Science.gov

Sample records for alcohol control measures

  1. Attitudes of Israeli Jewish and Arab High School Students toward Alcohol Control Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Shoshana

    1999-01-01

    Explores the attitudes of adolescents (N=2,186) of four religions in the north of Israel toward eight alcohol measures. Findings indicate that the majority of the respondents tend to enhance alcohol control measures and driving issues, but only about a third tend to enhance alcohol control measures in the other domains. (Author/MKA)

  2. Measuring the Strength of State-Level Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Mosher, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We describe a multi-step method of coding the strength of 18 alcohol policies included in the Alcohol Policy Information System for each of the 50 states. Method After thoroughly reviewing each policy area, we chose components that were most important in categorizing the strength or restrictiveness of the policy using the following criteria: overall reach, enforceability, and implementation. We determined a unique coding scheme for each policy area. Results The total number of categories per policy area ranged from two to six, with categories numbered in an ordered sequence from least to most restrictive. We provide three examples of our coding schemes: Keg Registration, Underage Possession, and Sunday Sales. We also rank the states on their alcohol policy sum score. Discussion This study demonstrates how alcohol policies can be measured quantitatively, an important step for assessing the effects of alcohol policies on various outcomes. PMID:25574422

  3. Contextual factors and alcohol consumption control policy measures: the AMPHORA study background.

    PubMed

    Voller, Fabio; Allamani, Allaman

    2014-10-01

    Drinking alcoholic beverages is deeply rooted in European cultural and economic history, and European consumption trends have varied over time during the decades following WW II. How and why such consumption patterns have changed, and what are the roles that societies' transformations play in these changes are the AMPHORA project's focus. Preventive alcohol consumption control policies have been developed for a long time; during different eras, in different ways and in different countries. How have and do formal policies affect such changes? These questions stimulated a group of 40 researchers from 12 European countries and 14 institutions to investigate the interactions between selected socio-demographic and economic factors, alcohol control policy measures, alcohol consumption and alcohol consumption-related harm that occurred in 12 European countries between 1960 and 2008. PMID:24963555

  4. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  5. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  6. Alcohol Control Policies and Alcohol Consumption by Youth: A Multi-National Study

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Kypri, Kypros

    2009-01-01

    Aims The study examined relationships between alcohol control policies and adolescent alcohol use in 26 countries. Design Cross-sectional analyses of alcohol policy ratings based on the Alcohol Policy Index (API), per capita consumption, and national adolescent survey data. Setting Data are from 26 countries. Participants Adolescents (15-17 years old) who participated in the 2003 ESPAD (European countries) or national secondary school surveys in Spain, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and the USA. Measurements Alcohol control policy ratings based on the API; prevalence of alcohol use, heavy drinking, and first drink by age 13 based on national secondary school surveys; per capita alcohol consumption for each country in 2003. Analysis Correlational and linear regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between alcohol control policy ratings and past-30-day prevalence of adolescent alcohol use, heavy drinking, and having first drink by age 13. Per capita consumption of alcohol was included as a covariate in regression analyses. Findings More comprehensive API ratings and alcohol availability and advertising control ratings were inversely related to the past-30-day prevalence of alcohol use and prevalence rates for drinking 3-5 times and 6 or more times in the past 30 days. Alcohol advertising control was also inversely related to the prevalence of past-30-day heavy drinking and having first drink by age 13. Most of the relationships between API, alcohol availability and advertising control and drinking prevalence rates were attenuated and no longer statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption in regression analyses, suggesting that alcohol use in the general population may confound or mediate observed relationships between alcohol control policies and youth alcohol consumption. Several of the inverse relationships remained statistically significant when controlling for per capita consumption. Conclusions More comprehensive and

  7. Alcohol-related cues potentiate alcohol impairment of behavioral control in drinkers.

    PubMed

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T

    2015-06-01

    The acute impairing effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are well-established, and these disinhibiting effects are thought to play a role in its abuse potential. Alcohol impairment of inhibitory control is typically assessed in the context of arbitrary cues, yet drinking environments are comprised of an array of alcohol-related cues that are thought to influence drinking behavior. Recent evidence suggests that alcohol-related stimuli reduce behavioral control in sober drinkers, suggesting that alcohol impairment of inhibitory control might be potentiated in the context of alcohol cues. The current study tested this hypothesis by examining performance on the attentional-bias behavioral activation (ABBA) task that measures the degree to which alcohol-related stimuli can reduce inhibition of inappropriate responses in a between-subjects design. Social drinkers (N = 40) performed the task in a sober condition, and then again following placebo (0.0 g/kg) and a moderate dose of alcohol (0.65 g/kg) in counterbalanced order. Inhibitory failures were greater following alcohol images compared to neutral images in sober drinkers, replicating previous findings with the ABBA task. Moreover, alcohol-related cues exacerbated alcohol impairment of inhibitory control as evidenced by more pronounced alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues compared to neutral cues. Finally, regression analyses showed that greater alcohol-induced disinhibition following alcohol cues predicted greater self-reported alcohol consumption. These findings have important implications regarding factors contributing to binge or "loss of control" drinking. That is, the additive effect of disrupted control mechanisms via both alcohol cues and the pharmacological effects of the drug could compromise an individual's control over ongoing alcohol consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134023

  8. Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment: Effect on Daily Process Measures of Alcohol Relapse Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cooney, Ned L.; Litt, Mark D.; Sevarino, Kevin A.; Levy, Lucienne; Kranitz, Linda S.; Sackler, Helen; Cooney, Judith L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare the effects of alcohol treatment along with concurrent smoking treatment or delayed smoking treatment on process measures related to alcohol relapse risk. Method Alcohol dependent smokers (N = 151) who were enrolled in an intensive outpatient alcohol treatment program and were interested in smoking cessation were randomized to a concurrent smoking cessation (CSC) intervention or to a waiting list for delayed smoking cessation (DSC) intervention scheduled to begin three months later. Daily assessments of relapse process measures were obtained using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system for 12 weeks after the onset of smoking treatment in the CSC condition, and before beginning smoking treatment in the DSC condition. Smoking outcomes were assessed at 2 and 13 weeks after starting treatment. Results Seven-day CO-verified smoking abstinence in the CSC condition was 50.5% at 2 weeks and 19.0% at 13 weeks compared to 2.2% abstinence at two weeks and 0% abstinence at 13 weeks for those in the DSC condition. Drinking outcomes were not significantly different for CSC vs. DSC treatment conditions. On daily IVR assessments, CSC participants had significantly lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies relative to DSC participants. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses of within-person effects across the 12 weeks of daily monitoring showed that daily smoking abstinence was significantly associated with same day reports of lower alcohol consumption, lower urge to drink, lower negative affect, lower positive alcohol outcome expectancies, greater alcohol abstinence self-efficacy, greater alcohol abstinence readiness to change, and greater perceived self-control demands. Conclusions; Analyses of process measures provide support for recommending smoking intervention concurrent with intensive outpatient alcohol treatment. Public Health Significance Statement Study results support conveying a message to alcohol dependent smokers that

  9. The Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Measured by Controlled Attenuation Parameter

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Young Eun; Kim, Kwang Joon; Jung, Kyu Sik; Kim, Seung Up; Park, Jun Yong; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Chon, Chae Yoon; Chung, Jae Bock; Park, Kyeong Hye; Bae, Ji Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The severity of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population compared with that in normal glucose tolerance (NGT) individuals has not yet been quantitatively assessed. We investigated the prevalence and the severity of NAFLD in a T2DM population using controlled attenuation parameter (CAP). Materials and Methods Subjects who underwent testing for biomarkers related to T2DM and CAP using Fibroscan® during a regular health check-up were enrolled. CAP values of 250 dB/m and 300 dB/m were selected as the cutoffs for the presence of NAFLD and for moderate to severe NAFLD, respectively. Biomarkers related to T2DM included fasting glucose/insulin, fasting C-peptide, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results Among 340 study participants (T2DM, n=66; pre-diabetes, n=202; NGT, n=72), the proportion of subjects with NAFLD increased according to the glucose tolerance status (31.9% in NGT; 47.0% in pre-diabetes; 57.6% in T2DM). The median CAP value was significantly higher in subjects with T2DM (265 dB/m) than in those with pre-diabetes (245 dB/m) or NGT (231 dB/m) (all p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that subjects with moderate to severe NAFLD had a 2.8-fold (odds ratio) higher risk of having T2DM than those without NAFLD (p=0.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.21–6.64), and positive correlations between the CAP value and HOMA-IR (ρ=0.407) or fasting C-peptide (ρ=0.402) were demonstrated. Conclusion Subjects with T2DM had a higher prevalence of severe NAFLD than those with NGT. Increased hepatic steatosis was significantly associated with the presence of T2DM, and insulin resistance induced by hepatic fat may be an important mechanistic connection. PMID:27189281

  10. Alcohol Control Efforts in Comprehensive Cancer Control Plans and Alcohol Use Among Adults in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Henley, S. Jane; Kanny, Dafna; Roland, Katherine B.; Grossman, Melissa; Peaker, Brandy; Liu, Yong; Gapstur, Susan M.; White, Mary C.; Plescia, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Aims To understand how US cancer control plans address alcohol use, an important but frequently overlooked cancer risk factor, and how many US adults are at risk. Methods We reviewed alcohol control efforts in 69 comprehensive cancer control plans in US states, tribes and jurisdictions. Using the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we assessed the prevalence of current alcohol use among US adults and the proportion of these drinkers who exceeded guidelines for moderate drinking. Results Most comprehensive cancer control plans acknowledged alcohol use as a cancer risk factor but fewer than half included a goal, objective or strategy to address alcohol use. More than half of US adults reported current alcohol use in 2011, and two of three drinkers exceeded moderate drinking guidelines at least once in the past month. Many states that did not address alcohol use in comprehensive cancer control plans also had a high proportion of adults at risk. Conclusion Alcohol use is a common cancer risk factor in the USA, but alcohol control strategies are not commonly included in comprehensive cancer control plans. Supporting the implementation of evidence-based strategies to prevent the excessive use of alcohol is one tool the cancer control community can use to reduce the risk of cancer. PMID:25313255

  11. Controlling alcohol-related global health problems.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tai Hing; Chim, David

    2010-07-01

    Alcohol's adverse public health impact includes disease, injury, violence, disability, social problems, psychiatric illness, drunk driving, drug use, unsafe sex, and premature death. Furthermore, alcohol is a confirmed human carcinogen. The International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that alcohol causes cancer of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, esophagus, liver, colon-rectum, and breast. World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research concluded that the evidence justifies recommending avoidance of consuming any alcohol, even in small quantities. Despite being responsible for 3.8% of global deaths (2,255,000 deaths) and 4.6% of global disability-adjusted life years in 2004, alcohol consumption is increasing rapidly in China and Asia. Contrary to the World Health Assembly's call for global control action, Hong Kong has reduced wine and beer taxes to zero since 2008. An International Framework Convention on Alcohol Control is urgently needed. Increasing alcohol taxation and banning alcohol advertisement and promotion are among the most effective policies. PMID:20566555

  12. Tackling risky alcohol consumption in sport: a cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention with community football clubs

    PubMed Central

    Kingsland, Melanie; Wolfenden, Luke; Tindall, Jennifer; Rowland, Bosco C; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Gillham, Karen E; Dodds, Pennie; Sidey, Maree N; Rogerson, John C; McElduff, Patrick; Crundall, Ian; Wiggers, John H

    2015-01-01

    Background An increased prevalence of risky alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm has been reported for members of sporting groups and at sporting venues compared with non-sporting populations. While sports clubs and venues represent opportune settings to implement strategies to reduce such risks, no controlled trials have been reported. The purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of an alcohol management intervention in reducing risky alcohol consumption and the risk of alcohol-related harm among community football club members. Method A cluster randomised controlled trial of an alcohol management intervention was undertaken with non-elite, community football clubs and their members in New South Wales, Australia. Risky alcohol consumption (5+ drinks) at the club and risk of alcohol-related harm using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were measured at baseline and postintervention. Results Eighty-eight clubs participated in the trial (n=43, Intervention; n=45, Control) and separate cross-sectional samples of club members completed the baseline (N=1411) and postintervention (N=1143) surveys. Postintervention, a significantly lower proportion of intervention club members reported: risky alcohol consumption at the club (Intervention: 19%; Control: 24%; OR: 0.63 (95% CI 0.40 to 1.00); p=0.05); risk of alcohol-related harm (Intervention: 38%; Control: 45%; OR: 0.58 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.87); p<0.01); alcohol consumption risk (Intervention: 47%; Control: 55%; OR: 0.60 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.87); p<0.01) and possible alcohol dependence (Intervention: 1%; Control: 4%; OR: 0.20 (95% CI 0.06 to 0.65); p<0.01). Conclusions With large numbers of people worldwide playing, watching and sports officiating, enhancing club-based alcohol management interventions could make a substantial contribution to reducing the burden of alcohol misuse in communities. Trial registration number ACTRN12609000224224. PMID:26038252

  13. A Comparison between Locus of Control in Inpatient Alcoholics and Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Jon K.

    1991-01-01

    Administered Internal-External Control Scale to 22 male alcoholics in residential treatment and 8 adult male children of alcoholics (COAs) in outpatient counseling. Contrary to prediction, alcoholics demonstrated external control orientation. COAs also exhibited external locus of control. Alcoholics in first residential treatment demonstrated more…

  14. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  15. [Diagnostic accuracy for alcoholic liver disease with controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP) measured by transient elastography for the non-invasive assessment of liver steatosis].

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masahiro; Umeda, Rumiko; Tsuruya, Kota; Shiozawa, Hirokazu; Matsushima, Masashi; Abe, Keiichiro; Kikuchi, Miho; Takahashi, Masahiko; Yamagishi, Yoshiyuki; Nishizaki, Hiroyasu; Horie, Yoshinori; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-10-01

    Along with the development of interferon and therapeutic medication, the incidence of viral hepatitis constituting the largest part of liver disease decreased, and the main target in the field of liver disease is now shifting from viral hepatitis to alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as metabolic liver disease. Although these diseases tend.to. be gathered as non-viral liver disease because the similar specific liver tissue, the natural history and etiology are considerably different between them. We need to distinguish both of them to do appropriate treatment intervention. Questioning of amount of drinking is needed, but we experience some difficult cases to understand drinking history because of a too little declaration of amount of drinking. A new ultrasonic image analyses using propagation speed in the organization of the pulse vibration wave was developed as Fibroscan by Echosens company in recent years. Fibroscan is a non-invasive test to quantify liver fibrosis as Liver Stiffness Measurement (LSM). It also detects and quantifies steatosis simultaneously using the Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP). CAP is a measurement of the ultrasound attenuation. We measured liver steatosis of patients using Fibroscan, and other blood tests. 63 cases of ALD, 177 cases of NAFLD, 57 cases of Virus and 271 cases of Normal were enrolled. CAP value were significantly lower in the ALD group compared with NAFLD group. (P < 0.0053, ALD 268 dB/m : NAFLD 290 dB/m) We elucidate the diagnostic accuracy of CAP using Fibroscan for ALD patients, comparing the results of them to those of virus patients and NAFLD patients. PMID:26946784

  16. Comparison of spectroscopically measured tissue alcohol concentration to blood and breath alcohol measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridder, Trent D.; Ver Steeg, Benjamin J.; Laaksonen, Bentley D.

    2009-09-01

    Alcohol testing is an expanding area of interest due to the impacts of alcohol abuse that extend well beyond drunk driving. However, existing approaches such as blood and urine assays are hampered in some testing environments by biohazard risks. A noninvasive, in vivo spectroscopic technique offers a promising alternative, as no body fluids are required. The purpose of this work is to report the results of a 36-subject clinical study designed to characterize tissue alcohol measured using near-infrared spectroscopy relative to venous blood, capillary blood, and breath alcohol. Comparison of blood and breath alcohol concentrations demonstrated significant differences in alcohol concentration [root mean square of 9.0 to 13.5 mg/dL] that were attributable to both assay accuracy and precision as well as alcohol pharmacokinetics. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the contribution of alcohol pharmacokinetics to the differences in concentration observed between the blood, breath, and tissue assays. All pair-wise combinations of alcohol assays were investigated, and the fraction of the alcohol concentration variance explained by pharmacokinetics ranged from 41.0% to 83.5%. Accounting for pharmacokinetic concentration differences, the accuracy and precision of the spectroscopic tissue assay were found to be comparable to those of the blood and breath assays.

  17. Cognitive Dysfunction, Locus of Control and Treatment Outcome among Chronic Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Max W.

    While alcoholism is no longer regarded as a unitary disorder, conventional measures of congition and personality have yet to be shown capable of consistently predicting clinical outcomes. To investigate cognitive dysfunction and locus of control as predictors of post treatment outcome in a large sample of alcoholics, 106 alcoholics (74 men, 32…

  18. Control Characteristics of Alcohol-Impaired Operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jex, Henry R.; McRuer, Duane T.; Allen, R. Wade; Klein, Richard H.

    1974-01-01

    Although the operation of vehicles like airplanes, cars, and bicycles involves a complex array of perceptual, decision and control activities, most accident statistics clearly show that intoxicated operators are a dominant cause of accidents, and not the difficulty of the task itself. This paper summarizes some recent research on the nature of the impairment of operator control under blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) up to above 0.16 percent. Alcohol toxicity is shown to be quite specific with respect to visual-motor functions involved in control of a vehicle, and experiments with a generalized workload task and special driving simulator show how these are reflected in terms of changes in operator control parameters such as response latency, gains, stability margins, and coherency.

  19. Public Opinion in Puerto Rico on Alcohol Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Eileen M.; Bernat, Debra H.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Vazquez, Mary Jo; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the first study to assess public opinion of alcohol policies in Puerto Rico. In 2001, a telephone survey of 514 adults on the island assessed levels of support for 20 alcohol control policies covering five domains: (a) raising alcohol taxes, (b) restricting alcohol consumption in public places, (c) punishing adult providers…

  20. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  1. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  2. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  3. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  4. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  5. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  6. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and... PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 1002.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within the area administered by the...

  7. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.35 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) Alcoholic beverages. (1) The use and possession of alcoholic beverages within...

  8. Effects of Aspirin on Gastroduodenal Permeability in Alcoholics and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kwasny, Mary J.; Shaikh, Maliha; Fogg, Louis; Lau, Cynthia; Fields, Jeremy Z.; Forsyth, Christopher B.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) are noxious agents that can disrupt the integrity of the gastroduodenal mucosal and damage the epithelial barrier, and lead to increased gastroduodenal permeability. Moreover, it is not uncommon that patients are exposed to these two barrier stressors at the same time. It is thus important to know how simultaneous exposure affects the gastroduodenal barrier, and acquiring that knowledge was the goal of this study. We used a method that has been widely used for the assessment of injury to the gastroduodenal barrier induced by these noxious agents – measurement of gastroduodenal permeability as indicated by urinary excretion of ingested sucrose. We used gas chromatography to measure the amount of sucrose excreted in the urine over the 5–12 h following ingestion of a bolus of sucrose. The 148 participants in the study included 92 alcoholics and 56 healthy controls. All study subjects had a baseline permeability test. To determine whether addition of a second noxious agent, in addition to chronic alcohol, further decreases gastroduodenal barrier integrity, a subset of 118 study subjects participated in another permeability test in which they were exposed to aspirin. For this test, participants ingested 1300 mg aspirin twice, 12 hours and 1 hour before the final permeability test. The baseline permeability test showed that alcoholics have significantly higher gastroduodenal permeability than controls. Aspirin caused a significant within group absolute increase in gastroduodenal permeability in both alcoholics and controls (+7.72%, p=0.003 and +2.25%, p = 0.011, respectively) but the magnitude of these increases were not significantly different from each other. Baseline permeability did vary by gender, self-reported illegal drug use, and employment type. The extent of the permeability increase after aspirin ingestion varied with illegal drug use and recruitment site (a surrogate marker of socioeconomic status

  9. 78 FR 37991 - Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Federal Transit Administration 49 CFR Part 655 RIN 2132-AB09 Alcohol and Controlled Substances Testing... to revise sections of the Alcohol and Controlled Substances (D&A) Testing regulation to reflect... changes to FTA's drug and alcohol testing program and makes other minor technical amendments....

  10. Craving and relapse measurement in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, A S; Deckers, F; Geerlings, P

    1999-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the measurement of craving with four different craving instruments and to relate this to definitions and measurement of relapse. The definitions of relapse may vary between studies and researchers, but are usually well defined. Five commonly used methods to measure relapse are: (1) quantity/frequency of drinking; (2) cumulative duration of abstinence (CDA); (3) post-withdrawal abstinent period; (4) stable recovery period; (5) the time line follow-back method. The definition of craving is much less clear and is mostly described as an emotional-motivational state or as obsessive-compulsive behaviour. Four self-rating instruments are briefly discussed and compared: the Obsessive-Compulsive Drinking Scale, OCDS, the Lübeck Craving Scale, LCRR, the Alcohol Craving Questionnaire, ACQ-Now-SF-R, and ordinal scales (e.g. visual analogue, Likert, or verbal descriptive scales). These instruments measure different aspects or dimensions of craving over different periods. The different dimensions measured suggest that there is still a need to conceptualize a standard interpretation of the word craving. There is a need also to measure an emotional-motivational dimension, a cognitive-behavioural dimension, expectancies, and effects on positive and negative reinforcement with different instruments or with one multidimensional instrument. It is suggested that different patients are expected to have different craving profiles. PMID:10344785

  11. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of program…

  12. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  13. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  14. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11... GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic... possession by any person on Academy property of alcoholic beverages, narcotic drugs, hallucinogens,...

  15. Control and Alcohol-Problem Recognition among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Raluca M.; Hahn, Austin M.; Simons, Jeffrey S.; Gaster, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined negative control (ie, perceived lack of control over life outcomes) and need for control as predictors of alcohol-problem recognition, evaluations (good/bad), and expectancies (likely/unlikely) among college students. The study also explored the interaction between the need for control and alcohol consumption in…

  16. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  17. Monoamine oxidases and alcoholism. I. Studies in unrelated alcoholics and normal controls

    SciTech Connect

    Parsian, A.; Suarez, B.K.; Fisher, L.

    1995-10-09

    Low platelet MAO activity has been associated with alcoholism. In order to evaluate the role of MAO genes in susceptibility to alcoholism, we have taken a biochemical and molecular genetic approach. The sample consisted of 133 alcoholic probands who were classified by subtypes of alcoholism and 92 normal controls. For those subjects typed for platelet MAO activity, alcoholics (N = 74) were found not to differ from the non-alcoholic controls (N = 34). Neither was there a significant difference between type I and type II alcoholics or between either subtype and normal controls. However, we do find significant differences between male and female alcoholics, but not between male and female controls. The allele frequency distribution for the MAO-A and MAO-B dinucleotide repeats is different between the alcoholic sample (N = 133) and the normal control sample (N = 92). In a two-way analysis of variance of MAO-B activity as a function of the allelic variation of each marker locus and diagnosis, there is no evidence for mean differences in activity levels for the different alleles. Our findings do not rule out a role for the MAO-B gene in controlling the enzyme activity because the dinucleotide repeats are located in introns. 52 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Alcohol advertising and youth: a measured approach.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Ostroff, Joshua; Ross, Craig

    2005-09-01

    Where alcohol industry self-regulation is the primary protection against youth exposure to alcohol advertising, independent, systematic monitoring of youth exposure can promote public awareness of and greater accountability in the industry's practices. Using commercially available databases, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth has combined occurrence and audience data to calculate youth (aged 12-20 years) and adult (above the United States legal drinking age of 21 years) exposure to alcohol advertising on television and radio, in magazines and on the Internet. This research in the United States shows that alcohol companies have placed significant amounts of advertising where youth are more likely per capita to be exposed to it than adults. Further analyses by the Center have demonstrated that much of this excess exposure of youth to alcohol advertising in the United States could be eliminated if alcohol companies would adopt a threshold of 15% (roughly the proportion of 12-20-years-old in the population 12 and above) as the maximum youth audience composition for their advertising. Although adoption of such a threshold would still leave much youth exposure to alcohol marketing in such "unmeasured" activities as sponsorships, on-premise promotions and campus marketing, it would assist alcohol companies in reaching their intended audiences more efficiently while reducing overall youth exposure to their advertising. PMID:16167559

  19. Intoxicated prejudice: The impact of alcohol consumption on implicitly and explicitly measured racial attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Loersch, Chris; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Manning, Mark; Calanchini, Jimmy; Sherman, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has shown that alcohol consumption can exacerbate expressions of racial bias by increasing reliance on stereotypes. However, little work has investigated how alcohol affects intergroup evaluations. The current work sought to address the issue in the context of the correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of anti-black attitudes. Participants were randomly assigned to consume an alcoholic (target BAC of 0.08%), placebo, or control beverage prior to completing implicit and explicit measures of racial attitudes. Although beverage condition did not affect prejudice levels on either measure, it did change the correlation between them. Implicitly measured attitudes significantly predicted explicit reports of prejudice and discrimination only for participants who consumed alcohol. We discuss the implications of our findings for debates regarding dissociations between implicit and explicit measures and the cultural phenomenon of intoxicated individuals attributing prejudiced statements to alcohol consumption rather than personal attitudes. PMID:26330762

  20. Behavioral Economic Measures of Alcohol Reward Value as Problem Severity Indicators in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Skidmore, Jessica R.; Murphy, James G.; Martens, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine the associations among behavioral economic measures of alcohol value derived from three distinct measurement approaches, and to evaluate their respective relations with traditional indicators of alcohol problem severity in college drinkers. Five behavioral economic metrics were derived from hypothetical demand curves that quantify reward value by plotting consumption and expenditures as a function of price, another metric measured proportional behavioral allocation and enjoyment related to alcohol versus other activities, and a final metric measured relative discretionary expenditures on alcohol. The sample included 207 heavy drinking college students (53% female) who were recruited through an on-campus health center or university courses. Factor analysis revealed that the alcohol valuation construct comprises two factors: one factor that reflects participants’ levels of alcohol price sensitivity (demand persistence), and a second factor that reflects participants’ maximum consumption and monetary and behavioral allocation towards alcohol (amplitude of demand). The demand persistence and behavioral allocation metrics demonstrated the strongest and most consistent multivariate relations with alcohol-related problems, even when controlling for other well-established predictors. The results suggest that behavioral economic indices of reward value show meaningful relations with alcohol problem severity in young adults. Despite the presence of some gender differences, these measures appear to be useful problem indicators for men and women. PMID:24749779

  1. Control substances and alcohol use and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Przybylski, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act was signed into law in October of 1991. The Omnibus Transportation Employee Testing Act of 1991 required the United States Department of Transportation (DOT) to enact regulations requiring the testing of employees that perform ``safety sensitive functions`` for illegal controlled substance use and alcohol misuse. The Transportation Management Division, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (TMD/EM-261), United States Department of Energy (DOE), Training Program Manager is committed to promoting the availability of the necessary information to those affected members of the Department of Energy (DOE) community in an effort to attain the highest possible level of regulatory compliance and to enhance the safety of each individual in the workplace.

  2. Gabapentin Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Barbara J.; Quello, Susan; Goodell, Vivian; Shadan, Farhad; Kyle, Mark; Begovic, Adnan

    2013-01-01

    Importance Approved medications for alcohol dependence are prescribed for fewer than 9% of US alcoholics. Objective To determine if gabapentin, a widely-prescribed generic calcium channel/GABA modulating medication, increases rates of sustained abstinence and no heavy drinking, and decreases alcohol-related insomnia, dysphoria and craving, in a dose-dependent manner. Design, Participants and Setting A 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized dose-ranging trial of 150 men and women over 18 years of age with current alcohol dependence, conducted 2004–2010 at a single-site outpatient clinical research facility adjoining a general medical hospital. Interventions Oral gabapentin (0, 900, 1800 mg/d) and concomitant manual-guided counseling. Main Outcome Measures Rates of complete abstinence and no heavy drinking (co-primary) and changes in mood, sleep and craving (secondary) over the 12-week study. Results Gabapentin significantly improved the rates of abstinence and no heavy drinking. The abstinence rate was 4.1% (95% CI, 1.1 to 13.7) in the placebo group, 11.1% (95% CI, 5.2 to 22.2) in the 900 mg group, and 17.0% (95% CI, 8.9 to 30.1) in the 1800 mg group (p = 0.04 for linear dose effect, NNT = 8 for 1800 mg). The no heavy drinking rate was 22.5% (95% CI, 13.6 to 37.2) in the placebo group, 29.6% (95% CI, 19.1 to 42.8) in the 900 mg group, and 44.7% (95% CI, 31.4 to 58.8) in the 1800 mg group (p = 0.02 for linear dose effect, NNT = 5 for 1800 mg). Similar linear dose effects were obtained with measures of mood (F=7.37, df=2, p=0.001), sleep (F=136, df=2, p<0.001), and craving (F=3.56, df=2, p=0.029). There were no serious drug-related adverse events, and terminations from adverse-events (9 of 150 participants), time on study (9.1 [3.8] weeks) and rate of study completion (85 of 150 participants) did not differ between groups. Conclusions and Relevance Gabapentin (particularly the 1800 mg dosage) was effective in treating alcohol dependence and relapse

  3. Illegal alcohol sales and use of alcohol control policies at community festivals.

    PubMed Central

    Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin J.; Patrek, William; Fletcher, Linda A.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary goals of this study were to assess the propensity for alcohol sales to underage customers and obviously intoxicated customers at community festivals, and to assess the prevalence of alcohol control policies at these events. A secondary goal was to identify server and festival characteristics and festival policies related to the likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. METHODS: We conducted pseudo-underage purchase attempts at 43 festivals and pseudo-intoxicated purchase attempts at 50 festivals to assess the likelihood of illegal sales. Research staff made observations at festivals and contacted festival planners by telephone following each event to assess which alcohol policies were implemented. We conducted backwards stepwise multivariate analyses for each purchase attempt outcome to identify policies and characteristics related to likelihood of illegal alcohol sales. RESULTS: Pseudo-intoxicated buyers purchased beer in 89% of 95 attempts (standard deviation [SD]=0.31) and pseudo-underage buyers were able to purchase beer in 50% of 82 attempts (SD=0.50). All festival planners reported having at least two of the 10 alcohol policies we assessed, but no festival had implemented all 10 policies. Server characteristics were not related to either purchase attempt outcome. In the multivariate analyses, having more alcohol control policies was related to a greater likelihood of illegal sales to intoxicated customers; however, having more alcohol control policies was associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. Restricting the number of servings per person was also associated with a lesser likelihood of alcohol sales to underage customers. CONCLUSIONS: Propensity for illegal alcohol sales at festivals is very high. Research is needed to identify interventions to prevent illegal alcohol sales at these events. PMID:15842118

  4. Sensor for measuring alcohol content of alcohol/gasoline fuel mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.J.; Swarin, S.J.; Sultan, M.F.; Lambert, D.K.; Jack, M.D.

    1993-08-31

    A sensing device is described for determining the alcohol content of an alcohol/gasoline mixture comprising: a light source emitting a light beam containing at least a first and a second wavelengths within the near-infrared spectrum, said light beam being transmitted through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture; means for switching the current through said light source between at least two fixed values, so as to correspondingly switch the light intensity at said first and second wavelengths which is emitted by said light source; first and second detectors which are disposed so as to receive said emitted light beam after its transmission through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture, said first detector determines a first amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first wavelength for each of said fixed values of current, and said second detector determines a second amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said second wavelength for each of said fixed values of current; means for separately measuring the output voltage from said first and second detectors for each of said power settings; and computational means for determining, from said output voltages, the ratio of said first and second absorbances by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first and said second wavelengths for each of said fixed values of current such that said ratio of absorbances provide an output indicative of the alcohol content within the alcohol/gasoline mixture.

  5. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  6. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  7. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  8. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  9. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. 386.11 Section 386.11 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MISCELLANEOUS REGULATIONS GOVERNING PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS AT THE UNITED STATES MERCHANT MARINE ACADEMY § 386.11 Alcoholic beverages and controlled...

  10. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  11. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  12. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  13. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  14. 32 CFR 1903.12 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance. 1903.12 Section 1903.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY CONDUCT ON AGENCY INSTALLATIONS § 1903.12 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substance....

  15. 36 CFR 702.6 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... controlled substances. 702.6 Section 702.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CONDUCT ON LIBRARY PREMISES § 702.6 Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances. (a) The use of alcoholic beverages... been given and except for concessionaires to whom Library management has granted permission to...

  16. Heart rate variability during sleep in detoxified alcohol-dependent males: A comparison with healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Ganesha, Suhas; Thirthalli, Jagadisha; Muralidharan, Kesavan; Benegal, Vivek; Gangadhar, Bangalore N.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Alcohol dependence can lead to autonomic neuropathy resulting in increased cardiac morbidity and mortality. This has previously been evaluated using heart-rate variability. Aims: We compared sleep heart-rate variability of alcohol-dependent patients with that of healthy controls in this study. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at NIMHANS, Bangalore. A case control study design was adopted. Materials and Methods: Sleep heart-rate variability of 20 male alcohol-dependent inpatients was recorded on the 5th day after detoxification. Sleep heart-rate variability was also recorded in 18 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Statistical Analysis: The groups were compared using t-test for continuous variables and Chi-squared test for discrete variables. Results: Both time and frequency domain measures were significantly lower in the patients as compared to the controls, indicating decreased HRV in alcohol-dependent individuals. Conclusions: Decreased HRV in alcohol dependence indicates potential autonomic neuropathy. PMID:23825854

  17. Alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control is linked to attenuated brain responses in right fronto-temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Gabriela; Guevara, Alvaro; Marxen, Michael; Neumann, Maike; Jünger, Elisabeth; Kobiella, Andrea; Mennigen, Eva; Pilhatsch, Maximilian; Schwarz, Daniel; Zimmermann, Ulrich S.; Smolka, Michael N.

    2014-01-01

    Background A self-enhancing loop between impaired inhibitory control under alcohol and alcohol consumption has been proposed as a possible mechanism underlying dysfunctional drinking in susceptible people. However, the neural underpinnings of alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control are widely unknown. Methods We measured inhibitory control in fifty young adults with a stop-signal task (SST) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a single-blind placebo-controlled cross-over design, all participants performed the SST once under alcohol with a breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 0.6 g/kg, and once under placebo. In addition, alcohol consumption was assessed using a free-access alcohol self-administration (ASA) paradigm in the same participants. Results Inhibitory control was robustly decreased under alcohol compared to placebo indicated by longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRTs). On the neural level, impaired inhibitory control under alcohol was associated with attenuated brain responses in the right fronto-temporal portion of the inhibition network that supports the attentional capture of infrequent stop-signals, and subsequent updating of action plans from response execution to inhibition. Furthermore, the extent of alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control predicted free-access alcohol consumption. Conclusion We suggest that during inhibitory control alcohol affects cognitive processes preceding actual motor inhibition. Under alcohol, decreased brain responses in right fronto-temporal areas might slow down the attentional capture of infrequent stop-signals and subsequent updating of action plans which leads to impaired inhibitory control. In turn, pronounced alcohol-induced impairment of inhibitory control may enhance alcohol consumption in young adults which might promote future alcohol problems. PMID:24560581

  18. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Woud, Marcella L; Field, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic alcohol action tendencies are related to alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. These action tendencies are measured with reaction time tasks in which the latency to make an approach response to alcohol pictures is compared with the latency to make an avoidance response. In the literature, 4 different tasks have been used, and these tasks differ on whether alcohol is a relevant (R) or irrelevant (IR) feature for categorization and on whether participants must make a symbolic approach response (stimulus-response compatibility [SRC] tasks) or an overt behavioral response (approach avoidance tasks [AAT]) to the pictures. Previous studies have shown positive correlations between measures of action tendencies and hazardous drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. However, results have been inconsistent and the different measures have not been directly compared with each other. Therefore, it is unclear which task is the best predictor of hazardous drinking and alcohol consumption. In the present study, 80 participants completed all 4 measures of action tendencies (i.e., R-SRC, IR-SRC, R-AAT, and IR-AAT) and measures of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Stepwise regressions showed that the R-SRC and R-AAT were the only significant predictors of hazardous drinking, whereas the R-AAT was the only reliable predictor of alcohol consumption. Our results confirm that drinking behavior is positively correlated with automatic alcohol approach tendencies, but only if alcohol-relatedness is the relevant feature for categorization. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134039

  19. Addressing the Proximal Causes of Obesity: The Relevance of Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovich, Lila

    2012-01-01

    Many policy measures to control the obesity epidemic assume that people consciously and rationally choose what and how much they eat and therefore focus on providing information and more access to healthier foods. In contrast, many regulations that do not assume people make rational choices have been successfully applied to control alcohol, a substance — like food — of which immoderate consumption leads to serious health problems. Alcohol-use control policies restrict where, when, and by whom alcohol can be purchased and used. Access, salience, and impulsive drinking behaviors are addressed with regulations including alcohol outlet density limits, constraints on retail displays of alcoholic beverages, and restrictions on drink “specials.” We discuss 5 regulations that are effective in reducing drinking and why they may be promising if applied to the obesity epidemic. PMID:22554409

  20. The Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Subjective Response to Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Three decades of research demonstrate that individual differences in subjective response (SR) to acute alcohol effects predict heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, the SR patterns conferring the greatest risk remain under debate. Morean and Corbin (2010) highlighted that extant SR measures commonly have limitations within the following areas: assessment of a comprehensive range of effects, assessment of effects over the complete course of a drinking episode, and/or psychometric validation. Furthermore, the consistent pairing of certain SR measures and theoretical models has made integration of findings difficult. To address these issues, we developed the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale (SEAS), a novel, psychometrically sound SR measure for use in alcohol administration studies. Pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive range of effects that varied in terms of valence and arousal and were perceived as plausible effects of drinking. For validation purposes, the SEAS was included in a two-site placebo-controlled alcohol administration study (N=215). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified a 14-item, 4-factor model categorizing effects into affective quadrants (high/low arousal positive; high/low arousal negative). SEAS scores evidenced the following: (1) scalar measurement invariance by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC) and beverage condition (2) good internal consistency, (3) convergence/divergence with extant SR measures, alcohol expectancies, and alcohol use, and (4) concurrent/incremental utility in accounting for alcohol-related outcomes, highlighting the novel high arousal negative and low arousal positive subscales. PMID:23647036

  1. Multidimensional Scaling for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rather, Bruce; And Others

    Although expectancies for alcohol have been shown to influence drinking behavior, current expectancy questionnaires do not lend themselves to the study of how expectancies are represented in memory. Two studies were conducted which utilized multidimensional scaling techniques designed to produce hypothesized representations of cognitive…

  2. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  3. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  4. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  5. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  6. 32 CFR 234.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS CONDUCT ON THE PENTAGON RESERVATION § 234.11 Alcoholic beverages and... an open container of an alcoholic beverage within the Pentagon Reservation is prohibited unless... be provided to the Pentagon Force Protection Agency. (b) Controlled substances. The following...

  7. Brain Regions Affected by Impaired Control Modulate Responses to Alcohol and Smoking Cues

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyu; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Hutchison, Kent E

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Despite the commonly observed comorbidity of alcohol and tobacco use disorders and years of research, the mechanism underlying concurrent use of alcohol and tobacco is not yet clear. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the relationship between brain responses to alcohol and smoking cues in 45 subjects with episodic drinking and regular smoking. Method: fMRI data were collected from two studies performing an alcohol-craving task and a smoking-craving task. First, we identified brain voxels significantly activated for both substance cues and then associated the activation of these voxels with various alcohol- and nicotine-dependence measures. Significant clusters (cluster-wise p < .05) correlated with behavioral assessments were extracted, and clusters identified from both cues were compared. Results: The association tests with various dependence scores showed that the loss of behavioral control subcategory in the Alcohol Dependence Scale was significantly correlated with brain activation of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and right posterior insula regardless of cue types. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCC and right posterior insula, each playing a role in the salience network, are affected significantly by impaired control for alcohol and in turn influence brain responses to not only alcohol but also smoking cues, providing insight to neuronal mechanisms for concurrent use or comorbidity of alcohol and nicotine dependence. PMID:25208199

  8. Topiramate Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in Veterans with PTSD: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Batki, Steven L.; Pennington, David L.; Lasher, Brooke; Neylan, Thomas C.; Metzler, Thomas; Waldrop, Angela; Delucchi, Kevin; Herbst, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Background The course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is frequently and severely complicated by co-occurring alcohol use disorder (AUD), yet there are few reports of pharmacologic treatments for these co-morbid conditions. The objective of this pilot study was to obtain a preliminary assessment of the efficacy and safety of topiramate in reducing alcohol use and PTSD symptoms in veterans with both disorders. Methods This was a prospective 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial of flexible-dose topiramate up to 300mg/day in 30 veterans with PTSD and AUD. The primary outcome measure was frequency of drinking. Secondary outcomes consisted of other measures of alcohol use and PTSD symptom severity. Results Within-group analyses showed that topiramate treatment was associated with significant reductions in frequency and amount of alcohol use and alcohol craving from baseline through week 12. Between-group analyses showed that topiramate reduced frequency of alcohol use and alcohol craving significantly more than placebo and tended to reduce drinking amount. Topiramate treatment was also associated with decreased PTSD symptom severity and tended to reduce hyperarousal symptoms compared to placebo. Topiramate transiently impaired learning and memory, with significant recovery by the end of treatment. Conclusions These preliminary results indicate that in veterans with co-occurring PTSD and AUD, topiramate may be effective in reducing alcohol consumption, alcohol craving, and PTSD symptom severity – particularly hyperarousal symptoms.. Topiramate was associated with transient cognitive impairment but was otherwise well tolerated. PMID:25092377

  9. The implementation and development of complex alcohol control policies in indigenous communities in Queensland (Australia).

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan R; Bird, Katrina

    2015-04-01

    Very high rates of injury and death during the 1990s were linked with increased alcohol availability and misuse in discrete Indigenous communities in rural and remote Queensland (Australia). To address widespread concerns about a public health crisis, from 2002, the Queensland Government implemented alcohol control strategies known as 'Alcohol Management Plans' (AMPs) in 19 of these communities. Although resources for prevention and treatment were promised, AMPs became increasingly focused on local prohibition, restricted access to alcohol and punitive measures for breaching restrictions. An examination of legislation, regulations, explanatory notes, and published documents indicates this focus evolved across four phases since 2002. The first phase, from 2002 to 2004, saw 'restricted areas' with alcohol 'carriage limits' introduced, restricting the amounts and types of liquor permitted within some communities. The second phase (2002-2007) featured evaluations and reviews by the Queensland Government bringing recommendations for more stringent controls. Additionally, beyond the 'restricted areas', licenced premises situated within the 'catchments' of the targeted communities, mainly located in the nearby regional towns, became subject to 'minimising harm' provisions. These more stringent controls were implemented widely in the third phase (2008-2011) when: the operations of seven community-managed liquor outlets were terminated; the trading arrangements of two others were modified; Police powers to search and seize were increased; and 'attempting' to take liquor into a 'restricted area' also became an offence. Some communities have seen a reduction in alcohol-related harms that have been attributed to these alcohol control strategies. This commentary maps the recent regulatory history of Queensland's alcohol controls targeting discrete Indigenous communities highlighting their increasing focus on punitive measures to reduce access to alcohol. With AMPs in Queensland

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  11. Alcohol control in the news: the politics of media representations of alcohol policy in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lawhon, Mary; Herrick, Clare

    2013-10-01

    Media coverage of the "problems" associated with alcohol is widespread in countries of the global North and now, increasingly, in those of the global South. However, despite this mounting ubiquity, there have been very few analyses either of newspaper coverage of alcohol or of media coverage of alcohol policy, especially outside Europe and North America. This article argues that given international concern with the long-term health, economic, social, and developmental consequences of risky drinking in the global South, an exploration of newspaper coverage of nascent alcohol policy in such a context is both timely and valuable. Indeed, such analyses bring to the fore the deeply contextual and contingent nature of alcohol's problematization in politics, policy, and public life. To examine these assertions, we explore the "attention allocation" processes of two South African alcohol control policies--the Western Cape Liquor Bill and the city of Cape Town's liquor bylaws--in two regional English-language newspapers between 2007 and 2011. In so doing, the article highlights the particularities of the political valence of alcohol in the South African context. Furthermore, it also draws out the tensions between alcohol as a source of livelihoods in a context of endemic unemployment and chronic poverty and alcohol as a causal factor in poverty, crime, violence, and social disintegration. In contrast to media coverage of alcohol policy in Europe and North America, this analysis of the South African press suggests that liquor consumption is far less likely to be framed as an express health risk, forcing us to question how preventative policy efforts should best proceed. PMID:23794743

  12. Cognitive control in alcohol use disorder: deficits and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Dekonenko, Charlene J.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P.; Turner, Jessica A.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control refers to the internal representation, maintenance, and updating of context information in the service of exerting control over thoughts and behavior. Deficits in cognitive control likely contribute to difficulty in maintaining abstinence in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). In this article, we define three cognitive control processes in detail (response inhibition, distractor interference control, and working memory), review the tasks measuring performance in these areas, and summarize the brain networks involved in carrying out these processes. Next, we review evidence of deficits in these processes in AUD, including both metrics of task performance and functional neuroimaging. Finally, we explore the clinical relevance of these deficits by identifying predictors of clinical outcome and markers that appear to change (improve) with treatment. We observe that individuals with AUD experience deficits in some, but not all, metrics of cognitive control. Deficits in cognitive control may predict clinical outcome in AUD, but more work is necessary to replicate findings. It is likely that performance on tasks requiring cognitive control improves with abstinence, and with some psychosocial and medication treatments. Future work should clarify which aspects of cognitive control are most important to target during treatment of AUD. PMID:24361772

  13. Formation and control of aldehydes in alcohol fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyasamy, R.; Nagalingam, B.; Ganesan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.; Murthy, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Aldehyde formation and emissions from alcohol fueled engines are presented in this paper. Several chemical kinetic models on the mechanism leading to aldehyde formation have been examined to explore the appropriate control methods to reduce exhaust aldehyde emissions. Control of aldehydes in exhaust emissions by suitable alteration of engine operating parameters, by in cylinder treatment with additives like aniline and water, by external treatment like airpreheating, secondary air injection cooling water rate and exhaust treatment are examined. The concept of surface ignition for alcohol fuels is briefly presented as a long range objective for using alcohols with minimal aldehyde emissions. 27 refs.

  14. Measurement of low breath-alcohol concentrations: laboratory studies and field experience.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1999-10-01

    Recent federal rules and traffic law changes impose breath-alcohol thresholds of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L upon some classes of motor vehicle operators, such as juveniles and commercial vehicle operators. In federally regulated alcohol testing in the workplace, removal of covered workers from safety-sensitive duties, and other adverse actions, also occur at breath-alcohol concentrations (BrACs) of 0.02 and 0.04 g/210 L. We therefore studied performance of vapor-alcohol and breath-alcohol measurement at low alcohol concentrations in the laboratory and in the field, with current-generation evidential analyzers. We report here chiefly our field experience with evidential breath-alcohol testing of drinking drivers on paired breath samples using 62 Intoxilyzer 5000-D analyzers, for BrACs of 0-0.059 g/210 L. The data from 62 law enforcement breath-alcohol testing sites were collected and pooled, with BrACs recorded to three decimal places, and otherwise carried out under the standard Oklahoma evidential breath-alcohol testing protocol. For 2105 pooled simulator control tests at 0.06-0.13 g/210 L the mean +/- SD of the differences between target and result were -0.001 +/- 0.0035 g/210 L and 0.003 +/- 0.0023 g/210 L for signed and absolute differences, respectively (spans -0.016-0.010, 0.000-0.016). For 2078 paired duplicate breath-alcohol measurements with the Intoxilyzer 5000-D, the mean +/- SD difference (BrAC1-BrAC2) were 0.002 +/- 0.0026 (span 0-0.020 g/210 L). Variability of breath-alcohol measurements was related inversely to the alcohol concentration. Ninety-nine percent prediction limits for paired BrAC measurements correspond to a 0.020 g/210 L maximum absolute difference, meeting the NSC/CAOD recommendation that paired breath-alcohol analysis results within 0.02 g/210 L shall be deemed to be in acceptable agreement. We conclude that the field system for breath-alcohol analysis studied by us can and does perform reliably and accurately at low BrACs. PMID:10517542

  15. Estimating the alcohol-breast cancer association: a comparison of diet diaries, FFQs and combined measurements.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Ruth H; Park, Jin Young; White, Ian R; Lentjes, Marleen A H; McTaggart, Alison; Bhaniani, Amit; Cairns, Benjamin J; Key, Timothy J; Greenwood, Darren C; Burley, Victoria J; Cade, Janet E; Dahm, Christina C; Pot, Gerda K; Stephen, Alison M; Masset, Gabriel; Brunner, Eric J; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2012-07-01

    The alcohol-breast cancer association has been established using alcohol intake measurements from Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ). For some nutrients diet diary measurements are more highly correlated with true intake compared with FFQ measurements, but it is unknown whether this is true for alcohol. A case-control study (656 breast cancer cases, 1905 matched controls) was sampled from four cohorts in the UK Dietary Cohort Consortium. Alcohol intake was measured prospectively using FFQs and 4- or 7-day diet diaries. Both relied on fixed portion sizes allocated to given beverage types, but those used to obtain FFQ measurements were lower. FFQ measurements were therefore on average lower and to enable fair comparison the FFQ was "calibrated" using diet diary portion sizes. Diet diaries gave more zero measurements, demonstrating the challenge of distinguishing never-from episodic-consumers using short term instruments. To use all information, two combined measurements were calculated. The first is an average of the two measurements with special treatment of zeros. The second is the expected true intake given both measurements, calculated using a measurement error model. After confounder adjustment the odds ratio (OR) per 10 g/day of alcohol intake was 1.05 (95 % CI 0.98, 1.13) using diet diaries, and 1.13 (1.02, 1.24) using FFQs. The calibrated FFQ measurement and combined measurements 1 and 2 gave ORs 1.10 (1.03, 1.18), 1.09 (1.01, 1.18), 1.09 (0.99,1.20), respectively. The association was modified by HRT use, being stronger among users versus non-users. In summary, using an alcohol measurement from a diet diary at one time point gave attenuated associations compared with FFQ. PMID:22644108

  16. Self-Control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    PubMed Central

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18–30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie. PMID:25691873

  17. Alcohol and liver disease in Europe--Simple measures have the potential to prevent tens of thousands of premature deaths.

