyacioğlu, Hayal

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this multicentre case-control study was to investigate the association of a variety of factors with oral cancer in a group of Turkish patients. Questionnaires were used to investigate the sociodemographic features, smoking and alcohol consumptions, dietary habits and dental status of 79 primary oral cancer patients and 61 controls. Data were statistically analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test, Pearson Chi-square and binary logistic regression analyses to determine the odds ratios. Low level of education, gender, dietary habits, having poor oral hygiene and denture sores were associated with primary oral cancer in this patient sample; but eating salads and raw vegetables, fish, and drinking red wine were related with healthy status. Determination of the factors associated with oral cancer and of the high-risk groups would be beneficial to provide efficient screening protocols and prevention programmes for oral cavity cancers. PMID:16139559

  18. A Pilot Study of Alcohol and Cigarette Consumption among Adolescent and Young Adult Females Attending Health Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; Dunn, Michael; Woods, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Examines the alcohol and cigarette use patterns of adolescent and young adult female patients (N=246). Results indicate that smoking differences between Whites and Blacks was inversely related to education: less-educated Whites and more-educated Blacks had a greater smoking risk. Conclusions show females' differential needs regarding alcohol and…

  19. Alcohol consumption and diabetes risk in the Diabetes Prevention Program1234

    PubMed Central

    Polsky, Sarit; Howard, Andrea A; Perreault, Leigh; Bray, George A; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Brown-Friday, Janet; Whittington, Tracy; Foo, Sandra; Ma, Yong; Edelstein, Sharon L

    2009-01-01

    Background: Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in the general population, but little is known about the effects in individuals at high risk of diabetes. Objectives: The objectives were to determine associations between alcohol consumption and diabetes risk factors and whether alcohol consumption was a predictor of incident diabetes in individuals enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP). Design: DPP participants (n = 3175) had impaired glucose tolerance (2-h glucose: 7.8–11.1 mmol/L), elevated fasting glucose (5.3–7.0 mmol/L), and a body mass index (in kg/m2) ≥24. Participants were randomly assigned to placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification and were followed for a mean of 3.2 y. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline and year 1 by using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Diabetes was diagnosed by annual oral-glucose-tolerance testing and semiannual fasting plasma glucose measurement. Results: Participants who reported higher alcohol consumption tended to be male, older, white, and less obese and to have a higher calorie intake and a higher HDL-cholesterol concentration. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with lower insulin secretion at any level of insulin sensitivity. We found lower incidence rates of diabetes with higher alcohol consumption in the metformin (P < 0.01 for trend) and lifestyle modification (P = 0.02 for trend) groups, which remained significant after adjustment for multiple baseline covariates. No similar association was observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: Despite overall low rates of alcohol consumption, there was a reduced risk of incident diabetes in those who reported modest daily alcohol intake and were assigned to metformin or lifestyle modification. Moderate daily alcohol intake is associated with lower insulin secretion—an effect that warrants further investigation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00038727. PMID

  20. Alcohol consumption and risk of death in male physicians with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Andrew B; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2014-10-01

    The 5-year risk of death after onset of heart failure (HF) is about 50%. Although previous studies have shown beneficial effects of light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and risk of cardiovascular diseases and mortality, it is unclear whether moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of death in subjects with HF. We investigated whether alcohol consumption and type of alcohol preference are associated with the risk of total mortality in 449 US male physicians with prevalent HF. Alcohol consumption was assessed through food frequency questionnaire, and mortality was ascertained through annual follow-up questionnaires and adjudicated by an Endpoint Committee. The mean age of subjects was 75.7±8.2 years with an average follow-up of 7 years. We found evidence of a J-shaped relation between alcohol consumption and mortality (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval] 1.00 [reference], 0.85 [0.61 to 1.20], 0.60 [0.40 to 0.88], and 0.71 [0.42 to 1.21] for alcohol intake of none, <1 drink/day, 1 to 2 drinks/day, and 3+ drinks/day, respectively [p for quadratic trend=0.058]). There was no relation between beverage preference (beer, wine, or liquor) and mortality. In conclusion, our data showed a J-shaped association between alcohol intake and mortality in patients with HF. PMID:25129877

  1. [Alcohol consumption in women and the elderly : When does it induce heart failure?].

    PubMed

    Pankuweit, S

    2016-09-01

    The association between alcohol consumption and the etiology and prognosis of cardiovascular diseases has been the focus of attention and also the subject of controversial discussions for many years. This is particularly true for heart failure, which can be induced by coronary artery disease (CAD), arterial hypertension, atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies. Acute effects of high doses of alcohol can lead to impairment of the cardiac contraction strength with rhythm disturbances (holiday heart syndrome), transient ischemic attacks and in rare cases to sudden cardiac death. The chronic effects of high alcohol consumption include in particular, ventricular dysfunction, chronic rhythm disturbances, alcoholic cardiomyopathy and CAD. In contrast, light to moderate consumption of alcohol is associated with a reduced risk of CAD and ischemic stroke; however, even moderate alcohol drinking is associated with a greater risk for atrial fibrillation. The unfavorable effects of alcohol occur at much lower levels of acute or chronic consumption in women than in men. In the elderly just as in young people, a moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower risk of heart failure. PMID:27491766

  2. The effect of doxycycline on alcohol consumption and sensitivity: consideration for inducible transgenic mouse models.

    PubMed

    McIver, Sally R; Muccigrosso, Megan M; Haydon, Philip G

    2012-10-01

    Neuroinflammation is known to elicit numerous changes in brain physiology and is associated with various pathologies, including neurodegenerative diseases, and behaviors, such as sleep and acute illness. In addition, there is accumulating evidence that the behavioral response to alcohol is affected by perturbations to the neuroimmune system. Recent studies have shown that administration of proinflammatory mediators increases alcohol consumption, while anti-inflammatory drugs, such as minocycline, decrease consumption. Doxycycline is an anti-inflammatory mediator and a tetracycline derivative, and is commonly used in the tetracycline regulatory system, a transgenic approach widely accredited for its inducible and reversible nature. Given the established link between anti-inflammatory agents and response to and consumption of alcohol, and because the tetracycline regulatory system is becoming increasingly employed for genetic manipulations and behavioral phenotyping, we investigated the effect of doxycycline administration on alcohol sensitivity and consumption. Two independent transgenic lines containing a tetracycline transactivator transgene or the tetracycline operator promoter insertion, along with wild-type littermate mice (C57Bl/6J), were used to measure changes in alcohol consumption, alcohol-induced motor impairment and sedation, and blood alcohol concentration with doxycycline administration (40 mg/kg in chow). Using repeated sessions of the drinking-in-the-dark paradigm, we found that doxycycline consistently reduced consumption of 20% alcohol during two- and four-hour access. Doxycycline also increased sensitivity to the motor-impairing effects of alcohol (2 g/kg), and the duration of loss of righting reflex after ethanol injection (3.5 g/kg), without causing a significant alteration in blood alcohol levels. Despite the many advantages of using a tetracycline-regulated transgenic approach, it is important to consider the effects of doxycycline

  3. Female suicides and alcohol consumption during perestroika in the former USSR.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, D; Värnik, A; Eklund, G

    1998-01-01

    During 1984-1990, a decline in suicide rates of 32% for males and 19% for females took place in the former Soviet Union. The observed annual decrease in mortality from suicide was most marked for men in 1984-1986 and for women in 1984-1988. This article illuminates the hypothesis that the restrictive anti-alcohol campaign initiated by Gorbachev on 1 June 1985, in which prices of alcoholic beverages were raised substantially, had an impact on female mortality from suicide in the former Soviet Union. Data regarding alcohol consumption, female violent death (n = 451,537), suicide (n = 94,149), death due to accidental alcohol poisoning (n = 28,078), and undetermined death, whether accidental or self-inflicted (n = 23,982) were analysed for three Slavic (Russia, Belarus and the Ukraine), three Baltic (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) and two Central Asian republics (Kazakhstan and Kirgizia). Regression analyses with alcohol consumption as the independent variable and female suicide rates and female violent-death rates as dependent variables showed that suicide and alcohol consumption, as well as violent death and alcohol consumption, were positively correlated. However, alcohol seems to have a lower explanatory value for female suicides and female violent deaths compared with male suicides and male violent deaths. The attributable fraction of alcohol for female suicides in the whole USSR (27%) is estimated at approximately half of that for male suicides (50%). PMID:9825015

  4. A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Kahler, Christopher W.; Hoeppner, Bettina B.; Jackson, Kristina M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. PMID:19183135

  5. Usual alcohol consumption and suicide mortality among the Korean elderly in rural communities: Kangwha Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Myoungjee; Kimm, Heejin; Sull, Jae-Woong; Lee, Eunsook; Lee, Kwang Ok; Ohrr, Heechoul

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence from prospective studies on whether greater usual alcohol consumption is associated with a higher risk of death by suicide in the general population is inconclusive. Methods 6163 participants (2635 men; 3528 women) in a 1985 survey among rural residents in Korea aged 55 years and above were followed until 2008. A Cox model was used to calculate HRs of suicide death after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic and health-related confounders. Results 37 men and 24 women died by suicide. Elderly persons who consumed alcohol daily, 70 g alcohol (5 drinks) or more per drinking day, or 210 g alcohol (15 drinks) or more per week had higher suicide mortality (p<0.05), compared with non-drinkers. An increase of one drinking day per week (HR=1.17, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.31), 70 g (5 drinks) additional alcohol intake per drinking day (HR=1.38, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.70), and 140 g (10 drinks) additional alcohol intake per week was associated with a 17%, 38% and 12% higher risk of suicide death, respectively. Women had a higher relative risk of suicide death associated with alcohol consumption, compared with men. Conclusions A greater frequency and amount of usual alcohol consumption was linearly associated with higher suicide death. Given the same amount of alcohol consumption, women might have a higher relative risk of suicide than men. Our findings support ‘the lower the better’ for alcohol intake, no protective effect of moderate alcohol consumption, and a sex-specific guideline (lower alcohol threshold for women) as actions to prevent suicide death. PMID:26888918

  6. Alcohol Consumption and Harm among Adolescents in Sweden: Is Smuggled Alcohol More Harmful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svensson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    As a consequence of Sweden joining the European Union, privately imported alcohol is increasingly sold within illegal contexts (i.e., smuggled alcohol). One implication of the smuggled alcohol is that alcohol becomes more available to underage drinkers. In the Swedish debate, smuggled alcohol has been formulated as a youth problem. The aim of this…

  7. [Consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents in Germany. Results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS)].

    PubMed

    Lampert, T; Thamm, M

    2007-01-01

    Due to its long-lasting effects, the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and drugs is one of the central topics of prevention and health promotion in childhood and adolescence. The data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) show that in Germany today 20.5 % of 11-17-year-old boys and 20.3 % of girls the same age smoke. More than one quarter of adolescents who do not smoke themselves are exposed to cigarette smoke several times a week; around one fifth are even exposed to it almost every day. In the case of alcohol, 64.8 % of boys and 63.8 % of girls have drunk it before. Around one third of boys and one quarter of girls indicated that they currently consumed alcohol at least once a week. In the last 12 months before the survey 9.2 % of the boys and 6.2 % of the girls had taken hashish or marijuana. Other drugs such as Ecstasy, amphetamines or speed had been consumed by less than 1 % of the adolescents. The use of psychoactive substances rises markedly as children get older and is thus the most widespread among 16-17-year-olds. Adolescents of low social status smoke more frequently; in the case of alcohol and drug consumption, however, no significant status-specific differences are observed. There is also a raised prevalence of smoking among boys and girls who attend a secondary school and live in the states of the former GDR. The results emphasise the need for an addiction prevention programme which should include intervention to prevent children taking up substance use, as well as withdrawal treatment. PMID:17514444

  8. Dependence induced increases in intragastric alcohol consumption in mice.

    PubMed

    Fidler, Tara L; Powers, Matthew S; Ramirez, Jason J; Crane, Andrew; Mulgrew, Jennifer; Smitasin, Phoebe; Cunningham, Christopher L

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments used the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure to examine the effects of variations in passive ethanol exposure on withdrawal and voluntary ethanol intake in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J (B6) and DBA/2J (D2). Experimental treatments were selected to induce quantitative differences in ethanol dependence and withdrawal severity by: (1) varying the periodicity of passive ethanol exposure (three, six or nine infusions/day); (2) varying the dose per infusion (low, medium or high); and (3) varying the duration of passive exposure (3, 5 or 10 days). All experiments included control groups passively exposed to water. B6 mice generally self-infused more ethanol than D2 mice, but passive ethanol exposure increased IGAC in both strains, with D2 mice showing larger relative increases during the first few days of ethanol access. Bout data supported the characterization of B6 mice as sippers and D2 mice as gulpers. Three larger infusions per day produced a stronger effect on IGAC than six or nine smaller infusions, especially in D2 mice. Increased IGAC was strongly predicted by cumulative ethanol dose and intoxication during passive exposure in both strains. Withdrawal during the passive exposure phase was also a strong predictor of increased IGAC in D2 mice. However, B6 mice showed little withdrawal, precluding analysis of its potential role. Overall, these data support the hypothesis that dependence-induced increases in IGAC are jointly determined by two processes that might vary across genotypes: (1) tolerance to aversive postabsorptive ethanol effects and (2) negative reinforcement (i.e. alleviation of withdrawal by self-administered ethanol). PMID:21955048

  9. Tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke exposure in vehicles: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Curto, Ariadna; Fernández, Esteve

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence of tobacco consumption and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure in private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis in the city of Barcelona in Spain. Design setting and participants We carried out an observational cross-sectional study in 2011. We selected a systematic sample of 2442 private cars, commercial vehicles and taxis on 40 public roads regulated by traffic lights in all 10 districts of Barcelona. We calculated the prevalence rates and 95% CIs of smoking and SHS exposure in cars, and the corresponding ORs adjusting for the potential confounding variables. Results The prevalence of tobacco consumption was 5.5% (95% CI 4.6% to 6.4%) and was greater for commercial vehicles (9.8%; 95% CI 7.1% to 12.5%). The prevalence of SHS exposure was 5.2% (95% CI 3.8% to 6.6%) and 2.2% (95% CI 0.5% to 3.9%) of passengers under 14 years of age were exposed to SHS in vehicles. Conclusions This study highlights the need to promote public health measures aimed at reducing tobacco consumption in vehicles, especially in the presence of children, as well as enforcement of the current Spanish law against smoking in commercial vehicles and taxis. PMID:22119753

  10. A Study on the Prevalence of Alcohol Consumption, Tobacco Use and Sexual Behaviour among Adolescents in Urban Areas of the Udupi District, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Padma; Swain, Subhashisa; Sanah, Noore; Sharma, Vikram; Ghosh, Deboporna

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and risky sexual behaviour among adolescents, and to evaluate the socioeconomic factors potentially influencing these behaviours. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from January to April 2011 among 376 adolescents (15–19 years old) studying in different schools and colleges in Udupi, India. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey questionnaire and guidelines were followed for data collection. Participants’ alcohol consumption, smoking habits and sexual behaviour patterns were explored. Univariate analysis followed by multivariate logistic regression was done. Results: The prevalence of alcohol consumption, tobacco use and sexual activity was found to occur in 5.7%, 7.2% and 5.5% of participants, respectively. The mean age of the participants’ first sexual activity, consumption of alcohol and tobacco use was reported to be approximately 16.8 years. Multivariate analysis showed that males were more likely to have used alcohol and tobacco. Other factors, such as religion and tobacco use among family members, were found to be influential. Conclusion: The potential coexistence of multiple risk behaviours in a student demands an integrated approach. Emphasis should be placed on health education in schools and an increased awareness among parents in order to prevent adolescents’ behaviours from becoming a risk to their health. PMID:24516739

  11. Alcohol Consumption Mediates the Relationship Between ADH1B and DSM-IV Alcohol Use Disorder and Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Kilcoyne, Bari; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Aharonovich, Efrat; Greenstein, Eliana; Frisch, Amos; Weizman, Abraham; Spivak, Baruch; Edenberg, Howard J; Gelernter, Joel; Hasin, Deborah S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: A single nucleotide variation in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) gene, rs1229984, produces an ADH1B enzyme with faster acetaldehyde production. This protective variant is associated with lower alcohol consumption and lower risk for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Based on the premise that faster ADH1B kinetics decreases alcohol consumption, we formally tested if the association between ADH1B variant rs1229984 and AUDs occurs through consumption. We also tested whether the association between rs1 229984 and each of the 11 Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), AUD criteria occurs through consumption. Method: A total of 1,130 lifetime drinkers from an Israeli household sample were assessed with a structured interview and genotyped for rs1229984 (protective allele frequency = 0.28). Logistic regression evaluated the association between rs1229984 and each phenotype (AUDs, 11 individual DSM-IV criteria). For phenotypes significantly related to rs1229984, the effect through consumption was tested with logistic regression and bootstrapping. Results: ADH1B rs1229984 was significantly associated with AUDs and six criteria, with odds ratios ranging from 1.32 to 1.96. The effect through consumption was significant for these relationships, explaining 23%–74% of the total ADH1B effect. Conclusions: This is the first study to show that ADH1B rs1229984 is related to 6 of the 11 DSM-IV AUD criteria and that alcohol consumption explained a significant proportion of these associations and the association of ADH1B with AUDs. Better understanding of the relationship between ADH1B and the DSM-IV AUD criteria, including effects through consumption, will enhance our understanding of the etiologic model through which AUDs can occur. PMID:24988262

  12. Npy deletion in an alcohol non-preferring rat model elicits differential effects on alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Bell, Richard L; Cao, Yong; Zhang, Lingling; Stewart, Robert B; Graves, Tamara; Lumeng, Lawrence; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-07-20

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is widely expressed in the central nervous system and influences many physiological processes. It is located within the rat quantitative trait locus (QTL) for alcohol preference on chromosome 4. Alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats consume very little alcohol, but have significantly higher NPY expression in the brain than alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We capitalized on this phenotypic difference by creating an Npy knockout (KO) rat using the inbred NP background to evaluate NPY effects on alcohol consumption. Zinc finger nuclease (ZNF) technology was applied, resulting in a 26-bp deletion in the Npy gene. RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry confirmed the absence of Npy mRNA and protein in KO rats. Alcohol consumption was increased in Npy(+/-) but not Npy(-/-) rats, while Npy(-/-) rats displayed significantly lower body weight when compared to Npy(+/+) rats. In whole brain tissue, expression levels of Npy-related and other alcohol-associated genes, Npy1r, Npy2r, Npy5r, Agrp, Mc3r, Mc4r, Crh and Crh1r, were significantly greater in Npy(-/-) rats, whereas Pomc and Crhr2 expressions were highest in Npy(+/-) rats. These findings suggest that the NPY-system works in close coordination with the melanocortin (MC) and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) systems to modulate alcohol intake and body weight. PMID:27461754

  13. Social Imitation of Alcohol Consumption and Ingratiation Motives in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Across 2 studies we tested the hypothesis that social ingratiation motives may be an important factor explaining social imitation of alcohol consumption. In Study 1, participants drank alcohol with a heavy versus light drinking confederate under conditions that were designed to heighten or reduce (participants believed they would not be judged) motivation for ingratiation. In Study 2 we manipulated the degree to which participants believed they had already successfully ingratiated themselves with a heavy or no (alcohol) drinking confederate. In Study 1, participants’ alcohol consumption was most strongly influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior when they believed that they would later be judged by the confederate. In Study 2, participants’ alcohol consumption was influenced by the confederate’s drinking behavior and this effect was particularly pronounced if participants were unsure if the confederate had accepted them. The desire for social ingratiation may in part explain why people imitate the drinking behavior of those around them. PMID:27322802

  14. A Review of the Validity and Reliability of Alcohol Retail Sales Data for Monitoring Population Levels of Alcohol Consumption: A Scottish Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Mark; Thorpe, Rachel; Beeston, Clare; McCartney, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Aims: To assess the validity and reliability of using alcohol retail sales data to measure and monitor population levels of alcohol consumption. Methods: Potential sources of bias that could lead to under- or overestimation of population alcohol consumption based on alcohol retail sales data were identified and, where possible, quantified. This enabled an assessment of the potential impact of each bias on alcohol consumption estimates in Scotland. Results: Overall, considering all the possible sources of overestimation and underestimation, and taking into account the potential for sampling variability to impact on the results, the range of uncertainty of consumption during 2010 was from an overestimate of 0.3 l to an underestimate of 2.4 l of pure alcohol per adult. This excludes the impacts of alcohol stockpiling and alcohol sold through outlets not included in the sampling frame. On balance, there is therefore far greater scope for alcohol retail sales data to be underestimating per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland than there is for overestimation. Conclusion: Alcohol retail sales data offer a robust source of data for monitoring per adult alcohol consumption in Scotland. Consideration of the sources of bias and a comprehensive understanding of data collection methods are essential for using sales data to monitor trends in alcohol consumption. PMID:22926649

  15. Moderate alcohol consumption stimulates food intake and food reward of savoury foods.

    PubMed

    Schrieks, Ilse C; Stafleu, Annette; Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; de Graaf, Cees; Witkamp, Renger F; Boerrigter-Rijneveld, Rianne; Hendriks, Henk F J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether food reward plays a role in the stimulating effect of moderate alcohol consumption on subsequent food intake. In addition, we explored the role of oral and gut sensory pathways in alcohol's effect on food reward by modified sham feeding (MSF) or consumption of a preload after alcohol intake.In a single-blind crossover design, 24 healthy men were randomly assigned to either consumption of vodka/orange juice (20 g alcohol) or orange juice only, followed by consumption of cake, MSF of cake or no cake. Food reward was evaluated by actual food intake measured by an ad libitum lunch 45 min after alcohol ingestion and by behavioural indices of wanting and liking of four food categories (high fat, low fat, sweet and savoury).Moderate alcohol consumption increased food intake during the ad libitum lunch by 11% (+338 kJ, P = 0.004). Alcohol specifically increased intake (+127 kJ, P <0.001) and explicit liking (P = 0.019) of high-fat savoury foods. Moreover, moderate alcohol consumption increased implicit wanting for savoury (P = 0.013) and decreased implicit wanting for sweet (P = 0.017) before the meal. Explicit wanting of low-fat savoury foods only was higher after alcohol followed by no cake as compared to after alcohol followed by cake MSF (P = 0.009), but not as compared to alcohol followed by cake consumption (P = 0.082). Both cake MSF and cake consumption had no overall effect on behavioural indices of food reward.To conclude, moderate alcohol consumption increased subsequent food intake, specifically of high-fat savoury foods. This effect was related to the higher food reward experienced for savoury foods. The importance of oral and gut sensory signalling in alcohol's effect on food reward remains largely unclear. PMID:25636235

  16. Association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Although alcohol consumption is a common lifestyle behavior with previous studies reporting positive effects of alcohol on chronic pain and rheumatoid arthritis, no studies to this date have examined alcohol consumption in patients with fibromyalgia. We examined the association between alcohol consumption and symptom severity and quality of life (QOL) in patients with fibromyalgia. Methods Data on self-reported alcohol consumption from 946 patients were analyzed. Subjects were grouped by level of alcohol consumption (number of drinks/week): none, low (≤3), moderate (>3 to 7), and heavy (>7). Univariate analyses were used to find potential confounders, and analysis of covariance was used to adjust for these confounders. Tukey HSD pairwise comparisons were used to determine differences between alcohol groups. Results Five hundred and forty-six subjects (58%) did not consume alcohol. Low, moderate, and heavy levels of alcohol consumption were reported for 338 (36%), 31 (3%), and 31 patients (3%), respectively. Employment status (P <0.001), education level (P = 0.009), body mass index (P = 0.002) and opioid use (P = 0.002) differed significantly among groups with drinkers having higher education, a lower BMI, and a lower frequency of unemployment and opioid use than nondrinkers. After adjusting for these differences, the measures including the number of tender points (P = 0.01), FIQ total score (P = 0.01), physical function (P <0.001), work missed (P = 0.005), job ability (P = 0.03), and pain (P = 0.001) differed across groups, as did the SF-36 subscales of physical functioning (P <0.001), pain index (P = 0.002), general health perception (P = 0.02), social functioning (P = 0.02), and the physical component summary (P <0.001). Pairwise comparison among the 4 groups showed that the moderate and low alcohol drinkers had lower severity of fibromyalgia symptoms and better physical QOL than nondrinkers. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low and moderate

  17. Effects of smoking on D₂/D₃ striatal receptor availability in alcoholics and social drinkers.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Daniel S; Kareken, David A; Yoder, Karmen K