    PubMed

    Sheron, Nick

    2016-04-01

    In the World Health Organisation European Region, more than 2,370,000 years of life are lost from liver disease before the age of 50; more than lung cancer, trachea, bronchus, oesophageal, stomach, colon, rectum and pancreatic cancer combined. Between 60-80% of these deaths are alcohol related, a disease for which no pharmaceutical therapy has yet been shown to improve long-term survival. The toxicity of alcohol is dose related at an individual level, and is dose related at a population level; overall liver mortality is largely determined by population alcohol consumption. Trends in alcohol consumption correlate closely with trends in overall liver mortality, with 3-5-fold decreases or increases in liver mortality in different European countries over the last few decades. The evidence base for alcohol control measures aimed at reducing population alcohol consumption has been subjected to rigorous evaluation; most recently by the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD). Effective alcohol policy measures reduce alcohol mortality, including mortality from liver disease. The most effective and cost effective measures have been summarised by the OECD and the World Health Organisation: regular incremental above inflation tax increases, a minimum price for alcohol, effective protection of children from alcohol marketing and low level interventions from clinicians. Simple, cheap and effective changes to alcohol policy by European Institutions and member states have the potential to dramatically reduce liver mortality in Europe. PMID:26592352

  18. Assessment of cognitive function in alcoholics by computer: a control study.

    PubMed

    Acker, C; Acker, W; Shaw, G K

    1984-01-01

    Results are presented of the performance by 103 alcoholics and 90 controls on six computer-administered tests of cognitive function. The main analysis compared performance of the two groups when pre-existing differences in intellectual capacity, as estimated by NART, were accounted for statistically. The performance of the alcoholics was worse, at a statistically significant level, on 18 of 23 measures. Procedurally, the tests were found to offer practical advantages over conventional procedures. PMID:6508877

  19. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. Functional Imaging of Cognitive Control During Acute Alcohol Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Beth M; Stevens, Michael C; Meda, Shashwath; Jordan, Kathryn; Calhoun, Vince D; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2010-01-01

    The anterior cingulate and a collection of other prefrontal and parietal brain regions are implicated in error processing and cognitive control. The effects of different doses of alcohol on activity within these brain regions during an fMRI task where errors are frequently committed have not been fully explored. This study examined the impact of a placebo [Breath Alcohol Concentration (BrAC) = 0.00%], moderate (BrAC = 0.05%) and high (BrAC = 0.10%) doses of alcohol on brain hemodynamic activity during a functional MRI (fMRI) Go/No-Go task in thirty-eight healthy volunteers. Alcohol increased reaction time and false alarm errors in a dose-dependent manner. FMRI analyses showed alcohol decreased activity in anterior cingulate, lateral prefrontal cortex, insula and parietal lobe regions during false alarm responses to No-Go stimuli. These findings indicate that brain regions implicated in error processing are affected by alcohol and might provide a neural basis for alcohol's effects on behavioral performance. PMID:20958334

  3. Sertraline and cognitive behavioral therapy for depressed alcoholics: results of a placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moak, Darlene H; Anton, Raymond F; Latham, Patricia K; Voronin, Konstantin E; Waid, Randolph L; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon

    2003-12-01

    Alcoholism and depression are common disorders that frequently co-occur in the same individual. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective in the treatment of depression and also had decreased drinking in some studies of heavy drinkers and alcoholics. The reported effect of serotonergic medications on alcohol intake in depressed alcoholics has not been consistent. Most previous studies have not investigated the use of an SSRI in the context of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), a known efficacious treatment of both alcoholism and depression. The study presented here was a randomized placebo-controlled 12-week trial of sertraline combined with individual CBT focused on both alcoholism relapse prevention and depressive symptoms. Subjects were 82 currently depressed, actively drinking alcohol-dependent individuals. Subjects had either primary (independent) major depression (70 subjects) or substance-induced mood disorder and at least 1 first-degree relative (parent, sibling, or child) with an affective disorder (12 subjects). Depression and alcohol consumption outcomes were measured weekly over 12 weeks. Sertraline was well tolerated and all subjects had decreases in both depression and alcohol use during the study compared with baseline. Subjects who received sertraline had fewer drinks per drinking day than subjects who received placebo, but other drinking outcomes were not different between the 2 treatment groups. Treatment with sertraline was associated with less depression at the end of treatment in female subjects compared with female subjects who received placebo. Less drinking during the study was associated with improved depression outcome. The findings in this study suggest that sertraline, compared with placebo, may provide some modest benefit in terms of drinking outcome and also may lead to improved depression in female alcohol-dependent subjects. Additionally, alcohol relapse prevention CBT, delivered according to manual guidelines

  4. Development and Validation of the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure * (AAIM)

    PubMed Central

    Zemore, Sarah E.; Kaskutas, Lee Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background Drop-out from 12-step groups is notoriously high, yet the field lacks strong models and scales for addressing this problem. We aim to determine whether the theory of planned behavior (TPB) can be applied to 12-step involvement, and to develop and validate a scale of 12-step readiness based on that theory: the Alcoholics Anonymous Intention Measure (AAIM). Method Data were from a longitudinal trial of a manual-guided 12-step facilitation intervention called Making AA Easier (MAAEZ) involving 2 treatment programs in California (N=508). Participants completed surveys at baseline, 7 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Surveys included the preliminary AAIM, a 12-step involvement measure, other readiness measures, and substance use outcomes. Results The final, 17-item AAIM measured attitudes (5-item α's=.75-.83), subjective norms (4-item α's=.56-.81), perceived control (5 item α's=.78-.85), and intentions (3-item α's=.80-.95) regarding attendance at 12-step groups. Components were correlated with each other and other readiness measures as expected, supporting the AAIM's validity. Scale components predicted 31% of the variance in Intention to attend 12-step groups at 6 months and 41% of the variance in 12-step involvement at 12 months. Social factors were among the strongest predictors of 12-step involvement. Results did not support the expectancy-value formulation of the TPB, as unweighted (vs. weighted) belief items performed optimally. Conclusions Results generally support the TPB as a model of 12-step involvement and suggest specific targets for 12-step facilitation interventions within attitude, norm, and control components. Findings also support the AAIM as a tool for identifying drop-out risks and tailoring individual interventions. PMID:19581057

  5. Alcohol Measurement Methodology in Epidemiology: Recent Advances and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Greenfield, Thomas K.; Kerr, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Aim To review and discuss measurement issues in survey assessment of alcohol consumption for epidemiological studies. Methods The following areas are considered: implications of cognitive studies of question answering like self-referenced schemata of drinking, reference period and retrospective recall, as well as the assets and liabilities of types of current (e.g., food frequency, quantity frequency, graduated frequencies, and heavy drinking indicators) and lifetime drinking measures. Finally we consider units of measurement and improving measurement by detailing the ethanol content of drinks in natural settings. Results and conclusions Cognitive studies suggest inherent limitations in the measurement enterprise, yet diary studies show promise of broadly validating methods that assess a range of drinking amounts per occasion; improvements in survey measures of drinking in the life course are indicated; attending in detail to on and off-premise drink pour sizes and ethanol concentrations of various beverages shows promise of narrowing the coverage gap plaguing survey alcohol measurement. PMID:18422826

  6. Alcohol beverage control, privatization and the geographic distribution of alcohol outlets

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With Pennsylvania currently considering a move away from an Alcohol Beverage Control state to a privatized alcohol distribution system, this study uses a spatial analytical approach to examine potential impacts of privatization on the number and spatial distribution of alcohol outlets in the city of Philadelphia over a long time horizon. Methods A suite of geospatial data were acquired for Philadelphia, including 1,964 alcohol outlet locations, 569,928 land parcels, and school, church, hospital, park and playground locations. These data were used as inputs for exploratory spatial analysis to estimate the expected number of outlets that would eventually operate in Philadelphia. Constraints included proximity restrictions (based on current ordinances regulating outlet distribution) of at least 200 feet between alcohol outlets and at least 300 feet between outlets and schools, churches, hospitals, parks and playgrounds. Results Findings suggest that current state policies on alcohol outlet distributions in Philadelphia are loosely enforced, with many areas exhibiting extremely high spatial densities of outlets that violate existing proximity restrictions. The spatial model indicates that an additional 1,115 outlets could open in Philadelphia if privatization was to occur and current proximity ordinances were maintained. Conclusions The study reveals that spatial analytical approaches can function as an excellent tool for contingency-based “what-if” analysis, providing an objective snapshot of potential policy outcomes prior to implementation. In this case, the likely outcome is a tremendous increase in alcohol outlets in Philadelphia, with concomitant negative health, crime and quality of life outcomes that accompany such an increase. PMID:23170899

  7. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  8. A decrement in probabilistic category learning in cocaine users after controlling for marijuana and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Vadhan, Nehal P; Myers, Catherine E; Benedict, Elysia; Rubin, Eric; Foltin, Richard W; Gluck, Mark A

    2014-02-01

    Aspects of stimulus-response (S-R) learning, mediated by striatal dopamine signaling, have been found to be altered in cocaine users relative to healthy controls. However, the influence of cocaine users' marijuana and alcohol use has not been accounted for. This study evaluated S-R learning and other neurocognitive functions in cocaine users while controlling for the relative influences of marijuana and alcohol use. Twenty-five long-term cocaine users and 2 control groups (25 moderate marijuana and alcohol users and 23 healthy controls) completed a computerized assessment of probabilistic category learning (the Weather Prediction task), as well as measures of equivalence learning, declarative learning, and executive, attentional, and motor function. Cocaine users exhibited decreased performance on the Weather Prediction task, as well as measures of declarative learning, attention, and motor function (p < 0.05), relative to both control groups. Cocaine users exhibited decrements in probabilistic category learning, declarative recall, and attentional and motor function, compared with both marijuana and alcohol users and nondrug users. Therefore, these decrements appear to be specifically related to the cocaine use, but not the moderate marijuana and alcohol use, of long-term cocaine users. PMID:24188172

  9. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities

    PubMed Central

    Fairlie, Anne M.; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in two college communities, the present study: 1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol over-service in on-premise outlets; 2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems; and 3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. Methods We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents ages 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Results Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. Conclusions It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and

  10. Alcohol Control in Cuba: Preventing Countervailing Cultural and Mass Media Influences.

    PubMed

    González-Menéndez, Ricardo Á

    2016-07-01

    Harmful use of alcohol-the prime gateway drug to other addictions-is also a problem in Cuba, even though the National Program for Prevention of Harmful Use of Alcohol includes the most effective measures used in analogous programs around the world. As a participant in the program's committee and empirical observer of its accomplishments and unaccomplished goals, I draw attention to the community's attitude of tolerance toward intoxication manifested by the lack of proportional consequences, and I insist on the need to broaden the community's understanding of the risks of non-social drinking, which in Latin America is practically limited to alcoholism and its complications. This undervalues the damage wreaked by unpredictable and dangerous behavior under the influence, as well as the suffering of codependents and other "passive drinkers," and the adverse effects of even social drinking. KEYWORDS Alcohol abuse/prevention and control, alcohol consumption, alcohol drinking/culture, alcoholism, drinking behavior, behavior and behavior mechanisms, social determinants of health, social reinforcement, mass media, communication, Cuba. PMID:27510935

  11. Impaired Control over Alcohol Use: An Under-Addressed Risk Factor for Problem Drinking in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Patock-Peckham, Julie A.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired control over alcohol use may be defined as “a breakdown of an intention to limit consumption in a particular situation” (Heather, Tebbutt, Mattick, & Zamir, 1993, p. 701) and has long been considered an important feature of alcohol dependence. Evidence suggests impaired control is highly relevant to young adult problem drinking. In the natural history of problem drinking, impaired control tends to develop early and may predict alcohol-related problems prospectively in undergraduates. Impaired control over alcohol use may be a facet of generalized behavioral under-control specifically related to drinking. In particular, impaired control is theoretically and empirically related to impulsivity. The question of whether impaired control represents a facet of impulsivity or a related but separate construct requires further study. However, theoretical arguments and empirical evidence suggest that there are unique qualities to the constructs. Specifically, existing data suggest that self-report measures of impaired control and impulsivity over alcohol use relate distinctly to problem drinking indices in young adults. Several lines of future research concerning impaired control are suggested, using the impulsivity literature as a guide. We conclude that impaired control is a valuable construct to the study of young adult problem drinking and that measures of impaired control should be included in more young adult alcohol studies. The extent to which impaired control over the use of other substances and impaired control over engagement in other addictive behaviors are clinically relevant constructs requires additional study. PMID:22182417

  12. Acute Effects of Alcohol on Inhibitory Control and Simulated Driving in DUI Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The public health costs associated with alcohol-related traffic accidents have prompted considerable research aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who drive under the influence (DUI) in order to improve treatment and prevention strategies. Survey studies consistently show that DUI offenders self-report higher levels of impulsivity compared to their nonoffending counterparts. However, little is known about how individuals with a DUI history respond under alcohol. Inhibitory control is a behavioral component of impulsivity thought to underlie risky drinking and driving behaviors. Method The present study examined the degree to which DUI drivers display deficits of inhibitory control in response to alcohol and the degree to which alcohol impaired their simulated driving performance. It was hypothesized that DUI offenders would display an increased sensitivity to the acute impairing effects of alcohol on simulated driving performance. Young adult drivers with a history of DUI and a demographically-comparable group of drivers with no history of DUI (controls) were tested following a 0.65 g/kg dose of alcohol and a placebo. Inhibitory control was measured using a cued go/no-go task. Drivers then completed a driving simulation task that yielded multiple indicators of driving performance, such as within-lane deviation, steering rate, centerline crossings and road edge excursions, and drive speed. Results Results showed that although DUI offenders self-reported greater levels of impulsivity than did controls, no group differences were observed in the degree to which alcohol impaired inhibitory control and driving performance. The findings point to the need to identify other aspects of behavioral dysfunction underlying the self-reported impulsivity among DUI offenders, and to better understand the specific driving situations that might pose greater risk to DUI offenders. PMID:24913486

  13. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  14. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  15. The dimensionality and measurement properties of alcohol outcome expectancies across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Mills, Britain; Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Bernstein, Ira H

    2012-03-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of alcohol expectancies among Hispanic subgroups. Face-to-face interviews were conducted as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS), which employed a multistage cluster sample design. A total of 5224 individuals (18+ years of age) representing four Hispanic national groups (Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans) were selected at random from the household population in five metropolitan areas (Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles). Alcohol expectancies included 18 items covering positive (e.g., laugh more, become more talkative) and negative dimensions (e.g., become aggressive, lose control) when alcohol is consumed. Confirmatory factor models replicated a previously proposed three-factor dimensional structure with a substantial majority of items exhibiting measurement invariance across Hispanic national group and gender. Items covering social extroversion were an exception, showing a lack of invariance for female Cuban and South/Central Americans. Latent mean differences across groups were detected for expectancies concerning emotional fluidity, and the pattern of differences largely mirrored known differences in alcohol consumption patterns. Results suggest that caution should be exercised in interpreting differences in expectancies concerning social extroversion across Hispanic groups, and additional work is needed to identify indices of this construct with invariant measurement properties. However, measures of emotional/behavioral impairment and emotional fluidity expectancies can be validly compared across gender and Hispanic national groups. PMID:22088855

  16. DRD4 dopamine receptor genotype and CSF monoamine metabolites in Finnish alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, M.D.; Dean, M.; Goldman, D.

    1995-06-19

    The DRD4 dopamine receptor is thus far unique among neurotransmitter receptors in having a highly polymorphic gene structure that has been reported to produce altered receptor functioning. These allelic variations are caused by a 48-bp segment in exon III of the coding region which may be repeated from 2-10 times. Varying the numbers of repeated segments changes the length, structure, and, possibly, the functional efficiency of the receptor, which makes this gene an intriguing candidate for variations in dopamine-related behaviors, such as alcoholism and drug abuse. Thus far, these DRD4 alleles have been investigated for association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Parkinson`s disease, and chronic alcoholism, and all have been largely negative for a direct association. We evaluated the DRD4 genotype in 226 Finish adult males, 113 of whom were alcoholics, many of the early onset type with features of impulsivity and antisocial traits. Genotype frequencies were compared to 113 Finnish controls who were free of alcohol abuse, substance abuse, and major mental illness. In 70 alcoholics and 20 controls, we measured CSF homovanillic acid (HVA), the major metabolite of dopamine, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA). No association was found between a particular DRD4 dopamine receptor allele and alcoholism. CSF concentrations of the monoamine metabolites showed no significant difference among the DRD4 genotypes. This study of the DRD4 dopamine receptor in alcoholics is the first to be conducted in a clinically and ethnically homogeneous population and to relate the DRD4 genotype to CSF monoamine concentrations. The results indicate that there is no association of the DRD4 receptor with alcoholism. 52 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    PubMed

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. PMID:24903627

  18. The effects of inhibitory control training on alcohol consumption, implicit alcohol-related cognitions and brain electrical activity.

    PubMed

    Bowley, Claire; Faricy, Cameron; Hegarty, Bronwyn; J Johnstone, Stuart; L Smith, Janette; J Kelly, Peter; A Rushby, Jacqueline

    2013-09-01

    This study aimed to replicate findings that alcohol consumption and positive implicit beer-related cognitions can be reduced using inhibitory control (IC) training, with the addition of an active training control. Frontal EEG asymmetry, an objective psychophysiological index of approach motivation, was used as a dependent measure to examine training outcomes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two IC training conditions (Beer NoGo or Beer Go) or a Brief Alcohol Intervention (BAI) (i.e. the active training control). The IC training tasks consistently paired a stimulus that required a response with images of water (Beer NoGo) or images of beer (Beer Go). Alcohol consumption and implicit beer-related cognitions were measured at pre-training, post-training and at one week follow-up. Frontal EEG asymmetry was recorded during a passive image viewing task that presented neutral, healthy, and beer stimuli - at pre-training, post-training and follow-up. Participants in the Beer NoGo and BAI conditions consumed less beer in a taste test immediately after training than Beer Go participants, suggesting that IC training may be as effective as the already established BAI. The taste test findings were in line with the frontal EEG asymmetry data, which indicated that approach motivation for beer stimuli was altered in the expected directions. However, the positive correlation between post-training frontal EEG asymmetry data and taste test consumption was not significant. While there were no significant changes in implicit beer-related cognitions following training, a trending positive relationship between implicit beer-related cognitions at post-training and taste test consumption was reported. Further exploration addressing the limitations of the current study is required in order to clarify the implications of these findings. PMID:23623953

  19. Using the SF-6D to measure the impact of alcohol dependence on health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Jacinto Mosquera; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol dependence not only reduces life expectancy, but also causes considerable loss of quality of life of the dependents of and persons around those with alcohol dependence. This article presents new evidence on the impact of alcohol dependence on health-related quality of life in Spain. Three samples were recruited: 150 alcoholics and 64 family members of alcoholics, with both samples taken from an alcoholism treatment unit, and 600 persons from the general population. We used the short form 6D, a preference-based generic instrument, applying the utility scores estimated for Spain. It was found that the annual mean loss of quality-adjusted life years associated with alcohol dependence was 0.144 and 0.083 for the alcoholics and their close family members, respectively. This impact becomes more notable after controlling for socio economic variables and was higher than that estimated in similar studies. Possible explanations for these differences are discussed. The results from this work can be applied to economic evaluation studies measuring benefits from policies targeted at reducing the prevalence of alcohol dependence. PMID:25193526

  20. Dopamine D2 receptors and transporters in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Bergström, Kim; Mantere, Tuija; Räsänen, Pirkko; Särkioja, Terttu; Tiihonen, Jari

    2003-10-01

    Increasing evidence implies the involvement of the dopamine (DA) system in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. We measured striatal DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics by using [(125)I]epidepride in human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography (WHA), which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We also evaluated the correlation between transporter and receptor DA binding site densities and putative correlation of [(125)I]epidepride binding between the dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens. In the type 1 alcoholics, the DA D(2) receptor density was 21.4-32.6% lower in all dorsal striatal structures (caudate, putamen, globus pallidus) when compared with the controls. Type 2 alcoholics had 19.6-21.4% lower binding in other dorsal striatal structures, except medial globus pallidus, where they were not significantly different from controls. The density of DA D(2) receptors and DAT had a significant positive correlation only in the putamen of type 1 alcoholics. The binding of [(125)I]epidepride showed also consistent and statistically significant positive correlation between nucleus accumbens and all dorsal striatal areas in type 1 alcoholics but not in the controls. In the type 2 alcoholics, the correlation was weaker than that observed in the type 1 alcoholics, and no correlation was observed between nucleus accumbens and globus pallidus. Our results show that these two subgroups of alcoholics have stark differences in their DA D(2) receptor binding characteristics. Type 2 alcoholics may have selective deficiency in the dorsal striatum, whereas in limbic structures they may not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, WHA provides a useful tool for detailed mapping of neuronal receptors in healthy as well as diseased brain, and can also be used in radioligand development for PET. PMID:14505335

  1. A Human Alcohol Self-Administration Paradigm to Model Individual Differences in Impaired Control over Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Corbin, William R.; Nogueira, Christine; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Potenza, Marc N.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    We developed an alcohol self-administration paradigm to model individual differences in impaired control. The paradigm includes moderate drinking guidelines meant to model limits on alcohol consumption, which are typically exceeded by people with impaired control. Possible payment reductions provided a disincentive for excessive drinking. Alcohol use above the guideline, despite possible pay reductions, was considered to be indicative of impaired control. Heavy-drinking 21–25 year-olds (N = 39) were randomized to an experimental condition including the elements of the impaired control paradigm or to a free-drinking condition without these elements. Alcohol self-administration was compared between these two conditions to establish the internal validity of the experimental paradigm. In both conditions, participants self-administered beer and non-alcoholic beverages for 3 hours in a bar setting with 1–3 other participants. Experimental condition participants self-administered significantly fewer beers and drank to lower blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) on average than those in the free-drinking condition. Experimental condition participants were more likely than free-drinking condition participants to intersperse non-alcoholic beverages with beer and to drink at a slower pace. Although experimental condition participants drank more moderately than those in the free-drinking condition overall, their range of drinking was considerable (BAC range = .024–.097) with several participants drinking excessively. A lower initial subjective response to alcohol and earlier age of alcohol use onset were associated with greater alcohol self-administration in the experimental condition. Given the variability in response, the impaired control laboratory paradigm may have utility for preliminary tests of novel interventions in future studies and for identifying individual differences in problem-drinking risk. PMID:23937598

  2. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a comprehensive accreditation intervention to reduce alcohol consumption at community sports clubs: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Rowland, Bosco C; Tindall, Jennifer; Gillham, Karen E; McElduff, Patrick; Rogerson, John C; Wiggers, John H

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for considerable harm from chronic disease and injury. Within most developed countries, members of sporting clubs consume alcohol at levels above that of communities generally. Despite the potential benefits of interventions to address alcohol consumption in sporting clubs, there have been no randomised controlled trials to test the effectiveness of these interventions. The aim of this study is to examine the effectiveness of a comprehensive accreditation intervention with community football clubs (Rugby League, Rugby Union, soccer/association football and Australian Rules football) in reducing excessive alcohol consumption by club members. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in New South Wales, Australia, and employ a cluster randomised controlled trial design. Half of the football clubs recruited to the trial will be randomised to receive an intervention implemented over two and a half winter sporting seasons. The intervention is based on social ecology theory and is comprehensive in nature, containing multiple elements designed to decrease the supply of alcohol to intoxicated members, cease the provision of cheap and free alcohol, increase the availability and cost-attractiveness of non-alcoholic and low-alcoholic beverages, remove high alcohol drinks and cease drinking games. The intervention utilises a three-tiered accreditation framework designed to motivate intervention implementation. Football clubs in the control group will receive printed materials on topics unrelated to alcohol. Outcome data will be collected pre- and postintervention through cross-sectional telephone surveys of club members. The primary outcome measure will be alcohol consumption by club members at the club, assessed using a graduated frequency index and a seven day diary. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by The University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee (reference: H-2008-0432). Study

  3. Measuring social reactions to female survivors of alcohol-involved sexual assault: The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Relyea, Mark; Ullman, Sarah E

    2015-07-01

    For women who disclose sexual assault, social reactions can affect post-assault adjustment. Approximately half of the sexual assaults of adult women involve alcohol use. Experimental studies indicate that people put more blame on women who were drinking before the assault, yet no studies have assessed how often actual survivors receive social reactions specific to their alcohol use. This study presents a new measure to assess alcohol-specific social reactions for survivors of sexual assault (The Social Reactions Questionnaire-Alcohol, SRQ-A). Factor analyses of a large community sample indicated that women often receive both positive and negative alcohol-specific reactions when disclosing assault. Discriminant validity confirmed that such reactions are distinct from other types of assault-related social reactions. Against predictions, alcohol-specific reactions were not associated with depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, binge drinking, or intoxication. However, in support of the hypotheses, alcohol-specific reactions were related to increased characterological self-blame and alcohol problems. Notably, such reactions had both positive and negative relationships with self-blame, indicating a potential avenue for intervention. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. PMID:25253018

  4. Reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use: the moderating role of executive control.

    PubMed

    Jonker, Nienke C; Ostafin, Brian D; Glashouwer, Klaske A; van Hemel-Ruiter, Madelon E; de Jong, Peter J

    2014-05-01

    Reward sensitivity and to a lesser extent punishment sensitivity have been found to explain individual differences in alcohol use. Furthermore, many studies showed that addictive behaviors are characterized by impaired self-regulatory processes, and that individual differences related to alcohol use are moderated by executive control. This is the first study that explores the potential moderating role of executive control in the relation between reward and punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Participants were 76 university students, selected on earlier given information about their alcohol use. Half of the participants indicated to drink little alcohol and half indicated to drink substantial amounts of alcohol. As expected, correlational analyses showed a positive relationship between reward sensitivity and alcohol use and a negative relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use. Regression analysis confirmed that reward sensitivity was a significant independent predictor of alcohol use. Executive control moderated the relation between punishment sensitivity and alcohol use, but not the relation between reward sensitivity and alcohol use. Only in individuals with weak executive control punishment sensitivity and alcohol use were negatively related. The results suggest that for individuals with weak executive control, punishment sensitivity might be a protective factor working against substantial alcohol use. PMID:24389069

  5. Optical Kerr-effect measurement for a series of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Neil J.; Jennings, Barry R.

    1993-06-01

    Nanosecond optical Kerr-effect (OKE) measurements are reported using a modified apparatus, designed to enable rapid and precise data recording in pure liquids. Careful design of the apparatus enables measurements to be made at several inducing wavelengths without substantial apparatus modifications. The first measurement of the optical Kerr effect for benzene at an inducing wavelength of 532 nm is presented together with novel OKE data for the hitherto unstudied homologous alcohol series from methanol to 1-dodecanol. Analysis of the results indicates for this series the existence of a linear relationship between the carbon chain length and the optically induced Kerr constant somewhat similar to the behavior previously observed in the n-alkanes.

  6. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  7. Measuring Alcohol-Specific Communication with Friends: Conceptualizing and Operationalizing Communication as Multidimensional.

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Figueroa-Caballero, Andrea; Basinger, Erin D

    2016-06-01

    According to primary socialization theory, adolescents develop beliefs about alcohol by interacting with peers, as well as other socialization agents. Although communication is essential to this belief-formation process, few studies have identified the specific alcohol-related messages that adolescents exchange with their peers, and more specifically friends, that lead to certain anti- and/or pro-alcohol-related beliefs. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a multidimensional measure of alcohol-specific communication with friends. Based on survey data from 259 high school students, the results indicated that communication with friends involving warnings against drinking alcohol, disapproval of alcohol consumption, and making fun of others for drinking alcohol was negatively related to pro-alcohol beliefs and intentions. Communication with friends involving rumors, teasing each other about drinking alcohol, intentions to drink alcohol, different types of alcohol, experiences with alcohol, and talking about how many peers drink alcohol was positively related to pro-alcohol beliefs and intentions. PMID:26529419

  8. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  9. Blood alcohol measurements in the emergency department: who needs them?

    PubMed Central

    Simel, D L; Feussner, J R

    1988-01-01

    We surveyed North Carolina emergency physicians to determine current medical practices regarding the use of blood alcohol concentrations using a hypothetical scenario. Most physicians (88 per cent) would not have obtained blood alcohol concentrations in a patient who had alcohol on his breath but was coherent and cooperative. For marginally impaired patients, more liberal use of blood alcohol concentrations and explicit instructions to avoid driving while impaired might improve patient care and promote highway safety. PMID:3177726

  10. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and assessment of maxillary and mandibular arc measurements.

    PubMed

    Abell, Katherine; May, Warren; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy; Hoyme, H Eugene; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Abdul-Rahman, Omar

    2016-07-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) comprise a range of physical differences and neurologic deficits from prenatal alcohol exposure. Previous studies suggest that relative maxillary growth deficiency can accompany FASD. Using the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Epidemiologic Research (FASER) database, we investigated how maxillary and mandibular arcs and the ratio between them differ between FASD and non-FASD individuals. First, we established normative values for maxillary and mandibular arcs and maxillary-to-mandibular arc ratio. In our control group (545 males, 436 females), mean maxillary and mandibular arcs for males/females were 24.98/24.52 cm and 25.91/25.35 cm, respectively. The ratio was 0.9643 and 0.9676 for males and females, respectively. We then evaluated the effect of microcephaly, short stature, and low weight (<10th centile), individually on arcs in controls. Generally, arcs were reduced significantly but the ratio did not differ. We compared our controls to 138 male and 135 female FASD cases. We noted a significant difference in arcs in male and female groups, but not the ratio. We compared non-FAS controls with reduced growth parameters to similar cases with FASD. We did not find a significant difference in arc or ratio measurements. Therefore, we conclude the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on maxillary and mandibular arc measurements is primarily on overall facial growth and less on asymmetric growth of the maxilla relative to the mandible, at least using this technique. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27253440

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... alcohol from receipt to the point of use. Such procedures shall, as a minimum, provide for...

  12. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... alcohol from receipt to the point of use. Such procedures shall, as a minimum, provide for...

  13. 77 FR 39727 - Poarch Band of Creek Indians-Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Poarch Band of Creek Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau... Poarch Band of Creek Indians--Alcohol Beverage Control Ordinance. This Ordinance regulates and controls... Poarch Band of Creek Indians, will increase the ability of the tribal government to control the...

  14. Working memory and visuospatial deficits correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-04-15

    Previous studies have demonstrated that children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) exhibit deficits in measures of eye movement control that probe aspects of visuospatial processing and working memory. The goal of the present study was to examine, in a large cohort of children with FASD, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) but not FASD, and typically developing control children, the relationship between performance in eye movement tasks and standardized psychometric tests that assess visuospatial processing and working memory. Participants for this dataset were drawn from a large, multi-site investigation, and included children and adolescents aged 5-17 years diagnosed with an FASD (n=71), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=20), and typically developing controls (n=111). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery and a series of saccadic eye movement tasks. The FASD group performed worse than controls on the psychometric and eye movement measures of working memory and visuospatial skills. Within the FASD group, digit recall, block recall, and animal sorting were negatively correlated with sequence errors on the memory-guided task, and arrows was negatively correlated with prosaccade endpoint error. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggest that psychometric tests and eye movement control tasks may assess similar domains of cognitive function, and these assessment tools may be measuring overlapping brain regions damaged due to prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests and are able to assess multiple domains of cognition simultaneously, thereby allowing for an efficient and accurate assessment. PMID:24486257

  15. Assessing God Locus of Control as a Factor in College Students' Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Erin W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study explored God locus of control beliefs (ie, God's control over behavior) regarding their influence on alcohol use and sexual behavior as an alternative religiosity measure to religious behaviors, which does not capture perceived influence of religiosity. Additionally, demographic differences in religious beliefs were…

  16. Women's sexual arousal: effects of high alcohol dosages and self-control instructions.

    PubMed

    George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Schacht, Rebecca L; Hendershot, Christian S; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2011-05-01

    The basic relationship between alcohol and women's sexual arousal - especially genital arousal - received little research attention for nearly 30 years (e.g. Wilson and Lawson, 1978) until very recently (e.g. George et al., 2009). To investigate hypotheses based on earlier findings and Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT), two experiments evaluated the effects of high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and arousal instructional demands on indices of vaginal responding and self-reported sexual arousal. In Experiment 1, self-control instructions to maximize (versus suppress) arousal increased peak and average Vaginal Pulse Amplitude (VPA) change. Self-control also interacted with a target BAC of .08% (versus .00%) to influence latency to peak arousal onset: Intoxicated women instructed to maximize showed a shorter latency to peak arousal than did intoxicated women instructed to suppress; however, sober women showed an undifferentiated pattern. Also, in Experiment 1, the target BAC of .08% had no effect on VPA or subjective arousal measures. In Experiment 2, a target BAC of .10% (versus .00%) attenuated peak change and average change in VPA, but this dosage had no effects on latency to peak achieved arousal, or on subjective arousal. Instructions to maximize arousal (versus no instruction) had no effect on any arousal measures. Overall, among young moderate drinking women, alcohol had attenuating effects but only at the higher dosage. Maximize versus suppress instructions about arousal had predicted effects on arousal and interactive effects on latency, but only at the lower dosage. The findings highlight the importance of dosage and contextual factors in alcohol's impact on the variability of women's sexual responding. PMID:21439287

  17. Personalised Normative Feedback for Preventing Alcohol Misuse in University Students: Solomon Three-Group Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Maria T.; Oskrochi, Reza; Foxcroft, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Young people tend to over-estimate peer group drinking levels. Personalised normative feedback (PNF) aims to correct this misperception by providing information about personal drinking levels and patterns compared with norms in similar aged peer groups. PNF is intended to raise motivation for behaviour change and has been highlighted for alcohol misuse prevention by the British Government Behavioural Insight Team. The objective of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of PNF with college students for the prevention of alcohol misuse. Methodology Solomon three-group randomised controlled trial. 1751 students, from 22 British Universities, allocated to a PNF group, a normal control group, or a delayed measurement control group to allow assessment of any measurement effects. PNF was provided by email. Participants completed online questionnaires at baseline, 6- and 12-months (only 12-months for the delayed measurement controls). Drinking behaviour measures were (i) alcohol disorders; (ii) frequency; (iii) typical quantity, (iv) weekly consumption; (v) alcohol-related problems; (vi) perceived drinking norms; and (vii) positive alcohol expectancies. Analyses focused on high-risk drinkers, as well as all students, because of research evidence for the prevention paradox in student drinkers. Principal Findings Follow-up rates were low, with only 50% and 40% responding at 6- and 12-months, respectively, though comparable to similar European studies. We found no evidence for any systematic attrition bias. Overall, statistical analyses with the high risk sub-sample, and for all students, showed no significant effects of the intervention, at either time-point, in a completed case analysis and a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions We found no evidence for the effectiveness of PNF for the prevention of alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems in a UK student population. Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN30784467 PMID:22984466

  18. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    PubMed Central

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A.; Hoogenboom, Bart W.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks. PMID:22778654

  19. 49 CFR 382.601 - Employer obligation to promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol and use of controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... misuse of alcohol and use of controlled substances. 382.601 Section 382.601 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES AND ALCOHOL USE AND TESTING Alcohol... promulgate a policy on the misuse of alcohol and use of controlled substances. (a) General requirements....

  20. The relationship between motivational structure, sense of control, intrinsic motivation and university students' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Zohreh Sepehri; Cox, W Miles

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how sense of control and intrinsic motivation are related to university students' motivational structure and alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 university students who completed the Personal Concerns Inventory, Shapiro Control Inventory, Helplessness Questionnaire, Intrinsic-Extrinsic Aspirations Scale, and Alcohol Use Questionnaire. Results showed that sense of control and intrinsic motivation were positively correlated with adaptive motivation and negatively correlated with alcohol consumption. Mediational analyses indicated that adaptive motivation fully mediated the relationship between sense of control/intrinsic motivation and alcohol consumption. PMID:19836901

  1. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples-the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  2. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  3. 75 FR 32813 - St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance...'s certification of the amended St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Alcoholic Beverage Control... of the tribal government to control the tribe's liquor distribution and possession, and at the...

  4. Effect of alcohols and selected solvents on serum osmolality measurements.

    PubMed

    Lund, M E; Banner, W; Finley, P R; Burnham, L; Dye, J A

    1983-04-01

    The method by which serum osmolality is measured can significantly affect the result if certain volatiles or solvents are present in the specimen. Commonly available solvents and alcohols were added to aliquots of pooled human serum to produce toxicologically relevant concentrations. Increasing concentrations of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, mono-n-butyl ether (butyl cellosolve), 1, 1,1 trichloroethylene, toluene, and xylene did not change vapor pressure (VP) or freezing point depression (FPD) osmolality. Acetone, ethanol, isopropanol, and methanol in increasing concentrations produced a linear increase in FPD osmolality, but no change in VP osmolality. Only ethylene glycol produced a linear increase in VP and FPD osmolality across the range of concentrations studied. Despite the excellent correlation between osmolality and ethanol concentration in prepared serum samples, this relationship could not accurately predict patient ethanol concentrations from FPD osmolality. The osmolal gap, "delta" osmolality, (measured FPD minus calculated osmolality) did not correlate with the difference between measured FPD and VP osmolalities. Patient ethanol levels could not be predicted with accuracy using an equation based on the osmolal gap or "delta" osmolality. PMID:6887306

  5. Explicit and Implicit Measures of Expectancy and Related Alcohol Cognitions: A Meta-Analytic Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Reich, Richard R.; Below, Maureen C.; Goldman, Mark S.

    2009-01-01

    Implicit measures assess the influence of past experience on present behavior in the absence of respondents’ awareness of that influence. Application of implicit measurement to expectancy and related alcohol cognition research has helped elucidate the links between alcohol-related experiences, the functioning of alcohol-related memory, and alcohol-related behavior. Despite these advances, a coherent picture of the role of implicit measurement has been difficult to achieve due to the diversity of implicit measures used. Two central questions have emerged: do implicit measures assess a distinct aspect of the alcohol associative memory domain not accessible via explicit measurement; and, when compared to explicit measurement, do they offer unique prediction of alcohol consumption? To the end of addressing these questions, a meta-analysis of studies using both implicit and explicit measures of alcohol expectancy and other types of alcohol-related cognition is conducted. Results indicate that implicit and explicit measures are weakly related, and while they predict some shared variance in drinking, each also contributes a unique component. Results are discussed in the context of the theoretical distinction made between the two types of measures. PMID:20307108

  6. 77 FR 35747 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...) published in the Federal Register on March 11, 2010 (75 FR 11624) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices dated, September 17, 1993 (58 FR 48705). DATES... Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A Qualified Products List of Evidential Breath Measurement Devices comprised...

  7. 75 FR 11624 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Register on December 17, 2007 (72 FR 71480) for instruments that conform to the Model Specifications for Evidential Breath Alcohol Measurement Devices (58 FR 48705). DATES: Effective Date: March 11, 2010. FOR... Administration (NHTSA) published the Standards for Devices to Measure Breath Alcohol (38 FR 30459). A...

  8. Application of an Alcohol Clamp Paradigm to Examine Inhibitory Control, Subjective Responses and Acute Tolerance in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Strang, Nicole M.; Markovich, Mike S.D.; Claus, Eric D.; Ramchandani, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in acute alcohol effects on cognitive control and subjective responses—and acute tolerance to these effects—are implicated in the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms. Few studies have examined these effects in drinkers under age 21. Additionally, studies of acute tolerance typically involve bolus oral alcohol administration, such that estimates of tolerance are confounded with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb. The current study examined cognitive control and subjective responses in young heavy drinkers (n = 88, M = 19.8 years old [SD = 0.8]) during a single-session alcohol clamp protocol. Participants completed an intravenous alcohol session comprising an ascending limb (0 to 80mg% in 20 minutes) and a BAC plateau (80mg% for 80 minutes). Serial assessments included a cued go/no-go task and measures of stimulation, sedation and craving. Relevant individual difference factors (ADHD symptoms and sensation seeking) were examined as moderators. Multi-level modeling demonstrated that response inhibition worsened following initial rise in BAC and showed increasing impairment during the BAC plateau. ADHD symptoms and sensation seeking moderated this effect. Significant within-person associations between stimulation and craving were evident on the ascending limb only. Participants with higher ADHD symptoms reported steeper increases in stimulation during the ascending limb. These findings provide initial information about subjective and behavioral responses during pseudo-constant BAC, and potential moderators of these outcomes, in late adolescence. Additional studies with placebo-controlled designs are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26053322

  9. Can Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash be Measured in Epidemiological Studies? Development and Validation of Mouthwash Use Questionnaire with Particular Attention to Measuring Alcohol Intake from Mouthwash

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Tanja; Kawecki, Michal M.; Reeve, Janice; Cunningham, Claudia; Bovaird, Iain

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the mouthwash use questionnaire to determine the lifetime exposure to alcohol from mouthwash and verify that it was suitable for use in general population. Material and Methods Data were available from three consecutive studies, all collecting information on mouthwash use. In addition, supermarkets and online stores were screened for the brands of mouthwash they sold. Alcohol content of mouthwash was identified from various sources, including laboratory measurements. Alcohol-containing mouthwash use was converted to glasses of wine equivalent. Results Mouthwash was used by 62% of the participants, and the main benefits reported were refreshment of bad breath (75%), elimination of bacteria (68%) and reduction of plaque formation (47%). Majority mouthwashes used by the participants contained alcohol (61%). Life-time exposure from alcohol in mouthwash was relatively small for most of the study participants: 79% had rinsed for less than one year with alcohol equivalent of one glass of wine per day. There was substantial agreement in mouthwash reporting between different occasions (Kappa > 0.62). Conclusions The questionnaire can be used to investigate mouthwash use in the general population and to measure alcohol intake from mouthwash. PMID:24422013

  10. Effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol on behavioral control: Risks for college students consuming trendy cocktails

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Bardgett, Mark E.; Howard, Meagan A.

    2011-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in young people. AmEDs have been implicated in risky drinking practices and greater accidents and injuries have been associated with their consumption. Despite the increased popularity of these beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka), there is little laboratory research examining how the effects of AmED differ from alcohol alone. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED alters neurocognitive and subjective measures of intoxication compared with the consumption of alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n=56) attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of four doses (0.65 g/kg alcohol, 3.57 ml/kg energy drink, AmED or a placebo beverage). Performance on a cued go/no-go task was used to measure the response of inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control following dose administration. Subjective ratings of stimulation, sedation, impairment and level of intoxication were recorded. Results Alcohol alone impaired both inhibitory and activational mechanisms of behavioral control, as evidenced by increased inhibitory failures and increased response times compared to baseline performance. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol counteracted some of the alcohol-induced impairment of response activation, but not response inhibition. For subjective effects, alcohol increased ratings of stimulation, feeling the drink, liking the drink, impairment and level of intoxication and alcohol decreased the rating of ability to drive. Coadministration of the energy drink with alcohol increased self-reported stimulation, but resulted in similar ratings of the other subjective effects as when alcohol was administered alone. Conclusions An energy drink appears to alter some of alcohol’s objective and subjective impairing effects, but not others. Thus AmEDs may contribute to a high risk scenario for the drinker

  11. Alcohol, illicit and non-illicit psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury in Thailand: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Chatchaipun, Porntip; Wattayakorn, Kanokporn; Anukarahanonta, Tongtavuch

    2009-05-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between alcohol use, psychoactive drug use and road traffic injury (RTI). A case-control study was conducted among drivers in Bangkok, Thailand. Two hundred cases and 849 controls were enrolled between February and November 2006. Cases who sustained a RTI were matched with four controls recruited from petrol stations within a 1-km radius of the reported crash site of the case. A positive alcohol breath test (> or =50mg/dl), and positive tests for the presence of illicit (amphetamine, cocaine, marijuana) and non-illicit psychoactive drugs (antihistamine, benzodiazepine, antidepressants), using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were documented as primary measures. There were significantly higher odds of an alcohol breath test > or =50mg/dl (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 63.6 (95% CI: 25.5-158.9)), illicit psychoactive drugs (adjusted OR 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.6)) and non-illicit psychoactive drug (adjusted OR 3.1 (95% CI: 1.5-6.3)) among cases than controls. Even though driving under the influence of psychoactive drugs has been significantly linked to RTI, its contribution to road safety is much lower than driving under the influence of alcohol. With limited resources, the priority for RTI prevention should be given to control of driving under the influence of alcohol. PMID:19393818

  12. Alcohol and Drug Use in Young Apprentices: Effect of Social Control in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burcu, Esra

    2003-01-01

    Examined the social control used by families of young apprentices in Turkey in relation to deviant behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use. Data for 397 apprentices show that those who use alcohol are most frequently exposed to stringent controls and oral and physical violence, and those who use drugs frequently were exposed to battering by their…

  13. A randomized, controlled study of treatment for alcohol dependence in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Van Horn, Deborah H A; Lynch, Kevin G; Lucey, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol is the second most common cause of cirrhosis necessitating liver transplantation in the United States, yet rates of posttransplant drinking approach 50% and no controlled clinical trials of alcoholism treatment exist in this population. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or referral to local treatment sources ("treatment as usual" [TAU]). Addictive behavior, mood states, and general health were compared. Candor concerning alcohol use was encouraged by keeping drinking questionnaires in confidence, except in medical emergencies. Ninety-one subjects were studied; 46 received MET, 45 received TAU, 29 proceeded to transplantation (MET, n = 13; TAU, n = 16). A total of 69 subjects completed 24 weeks of observation, and 25 subjects were assessed at 96 weeks. No difference in study attendance was observed, but significantly more MET subjects attended 1 or more treatment sessions. Twenty-three subjects (25% of sample) drank after randomization but before transplant. Excluding an extreme outlier, MET drinkers had significantly fewer drinks per drinking days than TAU drinkers. Neither treatment plan resulted in significant variances in measures of psychosocial health. In conclusion, although MET afforded no significant benefit over TAU for mood or general health outcomes, this study provides some degree of support for MET to limit the quantity and frequency of pretransplant alcohol consumption among liver transplant candidates with alcohol dependence. However, because of the limited number of study subjects, these data must be interpreted cautiously. Further research to validate our findings or to identify better methods to identify and intervene with patients at risk of pretransplant and posttransplant drinking should continue. PMID:21506242

  14. Good Self-Control Moderates the Effect of Mass Media on Adolescent Tobacco and Alcohol Use: Tests With Studies of Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Sargent, James D.; Gerrard, Meg; Lee, Hye-Ryeon; Dal Cin, Sonya

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether self-control moderates the effect of media influences on tobacco and alcohol use among youth and if so how this effect occurs. Design In Study 1, a regional sample of 10-year olds (N = 290) was interviewed in households; attention to tobacco/alcohol advertising was assessed. In Study 2, a national sample of youth ages 10–14 years (N = 6,522) was surveyed by telephone; exposure to tobacco/alcohol use in movies was assessed. Good self-control was measured in both studies. Main Outcome Measures Willingness to use substances and affiliation with peer substance users (Study 1); involvement in smoking or drinking (Study 2). Results In Study 1, the effect of tobacco/alcohol advertising on predisposition for substance use was lower among persons scoring higher on good self-control. In Study 2, the effect of movie smoking/alcohol exposure on adolescent tobacco/alcohol use was lower, concurrently and prospectively, among persons scoring higher on good self-control. Moderation occurred primarily through reducing the effect of movie exposure on positive smoking/alcohol expectancies and the effect of expectancies on adolescent use; some evidence for moderation of social processes was also noted. Covariates in the analyses included demographics, sensation seeking, and IQ. Conclusion Good self-control reduces the effect of adverse media influences on adolescent tobacco and alcohol use. Findings on the processes underlying this effect may be useful for media literacy and primary prevention programs. PMID:20836609

  15. A case-control study of alcohol consumption and drinking behaviour in patients with acute gout.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, C R

    1984-01-01

    The alcohol intake and drinking behaviour of 24 patients who presented with acute gout in a family practice over a 5-year period were compared with these features of a control population matched for sex, age, weight and use of hyperuricemia-inducing diuretics. The average weekly alcohol intake of the group with gout was twice that of the control group (p less than 0.02), and a statistically significant relation was found between alcohol abuse and acute gout (p less than 0.05). About half of the patients with gout drank excessively. Acute gout should be considered a possible clinical sign of alcohol abuse. PMID:6478339

  16. Chromatin remodeling — a novel strategy to control excessive alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Warnault, V; Darcq, E; Levine, A; Barak, S; Ron, D

    2013-01-01

    Harmful excessive use of alcohol has a severe impact on society and it remains one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in the population. However, mechanisms that underlie excessive alcohol consumption are still poorly understood, and thus available medications for alcohol use disorders are limited. Here, we report that changing the level of chromatin condensation by affecting DNA methylation or histone acetylation limits excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in rodents. Specifically, we show that decreasing DNA methylation by inhibiting the activity of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) with systemic administration of the FDA-approved drug, 5-azacitidine (5-AzaC) prevents excessive alcohol use in mice. Similarly, we find that increasing histone acetylation via systemic treatment with several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors reduces mice binge-like alcohol drinking. We further report that systemic administration of the FDA-approved HDAC inhibitor, SAHA, inhibits the motivation of rats to seek alcohol. Importantly, the actions of both DNMT and HDAC inhibitors are specific for alcohol, as no changes in saccharin or sucrose intake were observed. In line with these behavioral findings, we demonstrate that excessive alcohol drinking increases DNMT1 levels and reduces histone H4 acetylation in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of rodents. Together, our findings illustrate that DNA methylation and histone acetylation control the level of excessive alcohol drinking and seeking behaviors in preclinical rodent models. Our study therefore highlights the possibility that DNMT and HDAC inhibitors can be used to treat harmful alcohol abuse. PMID:23423140

  17. Hepatic glutathione content in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Altomare, E.; Vendemiale, G.; Albano, O.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced and oxidized hepatic glutathione was evaluated during alcoholic and non alcoholic liver injury. We studied 35 chronic alcoholics, 20 patients with non alcoholic liver diseases, 15 control subjects. Hepatic glutathione was measured in liver biopsies and correlated with histology and laboratory tests. Alcoholic and non alcoholic patients exhibited a significant decrease of hepatic glutathione compared to control subjects. Oxidized glutathione was significantly higher in the two groups of patients compared to controls. The decreased hepatic glutathione level in patients with alcoholic and non alcoholic liver diseases may represent a contributing factor of liver injury and may enhance the risk of toxicity in these patients.

  18. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices. PMID:24284473

  19. A new AMPHORA: an introduction to the project Alcohol Measures for Public Health Research Alliance.

    PubMed

    Gual, Antoni; Anderson, Peter

    2011-03-01

    The AMPHORA Project is a 4 years project funded by the 7th Framework Programme of the European Commission which aims to contribute with new evidence on scarcely explored or unexplored areas of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm in Europe. In this introductory article we describe the background of the Project and its main features. The research areas covered by AMPHORA are wide and diverse. Some of the most relevant are: an update on European epidemiological data; the definition of standard common indicators of alcohol consumption and harm; the measurement of the strength of alcohol policies; the study of contextual determinants of alcohol consumption, the analysis of the impact of marketing on youth; the availability of treatments at a European level; and two areas of harm reduction (contamination of illegal or surrogate alcohols and the reduction of harm in drinking venues). PMID:21324015

  20. Acute effects of alcohol on inhibitory control and information processing in high and low sensation-seekers

    PubMed Central

    Fillmore, Mark T.; Ostling, Erik W.; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2009-01-01

    Sensation-seeking is a personality characteristic that has been associated with drug abuse. Some evidence suggests that sensation-seekers might experience increased rewarding effects from drugs of abuse, possibly contributing to the association between sensation-seeking and risk for drug abuse. The present study examined the effects of three doses of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.65 g/kg) on inhibitory control, information processing, and subjective ratings in a group of high sensation-seekers and a group of low sensation-seekers (N = 20). Inhibitory control was measured by a cued go/no-go task and speed of information processing was assessed by the Rapid Information Processing (RIP) task. Alcohol impaired inhibitory control and information processing. Group differences were also observed. Compared with their low sensation-seeking counterparts, high sensation-seekers demonstrated increased sensitivity to the subjective rewarding effects of alcohol and a poorer degree of inhibitory control that was further impaired by alcohol. The findings highlight reward- and cognitive-based mechanisms by which sensation-seeking could operate to increase risk for alcohol abuse. PMID:19004578

  1. 36 CFR 1002.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or public facility within the area administered by the Presidio Trust to the consumption of alcoholic... made by the Board that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open... purpose for which it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to...

  2. 36 CFR 2.35 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... it is maintained or established; or (B) Incidents of aberrant behavior related to the consumption of... public use area or public facility within a park area to the consumption of alcoholic beverages and/or to... superintendent that: (A) The consumption of an alcoholic beverage or the possession of an open container of...

  3. 75 FR 23280 - Choctaw Nation of Oklahoma Alcohol Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Ordinance means, and shall include any liquor, beer, spirits, or wine, by whatever name they may be called... beverage under the laws of the State of Oklahoma. Alcoholic Beverages include all forms of ``low-point beer... Alcoholic Beverage. Any license or permit issued for the sale or distribution of ``low-point beer'',...