    2013-09-01

    Studies have reported lower striatal D₂/D₃ receptor availability in both alcoholics and cigarette smokers relative to healthy controls. These substances are commonly co-abused, yet the relationship between comorbid alcohol/tobacco abuse and striatal D₂/D₃ receptor availability has not been examined. We sought to determine the degree to which dual abuse of alcohol and tobacco is associated with lower D₂/D₃ receptor availability. Eighty-one subjects (34 nontreatment-seeking alcoholic smokers [NTS-S], 21 social-drinking smokers [SD-S], and 26 social-drinking non-smokers [SD-NS]) received baseline [(11)C]raclopride scans. D₂/D₃ binding potential (BPND ≡ Bavail/KD) was estimated for ten anatomically defined striatal regions of interest (ROIs). Significant group effects were detected in bilateral pre-commissural dorsal putamen, bilateral pre-commissural dorsal caudate; and bilateral post-commissural dorsal putamen. Post-hoc testing revealed that, regardless of drinking status, smokers had lower D₂/D₃ receptor availability than non-smoking controls. Chronic tobacco smokers have lower striatal D₂/D₃ receptor availability than non-smokers, independent of alcohol use. Additional studies are needed to identify the mechanisms by which chronic tobacco smoking is associated with striatal dopamine receptor availability. PMID:23649848

  18. A prospective study of stomach cancer and its relation to diet, cigarettes, and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nomura, A; Grove, J S; Stemmermann, G N; Severson, R K

    1990-02-01

    From 1965 to 1968 in Hawaii, 7990 American men of Japanese ancestry were interviewed and examined in a cohort study. The intake of 20 separate foods in a food frequency questionnaire and the intake of carbohydrate and other nutrients, based on a 24-h diet recall history, were recorded. Since then, 150 incident cases of stomach cancer have been identified. Although men with stomach cancer (cases) consumed pickles and ham/bacon/sausages more often and fruits and fried vegetables less often than men without cancer (noncases), none of the differences was statistically significant. Current cigarette smokers had an increased risk (relative risk = 2.7; 95% confidence interval = 1.8 to 4.1) compared with nonsmokers, but there was no dose-response effect with heavier cigarette smoking. The consumption of alcohol, either from beer, spirits, or wine, did not affect the incidence of stomach cancer. The failure to detect an association with dietary foods in this study may be due to the omission of many oriental foods in the questionnaire and the limitations of the 24-h diet recall history. PMID:2297702

  19. Alcohol and nicotine consumption exacerbates choroidal neovascularization by modulating the regulation of complement system

    PubMed Central

    Kaliappan, Sankaranarayanan; Jha, Purushottam; Lyzogubov, Valeriy V.; Tytarenko, Ruslana G.; Bora, Nalini S.; Bora, Puran S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcohol and nicotine consumption on the pathogenesis of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in rats after laser-photocoagulation. Confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated an increase in CNV complex size in rats fed with alcohol (2.3-fold), nicotine (1.9-fold), and the combination of alcohol and nicotine (2.7-fold) compared with the control groups. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that alcohol and nicotine consumption increased MAC deposition and VEGF expression in laser spots. Expression of CD59 by RT-PCR and Western blot was drastically reduced in the animals that were fed with alcohol, nicotine and alcohol and nicotine compared to those fed with water alone and this was associated with exacerbation of CNV. PMID:18789935

  20. Some Aspects of Nonbeverage Alcohol Consumption in the Former Soviet Union

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages has contributed to enhanced mortality in Russia since 1990. Widespread drunkenness during the early 1990s facilitated privatization of economy: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations because of drunkenness and involvement in illegal activities. Apparently, alcohol consumption and heavy binge drinking have been decreasing in Russia since approximately the last decade. Exaggeration of alcohol-related problems tends to veil shortages of the health care system. There are motives to exaggerate consumption of nonbeverage alcohol in order to veil the problem of toxicity of some legally sold beverages. It is essential to distinguish between legally and illegally sold rather than between recorded and unrecorded alcohol because sales of poor-quality alcoholic beverages in legally operating shops and kiosks occurred generally with knowledge of authorities. PMID:26064871

  1. Caffeinated alcohol consumption profiles and associations with use severity and outcome expectancies.

    PubMed

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J; Linden, Ashley N

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the consumption of caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CAB) may be riskier than alcohol alone. Efforts to identify patterns of CAB use and the correlates of such drinking patterns could further our conceptualization of and intervention for this health issue. Consequently, the current study aimed to (1) identify distinct classes of CAB users, (2) examine differences between classes on measures of alcohol and caffeine problems, and (3) compare distinct classes of CAB users on caffeine and alcohol outcome expectancies. Participants were 583 (31% men) undergraduate students from a psychology research pool. Latent profile analysis models were derived using four indicators: CAB use quantity, CAB use frequency, alcohol use quantity, and alcohol use frequency. Finding revealed four classes of drinkers: High Alcohol/High CAB (6.00%), High Alcohol/Moderate CAB (5.15%), High Alcohol/Low CAB (22.99%), and Low Alcohol/Low CAB (65.87%). The Low Alcohol/Low CAB class reported the lowest relative levels of caffeine dependence symptoms, caffeine withdrawal, alcohol use problems, and heavy episodic drinking frequency. Further, results indicated differential expectancy endorsement based on use profiles. CAB users in the High Alcohol/Low CAB class endorsed more positive alcohol expectancies than the Low Alcohol/Low CAB group. Those in the High Alcohol/High CAB class endorsed stronger withdrawal symptom caffeine expectancies than all other classes. Inclusion of substance-specific expectancies into larger theoretical frameworks in future work of CAB use may be beneficial. Findings may inform intervention efforts for those at greatest risk related to CAB consumption. PMID:24210683

  2. Alcohol Consumption Patterns and Sexual Risk Behavior among Female Sex Workers in two South Indian Communities

    PubMed Central

    Heravian, Anisa; Solomon, Raja; Krishnan, Gopal; Vasudevan, CK; Krishnan, AK; Osmand, Thomas; Ekstrand, Maria L.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission in India is primarily heterosexual and there is a concentrated HIV epidemic among female sex workers (FSWs). Earlier reports demonstrate that many FSWs consume alcohol regularly before sexual encounters. This qualitative study is part of a larger quantitative study designed to assess alcohol consumption patterns among female sex workers and their association with sexual risk taking. Here we investigate the environmental influence, reasons for and consequences of consuming alcohol in the FSW population. Methods Trained staff from two Non-Governmental Organizations in Andhra Pradesh and Kerala conducted semi-structured interviews with 63 FSWs in Chirala, Andhra Pradesh (n=35) and Calicut, Kerala (n=28) following extensive formative research, including social mapping and key informant interviews, to assess drinking patterns and sexual risk behaviors. Results FSWs reported consuming alcohol in multiple contexts: sexual, social, mental health and self-medication. Alcohol consumption during sexual encounters with clients was usually forced, but some women drank voluntarily. Social drinking took place in public locations such as bars and in private locations including deserted buildings, roads and inside autorickshaws (motorcycle taxis). Consequences of alcohol consumption included failure to use condoms and to collect payments from clients, violence, legal problems, gastrointestinal side effects, economic loss and interference with family responsibilities. Conclusion FSWs consume alcohol in multilevel contexts. Alcohol consumption during transactional sex is often forced and can lead to failure to use condoms. Social drinkers consume alcohol with other trusted FSWs for entertainment and to help cope with psychosocial stressors. There are multiple reasons for and consequences of alcohol consumption in this population and future interventions should target each specific aspect of alcohol use. PMID:22608567

  3. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study. PMID:25449391

  4. γ-Glutamyltransferase and Breast Cancer Risk Beyond Alcohol Consumption and Other Life Style Factors – A Pooled Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Preyer, Oliver; Johansen, Dorthe; Holly, Jessica; Stocks, Tanja; Pompella, Alfonso; Nagel, Gabriele; Concin, Hans; Ulmer, Hanno; Concin, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective Elevated γ-Glutamyltransferase serum levels are associated with increased risk of overall cancer incidence and several site-specific malignancies. In the present prospective study we report on the associations of serum γ-Glutamyltransferase with the risk of breast cancer in a pooled population-based cohort considering established life style risk factors. Methods Two cohorts were included in the present study, i.e. the Vorarlberg (n = 97,268) and the Malmoe cohort (n = 9,790). Cox proportional hazards regression models were fitted to estimate HRs for risk of breast cancer. Results In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, body mass index and smoking status, women with γ-Glutamyltransferase levels in the top quartile were at significantly higher risk for breast cancer compared to women in the lowest quartile (HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 to 1.35; p = 0.005). In the subgroup analysis of the Malmoe cohort, γ-Glutamyltransferase remained an independent risk factor for breast cancer when additionally considering alcohol intake. A statistically significant increase in risk was seen in women with γ-Glutamyltransferase-levels in the top versus lowest quartile in a multivariate model adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, physical activity, parity, oral contraceptive-use and alcohol consumption (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.11–1.69, p = 0.006). Conclusion Our findings identified γ-Glutamyltransferase as an independent risk factor for breast cancer beyond the consumption of alcohol and other life style risk factors. PMID:26863311

  5. A dangerous cocktail: Alcohol consumption increases suicidal ideations among problem gamblers in the general population.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Salmon, Melissa; Wohl, Michael J A; Young, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined whether alcohol consumption exacerbates suicidal ideations among gamblers in the general population. While prior research suggests problem gambling severity and excessive alcohol consumption are unique predictors of suicidal behaviors, the extant literature as almost exclusively focused on gamblers in treatment. This represents a significant gap in the literature as less than 10% of gamblers seek treatment. Furthermore, gamblers in treatment are not representative of gamblers in the general population, precluding a simple generalization of research findings. We address this gap using data obtained from the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 4.1)--a cross-sectional national survey that assesses health-related information among the Canadian population. To this end, we conducted a moderation analysis with problem gambling severity as the independent variable, weekly alcohol consumption as the moderator variable and suicidal ideations (in the past 12 months) as the dependent variable. The results found that alcohol consumption alone did not reliably predict suicidal ideation among gamblers who did not gamble problematically. However, as predicted, the odds of suicidal ideation were greatest among problem gamblers who frequently consumed alcohol. Thus, it may behoove policy makers to re-visit the availability of alcohol in gambling venues. Moreover, responsible gambling-oriented education initiatives may be advanced by informing gamblers about the increased risk of suicidal ideations when problematic gambling is combined with frequent alcohol consumption. PMID:26790140

  6. Changes in alcohol consumption in Denmark after the tax reduction on spirits

    PubMed Central

    Grittner, Ulrike; Gustafsson, Nina-Katri; Bloomfield, Kim

    2010-01-01

    AIMS This paper examines changes in alcohol consumption in Denmark between 2003 and 2006 after the excise tax on spirits in Denmark was lowered by 45% on 1. October 2003 and travelers’ allowances for alcohol import were increased on 1. January 2004. METHODS Cross-sectional and panel data from Denmark from 2003 to 2006 were analyzed. Samples were collected by telephone interviews using random digit dialing. RESULTS Panel data for Denmark revealed that alcohol consumption remained relatively stable. Similar results were found in the Danish cross-sectional data. It appears that substitution rather than increased importation occurred. CONCLUSION We found no evidence to support earlier research stating that decreased prices and increased availability is related to higher alcohol consumption. This could be partly because Denmark has reached a “saturation” level of consumption over the past 30 years, but also because the survey mode of data collection did not capture specific sub-populations who might have increased their consumption. Other indicators of alcohol use or alcohol-related harm may be necessary to examine in order to fully assess the consequences of such changes in alcohol availability. PMID:19776586

  7. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks

    PubMed Central

    Solodun, Yuriy V.; Monakhova, Yulia B.; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275–1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  8. Unrecorded alcohol consumption in Russia: toxic denaturants and disinfectants pose additional risks.

    PubMed

    Solodun, Yuriy V; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-12-01

    In 2005, 30% of all alcohol consumption in Russia was unrecorded. This paper describes the chemical composition of unrecorded and low cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. Alcohol products (n=22) from both recorded and unrecorded sources were obtained from three Russian cities (Saratov, Lipetsk and Irkutsk) and were chemically analyzed. Unrecorded alcohols included homemade samogons, medicinal alcohols and surrogate alcohols. Analysis included alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, diethyl phthalate (DEP) and polyhexamethyleneguanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). Single samples showed contamination with DEP (275-1269 mg/l) and PHMG (515 mg/l) above levels of toxicological concern. Our detailed chemical analysis of Russian alcohols showed that the composition of vodka, samogon and medicinal alcohols generally did not raise major public health concerns other than for ethanol. It was shown, however, that concentration levels of DEP and PHMG in some surrogate alcohols make these samples unfit for human consumption as even moderate drinking would exceed acceptable daily intakes. PMID:22319254

  9. Alcohol consumption induces global gene expression changes in VTA dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Marballi, K; Genabai, N K; Blednov, Y A; Harris, R A; Ponomarev, I

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholism is associated with dysregulation in the neural circuitry that mediates motivated and goal-directed behaviors. The dopaminergic (DA) connection between the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the nucleus accumbens is viewed as a critical component of the neurocircuitry mediating alcohol's rewarding and behavioral effects. We sought to determine the effects of binge alcohol drinking on global gene expression in VTA DA neurons. Alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J × FVB/NJ F1 hybrid female mice were exposed to a modified drinking in the dark (DID) procedure for 3 weeks, while control animals had access to water only. Global gene expression of laser-captured tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive VTA DA neurons was measured using microarrays. A total of 644 transcripts were differentially expressed between the drinking and nondrinking mice, and 930 transcripts correlated with alcohol intake during the last 2 days of drinking in the alcohol group. Bioinformatics analysis of alcohol-responsive genes identified molecular pathways and networks perturbed in DA neurons by alcohol consumption, which included neuroimmune and epigenetic functions, alcohol metabolism and brain disorders. The majority of genes with high and specific expression in DA neurons were downregulated by or negatively correlated with alcohol consumption, suggesting a decreased activity of DA neurons in high drinking animals. These changes in the DA transcriptome provide a foundation for alcohol-induced neuroadaptations that may play a crucial role in the transition to addiction. PMID:26482798

  10. Health Education in Practice. Let's Party: Teaching Responsible Alcohol Consumption Through Role Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyde, Adrian R.; Temple, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    Role play can teach college students responsible alcohol consumption behavior. The paper presents a technique to help students develop skills and attitudes that lead to responsible alcohol use behaviors. The technique models appropriate behaviors for party hosts, helps students put knowledge into action, and lets students explore the potential…

  11. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  12. Reported Changes in Students' Alcohol Consumption Following a Brief Education of What Constitutes a Standard Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen-Cico, Dessa; Kilmer, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Intercept surveys were conducted with 149 college students each asked to record their alcohol consumption for the previous two weeks using the Timeline Follow-back (TLFB method). Immediately following completion of the pretest TLFB alcohol survey the students were presented with brief educational information defining what constitutes one standard…

  13. Coercive Sexual Experiences, Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies and Consumption among Male and Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use and sexual assault on college campuses are highly prevalent and the focus of numerous prevention and intervention efforts. Our goals were to gain a greater understanding of the relationship between coercive sexual experiences, utilization of protective behavioral strategies and alcohol expectancies and consumption among male and female…

  14. The effect of moderate alcohol consumption on biomarkers of inflammation and hemostatic factors in postmenopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inflammation and hemostasis contribute to the etiology of cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (1-2 drinks/day) may decrease risk for cardiovascular disease due to an improved the lipid profile. In addition to these beneficial changes, the alcohol medi...

  15. Alcohol on College Campuses in North Dakota: Levels of Consumption, Gender, and Negative Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Lory M.

    2009-01-01

    It is common knowledge that many college students consume alcohol and/or binge drink. North Dakota colleges and universities are not immune to high levels of alcohol consumption, as they are among the leaders for binge drinking for people aged 18 to 25. Any number of reasons could explain this behavior, including new freedoms enjoyed by many 18 to…

  16. Effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of eye gaze direction.

    PubMed

    Penton-Voak, Ian S; Cooper, Robbie M; Roberts, Rachel E; Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol consumption is associated with increases in aggressive behaviour, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship are poorly understood. One mechanism by which alcohol consumption may influence behaviour is via alterations in the processing of social cues such as gaze. We investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption on the perception of gaze, using a task in which participants determined whether a stimulus face was looking towards or away from them. Gaze direction varied across trials, allowing calculation of a threshold at which participants considered gaze to switch from direct to averted. Target faces varied in both sex and attractiveness. Thirty social drinkers attended three randomized experimental sessions. At each session, participants consumed 0.0, 0.2 or 0.4 g/kg alcohol, and completed the gaze perception task. A significant three-way interaction involving target sex, participant sex and alcohol dose indicated that alcohol increased the cone of gaze for females viewing male targets (i.e. females were biased towards making a direct gaze judgement), but decreased the cone of gaze for males viewing male targets. Our data indicate that alcohol consumption influences gaze perception, but that these effects vary across sex of both stimulus and rater. These effects may have important implications for alcohol-related violence. PMID:20937615

  17. CHRONIC ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION HAS BIPHASIC EFFECTS ON HEPATIC INSULIN SIGNALING DEPENDENT ON DOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Epidemiological studies have shown paradoxical biphasic effects of alcohol on health. Moderate drinkers have lower overall mortality than teetotalers or than heavy drinkers. There are protective effects of low levels of alcohol consumption (less than one drink day) on diabetes risk and other chroni...

  18. The effects of chronic alcohol consumption and exercise on the skeleton of adult male rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Adam H.; McCarty, Heidi L.; Evans, Glenda L.; Turner, Russell T.; Westerlind, Kim C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lifestyle factors are known to affect skeletal development and integrity. Specifically, running has been reported to increase risk of fatigue fractures, whereas chronic alcohol consumption has been shown to reduce bone formation and bone mass. The combined effect of exercise and alcohol on the skeleton has yet to be explored, although alcohol consumption is common among certain physically active populations (e.g., military recruits, college athletes). It was hypothesized that chronic alcohol consumption would accentuate the inherent risk associated with endurance running exercise. METHODS: Six-month-old male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups: baseline, exercise-alcohol diet, exercise-normal diet, sham-alcohol diet, and sham-normal diet. Alcohol-fed rats (35% caloric intake) received a liquid diet ad libitum. Normal animals were pair-fed the identical diet with a maltose dextrin caloric substitute. Exercise was conducted on a motorized treadmill 5 days/wk for 16 weeks. Sham rats were placed on a stationary treadmill for matching time periods. Fluorochrome labels were administered 3 days before baseline and at 10 and 2 days before animals were killed. Heart, soleus, and rectus femoris muscles were wet weighed to assess the effects of training. Tibiae were collected for static and dynamic histomorphometric measurements on cancellous and cortical bone. RESULTS: Muscle weights were larger in the exercised rats versus the sham rats. Alcohol had no significant effect on skeletal muscle weight but did result in larger heart weights in both alcohol-treated groups. Cancellous and periosteal bone formation rates were significantly decreased in the alcohol-fed rats versus rats on the normal diet and were associated with a significant reduction in trabecular thickness in the tibial metaphysis. Cortical and cross-sectional areas were also significantly lower in the alcohol-fed groups compared with the non-alcohol-fed groups. Exercise had no

  19. The relationship between alcohol consumption and related harm among young university students.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ellen; Burns, Sharyn

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Research has shown that Australian university students consume alcohol at a higher level than their peers from the general population and are therefore more likely to witness and experience alcohol-related harm. This study measured the prevalence of alcohol consumption among 18-24-year-old university students and the association between alcohol consumption and witnessed and experienced harms. Methods A random cross-sectional sample of university students aged 18-24 years (n=2466) was recruited via the University Survey Office and through random intercept at campus market day. All participants completed an online survey that included the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Problems Scale and an additional scale measuring witnessed harm. Results Principal Components Analysis revealed three factors within the Alcohol Problems Scale; i.e. Criminal and Aggressive Behaviour, Health and Emotional Harms and Sexual Harms. Students who consume alcohol at high-risk levels were significantly more likely to score highly on each factor, 1.6 times more likely to experience harm and 1.1 times more likely to witness harm than students who consume alcohol at low-risk levels. Conclusions The positive association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm supports previous findings. This study adds previous research through the categorisation of harm into factors. So what? Integrated and comprehensive interventions addressing alcohol consumption among young university students that are informed by evidence-based research can be tailored to ensure that they meet the needs of the target group. PMID:26827614

  20. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  1. Effect of moderate alcohol consumption on plasma opiate levels in premenopausal women

    SciTech Connect

    Bhathena, S.J.; Kim, Y.C.; Law, J.S.; Berlin, E.; Judd. J.T.; Reichman, M.E.; Taylor, P.R.; Schatzkin, A. NCI, Bethesda, MD )

    1991-03-15

    Opiate changes have been reported in response to excessive alcohol consumption. Different phases of the menstrual cycle also affect the opiate tone. The authors studied the effect of moderate alcohol consumption and the menstrual cycle per se on plasma opiates. Forty premenopausal women were given alcohol or a soft drink of equal caloric value for 3 menstrual cycles in a cross over study. The subjects were fed a controlled diet containing 35% of energy from fat. Blood was collected in the third menstrual cycle of each period during follicular (F), ovulatory (O) and luteal (L) phases. {beta}-endorphin, met-enkephalin and lwu-enkephalin (LE) were measured by radioimmunoassay. None of the opiates showed significant change after alcohol consumption though LE was consistently higher after alcohol consumption during all three phases of the menstrual cycle. There was a significant decrease in BEN during L phase compared to F phase while both enkephalins were higher during L phase than during F phase. Opiate levels during O phase were intermediate between F and L. Thus, in contrast to previously observed opiate changes following excessive alcohol consumption, they did not observe changes with moderate consumption.

  2. Stopping smoking during first year of substance use treatment predicted 9-year alcohol and drug treatment outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tsoh, Janice Y.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the association between stopping smoking at 1 year after substance use treatment intake and long-term substance use outcomes. Nine years of prospective data from 1,185 adults (39% female) in substance use treatment at a private health care setting were analyzed by multivariate logistic generalized estimating equation models. At 1 year, 14.1% of 716 participants who smoked cigarettes at intake reported stopping smoking, and 10.7% of the 469 non-smokers at intake reported smoking. After adjusting for sociodemographics, substance use severity and diagnosis at intake, length of stay in treatment, and substance use status at 1 year, those who stopped smoking at 1 year were more likely to be past-year abstinent from drugs, or in past-year remission of drugs and alcohol combined, at follow-ups than those who continued to smoke (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2 – 4.7 and OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 – 2.4, respectively). Stopping smoking at 1 year also predicted past-year alcohol abstinence through 9 years after intake among those with drug-only dependence (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2 – 4.5). We found no association between past-year alcohol abstinence and change in smoking status at 1 year for those with alcohol dependence or other substance use diagnoses when controlling for alcohol use status at 1 year. Stopping smoking during the first year after substance use treatment intake predicted better long-term substance use outcomes through 9 years after intake. Findings support promoting smoking cessation among smoking clients in substance use treatment. PMID:21050681

  3. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  4. Alcohol consumption, Wnt/ß-catenin cignaling, and hepatocarcinogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol is a well-established risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma, and the mechanisms by which alcohol liver cancer is complex. It has been suggested that ethanol (EtOH) metabolism may enhance tumor progression by increasing hepatocyte proliferation. To test this hypothesis, ethanol (EtOH) feed...

  5. Alcohol consumption in 0.5 million people from 10 diverse regions of China: prevalence, patterns and socio-demographic and health-related correlates

    PubMed Central

    Millwood, Iona Y; Li, Liming; Smith, Margaret; Guo, Yu; Yang, Ling; Bian, Zheng; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Sherliker, Paul; Collins, Rory; Chen, Junshi; Peto, Richard; Wang, Hongmei; Xu, Jiujiu; He, Jian; Yu, Min; Liu, Huilin; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming; Chen, Zhengming; Chen, Junshi; Collins, Rory; Wu, Fan; Peto, Richard; Chen, Zhengming; Lancaster, Garry; Yang, Xiaoming; Williams, Alex; Smith, Margaret; Yang, Ling; Chang, Yumei; Millwood, Iona; Chen, Yiping; Zhang, Qiuli; Lewington, Sarah; Whitlock, Gary; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Guoqing; Bian, Zheng; Wu, Lixue; Hou, Can; Pang, Zengchang; Wang, Shaojie; Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Kui; Liu, Silu; Zhao, Zhonghou; Liu, Shumei; Pang, Zhigang; Feng, Weijia; Wu, Shuling; Yang, Liqiu; Han, Huili; He, Hui; Pan, Xianhai; Wang, Shanqing; Wang, Hongmei; Hao, Xinhua; Chen, Chunxing; Lin, Shuxiong; Hu, Xiaoshu; Zhou, Minghao; Wu, Ming; Wang, Yeyuan; Hu, Yihe; Ma, Liangcai; Zhou, Renxian; Xu, Guanqun; Dong, Baiqing; Chen, Naying; Huang, Ying; Li, Mingqiang; Meng, Jinhuai; Gan, Zhigao; Xu, Jiujiu; Liu, Yun; Wu, Xianping; Gao, Yali; Zhang, Ningmei; Luo, Guojin; Que, Xiangsan; Chen, Xiaofang; Ge, Pengfei; He, Jian; Ren, Xiaolan; Zhang, Hui; Mao, Enke; Li, Guanzhong; Li, Zhongxiao; He, Jun; Liu, Guohua; Zhu, Baoyu; Zhou, Gang; Feng, Shixian; Gao, Yulian; He, Tianyou; Jiang, Li; Qin, Jianhua; Sun, Huarong; Liu, Liqun; Yu, Min; Chen, Yaping; Hu, Zhixiang; Hu, Jianjin; Qian, Yijian; Wu, Zhiying; Chen, Lingli; Liu, Wen; Li, Guangchun; Liu, Huilin; Long, Xiangquan; Xiong, Youping; Tan, Zhongwen; Xie, Xuqiu; Peng, Yunfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Drinking alcohol has a long tradition in Chinese culture. However, data on the prevalence and patterns of alcohol consumption in China, and its main correlates, are limited. Methods During 2004–08 the China Kadoorie Biobank recruited 512 891 men and women aged 30–79 years from 10 urban and rural areas of China. Detailed information on alcohol consumption was collected using a standardized questionnaire, and related to socio-demographic, physical and behavioural characteristics in men and women separately. Results Overall, 76% of men and 36% of women reported drinking some alcohol during the past 12 months, with 33% of men and 2% of women drinking at least weekly; the prevalence of weekly drinking in men varied from 7% to 51% across the 10 study areas. Mean consumption was 286 g/week and was higher in those with less education. Most weekly drinkers habitually drank spirits, although this varied by area, and beer consumption was highest among younger drinkers; 37% of male weekly drinkers (12% of all men) reported weekly heavy drinking episodes, with the prevalence highest in younger men. Drinking alcohol was positively correlated with regular smoking, blood pressure and heart rate. Among male weekly drinkers, each 20 g/day alcohol consumed was associated with 2 mmHg higher systolic blood pressure. Potential indicators of problem drinking were reported by 24% of male weekly drinkers. Conclusion The prevalence and patterns of drinking in China differ greatly by age, sex and geographical region. Alcohol consumption is associated with a number of unfavourable health behaviours and characteristics. PMID:23918852