  4. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  5. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  6. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  7. The Valued Living Questionnaire for Alcohol Use: Measuring value-behavior discrepancy in college student drinking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Meier, Ellen; Lombardi, Nathaniel; Leavens, Eleanor L; Grant, DeMond M; Leffingwell, Thad R

    2016-09-01

    Developing discrepancy between one's values and behaviors is theoretically important in motivating change; however, existing studies lack a validated measure of value-behavior discrepancy for alcohol misuse. The current studies aimed to modify Wilson & DuFrene (2008) Valued Living Questionnaire (VLQ) to assess consistency of alcohol use with important values. In Study 1, the initial factor structure and test-retest reliability of the VLQ for Alcohol Use (VLQ-A) was tested in a sample of college students who regularly drink alcohol (N = 150). Results guided modifications to the measure. In Study 2, the revised measure's factor structure and predictive validity were tested with a second sample of college students who drink alcohol (N = 222). In both studies, exploratory factor analysis supported a unidimensional factor structure. Perceived discrepancy between alcohol use and important values predicted greater readiness to change, while perceived consistency between alcohol use and important values predicted more frequent heavy episodic drinking. Certain values were more useful in predicting outcomes than others. Alcohol use (heavy vs. moderate drinking) did not moderate outcomes. The VLQ-A is a brief and reliable self-report measure of perceived discrepancy between drinking behaviors and important values that may increase readiness to change. Future research examining the generalizability of findings to various samples and the efficacy of the VLQ-A as a supplement to brief interventions is warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27537000

  8. Cognitive control moderates the association between emotional instability and alcohol dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J; Spaeth, Destini T

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has linked emotional instability with problematic alcohol use. This may be a function of increased "hot" information processing (which is relatively automatic in nature and highly influenced by emotional states) for individuals with more emotional instability. According to dual-process models, cognitive control may attenuate the impact of emotional instability by preventing an overreliance on hot information processing. It was hypothesized that emotional instability would be positively associated with alcohol-related consequences, but that cognitive control would moderate this association. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 80) who endorsed drinking at moderate levels. Participants completed laboratory assessments of emotional instability, alcohol use and its consequences, and cognitive control. An observed variable path model examined the association between emotional instability and alcohol problems. Consistent with hypotheses, emotional instability was positively associated with alcohol consequences, and this relationship was moderated by cognitive control, at least for dependence symptoms. At low levels of cognitive control, there was a positive association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms (β = 0.514, p < .001), however, this association was attenuated and no longer significant at high levels of cognitive control (β = 0.095, p = .302). Emotional instability may promote alcohol dependence via an overreliance on hot information processing. Consistent with dual-process theory, this relationship is diminished among individuals with more cognitive control. Interventions focusing on increasing cognitive control may be effective in reducing alcohol pathology associated with emotional instability. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621417

  9. Reducing alcohol-related aggression: Effects of a self-awareness manipulation and locus of control in heavy drinking males.

    PubMed

    Purvis, Danielle M; Gallagher, Kathryn E; Parrott, Dominic J

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol Myopia Theory (AMT; Steele & Josephs, 1990) purports that alcohol facilitates aggression by narrowing attentional focus onto salient and instigatory cues common to conflict situations. However, few tests of its counterintuitive prediction - that alcohol may decrease aggression when inhibitory cues are most salient - have been conducted. The present study examined whether an AMT-inspired self-awareness intervention manipulation would reduce heavy drinking men's intoxicated aggression toward women and also examined whether a relevant individual variable, locus of control, would moderate this effect. Participants were 102 intoxicated male heavy drinkers who completed a self-report measure of locus of control and completed the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (Taylor, 1967). In this task, participants administered electric shocks to, and received electric shocks from, a fictitious female opponent while exposed to an environment saturated with or devoid of self-awareness cues. Results indicated that the self-awareness manipulation was associated with less alcohol-related aggression toward the female confederate for men who reported an internal, but not an external, locus of control. Findings support AMT as a theoretical framework to inform preventative interventions for alcohol-related aggression and highlight the importance of individual differences in receptivity to such interventions. PMID:26905761

  10. Study Protocol: Screening and Treatment of Alcohol-Related Trauma (START) – a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910. PMID:23106916

  11. Mirtazapine in comorbid major depression and an alcohol use disorder: A double-blind placebo-controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Jack R; Chung, Tammy; Douaihy, Antoine B; Kirisci, Levent; Glance, Jody; Kmiec, Julie; FitzGerald, Douglas; Wesesky, Maribeth A; Salloum, Ihsan

    2016-08-30

    This was a first double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to evaluate the efficacy of the novel antidepressant medication mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and the level of alcohol consumption of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and an alcohol use disorder (MDD/AUD). The results of two previous studies of mirtazapine in MDD/AUD subjects had suggested efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing their level of depressive symptoms, but level of alcohol consumption had not been assessed in those studies. All subjects in this 12-week pilot study were randomized to either mirtazapine or placebo, and also received motivational enhancement therapy. Between-group analyses involving the outcome measures of depressive symptoms, level of alcohol consumption, and level of alcohol craving indicated no significant differences between groups, possibly because of limited sample size. However, within-group t tests in the mirtazapine group showed a significant decrease in depressive symptoms by week 2, also noted at all subsequent assessments (weeks 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) during the 12-week study. In contrast, no significant decrease in depressive symptoms was noted in the placebo group until week 8. No evidence of efficacy was found for mirtazapine for decreasing level of alcohol consumption in MDD /AUD subjects. PMID:27327217

  12. Internet-Based Brief Intervention to Prevent Unhealthy Alcohol Use among Young Men: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bertholet, Nicolas; Cunningham, John A.; Faouzi, Mohamed; Gaume, Jacques; Gmel, Gerhard; Burnand, Bernard; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use is one of the leading modifiable morbidity and mortality risk factors among young adults. Study Design 2 parallel-group randomized controlled trial with follow-up at 1 and 6 months. Setting/Participants Internet based study in a general population sample of young men with low-risk drinking, recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Intervention: Internet-based brief alcohol primary prevention intervention (IBI). The IBI aims at preventing an increase in alcohol use: it consists of normative feedback, feedback on consequences, calorific value alcohol, computed blood alcohol concentration, indication that the reported alcohol use is associated with no or limited risks for health. Intervention group participants received the IBI. Control group (CG) participants completed only an assessment. Main Outcome Measures Alcohol use (number of drinks per week), binge drinking prevalence. Analyses were conducted in 2014–2015. Results Of 4365 men invited to participate, 1633 did so; 896 reported low-risk drinking and were randomized (IBI: n = 451; CG: n = 445). At baseline, 1 and 6 months, the mean (SD) number of drinks/week was 2.4(2.2), 2.3(2.6), 2.5(3.0) for IBI, and 2.4(2.3), 2.8(3.7), 2.7(3.9) for CG. Binge drinking, absent at baseline, was reported by 14.4% (IBI) and 19.0% (CG) at 1 month and by 13.3% (IBI) and 13.0% (CG) at 6 months. At 1 month, beneficial intervention effects were observed on the number of drinks/week (p = 0.05). No significant differences were observed at 6 months. Conclusion We found protective short term effects of a primary prevention IBI. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN55991918 PMID:26642329

  13. High-Alcohol Preferring Mice Are More Impulsive Than Low-Alcohol Preferring Mice as Measured in the Delay Discounting Task

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, B. G.; Grahame, N. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Repeated studies have shown that high impulsivity, when defined as the tendency to choose small immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards, is more prevalent in drug addicts and alcoholics when compared with nonaddicts. Assessing whether impulsivity precedes and potentially causes addiction disorders is difficult in humans because they all share a history of drug use. In this study, we address this question by testing alcohol-naïve mice from lines showing heritable differences in alcohol intake. Methods Replicated selected lines of outbred high-alcohol preferring (HAP) mice were compared to a low-alcohol preferring (LAP) line as well as the low-drinking progenitor line (HS/Ibg) on an adjusting amount delay discounting (DD) task. The DD task employs 2 levers to present subjects with a choice between a small, immediate and a large, delayed saccharin reward. By adjusting the quantity of the immediate reward up and down based on choice behavior, the task allows an estimate of how the subjective value of the delayed reinforcer decreases as delays increase. Latency to respond was also measured for each trial. Results Both HAP2 and HAP1 lines of mice were more impulsive than the LAP2 and HS/Ibg lines, respectively. Hyperbolic curve-fitting confirmed steeper discounting in the high-alcohol drinking lines. In addition, the high-alcohol drinking lines demonstrated greater within-session increases in reaction times relative to the low-alcohol drinking lines. No other differences (consumption of saccharin, total trials completed) consistently mapped onto genetic differences in alcohol drinking. Conclusions Alcohol-naïve outbred mice selected for high-alcohol drinking were more impulsive with saccharin reinforcers than low-alcohol drinkers. These data are consistent with results seen using inbred strain descendents of high-alcohol drinking and low-alcohol drinking rat lines, and suggest that impulsivity is a heritable difference that precedes alcoholism. PMID

  14. Alcohol Measures and Terms: A Perfect Storm for Chronic Confusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glassman, Tavis Jared

    2010-01-01

    Members in the prevention and treatment fields continue to examine how to most effectively assess and label high volume alcohol consumption. Terms such as "binge" drinking have resulted in considerable controversy and debate. Conventionally the criteria for assessing high-risk drinking includes: five or more drinks for men and four or more drinks…

  15. The Reliability of Environmental Measures of the College Alcohol Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Whitney, Mike; Shillington, Audrey M.

    2002-01-01

    Assesses the inter-rater reliability of two environmental scanning tools designed to identify alcohol-related advertisements targeting college students. Inter-rater reliability for these forms varied across different rating categories and ranged from poor to excellent. Suggestions for future research are addressed. (Contains 26 references and 6…

  16. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  17. Impact of Alcohol on Glycemic Control and Insulin Action

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.; Crowell, Kristen T.; Lang, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol has profound effects on tissue and whole-body fuel metabolism which contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with alcohol use disorder. This review focuses on the glucose metabolic effects of alcohol, primarily in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue, under basal postabsorptive conditions and in response to insulin stimulation. While there is a relatively extensive literature in this area, results are often discordant and extrapolating between models and tissues is fraught with uncertainty. Comparisons between data generated in experimental cell and animals systems will be contrasted with that obtained from human subjects as often times results differ. Further, the nutritional status is also an important component of the sometimes divergent findings pertaining to the effects of alcohol on the regulation of insulin and glucose metabolism. This work is relevant as the contribution of alcohol intake to the development or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes remains ill-defined and a multi-systems approach is likely needed as both alcohol and diabetes affect multiple targets within the body. PMID:26426068

  18. Acute Alcohol Consumption Impairs Controlled but Not Automatic Processes in a Psychophysical Pointing Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kevin; Timney, Brian; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on controlled and automatic cognitive processes. Such studies have shown that alcohol impairs performance on tasks requiring conscious, intentional control, while leaving automatic performance relatively intact. Here, we sought to extend these findings to aspects of visuomotor control by investigating the effects of alcohol in a visuomotor pointing paradigm that allowed us to separate the influence of controlled and automatic processes. Six male participants were assigned to an experimental “correction” condition in which they were instructed to point at a visual target as quickly and accurately as possible. On a small percentage of trials, the target “jumped” to a new location. On these trials, the participants’ task was to amend their movement such that they pointed to the new target location. A second group of 6 participants were assigned to a “countermanding” condition, in which they were instructed to terminate their movements upon detection of target “jumps”. In both the correction and countermanding conditions, participants served as their own controls, taking part in alcohol and no-alcohol conditions on separate days. Alcohol had no effect on participants’ ability to correct movements “in flight”, but impaired the ability to withhold such automatic corrections. Our data support the notion that alcohol selectively impairs controlled processes in the visuomotor domain. PMID:23861934

  19. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  20. Efficacy and the Strength of Evidence of U.S. Alcohol Control Policies

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Babor, Thomas; Brewer, Robert D.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Gruenewald, Paul; Holder, Harold; Klitzner, Michael; Mosher, James; Ramirez, Rebecca L.; Reynolds, Robert; Toomey, Traci L.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Public policy can limit alcohol consumption and its associated harms, but no direct comparison of the relative efficacy of alcohol control policies exists for the U.S. Purpose To identify alcohol control policies and develop quantitative ratings of their efficacy and strength of evidence. Methods In 2010, a Delphi panel of ten U.S. alcohol policy experts identified and rated the efficacy of alcohol control policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among both the general population and youth, and the strength of evidence informing the efficacy of each policy. The policies were nominated based on scientific evidence and potential for public health impact. Analysis was conducted in 2010–2012. Results Panelists identified and rated 47 policies. Policies limiting price received the highest ratings, with alcohol taxes receiving the highest ratings for all four outcomes. Highly rated policies for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving in the general population were also highly rated among youth, although several policies were rated more highly for youth compared with the general population. Policy efficacy ratings for the general population and youth were positively correlated for reducing both binge drinking (r = 0.50) and alcohol-impaired driving (r = 0.45). The correlation between efficacy ratings for reducing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving was strong for the general population (r = 0.88) and for youth (r = 0.85). Efficacy ratings were positively correlated with strength-of-evidence ratings. Conclusions Comparative policy ratings can help characterize the alcohol policy environment, inform policy discussions, and identify future research needs. PMID:23790985

  1. Locus of control in couples with different patterns of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Natera, G; Herrejón, M E; Casco, M

    1988-12-01

    A sample of 175 individuals were interviewed and divided in three subgroups of couples: (1) the husband was in an Anonymous Alcoholics program, (2) the husband had been diagnosed as alcoholic and (3) the husband had a regular pattern of high alcohol consumption. In personal interviews by specialized personnel the following instruments were used: the Internal-External (I-E) Locus of control scale; the Health Dailing Living (HDL) questionnaire about alcohol-related problems and patterns. The results showed a trend towards internal locus of control in both spouses for the three subgroups. Nevertheless, there is evidence of a higher internal locus in husbands and wives with regular but light alcohol consumption. As has been reported elsewhere alcohol users who had less problems in their functioning have no problems due to their alcohol use pattern. In order to know to a fuller extent the meaning of internality, a factorial analysis was applied to the I-E scale, obtaining four factors: social system control, personal failure, fatalism and personal attainment. The latter three were more capable to differentiate between the samples with different alcohol use patterns. PMID:3234240

  2. Measurable effects of local alcohol licensing policies on population health in England

    PubMed Central

    de Vocht, F; Heron, Jon; Angus, Colin; Brennan, Alan; Mooney, John; Lock, Karen; Campbell, Rona; Hickman, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Background English alcohol policy is implemented at local government level, leading to variations in how it is put into practice. We evaluated whether differences in the presence or absence of cumulative impact zones and the ‘intensity’ of licensing enforcement—both aimed at regulating the availability of alcohol and modifying the drinking environment—were associated with harm as measured by alcohol-related hospital admissions. Methods Premises licensing data were obtained at lower tier local authority (LTLA) level from the Home Office Alcohol and Late Night Refreshment Licensing data for 2007–2012, and LTLAs were coded as ‘passive’, low, medium or highly active based on whether they made use of cumulative impact areas and/or whether any licences for new premises were declined. These data were linked to 2009–2015 alcohol-related hospital admission and alcohol-related crime rates obtained from the Local Alcohol Profiles for England. Population size and deprivation data were obtained from the Office of National Statistics. Changes in directly age-standardised rates of people admitted to hospital with alcohol-related conditions were analysed using hierarchical growth modelling. Results Stronger reductions in alcohol-related admission rates were observed in areas with more intense alcohol licensing policies, indicating an ‘exposure–response’ association, in the 2007–2015 period. Local areas with the most intensive licensing policies had an additional 5% reduction (p=0.006) in 2015 compared with what would have been expected had these local areas had no active licensing policy in place. Conclusions Local licensing policies appear to be associated with a reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions in areas with more intense licensing policies. PMID:26555369

  3. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  4. Detecting alcohol-related problems in developing countries: A comparison of two screening measures in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Bond, Jason C.; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Patel, Vikram; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Background There is inadequate recognition of alcohol misuse as a public health issue in India. Information on screening measures is critical for prevention and early intervention efforts. This study critically evaluated the full and shorter versions of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF as screening measures for alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in a community sample of male drinkers in Goa, India. Methods Data from male drinking respondents in a population study on alcohol use patterns and sexual risk behaviors in randomly selected rural and urban areas of North Goa are reported. Overall, 39% (n=743) of the 1899 screened men, age 18 to 49, reported consuming alcohol in the last 12 months. These current drinkers were administered the screening measures as part of detailed interviews on drinking patterns and AUD symptoms. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted for each combination of screening measure and criterion (alcohol dependence or any AUD). Reliability and correlations among the 4 measures were also examined. Results All four measures performed well with area under the curves (AUCs) of at least .79. The full screeners that included both drinking patterns and problem items (the AUDIT and the RAP4-QF) performed better than their shorter versions (the AUDIT-C and the RAPS4) in detecting AUDs. Performance of the AUDIT and RAPS4-QF improved with lowered and raised thresholds, respectively, and alternate cut-off scores are suggested. Scores on the full measures were significantly correlated (.80). Reliability estimates for the AUDIT measures were higher than those for the RAPS4 measures. Conclusions All measures were efficient at detecting AUDs. When screening for alcohol-related problems among males in the general population in India, cut-off scores for screeners may need to be adjusted. Selecting an appropriate screening measure and cut-off score necessitates careful consideration of the screening context and resources available to confirm alcohol

  5. Synchrony of corticostriatal-midbrain activation enables normal inhibitory control and conflict processing in recovering alcoholic men

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, T.; Müller-Oehring, E.M.; Sullivan, E.V.; Pfefferbaum, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with inhibitory control deficits, possibly related to abnormalities in frontoparietal cortical and midbrain function and connectivity. Methods We examined functional connectivity and microstructural fiber integrity between frontoparietal and midbrain structures using a Stroop Match-to-Sample task with functional MRI and diffusion tensor imaging in 18 alcoholics and 17 controls. Manipulation of color cues and response repetition sequences modulated cognitive demands during Stroop conflict. Results Despite similar lateral frontoparietal activity and functional connectivity in alcoholics and controls when processing conflict, controls deactivated the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), whereas alcoholics did not. Posterior cingulum fiber integrity predicted the degree of PCC deactivation in controls but not alcoholics. Also, PCC activity was modulated by executive control demands: activated during response switching and deactivated during response repetition. Alcoholics showed the opposite pattern: activation during repetition and deactivation during switching. Here, in alcoholics, greater deviations from the normal PCC activity correlated with higher amounts of lifetime alcohol consumption. A functional dissociation of brain network connectivity between the groups further showed that controls exhibited greater corticocortical connectivity between middle cingulate, posterior cingulate, and medial prefrontal cortices than alcoholics. By contrast, alcoholics exhibited greater midbrain-orbitofrontal cortical network connectivity than controls. Degree of microstructural fiber integrity predicted robustness of functional connectivity. Conclusion Thus, even subtle compromise of microstructural connectivity in alcoholism can influence modulation of functional connectivity and underlie alcohol-related cognitive impairment. PMID:22137506

  6. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    PubMed

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-09-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  7. Breath alcohol ignition interlock devices: controlling the recidivist.

    PubMed

    Raub, Richard A; Lucke, Roy E; Wark, Richard I

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the recidivism rates of two groups of Illinois drivers who had their driver's licenses revoked for alcohol-impaired driving and who received restricted driving permits. Drivers in both groups had more than two driving under the influence (DUI) actions against their record within 5 years or were classed as level III alcohol dependents. Drivers in one group were required to install breath alcohol ignition interlock devices in their vehicles and drivers in the other group were not. The research found that drivers with the interlock were one-fifth as likely to be arrested for DUI during the 1 year the device was installed as the comparison group, which did not have the device. However, once the ignition interlock was removed, drivers in this group rapidly returned to DUI arrest rates similar to those in the comparison group. These findings echo previous literature. Additionally, the study showed that this voluntary program in Illinois reached only 16% of the drivers who met the requirements for installing the interlock device. Finally, this study found that individuals who were removed from the interlock program and returned to revoked status continued to drive. Within 3 years, approximately 50% of this latter group were involved in a crash or were arrested for DUI or with an invalid driver's license. Conclusions drawn from the study suggest that the breath alcohol ignition interlock device is effective in preventing continued driving while impaired. However, the large-scale effectiveness of the device is limited since most of the drivers eligible for the device do not have it installed. To have a significant impact, the interlock device must represent a better alternative to drivers whose licenses were suspended or revoked because of alcohol arrests compared to remaining on revoked status without having the device installed. Finally the research suggests that, given the rapid return to predevice recidivism, the devices should remain installed until

  8. The global health network on alcohol control: successes and limits of evidence-based advocacy.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Global efforts to address alcohol harm have significantly increased since the mid-1990 s. By 2010, the World Health Organization (WHO) had adopted the non-binding Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. This study investigates the role of a global health network, anchored by the Global Alcohol Policy Alliance (GAPA), which has used scientific evidence on harm and effective interventions to advocate for greater global public health efforts to reduce alcohol harm. The study uses process-tracing methodology and expert interviews to evaluate the accomplishments and limitations of this network. The study documents how network members have not only contributed to greater global awareness about alcohol harm, but also advanced a public health approach to addressing this issue at the global level. Although the current network represents an expanding global coalition of like-minded individuals, it faces considerable challenges in advancing its cause towards successful implementation of effective alcohol control policies across many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The analysis reveals a need to transform the network into a formal coalition of regional and national organizations that represent a broader variety of constituents, including the medical community, consumer groups and development-focused non-governmental organizations. Considering the growing harm of alcohol abuse in LMICs and the availability of proven and cost-effective public health interventions, alcohol control represents an excellent 'buy' for donors interested in addressing non-communicable diseases. Alcohol control has broad beneficial effects for human development, including promoting road safety and reducing domestic violence and health care costs across a wide variety of illnesses caused by alcohol consumption. PMID:26276763

  9. Case-control study of renal cell carcinoma in relation to occupation, smoking, and alcohol consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Brownson, R.C.

    1988-05-01

    A case-control study based on data from a cancer registry was conducted to evaluate the effects of smoking, alcohol use, and occupation on renal cell cancer risk. Information was obtained for 326 male and female cases and 978 age- and sex-matched controls. Elevated risks were identified for cigarette smokers and for men employed as truck drivers. No relationship between alcohol consumption and renal cancer was observed.

  10. The effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions delivered by community pharmacists: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Ian; Whittlesea, Cate; Murrells, Trevor; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims To undertake the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief intervention delivered by community pharmacists to reduce hazardous or harmful drinking. Design This parallel group individually randomised trial, allocated participants to brief alcohol intervention (n=205) or a leaflet-only control condition (n=202), with follow-up study after 3 months. Setting 16 community pharmacies in one London borough, UK. Participants 407 pharmacy customers (aged 18 or over) with AUDIT scores 8-19 inclusive. Intervention A brief motivational discussion of approximately 10 minutes duration for which 17 pharmacists received a half-day of training. Measurements Hazardous or harmful drinking was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) administered by telephone by a researcher blind to allocation status. The two primary outcomes were: 1) change in AUDIT total scores and 2) the proportions no longer hazardous or harmful drinkers (scoring <8) at three months. The four secondary outcomes were: the three sub-scale scores of the AUDIT (for consumption, problems and dependence), and health status according to the EQ-5D (a standardised instrument for use as a measure of health outcome). Findings At 3 months 326 (80% overall; 82% intervention, 78% control) participants were followed up. The difference in reduction in total AUDIT score (intervention minus control) was −0.57 95% CI −1.59 to 0.45, p = 0.28. The odds ratio for AUDIT <8 (control as reference) was 0.87 95% CI 0.50 to 1.51, p = 0.61). For two of the four secondary outcomes (dependence score: −0.46 95% CI −0.82 to −0.09, p = 0.014; health status score: −0.09 95% CI −0.16 to −0.02, p = 0.013) the control group did better, and in the other two there were no differences (consumption score: −0.05 95% CI −0.54 to 0.44, p = 0.85; non-dependence problems score: −0.13 95% CI −0.66 to 0.41). Sensitivity analyses did not change these findings

  11. Application of an alcohol clamp paradigm to examine inhibitory control, subjective responses, and acute tolerance in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hendershot, Christian S; Wardell, Jeffrey D; Strang, Nicole M; Markovich, Mike S D; Claus, Eric D; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in acute alcohol effects on cognitive control and subjective responses--and acute tolerance to these effects--are implicated in the risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related harms. Few studies have examined these effects in drinkers under age 21. Additionally, studies of acute tolerance typically involve bolus oral alcohol administration, such that estimates of tolerance are confounded with blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limb. The current study examined cognitive control and subjective responses in young heavy drinkers (n = 88; M = 19.8 years old, SD = 0.8) during a single-session alcohol clamp protocol. Participants completed an intravenous alcohol session comprising an ascending limb (0 to 80 mg% in 20 min) and a BAC plateau (80 mg% for 80 min). Serial assessments included a cued go/no-go task and measures of stimulation, sedation, and craving. Relevant individual difference factors (attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] symptoms and sensation seeking) were examined as moderators. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that response inhibition worsened following initial rise in BAC and showed increasing impairment during the BAC plateau. ADHD symptoms and sensation seeking moderated this effect. Significant within-person associations between stimulation and craving were evident on the ascending limb only. Participants with higher ADHD symptoms reported steeper increases in stimulation during the ascending limb. These findings provide initial information about subjective and behavioral responses during pseudoconstant BAC, and potential moderators of these outcomes, in late adolescence. Additional studies with placebo-controlled designs are necessary to confirm these findings. PMID:26053322

  12. Biosynthesis of Dehydrodiconiferyl Alcohol Glucosides: Implications for the Control of Tobacco Cell Growth 1

    PubMed Central

    Orr, John D.; Lynn, David G.

    1992-01-01

    The dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucosides A and B are factors isolated from transformed Vinca rosea tumor cells that can replace the cytokinin requirement for growth of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pith and callus cells in culture. These factors, present in tobacco pith cells, have their concentrations elevated approximately 2 orders of magnitude after cytokinin exposure. Biosynthesis experiments showed that these compounds are not cell wall fragments, as previously suggested, but are produced directly from coniferyl alcohol. Their synthesis is probably associated with the existing pathway for cell wall biosynthesis in both Vinca tumors and tobacco pith explants. The pathway requires only two steps, the dimerization of coniferyl alcohol by a soluble intracellular peroxidase and subsequent glycosylation. Biosynthetic experiments suggested that dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside breakdown was very slow and control of its concentration was exerted through restricted availability of coniferyl alcohol. PMID:16668635

  13. A Review of Existing Studies Reporting the Negative Effects of Alcohol Access and Positive Effects of Alcohol Control Policies on Interpersonal Violence

    PubMed Central

    Fitterer, Jessica L.; Nelson, Trisalyn A.; Stockwell, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption often leads to elevated rates of violence yet alcohol access policies continue to relax across the globe. Our review establishes the extent alcohol policy can moderate violent crime through alcohol availability restrictions. Results were informed from comprehensive selection of peer-reviewed journals from 1950 to October 2015. Our search identified 87 relevant studies on alcohol access and violence conducted across 12 countries. Seventeen studies included quasi-control design, and 23 conducted intervention analysis. Seventy-one (82%) reported a significant relationship between alcohol access and violent offenses. Alcohol outlet studies reported the greatest percentage of significant results (93%), with trading hours (63%), and alcohol price following (58%). Results from baseline studies indicated the effectiveness of increasing the price of commonly consumed alcohol, restricting the hours of alcohol trading, and limiting the number of alcohol outlets per region to prevent violent offenses. Unclear are the effects of tax reductions, restriction of on-premises re-entry, and different outlet types on violent crime. Further, the generalization of statistics over broad areas and the low number of control/intervention studies poses some concern for confounding or correlated effects on study results, and amount of information for local-level prevention of interpersonal violence. Future studies should focus on gathering longitudinal data, validating models, limiting crime data to peak drinking days and times, and wherever possible collecting the joint distribution between violent crime, intoxication, and place. A greater uptake of local-level analysis will benefit studies comparing the influence of multiple alcohol establishment types by relating the location of a crime to establishment proximity. Despite, some uncertainties particular studies showed that even modest policy changes, such as 1% increases in alcohol price, 1 h changes to closing times

  14. Influencing Alcohol Control Policies and Practices at Community Festivals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toomey, Traci L.; Fabian, Lindsey A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.; Fletcher, Linda; Lenk, Kathleen M.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of two interventions aimed at reducing alcohol-related risks at community festivals--a training program for festival planners and a community organizing campaign. We randomly selected four festivals for each intervention and had 24 comparison festivals. Our assessment included…

  15. Home-based alcohol prevention program for parents and children: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mares, S H W; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, A; Verdurmen, J; Schulten, I; Engels, R C M E

    2016-07-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a home-based alcohol prevention program to delay initiation of alcohol use in children. Methods In 2011, a total of 1349 sixth-grade children (M=12.15, SD=0.47) and their mothers who could read and write Dutch were recruited from primary schools in the northern part of the Netherlands. They participated in a cluster randomized controlled trial with two conditions; (1) intervention group (5 modules which families received by mail every 4weeks over 5months), (2) control group (a factsheet information brochure). An independent statistician allocated the schools to the conditions (allocation ratio (1:1)). Participants and data-analyst were blind to randomization. The primary outcome was alcohol initiation. Results Of the participants, 680 were randomized to the intervention and 669 to the control condition. In the intervention condition (N=540) 5.4% of the children drank alcohol compared to 7.1% in the control condition (N=601). The difference was not significant (OR=.99, 95% CI=.96-1.02, p=52). Conclusion The present study showed no effects of 'In control: No alcohol!' on alcohol initiation. A critical evaluation of program design and content, and future studies in different target groups, are suggested. The trial is registered at trialregister.nl, number NTR2474. PMID:27143498

  16. EFFECT OF POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AFFECTIVE STIMULI AND BEVERAGE CUES ON MEASURES OF CRAVING IN NON TREATMENT-SEEKING ALCOHOLICS

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Barbara J.; Light, John M.; Escher, Tobie; Drobes, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Laboratory paradigms are useful for investigating mechanisms of human alcohol cue reactivity in a highly controlled environment. A number of studies have examined the effects of beverage exposure or negative affective stimuli on cue reactivity independently, but only a few have reported on interaction effects between beverage cue and affective stimuli, and none have evaluated the effects of positive stimuli on beverage cue reactivity. Objectives To assess independent and interactive effects of both positive and negative affective stimuli and beverage cue on psychophysiological and subjective measures of reactivity in alcohol dependence. Methods A total of 47 non treatment-seeking paid volunteers with current alcohol dependence participated in a within-subjects trial where each was exposed to a standardized set of pleasant, neutral, or unpleasant visual stimuli followed by alcohol or water cues. Psychophysiological cue reactivity measures were obtained during beverage presentation, and subjective reactivity measures were taken directly following beverage presentation. Results Mixed-effect models revealed a significant main effect of beverage and positive (but not negative) affective stimuli on subjective strength of craving, and significant main effects of both positive and negative affective stimuli on ratings of emotionality. Despite the power to detect relatively small interaction effects, no significant interactions were observed between affect and beverage conditions on any reactivity measure. A key finding of this study is that positive affective stimuli commonly associated with drinking situations can induce craving in the absence of alcohol cues. Conclusions Main effects of beverage cue replicated results from previous studies. In addition, positive affective stimuli influenced craving strength. Beverage and affective cues showed no interaction effects. PMID:18604601

  17. Variation in the Gene Encoding the Serotonin Transporter is Associated with a Measure of Sociopathy in Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Aryeh I.; Conner, Tamlin S.; Anton, Raymond F.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.; Covault, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the association between a measure of sociopathy and 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sample of individuals from Project MATCH, a multi-center alcohol treatment trial. 5-HTTLPR, an insertion/deletion polymorphism in SLC6A4, the gene encoding the serotonin transporter protein, results in functionally distinct long (L) and short (S) alleles. The S allele has been associated with a variety of psychiatric disorders and symptoms including alcohol dependence, but it is unknown whether 5-HTTLPR increases the risk for co-morbid sociopathy among those with alcohol dependence. Method 862 subjects diagnosed with alcohol dependence completed the California Psychological Inventory, a psychological assessment that includes a measure of socialization, which was used as a proxy measure of sociopathy. Subjects were genotyped for the insertion/deletion polymorphism, as well as a single nucleotide polymorphism (A→G) that is located in the inserted region. Results Regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for age, which was negatively related to socialization score, 5-HTTLPR genotype interacted with sex to determine socialization score (p<0.001). Males with the L′L′ genotype (i.e., those homozygous for the LA allele) had lower socialization scores (i.e., greater sociopathy) than males who were carries of the S′ allele (p=0.03). In contrast, women with the S′S′ genotype had lower socialization scores than women with two L′ alleles (p=0.002) and tended to have lower CPI-So scores than women with one copy of the L′ allele (p=0.07). Conclusion Among individuals with AUDs, the tri-allelic 5-HTTLPR polymorphism had opposite effects on socialization scores in men than women. The basis for this finding is unknown, but it may have implications for subtyping alcoholics. PMID:20192950

  18. Diagnostic characteristics and application of alcohol biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Topic, Aleksandra; Djukic, Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol biomarkers play a significant role in the early diagnosis of alcohol intoxication/abuse, alcohol-related organ damages, assessment of alcoholism therapy outcomes, and in forensic medicine. Laboratory detection of excessive alcohol consumption can be carried out by direct measuring of the ethanol and/or metabolites in biological samples which is of particular importance in the cases of acute ethanol intoxication/controlling and/or monitoring of alcohol consumption, or indirectly, by using biomarkers. Preferred diagnostic characteristics of alcohol biomarkers, specificity and sensitivity dependent on the particular demands such as: prevention and treatment of alcoholism in primary and social care, criminal justice, workplace health and safety screening, trafficking control, etc. Alcohol biomarkers traditionally used in clinical practice [blood alcohol concentration (BAC), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the ratio GGT/CDT, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), the rati. AST/ALT, mean cbrpuscular volume (MCV), phosphatidylethanol (PEth)] are well validated. They are used as screening/monitoring markers of acute/chronic excessive alcohol intake, alcoholism in pregnancy, and other disorders/conditions related to alcohol abuse. Numerous potential alcohol biomarkers have been discovered, but few are validated. Potential alcohol biomarkers (ethanol and serotonin metabolites, sialic acids, etc.) have good diagnostic characteristics, but their application in clinical practice is limited due to the costly equipment necessary for their measurement. Significant progress has been made in the development of sensitive and practical alcohol transdermal devices that can instantly/continuously measure BAC through human skin. Transdermal sensing of alcohol may become a valuable method for monitoring abstinence. A special aspect of alcoholism is genetic predisposition to alcohol abuse and alcoholism, or

  19. Body composition in detoxified alcoholics.

    PubMed

    York, J L; Pendergast, D E

    1990-04-01

    Body composition was evaluated in healthy detoxified alcoholics (aged 20-39) and lifestyle controls, with the expectation that prolonged, excessive consumption of alcohol may bring about nutritional or toxicologic alterations in the relationship between body fat and lean body mass. Body fat was assessed by measurements of skin-fold thickness and by means of bioelectric impedance methodology. No noteworthy differences were observed between alcoholics and controls with regard to the relationship between lean body mass and body fat or in the relationship between extracellular and intracellular water. It would appear that 15-20 years of heavy alcohol consumption does not necessarily alter body composition in healthy, young alcoholics. PMID:2190482

  20. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: Differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R.; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G.; Leibowitz, Sarah F.

    2014-01-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  1. Hypothalamic peptides controlling alcohol intake: differential effects on microstructure of drinking bouts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Barson, Jessica R; Chen, Aimee; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2014-11-01

    Different alcohol drinking patterns, involving either small and frequent drinking bouts or large and long-lasting bouts, are found to differentially affect the risk for developing alcohol-related diseases, suggesting that they have different underlying mechanisms. Such mechanisms may involve orexigenic peptides known to stimulate alcohol intake through their actions in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). These include orexin (OX), which is expressed in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus, and galanin (GAL) and enkephalin (ENK), which are expressed within as well as outside the PVN. To investigate the possibility that these peptides affect different aspects of consumption, a microstructural analysis of ethanol drinking behavior was performed in male, Sprague-Dawley rats trained to drink 7% ethanol and implanted with guide shafts aimed at the PVN. While housed in specialized cages containing computerized intake monitors (BioDAQ Laboratory Intake Monitoring System, Research Diets Inc., New Brunswick, NJ) that measure bouts of ethanol drinking, these rats were given PVN injections of OX (0.9 nmol), GAL (1.0 nmol), or the ENK analog D-Ala2-met-enkephalinamide (DALA) (14.2 nmol), as compared to saline vehicle. Results revealed clear differences between the effects of these peptides. While all 3 stimulated ethanol intake, they had distinct effects on patterns of drinking, with OX increasing the number of drinking bouts, GAL increasing the size of the drinking bouts, and DALA increasing both the size and duration of the bouts. In contrast, these peptides had little impact on water or food intake. These results support the idea that different peptides can increase ethanol consumption by promoting distinct aspects of the ethanol drinking response. The stimulatory effect of OX on drinking frequency may be related to its neuronally stimulatory properties, while the stimulatory effect of GAL and ENK on bout size and duration may reflect a suppressive effect of

  2. αCaMKII Autophosphorylation Controls the Establishment of Alcohol Drinking Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Easton, Alanna C; Lucchesi, Walter; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Lenz, Bernd; Solati, Jalal; Golub, Yulia; Lewczuk, Piotr; Fernandes, Cathy; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Dawirs, Ralph R; Moll, Gunther H; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frank, Josef; Hoffmann, Per; Soyka, Michael; Kiefer, Falk; Schumann, Gunter; Peter Giese, K; Müller, Christian P

    2013-01-01

    The α-Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is a crucial enzyme controlling plasticity in the brain. The autophosphorylation of αCaMKII works as a ‘molecular memory' for a transient calcium activation, thereby accelerating learning. We investigated the role of αCaMKII autophosphorylation in the establishment of alcohol drinking as an addiction-related behavior in mice. We found that alcohol drinking was initially diminished in αCaMKII autophosphorylation-deficient αCaMKIIT286A mice, but could be established at wild-type level after repeated withdrawals. The locomotor activating effects of a low-dose alcohol (2 g/kg) were absent in αCaMKIIT286A mice, whereas the sedating effects of high-dose (3.5 g/kg) were preserved after acute and subchronic administration. The in vivo microdialysis revealed that αCaMKIIT286A mice showed no dopamine (DA) response in the nucleus accumbens to acute or subchronic alcohol administration, but enhanced serotonin (5-HT) responses in the prefrontal cortex. The attenuated DA response in αCaMKIIT286A mice was in line with altered c-Fos activation in the ventral tegmental area after acute and subchronic alcohol administration. In order to compare findings in mice with the human condition, we tested 23 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CAMK2A gene for their association with alcohol dependence in a population of 1333 male patients with severe alcohol dependence and 939 controls. We found seven significant associations between CAMK2A SNPs and alcohol dependence, one of which in an autophosphorylation-related area of the gene. Together, our data suggest αCaMKII autophosphorylation as a facilitating mechanism in the establishment of alcohol drinking behavior with changing the DA–5-HT balance as a putative mechanism. PMID:23459588

  3. Performance measures for multiprocessor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishna, C. M.; Shin, K. G.

    1982-01-01

    Performance measures to characterize fault tolerant multiprocessors used in the control of critical processes are considered. Our performance indices are based on controller response time. By relating this to the needs of the application, we have been able to derive indices that faithfully reflect the performance of the multiprocessor in the context of the application, that permit the objective comparison of rival computer systems, and that can either be definitively estimated or objectively measured. An example of a controller in an idealized satellite application is provided.

  4. Hangover sensitivity after controlled alcohol administration as predictor of post-college drinking.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Howland, Jonathan; Winter, Michael; Bliss, Caleb A; Littlefield, Caroline A; Heeren, Timothy C; Calise, Tamara V

    2012-02-01

    Predicting continued problematic levels of drinking after the early 20's could help with early identification of persons at risk. This study investigated whether hangover insensitivity could predict postcollege drinking and problems beyond the variance due to drinking patterns. In a preliminary study, 134 college seniors from a laboratory study of hangover (Time 1) were contacted and assessed 1-4 years (M = 2.3) later (Time 2). Hangover severity was studied after controlled alcohol administration to a specific dose while controlling sleep and environmental influences. Hangover severity at Time 1 was used to predict Time 2 drinking volume and problems while controlling for relevant demographics and Time 1 drinking volume. Hangover insensitivity at Time 1 tended to predict a clinical level of alcohol problems with a large statistical effect size. Hangover sensitivity also correlated positively with sensitivity to alcohol intoxication. Hangover severity did not predict future drinking volume. Hangover insensitivity correlates with insensitivity to intoxication and might predict more serious alcohol problems in the future, suggesting that a future larger study is warranted. Hangover insensitivity could result from physiological factors underlying low sensitivity to alcohol or risk for alcoholism. PMID:21859168

  5. Can the Theory of Planned Behavior Mediate the Effects of Low Self-Control on Alcohol Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, George E.; Marcum, Catherine Davis

    2005-01-01

    Some studies show that Gottfredson and Hirschi's low self-control plays an important role in alcohol use, but low self-control remains stable over time. Because self-control is not easily changed, the present study examines the ability of theory of planned behavior to mediate the effect of low self-control on intentions to use alcohol and alcohol…

  6. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Chavarro, Jorge E; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-08-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72-1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72-1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82-1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84-1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women's fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  7. Alcohol and Difficulty Conceiving in the SUN Cohort: A Nested Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-del Burgo, Cristina; Gea, Alfredo; de Irala, Jokin; Martínez-González, Miguel A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.; Toledo, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    The role of alcohol on fertility remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between alcohol and specific alcoholic beverages consumption and the risk of difficulty getting pregnant. We used a case-control study nested within the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra (SUN) cohort, a prospective, dynamic and multipurpose cohort of 21,705 Spanish university graduates, followed biennially with mailed questionnaires. We identified 686 case-control pairs, matched for age and time in the cohort. Cases were women reporting difficulty getting pregnant. Controls did not consult due to difficulty conceiving and had at least one child during follow-up. After adjustment for potential confounders, we found no association between self-reported difficulty getting pregnant and the number of alcoholic beverages consumed per week, (Odds Ratio [OR] > 5 drinks/week vs. none = 1.04, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 0.72–1.51). No association between types of alcoholic beverage and difficulty conceiving (OR > 5 drinks of wine/week vs. none = 1.16, 95% CI = 0.72–1.88; OR > 5 drinks of beer/week vs. none = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.82–1.37; OR > 5 drinks of spirits/week vs. none = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.84–1.64) was observed. In conclusion, we found no association between alcohol intake and risk of consulting a physician due to difficulty conceiving. More studies are needed to clearly elucidate the effects of alcohol intake on women’s fertility. In the meantime, recommendations about alcohol intake to couples trying to conceive have to be given cautiously. PMID:26225997

  8. Ethyl glucuronide concentrations in hair: a controlled alcohol-dosing study in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    L Crunelle, Cleo; Cappelle, Delphine; Yegles, Michel; De Doncker, Mireille; Michielsen, Peter; Dom, Geert; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Maudens, Kristof E; Covaci, Adrian; Neels, Hugo

    2016-03-01

    Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a minor phase II metabolite of alcohol that accumulates in hair. It has been established as a sensitive marker to assess the retrospective consumption of alcohol over recent months using a cut-off of ≥7 pg/mg hair to assess repeated alcohol consumption. The primary aim was to assess whether amounts of alcohol consumed correlated with EtG concentrations in hair. Additionally, we investigated whether the current applied cut-off value of 7 pg/mg hair was adequate to assess the regular consumption of low-to-moderate amounts of alcohol. A prospective controlled alcohol-dosing study in 30 healthy individuals matched on age and gender. Individuals were instructed to drink no alcohol (N = 10), 100 g alcohol per week (N = 10) or 150 g alcohol per week (N = 10) for 12 consecutive weeks, before and after which hair was collected. Throughout the study, compliance to daily alcohol consumption was assessed by analyzing urine EtG three times weekly. Participants in the non-drinking group had median EtG concentrations of 0.5 pg/mg hair (interquartile range (IQR) 1.7 pg/mg; range < 0.21-4.5 pg/mg). Participants consuming 100 and 150 g alcohol per week showed median EtG concentrations of 5.6 pg/mg hair (IQR 4.7 pg/mg; range 2.0-9.8 pg/mg) and 11.3 pg/mg hair (IQR 5.0 pg/mg; range 7.7-38.9 pg/mg), respectively. Hair EtG concentrations between the three study groups differed significantly from one another (p < 0.001). Hair EtG concentrations can be used to differentiate between repeated (low-to-moderate) amounts of alcohol consumed over a long time period. For the assessment of repeated alcohol use, we propose that the current cut-off of 7 pg/mg could be re-evaluated. PMID:26549114

  9. A Social Bond: An Application of Control Theory in the Study of Alcohol Use among College Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Andrew L.

    1991-01-01

    Administered psychosocial scales based on concept of social bond to measure alcohol use among 466 college seniors. Found that three psychosocial scales used accounted for 81 percent of variance in current alcohol use. Perceived Parental Approval of Teenage Drinking and Drinking Standards had moderate effect on alcohol use, but Tolerance of Minor…

  10. Suicide Among Young Alaska Native Men: Community Risk Factors and Alcohol Control

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. I examined community risk factors that explained variation in suicide rates among young rural Alaska Native men, evaluating the effectiveness of local alcohol control as a public health policy to reduce this population’s historically high vulnerability. Methods. I compiled suicide data, alcohol control status, and community-level social, cultural, and economic characteristics for Alaska Native men aged 15 to 34 years in 178 small Alaska communities from 1980 to 2007. Poisson regression equations explained variation in suicide rates as a function of endogenous alcohol control and community characteristics. Results. Suicide rates were higher in communities prohibiting alcohol importation under state law, but the effect was not significant after controlling for other community characteristics. More remote communities, those with fewer non-Natives, and those with evidence of cultural divides had higher suicide risks. Communities with higher incomes, more married couples, and traditional elders had lower risks. Conclusions. Alcohol control is ineffective in preventing suicide among Alaska Natives; suicide instead appears related to particular complex community characteristics that are either protective or increase risk. Communities have limited means to pursue economic and cultural development strategies that might offer more protection. PMID:24754505

  11. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure

    PubMed Central

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide ‘Na Toll!’ campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12–20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  12. Measures of skin conductance and heart rate in alcoholic men and women during memory performance

    PubMed Central

    Poey, Alan; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    We examined abnormalities in physiological responses to emotional stimuli associated with long-term chronic alcoholism. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and heart rate (HR) responses were measured in 32 abstinent alcoholic (ALC) and 30 healthy nonalcoholic (NC) men and women undergoing an emotional memory task in an MRI scanner. The task required participants to remember the identity of two emotionally-valenced faces presented at the onset of each trial during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning. After viewing the faces, participants saw a distractor image (an alcoholic beverage, nonalcoholic beverage, or scrambled image) followed by a single probe face. The task was to decide whether the probe face matched one of the two encoded faces. Skin conductance measurements (before and after the encoded faces, distractor, and probe) were obtained from electrodes on the index and middle fingers on the left hand. HR measurements (beats per minute before and after the encoded faces, distractor, and probe) were obtained by a pulse oximeter placed on the little finger on the left hand. We expected that, relative to NC participants, the ALC participants would show reduced SCR and HR responses to the face stimuli, and that we would identify greater reactivity to the alcoholic beverage stimuli than to the distractor stimuli unrelated to alcohol. While the beverage type did not differentiate the groups, the ALC group did have reduced skin conductance and HR responses to elements of the task, as compared to the NC group. PMID:26020002

  13. Cluster-randomized trial of a German leisure-based alcohol peer education measure.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Anneke; Thrul, Johannes; Strüber, Evelin; Orth, Boris

    2016-06-01

    Because of scarce research, the effectiveness of substance abuse prevention in leisure settings remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of a peer-led educational prevention measure with adolescent groups in unstructured leisure settings, which is a component of the complex German nationwide 'Na Toll!' campaign. Using a cluster-randomized two-group post-test-only design, we tested whether the measure influenced component-specific goals, namely risk and protective factors of alcohol use such as risk perception, group communication and resistance self-efficacy. The sample consisted of 738 adolescents aged 12-20 years who were recruited at recreational locations and completed an online questionnaire 1 week after the peer education or recruitment event. Sixty-three percent of the sample participated in the 3-month follow-up assessment. Data analysis revealed post-test effects on risk perception, perceived norm of alcohol communication in the peer group and resistance self-efficacy. Follow-up effects were not observed, with the exception of a significant effect on risk perception. In conclusion, the peer-led education measure in leisure settings might have supported the adolescents in this study to perceive alcohol-related risks, to feel accepted to talk about alcohol problems with their friends and to be more assertive in resisting alcohol use in the short term. PMID:25732606

  14. Health on the Web: Randomised Controlled Trial of Online Screening and Brief Alcohol Intervention Delivered in a Workplace Setting

    PubMed Central

    Khadjesari, Zarnie; Freemantle, Nick; Linke, Stuart; Hunter, Rachael; Murray, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse in England costs around £7.3 billion (US$12.2 billion) annually from lost productivity and absenteeism. Delivering brief alcohol interventions to employees as part of a health check may be acceptable, particularly with online delivery which can provide privacy for this stigmatised behaviour. Research to support this approach is limited and methodologically weak. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of online screening and personalised feedback on alcohol consumption, delivered in a workplace as part of a health check. Methods and Findings This two-group online individually randomised controlled trial recruited employees from a UK-based private sector organisation (approx. 100,000 employees). 3,375 employees completed the online health check in the three week recruitment period. Of these, 1,330 (39%) scored five or more on the AUDIT-C (indicating alcohol misuse) and were randomised to receive personalised feedback on their alcohol intake, alongside feedback on other health behaviours (n = 659), or to receive feedback on all health behaviours except alcohol intake (n = 671). Participants were mostly male (75%), with a median age of 48 years and half were in managerial positions (55%). Median Body Mass Index was 26, 12% were smokers, median time undertaking moderate/vigorous physical activity a week was 173 minutes and median fruit and vegetable consumption was three portions a day. Eighty percent (n = 1,066) of participants completed follow-up questionnaires at three months. An intention to treat analysis found no difference between experimental groups for past week drinking (primary outcome) (5.6% increase associated with the intervention (95% CI −4.7% to 16.9%; p = .30)), AUDIT (measure of alcohol-related harm) and health utility (EQ-5D). Conclusions There was no evidence to support the use of personalised feedback within an online health check for reducing alcohol consumption among employees in this organisation

  15. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  16. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of drug... REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures...