  6. The effectiveness of tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    PubMed

    Elder, Randy W; Lawrence, Briana; Ferguson, Aneeqah; Naimi, Timothy S; Brewer, Robert D; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K; Toomey, Traci L; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2010-02-01

    A systematic review of the literature to assess the effectiveness of alcohol tax policy interventions for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms was conducted for the Guide to Community Preventive Services (Community Guide). Seventy-two papers or technical reports, which were published prior to July 2005, met specified quality criteria, and included evaluation outcomes relevant to public health (e.g., binge drinking, alcohol-related crash fatalities), were included in the final review. Nearly all studies, including those with different study designs, found that there was an inverse relationship between the tax or price of alcohol and indices of excessive drinking or alcohol-related health outcomes. Among studies restricted to underage populations, most found that increased taxes were also significantly associated with reduced consumption and alcohol-related harms. According to Community Guide rules of evidence, these results constitute strong evidence that raising alcohol excise taxes is an effective strategy for reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The impact of a potential tax increase is expected to be proportional to its magnitude and to be modified by such factors as disposable income and the demand elasticity for alcohol among various population groups. PMID:20117579

  7. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. PMID:26694434

  8. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W; Nomura, Abraham M Y; Pike, Malcolm C; Hoover, Robert N; Ziegler, Regina G

    2010-02-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach US incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the breast cancer incidence rates observed among Asian migrants to the United States. Study subjects in this population-based case-control study included 597 incident cases of breast cancer of Chinese, Japanese, and Filipino ethnicity living in San Francisco-Oakland, Los Angeles, and Oahu, Hawaii, and 966 population controls frequency matched on age, ethnicity, and area of residence. The fraction of smokers and drinkers was significantly higher in women born in Western compared with Eastern countries. However, breast cancer risk was not significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.9-1.6) or alcohol drinking (OR = 0.9, 95% CI = 0.7-1.1) in this population of low consumers of alcohol (median intake among drinkers in grams per day was 0.48 for cases and 0.40 for controls). These data suggest that low alcohol intake is not related to increased breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and that neither alcohol nor cigarette use contributed to the elevated risks in Asian-American women associated with migration patterns and Westernization. PMID:19597702

  9. Chronic periadolescent alcohol consumption produces persistent cognitive deficits in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Wright, M Jerry; Taffe, Michael A

    2014-11-01

    Although human alcoholics exhibit lasting cognitive deficits, it can be difficult to definitively rule out pre-alcohol performance differences. For example, individuals with a family history of alcoholism are at increased risk for alcoholism and are also behaviorally impaired. Animal models of controlled alcohol exposure permit balanced group assignment, thereby ruling out the effects of pre-existing differences. Periadolescent male rhesus macaques (N = 5) consumed alcohol during 200 drinking sessions (M-F) across a 10-month period (mean daily alcohol consumption: 1.38 g/kg/day). A control group (N = 5) consumed a fruit-flavored vehicle during the same period. Spatial working memory, visual discrimination learning and retention and response time behavioral domains were assessed with subtests of the Monkey CANTAB (CAmbridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery). Spatial working memory performance was impaired in the alcohol group after 120 drinking sessions (6 mo) in a manner that depended on retention interval. The chronic alcohol animals were also impaired in retaining a visual discrimination over 24 hrs when assessed 6-8 weeks after cessation of alcohol drinking. Finally, the presentation of distractors in the response time task impaired the response time and accuracy of the chronic alcohol group more than controls after 6 months of alcohol cessation. Chronic alcohol consumption over as little as 6 months produces cognitive deficits, with some domains still affected after acute (6-8 wks) and lasting (6 mo) discontinuation from drinking. Animals were matched on alcohol preference and behavioral performance prior to exposure, thus providing strong evidence for the causal role of chronic alcohol in these deficits. PMID:25018042

  10. Alcohol consumption and mortality in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Sine; Kragstrup, Jakob; Siersma, Volkert; Waldemar, Gunhild; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between alcohol consumption and mortality in patients recently diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design A post hoc analysis study based on a clinical trial population. Setting The data reported were collected as part of the Danish Alzheimer's Intervention Study (DAISY), a longitudinal multicentre randomised controlled study on the efficacy of psychosocial intervention in patients with mild AD across five county districts in Denmark. Participants 321 patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥20) were included. Data regarding current daily alcohol consumption were obtained from the patient's primary caregivers at inclusion. Main outcome All-cause mortality retrieved from The Danish Civil Registration System over a period of 36 months after baseline. Results Information about alcohol consumption was obtained from all 321 study participants: 8% were abstinent, 71% only had alcohol occasionally (1 or <1 unit/day), 17% had 2–3 units/day and 4% had more than 3 units/day. An analysis adjusted for a range of potential confounders demonstrated a reduced mortality for patients with moderate alcohol consumption (2–3 units/day): HR 0.23 (95% CI (0.08 to 0.69)) compared with patients who had 1 or <1 unit/day. Mortality was not significantly different in abstinent patients or in patients with an alcohol consumption of more than 3 units/day, compared with patients drinking 1 or <1 unit/day. Conclusions In this cohort of patients with mild AD, moderate alcohol consumption (2–3 units/day) was associated with a significantly lower mortality over a period of 36 months. Further studies are needed in this area. These may especially focus on the association between alcohol consumption and cognitive decline in patients with AD. PMID:26656463

  11. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  12. Aging and Generational Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans and Mainland Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Sandra A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to describe life-course patterns of alcohol consumption among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans residing in mainland United States. Found age differences in patterns of consumption among Mexican American and Puerto Rican males that reflect aging effects. Found…

  13. Anchoring and Estimation of Alcohol Consumption: Implications for Social Norm Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Megan M.; Choplin, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of anchors on students' estimates of personal alcohol consumption to better understand the role that this form of bias might have in social norm intervention programs. Experiments I and II found that estimates of consumption were susceptible to anchoring effects when an open-answer and a scale-response…

  14. Role Conflict and Role Ambiguity of Resident Assistants when Confronted with Alcohol Consumption of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horvath, Mary Beth

    2011-01-01

    Resident assistants serve a vital function within the residence hall; however, the challenges they confront are different from those of other students. For example, resident assistants may deal with over-consumption or illegal consumption of alcohol on campus. Addressing this issue may cause resident assistants to experience role conflict and role…

  15. Social Modeling Influences and Alcohol Consumption during the First Semester of College: A Natural History Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbott, Laura L.; Moore, Charity G.; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine both the alcohol consumption pattern of freshmen students during their first semester and the degree to which social modeling of peer behavior impacts consumption. A total of 534 students, residing on campus, were prospectively examined at four 30-day intervals. Data were evaluated on the basis of age, gender, and the effects…

  16. Alcoholic beverage consumption in India, Mexico, and Nigeria: a cross-cultural comparison.

    PubMed

    Bennett, L A; Campillo, C; Chandrashekar, C R; Gureje, O

    1998-01-01

    Drinking practices vary substantially among different countries. An understanding of such differences can help researchers, clinicians, and policymakers develop prevention, diagnostic, and treatment measures as well as overall alcohol policies that are appropriate for a given country. Accordingly, researchers have conducted cross-cultural analyses of drinking patterns and practices. Three countries included in such analyses are India, Mexico, and Nigeria. These countries differ substantially in their ethnic and cultural characteristics, including the role that alcohol plays in daily life. To gain a better insight into the attitudes toward alcohol in these countries, researchers have analyzed the alcoholic beverage preferences, gender and age differences in alcohol consumption patterns, drinking contexts and drinking patterns, alcohol-related problems, approaches to prevention and treatment, and drinking indicators in each nation. These analyses demonstrate that no single definition of "normal" drinking, problem drinking, or alcohol dependence can apply equally to all countries or cultures. PMID:15706750

  17. Alcohol consumption and risk of gastric cancer: a cohort study of men in Kaunas, Lithuania, with up to 30 years follow-up

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in the world. Epidemiological findings on alcohol use in relation to gastric cancer remain controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of alcohol consumption on the risk of gastric cancer. Methods The association between alcohol intake and the risk of gastric cancer was examined in a population-based cohort of 7,150 men in Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled during 1972–1974 or 1976–1980. After up to 30 years of follow-up, 185 gastric cancer cases were identified. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The attained age was used as a time-scale. Results After adjustment for smoking, education level and body mass index, the HR of gastric cancer was 2.00 (95% CI: 1.04–3.82) for the highest alcohol consumption frequency (2–7 times per week) compared with occasional drinking (a few times per year) and 1.90 (95% CI: 1.13–3.18) for ≥100.0 g ethanol/week versus 0.1–9.9 g ethanol/week. A stronger effect of alcohol consumption on gastric cancer risk was observed during the second half of the study (1993–2008). In the analysis of gastric cancer risk by alcoholic beverage type, all beverages were included simultaneously in the model. The multivariate HR for men who consumed ≥0.5 litre of wine per occasion (compared with those who consumed <0.5 litre) was 2.95 (95% CI: 1.30–6.68). Higher consumption of beer or vodka was not statistically significantly associated with gastric cancer risk. After adjustment for smoking, education level, body mass index and ethanol, we found no excess risk of gastric cancer in association with total acetaldehyde intake. Conclusions This study supports a link between alcohol consumption (primarily from ethanol) and the development of gastric cancer in the Lithuanian population. Although an association with heavy wine consumption was

  18. Long-lasting reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis by alcohol consumption in adolescent nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Taffe, Michael A; Kotzebue, Roxanne W; Crean, Rebecca D; Crawford, Elena F; Edwards, Scott; Mandyam, Chitra D

    2010-06-15

    Binge alcohol consumption in adolescents is increasing, and studies in animal models show that adolescence is a period of high vulnerability to brain insults. The purpose of the present study was to determine the deleterious effects of binge alcohol on hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent nonhuman primates. Heavy binge alcohol consumption over 11 mo dramatically and persistently decreased hippocampal proliferation and neurogenesis. Combinatorial analysis revealed distinct, actively dividing hippocampal neural progenitor cell types in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus that were in transition from stem-like radial glia-like cells (type 1) to immature transiently amplifying neuroblasts (type 2a, type 2b, and type 3), suggesting the evolutionary conservation of milestones of neuronal development in macaque monkeys. Alcohol significantly decreased the number of actively dividing type 1, 2a, and 2b cell types without significantly altering the early neuronal type 3 cells, suggesting that alcohol interferes with the division and migration of hippocampal preneuronal progenitors. Furthermore, the lasting alcohol-induced reduction in hippocampal neurogenesis paralleled an increase in neural degeneration mediated by nonapoptotic pathways. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the hippocampal neurogenic niche during adolescence is highly vulnerable to alcohol and that alcohol decreases neuronal turnover in adolescent nonhuman primate hippocampus by altering the ongoing process of neuronal development. This lasting effect, observed 2 mo after alcohol discontinuation, may underlie the deficits in hippocampus-associated cognitive tasks that are observed in alcoholics. PMID:20534463

  19. Interaction of cannabinoid receptor 2 and social environment modulates chronic alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pradier, Bruno; Erxlebe, Edda; Markert, Astrid; Rácz, Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors contribute nearly in equal power to the development of alcoholism. Environmental factors, such as negative life events or emotionally disruptive conditions, initiate and promote alcohol drinking and relapse. The endocannabinoid system is involved in hedonic control and modulates stress reactivity. Furthermore, chronic alcohol drinking alters endocannabinoid signalling, which in turn influences the stress reactivity. Recently, it has been shown that CB2 receptor activity influences stress sensitivity and alcohol drinking. We hypothesized that CB2 receptors influence the impact of environmental risk factors on alcohol preference and consumption. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the alcohol-drinking pattern of wild-type and CB2-deficient animals under single- and group-housing conditions using different alcohol-drinking models, such as forced drinking, intermittent forced drinking and two-bottle choice paradigms. Our data showed that CB2 receptor modulates alcohol consumption and reward. Interestingly, we detected that lack of CB2 receptors led to increased alcohol drinking in the intermittent forced drinking paradigm under group-housing conditions. Furthermore, we found that CB2 knockout mice consumed more food and that their body weight gain was modulated by social environment. On the basis of these data, we conclude that social environment critically affects the modulatory function of CB2 receptors, especially in alcohol intake. These findings suggest that a treatment strategy targeting CB2 receptors may have a beneficial effect on pathological drinking, particularly in situations of social stress and discomfort. PMID:25827923

  20. Smoke your troubles away: exploring the effects of death cognitions on cannabis craving and consumption.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Maayan; Rabinovitz, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Two studies informed by the terror management health model were conducted to examine the question of how death cognition affects cannabis craving and whether actual cannabis smoking alleviates death cognitions. The first study examined whether priming thoughts of death are associated with subjective cannabis craving among 42 frequent cannabis users randomly assigned to either a mortality salience or control task. When reminded of their death, participants craved cannabis, even though there was no change in their conscious negative mood. The second study examined the effect of cannabis smoking on death cognitions in an exploratory field setting. Fifty frequent cannabis users were randomly assigned to either mortality reminders or control task and completed death-related words accessibility measures before and after smoking cannabis. Results indicate that cannabis served as a buffer and prevented death-related thoughts from entering consciousness, thus acting as a defense mechanism against death anxiety. These findings indicate that death-related concerns may play a hitherto unsuspected role in cannabis craving and consumption. Also discussed are the implications of a terror management perspective in communication of negative health consequences of recreational cannabis smoking and in the use of cannabis for medical purposes among people with terminal illness. PMID:25950588

  1. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising. PMID:2758148

  2. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Impairs Visuo-Spatial Associative Memory in Periadolescent Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Crean, Rebecca D.; Vandewater, Sophia A.; Katner, Simon N.; Huitron-Resendiz, Salvador

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in the adult is often preceded by high alcohol consumption during adolescence. Profound changes in brain structure and function occur during this developmental period, therefore alcohol may impact essential cognitive skill development during the formal educational years. The objective of this study was to determine if chronic oral alcohol intake slows acquisition and performance of cognitive tasks in male adolescent rhesus monkeys. Treatment groups (Alcohol, N=4; Control, N=3) were evaluated on bimanual dexterity and tests of visuo-spatial memory and learning adapted from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Animals were trained daily in 30 min sessions and had subsequent access to alcohol/Tang® solutions (Alcohol group) or Tang® only (Control group) Monday through Friday for 11 months. Recordings of brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BSAEP) were conducted periodically before and during the chronic drinking. Results Chronic alcohol drinking (ave of 1.78g/kg alcohol per session) impaired behavioral performance assessed ~22 hrs after the prior drinking session. The Alcohol group required more trials than the Control group to reach criterion on the visuo-spatial memory task and showed increased sensitivity to trial difficulty and retention interval. Alcohol animals also had slowed initial acquisition of the bimanual task. The latency of P4 and P5 BSAEP peaks were also delayed in the Alcohol group. Chronic alcohol consumption impaired the acquisition and performance of a spatial memory task and disrupted brainstem auditory processing, thus these results show that repeated alcohol exposure in adolescence interferes with a range of brain functions including complex visuo-spatial mnemonic processing. PMID:20951512

  3. DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF MODERATE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION ON PERFORMANCE AMONG OLDER AND YOUNGER ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Sklar, Alfredo L.; Gilbertson, Rebecca; Boissoneault, Jeff; Prather, Robert; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies exploring differential effects of acute alcohol consumption on younger and older adults are lacking within the field of alcohol research, especially those using moderate doses. Previous studies addressing this question have tended to use complex behavioral tasks too broad to isolate specific neurocognitive processes affected by both alcohol and aging. Compromises in cognitive efficiency (i.e. the ability to respond both quickly and accurately) have previously been identified in both elderly and acutely intoxicated individuals. Methods The present study employed a visual-spatial, two-choice reaction time task to evaluate the interactive effects of aging and alcohol on cognitive efficiency. Our primary outcome measure was an efficiency ratio derived from each participant’s response accuracy (ACC) and mean reaction time (RT) (%correct/RT). Younger (25 – 35; n=22) and older (55 – 74; n=37) participants were randomly assigned to receive either a placebo or moderate alcohol dose intended to produce a peak BrAC of 0.04%. Participants performed the task at peak alcohol levels. Results: A significant interaction between age group and dose assignment was observed (F3,55=4.86, p=.03) for the efficiency ratio. Younger participants who received alcohol performed significantly better than did their older counterparts regardless of alcohol condition and despite no differences in performance between the two age groups in the placebo condition. Additional correlation analyses between ACC and RT suggested that moderately intoxicated older adults become more accurate as response times increase. This relationship was not observed in older adults in the placebo condition. Conclusions These data suggest that healthy individuals exhibit a differential susceptibility to the effects of alcohol depending on their age. Unfortunately, due to the presumed safety of moderate alcohol doses and a lack of studies investigating the interactive effects of acute alcohol

  4. Close friend and group influence on adolescent cigarette smoking and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Urberg, K A; Değirmencioğlu, S M; Pilgrim, C

    1997-09-01

    The relative influence of adolescents closest friends and their friendship group on their cigarette smoking and alcohol use was investigated in a short-term, longitudinal study of 1,028 students in the 6th, 8th, and 10th grades in 2 school systems. The amount of influence over the school year was modest in magnitude and came from the closest friend for initiation of cigarette and alcohol use. Only the friendship group use predicted transition into current cigarette use, whereas only the close friend use predicted transition into current alcohol use. Both group and close friends independently contributed to the prediction of adolescents' drinking to intoxication. No difference in the amount of influence, was found between stable and unstable close friendships or friendship groups; neither grade nor gender of the adolescents related to the amount of influence. PMID:9300216

  5. Drinkers' use of physical availability of alcohol: buying habits and consumption level.

    PubMed

    Neuman, C; Rabow, J

    1985-01-01

    On the aggregate level, physical availability of alcohol is related to per capita consumption, prompting the question whether high availability can increase consumption net of social norms which enhance drinking. This issue is investigated using individual-level data in a high-availability urban environment. Effortless, efficient purchase of alcoholic beverages explains a small but significant amount of the variance in consumption when normative factors are statistically controlled. Qualitative factors of availability are discussed, with particular emphasis on food stores, which account for more than half this sample's purchases. PMID:3833803

  6. Intoxicated prejudice: The impact of alcohol consumption on implicitly and explicitly measured racial attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Manning, Mark; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Although beverage condition did not affect prejudice levels on either measure, it did change the correlation between them. Implicitly measured attitudes significantly predicted explicit reports of prejudice and discrimination only for participants who consumed alcohol. We discuss the implications of our findings for debates regarding dissociations between implicit and explicit measures and the cultural phenomenon of intoxicated individuals attributing prejudiced statements to alcohol consumption rather than personal attitudes. PMID:26330762

  7. Alcohol Consumption and Negative Sex-Related Consequences among College Women: The Moderating Role of Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorer, Kayla D.; Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Nicholson, Bonnie C.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) limit overall negative consequences; however, less is known about the relationship between PBS and negative sex-related consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the moderating effects of 2 distinct types of PBS--controlled consumption strategies and serious harm reduction…

  8. Twenty-Year Alcohol-Consumption and Drinking-Problem Trajectories of Older Men and Women*

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe older adults' 20-year alcohol-consumption and drinking-problem trajectories, identify baseline predictors of them, and determine whether older men and women differ on late-life drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Method: Two-group simultaneous latent growth modeling was used to describe the characteristics and baseline predictors of older community-residing men's (n = 399) and women's (n = 320) 20-year drinking trajectories. Chi-square difference tests of increment in fit of latent growth models with and without gender invariance constraints were used to determine gender differences in drinking trajectory characteristics and predictors. Results: Unconditional quadratic growth models best described older individuals' within-individual, 20-year drinking trajectories, with alcohol consumption following an average pattern of delayed decline, and drinking problems an average pattern of decline followed by leveling off. On average, older men declined in alcohol consumption somewhat later than did older women. The best baseline predictors of more rapid decline in alcohol consumption and drinking problems were drinking variables indicative of heavier, more problematic alcohol use at late middle age. Conclusions: The course of alcohol consumption and drinking problems from late middle age onward is one of net decline, but this decline is neither swift nor invariable. Gender differences in the timing of decline in drinking suggest that ongoing monitoring of alcohol consumption may be especially important for older men. Further research is needed to identify factors known at late middle age that prospectively explain long-term change in late-life use of alcohol. PMID:21388604

  9. Effects of moderate consumption of distilled and fermented alcohol on some aspects of neuroimmunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Ligia Esperanza; Cano, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Vanesa; Nova, Esther; Romeo, Javier; Marcos, Asunción; Esquifino, Ana Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Alcoholic beverages are characterized by their fermented versus distilled origin and also by their degree of alcohol. The toxic effects of chronic alcohol consumption have been widely studied. However, there is less evidence about possible beneficial effects of moderate alcohol intake. This work was aimed at evaluating the effects of moderate alcohol consumption (beer or ethanol) on plasma hormone concentrations, blood and thymus lymphocyte phenotypes and brain neurotransmitter levels. For this purpose, 40 adult Wistar male rats were administered ethanol or beer for 4 weeks (experimental groups). Age-matched rats were administered beer without alcohol or water to be used as controls. Rats were killed by decapitation and plasma from the trunk blood was collected to measure plasma prolactin, growth hormone and ACTH concentrations by homologous specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Thymus and blood lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry. Neurotransmitter concentrations [dopamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and taurine] were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography in the median eminence and the pituitary. Blood and thymus lymphocyte subsets were not significantly changed by either ethanol or beer consumption, compared to controls. Plasma prolactin levels significantly decreased in ethanol-administered groups (p < 0.05) compared to control animals drinking water, although plasma levels of growth hormone and ACTH were not modified by either alcohol used. Dopamine and GABA concentrations in the median eminence or in the adenohypophysis remained unmodified by moderate beer or ethanol consumption. However, taurine concentration was significantly increased in the pituitary (p < 0.05) in the group drinking ethanol compared to those groups drinking beer with or without alcohol. These data suggest that moderate alcohol consumption may change the regulatory mechanism of prolactin secretion. Whether these modifications have a physiological

  10. Vulnerability to alcohol consumption, spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being: test of a theory 1

    PubMed Central

    Heredia, Luz Patricia Díaz; Sanchez, Alba Idaly Muñoz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to demonstrate the relations among vulnerability, self-transcendence and well-being in the young adult population and the effect of each of these variables on the adoption of low-risk consumption conducts. Method: quantitative and cross-sectional correlation study using structural equations analysis to test the relation among the variables. Results: an inverse relation was evidenced between vulnerability to alcohol consumption and spiritual transcendence (β-0.123, p 0.025) and a direct positive relation between spiritual transcendence and psychosocial well-being (β 0.482, p 0.000). Conclusions: the relations among the variables spiritual transcendence, vulnerability to alcohol consumption and psychosocial well-being, based on Reed's Theory, are confirmed in the population group of young college students, concluding that psychosocial well-being can be achieved when spiritual transcendence is enhanced, as the vulnerability to alcohol consumption drops. PMID:27276017

  11. ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guang; Naito, Mariko; Wakai, Kenji; Morita, Emi; Kawai, Sayo; Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Suzuki, Sadao; Kita, Yoshikuni; Takezaki, Toshiro; Tanaka, Keitaro; Morita, Makiko; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ozaki, Etsuko; Hosono, Satoyo; Mikami, Haruo; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo

    2016-05-01

    Associations between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes risk are inconsistent in epidemiologic studies. This study investigated the associations of ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms with fasting blood glucose levels, and the impact of the associations of alcohol consumption with fasting blood glucose levels in Japanese individuals. This cross-sectional study included 907 men and 912 women, aged 35-69 years. The subjects were selected from among the Japan Multi-institutional Collaborative Cohort study across six areas of Japan. The ADH1B and ALDH2 polymorphisms were genotyped by Invader Assays. The ALDH2 Glu504Lys genotypes were associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose in men (P = 0.04). Mean fasting glucose level was positively associated with alcohol consumption in men with the ALDH2 504 Lys allele (P trend = 0.02), but not in men with the ALDH2 504Glu/Glu genotype (P trend = 0.45), resulting in no statistically significant interaction (P = 0.38). Alcohol consumption was associated with elevated fasting blood glucose levels compared with non-consumers in men (P trend = 0.002). The ADH1B Arg48His polymorphism was not associated with FBG levels overall or after stratification for alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that the ALDH2 polymorphism is associated with different levels of fasting blood glucose through alcohol consumption in Japanese men. The interaction of ALDH2 polymorphisms in the association between alcohol consumption and fasting blood glucose warrants further investigation. PMID:27303105

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene in coke oven workers relative to exposure, alcohol consumption, and metabolic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J; Ichiba, M; Hara, K; Zhang, S; Hanaoka, T; Pan, G; Yamano, Y; Takahashi, K; Tomokuni, K

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To investigate the influence of personal lifestyle—such as smoking and alcohol consumption—on urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) concentrations in coke oven workers exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to evaluate the association of 1-OHP concentrations with the genetic polymorphism of several metabolic enzymes including cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 1A1 and glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs).
METHODS—The study population contained 162 coke oven workers and 58 controls employed at the largest iron and steel factory in China. Personal data were collected at the interview. 1-OHP in urine was measured with high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Genetic polymorphisms were identified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method.
RESULTS—A positive association between excretion of urinary 1-OHP and the levels of exposure to PAHs was confirmed. Those people who consumed ⩾50 g/day ethanol had significantly higher 1-OHP excretion than did other coke oven workers (p<0.01). No significant difference in urinary 1-OHP was found between smokers and non-smokers, in both controls and exposed subjects. The variant homozygotes at exon 7 of the CYP1A1 gene had significantly higher urinary 1-OHP concentrations than other CYP1A1 genotypes among the exposed workers (p=0.03). There was less association between the concentrations of 1-OHP and the GSTM1, GSTP1, or GSTT1 polymorphism.
CONCLUSIONS—The present study confirmed that urinary 1-OHP is a good biomarker for exposure to PAHs. Alcohol consumption affected urinary 1-OHP excretion. The variant genotypes of the CYP1A1 gene may result in the enhancement of PAH metabolites. It is helpful to understand the role of individual susceptibility on metabolism of carcinogens. These findings suggest that the modulating effect of individual lifestyle factors or genetic nature should be considered in future studies on occupational exposure to PAHs and in evaluating the health risk

  13. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Narbada; Aryal, Krishna Kumar; Puri, Rupendra; Shrestha, Saraswoti; Shrestha, Sheela; Thapa, Pukar; Mehata, Suresh; Thapa, Pushpa; Banjara, Megha Raj; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite anumber of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age. Methods A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis. Results National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7–28.0), last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3–20.7) and last 30 days (current drinking) 11.8% (95% CI:9.8–14.1). There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages

  14. Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk subtypes in the E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Mesrine, Sylvie; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain an overview of the associations between alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk at adulthood, by type of alcohol and subtype of breast cancer. Between 1993 and 2008, 66,481 women from the French E3N-EPIC cohort were followed up and asked to report their alcohol consumption, by type of alcohol, through a 208-item diet-history questionnaire. A total of 2812 breast cancer cases were validated during the follow-up session. No association was found between high alcohol consumption, whatever its type, and increase in breast cancer risk in the premenopausal period. During the postmenopausal period, a linear association between total alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk was found (P<0.0001), mainly driven by the associations with wine and beer [hazard ratio=1.33 (1.11-1.58) and 1.85 (1.19-2.89)] for more than two glasses per day of wine and beer, respectively, compared with nondrinkers] and with ER+/PR+ breast cancer subtypes. In the postmenopausal period, we observed interactions between total alcohol and folate intake levels (P=0.1192) and BMI (P=0.0367), with higher increased risks observed for high alcohol intake among women with low folate intake or who were overweight or obese. Our results make precise the current body of knowledge on the relationship between alcohol and breast cancer subtypes. Interactions between alcohol and other factors should further be taken into account in public health nutrition programs. PMID:24743350

  15. Brand-Specific Consumption of Alcohol among Underage Youth in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Fortunato, Erin K.; Albers, Alison B.; Heeren, Timothy; Rosenbloom, David L.; Ross, Craig; Ostroff, Joshua; Rodkin, Sergei; King, Charles; Borzekowski, Dina L.G.; Rimal, Rajiv N.; Padon, Alisa A.; Eck, Raimee H.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about brand-specific alcohol consumption among underage youth, as existing information is collected at the level of alcoholic beverage type. This study identifies the alcohol brands consumed by a nationally representative sample of underage youth in the U.S. Methods We obtained a national sample of 1,032 underage youth, ages 13–20, using a pre-recruited internet panel maintained by Knowledge Networks. Youth ages 18–20 were recruited directly from the panel via email invitation. Teens ages 13–17 were identified by asking adult panelists to identify a member of their household. The survey assessed the past 30-day consumption of 898 brands of alcohol among 16 alcoholic beverage types, including the frequency and amount of each brand consumed in the past 30 days. Market share for a given brand was calculated by dividing the total number of drinks for that brand in the past 30 days across the entire sample by the total number of drinks for all identified brands. Results The alcohol brands with highest prevalence of past 30-day consumption were Bud Light (27.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 23.3%–32.4%), Smirnoff malt beverages (17.0%, 95% CI 12.9%–21.1%), and Budweiser (14.6%, 95% CI 11.0%–18.3%). Brand market share was concentrated in a relatively small number of brands, with the top 25 brands accounting for nearly half of all market share. Conclusions Underage youth alcohol consumption, although spread out over several alcoholic beverage types, is concentrated among a relatively small number of alcohol brands. This finding has important implications for alcohol research, practice, and policy. PMID:23398328

  16. An expanding knowledge of the mechanisms and effects of alcohol consumption on cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Chisa; Miedema, Michael D; Ofman, Peter; Gaziano, J Michael; Sesso, Howard D

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 2 decades, observational evidence largely supports an association between light to moderate alcohol consumption (up to 1 drink per day in women and up to 2 drinks per day in men) and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), largely driven by a reduction in coronary heart disease. Most studies suggest a nadir in risk in the light to moderate range of alcohol intake, which is then countered by an increase in cardiomyopathy, sudden death, and hemorrhagic stroke at higher drinking levels that offsets potential benefits. The mechanisms of cardioprotective effects of alcohol are complex and there are multiple pathways by which moderate alcohol consumption reduces the risk of CVD. Recent evidence continues to emerge on the physiologic and genetic mechanisms through which alcohol may reduce the risk of developing CVD. Ongoing debate also lingers whether there are important differences in cardiovascular effects according to alcoholic beverage type (beer vs red wine vs liquor). Another emerging area of interest is the role of alcohol consumption on the development of intermediate cardiovascular endpoints such as hypertension and diabetes that lead to the development of CVD as well as other important cardiovascular sequelae. Alcohol consumption has also been shown to impact the risk of other CVD endpoints including congestive heart failure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial fibrillation, and peripheral artery disease. Overall, alcohol still carries significant public health implications given its plausible benefits on CVD along with its well-documented adverse effects, warranting continued caution and a discussion with one's primary care provider regarding intake. PMID:24667667

  17. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    PubMed Central

    Faeh, David; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Chiolero, Arnaud; Warren, Wick; Bovet, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey). The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92%) of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI) was 30% (26–34)/21% (18–25) for smoking, 49% (45–54)/48% (43–52) for drinking, and 17% (15–20)/8% (6–10) for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P < 0.001). Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs. PMID:16803621

  18. Chronic alcohol consumption potentiates the development of diabetes through pancreatic β-cell dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Lee, Dae Yeon; Lee, Yoo Jeong; Park, Keon Jae; Kim, Kyu Hee; Kim, Jae Woo; Kim, Won-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is well established as a major risk factor for type-2 diabetes (T2D), which is evidenced by impaired glucose metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the relationships between alcohol consumption and the development of T2D remain controversial. In particular, the direct effects of ethanol consumption on proliferation of pancreatic β-cell and the exact mechanisms associated with ethanol-mediated β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis remain elusive. Although alcoholism and alcohol consumption are prevalent and represent crucial public health problems worldwide, many people believe that low-to-moderate ethanol consumption may protect against T2D and cardiovascular diseases. However, the J- or U-shaped curves obtained from cross-sectional and large prospective studies have not fully explained the relationship between alcohol consumption and T2D. This review provides evidence for the harmful effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the progressive development of T2D, particularly with respect to pancreatic β-cell mass and function in association with insulin synthesis and secretion. This review also discusses a conceptual framework for how ethanol-produced peroxynitrite contributes to pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25717351

  19. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, Tine Brink; Hjollund, Niels Henrik; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Kolstad, Henrik; Ernst, Erik; Giwercman, Aleksander; Skakkebaek, Niels Erik; Olsen, Jørn

    2004-10-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires. Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss. PMID:15383410

  20. Examining alcohol consumption with the theory of planned behaviour: Do health and alcohol knowledge play a role?

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Schofield, Lachlan

    2015-01-01

    We used the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) to investigate factors associated with alcohol consumption among university students, and to examine whether general or alcohol-specific health knowledge acts as a moderator in the relationship between elements of the theory and drinking behaviour. Participants were 258 Australian undergraduate university students (79% female) who completed an online questionnaire, assessing the constructs of interest. The hypothesis that intentions and behaviour would be successfully predicted using the theory was generally supported. Little evidence for the moderating effect of knowledge on the TPB variables was observed, although both general and alcohol-specific health knowledge moderated the relationship between intentions and behaviours. Contrary to expectation, more accurate knowledge strengthened this relationship. Further work is necessary to investigate the role of knowledge in limiting alcohol-related harms. PMID:25318009

  1. Background risk of breast cancer influences the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T; Christensen, S E; Brand, J S; Cuzick, J; Czene, K; Sjölander, A; Bälter, K; Hall, P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Alcohol consumption has been suggested to increase risk of breast cancer through a mechanism that also increases mammographic density. Whether the association between alcohol consumption and mammographic density is modified by background breast cancer risk has, however, not been studied. Methods: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 53 060 Swedish women aged 40–74 years. Alcohol consumption was assessed using a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Mammographic density was measured using the fully-automated volumetric Volpara method. The Tyrer–Cuzick prediction model was used to estimate risk of developing breast cancer in the next 10 years. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and volumetric mammographic density and the potential influence of Tyrer–Cuzick breast cancer risk. Results: Overall, increasing alcohol consumption was associated with higher absolute dense volume (cm3) and per cent dense volume (%). The association between alcohol consumption and absolute dense volume was most pronounced among women with the highest (⩾5%) Tyrer–Cuzick 10-year risk. Among high-risk women, women consuming 5.0–9.9, 10.0–19.9, 20.0–29.9, and 30.0–40.0 g of alcohol per day had 2.6 cm3 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.2–4.9), 2.9 cm3 (95% CI, −0.6 to 6.3), 4.6 cm3 (95% CI, 1.5–7.7), and 10.8 cm3 (95% CI, 4.8–17.0) higher absolute dense volume, respectively, as compared with women abstaining from alcohol. A trend of increasing alcohol consumption and higher absolute dense volume was seen in women at low (⩽3%) risk, but not in women at moderate (3.0–4.9%) risk. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption may increase breast cancer risk through increasing mammographic density, particularly in women at high background risk of breast cancer. PMID:26035701

  2. A panel study of peer norms and adolescent alcohol consumption: developing strategies for communication interventions.

    PubMed

    Hong, Traci; Beaudoin, Christopher E; Johnson, Carolyn

    2013-08-01

    Given that alcohol consumption and binge drinking among adolescents in the United States remain prevalent, this study assesses changes in the influence of peer norms-and their interactions with time, gender, and ethnicity-on alcohol consumption. Panel survey interviews of adolescents (N = 1,607) were completed in 9th grade and then again in 12th grade with students from Louisiana. Fixed effects multiple regression assessed the relations between the changes in 2 types of peer norms (i.e., descriptive norms and injunctive norms) and 2 alcohol consumption measures: 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking. Increases in 30-day alcohol prevalence and binge drinking were associated with only descriptive norms. The effects of both types of peer norms intensified over time, and the effects of descriptive norms varied according to gender and ethnicity. Specifically, the influence of descriptive norms was greater on boys than on girls and on Caucasians than on African Americans. Communication interventions that target adolescents in the context of alcohol consumption should consider the temporal variability of peer normative influence and how it varies by gender and ethnicity. PMID:23767700

  3. [Alcohol consumption patterns among patients in primary health care and detection by health professionals].