  17. Control, Attachment Style, and Relationship Satisfaction among Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beesley, Denise; Stoltenberg, Cal D.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates possible differences in need for control, attachment style, and relationship satisfaction between a sample of adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and adult children of nonalcoholics. Analyses reveals that ACOAs reported a significantly higher need for control and significantly lower relationship satisfaction. Includes a discussion of…

  18. Performance Measurement: A Proposal to Increase Use of SBIRT and Decrease Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Peggy L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol consumption during pregnancy has negative implications for maternal and child health. Appropriate early universal Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) for pregnant women is necessary to identify women at risk and reduce the likelihood of continued drinking. Because SBIRT is not consistently used, the development and use of performance measures to assure implementation of SBIRT are key steps towards intervention and reduction of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Methods Practice guidelines provide ample support for specific instruments designed for SBIRT in prenatal care. An examination of existing performance measures related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy, however, reveals no comprehensive published performance measure designed to quantify the use of SBIRT for alcohol use in prenatal care. Results Process performance measures were developed that can determine the proportion of pregnant women who are screened during the course of prenatal care and the proportion of women requiring either brief intervention or referral to substance use disorder treatment who received those interventions. The measures require use of screening instruments validated for use with pregnant women. Conclusions The two proposed measures would represent a significant step in efforts to assure appropriate intervention for women who drink during pregnancy, hold accountable providers who do not employ SBIRT, and provide a basis from which necessary systemic changes might occur. Pregnancy is a time when many women are motivated to stop drinking. That opportunity should be seized, with timely intervention offering assistance for pregnant women who have not stopped drinking of their own accord. PMID:23483413

  19. Harm reduction with pharmacotherapy for homeless people with alcohol dependence: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Susan E.; Saxon, Andrew J.; Duncan, Mark H.; Smart, Brian F.; Merrill, Joseph O.; Malone, Daniel K.; Jackson, T. Ron; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Joesch, Jutta; Ries, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Interventions requiring abstinence from alcohol are neither preferred by nor shown to be highly effective with many homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. It is therefore important to develop lower-threshold, patient-centered interventions for this multimorbid and high-utilizing population. Harm-reduction counseling requires neither abstinence nor use reduction and pairs a compassionate style with patient-driven goal-setting. Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX), a monthly injectable formulation of an opioid receptor antagonist, reduces craving and may support achievement of harm-reduction goals. Together, harm-reduction counseling and XR-NTX may support alcohol harm reduction and quality-of-life improvement. Aims Study aims include testing: a) the relative efficacy of XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling compared to a community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control, b) theory-based mediators of treatment effects, and c) treatment effects on publicly funded service costs. Methods This RCT involves four arms: a) XR-NTX+harm-reduction counseling, b) placebo+harm-reduction counseling, c) harm-reduction counseling only, and d) community-based, supportive-services-as-usual control conditions. Participants are currently/formerly homeless, alcohol dependent individuals (N=300). Outcomes include alcohol variables (i.e., craving, quantity/frequency, problems and biomarkers), health-related quality of life, and publicly funded service utilization and associated costs. Mediators include 10-point motivation rulers and the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale. XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling are administered every 4 weeks over the 12-week treatment course. Follow-up assessments are conducted at weeks 24 and 36. Discussion If found efficacious, XR-NTX and harm-reduction counseling will be well-positioned to support reductions in alcohol-related harm, decreases in costs associated with publicly funded service utilization, and increases in quality of life among

  20. Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Experience Reduced Control of Isotonic Force

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tanya T.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Thomas, Jennifer D.; Simmons, Roger W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can result in diverse and extensive damage to the central nervous system, including the cerebellum, basal ganglia, and cerebral cortex. Given that these brain regions are involved in the generation and maintenance of motor force, we predicted that prenatal alcohol exposure would adversely affect this parameter of motor control. We previously reported that children with gestational alcohol exposure experience significant deficits in regulating isometric (i.e., constant) force. The purpose of the present study was to determine if these children exhibit similar deficits when producing isotonic (i.e., graded) force. Methods Children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and typically developing children completed a series of isotonic force contractions by exerting force on a load cell to match a criterion target force displayed on a computer monitor. Two levels of target force (5% or 20% of maximum voluntary force) were investigated in combination with varying levels of visual feedback. Results Compared to controls, children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure generated isotonic force signals that were less accurate, more variable, and less complex in the time domain compared to control children. Specifically, interactions were found between group and visual feedback for response accuracy and signal complexity, suggesting that these children have greater difficulty altering their motor output when visual feedback is low. Conclusions These data suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure produces deficits in regulating isotonic force, which presumably result from alcohol-related damage to developing brain regions involved in motor control. These children will most likely experience difficulty performing basic motor skills and daily functional skills that require coordination of finely graded force. Therapeutic strategies designed to increase feedback and, consequently, facilitate visual-motor integration could improve isotonic force

  1. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  2. Two Fully Automated Web-Based Interventions for Risky Alcohol Use: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Strüber, Evelin

    2013-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a widespread problem in many countries, especially among young people. To reach more people engaging in high-risk drinking behaviors, a number of online programs have been developed in recent years. Change Your Drinking is a German, diary-based, fully automated alcohol intervention. In 2010, a revised version of the program was developed. It is more strongly oriented to concepts of relapse prevention than the previous version, includes more feedback, and offers more possibilities to interact with the program. Moreover, the program duration was extended from 10 to 14 days. Objective This paper examines whether the revised version of Change Your Drinking is more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than the original version. Methods The effectiveness of both program versions was compared in a Web-based, open, randomized controlled trial with follow-up surveys 6 weeks and 3 months after registration. Participants were recruited online and were randomly assigned to either the original or the revised version of Change Your Drinking. The following self-assessed outcomes were used: alcohol use days, alcohol intake in grams, the occurrence of binge drinking and risky drinking (all referring to the past 7 days prior to each survey), and the number of alcohol-related problems. Results A total of 595 participants were included in the trial. Follow-up rates were 58.0% after 6 weeks and 49.6% after 3 months. No significant group differences were found in any of the outcomes. However, the revised version was used by more participants (80.7%) than the original version (55.7%). A significant time effect was detected in all outcomes (alcohol use days: P=.002; alcohol intake in grams: P<.001; binge drinking: P<.001; alcohol-related problems: P=.004; risky drinking: P<.001). Conclusions The duration and complexity of the program played a minor role in reducing alcohol consumption. However, differences in program usage between the versions

  3. Perceived Sexual Control, Sex-Related Alcohol Expectancies and Behavior Predict Substance-Related Sexual Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Messman-Moore, Terri; Zerubavel, Noga; Chandley, Rachel B.; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Walker, Dave P.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Although numerous studies have documented linkages between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and later sexual revictimization, mechanisms underlying revictimization, particularly assaults occurring in the context of substance use, are not well-understood. Consistent with Traumagenic Dynamics theory, the present study tested a path model positing that lowered perceptions of sexual control resulting from CSA may be associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and heightened likelihood of risky sexual behavior, which in turn, may predict adult substance-related rape. Methods Participants were 546 female college students who completed anonymous surveys regarding CSA and adult rape, perceptions of sexual control, sex-related alcohol expectancies, and likelihood of engaging in risky sexual behavior. Results The data fit the hypothesized model well and all hypothesized path coefficients were significant and in the expected directions. As expected, sex-related alcohol expectancies and likelihood of risky sexual behavior only predicted substance-related rape, not forcible rape. Conclusions Findings suggested that low perceived sexual control stemming from CSA is associated with increased sex-related alcohol expectancies and a higher likelihood of engaging in sexual behavior in the context of alcohol use. In turn these proximal risk factors heighten vulnerability to substance-related rape. Programs which aim to reduce risk for substance-related rape could be improved by addressing expectancies and motivations for risky sexual behavior in the context of substance use. Implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:23312991

  4. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  5. Alcohol use among university students in Sweden measured by an electronic screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Agneta; Wiréhn, Ann-Britt; Ölvander, Christina; Ekman, Diana Stark; Bendtsen, Preben

    2009-01-01

    Background Electronic-based alcohol screening and brief interventions for university students with problem drinking behaviours forms an important means by which to identify risky drinkers. Methods In this study an e-SBI project was implemented to assess drinking patterns, and to provide personalised feedback about alcohol consumption and related health problems, to students in a Swedish university. In this study, third semester university students (n = 2858) from all faculties (colleges) at the University were invited to participate in e-SBI screenings. This study employed a randomised controlled trial, with respondents having a equal chance of being assigned to a limited, or full-feedback response. Results The study shows that high risk drinkers tend to underestimate their own consumption compared to others, and that these high risk drinkers experience more negative consequences after alcohol intake, than other respondents. There was a strong belief, for both high- and low-risk drinkers, that alcohol helped celebrations be more festive. This study also confirms findings from other study locations that while males drank more than females in our study population; females reached the same peak alcohol blood concentrations as males. Conclusion Obtaining clear and current information on drinking patterns demonstrated by university students can help public health officials, university administration, and local health care providers develop appropriate prevention and treatment strategies. PMID:19594906

  6. 77 FR 35745 - Highway Safety Programs; Conforming Products List of Screening Devices To Measure Alcohol in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ...) published in the Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66398) for instruments that conform to the... FR 16956). DATES: Effective Date: June 14, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For technical... for Screening Devices to Measure Alcohol in Bodily Fluids (59 FR 39382). These...

  7. How many digits should be reported in forensic breath alcohol measurements?

    PubMed

    Gullberg, Rod G

    2015-06-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent property of all measurements. The magnitude of this uncertainty will determine the number of meaningful digits that should be reported in a measurement result. Several statistical arguments are considered providing evidence that three digit truncated results are more appropriate than two since the first significant digit of the combined uncertainty (standard deviation) in breath alcohol measurement is found in the third decimal place. Probably, the most compelling reason for reporting three digits is the significant reduction in combined uncertainty compared with the use of two digits. For a breath alcohol concentration of 0.089 g/210 L, the combined uncertainty for two digit results is ∼0.0042 g/210 L, compared with 0.0031 g/210 L for three digit results. The historical practice of reporting two digit truncated results in forensic breath alcohol analysis has been largely based on the use of analog scale instruments with 0.01 g/210 L scale resolution. With today's modern digital instrumentation, this practice should be reconsidered. While the focus of this paper is on breath alcohol analysis, the general principles will apply to any quantitative analytical measurement. PMID:25829470

  8. College drinking behaviors: mediational links between parenting styles, impulse control, and alcohol-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patock-Peckham, Julie A; Morgan-Lopez, Antonio A

    2006-06-01

    Mediational links between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive), impulsiveness (general control), drinking control (specific control), and alcohol use and abuse were tested. A pattern-mixture approach (for modeling non-ignorable missing data) with multiple-group structural equation models with 421 (206 female, 215 male) college students was used. Gender was examined as a potential moderator of parenting styles on control processes related to drinking. Specifically, the parent-child gender match was found to have implications for increased levels of impulsiveness (a significant mediator of parenting effects on drinking control). These findings suggest that a parent with a permissive parenting style who is the same gender as the respondent can directly influence control processes and indirectly influence alcohol use and abuse. PMID:16784353

  9. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  10. Association among different measures of alcohol use across adolescence and emerging adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Leadbeater, Bonnie; Homel, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The use of alterative alcohol indices in developmental research may generate conflicting findings in the literature. This study examined the longitudinal associations among four indices of alcohol involvement from ages 15 to 25 years and examined their concurrent associations with alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood. Design Data are from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multi-cohort study conducted biennially in Victoria, Canada between 2003 and 2011. Setting and Participants This study included a subsample of 637 randomly recruited Canadian adolescents, aged 15–25 years. Measurements Four indices of alcohol use were compared using multivariate piecewise growth modeling: frequency, usual quantity, heavy episodic drinking and volume. Findings All indices increased on average from ages 15 to 21, peaked at approximately age 21, and gradually declined from ages 21 to 25. Levels of use at age 21 were highly correlated across indices (r = 0.63–0.94, P < 0.001), but correlations among rates of change varied between pairs of indices. Heavy episodic drinking and volume had the strongest correlations over time (r = 0.64–0.81, P < 0.001) and accounted for the greatest variance in alcohol use disorder symptoms (R2 = 0.35) and social and health consequences (R2 = 16) in emerging adulthood. Frequency and quantity had the weakest associations during adolescence (r = 0.49, P = 0.001) and were uncorrelated during emerging adulthood (r = 0.23, P = 0.09). Conclusions Among Canadian youth aged 15–25 years, measures of heavy episodic drinking and volume are the most strongly correlated over time and account for greater variance in alcohol-related problems in emerging adulthood than either frequency or quantity alone. PMID:24467265

  11. Indicators of Club Management Practices and Biological Measurements of Patrons’ Drug and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Johnson, Mark B.; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Electronic Music Dance Events in nightclubs attract patrons with heavy alcohol/drug use. Public health concerns are raised from risks related to these behaviors. Practices associated with increased risk in these club settings need to be identified. Objectives The relationship between club management practices and biological measures of patrons’ alcohol/drug use is examined. Methods Observational data from 25 events across 6 urban clubs were integrated with survey data (N=738 patrons, 42.8% female) from patrons exiting these events, 2010–2012. Five indicators of club management practices were examined using mixed model regressions: club security, bar crowding, safety signs, serving intoxicated patrons, and isolation. Results Analyses revealed that serving intoxicated patrons and safety signs were related to less substance use. Specifically, serving intoxicated patrons was related to heavy alcohol and drug use at exit, while safety signs were marginally related to less exit drug use. Conclusions/Importance Findings indicate observable measures in nightclubs provide important indicators for alcohol/drug use, suggesting practices to target. Study strengths include the use of biological measures of substance use on a relatively large scale. Limitations and future directions are discussed. PMID:24832721

  12. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  13. Influence of alcohol on respiratory disturbance during sleep.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumi, W; Miyazaki, S; Itasaka, Y; Togawa, K

    2000-06-01

    Oxygen saturation was measured in 37 patients with sleep-related breathing disorders over 2 nights: after alcohol intake and under control conditions. Both the number of 3% oxygen desaturation per hour (ODI3) and the lowest saturation (LSAT) were significantly aggravated after alcohol ingestion. Oxygen saturation was degraded in 28 cases after alcohol intake. In 69% of the cases in which ODI3 increased after alcohol ingestion, the aggravation during the alcohol metabolism time was noted. No correlation was found between the quantity of alcohol and oxygen desaturation following alcohol ingestion. Our study revealed that alcohol aggravates sleep-related breathing disorders. PMID:11186100

  14. The Association between Scholastic Measures, Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Alcohol Use: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Harvey, Séamus A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use among adolescents is associated with both short-term (truancy, illness, trouble with police) and long-term (dependence, unemployment) negative consequences. Moreover, because of its developmental nature, adolescent drinking behaviour is difficult to accurately assess. Individual-level scholastic variables and alcohol outcome…

  15. A Controlled Social Skills Training for Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Frankel, Fred; Paley, Blair; Schonfeld, Amy M.; Carpenter, Erika; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Marquardt, Renee

    2006-01-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have significant social skills deficits. The efficacy of a child friendship training (CFT) versus a delayed treatment control (DTC) was assessed for 100 children ages 6 to 12 years with FASD. Children in the CFT showed clear evidence of improvement in their knowledge of appropriate social…

  16. 49 CFR 382.413 - Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances information from previous employers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inquiries for alcohol and controlled substances information from previous employers. 382.413 Section 382.413 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  17. Integrated Psychosocial and Opioid-Antagonist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Review of Controlled Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological characteristics and outcomes of 14 controlled clinical investigations of integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist alcohol dependence treatment were evaluated. The 14 studies were identified through computerized bibliographic and manual literature searches. Clients receiving integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist…

  18. Patterns of change in implementation of state alcohol control policies in the United States, 1999–2011

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Toben F.; Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine state alcohol control policy implementation by policy efficacy and intent. Design A descriptive longitudinal analysis of policy implementation. Setting The United States, 1999–2011. Participants Fifty states and the District of Columbia. Measurements Twenty-nine state-level policies were rated based on an implementation rating (IR; range = 0.0–1.0) gathered from the Alcohol Policy Information System, government and industry reports and other sources; and expert judgment about policy efficacy for addressing binge drinking and alcohol-impaired driving among the general population and youth, respectively. Findings On average, implementation of the most effective general population policies did not change [mean IR = 0.366 in 1999; 0.375 in 2011; slope for annual change = 0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) for the slope −0.001, 0.002]. In contrast, implementation increased over time for less effective policies (mean IR = 0.287 in 1999; 0.427 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.009; slope 95% CI = 0.002–0.007), for youth-oriented policies (mean IR = 0.424 in 1999; 0.511 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.007; slope 95% CI = 0.005–0.009), and for impaired driving policies (mean IR = 0.493 in 1999; 0.608 in 2011; slope for annual change compared with most effective policies = 0.0105; slope 95% CI = 0.007–0.014). Conclusions Implementation of politically palatable state alcohol policies, such as those targeting youth and alcohol-impaired driving, and less effective policies increased during 1999–2011 in the United States, while the most effective policies that may maximally protect public health remained underused. PMID:25138287

  19. Effectiveness of artichoke extract in preventing alcohol-induced hangovers: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pittler, Max H.; White, Adrian R.; Stevinson, Clare; Ernst, Edzard

    2003-01-01

    Background Extract of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) is promoted as a possible preventive or cure for alcohol-induced hangover symptoms. However, few rigorous clinical trials have assessed the effects of artichoke extract, and none has examined the effects in relation to hangovers. We undertook this study to test whether artichoke extract is effective in preventing the signs and symptoms of alcohol-induced hangover. Methods We recruited healthy adult volunteers between 18 and 65 years of age to participate in a randomized double-blind crossover trial. Participants received either 3 capsules of commercially available standardized artichoke extract or indistinguishable, inert placebo capsules immediately before and after alcohol exposure. After a 1-week washout period the volunteers received the opposite treatment. Participants predefined the type and amount of alcoholic beverage that would give them a hangover and ate the same meal before commencing alcohol consumption on the 2 study days. The primary outcome measure was the difference in hangover severity scores between the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. Secondary outcome measures were differences between the interventions in scores using a mood profile questionnaire and cognitive performance tests administered 1 hour before and 10 hours after alcohol exposure. Results Fifteen volunteers participated in the study. The mean number (and standard deviation) of alcohol units (each unit being 7.9 g, or 10 mL, of ethanol) consumed during treatment with artichoke extract and placebo was 10.7 (3.1) and 10.5 (2.4) respectively, equivalent to 1.2 (0.3) and 1.2 (0.2) g of alcohol per kilogram body weight. The volume of nonalcoholic drink consumed and the duration of sleep were similar during the artichoke extract and placebo interventions. None of the outcome measures differed significantly between interventions. Adverse events were rare and were mild and transient. Interpretation Our results suggest that

  20. Dim light melatonin onset in alcohol-dependent men and women compared to healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Conroy, Deirdre A.; Hairston, Ilana S.; Arnedt, J. Todd; Hoffmann, Robert F.; Armitage, Roseanne; Brower, Kirk J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sleep disturbances in alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals may persist despite abstinence from alcohol and can influence the course of disorder. Although the mechanisms for their sleep disturbances are not well understood and some evidence suggests dysregulation of circadian rhythms, dim-light melatonin onset (DLMO) has not previously been assessed in AD vs. healthy control (HC) individuals in a sample that varied by sex and race. Methods Fifty-two AD participants (mean age 36.0 ± 11.0 years, 10 women) who were 3–12 weeks since their last drink (mean abstinence 57.9 ± 19.3 days) and 19 age- and sex-matched HCs (mean age 34.4 ± 10.6 years, 5 women) participated. Following a 23:00 – 06:00 h at-home sleep schedule for at least 5 days, and screening/baseline nights in the sleep laboratory, participants underwent a 3-hr extension of wakefulness (02:00 h bedtime) during which salivary melatonin samples were collected every 30 minutes beginning at 19:30 h. The time of DLMO was the primary measure of circadian physiology and was assessed with two commonly used methodologies. Results There was a slower rate of rise and a lower maximal amplitude in the AD group. DLMO varied by methodology used. Using 3 pg/ml as a threshold, no significant differences between the AD and HC groups were found. Using two standard deviations above the mean of the first 3 samples, AD DLMO occurred later 21:02 (SD=0:41) than HC 20:44 (SD=0:21) t=-2.4, (p=.02). Conclusions While melatonin in the AD group appears to have a slower rate of rise, using well-established criteria to assess salivary DLMO did not reveal differences between AD and HC participants. Only when capturing melatonin when it is already rising was DLMO significantly delayed by a mean 18 min in ADs. Future circadian analyses on alcoholics should account for these methodological caveats PMID:22217099

  1. CONTROLLED METHYL TERTIARY BUTYL ETHER (MTBE) EXPOSURE TO HUMANS THROUGH DERMAL, INGESTION, AND INHALATION ROUTES AND THE RESULTANT BIOMARKER TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) AS MEASURED IN EXHALED BREATH AND VENOUS BLOOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radiocarbon (14C) measurements provide an estimate of the fraction of carbon in a sample that is biogenic. In September 1997 during SCOS97 a series of 3-h canister samples of ambient air were collected at the Azusa air monitoring station during morning and afternoon periods. ...

  2. Land use planning and the control of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Marice; Jernigan, David; Kline, Randolph; Galaz, Rhonda

    2003-09-01

    We desired to understand how legal tools protect public health by regulating the location and density of alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and fast food retail outlets. We reviewed the literature to determine how land use regulations can function as control tools for public health advocates. We found that land use regulations are a public health advocacy tool that has been successfully used to lessen the negative effects of alcohol retail outlets in neighborhoods. More research is needed to determine whether such regulations are successful in reducing the negative effects of other retail outlets on community health. PMID:12948952

  3. BOOK REVIEW Quantum Measurement and Control Quantum Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Claus

    2010-12-01

    In the last two decades there has been an enormous progress in the experimental investigation of single quantum systems. This progress covers fields such as quantum optics, quantum computation, quantum cryptography, and quantum metrology, which are sometimes summarized as `quantum technologies'. A key issue there is entanglement, which can be considered as the characteristic feature of quantum theory. As disparate as these various fields maybe, they all have to deal with a quantum mechanical treatment of the measurement process and, in particular, the control process. Quantum control is, according to the authors, `control for which the design requires knowledge of quantum mechanics'. Quantum control situations in which measurements occur at important steps are called feedback (or feedforward) control of quantum systems and play a central role here. This book presents a comprehensive and accessible treatment of the theoretical tools that are needed to cope with these situations. It also provides the reader with the necessary background information about the experimental developments. The authors are both experts in this field to which they have made significant contributions. After an introduction to quantum measurement theory and a chapter on quantum parameter estimation, the central topic of open quantum systems is treated at some length. This chapter includes a derivation of master equations, the discussion of the Lindblad form, and decoherence - the irreversible emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment. A separate chapter is devoted to the description of open systems by the method of quantum trajectories. Two chapters then deal with the central topic of quantum feedback control, while the last chapter gives a concise introduction to one of the central applications - quantum information. All sections contain a bunch of exercises which serve as a useful tool in learning the material. Especially helpful are also various separate

  4. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations <1.4 h post-dose. Subjective effects persisted through 3.3-4.3 h, with alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective

  5. 46 CFR 386.11 - Alcoholic beverages and controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., under criteria set forth in the statutes of the State of New York, is prohibited. The consumption or..., barbiturates, amphetamines or any other substances controlled under the laws of the State of New York or...

  6. Sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use, inhibition and performance monitoring: Disconnect between behavioural and brain functional measures.

    PubMed

    Smith, Janette L; Iredale, Jaimi M; Mattick, Richard P

    2016-08-30

    Previous research has reported mixed evidence of sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol use and deficits in behavioural control. Here, we examine sex differences in behavioural and event-related potential (ERP) markers of deficient inhibition. Participants were 71 young adults aged 18-21, who either drank heavily regularly (i.e., four standard drinks on one occasion, at least once a month, n=33, 20 male) or drank heavily less often than this (including never, n=38, 21 male). They completed a stop-signal task while ERPs were recorded. Increases in stop-signal reaction time, the time required to stop a response, were related to heavy drinking only in female participants. P3 amplitude, ERN amplitude and ERN latency did not display a significant interaction between group and sex. Heavy drinkers, regardless of sex, displayed a marginally larger successful>failed effect for P3 amplitude, and a marginally smaller error-related negativity. An apparent disconnect exists in behavioural and psychophysiological measures of sex differences in the relationship between heavy alcohol consumption and inhibitory processing; male heavy drinkers display only psychophysiological but not behavioural deficits, while female heavy drinkers display both. Future research may determine whether sex differences are apparent for other substances besides alcohol. PMID:27399307

  7. Fish oil supplementation reduces cortisol basal levels and perceived stress: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Annino, Isidoro; Ponzio, Elisa; Romanelli, Roberto M L; D'Errico, Marcello M; Prospero, Emilia; Minelli, Andrea

    2013-06-01

    Behavioral distress and dysfunctions of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis play a central role in alcohol abuse. Omega-3 fatty acids are proposed as having antistress, regulatory effects on HPA responsiveness, but a possible protective role in ethanol addiction is unexplored.A randomized, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial was performed in male alcoholics undergoing residential rehabilitation program, to evaluate the effects of 3-week supplementation with fish-oil providing eicosapentaenoic (60 mg/day) and docosahexaenoic acid (252 mg/day) on perceived stress/anxiety and HPA activity, assessed by measuring saliva basal cortisol levels at various daytimes (0730 h, 1130 h, 1600 h, 2000 h, and 2400 h) and the acute cortisol response to Trier Social Stress Test.Results showed that in supplemented subjects, before versus after decrease of stress/anxiety ratings was accompanied by reduction of cortisol basal levels throughout the day; no changes were observed in placebo group. At the end of intervention, amplitude, and duration of stress-evoked cortisol response did not differ between groups; however, the peak of cortisol response was temporally anticipated in supplemented subjects. In conclusion, an elevated omega-3 intake may reduce distress symptoms and basal cortisol secretion in abstinent alcoholics, thus providing a valid subsidiary measure to increase the efficacy of rehabilitation programs in ethanol addicts. PMID:23390041

  8. Executive Functioning in Alcoholics Following an mHealth Cognitive Stimulation Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Jorge; Lopes, Paulo; Brito, Rodrigo; Morais, Diogo; Silva, Diana; Silva, Ana; Rebelo, Sara; Bastos, Marta; Deus, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background The consequences of alcohol dependence are severe and may range from physical disease to neuropsychological deficits in several cognitive domains. Alcohol abuse has also been related to brain dysfunction specifically in the prefrontal cortex. Conventional neuropsychological interventions (paper-and-pencil cognitive stimulation training) have a positive effect but are time-consuming, costly, and not motivating for patients. Objective Our goal was to test the cognitive effects of a novel approach to neuropsychological intervention, using mobile technology and serious games, on patients with alcohol dependence. Methods The trial design consisted of a two-arm study assessing the cognitive outcomes of neuropsychological intervention with mobile serious games (mHealth) versus control (treatment-as-usual with no neuropsychological intervention) in patients undergoing treatment for alcohol dependence syndrome. Sixty-eight patients were recruited from an alcohol-rehab clinic and randomly assigned to the mHealth (n=33) or control condition (n=35). The intervention on the experimental group consisted of a therapist-assisted cognitive stimulation therapy for 4 weeks on a 2-3 days/week basis. Results Fourteen patients dropped out of the study. The results of the neuropsychological assessments with the remaining 54 patients showed an overall increase (P<.05) of general cognitive abilities, mental flexibility, psychomotor processing speed, and attentional ability in both experimental (n=26) and control groups (n=28). However, there was a more pronounced improvement (P=.01) specifically in frontal lobe functions from baseline (mean 13.89, SE 0.58) to follow-up (mean 15.50, SE 0.46) in the experimental group but not in the control group. Conclusions The overall increase in general cognitive function for both experimental and control groups supports the beneficial role of existing alcohol treatment protocols aimed at minimizing withdrawal symptoms, but the differential

  9. Comparison of traditional and novel self-report measures to an alcohol biomarker for quantifying alcohol consumption among HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Asiimwe, Stephen B.; Fatch, Robin; Emenyonu, Nneka I.; Muyindike, Winnie R.; Kekibiina, Allen; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), HIV-infected patients may under-report alcohol consumption. We compared self-reports of drinking to phosphatidylethanol (PEth), an alcohol biomarker. In particular, we assessed beverage-type adjusted fractional graduated frequency (FGF) and quantity frequency (QF) measures of grams of alcohol, novel non-volume measures, and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test – Consumption (AUDIT-C). Methods We analyzed cohort-entry data from the Biomarker Research of Ethanol in Those with HIV cohort study (2011-2013). Participants were HIV-infected past year drinkers, newly enrolled into care. Self-report measures included FGF and QF grams of alcohol, the AUDIT-C, number of drinking days, and novel adaptations of FGF and QF methods to expenditures on alcohol, time spent drinking, and symptoms of intoxication. PEth levels were measured from dried blood spots. We calculated Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients of self-reports with PEth and bias-corrected bootstrap 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pairwise differences between coefficients. Results A total of 209 subjects (57% male) were included. Median age was 30; inter-quartile range (IQR) 25-38. FGF grams of alcohol over the past 90 days (median 592, IQR 43 to 2137) were higher than QF grams (375, IQR 33 to 1776), p<0.001. However, both measures were moderately correlated with PEth; rho = 0.58, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.66 for FGF grams and 0.54, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.63 for QF grams (95% CI for difference −0.017 to 0.099, not statistically significant). AUDIT-C, time drinking, and a scale of symptoms of intoxication were similarly correlated with PEth (rho = 0.35 to 0.57). Conclusion HIV-infected drinkers in SSA likely underreport both any alcohol consumption and amounts consumed, suggesting the need to use more objective measures like biomarkers when measuring drinking in this population. Although the FGF method may more accurately estimate drinking than QF methods, the AUDIT-C and

  10. Assessing the feasibility of screening and providing brief advice for alcohol misuse in general dental practice: a clustered randomised control trial protocol for the DART study

    PubMed Central

    Ntouva, Antiopi; Porter, Jessie; Crawford, Mike J; Britton, Annie; Gratus, Christine; Newton, Tim; Tsakos, Georgios; Heilmann, Anja; Pikhart, Hynek; Watt, Richard G

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol misuse is a significant public health problem with major health, social and economic consequences. Systematic reviews have reported that brief advice interventions delivered in various health service settings can reduce harmful drinking. Although the links between alcohol and oral health are well established and dentists come into contact with large numbers of otherwise healthy patients regularly, no studies have been conducted in the UK to test the feasibility of delivering brief advice about alcohol in general dental settings. Methods and analysis The Dental Alcohol Reduction Trial (DART) aims to assess the feasibility and acceptability of screening for alcohol misuse and delivering brief advice in patients attending National Health Service (NHS) general dental practices in North London. DART is a cluster randomised control feasibility trial and uses a mixed methods approach throughout the development, design, delivery and evaluation of the intervention. It will be conducted in 12 NHS general dental practices across North London and will include dental patients who drink above the recommended guidance, as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C) screening tool. The intervention involves 5 min of tailored brief advice delivered by dental practitioners during the patient's appointment. Feasibility and acceptability measures as well as suitability of proposed primary outcomes of alcohol consumption will be assessed. Initial economic evaluation will be undertaken. Recruitment and retention rates as well as acceptability of the study procedures from screening to follow-up will be measured. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was obtained from the Camden and Islington Research Ethics Committee. Study outputs will be disseminated via scientific publications, newsletters, reports and conference presentations to a range of professional and patient groups and stakeholders. Based on the results of the trial

  11. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: Results of a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Gaylord, Susan A.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned < $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. 37 participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society. PMID:20648913

  12. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary care: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Kaner, Eileen; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Myles, Judy; Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months after intervention. Analyses will include patient measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, public service use and quality of life) and implementation measures from practice staff (the acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention.) We will also examine organisational factors associated with successful implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN06145674. PMID:19664255

  13. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45... MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and measurement... measurement and measurement control capabilities required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section....

  14. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45... MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and measurement... measurement and measurement control capabilities required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section....

  15. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45... MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and measurement... measurement and measurement control capabilities required by paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section....

  16. Tobacco-stained fingers: a clue for smoking-related disease or harmful alcohol use? A case–control study

    PubMed Central

    John, Gregor; Pasche, Sephora; Rothen, Nicole; Charmoy, Alexia; Delhumeau-Cartier, Cécile; Genné, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Objective Tobacco stain on fingers is frequent. However, there is scarce description of this clinical sign. We aimed to explore tobacco stain on fingers as a marker of tobacco-related disease independent of cumulative tobacco exposure, and to find behavioural and environmental characteristics associated with those stains. Design Case–control study. Setting A Swiss community hospital of 180 beds. Participants 49 adults presenting tobacco-tars staining on fingers were matched to 49 control smokers by age, gender, height and pack-year (PY). Outcome measures Documented smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, peripheral arterial disease, stroke and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also determined by lung function, were compared between groups. Association between harmful alcohol use, mental disorders or unemployment and tar-staining was adjusted for smoking behaviour through conditional logistic regression. Results Overall cigarette-related disease was high in the case group (84%), and symptomatic peripheral arterial disease was more frequent compared to controls (OR 3.5, CI 95% 1.1 to 14.6). Smoking-related carcinoma, ischaemic heart disease, stroke and COPD were not statistically different for control smokers. Harmful alcohol use was strongly associated with stains and this association persists after adjustment for smoking unfiltered cigarettes, smoking more than one pack of cigarettes in a day and age at smoking onset (adjusted OR 4.6, CI 95% 1.2 to 17.2). Mental disorders and unemployment were not statistically significant. Conclusions Patients with tobacco-tar-stained fingers frequently have cigarette-related disease, however statistically not more than control smokers matched for PY, except for symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. This study suggests a link between stained fingers and addictive behaviour or concomitant high alcohol consumption. PMID:24202054

  17. Alcohol Use Disorder with and without Stimulant Use: Brain Morphometry and Its Associations with Cigarette Smoking, Cognition, and Inhibitory Control

    PubMed Central

    Pennington, David L.; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the effects of polysubstance use and cigarette smoking on brain morphometry. This study examined neocortical brain morphometric differences between abstinent polysubstance dependent and alcohol-only dependent treatment seekers (ALC) as well as light drinking controls (CON), the associations of cigarette smoking in these polysubstance users (PSU), and morphometric relationships to cognition and inhibitory control. Methods All participants completed extensive neuropsychological assessments and 4 Tesla brain magnetic resonance imaging. PSU and ALC were abstinent for one month at the time of study. Parcellated morphological data (volume, surface area, thickness) were obtained with FreeSurfer methodology for the following bilateral components: dorso-prefrontal cortex (DPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and insula. Regional group differences were examined and structural data correlated with domains of cognition and inhibitory control. Results PSU had significantly smaller left OFC volume and surface area and trends to smaller right DPFC volume and surface area compared to CON; PSU did not differ significantly from ALC on these measures. PSU, however, had significantly thinner right ACC than ALC. Smoking PSU had significantly larger right OFC surface area than non-smoking PSU. No significant relationships between morphometry and quantity/frequency of substance use, alcohol use, or age of onset of heavy drinking were observed. PSU exhibited distinct relationships between brain structure and processing speed, cognitive efficiency, working memory and inhibitory control that were not observed in ALC or CON. Conclusion Polysubstance users have unique morphometric abnormalities and structure-function relationships when compared to individuals dependent only on alcohol and light drinking controls. Chronic cigarette smoking is associated with structural brain irregularities in polysubstance users. Further

  18. Unique Brain Areas Associated with Abstinence Control Are Damaged in Multiply Detoxified Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Theodora; Trick, Leanne; Nikolaou, Kyriaki; Gray, Marcus A.; Kempton, Matthew J.; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Steven C.R.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Stephens, David N.

    2011-01-01

    Background The ability to abstain from drinking, despite incentives to imbibe, is essential to recovery from alcoholism. Methods We used an incentive conflict task to investigate ability to abstain from responding during presentations of incentive cues. Both alcoholic (n = 23) and healthy subjects (n = 22) were required to withhold responding during the simultaneous presentation of two visual stimuli in which the individual presentation allowed responding for monetary reward. Brain structures activated during performance of the task were studied using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy volunteers (n = 8), and changes in gray matter volume were studied in a separate group of patients (n = 29) compared with control subjects (n = 31) in regions of interest identified on functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results Abstinent alcoholic patients were severely impaired on the incentive conflict task. The impairment was greater in patients with experience of several versus a single detoxification. Healthy volunteers, during the same incentive conflict task, showed distinct patterns of brain activation (including gyrus rectus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and superior frontal gyrus). Reduction of gray matter volume in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and superior frontal gyrus of patients was more extensive in those with multiple detoxifications. Conclusions Performance deficits in alcoholics are associated with withdrawal-induced impairments in prefrontal subfields, which are exacerbated following repeated episodes of detoxification. Detoxification thus compromises functional and structural integrity of prefrontal cortex and may thus impair the ability to control future drinking. Performance in the incentive conflict task is a sensitive biomarker for such deficits. PMID:21612768

  19. Correspondence of parent report and laboratory measures of inattention and hyperactivity in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Deweese, Benjamin N; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice support a multi-method approach to validating behavioral problems in children. We examined whether parent-reported symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention (using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale) were substantiated by objective laboratory measures [hyperactivity measured by wrist-worn actigraphy (ACT) and inattention assessed using a 20-minute continuous performance task (CPT)] in three age- and demographically-matched groups of school-age children: children with prenatal alcohol exposure (AE), non-exposed children with idiopathic ADHD (ADHD), and controls (CON). Results indicated that the clinical groups (AE, ADHD) had significantly higher parent-reported levels for both domains compared to the CON group, and did not differ from each other. On the laboratory measures, the clinical groups were more inattentive than controls on the CPT, but did not differ from each other. In contrast, the ADHD group had higher objective activity on the ACT than AE and CON, which did not differ from each other. Thus, laboratory measures differentially validated parent reports in a group-dependent manner. Actigraphy substantiated parent-reported hyperactivity for children in the ADHD group but not for children in the AE group, while the CPT validated parent-reported inattention for both clinical groups. Although the majority of children in the AE group met the criteria for ADHD, objective activity levels were not different from controls, indicating that hyperactivity may be a less prominent feature in the AE group. Thus, while there is considerable overlap between the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD, differences in behavioral profiles may be clinically useful in differential diagnosis. Further, these data indicate that objective measures should be used to validate parent reports. PMID:24512965

  20. Nonintrusive Monitoring and Control of Metallurgical Processes by Acoustic Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hao-Ling; Khajavi, Leili Tafaghodi; Barati, Mansoor

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of developing a new online monitoring technique based on the characteristic acoustic response of gas bubbles in a liquid has been investigated. The method is intended to monitor the chemistry of the liquid through its relation to the bubble sound frequency. A low-temperature model consisting of water and alcohol mixtures was established, and the frequency of bubbles rising under varying concentrations of methanol was measured. It was shown that the frequency of the sound created by bubble pulsation varies with the percentage of alcohol in water. The frequency drops sharply with the increase in methanol content up to 20 wt pct, after which the decreases is gradual. Surface tension seems to be a critical liquid property affecting the sound frequency through its two-fold effects on the bubble size and the pulsation domain. The dependence between the frequency and the liquid composition suggests the feasibility of developing an acoustic-based technique for process control purposes.

  1. 10 CFR 74.45 - Measurements and measurement control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measurements and measurement control. 74.45 Section 74.45 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Special Nuclear Material of Moderate Strategic Significance § 74.45 Measurements and measurement control. (a) General. Licensees subject to...

  2. Cortical dopamine D2 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Hall, Håkan; Halonen, Pirjo; Tiihonen, Jari

    2004-12-01

    Alcoholism has been associated with lower density of striatal dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors, but there is much less data on cortical DA D(2) receptors. We evaluated the [(125)I]epidepride binding to DA D(2) receptors in Cloninger type 1 and 2 alcoholics and controls in frontal, temporal, and anterior cingulate cortices by using human postmortem whole hemispheric autoradiography, which provides high-resolution images corresponding to positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. Type 1 alcoholics had lower and type 2 alcoholics had higher DA D(2) receptor density in all cortical areas compared to controls. Although the results did not reach statistical significance, the effect sizes were high. The DA D(2) receptor density in type 2 alcoholics decreased statistically significantly with age, and after correcting for age the binding values also fell below the level of controls. A statistically non-significant tendency towards a decrease of cortical DA D(2) receptors was seen in controls, whereas in the type 1 alcoholic group no consistent correlation or even tendency towards increase with age was observed. Our results give preliminary evidence that DA D(2) receptors in cortical areas may be lower among both groups of alcoholics, but not necessarily of same magnitude as in subcortical structures. The rapid decline of cortical DA D(2) receptors among type 2 alcoholics may have some relevance to their antisociality, because this trait tends to diminish with age. The absence of correlation or even tendency towards increase of cortical DA D(2) receptors with age seen in type 1 alcoholics may give further evidence that they have a pre-existing dopaminergic deficit. However, these results especially regarding aging effect must be considered as preliminary due to the different age-range of type 2 alcoholics compared to two other groups. PMID:15452867

  3. Effect of alcohol consumption on liver stiffness measured by transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    Bardou-Jacquet, Edouard; Legros, Ludivine; Soro, Draman; Latournerie, Marianne; Guillygomarc’h, Anne; Le Lan, Caroline; Brissot, Pierre; Guyader, Dominique; Moirand, Romain

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To determine the evolution of transient elastography (TE) in patients with alcoholic liver disease according to alcohol cessation or continuation. METHODS: We retrospectively selected in our local database all patients who had two TE between June 2005 and November 2010 with chronic alcohol excessive consumption and excluded those with associated cause of liver disease. TE was performed at least one week apart by senior operator. TE examinations with less than ten successful measures or with an interquartile range above 30% were excluded. We retrospectively reviewed file of all patients to include only patient followed up by trained addictologist and for which definite information on alcohol consumption was available. Concomitant biological parameters [aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)] within 4 wk of initial and final TE were recorded. Putative fibrosis score according to initial and final TE were determined with available cut-off for alcoholic liver disease and hepatitis C. Initial and final putative fibrosis score were compared according to alcohol consumption during follow-up. RESULTS: During the study period 572 patients had TE examination for alcoholic liver disease and 79 of them had at least two examinations. Thirty-seven patients met our criteria with a median follow-up of 32.5 wk. At the end of the study, 13 (35%) were abstinent, and 24 (65%) relapsers. Eight patients had liver biopsy during follow-up. TE decreased significantly during follow-up in 85% of abstinent patients [median (range): -4.9 (-6.1,-1.9)], leading to a modification of the putative fibrosis stage in 28%-71% of patient according to different cut-off value. In relapsers TE increased in 45% and decreased in 54% of patient. There was no statistical difference between initial and final TE in relapsers. In the overall population, using 22.6 kPa as cut-off for cirrhosis, 4 patients had cirrhosis at initial TE and 3 patients

  4. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students’ alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Methods Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 had access to the Swedish government alcohol monopoly’s app, Promillekoll, offering real-time estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) calculation; Group 2 had access to a web-based app, PartyPlanner, developed by the research group, offering real-time eBAC calculation with planning and follow-up functions; and Group 3 participants were controls. Follow-up was conducted at 7 weeks. Results Among 28574 students offered participation, 4823 agreed to join; 415 were excluded due to incomplete data, and 1932 fulfilled eligibility criteria for randomization. Attrition was 22.7–39.3 percent, higher among heavier drinkers and highest in Group 2. Self-reported app use was higher in Group 1 (74%) compared to Group 2 (41%). Per-protocol analyses revealed only one significant time-by-group interaction, where Group 1 participants increased the frequency of their drinking occasions compared to controls (p = 0.001). Secondary analyses by gender showed a significant difference among men in Group 1 for frequency of drinking occasions per week (p = 0.001), but not among women. Among all participants, 29 percent showed high-risk drinking, over the recommended weekly drinking levels of 9 (women) and 14 (men) standard glasses. Conclusions Smartphone apps can make brief interventions available to large numbers of university students. The apps studied using eBAC calculation did not

  5. Controlled etching of hexagonal ZnO architectures in an alcohol thermal process

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Junshu; Xue, Dongfeng

    2010-03-15

    An alcohol thermal technique was applied to the controlled growth of hexagonal ZnO architectures via selective chemical etching. ZnO microdisks were produced first under mild alcohol thermal conditions in presence of formamide. Due to a higher surface energy/atomic density of Zn{sup 2+} {l_brace}0 0 0 1{r_brace} than that of the other faces, hexagonal ZnO microring was obtained by selectively etching positive polar surface of disk-like precursor with a high density of planar defects at the center. The selective etching of ZnO is related to its crystallographic characteristics of surface polarity and chemical activities, which opens a new opportunity for the shape-controlled synthesis of wurtzite-structured materials.

  6. Cognitive control network function in alcohol use disorder before and during treatment with lorazepam.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Claire E; Mayer, Andrew R; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009-2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  7. Cognitive Control Network Function in Alcohol Use Disorder Before and During Treatment With Lorazepam

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Mayer, Andrew R.; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Ling, Josef; Dekonenko, Charlene; Cumbo, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have deficits in cognitive control, but how they change with treatment is unclear. Seven patients with AUD and anxiety from an open-label trial of disulfiram plus lorazepam performed a multisensory Stroop task during fMRI (both pre and post initiation of treatment), and were compared to nine healthy controls (HCs) (n = 16; Albuquerque, NM; years 2009–2012). Evoked BOLD signal and resting state functional connectivity were compared (HC vs. AUD; Scan 1 vs. Scan 2). AUD demonstrated hyperactivity and altered connectivity in the cognitive control network compared to HC, but treatment did not normalize function. PMID:25290463

  8. 75 FR 39960 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community (SRPMIC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ...This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the amendment to the Salt River Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance, Chapter 14, Articles I, II, and III of the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community's Code of Ordinances. An amended Chapter 14 of the Code of Ordinance was last published on April 1, 2009 (Vol. 74, No. 61, FR 14813). This amendment repeals Articles I and II of Chapter......

  9. Craving for alcohol and pre-attentive processing of alcohol stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ingjaldsson, Jon T; Thayer, Julian F; Laberg, Jon C

    2003-07-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis of unconscious attending to alcohol-related information in alcoholics experiencing a high level of craving for alcohol. Subjects included a group of alcoholics (n=34) divided by a median split on a craving measure into two groups labeled as 'high craving' (n=18) and 'low craving' (n=16) alcoholics, and a non-alcoholic control group (n=39). The cardiovascular reactions of these groups were compared after their exposure to masked and unmasked alcohol and control stimuli. As expected the 'high craving' alcoholics showed an immediate heart rate deceleration after exposure to masked and non-consciously accessible alcohol pictures. The 'high craving' alcoholics reported a small but significant increase in difficulty resisting a drink after exposure to masked alcohol pictures. When the alcohol pictures were presented unmasked a significant increase was found in both high and low craving alcoholics on consciously expressed urges, fidgeting and reduced coping with temptation to drink. The 'high craving' alcoholics had lower tonic heart rate variability compared to the control group and the level of craving was positively associated with salivation during the exposure to all picture types. The findings generally support the psychobiological theory of craving, which suggests that the uncontrollability of the craving experience is rooted in unconscious processing of drug-related information. PMID:12853128

  10. In vivo and ex vivo measurements: noninvasive assessment of alcoholic fatty liver using 1H-MR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Keese, Daniel; Korkusuz, Hüdayi; Huebner, Frank; Namgaladze, Dmitry; Raschidi, Bahram; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the ability of 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) to detect and quantify hepatic fat content in vivo and ex vivo in an experimental rat model of alcoholic fatty liver using histopathology, biochemistry, and laboratory analyses as reference. METHODS Alcoholic fatty liver was induced within 48 hours in 20 Lewis rats; 10 rats served as control. Intrahepatic fat content determined by 1H-MRS was expressed as the percent ratio of the lipid and water peaks and was correlated with intrahepatic fat content determined histologically and biochemically. Liver enzymes were measured in serum. RESULTS Fatty liver could be detected in vivo as well as ex vivo using 1H-MRS, in all 20 animals. Histologic analysis showed a fatty liver in 16 of 20 animals. Histology and 1H-MRS results were highly correlated (in vivo, r=0.93, P = 0.0005; ex vivo, r=0.92, P = 0.0006). Also a strong correlation was noted between in vivo 1H-MRS measurements and the fat content determined biochemically (r=0.96, P = 0.0003). Ex vivo results showed a similarly strong correlation between 1H-MRS and biochemistry (r=0.89, P = 0.0011). CONCLUSION 1H-MRS can be carried out in ex vivo models, as well as in vivo, to detect and quantify intrahepatic fat content in the acute fatty liver. PMID:26627137

  11. External versus Internal Control of Beverage Consumption in Males at Risk for Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisman, Stephen A.; And Others

    Alcohol researchers have sought to characterize the relationship between cue responsivity and alcohol consumption by alcoholics. This study used the beverage tasting paradigm to test for differences in cue responsivity in adolescent sons of alcoholics. It was hypothesized that, compared to sons of nonalcoholics, sons of alcoholics would be more…

  12. All-Wales licensed premises intervention (AWLPI): a randomised controlled trial to reduce alcohol-related violence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related violence in and in the vicinity of licensed premises continues to place a considerable burden on the United Kingdom’s (UK) health services. Robust interventions targeted at licensed premises are therefore required to reduce the costs of alcohol-related harm. Previous evaluations of interventions in licensed premises have a number of methodological limitations and none have been conducted in the UK. The aim of the trial was to determine the effectiveness of the Safety Management in Licensed Environments intervention designed to reduce alcohol-related violence in licensed premises, delivered by Environmental Health Officers, under their statutory authority to intervene in cases of violence in the workplace. Methods/Design A national randomised controlled trial, with licensed premises as the unit of allocation. Premises were identified from all 22 Local Authorities in Wales. Eligible premises were those with identifiable violent incidents on premises, using police recorded violence data. Premises were allocated to intervention or control by optimally balancing by Environmental Health Officer capacity in each Local Authority, number of violent incidents in the 12 months leading up to the start of the project and opening hours. The primary outcome measure is the difference in frequency of violence between intervention and control premises over a 12 month follow-up period, based on a recurrent event model. The trial incorporates an embedded process evaluation to assess intervention implementation, fidelity, reach and reception, and to interpret outcome effects, as well as investigate its economic impact. Discussion The results of the trial will be applicable to all statutory authorities directly involved with managing violence in the night time economy and will provide the first formal test of Health and Safety policy in this environment. If successful, opportunities for replication and generalisation will be considered. Trial registration

  13. Performance measures of alcohol-induced impairment: towards a practical ignition-interlock system for motor vehicles.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Kenta; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Ida, Takayuki

    2009-12-01

    Performance-based alcohol screening devices may help reduce road traffic accidents, but there is a shortage of easy-to-use performance tests available. To address this issue, four recently developed rapid, computerized, easily implementable performance tests, Spiral for iPhone and Spiral for Mac (psychomotor tests), and the Modified Mental Rotation and Catch the Rabbit tests (cognitive tests), were assessed, testing participants at predrink baseline and then during three progressive amounts of alcohol intake. Analyses showed all tests were performed statistically significantly less accurately at 0.11% blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) than at 0.00% BAC, as were all tests except Spiral for iPhone at 0.06% BAC. These results indicate the suitability of all of these tests for measuring alcohol-induced impairment, and some potential for use as a practical performance-based alcohol screening device. PMID:20178284

  14. Brief Report: Cognitive Control Helps Explain Comorbidity Between Alcohol Use Disorder and Internalizing Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Richmond-Rakerd, Leah S; Slutske, Wendy S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol use and internalizing problems frequently co-occur. Cognitive control has been implicated in their etiology, but no studies have tested whether this construct helps explain the co-occurrence of these disorders. Method: A total of 1,313 undergraduate students completed assessments of cognitive control, negative emotionality, and symptoms of alcohol use disorder (AUD), depression, and generalized anxiety disorder. Structural equation models examined the extent to which overlap between AUD and internalizing problems was explained by variance specific to cognitive control and negative emotionality, as well as variance shared by both constructs. Results: Symptoms of AUD and internalizing disorders were modestly correlated (depression: r = .16; anxiety: r = .14). Variance specific to cognitive control explained a significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and both depression and generalized anxiety (depression: 19%; generalized anxiety: 18%), as did variance common to cognitive control and negative emotionality (depression: 24%; generalized anxiety: 31%). Consistent with previous work, variance specific to negative emotionality also explained a large and statistically significant proportion of the correlation between AUD and internalizing disorder symptoms. Of note, the residualized correlation for AUD symptom endorsement with both depression and generalized anxiety problems was not statistically significant after accounting for both cognitive control and negative emotionality. Conclusions: This study provides new evidence that cognitive control may help explain the overlap between AUD and internalizing disorders while further supporting the contribution of negative emotionality to this overlap. Results have implications for intervention efforts aimed at reducing comorbid alcohol use disorder and internalizing disorders, as well as general psychopathology. PMID:25486397

  15. Measuring Performance of Brief Alcohol Counseling in Medical Settings: A Review of the Options and Lessons from the Veterans Affairs (VA) Health Care System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Katharine A.; Williams, Emily C.; Achtmeyer, Carol E.; Hawkins, Eric J.; Harris, Alex H. S.; Frey, Madeleine S.; Craig, Thomas; Kivlahan, Daniel R.

    2007-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling is a top US prevention priority but has not been widely implemented. The lack of an easy performance measure for brief alcohol counseling is one important barrier to implementation. The purpose of this report is to outline important issues related to measuring performance of brief alcohol counseling in health care…

  16. A self-administered Timeline Followback to measure variations in underage drinkers' alcohol intake and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Kashdan, Todd B; Koutsky, James R; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T; Vetter, Charlene J

    2008-01-01

    Underage drinkers typically have not developed regular patterns of drinking and so are likely to exhibit situational variation in alcohol intake, including binge drinking. Information about such variation is not well captured by quantity/frequency (QF) measures, which require that drinkers blend information over time to derive a representative estimate of "typical" drinking. The Timeline Followback (TLFB) method is designed to retrospectively capture situational variations in drinking during a specific period of time. We compared our newly-developed Self-administered TLFB (STLFB) measure to a QF measure for reporting alcohol intake. Our sample of 429 (men=204; women=225) underage (i.e., age 18-20 years) drinkers completed the two drinking measures and reported on alcohol problems. The STLFB and QF measures converged in assessing typical daily intake, but the STLFB provided more information about situational variations in alcohol use and better identification of regular versus intermittent binge drinkers. Regular binge drinkers reported more alcohol problems. The STLFB is an easy-to-administer measure of variations in alcohol intake, which can be useful for understanding drinking behavior. PMID:17720324

  17. Risk of Alcohol Consumption in Bladder Cancer: Case-Control Study from a Nationwide Inpatient Database in Japan.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Masayoshi; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Toyokawa, Satoshi; Tonooka, Akiko; Takeuchi, Takumi; Homma, Yukio; Kobayashi, Yasuki

    2016-01-01

    Bladder cancer is common in Western countries, but not in Japan. Established risk factors are smoking and high-risk jobs such as printing and manufacturing. The risk of alcohol consumption in bladder cancer has been the recent focus; however, available literature on alcohol consumption and bladder cancer has been limited from Japanese population, thought to have a weak genetic tolerance to acetaldehyde. We aimed to determine whether alcohol consumption is an independent risk factor for bladder cancer among Japanese. The study was a matched case-control study from the nationwide Japanese clinical database administered by the Rosai Hospital group. We identified 739 cases of bladder cancer diagnosed between 2005 (when the database was established) and 2014 and 7,196 controls matched by sex, age, hospital, and admission period. We estimated the odds ratio of alcohol consumption for bladder cancer adjusted for the amount of smoking, high-risk occupations, and comorbidities (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hyperuricemia, and obesity) with conditional logistic regression. The risk of bladder cancer was significantly higher in ever drinkers than in never drinkers (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 1.66). Furthermore, the risk threshold for alcohol consumption was more than 15 g of alcohol intake per day (one, 180-mL cup equivalent to 6 ounces of Japanese sake containing 23 grams of alcohol). Among Japanese, alcohol consumption may be an independent risk factor for bladder cancer, with a lower risk threshold. PMID:27098227

  18. A smartphone application of alcohol resilience treatment for behavioral self-control training.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Albers, Jörg; Gao, Tian; Wang, Minghao; Bilberg, Arne; Stenager, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    High relapse rate is one of the most prominent problems in addiction treatment. Alcohol Resilience Treatment (ART), an alcohol addiction therapy, is based on Cue Exposure Treatment, which has shown promising results in preliminary studies. ART aims at optimizing the core area of relapse prevention, and intends to improve patients' capability to withstand craving of alcohol. This method emphasizes the interplay of resilience and resourcefulness. It contains 6 sessions with different topics according to the stage of treatment circuit, and each session consists of 6 steps. Due to the purity and structure of the treatment rationale, it is realistic, reasonable and manageable to transform the method into a smartphone application. An ART app in Android system and an accessory of bilateral tactile stimulation were developed and will be used in a study with behavioral self-control training. This paper presents the design and realization of the smartphone based ART application. The design of a pilot study, which is to examine the benefits of a smartphone application providing behavioral self-control training, is also reported in this paper. PMID:23366304

  19. Pancreas cancer, tobacco smoking and consumption of alcoholic beverages: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Partanen, T J; Vainio, H U; Ojajärvi, I A; Kauppinen, T P

    1997-06-01

    A population-based case-control study investigated pancreas cancer in relation to consumption of alcoholic beverages, tobacco smoking and pancreatitis, utilizing historical proxy data for 662 decedent Finnish pancreas cancer cases and 1770 cancer controls. Tobacco smoking increased the risk, with an attributable case fraction of 0.27. The data are consistent with a joint effect of early and late stage carcinogens in tobacco smoke. Consumption of distilled beverages did not increase risk, but heavy drinking of wine or beer did. History of pancreatitis was a strong risk factor. PMID:9177454

  20. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  1. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  2. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  3. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  4. 40 CFR 57.503 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control measures. 57.503 Section 57.503... NONFERROUS SMELTER ORDERS Fugitive Emission Evaluation and Control § 57.503 Control measures. The NSO of any... requirement of § 57.501. Measures required to be implemented may include: (a) Additional supplementary...

  5. The Huge Reduction in Adult Male Mortality in Belarus and Russia: Is It Attributable to Anti-Alcohol Measures?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim Harmful alcohol consumption has long been recognized as being the major determinant of male premature mortality in the European countries of the former USSR. Our focus here is on Belarus and Russia, two Slavic countries which continue to suffer enormously from the burden of the harmful consumption of alcohol. However, after a long period of deterioration, mortality trends in these countries have been improving over the past decade. We aim to investigate to what extent the recent declines in adult mortality in Belarus and Russia are attributable to the anti-alcohol measures introduced in these two countries in the 2000s. Data and Methods We rely on the detailed cause-specific mortality series for the period 1980–2013. Our analysis focuses on the male population, and considers only a limited number of causes of death which we label as being alcohol-related: accidental poisoning by alcohol, liver cirrhosis, ischemic heart diseases, stroke, transportation accidents, and other external causes. For each of these causes we computed age-standardized death rates. The life table decomposition method was used to determine the age groups and the causes of death responsible for changes in life expectancy over time. Conclusion Our results do not lead us to conclude that the schedule of anti-alcohol measures corresponds to the schedule of mortality changes. The continuous reduction in adult male mortality seen in Belarus and Russia cannot be fully explained by the anti-alcohol policies implemented in these countries, although these policies likely contributed to the large mortality reductions observed in Belarus and Russia in 2005–2006 and in Belarus in 2012. Thus, the effects of these policies appear to have been modest. We argue that the anti-alcohol measures implemented in Belarus and Russia simply coincided with fluctuations in alcohol-related mortality which originated in the past. If these trends had not been underway already, these huge mortality

  6. Childhood Cognitive Measures as Predictors of Alcohol Use and Problems by Mid-Adulthood in a Non-Western Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Luczak, Susan E.; Yarnell, Lisa M.; Prescott, Carol A.; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (n = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample is from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily Caucasian samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trailmaking Test in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A non-linear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were non-drinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. PMID:25621419

  7. Childhood cognitive measures as predictors of alcohol use and problems by mid-adulthood in a non-Western cohort.

    PubMed

    Luczak, Susan E; Yarnell, Lisa M; Prescott, Carol A; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between childhood cognitive functioning and academic achievement and subsequent alcohol use and problems in a non-Western setting. We examined longitudinal data from a birth cohort sample (N = 1,795) who were assessed at age 11 years on cognitive measures and then approximately 25 years later on lifetime alcohol use and alcohol use disorder symptom count. The sample was from Mauritius (eastern Africa), which allowed us to examine these relationships in a non-Western society with a different social structure than is typical of prior cognitive studies on primarily White samples in Western societies. Poorer performance on the Trail Making Test B-A in childhood predicted being a lifetime drinker, even after covarying for gender, childhood psychosocial adversity, and Muslim religion. Lower academic achievement and verbal IQ, but not performance IQ, were predictive of subsequent alcohol problems after including demographic covariates; the relationship between verbal IQ and alcohol problems was stronger in females than males. A nonlinear relationship emerged for Trails, suggesting that only more extreme impairment on this measure was indicative of later alcohol problems. Results of this study provide evidence that verbal deficits and poor academic performance exist in a general cohort sample by age 11 years (when 99% were nondrinkers) for those who go on to develop alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25621419

  8. Gender and family differences in adolescent's heavy alcohol use: the power-control theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, K

    2010-10-01

    According to the power-control theory, growing independence of adolescent girls, manifest in more prevalent problem behaviors, may be explained by changes in family structure (increasing level of authority gained in the workplace by mothers). To verify this hypothesis, self-report data from Warsaw adolescents (N = 3087, age 14-15 years, 50% boys) were used. Results indicate that parenting practices differ across child gender and structure of parents' work authority. Girls, especially in patriarchal households, spend more time with mothers and perceive stronger maternal control. In egalitarian families, fathers tend to be more involved with sons than with daughters. When parental control, support and adolescents' risk preferences are controlled, the gender-by-household type interaction effect is observed--girls in patriarchal families have the lowest risk of getting drunk. Study results provide support for power-control theory showing the relationship between parental work authority and adolescent's heavy alcohol use. PMID:20513655

  9. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  10. Combining Seeking Safety with Sertraline for PTSD and Alcohol Use Disorders: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hien, Denise; Levin, Frances Rudnick; Ruglass, Lesia; López-Castro, Teresa; Papini, Santiago; Hu, Mei Chen; Cohen, Lisa; Herron, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Objective The current study marks the first randomized controlled trial to test the benefit of combining Seeking Safety (SS), a present-focused cognitive behavioral therapy for co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD), with sertraline, a front-line medication for PTSD shown to also impact drinking outcomes. Method Sixty-nine participants (81% female; 59% African American) with primarily childhood sexual (46%) and physical (39%) trauma exposure, and drug dependence in addition to AUD were randomized to receive a partial-dose (12 sessions) of SS with either sertraline (n = 32; M = 7 sessions) or placebo (n = 37; M = 6 sessions). Assessments conducted at baseline, end-of-treatment, 6- and 12-months posttreatment measured PTSD and AUD symptom severity. Results Both groups demonstrated significant improvement in PTSD symptoms. The SS plus sertraline group exhibited a significantly greater reduction in PTSD symptoms than the SS plus placebo group at end-of-treatment (M difference = −16.15, p = .04, d = 0.83), which was sustained at 6- and 12-month follow-up (M difference = −13.81, p = .04, d = 0.71, and M difference = −12.72, p = .05, d = 0.65, respectively). Both SS groups improved significantly on AUD severity at all posttreatment time points with no significant differences between SS plus sertraline and SS plus placebo. Conclusion Results support the combining of a cognitive behavioral therapy and sertraline for PTSD/AUD. Clinically significant reductions in both PTSD and AUD severity were achieved and sustained through 12-months follow-up, Moreover, greater mean improvement in PTSD symptoms was observed across all follow-up assessments in the SS plus sertraline group. PMID:25622199

  11. Comparing global alcohol and tobacco control efforts: network formation and evolution in international health governance.

    PubMed

    Gneiting, Uwe; Schmitz, Hans Peter

    2016-04-01

    Smoking and drinking constitute two risk factors contributing to the rising burden of non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries. Both issues have gained increased international attention, but tobacco control has made more sustained progress in terms of international and domestic policy commitments, resources dedicated to reducing harm, and reduction of tobacco use in many high-income countries. The research presented here offers insights into why risk factors with comparable levels of harm experience different trajectories of global attention. The analysis focuses particular attention on the role of dedicated global health networks composed of individuals and organizations producing research and engaging in advocacy on a given health problem. Variation in issue characteristics and the policy environment shape the opportunities and challenges of global health networks focused on reducing the burden of disease. What sets the tobacco case apart was the ability of tobacco control advocates to create and maintain a consensus on policy solutions, expand their reach in low- and middle-income countries and combine evidence-based research with advocacy reaching beyond the public health-centered focus of the core network. In contrast, a similar network in the alcohol case struggled with expanding its reach and has yet to overcome divisions based on competing problem definitions and solutions to alcohol harm. The tobacco control network evolved from a group of dedicated individuals to a global coalition of membership-based organizations, whereas the alcohol control network remains at the stage of a collection of dedicated and like-minded individuals. PMID:26733720

  12. Comparative measurement and quantitative risk assessment of alcohol consumption through wastewater-based epidemiology: An international study in 20 cities.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Yeonsuk; Barceló, Damià; Barron, Leon P; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Hernández, Félix; Lai, Foon Yin; Lopes, Alvaro; de Alda, Miren López; Mastroianni, Nicola; Munro, Kelly; O'Brien, Jake; Ort, Christoph; Plósz, Benedek G; Reid, Malcolm J; Yargeau, Viviane; Thomas, Kevin V

    2016-09-15

    Quantitative measurement of drug consumption biomarkers in wastewater can provide objective information on community drug use patterns and trends. This study presents the measurement of alcohol consumption in 20 cities across 11 countries through the use of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), and reports the application of these data for the risk assessment of alcohol on a population scale using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Raw 24-h composite wastewater samples were collected over a one-week period from 20 cities following a common protocol. For each sample a specific and stable alcohol consumption biomarker, ethyl sulfate (EtS) was determined by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The EtS concentrations were used for estimation of per capita alcohol consumption in each city, which was further compared with international reports and applied for risk assessment by MOE. The average per capita consumption in 20 cities ranged between 6.4 and 44.3L/day/1000 inhabitants. An increase in alcohol consumption during the weekend occurred in all cities, however the level of this increase was found to differ. In contrast to conventional data (sales statistics and interviews), WBE revealed geographical differences in the level and pattern of actual alcohol consumption at an inter-city level. All the sampled cities were in the "high risk" category (MOE<10) and the average MOE for the whole population studied was 2.5. These results allowed direct comparisons of alcohol consumption levels, patterns and risks among the cities. This study shows that WBE can provide timely and complementary information on alcohol use and alcohol associated risks in terms of exposure at the community level. PMID:27188267

  13. Injury news coverage, relative concern, and support for alcohol-control policies: an impersonal impact explanation.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Hayes, Andrew F; Chung, Adrienne H

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impersonal impact hypothesis suggests that news (especially print) coverage of health and safety risks primarily influences perceptions of risk as a societal issue, and not perceptions of personal risk. The authors propose that the impersonal impact of news-impact primarily on concerns about social-level risks-will mediate effects of news stories on support for public health policies; such effects substantively matter as evidence suggests health policies, in turn, have important effects on protective behaviors and health outcomes. In an experiment using 60 randomly selected violent crime and accident news stories manipulated to contain or not contain reference to alcohol use as a causative factor, the authors find that the effect of stories that mention alcohol as a causative factor on support for alcohol-control policies is mediated by social-level concern and not by personal-level concern. In so doing, the authors provide a theoretical explanation as well as empirical evidence regarding the potential for news coverage-including breaking or episodic news-to influence health-related public policy. PMID:24870830

  14. Injury News Coverage, Relative Concern, and Support for Alcohol-Control Policies: An Impersonal Impact Explanation

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.; Hayes, Andrew F.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the impersonal impact hypothesis suggests that news (especially print) coverage of health and safety risks primarily influences perceptions of risk as a societal issue, and not perceptions of personal risk. We propose that the impersonal impact of news—impact primarily on concerns about social-level risks—will mediate effects of news stories on support for public health policies; such effects substantively matter as evidence suggests health policies in turn have important effects on protective behaviors and health outcomes. In an experiment using 60 randomly-selected violent crime and accident news stories manipulated to contain or not contain reference to alcohol use as a causative factor, we find that the effect of stories that mention alcohol as a causative factor on support for alcohol-control policies is mediated by social-level concern and not by personal-level concern. In so doing, we provide a theoretical explanation as well as empirical evidence regarding the potential for news coverage—including breaking or episodic news—to influence health-related public policy. PMID:24870830

  15. Measurement of Temperature Dependence of Surface Tension of Alcohol Aqueous Solutions by Maximum Bubble Pressure Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Naoki; Kaneko, Takahiro; Nishiguchi, Shotaro; Shoji, Masahiro

    The surface tension of some high-carbon alcohol aqueous solutions increases as the temperature rises above a certain temperature. There have been attempts to use such special solutions in thermal devices to promote heat transfer. In this study, the authors analyzed the temperature dependence of surface tension of these solutions to investigate this peculiar characteristic in detail. The test fluids were butanol and pentanol aqueous solutions as peculiar solutions, while pure water and ethanol aqueous solution were normal fluids. First, the authors adopted Wilhelmy's method to measure the surface tension during heating, but found that the influence of evaporation of the solution could not be completely eliminated. In this study, the maximum bubble pressure method was employed, which made it possible to isolate the measured solution from ambient air and eliminate the influence of evaporation of the solution. The authors succeeded in measuring the temperature dependence of surface tension, and obtained more reasonable data.

  16. Striatal dopamine D1 receptors in type 1 and 2 alcoholics measured with human whole hemisphere autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Tupala, Erkki; Tiihonen, Jari

    2005-01-01

    A considerable number of human and animal studies have implied the importance of dopamine system and alterations in dopamine receptors in the context of alcoholism. However, it has remained unclear if the alcohol-abuse related dopaminergic deficit is specifically associated with certain receptor subtype. The aim of this study was to compare putative alterations of dopamine D(1) receptors in caudate and putamen of nine type 1 alcoholics, eight type 2 alcoholics and 10 healthy controls by using [(3)H]SCH 23390 as a radioligand in postmortem human whole hemisphere autoradiography. In addition, we compared the present results to our earlier studies on dopamine transporters and dopamine D(2) receptors in these same subjects and evaluated the putative correlations of dopamine D(1) receptor densities between the nucleus accumbens and the above-mentioned structures. Our results show that alcoholics do not have significantly different striatal dopamine D(1) receptor densities compared to controls. Neither were there any significant correlations between the dopamine D(1) receptors and the two other dopamine binding sites. However, the correlations of the dopamine D(1) receptors between nucleus accumbens and dorsal striatal structures were consistently and mostly statistically significantly positive in alcoholics, but not in controls, which may suggest some pathology related to addiction. In addition, considering the facts that dopamine D(1) receptors were more abundant in the mesolimbic nucleus accumbens than in the caudate or putamen and that there was a strong tendency towards lower binding among type 1 alcoholics may suggest the importance of dopamine D(1) receptors in reward and/or alcoholism. PMID:15621009

  17. Validation of a Measure of College Students' Intoxicated Behaviors: Associations with Alcohol Outcome Expectancies, Drinking Motives, and Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmaas, Johann; Moeller, Scott; Woicik, Patricia Butler

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors aimed to develop a measure of college students' intoxicated behaviors and to validate the measure using scales assessing alcohol outcome expectancies, motives for drinking, and personality traits. Participants and Method Summary: The authors administered these measures and an inventory describing 50 intoxicated behaviors to…

  18. Measurement Control Workshop Instructional Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, Philip; Crawford, Cary; McGinnis, Brent

    2014-04-01

    A workshop to teach the essential elements of an effective nuclear materials control and accountability (MC&A) programs are outlined, along with the modes of Instruction, and the roles and responsibilities of participants in the workshop.

  19. Environmental Control Measures (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and home improvement stores. continue Controlling pollens and molds Another reason to avoid humidifiers is that high levels of humidity promote mold growth. If you must use a humidifier, change ...

  20. Hydrogen isotope measurements of organic acids and alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.

    2011-12-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by us and others as intermediary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II° quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample. Samples of carboxylic acid (C1 through C4) and alcohols (C1 through C4) were pyrolyzed at 200°C on a CDS Analytical. Inc. Model 5200° pyroprobe and passed through a Thermo Electron GC-MS-TC-IRMS system operating in continuous flow mode. The High Temperature Conversion step

  1. What U.S. Data Should be Used to Measure the Price Elasticity of Demand for Alcohol?*

    PubMed Central

    Ruhm, Christopher J.; Jones, Alison Snow; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Kerr, William C.; Terza, Joseph V.; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Pandian, Ravi S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines how estimates of the price elasticity of demand for beer vary with the choice of alcohol price series examined. Our most important finding is that the commonly used ACCRA price data are unlikely to reliably indicate alcohol demand elasticities—estimates obtained from this source vary drastically and unpredictably. As an alternative, researchers often use beer taxes to proxy for alcohol prices. While the estimated beer taxes elasticities are more stable, there are several problems with using taxes, including difficulties in accounting for cross-price effects. We believe that the most useful estimates reported in this paper are obtained using annual Uniform Product Code (UPC) “barcode” scanner data on grocery store alcohol prices. These estimates suggest relatively low demand elasticity, probably around −0.3, with evidence that the elasticities are considerably overstated in models that control for beer but not wine or spirits prices. PMID:23022631

  2. What U.S. data should be used to measure the price elasticity of demand for alcohol?

    PubMed

    Ruhm, Christopher J; Jones, Alison Snow; McGeary, Kerry Anne; Kerr, William C; Terza, Joseph V; Greenfield, Thomas K; Pandian, Ravi S

    2012-12-01

    This paper examines how estimates of the price elasticity of demand for beer vary with the choice of alcohol price series examined. Our most important finding is that the commonly used ACCRA price data are unlikely to reliably indicate alcohol demand elasticities-estimates obtained from this source vary drastically and unpredictably. As an alternative, researchers often use beer taxes to proxy for alcohol prices. While the estimated beer taxes elasticities are more stable, there are several problems with using taxes, including difficulties in accounting for cross-price effects. We believe that the most useful estimates reported in this paper are obtained using annual Uniform Product Code (UPC) "barcode" scanner data on grocery store alcohol prices. These estimates suggest relatively low demand elasticity, probably around -0.3, with evidence that the elasticities are considerably overstated in models that control for beer but not wine or spirits prices. PMID:23022631

  3. Effect of oral acamprosate on abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: the role of patient motivation.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J; Goodman, Anita M; Chabac, Sylvie; Lehert, Philippe

    2006-08-01

    This is the first US study to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acamprosate (Campral), a newly FDA-approved medication for maintaining abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence following alcohol withdrawal. We compared effects of the standard 2 g dose (n=258) and an exploratory 3 g dose of acamprosate (n=83) versus placebo (n=260), and evaluated drug safety in a double-blind, placebo-controlled 6-month trial conducted in 21 outpatient clinics across the US. Participants were 601 volunteers with current alcohol dependence recruited primarily by advertisement. All patients concomitantly received eight sessions of brief manual-guided counseling (www.alcoholfree.info). The main outcome measure was the percentage of alcohol-free days over the 6-month study. Self-report was validated by breath alcohol concentration, gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and collateral informant interviews. The percentage of abstinent days did not differ significantly across groups in a priori analysis (54.3% for placebo, 56.1% for 2 g, 60.7% for 3 g). Post-hoc analysis controlling for baseline variables and treatment exposure found acamprosate was associated with a significantly higher percentage of abstinent days than placebo (52.3% for placebo, 58.2% for 2 g, 62.7% for 3 g; P=0.01), with an even greater effect in the subgroup of 241 patients having a baseline goal of abstinence (58.1% for placebo, 70.0% for 2 g, 72.5% for 3 g; P=0.02). There were no deaths or serious drug-related adverse events. The US study findings suggest that acamprosate is safe and well tolerated in a broadly inclusive sample of alcoholics and appears effective in populations of patients motivated to have a treatment goal of abstinence. PMID:16546214

  4. Control point measurements on Mariner 9 pictures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements are given of the control points on the Mariner 9 pictures which were used in the computation of the June 1973 control net of Mars. The method of making the measurements is discussed along with the picture coordinate system and the removal of distortions. Table are presented of the 9804 measurements of 1645 points on 660 pictures.

  5. Cognitive Control Links Alcohol Use, Trait Disinhibition, and Reduced Cognitive Capacity: Evidence for Medial Prefrontal Cortex Dysregulation during Reward-Seeking Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Bogg, Tim; Fukunaga, Rena; Finn, Peter R.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2011-01-01

    Background Guided by the prediction of response-outcome theory of cognitive control (Alexander and Brown, 2010a), the present study examined reward-seeking medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activity as a common neuro-functional marker of excessive alcohol consumption, trait disinhibition, and reduced cognitive capacity; all of which have shown consistent patterns of covariation in previous psychometric research (e.g., Bogg and Finn, 2010). Methods A sample of 18-to-23-year-old university students with a heterogeneous prevalence of alcohol dependence was assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while completing a version of the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (Lejuez et al., 2002). A follow-back typical weekly alcohol consumption interview, self-report measures of trait disinhibition and IQ, and a complex span working memory task also were administered. Results Correlational region-of-interest analyses showed greater typical weekly alcohol consumption, greater trait disinhibition, and lower IQ were associated with greater reductions in mPFC activity during reward-seeking behaviors (successive inflation choices). The results also showed greater typical weekly alcohol consumption, greater trait disinhibition, and lower IQ were associated with greater increases in mPFC activity during reward-seeking outcomes (successive successful inflation outcomes). No significant relations with the measure of working memory were found. Conclusions The findings suggest mPFC activity during risk/reward appraisal and performance monitoring is a common neuro-functional feature of co-varying expressions of excessive alcohol consumption, trait disinhibition, and lower IQ. PMID:21992873

  6. Brain function during cognitive flexibility and white matter integrity in alcohol-dependent patients, problematic drinkers and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jochem M; van Holst, Ruth J; van den Brink, Wim; Veltman, Dick J; Caan, Matthan W A; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive flexibility has been associated with prefrontal white matter (WM) integrity in healthy controls (HCs), showing that lower WM integrity is associated with worse performance. Although both cognitive flexibility and WM integrity have been found to be aberrant in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients, the relationship between the two has never been tested. In this study, we investigated the association between WM tract density and cognitive flexibility in patients with AD (n = 26) and HCs (n = 22). In order to assess the influence of AD severity, we also included a group of problematic drinkers (PrDs; n = 23) who did not meet the AD criteria. Behavioral responses and brain activity during a cognitive flexibility task were measured during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Probabilistic fiber tracking was performed between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia; two crucial regions for task switching. Finally, the task-related functional connectivity between these areas was assessed. There were no significant group differences in the task performance. However, compared with HCs, AD patients and PrDs showed decreased WM integrity and increased prefrontal brain activation during task switching. Evidence is presented for a compensatory mechanism, involving recruitment of additional prefrontal resources in order to compensate for WM and neural function impairments in AD patients and PrDs. Although present in both alcohol groups, the PrDs were more successful in invoking this compensatory mechanism when compared to the AD patients. We propose that this may therefore serve as a protective factor, precluding transition from problematic drinking into alcohol dependence. PMID:25477246

  7. Are Alcohol Policies Associated with Alcohol Consumption in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Won Kim; Bond, Jason; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine the associations between alcohol control policies in four regulatory domains with alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries (LAMICs), controlling for country-level living standards and drinking patterns. Design Cross-sectional analyses of individual-level alcohol consumption survey data and country-level alcohol policies using multi-level modeling Setting Data from 15 LAMICs collected in the Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: an International Study (GENACIS) Participants Persons aged 18–65 Measurements Alcohol policy data compiled by the World Health Organization; individual-level current drinking status, usual quantity and frequency of drinking, binge drinking frequency, and total drinking volume; Gross Domestic Product based on purchasing power parity (GDP-PPP) per capita; detrimental drinking pattern scale; and age and gender as individual-level covariates Findings Alcohol policies regulating the physical availability of alcohol, particularly those concerning business hours or involving a licensing system for off-premises alcohol retail sales, as well as minimum legal drinking age, were the most consistent predictors of alcohol consumption. Aggregate relative alcohol price levels were inversely associated with all drinking variables (p<.05) except drinking volume. Greater restrictions on alcohol advertising, particularly beer advertising, were inversely associated with alcohol consumption (p<.05). Policies that set legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limits for drivers and random breath testing to enforce BAC limits were not significantly associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions Alcohol policies that regulate the physical availability of alcohol are associated with lower alcohol consumption in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24716508

  8. Alcohol Consumption-Related Metabolites in Relation to Colorectal Cancer and Adenoma: Two Case-Control Studies Using Serum Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Troche, Jose Ramon; Mayne, Susan T.; Freedman, Neal D.; Shebl, Fatma M.; Guertin, Kristin A.; Cross, Amanda J.; Abnet, Christian C.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is a known carcinogen that may be associated with colorectal cancer. However, most epidemiologic studies assess alcoholic beverage consumption using self-reported data, leading to potential exposure misclassification. Biomarkers of alcohol consumption may provide an alternative, complementary approach that reduces misclassification and incorporates individual differences in alcohol metabolism. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between previously identified alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer and adenoma using serum metabolomics data from two studies. Data on colorectal cancer were obtained from a nested case-control study of 502 US adults (252 cases, 250 controls) within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Data on colorectal adenoma were obtained from a case-control study of 197 US adults (120 cases, 77 controls) from the Navy Colon Adenoma Study. Unconditional multivariable logistic regression models were fit to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for eight alcohol consumption-related metabolites identified in a previous analysis: ethyl glucuronide; 4-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate 1; 5-alpha-androstan-3beta,17beta-diol disulfate; 16-hydroxypalmitate; bilirubin (E,Z or Z,E); cyclo (-leu-pro); dihomo-linoleate (20:2n6); and palmitoleate (16:1n7). We found no clear association between these alcohol consumption-related metabolites and either endpoint. However, we did observe an inverse association between cyclo (-leu-pro) and colorectal adenoma that was only observed in the highest metabolite quantile (OR 4th vs. 1st Quantile = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12–0.78; P-trend = 0.047), but no association for colorectal cancer. In conclusion, there were no adverse associations between alcohol consumption-related metabolites and colorectal cancer or adenoma. PMID:26967509

  9. The effect of acute alcohol intoxication on gut wall integrity in healthy male volunteers; a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    de Jong, W J; Cleveringa, A M; Greijdanus, B; Meyer, P; Heineman, E; Hulscher, J B

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the effect of acute alcohol consumption on enterocytes. Chronic alcohol consumption has been known to induce a decrease in gut wall integrity in actively drinking alcoholics and patients with alcohol-induced liver disease. Data on the extent of the damage induced by acute alcohol consumption in healthy human beings is scarce. Studies show that heavy incidental alcohol consumption is a growing problem in modern society. Data on this matter may provide insights into the consequences of this behavior for healthy individuals. In a randomized clinical trial in crossover design, 15 healthy volunteers consumed water one day and alcohol the other. One blood sample was collected pre-consumption, five every hour post-consumption, and one after 24 h. Intestinal fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) was used as a marker for enterocyte damage. Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were used as markers for hepatocyte damage. Lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) and soluble CD14 (sCD14) were used as a measure of translocation. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was used to assess the acute inflammatory response to endotoxemia. Alcohol consumption caused a significant increase in serum I- and L-FABP levels, compared to water consumption. Levels increased directly post-consumption and decreased to normal levels within 4 h. LBP, sCD14, and IL-6 levels were not significantly higher in the alcohol group. Moderate acute alcohol consumption immediately damages the enterocyte but does not seem to cause endotoxemia. PMID:25559494

  10. The effects of moderate alcohol supplementation on estrone sulfate and DHEAS in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Mahabir, Somdat; Baer, David J; Johnson, Laura L; Dorgan, Joanne F; Campbell, William; Brown, Ellen; Hartman, Terryl J; Clevidence, Beverly; Albanes, Demetrius; Judd, Joseph T; Taylor, Philip R

    2004-01-01

    Background We have demonstrated that moderate alcohol consumption (15 g/d, 30 g/d) for 8 weeks resulted in significantly increased levels of serum estrone sulfate and DHEAS in 51 postmenopausal women in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. We now report on the relationships between serum estrone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels after 4 weeks of moderate alcohol supplementation, and compare the results to the 8 weeks data to elucidate time-to-effect differences. Methods Postmenopausal women (n = 51) consumed 0 (placebo), 15 (1 drink), and 30 (2 drinks) g alcohol (ethanol)/ day for 8 weeks as part of a controlled diet in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, at 4 weeks and at 8 weeks. Changes in estrone sulfate and DHEAS levels from placebo to 15 g and 30 g alcohol per day were estimated using linear mixed models. Results and Discussion At week 4, compared to the placebo, estrone sulfate increased an average 6.9% (P = 0.24) when the women consumed 15 g of alcohol per day, and 22.2% (P = 0.0006) when they consumed 30 g alcohol per day. DHEAS concentrations also increased significantly by an average of 8.0% (P < 0.0001) on 15 g of alcohol per day and 9.2% (P < 0.0001) when 30 g alcohol was consumed per day. Trend tests across doses for both estrone sulfate (P = 0.0006) and DHEAS (P < 0.0001) were significant. We found no significant differences between the absolute levels of serum estrone sulfate at week 4 versus week 8 (P = 0.32) across all doses. However, absolute DHEAS levels increased from week 4 to week 8 (P < 0.0001) at all three dose levels. Conclusions These data indicate that the hormonal effects due to moderate alcohol consumption are seen early, within 4 weeks of initiation of ingestion. PMID:15353002

  11. Relationship between Controlled Attenuation Parameter and Hepatic Steatosis as Assessed by Ultrasound in Alcoholic or Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jem Ma; Paik, Yong-Han; Min, Sin Yeong; Cho, Ju Yeon; Sohn, Won; Sinn, Dong Hyun; Gwak, Geum-Youn; Choi, Moon Seok; Lee, Joon Hyeok; Koh, Kwang Cheol; Paik, Seung Woon; Yoo, Byung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and hepatic steatosis, as assessed by ultrasound (US) in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Methods Patients with either ALD or NAFLD who were diagnosed with fatty liver with US and whose CAP scores were measured, were retrospectively enrolled in this study. The degree of hepatic steatosis assessed by US was categorized into mild (S1), moderate (S2), and severe (S3). Results A total of 186 patients were included: 106 with NAFLD and 80 with ALD. Regarding hepatic steatosis, the CAP score was significantly correlated with US (ρ=0.580, p<0.001), and there was no significant difference between the NAFLD and ALD groups (ρ=0.569, p<0.001; ρ=0.519, p<0.001; p=0.635). Using CAP, area under receiver operating characteristic curves for ≥S2 and ≥S3 steatosis were excellent (0.789 and 0.843, respectively). For sensitivity ≥90%, CAP cutoffs for the detection of ≥S2 and ≥S3 steastosis were separated with a gap of approximately 35 dB/m in all patients and in each of the NAFLD and ALD groups. Conclusions The CAP score is well correlated with hepatic steatosis, as assessed by US, in both ALD and NAFLD. PMID:26347511

  12. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  13. Measurement control program for NDA instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Hsue, S.T.; Marks, T.

    1983-01-01

    Measurement control checks for nondestructive assay instruments have been a constant and continuing concern at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This paper summarizes the evolution of the measurement control checks in the various high-resolution gamma systems we have developed. In-plant experiences with these systems and checks will be discussed. Based on these experiences, a set of measurement control checks is recommended for high-resolution gamma-ray systems.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a behavioral economic intervention for alcohol and marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Yurasek, Ali M; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that a single 50-min supplemental session that targeted the behavioral economic mechanisms of substance-free reinforcement and delayed reward discounting (Substance-Free Activity Session: SFAS) enhanced the efficacy of a standard alcohol brief motivational intervention (BMI) for college drinkers. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial intended to replicate and extend the aforementioned study by focusing on both drug and alcohol misuse and reducing session length in order to enhance dissemination potential. Participants were 97 college students (58.8% women; 59.8% White/Caucasian, and 30.9% African American; M age = 20.01, SD = 2.23) who reported at least 1 heavy drinking episode in the past month (M = 4.01 episodes). Most participants (62%) reported recent marijuana use (M = 12.22 days of past-month use). After completing a baseline assessment and an individual 30-min alcohol-focused BMI, participants were randomized to either the 30-min SFAS session or an education control session. A series of mixed model intent-to-treat analyses revealed that both groups reported drinking reductions and that participants in the BMI + SFAS group reported fewer days using marijuana at the 6-month follow-up. These results do not support the incremental efficacy of the briefer SFAS for reducing drinking but suggest that it may improve marijuana outcomes. Future research is needed to identify the ideal length and timing of the SFAS supplement to BMIs. PMID:26191947

  15. Legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yörük, Barış K.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate the relationship between legalization of Sunday alcohol sales and alcohol consumption in the United States. Design State-level per capita consumption of beer, wine, and spirits was analyzed using difference-in-differences econometric methods. Setting United States. Participants 5 treatment states that repealed their laws restricting Sunday alcohol sales during 1990–2007 and 12 control states that retained their Sunday alcohol laws during the same period. Measurements Outcome measures are state-level per capita consumption of overall alcohol, beer, wine, and spirits. Findings Among the states that legalized Sunday sales of alcoholic beverages, Delaware, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico experienced significant increases in overall alcohol consumption (P<0.05). However, the effect of the legalization of Sunday alcohol sales in Massachusetts and Rhode Island on per capita alcohol consumption was insignificant (P=0.964 and P=0.367). Conclusions Three out of five states in the USA that repealed their laws restricting Sunday sale of alcoholic beverages during 1990–2007, experienced significant increases in per capita alcohol consumption. This finding implies that increased alcohol availability leads to an increase in alcohol consumption. PMID:24103041

  16. No association between alcohol supplementation and autoantibodies to DNA damage in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, S; Baer, D J; Johnson, L L; Frenkel, K; Dorgan, J F; Cambell, W; Hartman, T J; Clevidence, B; Albanes, D; Judd, J T; Taylor, P R

    2005-08-01

    Alcohol consumption is linked to increased breast cancer risk. Since oestrogens increase breast cancer risk, possibly through oxidative damage, and we have shown that alcohol consumption increases serum oestrogens, we tested whether moderate alcohol supplementation increased oxidative DNA damage among healthy postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy in a randomized controlled crossover study. We used serum 5-hydroxymethyl-2-deoxyuridine (5-HMdU) autoantibodies (aAbs) as a marker of oxidative DNA damage. The results showed no evidence for increased or decreased levels of oxidative DNA damage among women who consumed 15 g or 30 g alcohol per day for 8 weeks compared with women in the 0 g alcohol group. We conclude that among healthy women, it is possible that an 8-week trial of moderate alcohol supplementation might be too short to make enough 5-HMdU aAbs to compare differences by alcohol dose. In future studies, a panel of biomarkers for DNA damage should be used. PMID:16030435

  17. The effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in alcohol dependence treatment - a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The lipid fraction of cell membranes consists of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS), and chronic alcohol use alters it, modifying its permeability, what might contribute for the dysfunctional metabolism observed in the central nervous system of alcohol dependent patients. Therefore, the supplementation of PUFAS can be an important adjuvant in alcoholism treatment. Methods This was a placebo controlled, double blind, randomized study where, 80 alcohol dependent patients, according to DSM-IV, were allocated in four groups with 20 patient each: 'PUFAS', 'Naltrexone', 'Naltrexone + PUFAS' and 'Placebo'. Those substances were administered for 90 days and scales were applied to assess patients craving (OCDS) and alcohol dependence severity (SADD) at baseline and after 90 days. PUFAS serum levels were assessed before and after treatment by high performance liquid chromatography assay. Results Forty-three patients completed the trial. There was a significant improvement over time on drinking days, SADD and OCDS scores in all groups (p < 0.001). The drinking days comparison between groups did not show statistical significant difference. The same effect was observed for compulsion (OCDS) and severity of dependence scale (SADD). The serum levels of PUFAS increased in all the supplemented groups after treatment, although not significantly. Conclusions The oral supplementation of 2 g PUFAS for 3 months did not significantly differ from placebo in reducing the amount of alcohol ingestion, or OCDS and SADD scores in a group of alcohol dependent patient. Trial registration NCT01211769 PMID:21787433

  18. Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Test the Effectiveness of a Web-Based Brief Alcohol Intervention Over Time Among Heavy-Drinking Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based brief alcohol interventions are effective in reducing alcohol use among students when measured at limited follow-up time points. To date, no studies have tested Web-based brief alcohol intervention effectiveness over time by using a large number of measurements. Objective Testing whether the What Do You Drink (WDYD) Web-based brief alcohol intervention can sustain a reduction in alcohol use among heavy-drinking students aged 18-24 years at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals. Methods A purely Web-based, 2-arm, parallel-group randomized controlled trial applying an ecological momentary assessment approach with 30 weekly measurements was conducted in the Netherlands (2010-2011). Participants were recruited offline and online. A total of 907 participants were randomized into the experimental condition (n=456) including the single-session and fully automated WDYD intervention, or into the control condition (n=451) including assessment only. Weekly alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were the self-assessed outcome measures. Results Attrition rates of the 907 participants were 110 (12.1%), 130 (14.3%), and 162 (17.9%) at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up intervals, respectively. Latent growth curve analyses according to the intention-to-treat principle revealed that participants in the experimental condition had significantly lower weekly alcohol consumption compared to participants in the control condition that was sustained at 3-month follow-up (intercept=–2.60, P<.001; slope=0.16, P=.08). Additional linear regression analyses indicated that this intercept difference resulted from significantly higher levels of alcohol units per week for participants in the control condition compared to those in the experimental condition at 1-month (beta=–2.56, SE 0.74, Cohen’s d=0.20, P=.001), 3-month (beta=–1.76, SE 0.60, Cohen’s d=0.13, P=.003), and 6-month (beta=–1.21, SE 0.58, Cohen’s d=0.09, P=.04) follow-up intervals. Latent

  19. Alcohol dependence associated with increased utilitarian moral judgment: a case control study.

    PubMed

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas. PMID:22761922

  20. Alcohol Dependence Associated with Increased Utilitarian Moral Judgment: A Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Guterstam, Joar; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that emotional processes, mediated by the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPC), are of great importance for moral judgment. Neurological patients with VMPC dysfunction have been shown to generate increased utilitarian moral judgments, i.e. are more likely to endorse emotionally aversive actions in order to maximize aggregate welfare, when faced with emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Patients with alcohol dependence (AD) also exhibit impairments in functions mediated by the prefrontal cortex, but whether they exhibit increased utilitarian moral reasoning has not previously been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate moral judgment in AD patients (n = 20) compared to healthy controls (n = 20) matched by sex, age and education years. Each subject responded to a battery of 50 hypothetical dilemmas categorized as non-moral, moral impersonal and moral personal. They also responded to a questionnaire evaluating explicit knowledge of social and moral norms. Results confirmed our hypothesis that AD patients generated increased utilitarian moral judgment compared to controls when faced with moral personal dilemmas. Crucially, there was no difference in their responses to non-moral or impersonal moral dilemmas, nor knowledge of explicit social and moral norms. One possible explanation is that damage to the VMPC, caused by long term repeated exposure to alcohol results in emotional dysfunction, predisposing to utilitarian moral judgment. This work elucidates a novel aspect of the neuropsychological profile of AD patients, namely a tendency to generate utilitarian moral judgment when faced with emotionally salient moral personal dilemmas. PMID:22761922

  1. Measurement and control for mechanical compressive stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Ye, Guang; Pan, Lan; Wu, Xiushan

    2001-12-01

    At present, the indirect method is applied to measuring and controlling mechanical compressive stress, which is the measurement and control of rotating torque of screw with torque transducer during screw revolving. Because the friction coefficient between every screw-cap and washer, of screw-thread is different, the compressive stress of every screw may is different when the machinery is equipped. Therefore, the accurate measurement and control of mechanical compressive stress is realized by the direct measurement of mechanical compressive stress. The author introduces the research of contrast between compressive stress and rotating torque in the paper. The structure and work principle of a special washer type transducer is discussed emphatically. The special instrument cooperates with the washer type transducer for measuring and controlling mechanical compressive stress. The control tactics based on the rate of compressive stress is put to realize accurate control of mechanical compressive stress.

  2. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 3. Recommendations on alcohol consumption. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, NR; Ashley, MJ; Carruthers, SG; Lacourciere, Y; McKay, DW

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide updated, evidence-based recommendations concerning the effects of alcohol consumption on the prevention and control of hypertension in otherwise healthy adults (except pregnant women). OPTIONS: There are 2 main options for those at risk for hypertension: avert the condition by limiting alcohol consumption or by using other nonpharmacologic methods, or maintain or increase the risk of hypertension by making no change in alcohol consumption. The options for those who already have hypertension include decreasing alcohol consumption or using another nonpharmacologic method to reduce hypertension; commencing, continuing or intensifying antihypertensive medication; or taking no action and remaining at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. OUTCOMES: The health outcomes considered were changes in blood pressure and in morbidity and mortality rates. Because of insufficient evidence, no economic outcomes were considered. EVIDENCE: A MEDLINE search was conducted for the period 1966-1996 with the terms ethyl alcohol and hypertension. Other relevant evidence was obtained from the reference lists of articles identified, from the personal files of the authors and through contacts with experts. The articles were reviewed, classified according to study design, and graded according to the level of evidence. VALUES: A high value was placed on the avoidance of cardiovascular morbidity and premature death caused by untreated hypertension. BENEFITS, HARMS AND COSTS: A reduction in alcohol consumption from more than 2 standard drinks per day reduces the blood pressure of both hypertensive and normotensive people. The lowest overall mortality rates in observational studies were associated with drinking habits that were within these guidelines. Side effects and costs were not measured in any of the studies. RECOMMENDATIONS: (1) It is recommended that health care professionals determine how much alcohol their patients consume. (2) To reduce blood pressure in the

  3. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.

    2011-01-01

    One possible process responsible for methane generation on Mars is abiotic formation by Fischer-Tropsch-type (FTT) synthesis during serpentinization reactions. Measurement of carbon and hydrogen isotopes of intermediary organic compounds can help constrain the origin of this methane by tracing the geochemical pathway during formation. Of particular interest within the context of this work is the isotopic composition of organic intermediaries produced on the surfaces of mineral catalysts (i.e. magnetite) during hydrothermal experiments, and the ability to make meaningful and reproducible hydrogen isotope measurements. Reported here are results of experiments to characterize the hydrogen isotope composition of low molecular weight organic acids and alcohols. The presence of these organic compounds has been suggested by others as intermeadiary products made during mineral surface catalyzed reactions. This work compliments our previous study characterizing the carbon isotope composition of similar low molecular weight intermediary organic compounds (Socki, et al, American Geophysical Union Fall meeting, Abstr. #V51B-2189, Dec., 2010). Our hydrogen isotope measurements utilize a unique analytical technique combining Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometry-High Temperature Conversion-Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (Py-GC-MS-TC-IRMS). Our technique is unique in that it carries a split of the pyrolyzed GC-separated product to a Thermo DSQ-II? quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making qualitative and semi-quantitative compositional measurements of separated organic compounds, therefore both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out simultaneously on the same sample.

  4. Rescue of infralimbic mGluR2 deficit restores control over drug-seeking behavior in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Hansson, Anita C; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Bauder, Christina; Stählin, Oliver; Heilig, Markus; Harper, Clive; Drescher, Karla U; Spanagel, Rainer; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2013-01-01

    A key deficit in alcohol dependence is disrupted prefrontal function leading to excessive alcohol seeking, but the molecular events underlying the emergence of addictive responses remain unknown. Here we show by convergent transcriptome analysis that the pyramidal neurons of the infralimbic cortex are particularly vulnerable for the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol intoxication. These neurons exhibit a pronounced deficit in mGluR2. Also, alcohol dependent rats do not respond to mGluR2/3 agonist treatment with reducing extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens. Together these data imply a loss of autoreceptor feedback control. Alcohol dependent rats show escalation of ethanol seeking, which was abolished by restoring mGluR2 expression in the infralimbic cortex via viral-mediated gene transfer. Human anterior cingulate cortex from alcoholic patients shows a significant reduction in mGluR2 transcripts compared to control subjects suggesting that mGluR2 loss in the rodent and human cortico-accumbal neurocircuitry may be a major consequence of alcohol dependence and a key pathophysiological mechanism mediating increased propensity to relapse. Normalization of mGluR2 function within this brain circuit may be of therapeutic value. PMID:23407939

  5. Effects of Alcohol- and Cigarette-Use Disorders on Global and Specific Measures of Cognition in Middle-Age Adults*

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Kristin; Arndt, Stephan; Yucuis, Rebecca; McKirgan, Lowell; Spinks, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of alcohol-and tobacco-use disorders on global and specific cognitive abilities in middle age. Method: The sample consisted of 118 men and 169 women ranging in age from 31 to 60 years (M [SD] = 43.59 [6.58]). Lifetime diagnoses were determined from a semistructured interview. Information about current levels of alcohol and cigarette use was also collected. A comprehensive neurocognitive assessment measuring global cognition, memory, and executive-functioning abilities was administered. Baseline cognition was estimated from average composite scores of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills school-achievement tests administered from third through eighth grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used. Covariates comprised baseline cognition, current depression symptoms, and medication use. Results: Lifetime alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders were not associated with cognition among men. Women having a diagnosis of tobacco dependence (according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [DSM-IV]) performed less well on measures of global cognition and executive functioning. A lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol abuse or dependence was associated with higher working memory among women only. Conclusions: These results demonstrate few negative effects of alcohol-use disorders on midlife cognition, especially if current consumption is light. Differential susceptibility to the effects of cigarette use on cognition was found with women showing greater deficits in visuospatial abilities, processing speed, and executive-functioning abilities. PMID:20230716

  6. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  7. [Control and measure of zoonoses].

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro

    2006-03-01

    A world trend such as the free trade agreement (FTA) promoted by the World Trade Organization ( WTO) results in an expansion of both importation and exportation of industrial materials, grain, food products and domestic animals, as well as pets and wild animals. Nowadays not only foods but also various kinds of animals are arrived from all over the world to Japan, and an increase in the risk for invasion of zoonoses from abroad to Japan has been pointed out for many years. Actually, BSE, O-157, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) etc., invaded into Japan within recent several years, and a possibility of the outbreak of rabies, plaque or tularemia which might be introduced by imported animals is still high. In this article, I discuss the risk for zoonoses from the following points. They are "from animal to human, background of the world wide expansion of zoonoses, a warning to human being from nature, zoonosis control strategy, and future problems on zoonosis to be dissolved". PMID:16629488

  8. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the... of Part 1980—Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control (I) Design Policy. The borrower shall ensure or cause to be ensured that: (A) All project facilities...

  9. Psychometric validation of measures of alcohol expectancies, retrospective subjective response, and positive drinking consequences for use with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Morean, M E; Zellers, S; Tamler, M; Krishnan-Sarin, S

    2016-07-01

    The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS), the Subjective Effects of Alcohol Scale, and the Positive Drinking Consequences Questionnaire (PDCQ) are psychometrically sound measures of alcohol expectancies (expectancies), subjective response to alcohol, and positive drinking consequences, respectively, for use with adults. Prior research using these measures suggests that expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences are related yet distinct determinants of drinking. The current study presents psychometric evaluations of these measures for use with adolescents including confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the previously identified latent structures, internal consistency, and test-criterion relationships. Legally, alcohol cannot be administered to adolescents, so we assessed retrospective subjective response (during the first drinking episode ever [SEAS First] and the most recent drinking episode [SEAS Recent]). The sample comprised 248 Connecticut high school students (53.6% male; mean age 16.50 [1.19] years; 71.4% White) who completed an anonymous survey. CFA confirmed the latent factor structures for each measure. The AEAS, SEAS First, SEAS Recent and the PDCQ were internally consistent (mean α AEAS=0.83; SEAS First=0.88; SEAS Recent=0.89, PDCQ=0.87). AEAS subscales evidenced moderate overlap with corresponding SEAS First subscales (mean=0.36) and SEAS Recent subscales (mean=0.46) and modest overlap with the PDCQ (mean=0.17). Expectancies, subjective response, and positive drinking consequences also accounted for significant variance in monthly drinking, lifetime maximum number of drinks consumed, and alcohol-related problems. In sum, the AEAS, the retrospective SEAS, and the PDCQ are psychometrically sound measures for use with adolescents. PMID:26967911

  10. Measurement control administration for nuclear materials accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Rudy, C.R.

    1991-01-31

    In 1986 a measurement control program was instituted at Mound to ensure that measurement performance used for nuclear material accountability was properly monitored and documented. The organization and management of various aspects of the program are discussed. Accurate measurements are the basis of nuclear material accountability. The validity of the accountability values depends on the measurement results that are used to determine inventories, receipts, and shipments. With this measurement information, material balances are calculated to determine losses and gains of materials during a specific time period. Calculation of Inventory Differences (ID) are based on chemical or physical measurements of many items. The validity of each term is dependent on the component measurements. Thus, in Figure 1, the measured element weight of 17 g is dependent on the performance of the particular measurement system that was used. In this case, the measurement is performed using a passive gamma ray method with a calibration curve determined by measuring representative standards containing a range of special nuclear materials (Figure 2). One objective of a measurement control program is to monitor and verify the validity of the calibration curve (Figure 3). In 1986 Mound's Nuclear Materials Accountability (NMA) group instituted a formal measurement control program to ensure the validity of the numbers that comprise this equation and provide a measure of how well bulk materials can be controlled. Most measurements used for accountability are production measurements with their own quality assurance programs. In many cases a measurement control system is planned and maintained by the developers and operators of the particular measurement system with oversight by the management responsible for the results. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  11. Village Alcohol Control and the Local Option Law. A Report to the Alaska State Legislature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonner, Thomas D.; Duff, J. Kenneth

    This is a report on Alaska's "local option law" which allows villages to choose one of the following four options on alcohol availability in their communities: (1) the sale of alcoholic beverages is prohibited unless sold under a community liquor license; (2) the sale of alcoholic beverages is limited to one of several types of retail licenses…

  12. The relationship between alcohol taxes and binge drinking: evaluating new tax measures incorporating multiple tax and beverage types

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Heeren, Timothy C.; Nelson, Toben F.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims U.S. studies contribute heavily to the literature about the tax elasticity of demand for alcohol, and most U.S. studies have relied upon specific excise (volume-based) taxes for beer as a proxy for alcohol taxes. The purpose of this paper was to compare this conventional alcohol tax measure with more comprehensive tax measures (incorporating multiple tax and beverage types) in analyses of the relationship between alcohol taxes and adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. Design Data on U.S. state excise, ad valorem and sales taxes from 2001 to 2010 were obtained from the Alcohol Policy Information System and other sources. For 510 state-year strata, we developed a series of weighted tax-per-drink measures that incorporated various combinations of tax and beverage types, and related these measures to state-level adult binge drinking prevalence data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys. Findings In analyses pooled across all years, models using the combined tax measure explained approximately 20% of state binge drinking prevalence, and documented more negative tax elasticity (−0.09, P=0.02 versus −0.005, P=0.63) and price elasticity (−1.40, P<0.01 versus −0.76, P=0.15) compared with models using only the volume-based tax. In analyses stratified by year, the R-squares for models using the beer combined tax measure were stable across the study period (P=0.11), while the R-squares for models rely only on volume-based tax declined (P<0.01). Conclusions Compared with volume-based tax measures, combined tax measures (i.e. those incorporating volume-based tax and value-based taxes) yield substantial improvement in model fit and find more negative tax elasticity and price elasticity predicting adult binge drinking prevalence in U.S. states. PMID:25428795

  13. Personality disorder, emotional intelligence, and locus of control of patients with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Om; Sharma, Neelu; Singh, Amool R.; Sengar, K. S.; Chaudhury, Suprakash; Ranjan, Jay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess personality disorder (PD), emotional intelligence (EI), and locus of control of alcohol dependent (AD) patients and its comparison with normal controls. Materials and Methods: Based on purposive sampling technique, 33 AD patients were selected from the De-Addiction Ward of Ranchi Institute of Neuro-Psychiatry and Allied Sciences (RINPAS) and 33 matched normal subjects were selected from Ranchi and nearby places. Both the groups were matched on various sociodemographic parameters, that is, age, gender, and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III, Mangal EI Inventory, and Locus of Control scale. Obtained responses were scored by using standard scoring procedures and subsequently statistically analyzed by using Chi-square test. Results: AD patients have more comorbid pathological personality traits and disorders in comparison to their normal counterparts. Depressive, narcissistic, and paranoid PDs were prominent among AD group; followed by schizotypal, antisocial, negativistic, dependent, schizoid, sadistic, masochistic, and borderline PD. In comparison to normal participants, AD patients were significantly deficient in almost all the areas of EI and their locus of control was externally oriented. Conclusion: Patients with AD have significantly higher PDs, low EI, and an external orientation on the locus of control. Identification and management of these comorbid conditions are likely to improve the management and outcome of AD. PMID:26257482

  14. Linkage disequilibria at the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor locus (DRD2) in alcoholics and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Suarez, B.K.; Parsian, A.; Hampe, C.L.; Todd, R.D.; Reich, T.; Cloninger, C.R. )

    1994-01-01

    Because of its central role in the neuromodulation of appetitive behaviors, the D[sub 2] dopamine receptor gene (DRD2) has received considerable scrutiny as a possible candidate that may affect susceptibility to addictive behaviors--especially alcoholism. Association studies that compare the frequencies of anonymous restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in alcoholics and controls have yielded equivocal results, suggesting that any role played by this receptor will account for only part of the variation. Since these RFLPs are not located in coding regions, the hypothesis has been advanced that the association seen in some studies results from linkage disequilibrium between these markers and one or more functional DRD2 alleles that affect susceptibility. To test this hypothesis, the authors have assayed four DRD2 RFLPs that span coding regions as well as a 3[prime] flanking RFLP in an expanded sample of 88 unrelated Caucasian alcoholics and 89 unrelated race-matched controls. No significant difference for any RFLP frequency between these samples was observed, although for one marker (phD2-244), the alcoholic sample showed a significant departure from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The pattern of pairwise composite disequilibrium coefficients is broadly similar in the two samples, although when the five-marker haplotype frequencies are compared, a significant difference is revealed. This difference appears to be due to greater linkage disequilibrium of the control sample. These results do not support the involvement of the DRD2 region in the etiology of alcoholism. 64 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Frequency Control Performance Measurement and Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Illian, Howard F.

    2010-12-20

    Frequency control is an essential requirement of reliable electric power system operations. Determination of frequency control depends on frequency measurement and the practices based on these measurements that dictate acceptable frequency management. This report chronicles the evolution of these measurements and practices. As technology progresses from analog to digital for calculation, communication, and control, the technical basis for frequency control measurement and practices to determine acceptable performance continues to improve. Before the introduction of digital computing, practices were determined largely by prior experience. In anticipation of mandatory reliability rules, practices evolved from a focus primarily on commercial and equity issues to an increased focus on reliability. This evolution is expected to continue and place increased requirements for more precise measurements and a stronger scientific basis for future frequency management practices in support of reliability.

  16. Carbon and Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Alcohols and Organic Acids by Online Pyroprobe-GC-IRMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Socki, Richard A.; Fu, Qi; Niles, Paul B.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The detection of methane in the atmosphere of Mars, combined with evidence showing widespread water-rock interaction during martian history, suggests that the production of methane on Mars may be the result of mineral surface-catalyzed CO2 and or CO reduction during Fisher-Tropsch Type (FTT) reactions. A better understanding of these reaction pathways and corresponding C and H isotope fractionations is critical to deciphering the synthesis of organic compounds produced under abiotic hydrothermal conditions. Described here is a technique for the extraction and analysis of both C and H isotopes from alcohols (C1-C4) and organic acids (C1-C6). This work is meant to provide a "proof of concept" for making meaningful isotope measurements on complex mixtures of solid-phase hydrocarbons and other intermediary products produced during high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis on mineral-catalyzed surfaces. These analyses are conducted entirely "on-line" utilizing a CDS model 5000 Pyroprobe connected to a Thermo Trace GC Ultra that is interfaced with a Thermo MAT 253 isotope ratio mass spectrometer operating in continuous flow mode. Also, this technique is designed to carry a split of the GC-separated product to a DSQ II quadrupole mass spectrometer as a means of making semi-quantitative compositional measurements. Therefore, both chemical and isotopic measurements can be carried out on the same sample.

  17. Alcohol Consumption and Nearly Lethal Suicide Attempts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Kenneth E.; Kresnow, Marcie-jo; Mercy, James A.; Potter, Lloyd B.; Swann, Alan C.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; Lee, Roberta K.; Bayer, Timothy L.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case-control study of the association between nearly lethal suicide attempts and facets of alcohol consumption; namely, drinking frequency, drinking quantity, binge drinking, alcoholism, drinking within 3 hours of suicide attempt, and age began drinking. In bivariate analyses, all measures were associated with nearly lethal suicide…

  18. [Alcoholic extract of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) on the control of Boophilus microplus in cattle].

    PubMed

    Heimerdinger, Arli; Olivo, Clair J; Molento, Marcelo B; Agnolin, Carlos A; Ziech, Magnos F; Scaravelli, Luciene Fernanda B; Skonieski, Fernando R; Both, José F; Charão, Pablo S

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) alcoholic extracts on the control of Boophilus microplus in naturally infested Holstein cows. Twelve animals were allocated in three groups of four animals. Group 1 was treated with amitraz at 0.025%, Group 2 was treated with lemongrass extracts at 1.36% and Group 3 with the same product at 2.72% of the plant. Engorged ticks were evaluated on animals with length superior to 4.0 mm, before (mean of days -3, -2, -1) and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 14 days after treatment. The mean efficacy of amitraz was 97.93%. Lemongrass extract at 2.72% reduced tick infestation by 40.3, 46.6 and 41.5% on day 3, 7 and 14 post-treatment, respectively. PMID:16647001

  19. Alcoholism in the Families of Origin of MSW Students: Estimating the Prevalence of Mental Health Problems Using Standardized Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Catherine A.; Hawkins, Raymond C., II

    1996-01-01

    A 1991 study of 136 graduate social work students determined students' status as adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) by self-report and standardized screening test scores, and evaluated mental health functioning with four standardized measures. Results found that 47% of the social work students were ACAs, and not all (or only) ACAs were vulnerable…

  20. Exercise and spirulina control non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and lipid profile in diabetic Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is associated with metabolic dysfunctions, including alterations in circulating lipid levels and fat tissue accumulation, which causes, among other pathologies, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Aim of the study The objective of this study was to analyse the effects of physical exercise and spirulina intake on the control of NAFLD in diabetic Wistar rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in the animals through intravenous administration of alloxan. The rats were divided into four groups: Diabetic Control (DC) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and no physical exercise; Diabetic Spirulina (DS) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included spirulina; Diabetic Spirulina and Exercise (DSE) - diabetic rats fed with a diet that included Spirulina and that exercised; and Diabetic Exercise (DE) - diabetic rats fed with a control diet and that exercised. Results The groups DS, DSE, and DE presented lower plasma concentrations of LDL cholesterol than DC, as well as lower levels of total liver lipids in groups DS, DSE, and DE in comparison to DC. Conclusion Thus, spirulina appears to be effective in reducing total circulating levels of LDL-cholesterol and hepatic lipids, alone or in conjunction with physical exercise in diabetic rats. PMID:21569626

  1. Chlorhexidine alcohol base mouthrinse versus Chlorhexidine formaldehyde base mouthrinse efficacy on plaque control: Double blind, randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Lakhdar, Leila; Bouziane, Amal; Bensouda, Yahia; Abouqal, Redouane

    2013-01-01

    Background: Chlorhexidine is well known for its antiplaque effect. However, the mouthrinse based chlorhexidine antiplaque efficiency may vary according to the formulation of the final product. The aim of the present study was to compare anti-plaque effectiveness of two commercial mouthrinses: 0.12 % Chlorhexidine alcohol base (CLX-A) versus a diluted 0.1% Chlorhexidine non-alcohol base with 0.1% of Formaldehyde (CLX-F). Material and Methods: the study was a seven day randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 30 volunteers. At the start, all participants received a dental prophylaxis. Over 7 days experimental non-brushing period, during which subjects abstained from all forms of mechanical oral hygiene, one group test rinsed twice daily with 15ml of an alcohol base 0.12% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse. The second group test used 15ml of alcohol free 0.1% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse base 0.1% formaldehyde twice daily. The negative control group used a placebo. Plaque indexes were recorded in all volunteers prior to treatment at Day 0, 1 and 7. Results: After 7 days, the mean plaque index for the first group was 0.76±0.38 compared with a mean plaque index of 1.43±0.56 for the second group. The difference in plaque scores between the groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: the results of this study showed that rinsing with an alcohol base 0.12% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse is significantly different from rinsing with an alcohol free 0.1% Chlorhexidine mouthrinse on plaque inhibition. Key words:Chlorhexidine, dental plaque, mouthrinse, alcohol, formaldehyde. PMID:23229237

  2. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  3. [Comparing quality measurements Part 2: control charts].

    PubMed

    Kottner, Jan; Hauss, Armin

    2013-04-01

    Comparative quality measurements and evaluations in nursing play significant roles. Quality measures are affected by systematic and random error. Statistical Process Control (SPC) offers a method to take random variation adequately into account. In this article, control charts are introduced. Those are graphical displays to show quality measures over time. Attribute variables can be displayed by p-, u- and c-control charts. Special cause variations within the processes can be detected by rules. If signs for special cause variations are absent, the process in considered being in statistical control showing common cause variation. A deviation of one data point greater than three standard deviations from the arithmetic mean is considered the strongest signal for non random variation within the process. Within quality improvement contexts control charts outperform traditional comparisons of means and spreads. PMID:23535476

  4. The alcohol interlock: an underutilized resource for predicting and controlling drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2003-09-01

    the Monday-Friday timing of elevated BAC tests by hour are nearly identical for both provinces. The most elevated BAC tests occurred between 7 and 9 A.M. Monday to Friday, even though most vehicle start attempts occurred much later in the day. This higher rate of elevated morning BAC likely represents drinking from the prior evening with alcohol not yet cleared from circulation; those with elevated BAC in the early morning were more likely to have a repeat offense even after accounting for prior DUI and the higher overall rate of elevated BAC tests. This is viewed as evidence of a drinking problem that will lead to impaired driving after the controlling function of the interlock is removed. Policy changes are discussed that might take better advantage of interlock information to improve the public response to drunk driving. PMID:14522642

  5. The alcohol interlock: an underutilized resource for predicting and controlling drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Paul R; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2003-01-01

    % Alberta). Charts tracking the Monday-Friday timing of elevated BAC tests by hour are nearly identical for both provinces. The most elevated BAC tests occurred between 7 and 9 A.M. Monday to Friday, even though most vehicle start attempts occurred much later in the day. This higher rate of elevated morning BAC likely represents drinking from the prior evening with alcohol not yet cleared from circulation; those with elevated BAC in the early morning were more likely to have a repeat offense even after accounting for prior DUI and the higher overall rate of elevated BAC tests. This is viewed as evidence of a drinking problem that will lead to impaired driving after the controlling function of the interlock is removed. Policy changes are discussed that might take better advantage of interlock information to improve the public response to drunk driving. PMID:16801123

  6. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  7. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  8. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  9. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  10. 23 CFR 751.13 - Control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321), recycling of junk and scrap is to be encouraged to the greatest extent practicable in the implementation of the junkyard control program. Recycling should be considered in conjunction with other control measures. To facilitate recycling, junk or scrap should be moved to...

  11. Alcohol, drug and other prior crimes and risk of arrest in handgun purchasers: protocol for a controlled observational study

    PubMed Central

    Wintemute, Garen J; Kass, Philip H; Stewart, Susan L; Cerdá, Magdalena; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Alcohol abuse is common in the USA and is a well-established risk factor for violence. Other drug use and criminal activity are risk factors as well and frequently occur together with alcohol abuse. Firearm ownership is also common; there are >50 million firearm owners in the USA. This study assesses the relationships between alcohol and drug abuse and future violence among firearm owners, which no prior research has done. Design and study population This records-based retrospective cohort study will involve all persons who legally purchased handguns in California in 2001—approximately 116 000 individuals—with follow-up through the end of 2013. Methods The principal exposures include prior convictions for alcohol-related and drug-related offenses. The primary outcome measure is an arrest following handgun purchase for a violent Crime Index offense: homicide, rape, robbery or aggravated assault. Subjects will be considered at risk for outcome events for only as long as their residence in California can be established independently of outcome events. Covariates include individual characteristics (eg, age, sex, criminal history, firearm purchase history) and community characteristics (eg, demographics, socioeconomic measures, firearm ownership and alcohol outlet density). We will employ survival analytic methods, expressing effects as HRs. Discussion The results of this large-scale study are likely to be generalisable and to have important implications for violence prevention policies and programmes. PMID:26498316

  12. Organoselenium-catalyzed, hydroxy-controlled regio- and stereoselective amination of terminal alkenes: efficient synthesis of 3-amino allylic alcohols.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhimin; Wei, Jialiang; Liao, Lihao; Huang, Haiyan; Zhao, Xiaodan

    2015-04-17

    An efficient route to prepare 3-amino allylic alcohols in excellent regio- and stereoselectivity in the presence of bases by orangoselenium catalysis has been developed. In the absence of bases α,β-unsaturated aldehydes were formed in up to 97% yield. Control experiments reveal that the hydroxy group is crucial for the direct amination. PMID:25849818

  13. 7 CFR Appendix D to Subpart E of... - Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Alcohol Production Facilities Planning, Performing, Development and Project Control D Appendix D to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE...

  14. The Advanced Noise Control Fan Baseline Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAllister, Joseph; Loew, Raymond A.; Lauer, Joel T.; Stuliff, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center s (NASA Glenn) Advanced Noise Control Fan (ANCF) was developed in the early 1990s to provide a convenient test bed to measure and understand fan-generated acoustics, duct propagation, and radiation to the farfield. As part of a complete upgrade, current baseline and acoustic measurements were documented. Extensive in-duct, farfield acoustic, and flow field measurements are reported. This is a follow-on paper to documenting the operating description of the ANCF.

  15. Modelling respiratory infection control measure effects

    PubMed Central

    LIAO, C. M.; CHEN, S. C.; CHANG, C. F.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY One of the most pressing issues in facing emerging and re-emerging respiratory infections is how to bring them under control with current public health measures. Approaches such as the Wells–Riley equation, competing-risks model, and Von Foerster equation are used to prioritize control-measure efforts. Here we formulate how to integrate those three different types of functional relationship to construct easy-to-use and easy-to-interpret critical-control lines that help determine optimally the intervention strategies for containing airborne infections. We show that a combination of assigned effective public health interventions and enhanced engineering control measures would have a high probability for containing airborne infection. We suggest that integrated analysis to enhance modelling the impact of potential control measures against airborne infections presents an opportunity to assess risks and benefits. We demonstrate the approach with examples of optimal control measures to prioritize respiratory infections of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), influenza, measles, and chickenpox. PMID:17475088

  16. An Internet-Based Intervention to Promote Alcohol-Related Attitudinal and Behavioral Change Among Adolescents: Protocol of a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Ko-Ling; Chow, Chun-Bong; Lam, Tai-Hing; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Wilfred Hing-Sang; Wong, Margaret Fung-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background Underage drinking is a prevalent risk behavior and common public health problem. Research shows that alcohol abuse not only affects the quality of life of drinkers themselves. The problems resulting from underage drinking pose substantial costs to society as well. The proposed study will address underage drinking with the use of an Internet campaign, which is a cost-effective way of tackling the problem. Objective The aims of this study are to test the effectiveness of an online quiz competition in changing adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behavior and to explore the feasibility of using Internet viral marketing to reach a significant number of adolescents. Methods The study will constitute a cluster randomized controlled trial for 20 secondary schools (6720 Grade 7-9 students). Schools will be randomized to intervention or control arm with equal likelihood. Students in intervention schools will be invited to take part in the Internet campaign, whereas those in control schools will receive relevant promotional leaflets. Results Alcohol-related attitude and behavior will be the primary outcome measures. The results of the proposed study will provide evidence on the efficacy of an Internet intervention in modifying adolescents’ attitudes and behavior and guide further investigation into the prevention of and intervention in such risk behaviors as underage drinking. The project was funded July 2015, enrollment started September 2015, and results are expected July 2017. Conclusions With the Internet increasingly being recognized as a practical and cost-effective platform for health information delivery, the proposed Internet-based intervention is expected to be more effective in altering adolescents’ alcohol-related attitudes and behaviors than traditional health promotion. ClinicalTrial ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02450344; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02450344 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6heB2zMBD) PMID:27252072

  17. Comparison of two locus of control scales in predicting relapse in an alcoholic population.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E E; Nora, R M; Tan, B; Bustos, N

    1991-02-01

    A 3-mo. follow-up was made of 64 male veterans who were discharged from a 21-day Alcohol Detoxification Treatment Program at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center at Lyons, NJ. Scores on the Rotter I-E and Alcohol Responsibility Scales were significantly correlated with tendencies toward a more external direction among the 13% who relapsed, significant on the I-E scale and nonsignificant on the Alcohol Responsibility Scale. When tests were compared as possible predictor variables of alcoholic relapse, the difference in favor of the I-E scale was statistically nonsignificant. PMID:2038534

  18. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  19. Automatically-Activated Attitudes as Mechanisms for Message Effects: The Case of Alcohol Advertisements

    PubMed Central

    Goodall, Catherine E.; Slater, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol advertisements may influence impulsive, risky behaviors indirectly, via automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol. Results from an experiment in which participants were exposed to either four alcohol advertisements, four control advertisements, or four drunk driving public service advertisements, suggested that alcohol advertisements had more measurable effects on implicit, than on explicit attitude measures. Moreover, there were significant indirect paths from alcohol advertisement exposure through automatically-activated alcohol attitudes on willingness to engage in risky alcohol-related behaviors, notably drinking and driving. A mechanism that may explain how these advertisements activate automatic, non-deliberative alcohol attitudes was investigated. Associative evidence was found supportive of an evaluative conditioning mechanism, in which positive responses to an alcohol advertisement may lead to more positive automatically-activated attitudes toward alcohol itself. PMID:21258609

  20. Cytological changes in the oral mucosa after use of a mouth rinse with alcohol: A prospective double blind control study

    PubMed Central

    Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Marzal, Cristina; Pellín-Carcelén, Ana; Martí-Bonmatí, Ezequiel; Bagan, Leticia

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this preliminary study was to detect cytological changes in the oral mucosa after using a mouth wash with alcohol. Material and Methods: A prospective double-blind, controlled study was performed, for 6 months. Group 1 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with 26.9% of alcohol [Listerine®] and Group 2 consisted of 30 subjects who used a mouth rinse with the same ingredients but with no alcohol. We obtained three cytological samples from the oral mucosa. The presence of cytological atypia, binucleation and karyorrhesis, and type of cells were studied. We also used a fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) in 15 samples in each group, for the micronucleus. Results: We found no clinical mucosal alteration after using the mouth wash at the end of the study in either group. We observed no cytological differences between the groups at the end of the study (p>0.05). Regarding the study of the micronucleus by FISH, we observed no significant difference between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Our results showed no cytological alteration in patients using a mouth rinse with alcohol, but these findings should be considered preliminary results, to be confirmed in a greater sample of patients. Key words:Mouth wash, oral mucosa, cytological change, alcohol. PMID:23085712

  1. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  2. Psychiatric Morbidity is Linked to Problem Drinking in Midlife Among Alcohol-Dependent Men: A Co-Twin Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Blonigen, Daniel M.; Burroughs, Thomas; Haber, Jon Randolph; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Prior research on predictors of problem drinking has been limited because of an inability to attribute an unambiguous environmental explanation to observed findings. Using a prospective co-twin control design, we examined the extent to which a history of psychiatric symptoms exerts an environmental influence on problem drinking in midlife that is unconfounded by genetic underpinnings. Method: Participants were 367 complete male twin pairs (208 monozygotic, 159 dizygotic) from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were assessed in midlife as part of the Family Twin Study (Mage = 51.4 years, SD = 2.8). Twin pairs who were concordant for a lifetime diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) in 1992 were selected for participation and were reinterviewed in 2001 to measure symptoms of AUD (i.e., problem drinking) since the prior assessment (past 10 years). Results: Within-pair differences in lifetime symptom counts of several psychiatric disorders measured in 1992 (i.e., major depression, dysthymia, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, antisocial personality, mania, and posttraumatic stress disorder) were significantly associated with within-pair differences in AUD symptoms in the subsequent 10 years. Conclusions: A history of psychiatric problems, particularly one marked by internalizing symptoms, appears to be linked to problem drinking in midlife above and beyond the confounding influence of genetic effects and underscores the potential value of integrated interventions for comorbidity to address problem drinking among individuals during this period of the life course. PMID:23200159

  3. [Sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in Brazil: a study of the law bills from 1988 to 2004].

    PubMed

    Falcão, Isa Cristina Lopes; Rangel-S, Maria Ligia

    2010-11-01

    This study analyses law bills towards the sanitary control of alcohol advertisement in the mass media presented to the Brazilian Congress from 1988 to 2004. The sanitary control of this advertising is a controversial issue bringing about an ethical-political debate in which the health-protecting interests conflict with commercial ones even after scientific evidence has established increasing alcohol intake as a health and social issue worldwide. The content analysis of 67 of such law bills was carried out, and these proposals were shown to consist mostly of strategies to both cope with alcohol advertising by dissociating from the product those values that might interfere with the children and teenagers' building of their social identity and limit advertisement contents in the mass media given the higher vulnerability of the subjects in that age range. This study reveals complexes challenges for the control of alcohol advertisement that in turn lead to rethinking the action of the State apparatus in dealing with this major public health issue. PMID:21120331

  4. Electric field-controlled benzoic acid and sulphanilamide delivery from poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Niamlang, Sumonman; Paradee, Nophawan; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2012-12-01

    The controlled release of benzoic acid (3.31 Å) and sulphanilamide (3.47 Å) from poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA, hydrogels fabricated by solution casting at various cross-linking ratios, were investigated. The PVA hydrogels were characterized in terms of the degree of swelling, the molecular weight between cross-links, and the mesh size. The drug release experiment was carried out using a modified Franz diffusion cell, at a pH value of 5.5 and at temperature of 37°C. The amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficients of the drugs from the PVA hydrogels increased with decreasing cross-linking ratio, as a larger mesh size was obtained with lower cross-linking ratios. With the application of an electric field, the amount of drug release and the diffusion coefficient increased monotonically with increasing electric field strength, since the resultant electrostatic force drove the ionic drugs from the PVA matrix. The drug size, matrix pore size, electrode polarity, and applied electric field were shown to be influential controlling factors for the drug release rate. PMID:23065453

  5. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  6. Flaxseed supplementation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a pilot randomized, open labeled, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yari, Zahra; Rahimlou, Mehran; Eslamparast, Tannaz; Ebrahimi-Daryani, Naser; Poustchi, Hossein; Hekmatdoost, Azita

    2016-06-01

    A two-arm randomized open labeled controlled clinical trial was conducted on 50 patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Participants were assigned to take either a lifestyle modification (LM), or LM +30 g/day brown milled flaxseed for 12 weeks. At the end of the study, body weight, liver enzymes, insulin resistance and hepatic fibrosis and steatosis decreased significantly in both groups (p< 0.05); however, this reduction was significantly greater in those who took flaxseed supplementation (p < 0.05). The significant mean differences were reached in hepatic markers between flaxseed and control group, respectively: ALT [-11.12 compared with -3.7 U/L; P< 0.001], AST [-8.29 compared with -4 U/L; p < 0.001], GGT [-15.7 compared with -2.62 U/L; p < 0.001], fibrosis score [-1.26 compared with -0.77 kPa; p = 0.013] and steatosis score [-47 compared with -15.45 dB/m; p = 0.022]. In conclusion, flaxseed supplementation plus lifestyle modification is more effective than lifestyle modification alone for NAFLD management. PMID:26983396

  7. Relationship between omega-3 fatty acids and plasma neuroactive steroids in alcoholism, depression and controls.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, L R G; Makino, K K; Mehta, N; Virkkunen, M; Kim, H Y; Hibbeln, J R

    2006-01-01

    Deficiency in the long-chain omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with increased corticotropin releasing hormone and may contribute to hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA) hyperactivity. Elevated levels of the neuroactive steroids, allopregnanolone (3alpha,5alpha-THP) and 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (THDOC) appear to counter-regulate HPA hyperactivity. Plasma essential fatty acids and neurosteroids were assessed among 18 male healthy controls and among 34 male psychiatric patients with DSM-III alcoholism, depression, or both. Among all subjects, lower plasma DHA was correlated with higher plasma THDOC (r = -0.3, P < 0.05) and dihydroprogesterone (DHP) (r = -0.52, P < 0.05). Among psychiatric patients lower DHA was correlated with higher DHP (r = -0.60, P < 0.01), and among healthy controls lower plasma DHA was correlated with higher THDOC (r = -0.83, P < 0.01) and higher isopregnanolone (3beta,5alpha-THP) (r = -0.55, P < 0.05). In this pilot observational study, lower long-chain omega-3 essential fatty acid status was associated with higher neuroactive steroid concentrations, possibly indicating increased feedback inhibition of the HPA axis. PMID:16959481

  8. αCaMKII autophosphorylation controls the establishment of alcohol-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Easton, Alanna C; Lucchesi, Walter; Mizuno, Keiko; Fernandes, Cathy; Schumann, Gunter; Giese, K Peter; Müller, Christian P

    2013-09-01

    The autophosphorylation of alpha Ca2+ /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) is important for memory formation and is becoming increasingly implicated in the development of drug addiction. Previous work suggests that αCaMKII acts via the monoaminergic systems to facilitate the establishment of alcohol drinking behaviour. The present study aims to investigate whether αCaMKII autophosphorylation deficient αCaMKII(T286A) mice show a difference in the rewarding properties of alcohol (2 g/kg, i.p.), as measured by conditioned place preference (CPP). We found that alcohol-induced CPP could be established at an accelerated rate in αCaMKII(T286A) compared to wild type (WT) mice. Hyperactivity/hyper-arousal induced by the test environment was normalised by alcohol in the αCaMKII(T286A), but not WT mice. This effect could be conditioned to the test environment and may suggest enhanced negative reinforcing action of alcohol in αCaMKII autophosphorylation deficient mice. PMID:23732653

  9. Craving for Alcohol, Loss of Control, and Relapse: A Cognitive-Behavioral Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlatt, G. Alan

    This paper provides a critical review of the relapse process as traditionally defined within the medical or "disease" model of alcoholism. A detailed case study of a relapse is presented, as seen through the eyes of one alcoholic client. The sequence of events in this case study is used to illustrate the theoretical and experimental literature…

  10. Drinking and Driving among College Students: The Influence of Alcohol-Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Randomly selected full-time college students attending four-year colleges in 39 states completed a questionnaire about alcohol consumption and driving. The results revealed that 29 percent of the students drove after drinking some amount of alcohol 10 percent drove after drinking five or more drinks, and 23 percent rode with a driver who was high…

  11. The Influence of Parental Warmth and Control on Latino Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongro-Wilson, Cristina

    2008-01-01

    Latino adolescent alcohol use is related to substance use, later life addiction, and other negative outcomes. The lack of knowledge on parenting and the parent-youth relationship in Latino families in the context of acculturation and its affects on alcohol use prompted this study. Secondary data analysis using the Add Health data set indicates…

  12. The Effects of Low Self-Control and Delinquent Peers on Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use in a Sample of Saudi Arabian Youth.

    PubMed

    Beaver, Kevin M; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar; Alqurashi, Fathiyah H; Schwartz, Joseph A; Connolly, Eric J; Gajos, Jamie M

    2016-10-01

    A considerable amount of research has examined patterns of substance use and the potential explanations of it among samples from the United States and other industrialized nations. To date, however, no research has explored these issues in a sample of Saudi Arabian youth. The current study addressed this gap in the literature and examined the lifetime use of drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among Saudi Arabian youth. We also examined whether key measures from social learning theory and low self-control theory were able to account for patterns of usage. Data drawn from a sample of nearly 500 youth residing in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, were used. Analysis of the data revealed that 12.7% of youth had smoked cigarettes at least 1 time, 2.6% had consumed alcohol at least once, and 3.0% had used illegal drugs. Moreover, the results of rare-events logistic regression revealed that a measure of delinquent peers was the strongest and most consistent predictor of substance use, while a measure of low self-control was unrelated (or related in a direction opposite to that which was predicted) to the measures of substance use. PMID:25906778

  13. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  14. The case for stringent alcohol warning labels: lessons from the tobacco control experience.

    PubMed

    Al-hamdani, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    Like cigarettes, alcohol is a social drug associated with considerable health and social costs. Relative to cigarettes, regulators worldwide have imposted very modest restrictions in its advertisements. Studies on alcohol health warnings show that they do not have a strong effect on influencing recall, perceptions, and behaviors. Poorly visible and ambiguous health warnings plus the absence of pictorial warnings muddy previous studies. This study takes a different approach, extracting lessons from cigarette health warnings literature for application to the alcohol health warnings' research and practice. I recommend the development of direct health warnings; increase in visibility of the warnings; incorporation of pictorial health warnings; and consideration of plain packaging for alcohol products. A toolkit of these best practices could advance the case for stringent alcohol health warnings policies. PMID:24257632

  15. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery. PMID:26351630

  16. Synthesis and Properties of pH-, Thermo-, and Salt-Sensitive Modified Poly(aspartic acid)/Poly(vinyl alcohol) IPN Hydrogel and Its Drug Controlled Release

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jingqiong; Li, Yinhui; Hu, Deng; Chen, Xiaoling; Liu, Yongmei; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Yansheng

    2015-01-01

    Modified poly(aspartic acid)/poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating polymer network (KPAsp/PVA IPN) hydrogel for drug controlled release was synthesized by a simple one-step method in aqueous system using poly(aspartic acid) grafting 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (KH-550) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as materials. The hydrogel surface morphology and composition were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal stability was analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The swelling properties and pH, temperature, and salt sensitivities of KPAsp, KPAsp/PVA semi-interpenetrating polymer network (semi-IPN), and KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels were also investigated. All of the three hydrogels showed ampholytic pH-responsive properties, and swelling behavior was also extremely sensitive to the temperature, ionic strength, and cationic species. Finally, the drug controlled release properties of the three hydrogels were evaluated and results indicated that three hydrogels could control drug release by external surroundings stimuli. The drug controlled release properties of KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogel are the most outstanding, and the correlative measured release profiles of salicylic acid at 37°C were 32.6 wt% at pH = 1.2 (simulated gastric fluid) and 62.5 wt% at pH = 7.4 (simulated intestinal fluid), respectively. These results indicated that KPAsp/PVA IPN hydrogels are a promising carrier system for controlled drug delivery. PMID:26351630

  17. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication - A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = - 1.18), binge drinking (d = - 1.61) and drunkenness (d = - 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  18. Effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored emergency-room intervention among adolescents admitted to hospital due to acute alcohol intoxication — A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wurdak, Mara; Wolstein, Jörg; Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and test the effectiveness of a drinking-motive-tailored intervention for adolescents hospitalized due to alcohol intoxication in eight cities in Germany between December 2011 and May 2012 against a similar, non-motive-tailored intervention. In a randomized controlled trial, 254 adolescents received a psychosocial intervention plus motive-tailored (intervention group; IG) or general exercises (control group; CG). Adolescents in the IG received exercises in accordance with their drinking motives as indicated at baseline (e.g. alternative ways of spending leisure time or dealing with stress). Exercises for the CG contained alcohol-related information in general (e.g. legal issues). The data of 81 adolescents (age: M = 15.6, SD = 1.0; 42.0% female) who participated in both the baseline and the follow-up were compared using ANOVA with repeated measurements and effect sizes (available case analyses). Adolescents reported lower alcohol use at the four-week follow-up independently of the kind of intervention. Significant interaction effects between time and IG were found for girls in terms of drinking frequency (F = 7.770, p < 0.01) and binge drinking (F = 7.0005, p < 0.05) but not for boys. For the former, the proportional reductions and corresponding effect sizes of drinking frequency (d = − 1.18), binge drinking (d = − 1.61) and drunkenness (d = − 2.87) were much higher than the .8 threshold for large effects. Conducting psychosocial interventions in a motive-tailored way appears more effective for girls admitted to hospital due to alcohol intoxication than without motive-tailoring. Further research is required to address the specific needs of boys in such interventions. (German Clinical Trials Register, DRKS ID: DRKS00005588). PMID:26844193

  19. Evaluating a Brief, Internet-Based Intervention for Co-Occurring Depression and Problematic Alcohol Use in Young People: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Teesson, Maree; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Mills, Katherine L

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression and alcohol misuse represent two of the major causes of disease burden in young adults. These conditions frequently co-occur and this co-occurrence is associated with increased risks and poorer outcomes than either disorder in isolation. Integrated treatments have been shown to be effective, however, there remains a significant gap between those in need of treatment and those receiving it, particularly in young people. The increased availability of Internet-based programs to complement health care presents a unique opportunity in the treatment of these conditions. Objective The objective of our study was to evaluate whether a brief, Internet-based, self-help intervention (the DEAL [DEpression-ALcohol] Project) can be effective in treating co-occurring depression and problematic alcohol use in young people (18-25 years old). Methods The evaluation will take the form of a randomized controlled trial (RCT), comparing the DEAL Project with an attention-control condition (HealthWatch). The RCT will consist of a four-week intervention phase and a 24-week follow-up. It will be entirely Internet-based and open Australia-wide to young people 18 to 25 years old. The primary outcomes will be change in depression symptoms and alcohol use at 5, 12, and 24 weeks post baseline. Secondary outcomes include change in general functioning and quality of life, anxiety/stress symptomatology, and a number of other depression/alcohol related outcomes. Process analysis will also measure engagement across the conditions. Results This study is currently ongoing with preliminary results expected in late 2014. Conclusions This study, to our knowledge, will be the first RCT of a Internet-based treatment for comorbid depression and problematic alcohol use in any age group. If successful, the program represents a novel and innovative approach to addressing the significant harms associated with these conditions and will be an invaluable resource to those not receiving help

  20. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  1. Acamprosate in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J

    2005-10-01

    Acamprosate is indicated for the maintenance of abstinence from alcohol in patients with alcohol dependence who are abstinent at treatment initiation in combination with psychosocial support. Acamprosate is a synthetic taurine analogue that seems to act centrally to restore the normal activity of glutamatergic neurotransmission altered by chronic alcohol exposure. Over the past 15 years, the safety and efficacy of acamprosate for alcohol dependence have been well established in multiple double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. Overall, acamprosate has been consistently associated with greater beneficial effects on measures of alcohol abstinence compared with placebo. Specifically, patients treated with acamprosate achieve greater rates of complete abstinence, longer times to first drink and/or increased duration of cumulative abstinence when compared with placebo. Acamprosate received approval by the US FDA for the treatment of alcohol dependence in July 2004 and is currently prescribed in 28 countries. PMID:16197362

  2. Estrogen-related receptor γ controls hepatic CB1 receptor-mediated CYP2E1 expression and oxidative liver injury by alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyun-Hee; Park, Jinyoung; Kim, Jung Ran; Koh, Minseob; Jeong, Won-Il; Koo, Seung-Hoi; Park, Tae-Sik; Yun, Chul-Ho; Park, Seung Bum; Chiang, John Y L; Lee, Chul-Ho; Choi, Hueng-Sik

    2013-01-01

    Background The hepatic endocannabinoid system and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), a key enzyme causing alcohol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, are major contributors to the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. The nuclear hormone receptor oestrogen-related receptor γ (ERRγ) is a constitutively active transcriptional activator regulating gene expression. Objective To investigate the role of ERRγ in the alcohol-mediated regulation of CYP2E1 and to examine the possibility to control alcohol-mediated oxidative stress and liver injury through an ERRγ inverse agonist. Design For chronic alcoholic hepatosteatosis study, C57BL/6J wild-type and CB1−/− mice were administered alcohol for 4 weeks. GSK5182 and chlormethiazole (CMZ) were given by oral gavage for the last 2 weeks of alcohol feeding. Gene expression profiles and biochemical assays were performed using the liver or blood of mice. Results Hepatic ERRγ gene expression induced by alcohol-mediated activation of CB1 receptor results in induction of CYP2E1, while liver-specific ablation of ERRγ gene expression blocks alcohol-induced expression of CYP2E1 in mouse liver. An ERRγ inverse agonist significantly ameliorates chronic alcohol-induced liver injury in mice through inhibition of CYP2E1-mediated generation of ROS, while inhibition of CYP2E1 by CMZ abrogates the beneficial effects of the inverse agonist. Finally, chronic alcohol-mediated ERRγ and CYP2E1 gene expression, ROS generation and liver injury in normal mice were nearly abolished in CB1−/− mice. Conclusions ERRγ, as a previously unrecognised transcriptional regulator of hepatic CB1 receptor, controls alcohol-induced oxidative stress and liver injury through CYP2E1 induction, and its inverse agonist could ameliorate oxidative liver injury due to chronic alcohol exposure. PMID:23023167

  3. Brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in emergency departments for acute alcohol intoxication – a randomized-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol misuse among youth is a major public health concern and numbers of adolescents admitted to the emergency department for acute alcoholic intoxication in Germany are recently growing. The emergency setting offers an opportunity to reach at-risk alcohol consuming adolescents and provide brief interventions in a potential “teachable moment”. However, studies on brief interventions targeting adolescents in emergency care are scarce and little is known about their effectiveness when delivered immediately following hospitalization for acute alcohol intoxication. In this protocol we present the HaLT-Hamburg trial evaluating a brief motivational intervention for adolescents treated in the emergency department after an episode of acute alcoholic intoxication. Methods The trial design is a parallel two-arm cluster randomized-controlled trial with follow-up assessment after 3 and 6 months. N = 312 participants aged 17 years and younger will be recruited Fridays to Sundays in 6 pediatric clinics over a period of 30 months. Intervention condition is a manual-based brief motivational intervention with a telephone booster after 6 weeks and a manual-guided intervention for caregivers which will be compared to treatment as usual. Primary outcomes are reduction in binge drinking episodes, quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking day and alcohol-related problems. Secondary outcome is further treatment seeking. Linear mixed models adjusted for baseline differences will be conducted according to intention-to-treat (ITT) and completers (per-protocol) principles to examine intervention effects. We also examine quantitative and qualitative process data on feasibility, intervention delivery, implementation and receipt from intervention providers, receivers and regular emergency department staff. Discussion The study has a number of strengths. First, a rigorous evaluation of HaLT-Hamburg is timely because variations of the HaLT project are widely used in

  4. College Men and Alcohol Use: Positive Alcohol Expectancies as a Mediator Between Distinct Masculine Norms and Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Corbin, William; Lejuez, Carl; MacPherson, Laura

    2015-01-01

    College men are more likely to engage in health-compromising behaviors including risky drinking behavior, and experience more alcohol-related problems, including violence and arrest, as compared to women. The study of masculine norms or societal expectations, defined as beliefs and values about what it means to be a man, is one promising area of investigation that may help explain within-group differences and differential rates of alcohol use among men. Using the gender social learning model, we investigated the role of positive alcohol expectancies as an underlying mediator between masculine norms and alcohol use among college men. Data from 804 college adult men (Mean age = 20.43) were collected through a web-based assessment. Participants completed a self-report measure of binge drinking, frequency of drinking, quantity of drinks, conformity to masculine norms, and positive alcohol expectancies measures. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relations between masculine norms, alcohol expectancies and alcohol use. The masculine norms of “Playboy” and Risk-Taking were positively related to heavy alcohol use, while Emotional Control and Heterosexual Presentation were both negatively associated with alcohol use, after controlling for fraternity Greek status and positive expectancies. Playboy and Winning norms were positively associated with positive expectancies while Power Over Women was inversely related to positive expectancies which, in turn, were associated with heavier alcohol use. This study was a novel exploration into the multiple pathways and mediators through which positive alcohol expectancies may help explain and provide specificity to the masculinity and alcohol use relationship among college men. PMID:25705133

  5. Comparison of Self-Reported Alcohol Consumption to Phosphatidylethanol Measurement among HIV-Infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Treatment in Southwestern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bajunirwe, Francis; Haberer, Jessica E.; Boum, Yap; Hunt, Peter; Mocello, Rain; Martin, Jeffrey N.; Bangsberg, David R.; Hahn, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients may accelerate HIV disease progression or reduce antiretroviral therapy adherence. Self-reported alcohol use is frequently under-reported due to social desirability and recall bias. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported alcohol consumption to phosphatidylethanol (PEth), a biomarker of alcohol consumption, and to estimate the correlation between multiple measures of self-reported alcohol consumption with PEth. Methods The Uganda AIDS Rural Treatment Outcomes (UARTO) cohort is located in southwestern Uganda and follows patients on ART to measure treatment outcomes. Patients complete standardized questionnaires quarterly including questions on demographics, health status and alcohol consumption. Baseline dried blood spots (DBS) were collected and retrieved to measure PEth. Results One hundred fifty samples were tested, and 56 (37.3%) were PEth positive (≥8 ng/mL). Of those, 51.7% did not report alcohol use in the past month. Men were more likely to under-report compared to women, OR 2.9, 95% CI = 1.26, 6.65) and those in the higher economic asset categories were less likely to under-report compared to those in the lowest category (OR = 0.41 95% CI: 0.17, 0.94). Among self-reported drinkers (n = 31), PEth was highly correlated with the total number of drinking days in the last 30 (Spearman R = 0.73, p<0.001). Conclusions Approximately half of HIV infected patients initiating ART and consuming alcohol under-report their use of alcohol. Given the high prevalence, clinicians should assess all patients for alcohol use with more attention to males and those in lower economic asset categories who deny alcohol use. Among those reporting current drinking, self-reported drinking days is a useful quantitative measure. PMID:25436894

  6. MAOA expression predicts vulnerability for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Juanes, R; Wilhem, L J; Park, B; Lee, R; Locke, J; Helms, C; Gonzales, S; Wand, G; Jones, S R; Grant, K A; Ferguson, B

    2016-04-01

    The role of the monoamines dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) and the monoamine-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have been repeatedly implicated in studies of alcohol use and dependence. Genetic investigations of MAOA have yielded conflicting associations between a common polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) and risk for alcohol abuse. The present study provides direct comparison of tissue-specific MAOA expression and the level of alcohol consumption. We analyzed rhesus macaque MAOA (rhMAOA) expression in blood from males before and after 12 months of alcohol self-administration. In addition, nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from alcohol access and control (no alcohol access) subjects at the 12-month time point for comparison. The rhMAOA expression level in the blood of alcohol-naive subjects was negatively correlated with subsequent alcohol consumption level. The mRNA expression was independent of rhMAOA-LPR genotype and global promoter methylation. After 12 months of alcohol use, blood rhMAOA expression had decreased in an alcohol dose-dependent manner. Also after 12 months, rhMAOA expression in the NAc core was significantly lower in the heavy drinkers, as compared with control subjects. The CSF measured higher levels of DA and lower DOPAC/DA ratios among the heavy drinkers at the same time point. These results provide novel evidence that blood MAOA expression predicts alcohol consumption and that heavy alcohol use is linked to low MAOA expression in both the blood and NAc core. Together, the findings suggest a mechanistic link between dampened MAOA expression, elevated DA and alcohol abuse. PMID:26148813

  7. MAOA EXPRESSION PREDICTS VULNERABILITY FOR ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    Cervera-Juanes, Rita; Wilhem, Larry J.; Park, Byung; Lee, Richard; Locke, Jason; Helms, Christa; Gonzales, Steven; Wand, Gary; Jones, Sara R.; Grant, Kathleen A.; Ferguson, Betsy

    2015-01-01

    The role of the monoamines dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5HT) and the monoamine-metabolizing enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) have been repeatedly implicated in studies of alcohol use and dependence. Genetic investigations of MAOA have yielded conflicting associations between a common polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) and risk for alcohol abuse. The present study provides direct comparison of tissue-specific MAOA expression and the level of alcohol consumption. We analyzed rhesus macaque MAOA (rhMAOA) expression in blood from males before and after 12-months of alcohol self-administration. In addition, nucleus accumbens core (NAc core) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected from alcohol-access and control (no alcohol access) subjects at the 12-month time point for comparison. The rhMAOA expression level in the blood of alcohol-naïve subjects was negatively correlated with subsequent alcohol consumption level. The mRNA expression was independent of rhMAOA-LPR genotype and global promoter methylation. After 12 months of alcohol use, blood rhMAOA expression had decreased in an alcohol dose-dependent manner. Also after 12 months, rhMAOA expression in the NAc core was significantly lower in the heavy drinkers, as compared to control subjects. The CSF measured higher levels of DA and lower DOPAC/DA ratios amongst the heavy drinkers at the same time point. These results provide novel evidence that blood MAOA expression predicts alcohol consumption and that heavy alcohol use is linked to low MAOA expression in both the blood and NAc core. Together, the findings suggest a mechanistic link between dampened MAOA expression, elevated DA and alcohol abuse. PMID:26148813

  8. Dietary benzo[a]pyrene, alcohol drinking, and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Ronco, Alvaro L; De Stefani, Eduardo; Correa, Pelayo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Boffetta, Paolo; Acosta, Gisele; Mendilaharsu, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine to the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) on breast cancer risk we conducted a case-control study in the time period 1996-2004. The study included 1,098 participants (460 cases and 638 controls). All the patients were drawn from the four major hospitals in Montevideo, Uruguay. Statistical analysis was performed using unconditional multiple logistic regression and the models included age, residence, urban/rural status, education, monthly income, body mass index, menopausal status, age at menarche, parity, smoking index, alcohol drinking, mate consumption, total energy, total vegetables and fruits, and BaP intake. The highest vs. the lowest quartile of BaP intake (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk. Alcohol drinking was also directly associated with breast cancer risk (OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.19-2.23) and the joint effect of BaP and alcohol drinking showed an elevated risk of the disease (OR 3.32, 95% CI 2.17-5.06). The present study suggests that elevated consumption of BaP could play an important role in the etiology of breast cancer. This effect is enhanced by the intake of alcohol. PMID:22126482

  9. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  10. Composite Scaffold of Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) and Interfacial Polyelectrolyte Complexation Fibers for Controlled Biomolecule Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Cutiongco, Marie Francene A.; Choo, Royden K. T.; Shen, Nathaniel J. X.; Chua, Bryan M. X.; Sju, Ervi; Choo, Amanda W. L.; Le Visage, Catherine; Yim, Evelyn K. F.

    2015-01-01

    Controlled delivery of hydrophilic proteins is an important therapeutic strategy. However, widely used methods for protein delivery suffer from low incorporation efficiency and loss of bioactivity. The versatile interfacial polyelectrolyte complexation (IPC) fibers have the capacity for precise spatiotemporal release and protection of protein, growth factor, and cell bioactivity. Yet its weak mechanical properties limit its application and translation into a viable clinical solution. To overcome this limitation, IPC fibers can be incorporated into polymeric scaffolds such as the biocompatible poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel (PVA). Therefore, we explored the use of a composite scaffold of PVA and IPC fibers for controlled biomolecule release. We first observed that the permeability of biomolecules through PVA films were dependent on molecular weight. Next, IPC fibers were incorporated in between layers of PVA to produce PVA–IPC composite scaffolds with different IPC fiber orientation. The composite scaffold demonstrated excellent mechanical properties and efficient biomolecule incorporation. The rate of biomolecule release from PVA–IPC composite grafts exhibited dependence on molecular weight, with lysozyme showing near-linear release for 1 month. Angiogenic factors were also incorporated into the PVA–IPC grafts, as a potential biomedical application of the composite graft. While vascular endothelial growth factor only showed a maximum cumulative release of 3%, the smaller PEGylated-QK peptide showed maximum release of 33%. Notably, the released angiogenic biomolecules induced endothelial cell activity thus indicating retention of bioactivity. We also observed lack of significant macrophage response against PVA–IPC grafts in a rabbit model. Showing permeability, mechanical strength, precise temporal growth factor release, and bioinertness, PVA–IPC fibers composite scaffolds are excellent scaffolds for controlled biomolecule delivery in soft tissue

  11. Memory and ventricular size in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Acker, C; Jacobson, R R; Lishman, W A

    1987-05-01

    The relationship between memory performance and CT scan measures of ventricular size was investigated in a sample of 39 chronic alcoholics and 39 controls. Measures of verbal, non-verbal, recognition and recall memory were derived from the tests administered and were viewed in relation to the lateral ventricle and third ventricular size measurements. The results showed that the memory performance of male alcoholics was significantly related to measures of third ventricular size, but probably not to measures of the lateral ventricles. An association between verbal memory performance and CT scan measures was found in the male controls. PMID:3602226

  12. MicroRNA-30a-5p in the prefrontal cortex controls the transition from moderate to excessive alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Darcq, E; Warnault, V; Phamluong, K; Besserer, G M; Liu, F; Ron, D

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) induce messenger RNA (mRNA) degradation and repress mRNA translation. Several miRNAs control the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The BDNF signaling pathway is activated by moderate intake of alcohol to prevent escalation to excessive drinking. Here, we present data to suggest that the transition from moderate to uncontrolled alcohol intake occurs, in part, upon a breakdown of this endogenous protective pathway via a miRNA-dependent mechanism. Specifically, a mouse paradigm that mimics binge alcohol drinking in humans produced a robust reduction in BDNF mRNA levels in the medial PFC (mPFC), which was associated with increased expression of several miRNAs including miR-30a-5p. We show that miR-30a-5p binds the 3' untranslated region of BDNF, and that overexpression of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC decreased BDNF expression. Importantly, overexpression of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC produced an escalation of alcohol intake and a preference over water. Conversely, inhibition of miR-30a-5p in the mPFC using a Locked Nucleic Acid sequence that targets miR-30a-5p restored BDNF levels and decreased excessive alcohol intake. Together, our results indicate that miR-30a-5p plays a key role in the transition from moderate to excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25330738

  13. Hemolysis by aliphatic alcohols and saponin measured by the coil planet centrifugation method.

    PubMed

    Finegold, A A; Horiuchi, K; Kamiya, K; Asakura, T

    1989-09-01

    Using the coil planet centrifugation method, the mechanism of hemolysis by alcohols and saponin was investigated. With this technique, erythrocytes are introduced into a gradient of hemolytic agents in saline, which is prepared in a long coiled polyethylene tube. The tube is centrifuged so that the cells move from a low to a high concentration of hemolytic agent. When the cells lyse, they release hemoglobin which remains stationary, and therefore hemolytic potency can be determined spectrophotometrically by the distance the cells move before lysing. We found that alcohols caused hemolysis at a particular concentration, whereas saponin-induced hemolysis was dependent on the amount of saponin accumulated in the environment of the cell. In addition, alcohols with longer carbon chains were more potent hemolytic agents than those with shorter chains, but each additional carbon group produced less of an increase in hemolysis per mole of alcohol. This chain-length dependency is consistent with a previous study on in vivo alcohol-induced hemolysis. The coil planet centrifugation method is also adaptable to comparative studies on the mechanism of other types of hemolysis, such as immune or drug-induced lysis, and to toxicological studies. PMID:2774556

  14. The Measurement of Parenting Locus of Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kralj, M. M.; And Others

    The present study describes the construction of a scale for reliably measuring the extent to which parents form generalized expectancies of the degree to which their children's behaviors are contingent on their own actions as parents. The original 72 statements included in the Parenting Locus of Control (PLOC) scale ascribed cause to one of four…

  15. Effects of Dram Shop, Responsible Beverage Service Training, and State Alcohol Control Laws on Underage Drinking Driver Fatal Crash Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Fell, James C.; Thomas, Sue; Voas, Robert B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In this study, we aimed to determine whether three minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws—dram shop liability, responsible beverage service (RBS) training, and state control of alcohol sales—have had an impact on underage drinking-and-driving fatal crashes using annual state-level data, and compared states with strong laws to those with weak laws to examine their effect on beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. Methods Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System, we calculated the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes as our key outcome measure. We used structural equation modeling to evaluate the three MLDA-21 laws. We controlled for covariates known to impact fatal crashes including: 17 additional MLDA-21 laws; administrative license revocation; blood alcohol concentration limits of .08 and .10 for driving; seat belt laws; sobriety checkpoint frequency; unemployment rates; and vehicle miles traveled. Outcome variables, in addition to the fatal crash ratios of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 included state per capita beer consumption. Results Dram shop liability laws were associated with a 2.4% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .019, p = .018). Similarly, RBS training laws were associated with a 3.6% total effect decrease (direct effects: β = .048, p = .001) in the ratio of drinking to nondrinking drivers under age 21 involved in fatal crashes. There was a significant relationship between dram shop liability law strength and per capita beer consumption, F (4, 1528) = 24.32, p < .001, partial η2 = .016, showing states with strong dram shop liability laws (Mean (M) = 1.276) averaging significantly lower per capita beer consumption than states with weak laws (M = 1.340). Conclusions Dram shop liability laws and RBS laws were both associated with significantly reduced per capita beer consumption and fatal crash ratios. In practical terms, this means that dram shop liability laws

  16. Efficacy of an internet-based self-help intervention to reduce co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in adults: study protocol of a three-arm randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Schaub, Michael P; Blankers, Matthijs; Lehr, Dirk; Boss, Leif; Riper, Heleen; Dekker, Jack; Goudriaan, Anna E; Maier, Larissa J; Haug, Severin; Amann, Manuel; Dey, Michelle; Wenger, Andreas; Ebert, David D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In the general population, alcohol use disorder and depression more often occur together than any other combination of a mental illness with a substance use disorder. It is important to have a cost-effective intervention that is able to reach at-risk individuals in the early stages of developing alcohol use disorders and depression disorders. Methods and analysis This paper presents the protocol for a 3-arm multicentre randomised controlled trial (RCT) to test the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the combined internet-based self-help intervention Take Care of You (TCOY) to reduce alcohol misuse and depression symptoms in comparison with a waiting list control group and a comparable intervention focusing on problematic alcohol use only. The active interventions consist of modules designed to reduce alcohol use, based on the principles of motivational interviewing and methods of cognitive behavioural therapy, together with additional modules in the combined study arm to reduce symptoms of depression. Data will be collected at baseline, as well as at 3 and 6 months postrandomisation. The primary outcome is the quantity of alcohol used in the past 7 days. A number of secondary outcome measures will be studied. These include the Centre of Epidemiologic Studies of Depression Scale (CES-D) and a combined measure with the criteria of values below the cut-off for severe alcohol use disorder and for CES-D. Data analysis will follow the intention-to-treat principle using (generalised) linear mixed models. In order to investigate the interventions’ cost-utility and cost-effectiveness, a full economic evaluation will be performed. Ethics and dissemination This RCT will be executed in compliance with the Helsinki Declaration and has been approved by 2 local Ethics Committees. Results will be reported at conferences and in peer-reviewed publications. Participant-friendly summaries of trial findings will be published on the TCOY websites. Trial registration

  17. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-01-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes1,2. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication. PMID:23416793

  18. Biomimetic enzyme nanocomplexes and their use as antidotes and preventive measures for alcohol intoxication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Du, Juanjuan; Yan, Ming; Lau, Mo Yin; Hu, Jay; Han, Hui; Yang, Otto O.; Liang, Sheng; Wei, Wei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Xinyuan; Shi, Linqi; Chen, Wei; Ji, Cheng; Lu, Yunfeng

    2013-03-01

    Organisms have sophisticated subcellular compartments containing enzymes that function in tandem. These confined compartments ensure effective chemical transformation and transport of molecules, and the elimination of toxic metabolic wastes. Creating functional enzyme complexes that are confined in a similar way remains challenging. Here we show that two or more enzymes with complementary functions can be assembled and encapsulated within a thin polymer shell to form enzyme nanocomplexes. These nanocomplexes exhibit improved catalytic efficiency and enhanced stability when compared with free enzymes. Furthermore, the co-localized enzymes display complementary functions, whereby toxic intermediates generated by one enzyme can be promptly eliminated by another enzyme. We show that nanocomplexes containing alcohol oxidase and catalase could reduce blood alcohol levels in intoxicated mice, offering an alternative antidote and prophylactic for alcohol intoxication.

  19. Low to moderate alcohol consumption on serum vitamin D and other indicators of bone health in postmenopausal women in a controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy alcohol drinking adversely affects vitamin D status and bone health. However, data from randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of low to moderate alcohol consumption on vitamin D status and bone health in humans is unavailable. The objective of this cross-over RCT was to e...

  20. Tobacco, alcohol, asbestos, and nickel in the etiology of cancer of the larynx: a case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, J.D.; Howe, G.R.; Miller, A.B.; Semenciw, R.

    1981-12-01

    A case-control study of laryngeal cancer was conducted in southern Ontario between 1977 and 1979 with 204 subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and 204 controls, individually matched by sex, age, and residence. Tobacco products and alcohol showed strong associations with cancer of the larynx for males, with relative risks (RR) for users of cigarettes, cigars or cigarillos, pipes, and alcohol of 6.1, 2.9, 1.6, and 5.2, respectively. The population attributable risk percent for males using tobacco products and alcohol together was estimated to be 94%. Cigarette smoking was also an important risk factor for females, although the small number of female pairs (20) precluded any meaningful detailed analysis of other possible risk factors. The RR for males for exposure to asbestos after the effects of cigarette smoking were controlled was 2.3, and the effects seemed restricted to cigarette smokers. The findings on asbestos were based on small numbers of cases and controls exposed and consequently were subject to large sampling errors. The estimate was consistent, however, with that from other studies and supported a causal role for asbestos exposure and cancer of the larynx. The RR for males for exposure to nickel was 0.9.

  1. A Randomized Control Trial of a Chronic Care Intervention for Homeless Women with Alcohol Use Problems

    PubMed Central

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2014-01-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n=82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a Primary Care Provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a Care Manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  2. A randomized control trial of a chronic care intervention for homeless women with alcohol use problems.

    PubMed

    Upshur, Carole; Weinreb, Linda; Bharel, Monica; Reed, George; Frisard, Christine

    2015-04-01

    A clinician-randomized trial was conducted using the chronic care model for disease management for alcohol use problems among n = 82 women served in a health care for the homeless clinic. Women with problem alcohol use received either usual care or an intervention consisting of a primary care provider (PCP) brief intervention, referral to addiction services, and on-going support from a care manager (CM) for 6 months. Both groups significantly reduced their alcohol consumption, with a small effect size favoring intervention at 3 months, but there were no significant differences between groups in reductions in drinking or in housing stability, or mental or physical health. However, intervention women had significantly more frequent participation in substance use treatment services. Baseline differences and small sample size limit generalizability, although substantial reductions in drinking for both groups suggest that screening and PCP brief treatment are promising interventions for homeless women with alcohol use problems. PMID:25488504

  3. An Indian herbal formula (SKV) for controlling voluntary ethanol intake in rats with chronic alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Shanmugasundaram, E R; Shanmugasundaram, K R

    1986-08-01

    Chronic ethanol ingestion in rats showed metabolic and physiological changes similar to alterations reported in human alcoholics. There was a lowering of blood glucose concentration, urea and plasma proteins and elevated concentrations of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. Administration of SKV, an Ayurvedic formula produced by fermentation of cane sugar with raisins and 12 herbal ingredients brought down voluntary ethanol ingestion in the rats and increased food intake. ECG and EEG studies in alcoholic rats showed cardiac depression, augmentation of frequency and amplitude of the alpha, delta and theta waves and weakness in the beta waves. These changes were reversed during SKV-induced voluntary alcohol restriction. The involvement in the ECG and EEG wave patterns was associated with improvement in blood glucose, plasma protein levels and reduction in gamma glutamyl transpeptidase activities. SKV appeared to have no adverse reaction with ethanol (it contains 1-2% ethanol) and appears to be a promising way to combat alcoholism. PMID:3796018

  4. 77 FR 10545 - Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana-Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., including malt, vinous, spirituous, alcoholic or intoxicating liquors, beer, porter, ale, stout fruit juices..., including among other things, ale, beer, stout, porter, and the like. Malt beverages are exclusive of...

  5. Alcohol Induced Facial Dysmorphology in C57BL/6 Mouse Models of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, Bruce; Vinci-Booher, Sophia; Wetherill, Leah; Ward, Richard; Goodlett, Charles; Zhou, Feng C.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy causes Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD), which includes a range of developmental deficits. Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe form of FASD and can be diagnosed with pathognomonic facial features (smooth philtrum, short palpebral fissure, and thin upper vermilion). However, many children with developmental damage due to prenatal alcohol exposure exhibit no, or only a subset, of the above features, making diagnosis difficult. This study explored novel analyses to quantify the effect of a known dose of alcohol on specific facial measurements in sub-strains C57BL/B6J (B6J) and C57BL/6NHsd (B6N) mice. Mouse dams were provided alcohol (Alc) consisting of 4.8% (v/v) alcohol in a liquid diet for 16 days pre-pregnancy, chow and water diet during mating, and the alcohol liquid diet reinstated on gestational days 7(E7) to E17. Treatment controls included a pair-fed (PF) group given matched volumes of an alcohol-free liquid diet made isocalorically, and a group given ad lib access to lab chow and water (Chow). Maternal diet intake (Alc and PF), blood alcohol concentrations (BACs), embryo weights, and 15 morphometric facial measurements for E17 embryos were analyzed. B6N dams drank more alcohol during pregnancy and generated higher BAC than B6J dams. Both the Alc and PF treatments induced significant reductions in embryo weights relative to Chow in both sub-strains. Alcohol treatments produced significant changes, relative to controls, in four of the 15 facial measures for the B6N sub-strain, but only in two measures for the B6J sub-strain. Discriminant analysis demonstrated successful classification of the B6N alcohol-exposed versus non-alcohol exposed embryos with high sensitivity (86%), and specificity (80%), and overall classification (total correct 83%), while, B6J mice yielded sensitivity of 80%, specificity 78%, and overall correct classification in 79%. In addition, B6N mice showed significantly more effects of

  6. Case–control association analysis of Dopamine receptor polymorphisms in alcohol dependence: a pilot study in Indian males

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain imaging studies and knock-out animal models have derived substantial abetment for dopamine receptor (DR) subtypes as potential candidates in susceptibility to addictive disorders, including alcohol dependence (AD). Various association studies that compared the frequencies of alleles of the dopamine D1, D2, D3 and D4 receptor genes between alcohol dependent and control subjects have produced suggestive results, though some of them are discordant in nature. In the absence of genetic data from Indian population, we evaluated genetic association of three polymorphisms namely rs4532 in DRD1, rs6280 in DRD3 and 120 bp duplication in 1.2 kb upstream region of DRD4 with AD. Methods A total of 90 cases (alcohol dependent males) and 122 age and ethnicity matched healthy male controls were recruited in the study by following DSM-IV criteria. Three polymorphisms, namely rs4532 in DRD1, rs6280 in DRD3 and 120 bp duplication in 1.2 kb upstream region of DRD4 were selected (based on minor allele frequency and available literature) for genotyping by PCR-RFLP/LP method. Allele and genotype frequencies of these genetic markers were compared using Pearson’s χ2 test followed by risk assessment using odds ratio. Statistical analysis of clinical parameters such as AUDIT scores of case subjects was also performed. Results Statistically significant associations of polymorphisms in DRD1 and DRD4 with alcoholism were found. Conclusions Our results underscore that genetic variations in dopamine receptors D1 and D4 may influence genetic predisposition to alcoholism. Unavailability of comparative data from Indian population and small sample size necessitate replication of results in an independent cohort. PMID:24135011

  7. Catalyst-Controlled Wacker-Type Oxidation of Homoallylic Alcohols in the Absence of Protecting Groups

    PubMed Central

    McCombs, Jessica R.; Michel, Brian W.

    2011-01-01

    Homoallylic alcohols are oxidized to β-hydroxy ketones using a TBHP-mediated Pd-catalyzed Wacker-type oxidation. The use of a bidentate ligand, quinoline-2-oxazoline (Quinox), and TBHP(aq) as the terminal oxidant provides good yields of the desired products with reaction times significantly reduced as compared to the Tsuji-Wacker oxidation. Additionally, bis- and tris-homoallylic alcohols are oxidized to provide cyclic peroxyketals, presumably via nucleophilic attack of the methyl ketone product. PMID:21446720

  8. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  9. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions. PMID:17913204

  10. Air Pressure Controlled Mass Measurement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ruilin; Wang, Jian; Cai, Changqing; Yao, Hong; Ding, Jin'an; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Xiaolei

    Mass measurement is influenced by air pressure, temperature, humidity and other facts. In order to reduce the influence, mass laboratory of National Institute of Metrology, China has developed an air pressure controlled mass measurement system. In this system, an automatic mass comparator is installed in an airtight chamber. The Chamber is equipped with a pressure controller and associate valves, thus the air pressure can be changed and stabilized to the pre-set value, the preferred pressure range is from 200 hPa to 1100 hPa. In order to keep the environment inside the chamber stable, the display and control part of the mass comparator are moved outside the chamber, and connected to the mass comparator by feed-throughs. Also a lifting device is designed for this system which can easily lift up the upper part of the chamber, thus weights can be easily put inside the mass comparator. The whole system is put on a marble platform, and the temperature and humidity of the laboratory is very stable. The temperature, humidity, and carbon dioxide content inside the chamber are measured in real time and can be used to get air density. Mass measurement cycle from 1100 hPa to 200 hPa and back to 1100 hPa shows the effective of the system.

  11. Moderate alcohol consumption and changes in postprandial lipoproteins of premenopausal and postmenopausal women: a diet-controlled, randomized intervention study.

    PubMed

    van der Gaag, M S; Sierksma, A; Schaafsma, G; van Tol, A; Geelhoed-Mieras, T; Bakker, M; Hendriks, H F

    2000-01-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. Earlier studies in men have shown that moderate alcohol consumption affects lipoprotein metabolism and hemostasis. In this diet-controlled, randomized, crossover trial, we investigated the effect on lipoprotein metabolism of moderate consumption of red wine or red grape juice with evening dinner for 3 weeks in premenopausal women using oral contraceptives and in postmenopausal women. After 3 weeks, blood samples were collected 1 hour before dinner up to 19 hours after starting dinner at 2-hour or 4-hour intervals. Plasma triglyceride concentrations and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride levels peaked 3 hours after dinner with wine in both premenopausal and postmenopausal women. After wine consumption, the overall high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level was increased in postmenopausal women (mean increase 0.17 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.03), and the plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level was reduced in premenopausal women (mean reduction 0.35 mmol/L, or 12%, p = 0.01) as compared with grape juice consumption. The findings suggest that postprandial lipoprotein metabolism after moderate alcohol consumption differs between oral contraceptive-using premenopausal women and postmenopausal women. The response of postmenopausal women to alcohol resembled the response found in earlier studies in men. PMID:10957749

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Phone Intervention for Improving Adherence to Naltrexone for Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Susan A.; Arenella, Pamela B.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Naltrexone is a front-line treatment for alcohol use disorders, but its efficacy is limited by poor medication adherence. This randomized controlled trial evaluated whether a mobile health intervention could improve naltrexone adherence. Methods Treatment-seeking participants with an alcohol use disorder (N = 76) were randomized to intervention and control conditions. All participants received naltrexone (50 mg/day) with a medication event monitoring system (MEMS) and a prepaid smartphone, and received a daily text message querying medication side effects, alcohol use, and craving. Those in the intervention arm received additional medication reminders and adherence assessment via text message. Results The primary outcome, proportion of participants with adequate adherence (defined as ≥80% of prescribed doses taken through Week 8), did not differ between groups in intent-to-treat analyses (p = .34). Mean adherence at study midpoint (Week 4) was 83% in the intervention condition and 77% in the control condition (p = .35). Survival analysis found that the intervention group sustained adequate adherence significantly longer (M = 19 days [95% CI = 0.0–44.0]) than those in the control group (M = 3 days [95% CI = 0.0–8.1]) during the first month of treatment (p = .04). Medication adherence did not predict drinking outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that in the context of daily monitoring and assessment via cell phone, additional text message reminders do not further improve medication adherence. Although this initial trial does not provide support for the efficacy of text messaging to improve adherence to pharmacotherapy for alcohol use disorders, additional trials with larger samples and alternate designs are warranted. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01349985 PMID:25909320

  13. Score Reliability of Adolescent Alcohol Screening Measures: A Meta-Analytic Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Campfield, Delia C.; Miller, Christopher S.; Howell, Ryan T.; Wallace, Kimberly; Weiss, Roger D.

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the reliability reporting practices in empirical studies using eight adolescent alcohol screening tools and characterizes and explores variability in internal consistency estimates across samples. Of 119 observed administrations of these instruments, 40 (34%) reported usable reliability information. The Personal Experience…

  14. A PC-based software test for measuring alcohol and drug effects in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Mills, K C; Parkman, K M; Spruill, S E

    1996-12-01

    A new software-based visual search and divided-attention test of cognitive performance was developed and evaluated in an alcohol dose-response study with 24 human subjects aged 21-62 years. The test used language-free, color, graphic displays to represent the visuospatial demands of driving. Cognitive demands were increased over previous hardware-based tests, and the motor skills required for the test involved minimal eye movements and eye-hand coordination. Repeated performance on the test was evaluated with a latin-square design by using a placebo and two alcohol doses, low (0.48 g/kg/LBM) and moderate (0.72 g/kg/LBM). The data on 7 females and 17 males yielded significant falling and rising impairment effects coincident with moderate rising and falling breath alcohol levels (mean peak BrALs = 0.045 g/dl and 0.079 g/dl). None of the subjects reported eye-strain or psychomotor fatigue as compared with previous tests. The high sensitivity/variance relative to use in basic and applied research, and worksite fitness-for-duty testing, was discussed. The most distinct advantage of a software-based test that operates on readily available PCs is that it can be widely distributed to researchers with a common reference to compare a variety of alcohol and drug effects. PMID:8986207

  15. Interaction between alcohol drinking and obesity in relation to colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background While substantive epidemiological literature suggests that alcohol drinking and obesity are potential risk factors of colorectal cancer (CRC), the possible interaction between the two has not been adequately explored. We used a case-control study to examine if alcohol drinking is associated with an increased risk of CRC and if such risk differs in people with and without obesity. Methods Newly diagnosed CRC cases were identified between 1999 and 2003 in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL). Cases were frequency-matched by age and sex with controls selected using random digit dialing. Cases (702) and controls (717) completed self-administered questionnaires assessing health and lifestyle variables. Estimates of alcohol intake included types of beverage, years of drinking, and average number of alcohol drinks per day. Odds ratios were estimated to investigate the associations of alcohol independently and when stratified by obesity status on the risk of CRC. Results Among obese participants (BMI ≥ 30), alcohol was associated with higher risk of CRC (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.2-4.0) relative to the non-alcohol category. Among obese individuals, 3 or more different types of drinks were associated with a 3.4-fold higher risk of CRC relative to non-drinkers. The risk of CRC also increased with drinking years and drinks daily among obese participants. However, no increased risk was observed in people without obesity. Conclusion The effect of alcohol of drinking on CRC seems to be modified by obesity. PMID:22296784

  16. The Predictive Power of Family History Measures of Alcohol and Drug Problems and Internalizing Disorders In A College Population

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  17. The predictive power of family history measures of alcohol and drug problems and internalizing disorders in a college population.

    PubMed

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Edwards, Alexis; Myers, John; Cho, Seung Bin; Adkins, Amy; Dick, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    A family history (FH) of psychiatric and substance use problems is a potent risk factor for common internalizing and externalizing disorders. In a large web-based assessment of mental health in college students, we developed a brief set of screening questions for a FH of alcohol problems (AP), drug problems (DP) and depression-anxiety in four classes of relatives (father, mother, aunts/uncles/grandparents, and siblings) as reported by the student. Positive reports of a history of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety were substantially correlated within relatives. These FH measures predicted in the student, in an expected pattern, dimensions of personality and impulsivity, alcohol consumption and problems, smoking and nicotine dependence, use of illicit drugs, and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Using the mean score from the four classes of relatives was more predictive than using a familial/sporadic dichotomy. Interactions were seen between the FH of AP, DP, and depression-anxiety and peer deviance in predicting symptoms of alcohol and tobacco dependence. As the students aged, the FH of AP became a stronger predictor of alcohol problems. While we cannot directly assess the validity of these FH reports, the pattern of findings suggest that our brief screening items were able to assess, with some accuracy, the FH of substance misuse and internalizing psychiatric disorders in relatives. If correct, these measures can play an important role in the creation of developmental etiologic models for substance and internalizing psychiatric disorders which constitute one of the central goals of the overall project. PMID:25946510

  18. Turbine gas temperature measurement and control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A fluidic Turbine Inlet Gas Temperature (TIGIT) Measurement and Control System was developed for use on a Pratt and Whitney Aircraft J58 engine. Based on engine operating requirements, criteria for high temperature materials selection, system design, and system performance were established. To minimize development and operational risk, the TIGT control system was designed to interface with an existing Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) Trim System and thereby modulate steady-state fuel flow to maintain a desired TIGT level. Extensive component and system testing was conducted including heated (2300F) vibration tests for the fluidic sensor and gas sampling probe, temperature and vibration tests on the system electronics, burner rig testing of the TIGT measurement system, and in excess of 100 hours of system testing on a J58 engine. (Modified author abstract)

  19. Measurements for low level RF control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simrock, S. N.

    2007-08-01

    The low level RF control system for the European x-ray free electron laser, which is based on TESLA technology, requires information on a large number of signals and parameters which are either directly measurable as physical signals or must be derived from the physical signals. In most cases, calibrations are required to obtain the desired quantities. The measured signals are used in the real time feedback loops for field and resonance control, and for diagnostic purposes to support automation and exception handling. Good system models and powerful signal processors (including field programmable gate arrays and digital signal processors) combined with fast communication links allow for processing a large number of complex algorithms in real time. Several of these algorithms have been implemented at the free electron laser at Hamburg (FLASH) for evaluation and have increased the availability of the facility for user operation.

  20. Cardiovascular disease risks in adult Native and Mexican Americans with a history of alcohol use disorders: association with cardiovascular autonomic control.

    PubMed

    Criado, José R; Gilder, David A; Kalafut, Mary A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2016-04-01

    Hypertension and obesity are serious health problems that have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We recently showed a relationship between hypertension, obesity and cardiovagal control in a sample of Native and Mexican Americans at high risk of alcohol use disorders (AUD). While studies have shown that Native and Mexican Americans exhibit high rates of AUD, the consequences of AUD on CVD risk factors and their relationship with cardiovascular autonomic control is not well understood in these ethnic groups. This study investigated whether an association could be demonstrated between cardiovascular autonomic control and several CVD risk factors in Native and Mexican American men and women (n = 228) who are literate in English and are residing legally in San Diego County. Participants with lifetime history of AUD showed higher rates of systolic and diastolic hypertension and obesity than participants without lifetime AUD. Lifetime AUD was significantly associated with reduced HR response to deep breathing (HRDB) measure of cardiovagal control, higher current drinking quantity, and obesity. Reduced HRDB was also associated with increased systolic pre-hypertension or hypertension (pre-/hypertension) and with higher diastolic blood pressure in a linear regression model that included several diagnostic and demographic variables. HRDB and time- and frequency-domain measures of cardiovagal control were significantly reduced in participants with diastolic pre-/hypertension. These data suggest that lower cardiovagal control may play a role in the prevalence of systolic and diastolic pre-/hypertension in a community sample with a history of alcohol and substance use disorders. PMID:26758567

  1. [Weekly control measurement at the linear accelerator].

    PubMed

    Christ, G

    1983-05-01

    Weekly control measurements taken at the linear accelerator of the Medizinisches Strahleninstitut der Universität Tübingen are described which largely exceed those prescribed by the "Richtlinien Strahlenschutz in der Medizin" (instructions about radioprotection in medicine). Since the determination of the field homogeneity and the energy of electron and X-ray radiation is very time-consuming, a largely automatized procedure has been elaborated which is presented in this study. PMID:6857748

  2. Profiling of childhood adversity-associated DNA methylation changes in alcoholic patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Fan; Kranzler, Henry R; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The increased vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD) seen in individuals with childhood adversity (CA) may result in part from CA-induced epigenetic changes. To examine CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients, we examined peripheral blood DNA methylation levels of 384 CpGs in promoter regions of 82 candidate genes in 279 African Americans [AAs; 88 with CA (70.5% with AD) and 191 without CA (38.2% with AD)] and 239 European Americans [EAs; 61 with CA (86.9% with AD) and 178 without CA (46.6% with AD)] using Illumina GoldenGate Methylation Array assays. The effect of CA on methylation of individual CpGs and overall methylation in promoter regions of genes was evaluated using a linear regression analysis (with consideration of sex, age, and ancestry proportion of subjects) and a principal components-based analysis, respectively. In EAs, hypermethylation of 10 CpGs in seven genes (ALDH1A1, CART, CHRNA5, HTR1B, OPRL1, PENK, and RGS19) were cross validated in AD patients and healthy controls who were exposed to CA. P values of two CpGs survived Bonferroni correction when all EA samples were analyzed together to increase statistical power [CHRNA5_cg17108064: P(adjust) = 2.54×10(-5); HTR1B_cg06031989: P(adjust)  = 8.98×10(-5)]. Moreover, overall methylation levels in the promoter regions of three genes (ALDH1A1, OPRL1 and RGS19) were elevated in both EA case and control subjects who were exposed to CA. However, in AAs, CA-associated DNA methylation changes in AD patients were not validated in healthy controls. Our findings suggest that CA could induce population-specific methylation alterations in the promoter regions of specific genes, thus leading to changes in gene transcription and an increased risk for AD and other disorders. PMID:23799031

  3. Treatment of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Curcumin: A Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sepideh; Asgary, Sedigheh; Askari, Gholamreza; Keshvari, Mahtab; Hatamipour, Mahdi; Feizi, Awat; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-09-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a global health problem. Although many aspects of NAFLD pathogenesis have been understood, there is a paucity of effective treatments to be used as the second line when lifestyle modification is insufficient. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol from turmeric, has been shown to be effective against development of hepatic steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis, yet these beneficial effects have not been explored in clinical practice. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of curcumin on hepatic fat content as well as biochemical and anthropometric features of patients with NAFLD. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, patients with ultrasonographic evidence of NAFLD were randomly assigned to receive an amorphous dispersion curcumin formulation (500 mg/day equivalent to 70-mg curcumin) or matched placebo for a period of 8 weeks. Liver fat content (assessed through ultrasonography), glycemic and lipid profile, transaminase levels, and anthropometric indices were evaluated at baseline and at the end of follow-up period. The clinical trial protocol was registered under the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials ID: IRCT2014110511763N18. Compared with placebo, curcumin was associated with a significant reduction in liver fat content (78.9% improvement in the curcumin vs 27.5% improvement in the placebo group). There were also significant reductions in body mass index and serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and glycated hemoglobin compared with the placebo group. Curcumin was safe and well tolerated during the course of trial. Findings of the present proof-of-concept trial suggested improvement of different features of NAFLD after a short-term supplementation with curcumin. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270872

  4. Role of the α1 blocker doxazosin in alcoholism: a proof-of-concept randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kenna, George A; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L; Zywiak, William H; Edwards, Steven M; Brickley, Michael B; Swift, Robert M; Leggio, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Evidence suggests that the norepinephrine system represents an important treatment target for alcohol dependence (AD) and the α1 -blocker prazosin may reduce alcohol drinking in rodents and alcoholic patients. The α1 -blocker doxazosin demonstrates a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile than prazosin, but has never been studied for AD. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted in AD individuals seeking outpatient treatment. Doxazosin or matched placebo was titrated to 16 mg/day (or maximum tolerable dose). Drinks per week (DPW) and heavy drinking days (HDD) per week were the primary outcomes. Family history density of alcoholism (FHDA), severity of AD and gender were a priori moderators. Forty-one AD individuals were randomized, 30 (doxazosin = 15) completed the treatment phase and 28 (doxazosin = 14) also completed the follow-up. There were no significant differences between groups on DPW and HDD per week. With FHDA as a moderator, there were significant FHDA × medication interactions for both DPW (pcorrected  = 0.001, d = 1.18) and HDD (pcorrected  = 0.00009, d = 1.30). Post hoc analyses revealed that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol drinking in AD patients with high FHDA and by contrast increased drinking in those with low FHDA. Doxazosin may be effective selectively in AD patients with high FHDA. This study provides preliminary evidence for personalized medicine using α1 -blockade to treat AD. However, confirmatory studies are required. PMID:26037245

  5. Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Barbier, Estelle; Schlosburg, Joel E; Misra, Kaushik K; Whitfield, Timothy W; Logrip, Marian L; Rivier, Catherine; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Zorrilla, Eric P; Sanna, Pietro P; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F

    2012-05-30

    Alcoholism is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol, loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence. We hypothesized that sustained activation of neuroendocrine stress systems (e.g., corticosteroid release via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) by alcohol intoxication and withdrawal and consequent alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation drive compulsive alcohol drinking. Our results showed that rats exposed to alcohol vapor to the point of dependence displayed increased alcohol intake, compulsive drinking measured by progressive-ratio responding, and persistent alcohol consumption despite punishment, assessed by adding quinine to the alcohol solution, compared with control rats that were not exposed to alcohol vapor. No group differences were observed in the self-administration of saccharin-sweetened water. Acute alcohol withdrawal was accompanied by downregulated GR mRNA in various stress/reward-related brain regions [i.e., prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST)], whereas protracted alcohol abstinence was accompanied by upregulated GR mRNA in the NAc core, ventral BNST, and central nucleus of the amygdala. No significant alterations in MR mRNA levels were found. Chronic GR antagonism with mifepristone (RU38486) prevented the escalation of alcohol intake and compulsive responding induced by chronic, intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Chronic treatment with mifepristone also blocked escalated alcohol drinking and compulsive responding during protracted abstinence. Thus, the GR system appears to be involved in the development of alcohol dependence and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:22649234

  6. Family-based and case-control association studies of glutamate receptor GRIK3 Ser310Ala polymorphism in Polish patients and families with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Samochowiec, Jerzy; Grzywacz, Anna; Kucharska-Mazur, Jolanta; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Horodnicki, Jan; Pelka-Wysiecka, Justyna; Syrek, Szymon

    2006-03-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of the GRIK3 functional polymorphism (Ser310Ala) in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. This polymorphism was investigated in two types of studies: (1) the association study in a whole group of alcoholics (116 patients fulfilling ICD-10 alcohol dependence (AD) criteria and 255 controls, Polish descent) and homogenous overlapping subgroups of patients with: a history of delirium tremens and/or alcohol seizures, early age of onset of alcoholism (AOO<26 years), a co-occurrence of dissocial personality disorder, a history of familial alcoholism; (2) the family-based study (using Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) in 100 Polish families with alcohol dependence). The history of alcoholism was obtained using SSAGA (Polish version). GRIK3 functional polymorphism was determined using PCR. TDT revealed an adequate transmission of both alleles to the affected offspring in the whole group of alcohol families (29 x Ser, 24 x Ala; chi2=0.472; d.f.=1; p=0.492) and in the homogenous subgroups of families. No significant associations between any of the above mentioned alcohol phenotypes and Ser310 allele were observed (the whole AD group: p=0.66 AD with delirium and/or seizures: p=0.521; early onset AD: p=0.868; AD with familial history of alcoholism: p=0.798 and AD with dissocial personality disorder: p=0.618). These findings do not seem to support the hypothesis of the role of this polymorphism in the pathogenesis of alcoholism. PMID:16356644

  7. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  8. Alcohol outlets, social disorganization, and robberies: accounting for neighborhood characteristics and alcohol outlet types.

    PubMed

    Snowden, Aleksandra J; Freiburger, Tina L

    2015-05-01

    We estimated spatially lagged regression and spatial regime models to determine if the variation in total, on-premise, and off-premise alcohol outlet(1) density is related to robbery density, while controlling for direct and moderating effects of social disorganization.(2) Results suggest that the relationship between alcohol outlet density and robbery density is sensitive to the measurement of social disorganization levels. Total alcohol outlet density and off-premise alcohol outlet density were significantly associated with robbery density when social disorganization variables were included separately in the models. However, when social disorganization levels were captured as a four item index, only the association between off-premise alcohol outlets and robbery density remained significant. More work is warranted in identifying the role of off-premise alcohol outlets and their characteristics in robbery incidents. PMID:25769858

  9. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  10. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  11. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  12. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  13. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  14. Population size drives industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation and is under genetic control.

    PubMed

    Albertin, Warren; Marullo, Philippe; Aigle, Michel; Dillmann, Christine; de Vienne, Dominique; Bely, Marina; Sicard, Delphine

    2011-04-01

    Alcoholic fermentation (AF) conducted by Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been exploited for millennia in three important human food processes: beer and wine production and bread leavening. Most of the efforts to understand and improve AF have been made separately for each process, with strains that are supposedly well adapted. In this work, we propose a first comparison of yeast AFs in three synthetic media mimicking the dough/wort/grape must found in baking, brewing, and wine making. The fermentative behaviors of nine food-processing strains were evaluated in these media, at the cellular, populational, and biotechnological levels. A large variation in the measured traits was observed, with medium effects usually being greater than the strain effects. The results suggest that human selection targeted the ability to complete fermentation for wine strains and trehalose content for beer strains. Apart from these features, the food origin of the strains did not significantly affect AF, suggesting that an improvement program for a specific food processing industry could exploit the variability of strains used in other industries. Glucose utilization was analyzed, revealing plastic but also genetic variation in fermentation products and indicating that artificial selection could be used to modify the production of glycerol, acetate, etc. The major result was that the overall maximum CO(2) production rate (V(max)) was not related to the maximum CO(2) production rate per cell. Instead, a highly significant correlation between V(max) and the maximum population size was observed in all three media, indicating that human selection targeted the efficiency of cellular reproduction rather than metabolic efficiency. This result opens the way to new strategies for yeast improvement. PMID:21357433

  15. Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Rick; Daniel, Alice; Batts, Frank E., Sr.

    2006-01-01

    Measurement and Controls Data Acquisition System (MCDAS) is an application program that integrates the functions of two stand-alone programs: one for acquisition of data, the other for controls. MCDAS facilitates and improves testing of complex engineering systems by helping to perform calibration and setup of test systems and acquisition, dissemination, and processing of data. Features of MCDAS include an intuitive, user-friendly graphical user interface, a capability for acquiring data at rates greater than previously possible, cooperation between the data-acquisition software subsystem and alarm-checking and analytical components of the control software subsystem, and a capability for dissemination of data through fiber optics and virtual and wide-area networks, including networks that contain hand-held display units. The integration of the data acquisition and control software offers a safety advantage by making alarm information available to the control software in a more timely manner. By enabling the use of hand-held devices, MCDAS reduces the time spent by technicians asking for screen updates to determine effects of setup actions. Previously recorded data can be processed without interruption to current acquisition of data. Analysts can continue to view test parameters while test-data files are being generated.

  16. Statistical modelling of measurement errors in gas chromatographic analyses of blood alcohol content.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Rossana; Blomstedt, Paul; Wilhelm, Lars; Reinikainen, Tapani; Sippola, Erkki; Corander, Jukka

    2010-10-10

    Headspace gas chromatographic measurements of ethanol content in blood specimens from suspect drunk drivers are routinely carried out in forensic laboratories. In the widely established standard statistical framework, measurement errors in such data are represented by Gaussian distributions for the population of blood specimens at any given level of ethanol content. It is known that the variance of measurement errors increases as a function of the level of ethanol content and the standard statistical approach addresses this issue by replacing the unknown population variances by estimates derived from large sample using a linear regression model. Appropriate statistical analysis of the systematic and random components in the measurement errors is necessary in order to guarantee legally sound security corrections reported to the police authority. Here we address this issue by developing a novel statistical approach that takes into account any potential non-linearity in the relationship between the level of ethanol content and the variability of measurement errors. Our method is based on standard non-parametric kernel techniques for density estimation using a large database of laboratory measurements for blood specimens. Furthermore, we address also the issue of systematic errors in the measurement process by a statistical model that incorporates the sign of the error term in the security correction calculations. Analysis of a set of certified reference materials (CRMs) blood samples demonstrates the importance of explicitly handling the direction of the systematic errors in establishing the statistical uncertainty about the true level of ethanol content. Use of our statistical framework to aid quality control in the laboratory is also discussed. PMID:20494532

  17. Serotonin transporter gene regulatory region polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), [3H]paroxetine binding in healthy control subjects and alcohol-dependent patients and their relationships to impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Preuss, U W; Soyka, M; Bahlmann, M; Wenzel, K; Behrens, S; de Jonge, S; Krüger, M; Bondy, B

    2000-09-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate [3H]paroxetine binding and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent and age-matched control subjects in relation to a 5'-promoter region serotonin transporter (5-HTT) polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Alcohol-dependent subjects were hypothesized to show a decreased number of bindings sites and a lower dissociation constant. 5-HTTLPR S-genotype carriers in both alcohol-dependent and control subjects were expected to show significantly fewer binding sites and a lower dissociation constant. Influences of impulsive traits, chronic daily alcohol intake, duration of alcohol dependence, age of onset and age on [3H]paroxetine binding were also investigated. Inpatients meeting DSM IV alcohol dependence criteria and of German descent were recruited to avoid ethnic stratification effects. One hundred and seventeen control subjects of similar social status were recruited from a town community. Blood samples were taken from both alcohol-dependent and control subjects to determine 5-HTTLPR genotypes using PCR of lymphocyte DNA, and to perform platelet [3H]paroxetine binding (binding capacity: B(max); and dissociation constant: K(D)). Impulsivity was assessed using the Barratt impulsiveness scale version 5 (BIS-5) in alcohol-dependent subjects only. Alcohol-dependent subjects were subdivided into low or high impulsivity groups using a median-split of the BIS-5 scale. The control group was slightly older than the alcohol-dependent group (not statistically significant). [3H]paroxetine binding was investigated in 72 control subjects and 72 patients, of which five patients met type 2 alcohol dependence criteria. Genotyping was carried out in all patients and control subjects. A significant influence of duration of alcohol dependence was found on the [3H]paroxetine binding K(D) but not B(max.) Neither alcohol-dependent nor control subjects showed any differences in B(max) or K(D). S-allele carriers did not show a decreased binding or lower dissociation constant

  18. A controlled examination of two coping skills for daily alcohol use and PTSD symptom severity among dually diagnosed individuals.

    PubMed

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Luterek, Jane A; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-03-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  19. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  20. Integrated care for comorbid alcohol dependence and anxiety and/or depressive disorder: study protocol for an assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A major barrier to successful treatment in alcohol dependence is psychiatric comorbidity. During treatment, the time to relapse is shorter, the drop-out rate is increased, and long-term alcohol consumption is greater for those with comorbid major depression or anxiety disorder than those with an alcohol use disorder with no comorbid mental disorder. The treatment of alcohol dependence and psychological disorders is often the responsibility of different services, and this can hinder the treatment process. Accordingly, there is a need for an effective integrated treatment for alcohol dependence and comorbid anxiety and/or depression. Methods/Design We aim to assess the effectiveness of a specialized, integrated intervention for alcohol dependence with comorbid anxiety and/or mood disorder using a randomized design in an outpatient hospital setting. Following a three-week stabilization period (abstinence or significantly reduced consumption), participants will undergo complete formal assessment for anxiety and depression. Those patients with a diagnosis of an anxiety and/or depressive disorder will be randomized to either 1) integrated intervention (cognitive behavioral therapy) for alcohol, anxiety, and/or depression; or 2) usual counseling care for alcohol problems. Patients will then be followed up at weeks 12, 16, and 24. The primary outcome measure is alcohol consumption (total abstinence, time to lapse, and time to relapse). Secondary outcome measures include changes in alcohol dependence severity, depression, or anxiety symptoms and changes in clinician-rated severity of anxiety and depression. Discussion The study findings will have potential implications for clinical practice by evaluating the implementation of specialized integrated treatment for comorbid anxiety and/or depression in an alcohol outpatient service. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01941693 PMID:24245491

  1. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-01-01

    Background About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. Objective (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Methods Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1

  2. Measurement and Control of Glass Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Arel Weisberg

    2007-04-26

    ERCo has developed a laser-based technology for rapid compositional measurements of batch, real-time sorting of cullet, and in-situ measurements of molten glass. This technology, termed LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) can determine whether or not the batch was formulated accurately in order to control glass quality. It can also be used to determine if individual batch ingredients are within specifications. In the case of cullet feedstocks, the sensor can serve as part of a system to sort cullet by color and ensure that it is free of contaminants. In-situ compositional measurements of molten glass are achieved through immersing a LIBS probe directly into the melt in a glass furnace. This technology has been successfully demonstrated in ERCo’s LIBS laboratory for batch analysis, cullet sorting, and glass melt measurements. A commercial batch analyzer has been operating in a PPG fiberglass plant since August 2004. LIBS utilizes a highly concentrated laser pulse to rapidly vaporize and ionize nanograms of the material being studied. As this vapor cools, it radiates light at specific wavelengths corresponding to the elemental constituents (e.g. silicon, aluminum, iron) of the material. The strengths of the emissions correlate to the concentrations of each of the elemental constituents. By collecting the radiated light with a spectrometer capable of resolving and measuring these wavelengths, the elemental composition of the sample is found.

  3. An α-synuclein gene (SNCA) polymorphism moderates the association of PTSD symptomatology with hazardous alcohol use, but not with aggression-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Guillot, Casey R.; Fanning, Jennifer R.; Liang, Tiebing; Leventhal, Adam M.; Berman, Mitchell E.

    2015-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often precedes comorbid substance use disorder and has been associated with aggression. Prior research has evidenced that alcohol use and other externalizing behaviors share genetic factors with PTSD; however, few studies have examined if specific genes are associated with externalizing behaviors in PTSD. The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether an α-synuclein gene polymorphism (SNCA rs356195) moderates the association of PTSD symptomatology with externalizing behaviors. We examined the separate and combined effects of PTSD symptomatology and SNCA rs356195 on alcohol- and aggression-related measures in nonclinical participants (N = 138 European Americans; 15 diagnosed with probable PTSD). Probable PTSD status and SNCA were both associated with externalizing measures. SNCA also moderated the association of PTSD symptomatology with hazardous alcohol use, but not with aggression-related measures. Current findings suggest that variations in SNCA may increase the likelihood that PTSD symptomatology results in excessive alcohol use. PMID:25594371

  4. Stabilized hemiacetal complexes as precursors for the controlled release of bioactive volatile alcohols.

    PubMed

    Buchs, Barbara; Fieber, Wolfgang; Drahoňovský, Dušan; Lehn, Jean-Marie; Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-04-01

    Hemiacetals of pyridine-2-carbaldehyde derivatives and volatile alcohols can be stabilized in organic solution in the presence of protons or different metal cations. Despite the inherent instability of hemiacetals in H(2) O, stabilizing them with zinc(II) triflate and adding them to a cationic surfactant formulation resulted in the slow release of the alcohol from cotton surfaces being treated with the hemiacetal complex. Stabilized hemiacetals might thus be suitable delivery systems of bioactive volatiles by rapid hydrolysis in H(2) O-based media. PMID:22492488

  5. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  6. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  7. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  8. The relationship between psychological differentiation and performance expectation in alcoholics and normals.

    PubMed

    Shelley-McIntyre, B; Lapidus, L B

    1989-05-01

    Sixty subjects (20 alcoholic inpatients, 20 outpatient alcoholics, and 20 surgical controls from two Veterans Administration hospitals) were tested on field independence-dependence (measured by the Rod-and-Frame Test), realistic/unrealistic self-expectations (on the Level of Aspiration Board), and degree of alcohol dependence (on the Alcohol Dependence Scale). Response bias and current intelligence were controlled. As predicted, alcoholic inpatients were more alcohol dependent than outpatients, both groups of alcoholics were found to be more field dependent and more unrealistic in their self-expectations than controls, and field dependence was related to unrealistic expectations. Patterns of differentiation and expectation were similar in both alcoholic groups. Results support the consistency of differentiation levels within clinical groups and the relationship between field dependence and unrealistic self-expectation. PMID:2745735

  9. The Quik Fix study: a randomised controlled trial of brief interventions for young people with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses accessing emergency department and crisis support care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol is a major preventable cause of injury, disability and death in young people. Large numbers of young people with alcohol-related injuries and medical conditions present to hospital emergency departments (EDs). Access to brief, efficacious, accessible and cost effective treatment is an international health priority within this age group. While there is growing evidence for the efficacy of brief motivational interviewing (MI) for reducing alcohol use in young people, there is significant scope to increase its impact, and determine if it is the most efficacious and cost effective type of brief intervention available. The efficacy of personality-targeted interventions (PIs) for alcohol misuse delivered individually to young people is yet to be determined or compared to MI, despite growing evidence for school-based PIs. This study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of telephone-delivered MI, PI and an Assessment Feedback/Information (AF/I) only control for reducing alcohol use and related harm in young people. Methods/design Participants will be 390 young people aged 16 to 25 years presenting to a crisis support service or ED with alcohol-related injuries and illnesses (including severe alcohol intoxication). This single blinded superiority trial randomized young people to (i) 2 sessions of MI; (ii) 2 sessions of a new PI or (iii) a 1 session AF/I only control. Participants are reassessed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months on the primary outcomes of alcohol use and related problems and secondary outcomes of mental health symptoms, functioning, severity of problematic alcohol use, alcohol injuries, alcohol-related knowledge, coping self-efficacy to resist using alcohol, and cost effectiveness. Discussion This study will identify the most efficacious and cost-effective telephone-delivered brief intervention for reducing alcohol misuse and related problems in young people presenting to crisis support

  10. Physical, social, and perceived availabilities of alcohol and last month alcohol use in rural and small urban communities.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Linda R; Henry, Kimberly L; Swaim, Randall C

    2011-09-01

    This study seeks to provide a greater understanding of the factors that determine the perceived availability of alcohol and its role in predicting adolescents' alcohol use. Participants were 151,703 7th-12th grade students (50% female) from a sample of 219 rural communities across the United States, with oversampling for predominantly Mexican-American and African-American communities. Multilevel analysis was used to estimate the perceived availability of alcohol as a function of physical and social availability measures and individual and community-level control variables. Physical availability was measured as the number of alcohol outlets in the community and whether beer and wine were sold in non-liquor stores. Social availability measured the availability of alcohol from social or family groups. Last month alcohol use was then estimated as a function of physical, social and perceived availabilities and control variables. Physical availability had little relationship to perceived availability or recent alcohol use while social availability was a strong predictor of both. Perceived availabilities at the individual and community levels were significant in predicting last month alcohol use. The findings suggest that altering both perceived and actual availability of alcohol can potentially have strong effects on the levels of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:20532969

  11. Alcohol, diabetes, and public health in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas; Rehm, Jurgen; Jernigan, David; Vaeth, Patrice; Monteiro, Maristela; Lehman, Hallie

    2012-08-01

    This article describes epidemiological evidence on the association between alcohol use and diabetes, and the implications for clinical management and public health policies in the Americas. Heavy alcohol use is a risk factor for both diabetes and poor treatment adherence, despite evidence that moderate drinking can protect against type 2 diabetes under some circumstances. The burden of disease from diabetes associated with excessive alcohol consumption warrants both clinical and public health measures. On the clinical level, research on early interventions to prevent hazardous drinking shows that new screening, brief intervention, and referral techniques are effective ways to manage hazardous drinking in primary care settings. On the population level, restrictions on alcohol marketing and other alcohol control policies reduce the frequency and intensity of alcohol consumption in at-risk populations. These policy actions are recommended within the context of the World Health Organization's global strategy to reduce the harmful use of alcohol. PMID:23099877

  12. Colour Vision Impairment in Young Alcohol Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Brasil, Alódia; Castro, Antônio José O.; Martins, Isabelle Christine V. S.; Lacerda, Eliza Maria C. B.; Souza, Givago S.; Herculano, Anderson Manoel; Rosa, Alexandre Antônio M.; Rodrigues, Anderson R.; Silveira, Luiz Carlos L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among young adults is widely accepted in modern society and may be the starting point for abusive use of alcohol at later stages of life. Chronic alcohol exposure can lead to visual function impairment. In the present study, we investigated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity, colour arrangement ability, and colour discrimination thresholds on young adults that weekly consume alcoholic beverages without clinical concerns. Twenty-four young adults were evaluated by an ophthalmologist and performed three psychophysical tests to evaluate their vision functions. We estimated the spatial luminance contrast sensitivity function at 11 spatial frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 30 cycles/degree. No difference in contrast sensitivity was observed comparing alcohol consumers and control subjects. For the evaluation of colour vision, we used the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test (FM 100 test) to test subject’s ability to perform a colour arrangement task and the Mollon-Reffin test (MR test) to measure subject’s colour discrimination thresholds. Alcohol consumers made more mistakes than controls in the FM100 test, and their mistakes were diffusely distributed in the FM colour space without any colour axis preference. Alcohol consumers also performed worse than controls in the MR test and had higher colour discrimination thresholds compared to controls around three different reference points of a perceptually homogeneous colour space, the CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram. There was no colour axis preference in the threshold elevation observed among alcoholic subjects. Young adult weekly alcohol consumers showed subclinical colour vision losses with preservation of spatial luminance contrast sensitivity. Adolescence and young adult age are periods of important neurological development and alcohol exposure during this period of life might be responsible for deficits in visual functions, especially colour vision that is very sensitive to neurotoxicants. PMID

  13. Field Dependency, n Power and Locus of Control Variables in Alcohol Aversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.

    1983-01-01

    Compared individual differences and treatment effectiveness in male volunteer alcoholics (N=47) in a 10-day electroconditioning aversion program. Follow-up showed combination therapy was more successful. Internals and hard liquor drinkers tended to be abstinent as predicted. Field dependency was a more unstable variable for outcome. (Author/JAC)

  14. 77 FR 21581 - Kootenai Tribe of Idaho: Chapter 11-Alcohol Control Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... substance including all dilutions and mixtures of this substance. (2) ``Beer'' means any malt beverage...'' includes the four varieties of liquor herein defined (alcohol, spirits, wine and beer), and all fermented..., wine and beer, and all drinks or drinkable liquids and all preparations or mixtures capable of...

  15. 76 FR 22913 - Alcoholic Beverage Control Ordinance of the Paiute Tribe of Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ...: A. ``Alcoholic Beverage(s)'' means and shall include beer, wine, and liquor, as herein defined. B... Paiutes. ``Band'' means any one of the five constituent Bands. C. ``Beer'' means a product that contains... not contain hops or other vegetable products. ``Beer'' includes products referred to as light...

  16. Drinker Prototype Alteration and Cue Reminders as Strategies in a Tailored Web-Based Intervention Reducing Adults’ Alcohol Consumption: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a prevalent and worldwide problem. Excessive drinking causes a significant burden of disease and is associated with both morbidity and excess mortality. Prototype alteration and provision of a cue reminder could be useful strategies to enhance the effectiveness of online tailored interventions for excessive drinking. Objective Through a Web-based randomized controlled trial, 2 strategies (ie, prototype alteration and cue reminders) within an existing online personalized feedback intervention (Drinktest) aimed to reduce adults’ excessive drinking. It was expected that both strategies would add to Drinktest and would result in reductions in alcohol consumption by intrinsic motivation and the seizure of opportunities to act. Methods Participants were recruited online and through printed materials. Excessive drinking adults (N=2634) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions: original Drinktest, Drinktest plus prototype alteration, Drinktest plus cue reminder, and Drinktest plus prototype alteration and cue reminder. Evaluation took place at 1-month posttest and 6-month follow-up. Differences in drinking behavior, intentions, and behavioral willingness (ie, primary outcomes) were assessed by means of longitudinal multilevel analyses using a last observation carried forward method. Measures were based on self-reports. Results All conditions showed reductions in drinking behavior and willingness to drink, and increased intentions to reduce drinking. Prototype alteration (B=–0.15, P<.05) and cue reminder usage (B=–0.15, P<.05) were both more effective in reducing alcohol consumption than when these strategies were not provided. Combining the strategies did not produce a synergistic effect. No differences across conditions were found regarding intentions or willingness. Conclusions Although individuals’ awareness of their cue was reasonable, their reported alcohol consumption was nevertheless reduced. Individuals appeared to distance

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Brief Alcohol Interventions for OEF/OIF Veterans

    PubMed Central

    McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.; Williams, Joah L.; Monahan, Christopher J.; Bracken-Minor, Katherine L.; Fields, Jordan A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of two brief interventions for alcohol misuse in a sample of combat veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Method Participants were 68 combat veterans (91.2% male; 64.7% White, 27.9% Black) with a mean age of 32.31 years (SD = 8.84) who screened positive for hazardous drinking in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center primary care clinic using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. More than half of the sample (57.4%) met criteria for PTSD (based on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale). Eligible veterans who elected to participate completed a baseline assessment and were randomized to receive one of two interventions (personalized feedback delivered with or without a motivational interviewing counseling session). Both interventions included information on hazardous drinking, PTSD symptoms, depression, and coping. Follow up assessments were conducted at 6 weeks and 6 months post-intervention. Results Both conditions resulted in statistically significant reductions in quantity and frequency of alcohol use, as well as frequency of binge drinking. Within group effect sizes (d) were in the small to medium range (.34 to .55) for quantity and frequency of alcohol use. There were no condition by time interactions, suggesting that both interventions were similarly effective. PTSD and Non-PTSD veterans responded equally well to both interventions, but veterans with PTSD assigned to Feedback+MI reported greater reductions in weekly drinking at the 6-week follow up. Conclusions These findings suggest that brief interventions for alcohol misuse may be effective for reducing drinking, even in an OEF/OIF Veteran population with a high degree of PTSD. PMID:24773573

  18. State pre-emption, local control, and alcohol retail outlet density regulation.

    PubMed

    Mosher, James F; Treffers, Ryan D

    2013-04-01

    The substantial health and economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption make its reduction a major public health and economic concern. The Community Preventive Services Task Force, based on a systematic review of the research literature, concluded that restricting alcohol retail outlet density through local land use and zoning regulations is an effective strategy for reducing these costs. Yet the implementation of the Task Force's recommendation is limited by state pre-emption, which determines the extent to which states allow local government to adopt policies and enact legislation. This article summarizes the state pre-emption doctrine, its status in the 50 states pertaining to alcohol retail outlet density regulation, and findings from state legal analyses conducted in six states. Data reflect state laws in effect as of January 1, 2012. Analyses were conducted during the 2012 calendar year. An examination of relevant state laws found five distinct pre-emption categories: exclusive state licensing, exclusive state licensing and concurrent local zoning, joint licensing, exclusive local licensing, and a mixed system. The analysis demonstrated wide variability across the states, ranging from exclusive state pre-emption to broad state delegation of authority to local governments. Pre-emption is applied differentially in many states based on retail outlet characteristics. In many cases, state pre-emption laws are ambiguous in terms of their application, leading to inconsistent and confusing court interpretations. Reforms targeting the adverse impact of state pre-emption on alcohol retail outlet density have the potential for reducing the harm associated with excessive alcohol consumption. State and local public health departments can support such reforms by implementing educational, analytic, monitoring, and technical assistance activities. PMID:23498107

  19. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) . PMID:26013759

  20. Measuring the impact of Ebola control measures in Sierra Leone

    PubMed Central

    Kucharski, Adam J.; Camacho, Anton; Flasche, Stefan; Glover, Rebecca E.; Edmunds, W. John; Funk, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Between September 2014 and February 2015, the number of Ebola virus disease (EVD) cases reported in Sierra Leone declined in many districts. During this period, a major international response was put in place, with thousands of treatment beds introduced alongside other infection control measures. However, assessing the impact of the response is challenging, as several factors could have influenced the decline in infections, including behavior changes and other community interventions. We developed a mathematical model of EVD transmission, and measured how transmission changed over time in the 12 districts of Sierra Leone with sustained transmission between June 2014 and February 2015. We used the model to estimate how many cases were averted as a result of the introduction of additional treatment beds in each area. Examining epidemic dynamics at the district level, we estimated that 56,600 (95% credible interval: 48,300–84,500) Ebola cases (both reported and unreported) were averted in Sierra Leone up to February 2, 2015 as a direct result of additional treatment beds being introduced. We also found that if beds had been introduced 1 month earlier, a further 12,500 cases could have been averted. Our results suggest the unprecedented local and international response led to a substantial decline in EVD transmission during 2014–2015. In particular, the introduction of beds had a direct impact on reducing EVD cases in Sierra Leone, although the effect varied considerably between districts. PMID:26460023

  1. Coherence in Rydberg Atoms: Measurement and Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutteruf, Mary

    We demonstrate a variety of techniques for measuring and controlling dephasing and decoherence in alkali metal Rydberg atom systems. Specifically, we investigate the coherence of the spin-orbit interaction in individual atoms and of dipole-dipole resonant energy exchange between pairs of atoms. Rydberg atoms are a good model system for exploring decoherence because they are sensitive to noise in their environments. The phase coherence of wave packets encoded on the fine-structure Rydberg states of lithium atoms is measured using a population echo and preserved using pulsed and continuous dynamic decoupling techniques. Pulsed electric fields toggle the spin-orbit coupling, repeatedly flipping the state vector, and preventing the slow acquisition of phase noise in a bang-bang scheme. Continuous dynamic decoupling is implemented by driving population between the relevant electronic states with a resonant rf field. The energy spacing between the levels is locked to the rf frequency as long as the Rabi rate is much greater than the dephasing rate. We demonstrate a technique which reduces the average relative velocity between interacting potassium Rydberg atoms, extending the atom transit time and allowing us to control when all resonant energy exchange interactions in the ensemble begin and end. Velocity reduction is achieved without the use of a chopper wheel by exciting a small cylinder of atoms and allowing them to thermally expand prior to tuning them into resonance. Resonant energy transfer is explored further in a nearly frozen rubidium Rydberg gas. We observe enhancement in the transition signal when the probability amplitudes acquired on opposite sides of the resonance interfere constructively compared to the population transferred when remaining on either side of the resonance. This enhancement reflects the coherence of the energy exchange interaction and decays over 10 us microseconds. The observed coherence time is much longer than previously measured

  2. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  3. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  4. Nitric oxide control of steroidogenesis: Endocrine effects of N sup G -nitro-L-arginine and comparisons to alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Nock, B.; Truong, R.; Cicero, T.J. )

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) may regulate hormone biosynthesis and secretion. This was tested by treating male rats with N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (NAME), a NO synthase inhibitor, and measuring serum and testicular interstitial fluid testosterone and serum corticosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and prolactin (PRL). The effect of N{sup G}-nitro-L-arginine (NA), a less-soluble form of the same NO synthase inhibitor, on the reproductive suppressant actions of alcohol was also examined. NAME increased testosterone and corticosterone secretion dose-dependently without affecting LH and PRL secretion. The alcohol-induced suppression of testosterone or LH secretion was not altered by treatment with NA. Although effects of NAME and NA on other systems may be involved, these results indicate that testicular and adrenal steroidogenesis are negatively regulated by endogenous NO and that NO does not regulate LH and PRL secretion or inhibit the testicular steroidogenic pathway in the same way as alcohol.

  5. Application of 0.05 per cent legal blood alcohol limits to traffic injury control in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Plitapolkarnpim, Adisak; Tawonwanchai, Araya

    2002-04-01

    A substantial proportion (44%) of traffic injury cases seeking emergency services in public hospitals had a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.1 per cent or more. To reduce alcohol related traffic injuries and deaths, a law was enacted setting a criminal per se legal blood alcohol limit at 0.05 per cent in 1994. However, not until 1997, was an active public education program undertaken on a national scale to raise awareness against drink driving and to support law enforcement. This includes dissemination of knowledge through multiple channels e.g., roadside posters; stickers on the back of vehicles; sporadic radio and TV programs or spots; public announcements; press reports. In 1999, highly visible sobriety check points were set up as a measure for law enforcement. In order to systematically assess the campaign, multiple methods were used to collect relevant data. This report focused on the outcomes of the campaign based on hospital surveillance data in the emergency rooms of 4 public hospitals from March to November, 2000 on alternate months. It was found that the campaign succeeded in raising public awareness and support for law enforcement against drink driving. However, the proportion of road victims with illegal BAC seeking emergency care did not decline after 17 months of the campaign. Limitations and weaknesses of law enforcement activities were discussed along with recommendation for future action. PMID:12118498

  6. [What are the physician's role and responsibility in the law named "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm"?].

    PubMed

    Io, Aro; Yoshimoto, Hisashi

    2015-09-01

    Japan passed the national law "Basic Act on Measures against Alcohol-related Health Harm" on December 2013. This law is expected to prevent inappropriate drinking that leads to alcohol-related problems such as physical and mental disorder, drunk driving, suicide, domestic violence, child abuse, and poor work performance. The physician's responsibilities under this law are described as follows: i) to provide high quality and appropriate medical care concerning alcohol-related health harm; ii) to reduce or eliminate the consumption of alcohol, thus preventing the progression of alcohol-related health harm; and iii) to coordinate these efforts amongst medical institutions. Based on this law, we believe that Japanese physicians will have essential roles in achieving the goals of this law and that we can fulfill our responsibilities by observing the following aspects: a) changing our message to the patients from "drink sensibly and moderately" to "low-risk drinking; but any drinking has a risk of harm and low-risk drinking is not risk-free"; b) encouraging the spread and use of Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT); and c) establishing community healthcare systems for alcohol-related problems, including dementia in the elderly and during alcohol emergencies. PMID:26394525

  7. Learning and memory in rats exposed pre- and postnatally to alcohol. An attempt at pharmacological control.

    PubMed

    Petkov, V D; Konstantinova, E R; Petkov, V V; Vaglenova, J V

    1991-01-01

    Using conditioned-reflex methods for active and passive avoidance with punishment reinforcement, we found pronounced memory deficits in 12-week old rats exposed perinatally to alcohol (FAS rats). Impairment of memory was observed not only with the high dose of 9 g ethanol/kg body weight (ingested with tap water in a 6% solution) to which dams were exposed during pregnancy and lactation, but also with the ten-fold lower dose of 1 g ethanol/kg body weight (0.6% ethanol). The nootropic drugs citicholine, piracetam and meclofenoxate administered orally for five days before the training session were effective in decreasing memory deficits; particularly pronounced was the effect of piracetam and meclofenoxate. The benzodiazepine tranquilizer diazepam additionally impaired learning and memory in FAS rats. It is suggested that nootropics could be used to decrease the cognitive disturbances in some humans born to alcoholic mothers. PMID:1870356

  8. Controlled release of theophylline from poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogels/porous silicon nanostructured systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Rincón, N.; Medellín-Rodríguez, F. J.; Escobar-Barrios, V. A.; Palestino, G.

    2013-03-01

    In this research, hybrid hydrogels of poly (vinyl alcohol)/ porous silicon (PSi)/theophylline were synthesized by the freezing and thawing method. We evaluated the influence of the synthesis parameters of the poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels in relation to their ability to swell and drug released. The parameters studied (using an experimental design developed in Minitab 16) were the polymer concentration, the freezing temperature and the number of freezing/thawing (f/t) cycles. Nanostructured porous silicon particles (NsPSi) and theophylline were added within the polymer matrix to increase the drug charge and the polymer mechanical strength. The hybrid hydrogels were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy Fourier Transform (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), drug delivery kinetics were engineered according to the desired drug release schedule.

  9. Effect of boric acid on oxidative stress in rats with fetal alcohol syndrome

    PubMed Central

    SOGUT, IBRAHIM; OGLAKCI, AYSEGUL; KARTKAYA, KAZIM; OL, KEVSER KUSAT; SOGUT, MELIS SAVASAN; KANBAK, GUNGOR; INAL, MINE ERDEN

    2015-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study concerning the effect of boric acid (BA) administration on fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In this study, the aim was to investigate prenatal alcohol-induced oxidative stress on the cerebral cortex of newborn rat pups and assess the protective and beneficial effects of BA supplementation on rats with FAS. Pregnant rats were divided into three groups, namely the control, alcohol and alcohol + boric acid groups. As markers of alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the cerebral cortex of the newborn pups, malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels were measured. Although the MDA levels in the alcohol group were significantly increased compared with those in the control group (P<0.05), the MDA level in the alcohol + boric acid group was shown to be significantly decreased compared with that in the alcohol group (P<0.01). The CAT activity of the alcohol + boric acid group was significantly higher than that in the alcohol group (P<0.05). The GPx activity in the alcohol group was decreased compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These results demonstrate that alcohol is capable of triggering damage to membranes of the cerebral cortex of rat pups and BA could be influential in antioxidant mechanisms against oxidative stress resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25667671

  10. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  11. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  12. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  13. 40 CFR 51.111 - Description of control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Description of control measures. 51.111... Description of control measures. Each plan must set forth a control strategy which includes the following: (a... compliance with each of the selected control measures, (2) Procedures for handling violations, and (3)...

  14. Human gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity: effect of age, sex, and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, H K; Egerer, G; Simanowski, U A; Waldherr, R; Eckey, R; Agarwal, D P; Goedde, H W; von Wartburg, J P

    1993-01-01

    As various isoenzymes of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase exist and as the effect of sex and age on these enzymes is unknown, this study measured the activity of gastric alcohol dehydrogenase at high and low ethanol concentrations in endoscopic biopsy specimens from a total of 290 patients of various ages and from 10 patients with chronic alcoholism. Gastric alcohol dehydrogenase was also detected by immunohistological tests in biopsy specimens from 40 patients by the use of a polyclonal rabbit antibody against class I alcohol dehydrogenase. A significant correlation was found between the immunohistological reaction assessed by the intensity of the colour reaction in the biopsy specimen and the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase measured at 580 mM ethanol. While alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 16 mM ethanol was not significantly affected by age and sex, both factors influenced alcohol dehydrogenase activity measured at 580 mM ethanol. Young women below 50 years of age had significantly lower alcohol dehydrogenase activities in the gastric corpus and antrum when compared with age matched controls (SEM) (6.4 (0.7) v 8.8 (0.6) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001 and 6.0 (1.3) v 9.5 (1.3) nmol/min/mg protein; p < 0.001). Over 50 years of age this sex difference was no longer detectable, as high Km gastric alcohol dehydrogenase activity decreases with age only in men and not in women. In addition, extremely low alcohol dehydrogenase activities have been found in gastric biopsy specimens from young male alcoholics (2.2 (0.5) nmol/min/mg protein), which returned to normal after two to three weeks of abstinence. The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in the human stomach measured at 580 mM ethanol is decreased in young women, in elderly men, and in the subject with alcoholism. This decrease in alcohol dehydrogenase activity may contribute to the reduced first pass metabolism of ethanol associated with raised ethanol blood concentrations seen in these people. Images Figure

  15. Organizational chirality expression as a function of the chirality measure of simple amino alcohols on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronci, F.; Gatti, R.; Caponi, G.; Colonna, S.; Galeotti, G.; Catone, D.; Turchini, S.; Prosperi, T.; Zema, N.; Palma, A.; Gori, P.; Contini, G.

    2014-11-01

    Chiral self-assembled molecular networks (SAMNs) are important for technological and fundamental reasons. In spite of the large number of works in this field, the mechanism of chirality transfer from single molecules to large-scale two-dimensional (2D) networks is not fully understood yet. This work reports on the self-assembly of simple amino alcohols with different chirality measures on Cu(100). Ethanolamine (2-amino-1-ethanol), alaninol (2-amino-1-propanol) and butanolamine (2-amino-1-butanol) adsorbed on Cu(100) have been investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), low-energy electron diffraction (LEED), photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. This study addresses the role of the single-molecule handedness in the global chirality expression, showing how the chirality measure of the precursors plays an important role in the formation of globally chiral superstructures.

  16. Discriminative value of lipids and apolipoproteins in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Meera, V; Pal, H; Sing, R

    2001-07-01

    1. It is important to detect alcohol use in its early stages so that interventions can be planned effectively. In a bid to screen for alcohol use disorders various biochemical assessments have been advocated. 2. It has been seen that moderate to heavy alcohol consumption appears to elevate ApoA1 though the effect of alcohol consumption on ApoB is not well defined. 3. Present study was planned to evaluate the contribution of lipid profile and lipoprotein measures for the diagnosis of alcohol use disorder in 75 alcohol dependent and 45 normal healthy controls. 4. Based on the TC, TG, HDL/LDL-c, HDL-c/TC, ApoA1, ApoB, and ApoA1/ApoB a discriminant equation was developed for classification of alcohol dependent users (alcoholics) and non-users (non-alcoholics) 5. The discriminant equation resulted in 84.7% of subjects being correctly classified. (94.7% in non-users and 81.1% in alcohol dependent users as alcoholics). PMID:11444674

  17. ADAPTA: A pilot randomised controlled trial of an alcohol-focused intervention versus a healthy living intervention for problem drinkers identified in a general hospital setting☆

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Judith M.; Fairhurst, Caroline; Li, Jinshuo; Tober, Gillian; Crosby, Helen; Lloyd, Charlie; Godfrey, Christine; Mdege, Noreen D.; Dale, Veronica; Toner, Paul; Parrott, Steve; Raistrick, Duncan

    2015-01-01

    Aim To examine the relative feasibility, acceptability, applicability, effectiveness and explore cost-effectiveness of a healthy living focused intervention (HL) compared to an alcohol-focused intervention (AF) for problem drinkers identified in hospital. Methods A pragmatic, randomised, controlled, open pilot trial. Feasibility and acceptability were measured by recruitment, attrition, follow-up rates and number of treatment sessions attended. Effectiveness was measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test score at six months. Additional economic and secondary outcome measures were collected. Results Eighty-six participants were randomised and 72% (n = 62) were retained in full participation. Forty-one participants attended at least one treatment session (48%). A greater proportion in the HL group attended all four treatment sessions (33% vs 19%). Follow-up rates were 29% at six months and 22% at twelve months. There was no evidence of a difference in AUDIT score between treatment groups at six months. Mean cost of health care and social services, policing and the criminal justice system use decreased while EQ-5D scores indicated minor improvement in both arms. However, this pilot trial was not powered to detect differences in either measure between groups. Conclusions While no treatment effect was observed, this study demonstrated a potential to engage patients drinking at harmful or dependent levels in a healthy living intervention. However, recruitment proved challenging and follow-up rates were poor. Better ways need to be found to help these patients recognise the harms associated with their drinking and overcome the evident barriers to their engagement with specialist treatment. PMID:26194955

  18. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  19. Performance of female alcoholics on neuropsychological testing.

    PubMed

    Acker, C

    1985-01-01

    Female alcoholics performed significantly less well on neuropsychological tests than matched non-alcoholic controls. The range of performance deficits was similar to that previously reported for male alcoholics despite significantly shorter drinking histories. PMID:4084369

  20. Elevated tryptophan levels in post-withdrawal alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Dinan, T G

    1996-12-01

    Changes in serotonin function and disturbances in tryptophan availability have been implicated in many psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism. In the present study we took serum free tryptophan samples from 31 healthy volunteer controls and from 42 DSM-III-R alcohol-dependent subjects who had abstained from alcohol for at least 2.5 weeks (range 2.5-104 weeks). We also measured the basal serum cortisol level at 09.00 hours for the same subjects and controls. There was a significant increase in the serum tryptophan level of the alcoholic subjects, by 43.7 mumol l-1 (range 29-63 mumol l-1), regardless of age of onset of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism or sociopathic traits, compared to the controls (33.0 mumol l-1, range 19-60 mumol l-1). There was also an increase in the basal serum cortisol level in the alcoholic subjects compared to the controls, but this was not related to the increase in tryptophan levels. These findings indicate a disturbance in serotonin precursor availability in post-withdrawal alcoholics, and contribute to the evidence for involvement of the serotonin system in alcoholism. PMID:9021001

  1. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  2. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  3. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  4. Alcohol Decreases Baseline Brain Glucose Metabolism More in Heavy Drinkers Than Controls But Has No Effect on Stimulation-Induced Metabolic Increases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gene-Jack; Shokri Kojori, Ehsan; Fowler, Joanna S.; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-01-01

    During alcohol intoxication, the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75 g/kg alcohol vs placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video stimulation (VS) versus when given with no stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HDs) and 23 healthy controls, each of whom underwent four PET-18FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p = 0.04); that alcohol (compared with placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20 ± 13%) than controls (9 ± 11%, p = 0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, p = 0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10 ± 12%) compared with NS in both groups (15 ± 13%, p = 0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e., acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in HDs, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal. PMID:25698759

  5. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared tomore » placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.« less

  6. Alcohol decreases baseline brain glucose metabolism more in heavy drinkers than controls but has no effect on stimulation-induced metabolic increases

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, Nora D.; Fowler, Joanna S.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Kojori, Eshan Shokri; Benveniste, Helene; Tomasi, Dardo

    2015-02-18

    During alcohol intoxication the human brain increases metabolism of acetate and decreases metabolism of glucose as energy substrate. Here we hypothesized that chronic heavy drinking facilitates this energy substrate shift both for baseline and stimulation conditions. To test this hypothesis we compared the effects of alcohol intoxication (0.75g/kg alcohol versus placebo) on brain glucose metabolism during video-stimulation (VS) versus when given with no-stimulation (NS), in 25 heavy drinkers (HD) and 23 healthy controls each of whom underwent four PET-¹⁸FDG scans. We showed that resting whole-brain glucose metabolism (placebo-NS) was lower in HD than controls (13%, p=0.04); that alcohol (compared to placebo) decreased metabolism more in HD (20±13%) than controls (9±11%, p=0.005) and in proportion to daily alcohol consumption (r=0.36, p=0.01) but found that alcohol did not reduce the metabolic increases in visual cortex from VS in either group. Instead, VS reduced alcohol-induced decreases in whole-brain glucose metabolism (10±12%) compared to NS in both groups (15±13%, p=0.04), consistent with stimulation-related glucose metabolism enhancement. These findings corroborate our hypothesis that heavy alcohol consumption facilitates use of alternative energy substrates (i.e. acetate) for resting activity during intoxication, which might persist through early sobriety, but indicate that glucose is still favored as energy substrate during brain stimulation. Our findings are consistent with reduced reliance on glucose as the main energy substrate for resting brain metabolism during intoxication (presumably shifting to acetate or other ketones) and a priming of this shift in heavy drinkers, which might make them vulnerable to energy deficits during withdrawal.

  7. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  8. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Lossie, Amy C; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Xuei, Xiaoling; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C; Muir, William M

    2016-08-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits. PMID:27490364

  9. High Resolution Genomic Scans Reveal Genetic Architecture Controlling Alcohol Preference in Bidirectionally Selected Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Chiao-Ling; Liang, Tiebing; Liu, Yunlong; Lumeng, Lawrence; Zhou, Feng C.; Muir, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Investigations on the influence of nature vs. nurture on Alcoholism (Alcohol Use Disorder) in human have yet to provide a clear view on potential genomic etiologies. To address this issue, we sequenced a replicated animal model system bidirectionally-selected for alcohol preference (AP). This model is uniquely suited to map genetic effects with high reproducibility, and resolution. The origin of the rat lines (an 8-way cross) resulted in small haplotype blocks (HB) with a corresponding high level of resolution. We sequenced DNAs from 40 samples (10 per line of each replicate) to determine allele frequencies and HB. We achieved ~46X coverage per line and replicate. Excessive differentiation in the genomic architecture between lines, across replicates, termed signatures of selection (SS), were classified according to gene and region. We identified SS in 930 genes associated with AP. The majority (50%) of the SS were confined to single gene regions, the greatest numbers of which were in promoters (284) and intronic regions (169) with the least in exon's (4), suggesting that differences in AP were primarily due to alterations in regulatory regions. We confirmed previously identified genes and found many new genes associated with AP. Of those newly identified genes, several demonstrated neuronal function involved in synaptic memory and reward behavior, e.g. ion channels (Kcnf1, Kcnn3, Scn5a), excitatory receptors (Grin2a, Gria3, Grip1), neurotransmitters (Pomc), and synapses (Snap29). This study not only reveals the polygenic architecture of AP, but also emphasizes the importance of regulatory elements, consistent with other complex traits. PMID:27490364

  10. Alcohol assessment & feedback by e-mail for university student hazardous and harmful drinkers: study protocol for the AMADEUS-2 randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol is responsible for a large and growing proportion of the global burden of disease, as well as being the cause of social problems. Brief interventions are one component of comprehensive policy measures necessary to reduce these harms. Brief interventions increasingly take advantage of the Internet to reach large numbers of high risk groups such as students. The research literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly. Although many studies show benefits in the form of reduced consumption, other intervention studies show no effects, for reasons that are unclear. Sweden became the first country in the world to implement a national system in which all university students are offered a brief online intervention via an e-mail. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this national system comprising a brief online intervention among university students who are hazardous and harmful drinkers. This study employs a conventional RCT design in which screening to determine eligibility precedes random allocation to immediate or delayed access to online intervention. The online intervention evaluated comprises three main components; assessment, normative feedback and advice on reducing drinking. Screening is confined to a single question in order to minimise assessment reactivity and to prevent contamination. Outcomes will be evaluated after 2 months, with total weekly alcohol consumption being the primary outcome measure. Invitations to participate are provided by e-mail to approximately 55,000 students in 9 Swedish universities. Discussion This RCT evaluates routine service provision in Swedish universities via a delay in offer of intervention to the control group. It evaluates effects in the key population for whom this intervention has been designed. Study findings will inform the further development of the national service provision. Trial registration ISRCTN

  11. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  12. Hydrogen Isotope Measurements of Organic Acids and Alcohols by Pyrolysis-GC-MS-TC-IRMS: Application to Analysis of Experimentally Derived Hydrothermal Mineral-Catalyzed Organic Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socki, R. A.; Fu, Q.; Niles, P. B.; Gibson, E. K.

    2012-03-01

    We report results of experiments to measure the H-isotope composition of organic acids and alcohols. These experiments make use of a pyroprobe interfaced with a GC and high-temperature extraction furnace to make quantitative H-isotope measurements.

  13. Control Measures for Human Respiratory Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Lesley; Waterer, Grant

    2016-08-01

    New viral respiratory pathogens are emerging with increasing frequency and have potentially devastating impacts on the population worldwide. Recent examples of newly emerged threats include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus. Experiences with these pathogens have shown up major deficiencies in how we deal globally with emerging pathogens and taught us salient lessons in what needs to be addressed for future pandemics. This article reviews the lessons learnt from past experience and current knowledge on the range of measures required to limit the impact of emerging respiratory infections from public health responses down to individual patient management. Key areas of interest are surveillance programs, political limitations on our ability to respond quickly enough to emerging threats, media management, public information dissemination, infection control, prophylaxis, and individual patient management. Respiratory physicians have a crucial role to play in many of these areas and need to be aware of how to respond as new viral pathogens emerge. PMID:27486741

  14. Laser safety: Risks, hazards, and control measures

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Penny J.

    2011-01-01

    Now that laser technology has emerged from hospital operating rooms, and has become available to office practices, clinics, and private enterprises, the burden of responsibility for safety has shifted from hospital staff to the individual user, often without benefit of appropriate or adequate resources. What remains, regardless of the practice site, application, or system in use, is the constant goal of establishing and maintaining a laser safe environment for the patient, the staff, and the user, at all times. This should be the goal of all who are involved with the sale, purchase, application, and management of all medical laser systems–under all circumstances. Laser safety is EVERYONE'S concern! A laser is as safe or as hazardous as the user–and that user's knowledge and skill, defines how well laser safety is managed. Of all hazards, complacency is the most dangerous, and it is imperative to develop a risk management perspective on laser safety. Proper safety management requires a fourfold approach including: knowledge of standards, identification of hazards and risks, implementation of appropriate control measures, and consistent program audit to demonstrate quality assurance. PMID:24155518

  15. Placebo- and amitriptyline-controlled evaluation of central nervous system effects of the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant and intravenous alcohol infusion at pseudo-steady state.

    PubMed

    te Beek, Erik T; Tatosian, Daniel; Majumdar, Anup; Selverian, Diana; Klaassen, Erica S; Petty, Kevin J; Gargano, Cynthia; van Dyck, Kristien; McCrea, Jacqueline; Murphy, Gail; van Gerven, Joop M A

    2013-08-01

    Recent interest in NK1 receptor antagonists has focused on a potential role in the treatment of drug addiction and substance abuse. In the present study, the potential for interactions between the NK1 receptor antagonist aprepitant and alcohol, given as an infusion at a target level of 0.65 g/L, was evaluated. Amitriptyline was included as positive control to provide an impression of the profile of central nervous system (CNS) effects. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo- and amitriptyline-controlled study, the pharmacokinetics and CNS effects of aprepitant and alcohol were investigated in 16 healthy volunteers. Cognitive and psychomotor function tests included the visual verbal learning test (VVLT), Bond and Lader visual analogue scales (VAS), digit symbol substitution test (DSST), visual pattern recognition, binary choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion (CFF), body sway, finger tapping, and adaptive tracking. Alcohol impaired finger tapping and body sway. Amitriptyline impaired DSST performance, VAS alertness, CFF, body sway, finger tapping, and adaptive tracking. No impairments were found after administration of aprepitant. Co-administration of aprepitant with alcohol was generally well tolerated and did not cause significant additive CNS effects, compared with alcohol alone. Therefore, our study found no indications for clinically relevant interactions between aprepitant and alcohol. PMID:23775877

  16. Silk fibroin/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend scaffolds for controlled delivery of curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaomeng; Qin, Jinli; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    A silk fibroin/poly (vinyl alcohol) porous scaffold with a water vapor transmission rate of 2125 ± 464 g/m2/day has been developed via thermally induced phase separation (gelation) and freeze-drying process. A hierarchical architecture of micropores and nanofibers was observed inside the scaffolds, and the related structures were analyzed. The viability and proliferation of 3T3 fibroblasts were examined, which indicated that the scaffolds exerted low cytotoxicity. After loading curcumin, the scaffolds can suppress the growth of 3T3 fibroblasts. The release behavior of curcumin from the scaffolds was investigated. At pH = 7.2, the release profiles showed no significant difference for the loading amounts of 0.5 mg and 0.25 mg per sample. Meanwhile, the cumulative amount of released drug at pH = 5.7 was significantly more than that in neutral solution due to more degradation of the scaffolds. It was suggested that the silk fibroin/poly (vinyl alcohol) blend scaffolds could be potentially used as wound dressing materials. PMID:26816634

  17. Habit Formation: Implications for Alcoholism Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as “goal-directed” (action-outcome) and “habitual” (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming

  18. Measuring Selection Coefficients Affecting the Alcohol Dehydrogenase Polymorphism in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, S. R.; Oakeshott, J. G.; Gibson, J. B.; Anderson, P. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes a perturbation experiment on the frequency of the F and S Alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) alleles of D. melanogaster. Fifty-four isofemale lines set up from three wild populations and with initial F frequencies of either 0.25, 0.50 or 0.75 were maintained on standard laboratory food medium at 22°. At generations 4, 12 and 20 the lines were again scored for Adh gene frequencies. Maximum likelihood procedures were used to estimate selection coefficients for the Adh genotypes. An analysis of deviance was used to compare the coefficients against expectations under the hypotheses of neutrality and of constant values for the three base populations, and for the three initial gene frequency classes. Highly-significant departures from neutrality were observed; over all 54 lines, the set of relative fitnesses for S/S:F/S:F/F was estimated as 1.00:1.08:1.08. In addition, there were significant differences between lines in the outcome of selection which were not attributable to differences between base populations or initial F frequencies. These residual between-line differences, as well as some between-generation, within-line differences are discussed in terms of linkage disequilibria with background genes and electrophoretically cryptic variation at the Adh locus. PMID:6807750

  19. Toward Definition and Measurement of Pupil Control Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helsel, A. Ray; Willower, Donald J.

    1974-01-01

    Pupil control is regarded as an integrative theme to explain the collection of extensive observations made in schools. This report attempts to define and measure pupil control behavior, a companion concept to pupil control ideology. (Author/WM)

  20. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  1. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  2. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  3. 40 CFR 51.213 - Transportation control measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation control measures. 51.213... Transportation control measures. (a) The plan must contain procedures for obtaining and maintaining data on actual emissions reductions achieved as a result of implementing transportation control measures. (b)...

  4. Whether men or women are responsible for size of gender gap in alcohol consumption depends on alcohol measure: A study across U.S. states

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Smaller gender differences in alcohol consumption are often interpreted to mean something about women’s drinking, for example, that women are increasing consumption to men’s levels. However, prior research is unclear. This study sought to determine whether variation in size of gender differences in alcohol consumption across U.S. states was due to male or female consumption. Data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to test the hypothesis that variation in size of gender differences would be associated with women’s, but not men’s consumption. Pearson’s correlations examined associations between gender-specific values of and gender differences in consumption in each state. The size of gender difference was associated with proportion of female, but not male, drinkers. Conversely, size of gender difference was associated with male frequency, five-plus frequency, volume, and risky drinking, but not female frequency, five-plus frequency, volume, or risky drinking. These findings suggest that smaller gender differences in cross-sectional studies cannot be interpreted as due to women’s alcohol consumption. PMID:23248388

  5. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  6. Autologous Bone Marrow Mononuclear Cell Transplantation in Patients with Decompensated Alcoholic Liver Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spahr, Laurent; Chalandon, Yves; Terraz, Sylvain; Kindler, Vincent; Rubbia-Brandt, Laura; Frossard, Jean-Louis; Breguet, Romain; Lanthier, Nicolas; Farina, Annarita; Passweg, Jakob; Becker, Christoph D.; Hadengue, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    Objective Impaired liver regeneration is associated with a poor outcome in patients with decompensated alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We assessed whether autologous bone marrow mononuclear cell transplantation (BMMCT) improved liver function in decompensated ALD. Design 58 patients (mean age 54 yrs; mean MELD score 19, all with cirrhosis, 81% with alcoholic steatohepatitis at baseline liver biopsy) were randomized early after hospital admission to standard medical therapy (SMT) alone (n = 30), including steroids in patients with a Maddrey’s score ≥32, or combined with G-CSF injections and autologous BMMCT into the hepatic artery (n = 28). Bone marrow cells were harvested, isolated and reinfused the same day. The primary endpoint was a ≥3 points decrease in the MELD score at 3 months, corresponding to a clinically relevant improvement in liver function. Liver biopsy was repeated at week 4 to assess changes in Ki67+/CK7+ hepatic progenitor cells (HPC) compartment. Results Both study groups were comparable at baseline. After 3 months, 2 and 4 patients died in the BMMCT and SMT groups, respectively. Adverse events were equally distributed between groups. Moderate alcohol relapse occurred in 31% of patients. The MELD score improved in parallel in both groups during follow-up with 18 patients (64%) from the BMMCT group and 18 patients (53%) from the SMT group reaching the primary endpoint (p = 0.43 (OR 1.6, CI 0.49–5.4) in an intention to treat analysis. Comparing liver biopsy at 4 weeks to baseline, steatosis improved (p<0.001), and proliferating HPC tended to decrease in both groups (−35 and −33%, respectively). Conclusion Autologous BMMCT, compared to SMT is a safe procedure but did not result in an expanded HPC compartment or improved liver function. These data suggest either insufficient regenerative stimulation after BMMCT or resistance to liver regenerative drive in patients with decompensated alcoholic cirrhosis. Trial Registration

  7. Interactions between self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies and cognitive functioning in the prediction of alcohol use and associated problems: a further examination.

    PubMed

    Littlefield, Andrew K; Vergés, Alvaro; McCarthy, Denis M; Sher, Kenneth J

    2011-09-01

    A recent debate regarding the theoretical distinction between explicit and implicit cognitive processes relevant to alcohol-related behaviors was strongly shaped by empirical findings from dual-process models (Moss & Albery, 2009; Wiers & Stacy, 2010; Moss & Albery, 2010). Specifically, as part of a broader discussion, Wiers & Stacy (2010) contended that alcohol-related behaviors are better predicted by self-reported alcohol expectancies for individuals with good executive control and verbal abilities relative to those without such abilities. The purpose of the current paper is to further test whether self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies are moderated by measures of cognitive functioning. Using multiple indices of alcohol use, alcohol-related consequences, self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies, and cognitive functioning, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted in a prospective sample of 489 individuals at varying risk for alcohol use disorders. Results from a series of regression analyses testing interactions between self-reported alcohol expectancies and cognitive functioning showed minimal support for the hypothesized pattern discussed by Wiers and Stacy, 2010 regarding self-reported alcohol outcome expectancies. The overall rates of significance were consistent with Type I error rates and a substantial proportion of the significant interactions were inconsistent with previous findings. Thus, the conclusion that cognitive measures consistently moderate the relation between self-reported alcohol expectancies and alcohol use and outcomes should be tempered. PMID:21443299

  8. Cross-sectional measures and modelled estimates of blood alcohol levels in UK nightlife and their relationships with drinking behaviours and observed signs of inebriation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Management of nightlife in UK cities focuses on creating safe places for individuals to drink. Little is known about intoxication levels as measuring total alcohol consumption on nights out is complicated by early evening interviews missing subsequent consumption and later interviews risking individuals being too drunk to recall consumption or participate at all. Here we assess mixed survey and modelling techniques as a methodological approach to examining these issues. Methods Interviews with a cross sectional sample of nightlife patrons (n = 214) recruited at different locations in three cities established alcohol consumption patterns up to the point of interview, self-assessed drunkenness and intended drinking patterns throughout the remaining night out. Researchers observed individuals' behaviours to independently assess drunkenness. Breath alcohol tests and general linear modelling were used to model blood alcohol levels at participants' expected time of leaving nightlife settings. Results At interview 49.53% of individuals regarded themselves as drunk and 79.43% intended to consume more alcohol before returning home, with around one in ten individuals (15.38% males; 4.35% females) intending to consume >40 units (equal to 400 mls of pure alcohol). Self-assessed drunkenness, researcher observed measures of sobriety and blood alcohol levels all correlated well. Modelled estimates for blood alcohol at time of going home suggested that 71.68% of males would be over 0.15%BAC (gms alcohol/100 mls blood). Higher blood alcohol levels were related to drinking later into the night. Conclusions UK nightlife has used substantive health and judicial resources with the aim of creating safer and later drinking environments. Survey and modelling techniques together can help characterise the condition of drinkers when using and leaving these settings. Here such methods identified patrons as routinely getting drunk, with risks of drunkenness increasing over later

  9. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  10. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  11. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use among university students in South Africa: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pengpid, Supa; Peltzer, Karl; van der Heever, Hendry; Skaal, Linda

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI) for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1%) tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) (score 8 or more). Among the 147 (96.7%) university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was -1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009). Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use), self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting. PMID:23698697

  12. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  13. Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Katherine R.; Pike, Erika; Stoops, William W.; Rush, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is a known antecedent to cocaine relapse. Through associative conditioning, it is hypothesized that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine and thus the salience of cocaine-related cues, which are important in maintaining drug-taking behavior. Cocaine-using individuals display a robust cocaine cue attentional bias as measured by fixation time during the visual probe task. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of alcohol administration on cocaine cue attentional bias using eye-tracking technology to directly measure attentional allocation. Methods Twenty current cocaine users completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study that tested the effect of three doses of alcohol (0.00, 0.325, 0.65 g/kg alcohol) on cocaine cue attentional bias using the visual probe task with eye-tracking technology. The participant-rated and physiological effects of alcohol were also assessed. Results Participants displayed a robust cocaine cue attentional bias following both placebo and alcohol administration as measured by fixation time, but not response time. Alcohol administration did not influence cocaine cue attentional bias, but increased craving for cocaine in a dose dependent manner. Alcohol produced prototypic psychomotor and participant-rated effects. Conclusions Alcohol administration increases cocaine craving but not cocaine cue attentional bias. Alcohol-induced cocaine craving suggests that alcohol increases incentive motivation for cocaine but not the salience of cocaine-related cues. PMID:26331880

  14. Measuring hypertension control: NCQA and beyond.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nancy Houston

    2003-08-01

    Using tools developed by NCQA, Rand, and other institutions, health plans and providers can take an aggressive stance toward managing hypertension. This effort has led to gains in blood pressure control in some populations, greater recognition of the importance of controlling hypertension, and increased attention to processes that promote higher-quality health care. PMID:12971593

  15. A randomized, controlled trial to test the efficacy of an online, parent-based intervention for reducing the risks associated with college-student alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Elizabeth; Wood, Mollie; Frayjo, Kezia; Black, Ryan A.; Surette, Daniel A.

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol consumption among college students remains a major public health concern. Universal, Web-based interventions to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption have been found to be effective in changing their alcohol-related behavior. Recent studies also indicate that parent-based interventions, delivered in booklet form, are effective. A parent-based intervention that is also Web-based may be well suited to a dispersed parent population; however, no such tool is currently available. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of an online parent-based intervention designed to (1) increase communication between parents and students about alcohol and (2) reduce risks associated with alcohol use to students. A total of 558 participants, comprising 279 parent-teen dyads, were enrolled in the study. The findings suggested that parents who participated in the online intervention were more likely to discuss protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, with their teens, as compared with parents in an e-newsletter control group. Moreover, students whose parents received the intervention were more likely to use a range of protective behavioral strategies, particularly those related to manner of drinking and stopping/limiting drinking, as compared with students whose parents did not receive the intervention. A universal, online, parent-based intervention to reduce risks associated with student alcohol consumption may be an efficient and effective component of a college’s overall prevention strategy. PMID:21963316

  16. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  17. Prefrontal cortical dopamine transmission is decreased in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, Neale Scott; Paris, Jennifer; Himes, Michael L.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Objective Basic studies have demonstrated that optimal levels of prefrontal cortical dopamine are critical to various executive functions such working memory, attention, inhibitory control and risk/reward decisions--all of which are impaired in addictive disorders such as alcoholism. Based on this and imaging studies in alcoholics that have demonstrated less dopamine in the striatum, we hypothesized decreased dopamine transmission in the prefrontal cortex in alcoholism. To test this hypothesis, we used amphetamine and [11C]FLB 457 positron emission tomography (PET) to measure cortical dopamine transmission in a group of 21 recently abstinent alcoholics and matched healthy controls. Methods [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (BPND) was measured in subjects with kinetic analysis using the arterial input function both before and after 0.5 mg kg−1 of d-amphetamine. Results Amphetamine-induced displacement of [11C]FLB 457 binding potential (Δ BPND) was significantly smaller in the cortical regions in alcoholics compared to healthy controls. Cortical regions that demonstrated lower dopamine transmission in alcoholics included the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, orbital frontal cortex, temporal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Conclusions The results of this study for the first time unambiguously demonstrate decreased dopamine transmission in the cortex in alcoholism. Further research is necessary to understand the clinical relevance of decreased cortical dopamine as to whether it is related to impaired executive function, relapse, and outcome in alcoholism. PMID:24874293

  18. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  19. The feasibility and cost of neonatal screening for prenatal alcohol exposure by measuring phosphatidylethanol in dried blood spots

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Savich, Renate D.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Cano, Sandra; Annett, Robert D.; Leeman, Lawrence; Garg, Mahek; Goff, Chelsea; Savage, Daniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate confirmation of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is required as a diagnostic criterion for the majority of children adversely affected by PAE who do not manifest the physical features associated with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. A number of ethanol biomarkers have been used to assess PAE, often with suboptimal results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and cost of PAE screening in newborns by measuring phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in dried blood spot (DBS) cards. Methods The feasibility of collecting an additional DBS card during routine newborn screening and the background prevalence of PAE were evaluated in a de-identified sample of newborn children delivered at the University of New Mexico Hospital. Electronic orders to collect DBS cards from newborns who continue to bleed after the routine newborn screen, glucose or hematocrit testing were initiated for all infants delivered during a 4-week timeframe. Specimens were sent to a contract laboratory for PEth analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A cost analysis was conducted to compare the cost of PAE screening by PEth in DBS vs. PEth in conventional blood specimens and by meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE). Results From 230 collected cards, 201 (87.4%) had at least one full blood spot (amount sufficient for PEth analysis), and 6.5% had PEth >20ng/mL indicative of potential PAE in late pregnancy. PAE screening by PEth in DBS is logistically simpler and less expensive compared to two other screening approaches. Conclusions These results indicate that screening for PAE in DBS cards is a feasible procedure and that a majority of infants have enough blood after the routine heel prick to fill an additional card. Moreover, screening by PEth analysis from DBS cards is cost-efficient. The acceptability of such screening by parents and corresponding ethical issues remain to be investigated. PMID:23421919

  20. Guided Internet-Based Parent Training for Challenging Behavior in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (Strongest Families FASD): Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, James N; McGrath, Patrick; Lingley-Pottie, Patricia; Huguet, Anna; Hewitt, Amy; Green, Courtney; Wozney, Lori; Mushquash, Christopher; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Sourander, Andre; Caughey, Heather; Roane, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to encompass the full range of neurobehavioral and cognitive dysfunction that may occur as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure. There is relatively little research on intervention strategies that specifically target the behavioral problems of children with FASD. Availability and access to services are barriers to timely and effective care for families. The Strongest Families FASD intervention was recently adapted from the Strongest Families “Parenting the Active Child” program to include FASD-specific content delivered via an Internet-based application in conjunction with 11 telephone coaching sessions. Objective Our objectives are to (1) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in reducing externalizing problems (primary outcome), internalizing problems, and parent distress (secondary outcomes) in children aged between 4 and 12 years diagnosed with FASD when compared to a control group with access to a static resource Web page; (2) evaluate the effectiveness of Strongest Families FASD in improving social competence (secondary outcome) in school-aged children aged between 6 and 12 diagnosed with FASD when compared with an online psychoeducation control; and (3) explore parental satisfaction with the Strongest Families FASD online parenting program. Methods Parents and caregivers (N=200) of children diagnosed with FASD who have significant behavioral challenges, ages 4-12, are being recruited into a 2-arm randomized trial. The trial is designed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Web-based Strongest Families FASD parenting intervention on child behavior and caregiver distress, compared to a control group receiving access to a static resource Web page (ie, a list of FASD-specific websites, readings, videos, and organizations). Results The primary outcome will be externalizing problems measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Secondary outcomes include (1) internalizing