    PubMed

    Taufick, Maíra Lemos de Castro; Evangelista, Lays Aparecida; Silva, Michelle da; Oliveira, Luiz Carlos Marques de

    2014-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated patterns of alcohol consumption among patients enrolled in the Family Health Program (FHP) in a city in Southeast Brazil, as well as the detection of such consumption by FHP professionals. A total of 932 adult patients were evaluated from November 2010 to November 2011. Of this total, 17.5% were considered at risk for hazardous drinking (AUDIT ≥ 8); increased risk was associated with male gender, younger age, and chronic illness. The CAGE questionnaire was positive in 98 patients (10.5%), with a higher proportion in men. Health professionals were more likely to ask about alcohol consumption in men, individuals aged ≥ 55 years, those with chronic illnesses, and heavier drinkers (438/932; 47.8%). Positive diagnosis of alcoholism was more frequent in men, individuals aged 35-54 years, and those with serious alcohol abuse (22/175; 12.6%). The study concluded that alcohol consumption is common among patients treated by FHP teams (although insufficiently recognized by professionals) and that a minority of alcoholics is instructed on the risks of drinking. PMID:24627069

  4. Alcohol consumption, illicit substances, and intimate partner violence in a sample of batterers in psychological treatment.

    PubMed

    Redondo Rodríguez, Natalia; Graña Gómez, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the alcohol and illicit substance consumption characteristics in a sample of 572 batterers in treatment by court order. The results indicate that the prevalence of alcohol consumption in the past year was 89.3%, whereas within illicit substances, the prevalences were higher for cannabis (27.8%), followed by cocaine 20.3%). In order to analyze the possible effect of consumption on levels of perpetration and victimization of partner-aggression, the sample was divided into 4 groups: nonconsumers (16.3%), alcohol consumers (58.6%), illicit drug consumers (3.5%), and consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs (21.7%), finding that the groups of nonconsumers and alcohol consumers presented the lowest level of perpetration of psychological, physical, and sexual aggression and of victimization of psychological and physical aggression, whereas the group of consumers of alcohol and illicit drugs presented the highest levels. The results reveal the need to assess substance consumption when designing intervention protocols with batterers. PMID:25879475

  5. [How to have a clear vision when considering all the different recommendations of moderate alcohol consumption?].

    PubMed

    Pasche, S; Broers, B; Favrod-Coune, T

    2012-09-26

    Although use of important amounts of alcohol has clearly been proven to have a negative health impact, large epidemiological studies show that a moderate quantity of alcohol might be beneficial in terms of total mortality, probably through cardiovascular protection. Many countries propose their own official recommandations with regard to moderate or low risk alcohol consumption. In this review, we compare some of these recommandations. Furthermore, risks and benefits of alcohol for the main groups of disease are analysed according to alcohol quantities and drinking patterns. Our final objective is to evaluate the small margin between potentially beneficial use of alcohol versus low risk use, and provide some practical recommandations for the physician advising an individual patient. PMID:23097868

  6. Alcohol consumption and risk of heart failure: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Alexandra; Claggett, Brian; Jhund, Pardeep S.; Rosamond, Wayne; Deswal, Anita; Aguilar, David; Shah, Amil M.; Cheng, Susan; Solomon, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Alcohol is a known cardiac toxin and heavy consumption can lead to heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and risk for HF, in either men or women, remains unclear. Methods and results We examined 14 629 participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (54 ± 6 years, 55% women) without prevalent HF at baseline (1987–89) who were followed for 24 ± 1 years. Self-reported alcohol consumption was assessed as the number of drinks/week (1 drink = 14 g of alcohol) at baseline, and updated cumulative average alcohol intake was calculated over 8.9 ± 0.3 years. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we examined the relation of alcohol intake with incident HF and assessed whether associations were modified by sex. Overall, most participants were abstainers (42%) or former drinkers (19%), with 25% reporting up to 7 drinks per week, 8% reporting ≥7 to 14 drinks per week, and 3% reporting ≥14–21 and ≥21 drinks per week, respectively. Incident HF occurred in 1271 men and 1237 women. Men consuming up to 7 drinks/week had reduced risk of HF relative to abstainers (hazard ratio, HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.68–0.94, P = 0.006); this effect was less robust in women (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71–1.00, P = 0.05). In the higher drinking categories, the risk of HF was not significantly different from abstainers, either in men or in women. Conclusion In the community, alcohol consumption of up to 7 drinks/week at early-middle age is associated with lower risk for future HF, with a similar but less definite association in women than in men. These findings suggest that despite the dangers of heavy drinking, modest alcohol consumption in early-middle age may be associated with a lower risk for HF. PMID:25602025

  7. [Alcohol and drug consumption by adolescents in Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H H; Pecci, M C

    1994-09-01

    In a group of 4800 young man--sample--who were called on to the Military Service Medical Examination in 1992, was investigated the legal and illegal psychoactive drugs using in. Findings show that: a) 42% were alcohol abusers during last 30 days; b) more than 17% have used marihuana once in their lives; c) 9.7% have used cocaine and d) 1 of each 10 have recognized use psychoactive drugs without medical prescription. Cultural practices linked to excessive alcohol abuse and the present increase use of other psychoactive drugs by young people are discussed. PMID:7872028

  8. Aggravation of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by moderate alcohol consumption is associated with decreased SIRT1 activity in rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol intake decreases adiponectin and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expressions, both of which have been implicated in various biological processes including inflammation, apoptosis and metabolism. We have previously shown that moderate consumption of alcohol aggravates liver inflammation and apoptos...

  9. Externalities from alcohol consumption in the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey: implications for policy.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Thomas K; Ye, Yu; Kerr, William; Bond, Jason; Rehm, Jürgen; Giesbrecht, Norman

    2009-12-01

    A subsample (n = 2,550) of the 2005 US National Alcohol Survey of adults was used to estimate prevalence and correlates of six externalities from alcohol abuse--family problems, assaults, accompanying intoxicated driver, vehicular accident, financial problems and vandalized property--all from another's drinking. On a lifetime basis, 60% reported externalities, with a lower 12-month rate (9%). Women reported more family/marital and financial impacts and men more assaults, accompanying drunk drivers, and accidents. Being unmarried, older, white and ever having monthly heavy drinking or alcohol problems was associated with more alcohol externalities. Publicizing external costs of drinking could elevate political will for effective alcohol controls. PMID:20049257

  10. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    PubMed

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking. PMID:23882959

  11. The interplay of trait anger, childhood physical abuse, and alcohol consumption in predicting intimate partner aggression.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Rosalita C; Watkins, Laura E; DiLillo, David

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined three well-established risk factors for intimate partner aggression (IPA) within Finkel and Eckhardt's I(3) model, including two impellance factors-trait anger and childhood physical abuse history-and the disinhibiting factor of alcohol consumption. Participants were 236 male and female college students in a committed heterosexual dating relationship who completed a battery of self-report measures assessing childhood physical abuse, trait anger, alcohol consumption, and IPA perpetration. Results revealed a significant three-way interaction showing that as the disinhibition factor alcohol consumption increased, the interaction of the two impelling factors, trait anger and childhood physical abuse, became increasingly more positive. Individuals who had high levels of childhood physical abuse and alcohol consumption were at greater risk of IPA perpetration when trait anger was high. Consistent with the I(3) model, these findings suggest that trait anger and a history of childhood physical abuse may increase tendencies to aggress against one's partner, whereas alcohol consumption may reduce individuals' abilities to manage these aggressive tendencies. The importance of interplay among these risk factors in elevating IPA risk is discussed, as are the implications for clinicians working with male and female IPA perpetrators. PMID:25012954

  12. Chronotype and personality factors in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Adan, A

    1994-04-01

    This paper analyses the influence of and possible interaction between chronotype (Morning-types, Neither-types and Evening-types) and personality dimensions (neuroticism, extroversion and psychoticism) in the daily consumption of alcohol and psychostimulants (nicotine and caffeine). In a sample of 537 subjects (257 men and 280 women), who were students and professionals with different but fixed work schedules, there were significant differences among the chronotypes regarding the consumption of all the above. Evening-types consumed more alcohol, nicotine and caffeine (coffee and cola), while Morning-types consumed more caffeine from tea. Personality was only related to the consumption of cola: the greater the neuroticism the higher the consumption of this beverage. Stimulant drinks showed various types of interaction with personality types, which revealed a complex pattern of group action. The results stress the need to consider chronotype as a contributory psychological factor in a multi-causal model of consumption of psychoactive substances. PMID:8025504

  13. Evaluation of a Brief Personalised Intervention for Alcohol Consumption in College Students.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Natasha C; Field, Matt; Rose, Abigail K

    2015-01-01

    In the current study we investigated the effect of a brief personalised feedback intervention (BPI), compared to an active control intervention, on outcome measures of (i) alcohol consumption (ii) frequency of binge drinking and (iii) readiness to change (RTC). A sample of 103 college students (mean age=23.85) who consumed alcohol regularly provided baseline measures of drinking behaviour and readiness to change before completing an alcohol-related quiz on the UK Department of Health's Change4Life website (active control). The study was a between subjects design and half the participants were randomly allocated to the BPI group (N=52), who received 10 minutes personalised feedback on their drinking in addition to the alcohol-related quiz. At a two-week follow-up, participants (N=103) repeated the questionnaire battery, and attempted to recall the answers to the alcohol quiz. Results indicated that both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking but there were no significant group differences in either of these measures. We conclude that the provision of generalised information can be as efficient as a BPI for the reduction of alcohol consumption in students. PMID:26098848

  14. Moderate Alcohol Consumption and 24-Hour Urinary Levels of Melatonin in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, S.; Baer, D. J.; Stevens, R. G.; Albert, P. S.; Dorgan, J. F.; Kesner, J. S.; Meadows, J. W.; Shields, R.; Taylor, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Low overnight urinary melatonin metabolite concentrations have been associated with increased risk for breast cancer among postmenopausal women. The Postmenopausal Women's Alcohol Study was a controlled feeding study to test the effects of low to moderate alcohol intake on potential risk factors for breast cancer including serum and urinary levels of hormones and other biomarkers. Previously, we observed significant increases in concentrations of serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in participants after consumption of 15 or 30 g (one or two drinks) of alcohol per day. Objective: In the present analysis, we evaluated the relationship of alcohol consumption with 24-h urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SMT) concentration (micrograms per 24 h). Design and Participants: Healthy postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed a controlled diet plus each of three treatments (a nonalcoholic placebo beverage or 15 or 30 g alcohol/d) during three 8-wk periods in random order under conditions of weight maintenance. Measures: 6-SMT was measured in 24-h urine samples that were collected at entry into the study (baseline) and at the midpoint (4 wk) and end (8 wk) of each of the three diet periods. Results: Concentration of 6-SMT was not significantly modified by the alcohol treatment after adjustment for body mass index, hours of sleep, daylight hours, and baseline level of 6-SMT. Conclusions: These results suggest that low to moderate daily alcohol consumption does not significantly affect 24-h urinary levels of melatonin among healthy postmenopausal women. PMID:22013099

  15. Protective role of taurine in developing offspring affected by maternal alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Pilant; Ananchaipatana-Auitragoon, Yutthana; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Kotchabhakdi, Naiphinich

    2015-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption is known to affect offspring growth and development, including growth deficits, physical anomalies, impaired brain functions and behavioral disturbances. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, is essential during development, and continually found to be protective against neurotoxicity and various tissue damages including those from alcohol exposure. However, it is still unknown whether taurine can exert its protection during development of central nervous system and whether it can reverse alcohol damages on developed brain later in life. This study aims to investigate protective roles of taurine against maternal alcohol consumption on growth and development of offspring. The experimental protocol was conducted using ICR-outbred pregnant mice given 10 % alcohol, with or without maternal taurine supplementation during gestation and lactation. Pregnancy outcomes, offspring mortality and successive bodyweight until adult were monitored. Adult offspring is supplemented taurine to verify its ability to reverse damages on learning and memory through a water maze task performance. Our results demonstrate that offspring of maternal alcohol exposure, together with maternal taurine supplementation show conserved learning and memory, while that of offspring treated taurine later in life are disturbed. Taurine provides neuroprotective effects and preserves learning and memory processes when given together with maternal alcohol consumption, but not shown such effects when given exclusively in offspring. PMID:26648819

  16. Moderate drinking? Alcohol consumption significantly decreases neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus.