... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information; Alcohol Impaired Driving... CFR, Part 1313, Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures--Section 410. OMB Number: 2127-0501. Type of... alcohol fatality rate of 0.5 or less per 100 million vehicle miles traveled as determined by using...
Testing Given the huge logical space in a modern IC, constructing a test vector that covers the entire IC logic space is computationally infeasible...20 22.214.171.124 Side-Channel Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 6 Countermeasures 23 6.1 Data Guards...spectrum of Hardware Trojans – their capabilities, size, trigger mechanisms, and payloads – is enormous, and the state- space of IC development both
Noting that little is known about how communication functions in alcoholic families, and about the effects of this alcoholic home environment on children of alcoholics, their communication patterns, and their relationships, this paper identifies strengths and weaknesses in existing literature on the alcoholic family and children of alcoholics. In…
Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa
Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data.
Bainwol, Suzanne; Gressard, Charles F.
Presents a review and critique of recent research on the rate of Jewish alcoholism. Concludes that alcoholism is probably still relatively rare among Jews. Predictions of future Jewish drinking practices and implications for further research are discussed. (Author/BL)
Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa
Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…
Howard, Jonathan K.
Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…
Shorkey, Clayton T.
This bibliography contains over 1200 behavioral science journal articles dealing with alcoholism and alcohol abuse. The articles were published between 1970 and 1980 in 116 English language journals. This bibliography is intended for administrators, planners, researchers, counselors, educators and students desiring ready access to recent…
Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh; Akella, Sai; Glandt, Mariela; Chilimuri, Sridhar
There is an epidemic of obesity worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the last three decades. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can lead to pancreatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease (NAFPD). NAFPD describes a phenotype entity ranging from deposition of fat in the pancreas to pancreatic inflammation, and resultant fibrosis, which is similar to that of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFPD may represent a meaningful manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pancreatic steatosis can be diagnosed on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to a correlation between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, pancreatic steatosis may lead to a worse outcome in pancreatitis and may be an etiological factor in pancreatic cancer, but we need further research to examine the associations, pathophysiology, and the impact of pancreatic steatosis and NAFPD on the human health.
Tariq, Hassan; Nayudu, Suresh; Akella, Sai; Glandt, Mariela; Chilimuri, Sridhar
There is an epidemic of obesity worldwide. The prevalence of obesity has doubled over the last three decades. Obesity, especially abdominal obesity is associated with insulin resistance that can lead to pancreatic steatosis and non-alcoholic fatty pancreatic disease (NAFPD). NAFPD describes a phenotype entity ranging from deposition of fat in the pancreas to pancreatic inflammation, and resultant fibrosis, which is similar to that of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFPD may represent a meaningful manifestation of metabolic syndrome. Pancreatic steatosis can be diagnosed on ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to a correlation between pancreatic steatosis and metabolic syndrome, pancreatic steatosis may lead to a worse outcome in pancreatitis and may be an etiological factor in pancreatic cancer, but we need further research to examine the associations, pathophysiology, and the impact of pancreatic steatosis and NAFPD on the human health. PMID:28058076
Tanev, Kaloyan S; Roether, Melissa; Yang, Clifford
Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff's psychosis in alcoholics are thought to be due to thiamine deficiency. When the process goes untreated, patients may develop alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We review the literature on thermal dysregulation and the place of thiamine treatment in Wernicke's encephalopathy, Korsakoff's psychosis, and alcohol-induced persisting dementia. We describe a patient with alcohol-induced persisting dementia who showed thermal dysregulation which responded to parenteral but not oral thiamine. Subsequently, he developed aspiration pneumonia with associated fever reaction and expired. We describe the neuroimaging findings--diffuse cortical atrophy, ventricular dilatation, atrophy of the corpus callosum, hypothalamus, and medulla, and a probable arachnoid cyst in the left temporal tip. We conclude that thermal dysregulation was likely related to dysfunction of temperature regulatory brain centers, that thermal dysregulation was stabilized with parenteral but not oral thiamine, and that parenteral thiamine may have a role even in chronic cases of alcohol-induced persisting dementia.
Groh, D.R.; Jason, L.A.; Keys, C.B.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA’s impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158
Crane, Cory A; Licata, MacKenzie L; Schlauch, Robert C; Testa, Maria; Easton, Caroline J
Experimental research on alcohol-related aggression has focused largely upon male participants, providing only a limited understanding of the proximal effects of acute alcohol use on aggression among females extrapolated from the male literature. The current meta-analysis was undertaken to summarize the effects of alcohol, compared to placebo or no alcohol, on female aggression as observed across experimental investigations. A review of the literature yielded 11 articles and 12 effect sizes for further analysis. The overall effect size of alcohol on female aggression was small and reached statistical significance (d = .17, p = .02, 95% confidence interval [.03, .30]). Meta-analytic examination of the experimental literature indicated that alcohol is a significant factor in female aggression. The overall alcohol-aggression effect was smaller than has been observed among male samples. Additional research is required to evaluate the influence of other factors on alcohol-related aggressive responding among female participants. (PsycINFO Database Record
de Miranda, John; And Others
This literature review discusses cultural influences on individuals with disabilities and describes three historical models of disability--the moral model, medical model, and sociological/environmental/civil rights/minority group model. The use of alcohol and drugs by disabled persons is explored, focusing on individuals with orthopedic and…
A review of the literature on the positive psychological benefits of light and moderate alcohol consumption suggests the following: (1) Alcohol in moderate amounts is effective in reducing stress. This has been found in both physiologic and self-report measures. (2) Low and moderate doses of alcohol have been reported to increase overall affective expression, happiness, euphoria, conviviality and pleasant and carefree feelings. Tension, depression and self-consciousness have been reported to decrease with equal doses. (3) Low alcohol doses have been found to improve certain types of cognitive performance. Included here are problem-solving and short-term memory. (4) Heavy drinkers and abstainers have higher rates of clinical depression than do regular moderate drinkers. (5) Alcohol in low and moderate doses has been effective in the treatment of geropsychiatric problems. As indicated in the text, results from many of the studies reviewed suggest that light or moderate drinking may be beneficial to psychological well-being. Liber (N. Engl. J. Med., 310(13) (1984) 846) has commented that the subject of control of alcohol intake evokes strong emotional responses, which can overshadow a logical assessment of whether or not to include 'healthy' drinking in a dietary plan. It is hoped that this review of data from available research can help provide a basis for making such an assessment.
Durand, Zoe; Cook, Angelie; Konishi, Minami; Nigg, Claudio
This article provides a literature review of recent programs to prevent alcohol and substance use in Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths. Five programs for alcohol and substance use prevention among Hawaii and Pacific Islander youths were found in peer-reviewed literature. Of these, two focused on Native Hawaiians and/or other Pacific Islanders and three focused on overall youths in Hawaii. The main themes of these programs were increasing cultural pride, character development through personal efficacy and integrity, connecting youth to family and community, and being school- or community-centered. Two studies showed a decrease in substance use, one showed a change in knowledge, and two did not published outcomes. This review highlights a lack of evidence-based culturally appropriate options for preventing substance use by Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander youth. Dialogue about best practices is needed and should be supported through publication of program evaluations.
Shiferaw, Brook; Stough, Con; Downey, Luke
Alcohol intoxication and distraction are two of the leading factors associated with impaired driving and fatalities, especially among younger drivers. However, it is currently unclear how these conditions affect mechanisms of visual attention considered essential for driving. The present article first reviews the literature to provide an overview of visual attention as it relates to driving. Secondly, the effects of alcohol and distraction on neurocognitive mechanisms of visual attention are summarised to provide a background which informs discussion of selected driving studies. Visual scanning impairment is identified as a consequence of both alcohol and distraction. Thus, experimental studies combining the use of simulated driving and eye tracking technologies are selected and critically reviewed to assess the relationship between eye movements and driving errors as possible indicators of visual scanning impairment. Seven of the eight studies selected investigated the effects of distraction while only one addressed alcohol. Evaluation of these studies suggests that distraction may affect visual scanning by increasing cognitive load which interferes with visual processing. The evidence for effects of alcohol on drivers' visual scanning capacity is currently scarce due to the lack of research with a specific focus on impairments of eye movement in intoxicated drivers. Lack of consistency between studies is identified as a current issue which makes it difficult to compare the results of different studies. Finally, we note that our strict selection of driving studies to avoid greater disparity between them is a limitation of the present review.
Nicolau, Pau; Miralpeix, Ester; Solà, Ivan; Carreras, Ramon; Checa, Miguel Angel
The aim of our study is to determine whether alcohol consumption affects the results of in vitro fertilization. A review of the literature was performed to find prospective cohort studies of couples undergoing in vitro fertilization in which alcohol intake was recorded. A primary search returned 389 studies, 2 of which were finally considered eligible. A total of 2908 couples were analyzed in terms of pregnancy outcomes depending on drinking habits. The risk of IVF failure increased 4.14-fold and 2.86-fold with an increased alcohol intake of 12 gr/d in women during the week and month before, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) of live birth rate in women who drank at least four drinks per week compared with women who drank fewer was 0.84; this difference was statistically significant. Paternal alcohol use levels 1 month, 1 week and during the attempts were also associated with worse reproductive effects. Our review, though including a small number of studies that were heterogeneous in design, revealed decreased rates of pregnancy and fertilization outcomes for couples who drank before or during their in vitro fertilization techniques. This suggests that couples undergoing IVF should be advised to abstain from alcohol prior to and during their procedures.
Green, R E; French, J F; Haberman, P W; Holland, P W
In contrast to many other state Driving under the Influence (DUI) programs developed in the United States in the 1970s as alternatives to traditional sanctions, the New Jersey Alcohol Countermeasures Program combined sanctions with mandatory education/rehabilitation for offenders. Three components were evaluated: DUI education, "treatment," and Alcoholics Anonymous. For 2,734 first and repeat offenders participating in this program between 1979 and 1982, the program was effective in reducing DUI recidivism for program completers (66% while licensed and 51% while suspended) compared with noncompleters, but it was less effective in reducing subsequent moving violations while licensed (20% compared with noncompleters) and accidents while licensed (18% compared with noncompleters). Completers had higher rates of violations and accidents while suspended (9% compared with noncompleters). A small group of repeat offenders, missassigned to DUI education, had higher post conviction rates of negative driving events than those of comparable offenders assigned to "treatment" or Alcoholics Anonymous, indicating that for these offenders the latter interventions were more effective.
... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...
If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...
... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Polanin, Joshua R.
This study examined dissemination and reporting biases in the brief alcohol intervention literature. We used retrospective data from 179 controlled trials included in a meta-analysis on brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults. We examined whether the magnitude and direction of effect sizes were associated with publication type, identification source, language, funding, time lag between intervention and publication, number of reports, journal impact factor, and subsequent citations. Results indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that had been funded (b = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.04, 0.23]), had a shorter time lag between intervention and publication (b = −0.03, 95% CI [−0.05, −.001]), and cited more frequently (b = 0.01, 95% CI [+0.00, 0.01]). Studies that were cited more frequently by other authors also had greater odds of reporting positive effects (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.18]). Results indicated that time lag bias has increased recently: larger and positive effect sizes were published more quickly in recent years. We found no evidence, however, that the magnitude or direction of effects was associated with location source, language, or journal impact factor. We conclude that dissemination biases may indeed occur in the social and behavioral science literature, as has been consistently documented in the medical literature. As such, primary researchers, journal reviewers, editors, systematic reviewers, and meta-analysts must be cognizant of the causes and consequences of these biases, and commit to engage in ethical research practices that attempt to minimize them. PMID:25134044
Forster, Myriam; Unger, Jennifer B.; Sussman, Steve
Objective To conduct a systematic review of the literature examining risk and protective factors of alcohol related negative consequences (ARNCs) among adolescents. Methods We conducted a systematic search of original empirical articles published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2015. The qualitative synthesis was performed using the Theory of Triadic Influence as a framework. Results Fifty-two studies were reviewed. Intrapersonal (e.g., personality traits, drinking motives and expectancies, depression), interpersonal (e.g., parental and peer alcohol use, violence exposure) and attitudinal factors (e.g., media exposure to alcohol, religiosity) influence ARNCs. Emerging evidence of new trends contributing to ARNCs include ready mixed alcohol drinks and childhood trauma and abuse. Conclusions Risk factors from all domains of influence were observed. More research is needed on protective factors and how alcohol use interacts with preventive factors in predicting ARNCs. The conceptualization of negative consequences varies significantly between studies and may impact the external validity of previous research. PMID:26871952
... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...
Li, Rongrong; Yu, Kang; Wang, Qiang; Wang, Lilin; Mao, Jiangfeng; Qian, Jiaming
Pellagra usually results from niacin deficiency and presents with the classic triad of dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia. It is most commonly associated with malnutrition and poverty and is extremely rare in industrialized societies. Furthermore, pellagra can be induced by special clinical conditions that interfere with the intake, absorption, and metabolism of niacin. Because of its detrimental effects on health and its favorable prognosis after supplementation of nicotinamide, the importance of early diagnosis and treatment should be emphasized. Herein, we report a case of pellagra in a young alcoholic who underwent combined chemotherapy for tuberculosis. For the first time, a descriptive review of literature from 1957 to 2014 has been conducted to clarify potential etiologies of pellagra: alcoholism (35.24%, 37 articles), various medications (25.71%, 27 articles), inadequate oral intake (16.19%, 17 articles), malabsorption (13.33%, 14 articles), metabolic derangement (7.62%, 8 articles), excessive loss (0.95%, 1 article), and etiology unknown (0.95%, 1 article).
Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.
This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…
Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W.; Badour, Christal L.; Babson, Kimberly A.
Adolescent alcohol use is a critical public health concern; accordingly, a considerable body of work exists identifying developmentally salient risk and protective factors. One area receiving increasing attention among adults is the linkage between specific constellations of anxiety psychopathology and alcohol use problems. Relatively less is known about such linkages among adolescents, despite the onset of both anxiety-type problems and alcohol use during this developmental period. The current review presents a detailed summary and analysis of the empirical literature focused on specific forms of anxiety psychopathology as they relate to alcohol use among adolescents, and provides a number of specific recommendations for future work with an emphasis on the utility of experimental psychopathology techniques for clarifying basic questions and forwarding this body of work. PMID:23243493
Bottorff, Joan L; Poole, Nancy; Kelly, Mary T; Greaves, Lorraine; Marcellus, Lenora; Jung, Mary
Adolescent girls are more likely than women of other ages to smoke tobacco or drink alcohol during pregnancy. The health impacts of smoking and drinking for girls and the interconnections between alcohol and tobacco use with adolescent pregnancy underscore the urgent need for integrated approaches to prevent and reduce alcohol and tobacco use among pregnant girls/young women. This article reports on the results of a scoping review of the literature focused on adolescents’ use of tobacco and alcohol during pregnancy and postpartum. A search of CINAHL, Medline, Social Science Index and Web of Science identified 40 articles published in the two decades between 1990 and 2012 that met our inclusion criteria related to this age group, pregnancy/motherhood status, and use of both alcohol and tobacco. The review points to compelling gaps in our knowledge and our responsiveness to adolescents aged 19 and under who use alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Research has been primarily descriptive, with separate, parallel streams of investigation to identify trends and predictors of alcohol and tobacco use, prior to, during and following pregnancy. There is a marked lack of effective interventions described in the literature that are designed to prevent or reduce alcohol and tobacco use during pregnancy among adolescent girls; and there are few examples of gender-informed prevention or treatment programmes for this population. Research is needed on interventions that attend to the context of adolescent girls’ substance use as well as their preferences and developmental needs for support that encourage sustained behaviour change throughout pregnancy and the postpartum period and that effectively address the influence of partners and friends on use. PMID:24405036
Lustyk, Kathleen B.; Larimer, Mary E.
Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women’s health concern. PMID:26293593
Carroll, Haley A; Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Larimer, Mary E
Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women's health concern.
... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...
Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)
Borowska-Solonynko, Aleksandra; Dabkowska, Agnieszka; Raczkowska, Zuzanna; Kwietniewski, Wojciech
The paper is a review of the most current academic literature published in the English language and addressing the effect of alcohol consumption on the severity of injuries, prognosis and mortality with special emphasis placed on the consultative usefulness of such publications. The report was inspired by repeated questions asked in association with expert opinions on the effects of injuries and addressing a possible effect of alcohol consumption by the victims on the severity of injuries and prognosis. In case of such questions, a valuable supplement to an opinion based on on the expert's professional experience may be found in an analysis of publications focusing on the subject. The present review was based on two databases "Web of science" and "Medline" (2000-2011). Initially, 372 abstracts were taken into account. Subsequently, 42 articles were thoroughly studied. The analyzed material represented both experimental and research approaches to the problem. The experimental approach was based on tests carried out on animals in laboratories, whereas the research approach was based on the observations of patients admitted to hospitals with injuries. The literature overview indicates a neuroprotective feature of alcohol and an improved prognosis in intoxicated people suffering from isolated head injuries, even though the severity of their injuries is much higher than in the cases of sober people. In cases of polytrauma injuries, the influence of alcohol is explicitly negative, but does not increase mortality.
La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E
Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low-normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation.
La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E
Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392
...): Section 410 Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety..., Part 1313, Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures. Form Numbers: NA. Type of Review: Collection extension. Background: An impaired driving incentive grant is available to States that have an...
Muneer, Mohammed; Abdelrahman, Husham; El-Menyar, Ayman; Zarour, Ahmad; Awad, Ahmed; Al-Thani, Hassan
Patient: Male, 45 Final Diagnosis: Atraumatic urinary bladder rupture Symptoms: Drowsiness • diffuse abdominal pain • vomiting Medication: None Clinical Procedure: CT cystogram • exploratory laparotomy • urinary bladder repair Specialty: Urology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder (SRUB) secondary to alcohol intoxication is an uncommon presentation with high morbidity and mortality. Herein, we reported a rare case of spontaneous atraumatic rupture of the urinary bladder due to alcohol intoxication. Case Reports: A 45-year-old Sri Lankan man presented with drowsiness, diffuse abdominal pain, vomiting with odor of alcohol, and urinary retention 24 hours prior to the index admission. CT cystogram confirmed the urinary bladder rupture at the dome, which was repaired through exploratory laparotomy. Conclusions: An SRUB patient with alcohol abuse often presents with non-specific symptoms due to absence of a traumatic event, which results in missed or delayed-diagnosis. Early diagnosis and management of SRUB is crucial for uneventful recovery. PMID:26522816
Williams, Rosanne C.; Carta, Judith J.
Analysis of 51 studies of developmental effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol in children from birth to 72 months found that, although adverse outcomes were found within each domain, age grouping, and exposure category, they comprised fewer than 50% of all outcomes measured. Most adverse outcomes were found in the neurobehavioral domain with…
Ahmadi, Halima; Green, Scott L
This paper provides an overview of alcohol and substance use issues in military spouses, and explore how the screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) model may enable health care providers to identify individuals at risk for developing substance use related disorders. The information presented is based on a broad literature scan relating to the characteristics of the military lifestyle, health infrastructure, screening and intervention processes, and the uses of SBIRT in military and civilian settings. Current literature suggests that military spouses, and families, tend to be at different points in their life course than civilian families of similar ages. Marrying earlier and having children sooner coupled with military lifestyle stressors place them at increased risk for developing adverse coping mechanisms, particularly during deployment. SBIRT has been recognized as an effective method among civilian patients although there is limited research on the efficacy of SBIRT for military spouses at risk of or experiencing substance use problems.
Cornelius, JR; Chung, TA; Douaihy, AB; Kirisci, L; Glance, J; Kmiec, J; Wesesky, MA; FitzGerald, D; Salloum, I
Background Prior medication studies involving individuals with major depression in combination with an alcohol use disorder (MDD/AUD) have mainly focused on SSRI and tricyclic antidepressants, with generally ineffective results. Consequently, effective treatments for that common comorbid condition remain elusive. Mirtazapine is an antidepressant medicine with a unique pharmacological profile, whose effectiveness for treating non-comorbid depression reportedly may exceed that of SSRIs. Objective/Methods We now review the published literature regarding the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine for the treatment of the depression and the pathological alcohol ingestion of individuals with co-occurring MDD/AUD, including a review of four of our own small studies and two studies conducted outside the United States. Results/Conclusions The findings of these studies suggest that mirtazapine is well tolerated among persons with comorbid MDD/AUD. Results also provide some evidence of efficacy for mirtazapine for decreasing the level of depression of persons with co-occurring MDD/AUD, and suggest that decreases in depression may occur relatively quickly after starting treatment, but provide no evidence of effectiveness for decreasing the level of alcohol ingestion. Large-scale double-blind, placebo-controlled studies are warranted to further clarify the tolerability and efficacy of mirtazapine among individuals with MDD/AUD.
Schulte, Bernd; O’Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens
Background: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions takes place in this context. Methods: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service, and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in non-medical settings. Results: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest that a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required. Discussion: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions, and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance, and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organizational frameworks, and professionals. PMID:25339914
Helter, Timea Mariann; Boehler, Christian Ernst Heinrich
Abstract Discrete choice experiments (DCEs) become increasingly popular to value outcomes for health economic studies and gradually gain acceptance as an input into policy decisions. Developing attributes is a key aspect for the design of DCEs, as their results may misguide decision-makers if they are based on an inappropriate set of attributes. However, the area lacks guidance, and current health-related DCE studies vary considerably in their methods of attribute development, with the consequent danger of providing an unreliable input for policy decisions. The aim of this article is to inform the progress toward a more systematic approach to attribute development for DCE studies in health. A systematic review of the published health-related DCE literature was conducted to lay the foundations for a generic framework which was tested in a case study of alcohol misuse interventions. Four stages of a general attribute development process emerged: (i) raw data collection; (ii) data reduction; (iii) removing inappropriate attributes; and (iv) wording. The case study compared and contrasted a qualitative and mixed-methods approach for the development of attributes for DCEs in the area of alcohol misuse interventions. This article provides a reference point for the design of future DCE experiments in health. PMID:27695386
Mäkinen, Kauko K.
Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol ≥ xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492
Verner, Zenobia, Ed.
This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as…
Green, Katherine; And Others
GRADES OR AGES: K-12. SUBJECT MATTER: Literature. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide starts with an overview of literature topics for grades 4-12, followed by suggested activities, a list of supplementary books for elementary grades, and a table listing specific skills. The remainder of the guide deals with ten cardinal concerns and…
Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Carey, Kate B.; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T.; Carey, Michael P.
Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d+s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689
Kapoor, Alok; Kraemer, Kevin L.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Roberts, Mark S.; Saitz, Richard
Background The %carbohydrate deficient transferrin (%CDT) test offers objective evidence of unhealthy alcohol use but its cost-effectiveness in primary care conditions is unknown. Methods Using a decision tree and Markov model, we performed a literature-based cost-effectiveness analysis of 4 strategies for detecting unhealthy alcohol use in adult primary care patients: (i) Questionnaire Only, using a validated 3-item alcohol questionnaire; (ii) %CDT Only; (iii) Questionnaire followed by %CDT (Questionnaire-%CDT) if the questionnaire is negative; and (iv) No Screening. For those patients screening positive, clinicians performed more detailed assessment to characterize unhealthy use and determine therapy. We estimated costs using Medicare reimbursement and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We determined sensitivity, specificity, prevalence of disease, and mortality from the medical literature. In the base case, we calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) in 2006 dollars per quality-adjusted life year ($/QALY) for a 50-year-old cohort. Results In the base case, the ICER for the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy was $15,500/QALY compared with the Questionnaire Only strategy. Other strategies were dominated. When the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use exceeded 15% and screening age was <60 years, the Questionnaire-%CDT strategy costs less than $50,000/QALY compared to the Questionnaire Only strategy. Conclusions Adding %CDT to questionnaire-based screening for unhealthy alcohol use was cost-effective in our literature-based decision analytic model set in typical primary care conditions. Screening with %CDT should be considered for adults up to the age of 60 when the prevalence of unhealthy alcohol use is 15% or more and screening questionnaires are negative. PMID:19426168
Wimer, W.W.; Russell, J.A.; Kaplan, H.L.
A comprehensive reference volume which summarizes literature reports of the known consequences of human and animal contact with alcohols and alcohol-derived substances is presented. Following a discussion of alcohol nomenclature and a brief history of alcohols, the authors have provided detailed chapters on the toxicology of methanol, ethanol, normal and isopropanol, and the butanols. Properties of these alcohols are compared; industrial hygiene and exposure limits are discussed. Additional sections are included covering processing and production technology and exhaust emissions studies. Of particular interest are the section containing abstracts and synopses of principal works and the extensive bibliography of studies dating from the 1800s. 331 references, 26 figures, 56 tables
... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism
Krois, Deborah Helen
Although alcoholism has long been considered a serious problem, the impact of parental alcoholism on children has only recently begun to receive attention from researchers and clinicians. A review of the empirical literature on children of alcoholics was conducted and it was concluded that children raised in an alcoholic family are at increased…
After the Iraq war started in 2003, within 15 months over 60% of the US casualties were being caused by a weapon that had never been significant in previous conflicts: the Improvised Explosive Device (IED). These are explosive mines that are mostly concealed at night near roads, and then detonated the next day when combatant vehicles are driven by. This talk will discuss the history of IEDs, and then concentrate on the use of IEDs in Iraq. The political decisions that may have led to the high fatality rate in Iraq will be outlined. Of note, contrasting political decisions in Afghanistan led to IED's causing fewer than 20% of the casualties there, although the number of IED's exceeded that in Iraq. Because of the terrible consequences in Iraq, with no effective available remedy, IED Countermeasures was proposed as ideal for student engineering research projects. Over five years, student work to develop a technology for ``Remote IED Deactivation without Detonation'' will be outlined (they were very successful !). They used high power beams of RF, electrons, protons and neutrons to attempt deactivation at a 100' distance. The final IED Neutralizer was very successfully field tested. (This talk will contain graphic videos, and is not for the squeamish.)
Harris, Zachary M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P.
Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:27006838
Harris, Zachary M; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P
Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy.
Stall, R; Biernacki, P
Despite obvious theoretical and treatment implications, the study of how individuals end the "compulsive" use of substances without formal treatment ("spontaneous remission") remains a relatively neglected topic. This paper reviews the literature germane to spontaneous remission from four substances (opiates, alcohol, food/obesity, and tobacco) selected for their widely variant meanings within the mainstream North American culture. Common processes important to spontaneous remission from these four substances are identified and form the basis of an inductively derived model of spontaneous remission behavior. This model, relevant to interactionist theory, is offered for further, empirical testing.
Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Connor, Jason P.
Purpose: Social marketing benchmark criteria were used to understand the extent to which single-substance alcohol education programmes targeting adolescents in middle and high school settings sought to change behaviour, utilised theory, included audience research and applied the market segmentation process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.…
McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.
This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.
Gaspar, John G; Brown, Timothy L; Schwarz, Chris W; Lee, John D; Kang, Julie; Higgins, James S
Objective Driver drowsiness contributes to a substantial number of fatal and non-fatal crashes, with recent estimates attributing up to 21% of fatal crashes to drowsiness. This paper describes recent NHTSA research on in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures. Recent advances in technology and state detection algorithms have shown success in detecting drowsiness using a variety of data sources, including camera-based eye tracking, steering wheel position, yaw rate, and vehicle lane position. However, detection is just the first step in reducing drowsy driving crashes. Countermeasures are also needed to provide feedback to the driver, modify driver behavior, and prevent crashes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of in-vehicle drowsiness countermeasures in reducing drowsy lane departures. The tested countermeasures included different warning modalities in either a discrete or staged interface. Methods Data were collected from 72 young adult drivers (age 21-32) in the high-fidelity full-motion National Advanced Driving Simulator. Drivers completed a 45-minute simulated nighttime drive at two time points, late night and early morning, where drowsiness was manipulated by continuous hours awake. 48 drivers were exposed to one of six countermeasures that varied along two dimensions, type and modality. The countermeasures relied on a steering-based drowsiness detection algorithm developed in prior NHTSA research. 24 drivers received no countermeasure and were used as a baseline comparison. System effectiveness was measured by lane departures and standard deviation in lateral position (SDLP). Results There was a reduction in drowsy lane departure frequency and lane position variability for drivers with countermeasures compared to the baseline no-countermeasure group. Importantly, the data suggest that multi-stage alerts, which provide an indication of increasing urgency, were more effective in reducing drowsy lane departures than single-stage discrete
HILDITCH, Cassie J.; DORRIAN, Jillian; BANKS, Siobhan
Sleep inertia is the period of impaired performance and grogginess experienced after waking. This period of impairment is of concern to workers who are on-call, or nap during work hours, and need to perform safety-critical tasks soon after waking. While several studies have investigated the best sleep timing and length to minimise sleep inertia effects, few have focused on countermeasures -especially those that can be implemented after waking (i.e. reactive countermeasures). This structured review summarises current literature on reactive countermeasures to sleep inertia such as caffeine, light, and temperature and discusses evidence for the effectiveness and operational viability of each approach. Current literature does not provide a convincing evidence-base for a reactive countermeasure. Caffeine is perhaps the best option, although it is most effective when administered prior to sleep and is therefore not strictly reactive. Investigations into light and temperature have found promising results for improving subjective alertness; further research is needed to determine whether these countermeasures can also attenuate performance impairment. Future research in this area would benefit from study design features highlighted in this review. In the meantime, it is recommended that proactive sleep inertia countermeasures are used, and that safety-critical tasks are avoided immediately after waking. PMID:27193071
Charles, John B.
Astronaut missions to Mars may be many years or even decades in thc future but current and planned efforts can be extrapolated to required treatments and prophylaxis for delerious efforts of prolonged space flight on the cardiovascular system. The literature of candidate countermeasures was considered in combination with unpublished plans for countermeasure implementation. The scope of cardiovascular countermeasures will be guided by assessments of the efficacy of mechanical, physiological and pharmacological approaches in protecting the cardiovascular capacities of interplanetary crewmembers. Plans for countermeasure development, evaluation and validation will exploit synergies among treatment modalities with the goal of maximizing protective effects while minimizing crew time and in-flight resource use. Protection of the cardiovascular capacity of interplanetary crewmembers will become more effective and efficient over the next few decades, but trade-offs between cost and effectiveness of efficiency are always possible if the increased level of risk can be accepted.
Rai, Jaspreet K; Abecassis, Maurissa; Casey, Joseph E; Flaro, Lloyd; Erdodi, Laszlo A; Roth, Robert M
Aboriginal children in Canada are at high risk of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) but there is little research on the cognitive impact of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in this population. This paper reviews the literature on parent report of executive functioning in children with FASD that used the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). New data on the BRIEF is then reported in a sample of 52 Aboriginal Canadian children with FASD for whom a primary caregiver completed the BRIEF. The children also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. The results reveal mean scores in the impaired range for all three BRIEF index scores and seven of the eight scales, with the greatest difficulties found on the Working Memory, Inhibit and Shift scales. The majority of the children were reported as impaired on the index scores and scales, with Working Memory being most commonly impaired scale. On the performance-based tests, Trails B and Letter Fluency are most often reported as impaired, though the prevalence of impairment is greater for parent ratings than test performance. No gender difference is noted for the parent report, but the boys had slightly slower intellectual functioning and were more perseverative than the girls on testing. The presence of psychiatric comorbidity is unrelated to either BRIEF or test scores. These findings are generally consistent with prior studies indicating that parents observe considerable executive dysfunction in children with FASD, and that children with FASD may have more difficulty with executive functions in everyday life than is detected by laboratory-based tests alone.
Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684
Caldwell, John A; Mallis, Melissa M; Caldwell, J Lynn; Paul, Michel A; Miller, James C; Neri, David F
Pilot fatigue is a significant problem in modern aviation operations, largely because of the unpredictable work hours, long duty periods, circadian disruptions, and insufficient sleep that are commonplace in both civilian and military flight operations. The full impact of fatigue is often underappreciated, but many of its deleterious effects have long been known. Compared to people who are well-rested, people who are sleep deprived think and move more slowly, make more mistakes, and have memory difficulties. These negative effects may and do lead to aviation errors and accidents. In the 1930s, flight time limitations, suggested layover durations, and aircrew sleep recommendations were developed in an attempt to mitigate aircrew fatigue. Unfortunately, there have been few changes to aircrew scheduling provisions and flight time limitations since the time they were first introduced, despite evidence that updates are needed. Although the scientific understanding of fatigue, sleep, shift work, and circadian physiology has advanced significantly over the past several decades, current regulations and industry practices have in large part failed to adequately incorporate the new knowledge. Thus, the problem of pilot fatigue has steadily increased along with fatigue-related concerns over air safety. Accident statistics, reports from pilots themselves, and operational flight studies all show that fatigue is a growing concern within aviation operations. This position paper reviews the relevant scientific literature, summarizes applicable U.S. civilian and military flight regulations, evaluates various in-flight and pre-/postflight fatigue countermeasures, and describes emerging technologies for detecting and countering fatigue. Following the discussion of each major issue, position statements address ways to deal with fatigue in specific contexts with the goal of using current scientific knowledge to update policy and provide tools and techniques for improving air safety.
Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja
Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.
Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.
Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)
Pancratz, Diane R.
This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…
Schuckit, Marc A.
This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)
Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James
Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531
... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...
Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...
Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups www.al-anon.org National Institute on Alcohol ...
Rafailov, Michael K.
Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) is an effective technique to defeat heat-seeking missiles. The major problem of existing DIRCM is that it may work like a beacon for threats that are not susceptible to the jamming code implemented: attracting a missile instead of re-directing it away from the aircraft. Ultra-fast laser pulse technology is discussed as an alternative to a conventional laser DIRCM. An ultra-fast laser is capable of providing a different type of countermeasure which is compatible with existing laser based DIRCM pointing systems as it requires much less peak power than damage inducing systems. A foundation of ultra-fast technology is its unique ability to alter the intrinsic characteristics of the semiconductor. In this paper, we will only consider the effects of a mild lattice disturbance caused by relatively low energy ultra-fast (femto-second) and, to some extent, fast (pico-second) laser pulses.
SH-containing molecules) protected animals from acute radiation syndrome (ARS). Free radical scavengers • 1950s-1980s: US Army (WRAIR) advanced...applications for G-CSF (Neupogen®) in case of radiation incident • Neupogen® in Strategic National Stockpile UNI FORM ED SERVIC ESUNIV ERSI T Y of theHealth...success for any radiation countermeasure under Animal Rule: long-term survival? (Need to cure hematopoietic syndrome when assessing GI
... 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of Alcoholism Why can some people have a ... to an increased risk of alcoholism. Cutting-Edge Genetic Research in Alcoholism Although researchers already have made ...
The role alcohol abuse plays in criminality has been a matter of primary concern for scholars for decades, as indicated by numerous studies and research projects. Most of these studies focus on determining the presence of a relationship between criminal behaviour and alcohol use, and whether criminal inclinations increase with the consumption of alcohol. Research shows that alcohol use indeed increases the risk of criminal behaviour, and that there is an especially strong and consistent correlation between alcohol abuse and violent crimes. However, researchers still disagree on the exact extent to which alcohol use effects criminality, and on the mechanisms causing alcohol to induce violent behaviour. A significant proportion of studies have focused in recent years on aggressive behaviour as a result of drinking alcohol. One of the most important means of measurement is the study of violent behaviour in places where alcohol is on sale. Studying the forms and frequency of violence in pubs and near off-licence stores greatly enables experts to understand the general context of the problem. This is the reason for the increasing interest in the topic throughout the past few decades. The present study focuses mainly on the literature published in English and German in leading journals of criminology since 1980, as well as on the most recent and fundamental publications on the topic, with special regard to results concerning drinking habits, and the relationship between drinking alcohol and violent or criminal behaviour, respectively.
Ali, Alaa M.G.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Gago-Dominguez, M.; Castelao, J. Esteban; Carracedo, Angel; Garzón, Victor Muñoz; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Flyger, Henrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Vrieling, Alina; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aaltonen, Kirsimari; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Horio, Akiyo; John, Esther M.; Sherman, Mark; Lissowska, Jolanta; Figueroa, Jonine; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Shah, Mitul; Hopper, John L.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Krogh, Vittorio; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Andersson, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Fagherazzi, Guy; Peeters, Petra H.; Olsen, Anja; Wishart, Gordon C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Borgquist, Signe; Overvad, Kim; Barricarte, Aurelio; González, Carlos A.; Sánchez, María-José; Amiano, Pilar; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim; Pharoah, Paul D.
Background Evidence for an association of alcohol consumption with prognosis after a diagnosis of breast cancer has been inconsistent. We have reviewed and summarized the published evidence and evaluated the association using individual patient data from multiple case cohorts. Methods A MEDLINE search to identify studies published up to January 2013 was performed. We combined published estimates of survival time for “moderate drinkers” versus nondrinkers. An analysis of individual participant data using Cox regression was carried out using data from 11 case cohorts. Results We identified 11 published studies suitable for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Moderate post-diagnosis alcohol consumption was not associated with overall survival [HR, 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.85–1.05], but there was some evidence of better survival associated with prediagnosis consumption (HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73–0.88). Individual data on alcohol consumption for 29,239 cases with 4,839 deaths were available from the 11 case cohorts, all of which had data on estrogen receptor (ER) status. For women with ER-positive disease, there was little evidence that pre- or postdiagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer–specific mortality, with some evidence of a negative association with all-cause mortality. On the basis of a single study, moderate postdiagnosis alcohol intake was associated with a small reduction in breast cancer–specific mortality for women with ER-negative disease. There was no association with prediagnosis intake for women with ER-negative disease. Conclusion There was little evidence that pre- or post-diagnosis alcohol consumption is associated with breast cancer–specific mortality for women with ER-positive disease. There was weak evidence that moderate post-diagnosis alcohol intake is associated with a small reduction in breast cancer–specific mortality in ER-negative disease. Impact Considering the totality of the evidence, moderate
Luttges, Marvin W.
Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.
Ullman, Albert D.; Orenstein, Alan
Reviews recent literature, finding support for hypothesis that power of alcoholic parent within household is related to whether offspring become alcoholic. In considering reasons for this relationship, suggests that children and adolescents are more likely to emulate and identify with powerful alcoholic parent and, thus, learn that alcohol can…
Aaron Weaver is a biomedical engineer responsible for setting up and running experiments and recruiting test subjects in the Exercise Countermeasures Laboratory at NASAâs Glenn Research Center in...
Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve
This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible
Human Resources Research Organization, Alexandria, VA.
The instructor's guide is part of a series designed to help project directors in the management of Alcohol Safety Action Projects (ASAP) through management workshops. Workshops will discuss certain phases of the ASAP including National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) organizational and supportive efforts, countermeasures,…
... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...
Abkarian, G. G.
This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…
Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.
The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)
McGough, Dixie P.; Hindman, Margaret H.
This guide contains information from the alcoholism literature and from interviews with people in state alcoholism agencies, major professional associations, and public and private service programs. It is designed to help readers plan and develop community alcoholism programs by providing an overview of the many considerations involved in starting…
Vella, Luke D; Cameron-Smith, David
Alcohol consumption within elite sport has been continually reported both anecdotally within the media and quantitatively in the literature. The detrimental effects of alcohol on human physiology have been well documented, adversely influencing neural function, metabolism, cardiovascular physiology, thermoregulation and skeletal muscle myopathy. Remarkably, the downstream effects of alcohol consumption on exercise performance and recovery, has received less attention and as such is not well understood. The focus of this review is to identify the acute effects of alcohol on exercise performance and give a brief insight into explanatory factors.
Kaderka, Justin; Young, Laurence R.; Paloski, William H.
Deconditioning of astronauts during long duration spaceflight, especially with regard to the cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, and neurological systems, is a well-recognized problem that has stimulated significant investments in countermeasure research over the past five decades. Because of its potential salutary effects on all of these systems, artificial gravity via centrifugation has been one of the most persistently discussed countermeasures; however, to date, few studies have tested its efficacy, particularly in comparison to other, system-specific countermeasures. This paper reports results of a meta-analysis we performed to compare previously published results from artificial gravity studies with those from studies utilizing traditional countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, aerobic exercise, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), or some variation of these countermeasures. Published and non-published literature involving human bed rest and immersion studies, human non-bed rest studies, and flight data were examined. Our analyses were confounded by differences in research design from study to study, including subject selection criteria, deconditioning paradigm, physiological systems assessed, and dependent measures employed. Nevertheless we were able to draw comparisons between studies that had some consistency across these variables. Results indicate that for prolonged spaceflight an artificial gravity-based countermeasure may provide benefits equivalent to traditional countermeasures for the cardiovascular system. Too few comparable studies have been performed to draw any conclusions for the musculo-skeletal system. Gaps in the current knowledge of artificial gravity are identified and provide the basis for a discussion of future topics for ground-based research using this countermeasure.
Stewart, Donald F.
The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) represents the transition within the US Space program from the 'heroic' era of space flight (characterized most vividly by the Mercury and Apollo programs) to an epoch characterized by routine access to the space environment. In this new era, the unique characteristics of the microgravity environment will enable new types of research activities, primarily in the life sciences, materials science, and biotechnology fields. In addition to its role as a'microgravity science laboratory,' Space Station Freedom (SSF) constitutes the operational platform on which the knowledge and skills needed to continue our exploration of space will be acquired. In the area of spacecraft operations, these skills include the ability to assemble, operate, and maintain large structures in space. In the area of crew operations, the potentially harmful effects of extended exposure to microgravity must be understood in order to keep the crew mission capable. To achieve this goal, the complex process of physiological deconditioning must be monitored, and countermeasures utilized as needed to keep the individual crew members within acceptable physiological limits. The countermeasures program under development for the SSF Program is titled the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) program. As implied by the name, this activity has two primary products, a biomedical monitoring element and a countermeasures development effort. The program is a critical path element in the overall SSF Program, and should be considered an essential element of operations on board the space station. It is readily apparent that the capability to both protect and optimize the health and performance of the human operators on board SSF will be a critical element in the overall success of the SSFP. Previous experience within the Russian space program has demonstrated that the time required for countermeasures on extended missions can become a monumental operational burden
... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: 2013 Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi... medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...
Kyzar, Evan J; Pandey, Subhash C
Alcohol use and alcohol addiction represent dysfunctional brain circuits resulting from neuroadaptive changes during protracted alcohol exposure and its withdrawal. Alcohol exerts a potent effect on synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation in specific brain regions, providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Epigenetics has recently emerged as a critical regulator of gene expression and synaptic plasticity-related events in the brain. Alcohol exposure and withdrawal induce changes in crucial epigenetic processes in the emotional brain circuitry (amygdala) that may be relevant to the negative affective state defined as the "dark side" of addiction. Here, we review the literature concerning synaptic plasticity and epigenetics, with a particular focus on molecular events related to dendritic remodeling during alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Targeting epigenetic processes that modulate synaptic plasticity may yield novel treatments for alcoholism.
Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-418 Integrated Defensive Electronic Countermeasures (IDECM) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget...Program Office Estimate RDT&E - Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation SAR - Selected Acquisition Report SCP - Service Cost Position TBD - To Be
Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.
Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.
... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... less effect than before? Found that when the effects of alcohol were wearing off, you had withdrawal symptoms, such ...
Schenck, Rosalie; And Others
This report reviews literature on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on the fetus and the resulting impact on the learning abilities and behavior of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Recent reports indicate that an estimated 73 percent of infants are exposed to alcohol before birth, resulting in varying degrees of learning…
Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Hijona, Elizabeth; Bañales, Jesus Maria; Cosme, Angel; Bujanda, Luis
Although the association between alcohol and pancreatic diseases has been recognized for a long time, the impact of alcohol consumption on pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer (PC) remains poorly defined. Nowadays there is not consensus about the epidemiology and the beverage type, dose and duration of alcohol consumption causing these diseases. The objective of this study was to review the epidemiology described in the literature for pancreatic diseases as a consequence of alcoholic behavior trying to understand the association between dose, type and frequency of alcohol consumption and risk of pancreatitis and PC. The majority of the studies conclude that high alcohol intake was associated with a higher risk of pancreatitis (around 2.5%-3% between heavy drinkers and 1.3% between non drinkers). About 70% of pancreatitis are due to chronic heavy alcohol consumption. Although this incidence rate differs between countries, it is clear that the risk of developing pancreatitis increases with increasing doses of alcohol and the average of alcohol consumption vary since 80 to 150 g/d for 10-15 years. With regard to PC, the role of alcohol consumption remains less clear, and low to moderate alcohol consumption do not appear to be associated with PC risk, and only chronic heavy drinking increase the risk compared with lightly drinkers. In a population of 10%-15% of heavy drinkers, 2%-5% of all PC cases could be attributed to alcohol consumption. However, as only a minority (less than 10% for pancreatitis and 5% for PC) of heavily drinkers develops these pancreatic diseases, there are other predisposing factors besides alcohol involved. Genetic variability and environmental exposures such as smoking and diet modify the risk and should be considered for further investigations.
Miller, Ted R.; Spicer, Rebecca S.
Background Primary data collection has established that alcohol causes injuries treated in the emergency department. No comparable data exist for injuries admitted to hospital. Data on the injury risks of heavy drinkers relative to other drinkers also are sparse. Methods We estimated (1) whether regular heavy drinkers have higher hospitalized injury risks than other people when alcohol negative and (2) how much hospitalized injury risk of regular heavy drinkers and other drinkers rises when alcohol positive. We combined national alcohol consumption data with alcohol metabolism rates to estimate hours spent alcohol positive versus alcohol negative during a year for heavy drinkers versus other people. A literature review provided hospitalized non-fatal injury rates for these groups by alcohol involvement. Results Relative to other alcohol-negative people aged 18 and older, heavy drinkers have an estimated relative risk of hospitalized injury of 1.4 when alcohol negative and 4.3 when alcohol positive. Others have an estimated relative risk of 1.0 when alcohol negative and 6.8 when alcohol positive. Thus alcohol greatly raises injury risk. The excess risk patterns persist for a wide range of sensitivity analysis values. Of hospitalized injuries, an estimated 21% are alcohol attributable including 36% of assaults. Conclusions Drinking alcohol is a major cause of hospitalized injury. Heavy drinkers lead risky lifestyles. They tolerate alcohol better than most drinkers but their injury risks still triple when they drink. Our approach to attribution is a valuable complement to more costly, more precise approaches that rely heavily on primary data collection. It works for any severity of injury. Applying it only requires an existing alcohol consumption survey plus data on alcohol involvement in targeted injuries. PMID:22004026
Branas, Charles C.; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J.
Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975–2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427
Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J
Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study.
Performance requirements for laser sources, operating in the mid-IR, providing protection of airborne platforms from heat-seeking missiles are reviewed. The critical performance characteristic for a countermeasures laser is 'useful energy on target', which requires the laser to generate high brightness output in the appropriate spectral bands with rapid turn-on time. Integration with a compact beam director places an upper limit on the beam quality of the laser output. The key driver for the detailed laser design is to maximise the overall wallplug efficiency in order to minimise the complexity and volume, in turn maximising the reliability and reducing the cost. In particular routes to reduce the thermal management system for the laser produce the single largest improvement in overall wallplug efficiency, with the ultimate goal of realising a truly athermal laser. Candidate technologies for IR countermeasures lasers are briefly reviewed.
It is reported that Savannah Foods and Industries, in a joint venture with United States Sugar Corporation have applied for a loan guarantee for the production of alcohol from agricultural commodities. The two phase program calls for research and development, before a prototype plant will be built for the conversion of cellulosic compounds found in bagasse into alcohol for use as a fuel.
... Families? Why Is It So Hard to Quit Drugs? Effects of Drugs Drug Use Hurts Other People Drug Use Hurts ... This Section Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Effects of Alcohol on Brains and Bodies Previous ... Treatment Work? Treatment and Rehab Resources About the ...
One out of 2 Americans report drinking on a routine basis, making the excessive consumption of alcohol the third leading cause of preventable death in America (). Alcoholism and depression are common comorbidities that home healthcare professionals frequently encounter. To achieve the best patient outcomes, alcoholism should be addressed initially. Although all age groups are at risk, alcoholism and depression occur in more than 8 percent of older adults. Prevention through identifying alcohol use early in adolescence is vital to reduce the likelihood of alcohol dependence. This article provides an overview of the long-term effects of alcohol abuse, including alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnostic criteria for substance dependence and ideas for nonthreatening screening questions to use with patients who are adolescent or older are discussed. While providing patient care, home healthcare nurses share the patient's intimate home environment. This environment is perceived as a safe haven by the patient and home care nurses can take advantage of counseling and treatment opportunities in this nonthreatening environment.
Larochelle, F. T.; Charles, J.; Harm, D. L.; Fortney, S. M.; Siconolfi, S.
At the Johnson Space Center we are actively involved, with the collaboration of other NASA Centers and the scientific community at large, in the search for ways to counter the negative affects of spaceflight beginning with the improvement in our understanding of the adaptation. Heretofore this search will be broadly referred to as countermeasures development and includes not only the preservation of physiological well-being but also pyschological well-being. The psychological integrity of crews will, undoubtedly, become progressively more important as lengths, remoteness, and risks of missions increase. The character and priorities of our contermeasure development is very much dependent upon the character of the mission and requires a very close liaison between Medical Operations and the investigators. Because of the demands which countermeasure implementation imposes upon crew schedules and because of the potential weight, power, and budget impacts of the hardware and its development, a countermeasure can only become operational when it is either adequately validated or the human risk of not applying the existing technology exceeds the other negative impacts not directly related to crew health and safety.
Lundquist, Charlie M.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)
To support its ISS and exploration class mission objectives, NASA has developed a Countermeasure Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP). The goal of this project is to evaluate and validate the optimal complement of countermeasures required to maintain astronaut health, safety, and functional ability during and after short- and long-duration space flight missions. The CEVP is the final element of the process in which ideas and concepts emerging from basic research evolve into operational countermeasures. The CEVP is accomplishing these objectives by conducting operational/clinical research to evaluate and validate countermeasures to mitigate these maladaptive responses. Evaluation is accomplished by testing in space flight analog facilities, and validation is accomplished by space flight testing. Both will utilize a standardized complement of integrated physiological and psychological tests, termed the Integrated Testing Regimen (ITR) to examine candidate countermeasure efficacy and intersystem effects. The CEVP emphasis is currently placed on validating the initial complement of ISS countermeasures targeting bone, muscle, and aerobic fitness; followed by countermeasures for neurological, psychological, immunological, nutrition and metabolism, and radiation risks associated with space flight. This presentation will review the processes, plans, and procedures that will enable CEVP to play a vital role in transitioning promising research results into operational countermeasures necessary to maintain crew health and performance during long duration space flight.
Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.
Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533
Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A
Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478
... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24059 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...
... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...
Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping
Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.
McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai
The objective of this article is to review the literature on the utility of using the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats in studies examining high alcohol drinking in adults and adolescents, craving-like behavior, and the co-abuse of alcohol with other drugs. The P line of rats meets all of the originally proposed criteria for a suitable animal model of alcoholism. In addition, the P rat exhibits high alcohol-seeking behavior, demonstrates an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) under relapse drinking conditions, consumes amounts of ethanol during adolescence equivalent to those consumed in adulthood, and co-abuses ethanol and nicotine. The P line also exhibits excessive binge-like alcohol drinking, attaining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 200 mg% on a daily basis. The HAD replicate lines of rats have not been as extensively studied as the P rats. The HAD1,2 rats satisfy several of the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism, e.g., these rats will voluntarily consume ethanol in a free-choice situation to produce BACs between 50 and 200 mg%. The HAD1,2 rats also exhibit an ADE under repeated relapse conditions, and will demonstrate similar levels of ethanol intake during adolescence as seen in adults. Overall, the P and HAD1,2 rats have characteristics attributed to an early onset alcoholic, and can be used to study various aspects of alcohol use disorders.
... Help What's New Read Daily Reflections Make a Contribution Go to Online Bookstore Welcome to Alcoholics Anonymous ® ... and Twelve & Twelve | 75th Anniversary Edition | Make a contribution | Self-Support Press/Media | Archives & History | A.A. ...
... or other preservatives Chemicals, grains or other ingredients Histamine, a byproduct of fermentation or brewing In some ... in some people, possibly as a result of histamines contained in some alcoholic beverages. Your immune system ...
Tests may include: Arterial blood gases (measure the acid/base balance and oxygen level in blood) Blood alcohol ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 161. Seifter JL. Acid-Base disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's ...
... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...
Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale
Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs.
Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge
The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.
Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian
This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.
Swedenburg, R. L.
The ability of a defense system to operate effectively when deployed in battle is dependent on designs able to deal with countermeasures against the defense. The formation of a technical Red Team to stress the preliminary designs of the defensive system with technologically feasible and effective potential countermeasures provides a means to identify such potential countermeasures. This paper describes the experience of the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Theater Missile Defense Red Team since the Gulf War in 1991, the Red-Blue Exchange process, and the value it has provided to the designers of the U.S. Theater Missile Defense systems for developing robust systems. A wide-range of technologically feasible countermeasures has been devised, analyzed, tested for feasibility, and provided to the system developers for mitigation design. The process for independently analyzing possible susceptibilities of preliminary designs and exploiting the susceptibilities to identify possible countermeasures is explained. Designing and characterizing the Red Team's countermeasures, determining their feasibility, and analyzing their potential effectiveness against the defense are explained. A technique for the Blue Team's designers to deal with a wide range of potential countermeasures is explained.
Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.
... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...
Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.
In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…
National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…
Srinivasan, T.N.; Suresh, T.R.; Devar, J.V.; Jayaram, Vasantha
SUMMARY Studies on association of psychiatric diseases and immunopathology has been an area of recent research activities. Alcohol has been implicated in some immune mediated disorders. Observation of occurrence of psoriasis, an immune mediated skin disorder in alcoholic patients has not been reported anywhere in literature. We report here 4 cases of alcoholism related psoriasis and discuss the possible immunological relationship between these two disorders. The need for study of effect of alcoholism on cell-medicated immunity associated conditions like auto-immune disorders and malignancy is presented. PMID:21897472
Thomas, D B
This is a review of the epidemiologic literature on alcohol and risks of various cancers. Alcohol has consistently been related to risks of squamous cell carcinomas of the mouth, oral pharynx, larynx, and esophagus in multiple studies of varying design. The joint effects of alcohol and smoking are greater than additive, and are probably multiplicative, suggesting biological synergism. All major types of alcoholic beverages have been casually implicated in the genesis of these diseases. The influence of alcohol on risks of upper aerodigestive tract cancers may be greater in persons with marginal nutritional status than in better-nourished individuals. Alcohol also has been associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus, gastro-esophageal junction, and gastric cardia, but the relationship is not as strong as for squamous cell esophageal carcinomas. Alcohol and tobacco account for over 80% of the squamous carcinomas of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus in the United States. Risks of cancers of the distal stomach, pancreas, colon, and rectum have not been consistently related to alcohol, although possible relationships between beer drinking and rectal cancer and between heavy use of alcohol and pancreatic cancer warrant further study. Studies of alcohol and liver cancer, in which the confounding influence of hepatitis B was considered, have yielded inconsistent results and should be replicated. An association between heavy alcohol use and breast cancer has been observed in most studies, even after controlling for known risk factors for breast cancer, and additional investigations of this issue are warranted. PMID:8741776
Kastin, B; Mandel, L
Sialosis (sialadenosis) is a term used to describe a disorder that involves both secretory and parenchymal changes of the major salivary glands, most commonly the parotid. Seen often in a dental office, it is recognized as an indolent, bilateral, non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic, soft, symmetrical, painless and persistent enlargement of the parotid glands. Four major entities have commonly been associated with this disorder. They are alcoholism, endocrinopathy (particularly diabetes mellitus), maLnutrition and idiopathic. We are reporting a case of alcoholic sialosis with its clinical and diagnostic aspects. It is important for the dental practitioner to recognize sialosis, because it often indicates the existence of an unsuspected systemic disease.
Drinking alcohol during pregnancy; Fetal alcohol syndrome - pregnancy; FAS - fetal alcohol syndrome ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ...
... Home » Living with Hepatitis » Daily Living: Alcohol Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For ... Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one of the ...
... code here Enter ZIP code here Daily Living: Alcohol for Veterans and the Public Alcohol and Hepatitis: Entire Lesson Overview Alcohol is one ... related to choices you make about your lifestyle . Alcohol and fibrosis Fibrosis is the medical term for ...
Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave
The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…
Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre
Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation.
Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.
Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)
Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic
Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff
Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E
Anti-satellite weapons, countermeasures, and arms control; MILSATs, ASATs, and national security; ASAT capabilities and countermeasures; ASAT arms control: history; ASAT arms control: options; and a comparative evaluation of ASAT policy options are discussed.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical...
Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.
This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…
Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Kaysen, Debra; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.
Victim alcohol consumption is common prior to sexual assault, and a burgeoning literature suggests that victims who were intoxicated during assault may differ in post-assault adjustment compared to those who were not impaired. Less is known about potential relationships between experiencing an alcohol-involved assault (AIA) and later drinking behavior. In this study, we examined the relationships between sexual assault, subsequent drinking behavior and consequences, and alcohol expectancies in a sample of 306 undergraduate women who reported current alcohol use and reported either no trauma history (n = 53), non-AIA (n = 69), or AIA (n = 184). Differences emerged for alcohol use (F(2, 298) = 12.78, p < .001), peak blood alcohol content (F(2, 298) = 9.66, p < .001), consequences (F(2, 296) = 7.38, p < .005), and positive alcohol expectancies (F(14, 796) = 1.93, p < .05). In particular, women with an AIA reported greater alcohol use and positive expectancies compared to women with no trauma history and women with a non-alcohol influenced assault. In addition, both assault groups reported greater drinking consequences than women with no trauma history. Findings suggest that it is the women who are assaulted while under the influence of alcohol who evidence more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems following assault. PMID:21813246
Van Randwyk, Jamie A.
Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.
Spanagel, Rainer; Krystal, John H.
Rationale An increasingly compelling literature points to a major role for the glutamate system in mediating the effects of alcohol on behavior and the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Preclinical studies indicate that glutamate signaling mediates certain aspects of ethanol’s intoxicating and rewarding effects, and undergoes adaptations following chronic alcohol exposure that may contribute to the withdrawal, craving and compulsive drug-seeking that drive alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Objectives We discuss the potential for targeting the glutamate system as a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to treating alcohol use disorders, focusing on five major components of the glutamate system: the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and specific NMDA subunits, the glycineB site on the NMDA receptors (NMDAR), L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid ionotropic (AMPA) and kainate (KAR) receptors, metabotropic receptors (mGluR), and glutamate transporters. Results Chronic alcohol abuse produces a hyperglutamatergic state, characterized by elevated extracellular glutamate and altered glutamate receptors and transporters. Pharmacologically manipulating glutamatergic neurotransmission alters alcohol-related behaviors including intoxication, withdrawal, and alcohol-seeking, in rodents and human subjects. Blocking NMDA and AMPA receptors reduces alcohol consumption in rodents, but side-effects may limit this as a therapeutic approach. Selectively targeting NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits (e.g., GluN2B, GluA3), or the NMDAR glycineB site offers an alternative approach. Blocking mGluR5 potently affects various alcohol-related behaviors in rodents, and mGluR2/3 agonism also suppresses alcohol consumption. Finally, glutamate transporter upregulation may mitigate behavioral and neurotoxic sequelae of excess glutamate caused by alcohol. Conclusions Despite the many challenges that remain, targeting the glutamate system offers genuine promise for developing new
... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...
Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.
We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.
Wiersma, Tj; Flikweert, S; Zeeman, K; Schagen van Leeuwen, J H
Recently, the Dutch Health Council published a report on the risks of the use of alcohol during conception, pregnancy and lactation. Because the medical literature does not prove the safety of the use of small amounts of alcohol, the Health Council recommends using no alcohol whatsoever. One may wonder whether the advice of the Health Council is not too rigid. Since Karl Popper, it is evident that the truth of the hypothesis that the consumption of small amounts of alcohol is safe will never be verified. Because the medical literature also does not prove the harmfulness of the irregular use of small amounts of alcohol, it is not necessary to upset pregnant women who occasionally take an alcoholic beverage. It is preferable to use no alcohol; however, the rare consumption of a single glass does not seem to be harmful.
Lee, Geraldine A; Forsythe, Marcus
A recent paper claimed in its classification of harmful substances, that alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. This paper aims to weigh up some of the evidence in the literature on the physical, social and financial effects of alcohol and the associated disease burden. We will also explore alcohol within the context of emergency department (ED) presentations. Reasons for ED attendance can be overtly and directly alcohol related such as alcohol intoxication, assaults, injuries and falls and indirectly such as child neglect, psychological problems and chronic diseases. Alcohol is often viewed as an isolated incident or factor for ED presentations but there are data that refute this perception. In ED, the priority is to treat the patient and their primary complaint, however it may be appropriate to screen for alcohol use, give advice and potentially offer an intervention to the patient. With the recent UK and Australian guidelines on reducing health risks from drinking alcohol, the ED has the ability to play an active role in reducing the harmful effects of alcohol through screening, advising and undertaking intervention as appropriate. However this cannot be achieved in isolation but within the broader political and health policy framework. There is now a growing body of literature supporting the need to make alcohol less affordable, less easy to buy and reducing alcohol advertising. Although alcohol is a legal substance, this paper concludes that examining the wider effects in physical, social and financial terms, alcohol is more dangerous than heroin. It has become an endemic problem in society affecting the individual and the whole community.
Palpacuer, Clément; Laviolle, Bruno; Boussageon, Rémy; Reymann, Jean Michel; Bellissant, Eric; Naudet, Florian
Background Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853) to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication. Methods and Findings Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1) health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications), (2) alcohol consumption outcomes, (3) biological outcomes, or (4) treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane’s Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF); for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population
Minnis, John R.
Reviews some of the demographics of aging and alcohol abuse among the aged, and offers a theoretical approach from the sociology of deviance literature toward understanding alcohol abuse among elderly people. (Author)
Simmat-Durand, L; Vellut, N; Lejeune, C; Jauffret-Roustide, M; Mougel, S; Michel, L; Planche, M
Pathways from alcoholism to recovery are documented; less often are those from drug addiction to alcoholism. Biographical approaches allow analyzing how people change their uses and talk about their trajectories of recovery.
Dickman, F B
The Public Health Service and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration share the responsibility for problems related to injury prevention and control regarding the alcohol-impaired operation of motor vehicles. NHTSA activities have evolved over several decades within a general framework which emphasizes community-based systems. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is promoting program activities that stress community-level involvement in problems of alcohol and highway use. The public health approach to the mortality and morbidity resulting from alcohol use and motor vehicle operation entails examining and promoting those activities that address human factors. Techniques for Effective Alcohol Management (TEAM) is a cooperative effort representing sports, entertainment, insurance, vehicle manufacturer, and other organizations and agencies building community coalitions. The Centers for Disease Control is establishing research and collaborating centers to stimulate studies and exchange information on injury-related research. Alcohol countermeasures programs include training for law enforcement and legal officials, technology development efforts, and changes in laws applied to use of alcohol and other drugs. Outreach and networking activities have encouraged the initiation and coordination of community level groups active in promoting highway safety with regard to the use of alcohol. Statistical method changes are being discussed for surveillance of motor vehicle-related injuries for Health Objectives for the Nation for the Year 2000. NHTSA data systems being discussed are thought to be more timely and more sensitive to crash activity than methods now in use.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141961
Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori
Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.
Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Kępka, Alina; Szulc, Agata; Zwierz, Krzysztof
Up to 30% of all hospital admissions and health-care costs may be attributable to alcohol abuse. Ethanol, its oxidative metabolites, acetaldehyde and ROS (reactive oxygen species), non-oxidative metabolites of alcohol [e.g. FAEEs (fatty acid ethyl esters)] and the ethanol-water competition mechanism are all involved in the deregulation of glycoconjugate (glycoprotein, glycolipid and proteoglycan) metabolic processes including biosynthesis, modification, transport, secretion, elimination and catabolism. An increasing number of new alcohol biomarkers that are the result of alcohol-induced glycoconjugate metabolic errors have appeared in the literature. Glycoconjugate-related alcohol markers are involved in, or are a product of, altered glycoconjugate metabolism, e.g. CDT (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin), SA (sialic acid), plasma SIJ (SA index of apolipoprotein J), CETP (cholesteryl ester transfer protein), β-HEX (β-hexosaminidase), dolichol, EtG (ethyl glucuronide) etc. Laboratory tests based on changes in glycoconjugate metabolism are useful in settings where the co-operativeness of the patient is impaired (e.g. driving while intoxicated) or when a history of alcohol use is not available (e.g. after trauma). In clinical practice, glycoconjugate markers of alcohol use/abuse let us distinguish alcoholic from non-alcoholic tissue damage, having important implications for the treatment and management of diseases.
Background Epidemiological data suggest that national levels of alcohol consumption have increased rapidly in contemporary Vietnam; concomitantly, social and public health harms associated with alcohol use are on the rise. Methods Over the last decade, a research literature on alcohol use in Vietnam has begun to develop. Results A consideration of this literature indicates lines of analysis to be extended and gaps to be filled. Conclusion This synopsis provides an overview of the major trends that studies have addressed, evaluates the state of research to date, and suggests avenues for further research on alcohol use in this newly middle-income nation. PMID:26802499
... Alcohol Exposure Support & Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA ... are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders » Older Adults In this Section Underage ...
... The diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome. Deutsches Arztebaltt International. 2013;110:703. Ungerer M, et al. In utero alcohol exposure, epigenetic changes and their consequences. Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. 2013;35:37. Coriale G, et al. ...
... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...
Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...
Nogueira, Ana; Duarte, Ana F; Magina, Sofia; Azevedo, Filomena
Pellagra is a nutritional disease caused by the deficiency of niacin. It presents with a photodistributed rash, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neuropsychiatric disturbances. In the Western world, this disease is mostly confined to alcoholics or the impoverished. However, this condition must be recognized in other clinical settings because it is easily treated and can be fatal if not identified. We describe a case of pellagra caused by esophageal carcinoma and alcoholism; we also review the literature.
Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; Zakhari, Samir; Malnick, Stephen; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Salaspuro, Mikko; Voinea-Griffin, Andreea; Barasch, Andrei; Kirpich, Irina A; Thomes, Paul G; Schrum, Laura W; Donohue, Terrence M; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Cruz, Marcus; Opris, Mihai
. Dysregulation of metabolism, as a result of ethanol exposure, in the intestine leads to colon carcinogenesis. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota have been suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of the metabolic syndrome in the aging population, have been presented. The symposium addressed mechanisms and biomarkers of alcohol induced damage to different organs, as well as the role of the microbiome in this dialog. The microbiota regulates and acts as a key element in harmonizing immune responses at intestinal mucosal surfaces. It is known that microbiota is an inducer of proinflammatory T helper 17 cells and regulatory T cells in the intestine. The signals at the sites of inflammation mediate recruitment and differentiation in order to remove inflammatory inducers and promote tissue homeostasis restoration. The change in the intestinal microbiota also influences the change in obesity and regresses the liver steatosis. Evidence on the positive role of moderate alcohol consumption on heart and metabolic diseases as well on reducing steatosis have been looked up. Moreover nutrition as a therapeutic intervention in alcoholic liver disease has been discussed. In addition to the original data, we searched the literature (2008-2016) for the latest publication on the described subjects. In order to obtain the updated data we used the usual engines (Pub Med and Google Scholar). The intention of the eighth symposia was to advance the international profile of the biological research on alcoholism. We also wish to further our mission of leading the forum to progress the science and practice of translational research in alcoholism.
... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting; Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices'' that published in... highly multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application...
Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.
adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.
Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.
Pain and alcohol use are both highly prevalent in the general population, and pain-alcohol interrelations are of increasing empirical interest. Previous research has identified associations between pain and alcohol dependence, and the current review provides novel contributions to this emerging domain by incorporating studies that have tested relations between pain and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and by identifying potential psychosocial mechanisms of action. Specifically, we sought to integrate evidence of pain-alcohol relations derived from two directions of empirical inquiry (i.e., effects of alcohol on pain and effects of pain on alcohol use) across psychological, social, and biological literatures. We observed converging evidence that associations between alcohol consumption and pain may be curvilinear in nature. Whereas moderate alcohol use was observed to be associated with positive pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater quality of life), excessive drinking and alcohol use disorder appear to be associated with deleterious pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater pain severity). We also observed evidence that alcohol administration confers acute pain-inhibitory effects, and that situational pain may motivate alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking for pain-coping). Future research can inform theoretical and clinical applications through examination of temporal relations between pain and alcohol consumption, tests of hypothesized mechanisms, and the development of novel interventions. PMID:25766100
Denning, Peter J.
In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.
Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.
There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.
Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang
Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819
Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T
Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy.
... of the National Academies (IOM) diagnostic categories: 4 » Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) » Partial FAS (pFAS) » Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder ( ... 301.443.3860 Relevant Clinical Diagnoses IOM Diagnoses Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) was the first ...
Speer, Rita D.
Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…
... Work Our Funding Our Staff Jobs & Training Our Location Contact Us You are here Home » Alcohol & Your Health » Overview of Alcohol Consumption In this Section Alcohol Facts & Statistics What Is A Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Overview of Alcohol Consumption ...
The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…
Taylor, Caroline, Ed.
Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of…
Brabant, Christian; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Quertemont, Etienne
In several animal species including humans, the acute administration of low doses of alcohol increases motor activity. Different theories have postulated that alcohol-induced hyperactivity is causally related to alcoholism. Moreover, a common biological mechanism in the mesolimbic dopamine system has been proposed to mediate the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol. Numerous studies have examined whether alcohol-induced hyperactivity is related to alcoholism using a great variety of animal models and several animal species. However, there is no review that has summarized this extensive literature. In this article, we present the various experimental models that have been used to study the relationship between the stimulant and motivational effects of alcohol in rodents and primates. Furthermore, we discuss whether the theories hypothesizing a causal link between alcohol-induced hyperactivity and alcoholism are supported by published results. The reviewed findings indicate that animal species that are stimulated by alcohol also exhibit alcohol preference. Additionally, the role of dopamine in alcohol-induced hyperactivity is well established since blocking dopaminergic activity suppresses the stimulant effects of alcohol. However, dopamine transmission plays a much more complex function in the motivational properties of alcohol and the neuronal mechanisms involved in alcohol stimulation and reward are distinct. Overall, the current review provides mixed support for theories suggesting that the stimulant effects of alcohol are related to alcoholism and highlights the importance of animal models as a way to gain insight into alcoholism.
McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886
Cork, Alison; Ferns, Terry
Violence in the emergency department (ED) is a global problem. In our first paper, we highlighted the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication, the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the importance of developing positive nurse/service user relationships. In this second paper, we discuss personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.
Alcohol is widely consumed across the world in different cultural and social settings. Types of alcohol consumption differ between (a) light, only occasional consumption, (b) heavy chronic alcohol consumption, and (c) binge drinking as seen as a new pattern of alcohol consumption among teenagers and young adults. Heavy alcohol consumption is detrimental to many organs and tissues, including bones. Osteoporosis is regularly mentioned as a secondary consequence of alcoholism, and chronic alcohol abuse is established as an independent risk factor for osteoporosis. The review will present the different mechanisms and effects of alcohol intake on bone mass, bone metabolism, and bone strength, including alcoholism-related "life-style factors" such as malnutrition, lack of exercise, and hormonal changes as additional causative factors, which also contribute to the development of osteoporosis due to alcohol abuse.
Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron
Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.
Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.
Chang, Koyin; Wu, Chin-Chih; Ying, Yung-Hsiang
Multiple alcohol control policies have been enacted since the early 1980s to keep drunk drivers off the roads and to prevent more alcohol-related traffic fatalities. In this paper, we analyze nine traffic policies to determine the extent to which each policy contributes to effective alcohol-related fatality prevention. Compared with the existing literature, this paper addresses a more comprehensive set of traffic policies. In addition, we used a panel GLS model that holds regional effects and state-specific time effects constant to analyze their impact on alcohol-related fatalities with two distinct rates: alcohol-related traffic deaths per capita and alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths. While per capita alcohol-related traffic deaths is used more often in other studies, alcohol-related traffic deaths per total traffic deaths better reflects the impact of policies on deterring drunk driving. In addition, regional analyses were conducted to determine the policies that are more effective in certain regions. The findings of this study suggest that zero tolerance laws and increased beer taxes are the most effective policies in reducing alcohol-related fatalities in all regions.
Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim
The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly. PMID:22815594
Brown, James D.
Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…
Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.
A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…
Background Increasing concern about the negative impact of alcohol on the Australian community has renewed calls for tighter regulatory controls. This paper reviews levels of and trends in public support for liquor control regulations, regulation of alcohol promotions, and alcohol pricing and taxation reforms in Australia between 1998 and 2009. Methods Six electronic databases and twenty public health and alcohol organisation websites were searched for research literature, reports and media releases describing levels of public support for alcohol controls. Only studies which randomly selected participants were included. Results Twenty-one studies were included in the review. The majority of the Australian public support most proposed alcohol controls. Levels of support are divided between targeted and universal controls. Conclusions Implementation of targeted alcohol policies is likely to be strongly supported by the Australian public, but universal controls are liable to be unpopular. Policy makers are provided with insights into factors likely to be associated with higher public support. PMID:21272368
O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas
Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that
Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah
Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary.
Soby, Jeanette M.
This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…
Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.
A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…
Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten
Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.
Porter, Stephen R.; Pryor, John
Alcohol use literature has linked heavy episodic alcohol use and academic consequences, but has not examined the influence of such use on student engagement. This study uses survey data from over 40,000 students at 28 selective private colleges and universities to examine the connection between heavy episodic alcohol use and engagement. The…
Machell, David F.
Develops a theoretical rationale in support of the concept of "fellowship," the healing cornerstone of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Reviews supporting literature from the areas of personality theory, group psychotherapy, alcoholism psychopathology, and alcoholism psychological treatment. Suggests a common premise and common ground of…
National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.
This brief bibliography is part of a series produced by the Current Awareness Services of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information, and informational service of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The publications provide readers with regularly codified bibliographic references to recent, topical literature in…
Rockwood, Gary A; Thompson, David E; Petrikovics, Ilona
In the present studies, the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of a novel cyanide countermeasure, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), were evaluated. DMTS is a sulfur-based molecule found in garlic, onion, broccoli, and similar plants. DMTS was studied for effectiveness as a sulfur donor-type cyanide countermeasure. The sulfur donor reactivity of DMTS was determined by measuring the rate of the formation of the cyanide metabolite thiocyanate. In experiments carried out in vitro in the presence of the sulfurtransferase rhodanese (Rh) and at the experimental pH of 7.4, DMTS was observed to convert cyanide to thiocyanate with greater than 40 times higher efficacy than does thiosulfate, the sulfur donor component of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved cyanide countermeasure Nithiodote(®) In the absence of Rh, DMTS was observed to be almost 80 times more efficient than sodium thiosulfate in vitro The fact that DMTS converts cyanide to thiocyanate more efficiently than does thiosulfate both with and without Rh makes it a promising sulfur donor-type cyanide antidote (scavenger) with reduced enzyme dependence in vitro The therapeutic cyanide antidotal efficacies for DMTS versus sodium thiosulfate were measured following intramuscular administration in a mouse model and expressed as antidotal potency ratios (APR = LD50 of cyanide with antidote/LD50 of cyanide without antidote). A dose of 100 mg/kg sodium thiosulfate given intramuscularly showed only slight therapeutic protection (APR = 1.1), whereas the antidotal protection from DMTS given intramuscularly at the same dose was substantial (APR = 3.3). Based on these data, DMTS will be studied further as a promising next-generation countermeasure for cyanide intoxication.
outcome in terms of morbidity, mortality and loss of work due to both the agent itself, and any adverse medical countermeasure side effects . The...MCM Model Inputs Input Category Explanation of Input Dose of Agent Inhaled dose Designates the number of inhaled organisms. Vaccination Inputs...The length of the incubation period is dose dependent; therefore, individuals that inhale large doses of agent have a shorter average incubation
This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of
Heine, M W
A brief overview of the reproductive capacities of both men and women in alcoholism is presented. A historical evaluation indicates a resurgence of interest in this area. The effect of chronic alcohol consumption on both male fertility and potency is reported in conjunction with alcohol-mediated effects on the female subject. Emphasis is placed on pharmacokinetics, metabolism and drinking behavior of the alcoholic female. The adverse actions of some therapeutic drugs and chronic alcohol consumption is discussed in relationship to fetal alcohol syndrome and the accompanied mental and somatic abnormalities.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent, comprising a higher aliphatic alcohol in major amount and an aliphatic hydrocarbon in minor amount, especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. The solvent alcohol desirably has a branched chain, or the hydrocarbon an unsaturated bond, or both. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (usually met with fossil fuel). Optional addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
Diamond, I; Messing, R O
Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567
... this page: About CDC.gov . FASD Homepage Facts Secondary Conditions Videos Alcohol Use in Pregnancy Questions & Answers Quiz Alcohol Screening & Brief Intervention Diagnosis Treatments Data & Statistics Alcohol Consumption Rates Research & Tracking Monitoring Alcohol ...
Blodgett, E. D.
Argues that the way out of worn out analogies of Canadian literature is found not only by acquiring knowledge of other cultures, but also by abandoning the deceptive parallelisms that overcome differences only by hiding them. (RAE)
Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C
Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.
A system for installing a plastisol or similar compound into the interior space of a spent squib-activated countermeasures cartridge. When the squib...ignites and expels the countermeasures payload, the heat of combustion causes the plastisol to soften, react and expand to fill the empty container
This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;
Swift, Robert M.; Aston, Elizabeth R.
Alcohol use disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a complex biology that is controlled by many genes and gene-by-environment interactions. Several efficacious, evidence-based treatments currently exist for treating and managing alcohol use disorder, including a number of pharmacotherapies that target specific aspects of biology that initiate and maintain dangerous alcohol misuse. This article reviews the neurobiological and neurobehavioral foundation of alcohol use disorder, the mechanisms of action and evidence for the efficacy of currently approved medications for treatment, and the literature on other emerging pharmacotherapies. PMID:25747925
Ferns, Terry; Cork, Alison
Internationally, violence in the emergency department (ED) is of a constant concern to emergency practitioners. Frequently, both original research papers and anecdotal reports emphasise the phenomenon of alcohol related aggression in the ED. In this first paper, we highlight the literatures discussion of alcohol related violence in the emergency department and the potential psychological effects of alcohol intoxication. In the second we offer personal and organisational strategies clinical nursing staff may consider appropriate to minimise the risk of assault when caring for service users projecting alcohol related aggression.
Wiers, Reinout W; Stacy, Alan W
Moss and Albery presented a dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link, integrating alcohol expectancy and alcohol myopia theory. Their integrative theory rests on a number of assumptions including, first, that alcohol expectancies are associations that can be activated automatically by an alcohol-relevant context, and second, that alcohol selectively reduces propositional reasoning. As a result, behavior comes under the control of associative processes after alcohol consumption. We agree with the second but not with the first assumption, based on theoretical and empirical arguments. Although in some cases expectancies may involve a simple association, they are propositional in nature. We demonstrate that this assertion is supported by existing literature cited in Moss and Albery. Moreover, 6 recent studies consistently demonstrated that under circumstances in which executive control is impaired (either as a stable individual difference or under the acute influence of alcohol), associative processes, over and above expectancies, predict alcohol-related behavior. Taken together, the evidence strongly suggests a fundamental distinction between expectancies and associations in memory: Effects of propositional expectancies and executive functions are impaired under the acute influence of alcohol, but memory associations are not. This difference in perspective not only has theoretical implications but also leads to different predictions regarding acute alcohol effects in society.
Fell, James C; Voas, Robert B
The National Transportation Safety Board recently recommended that states establish a per se blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit of 0.05 or lower for all drivers who are not already required to adhere to lower BAC limits in a national effort to reduce alcohol-impaired driving. There is strong evidence for adopting this recommendation. A comprehensive review of the literature on BAC limits was conducted. The research indicates that virtually all drivers are impaired regarding at least some driving performance measures at a 0.05 BAC. The risk of being involved in a crash increases significantly at 0.05 BAC and above. The relative risk of being killed in a single-vehicle crash with BACs of 0.05-0.079 is 7-21 times higher than for drivers at 0.00 BAC. Lowering the BAC limit from 0.08 to 0.05 has been a proven effective countermeasure in numerous countries around the world. Most Americans do not believe a person should drive after having two or three drinks in 2 hours. It takes at least four drinks for the average 170-pound male to exceed 0.05 BAC in 2 hours (three drinks for the 137-pound female). Most industrialized nations have established a 0.05 BAC limit or lower for driving. Progress in reducing the proportion of drivers in fatal crashes with illegal BACs has stalled over the past 15 years. Lowering the BAC limit for driving from the current 0.08 to 0.05 has substantial potential to reduce the number of people who drink and drive in the United States and get involved in fatal crashes.
... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...
Chafetz, Morris E.
It is estimated that 29 million American children have alcoholic parents. The author documents the unstable environment and psychological consequences suffered by these children, who are at great risk to become alcoholics themselves. (Editor)
... resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon Family Groups -- www.al-anon. ... exposures to the fetus. In: Martin RJ, Fanaroff AA, Walsh MC, eds. Fanaroff and Martin's Neonatal-Perinatal ...
... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...
Helzer, John E.
Reviews the application of epidemiology to alcoholism. Discusses measurement and diagnostic issues and reviews studies of the prevalence of alcoholism, its risk factors, and the contributions of epidemiology to our knowledge of treatment and prevention. (Author/KS)
... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...
Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults ... children less than 6 months of age. Benzyl alcohol is in a class of medications called pediculicides. ...
Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.
Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042
Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval
This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender.
Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li
One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures. PMID:24608749
Introduction The potential of alcohol withdrawal to cause acute coronary events is an area that needs the urgent attention of clinicians and researchers. Case presentation We report the case of a 52-year-old heavy-alcohol-using Sri Lankan man who developed electocardiogram changes suggestive of an acute coronary event during alcohol withdrawal. Despite the patient being asymptomatic, subsequent echocardiogram showed evidence of ischemic myocardial dysfunction. We review the literature on precipitation of myocardial ischemia during alcohol withdrawal and propose possible mechanisms. Conclusions Alcohol withdrawal is a commonly observed phenomenon in hospitals. However, the number of cases reported in the literature of acute coronary events occurring during withdrawal is few. Many cases of acute ischemia or sudden cardiac deaths may be attributed to other well known complications of delirium tremens. This is an area needing the urgent attention of clinicians and epidemiologists. PMID:21838872
Ostrowsky, Michael K
This review makes four contributions to the sociological study of sports fans, alcohol use, and violent behavior. First, this article focuses explicitly on the relationship between alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. This is a worldwide social problem, yet it is quite understudied. Second, this article synthesizes the fragmented literature on alcohol use and violent behavior among sports fans. Third, this article identifies four broad sets of risk factors-sociocultural, event/venue, police, and crowd-that appear to be closely related to violent behavior among sports fans. Finally, to help explain the possible correlation between alcohol and violence among sports fans, this article draws upon the key understandings from the literature on alcohol and violence in wider society. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
Kawase, T.; Sawai, K.
A new distillation equipment for alcohol which consists mainly of a brief concentrating column a, a concentrating column b, a compressor C to compress alcohol vapor generated in column B and water evaporator D heated by the compressed alcohol vapor is developed and this especially fits for a distillation source of a glue like solution obtained by alcohol fermentation because steam generated in the water evaporator D is directly blown into the solution in the concentrating column A.
Alcohol/water mixtures, such as those produced by fermentation of biomass material, are separated by extraction of alcohol with a solvent especially suited to such extraction and to subsequent removal. Conventional distillation steps to concentrate alcohol and eliminate water are rendered unnecessary at a considerable reduction in heat energy requirement (Usually met with fossil fuel). Addition of gasoline between the solvent extraction and solvent recovery steps not only aids the latter separation but produces alcohol already denatured for fuel use.
De Sousa, Avinash
Alcohol dependence is a major health problem worldwide. Various pharmacological agents have been used in the management of alcohol dependence. This review looks at the role of topiramate and other anticonvulsants in the management of alcohol dependence. Topiramate is the most widely used anticonvulsant in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The literature on topiramate is reviewed and critically analyzed, along with its proposed mechanism of action in alcohol dependence. A review of data available on other anticonvulsants like carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate, gabapentin and levetiracetam are presented and their potential in the treatment of alcohol dependence is considered, together with future research directions.
Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787
Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…
Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J
Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States.
Covington, Stephanie S.
There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…
Gress, James R.
Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…
Schuckit, Marc A.
Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…
... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...
Reviews the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive responding. From experimental studies that use human subjects, it is concluded that a moderate dose of alcohol does not increase aggression if subjects are unprovoked. Under provocative situations, aggression is increased as a function of alcohol intoxication, provided that subjects are restricted…
This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…
Katz, Claudia Anne; Kuby, Sue Ann
Describes the use of literature circles, a student-led reading and discussion method that encourages students to see stories in various ways. Explains the student selection of titles, roles of group members, and collaborative projects that complete the activity. (LRW)
Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.
The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through…
Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…
Rhoades, Ellen A.
The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…
Plattor, Emma E.
An effective way to teach literature to students accustomed to electronic media is to use prose and poetry as raw materials for the production of photography projects that translate print into more familiar and exciting forms. Studies confirm that "visual literacy" should be an important part of a modern student's education. "Picture reading," an…
Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y
Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Alcohol is widely consumed; however, excessive use creates serious physical, psychological and social problems and contributes to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Alcohol use disorders (that is, alcohol dependence and alcohol abuse) are maladaptive patterns of excessive drinking that lead to serious problems. Abundant evidence indicates that alcohol dependence (alcoholism) is a complex genetic disease, with variations in a large number of genes affecting a person's risk of alcoholism. Some of these genes have been identified, including two genes involved in the metabolism of alcohol (ADH1B and ALDH2) that have the strongest known affects on the risk of alcoholism. Studies continue to reveal other genes in which variants affect the risk of alcoholism or related traits, including GABRA2, CHRM2, KCNJ6 and AUTS2. As more variants are analysed and studies are combined for meta-analysis to achieve increased sample sizes, an improved picture of the many genes and pathways that affect the risk of alcoholism will be possible.
Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali
Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334
Dwyer, Stephen F.
Typical engineering methods utilized to calculate stresses on a roof structure involve simplifying assumptions that render a complex non-linear structure a simple and basic determinate beam. That is, instead of considering the composite action of the entire roof structure, the engineer evaluates only a single beam that is deemed conservatively to represent an affected rafter or top chord of a truss. This simplification based on assumptions of a complex problem is where significant conservatism can be introduced. Empirical data will be developed to evaluate this issue. Simple wood beams will be tested to failure. More complex and complete sections of roof structures that include composite action will also be tested to failure. The results can then be compared. An initial step in this process involves a literature review of any work that has been performed on roof structure composite action. The following section summarizes the literature review that was completed.
Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen
BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803
Mellos, Eleftherios; Liappas, Ioannis; Paparrigopoulos, Thomas
There is high comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mood, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders. Personality disorders, in particular, are considered to be an important contributing and/or predisposing factor in the pathogenesis, clinical course and treatment outcome of alcohol dependence. According to clinical and epidemiological studies, the prevalence of personality disorders in alcoholism ranges from as low as 22-40% to as high as 58-78%. The literature has focused primarily on antisocial and borderline personality disorders; however, almost the whole spectrum of personality disorders can be encountered in alcohol dependence, such as the dependent, avoidant, paranoid and others. A number of factors, such as sampling methods, diagnostic criteria used or assessment procedures applied, may explain this wide variation. The quest of a distinct 'alcoholic personality' dates from the first half of the 20th century but failed to reveal consistent and strong substantiation. However, renewed efforts provided evidence for the importance of impulsivity/ disinhibition and neuroticism/negative affectivity in the development of alcohol dependence; the role of other personality traits such as extraversion/sociability is still unclear. These findings led to a number of typologies, some of the most popular and influential being those of Cloninger, Babor, and Lesch.
Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep
Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired
Inglis, Timothy J. J.; Urosevic, Nadia
The United Nations General Assembly debate on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) recognizes the global significance of AMR. Much work needs to be done on technology capability and capacity to convert the strategic intent of the debate into operational plans and tangible outcomes. Enhancement of the biomedical science–clinician interface requires better exploitation of systems biology tools for in-laboratory and point of care methods that detect sepsis and characterize AMR. These need to link sepsis and AMR data with responsive, real-time surveillance. We propose an AMR sepsis register, similar in concept to a cancer registry, to aid coordination of AMR countermeasures. PMID:28220145
Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc
We study the propagation of cascading failures in complex supply networks with a focus on nonlocal effects occurring far away from the initial failure. It is shown that a high clustering and a small average path length of a network generally suppress nonlocal overloads. These properties are typical for many real-world networks, often called small-world networks, such that cascades propagate mostly locally in these networks. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial aspects of countermeasures based on the intentional removal of additional edges. Nonlocal actions are generally required in networks that have a low redundancy and are thus especially vulnerable to cascades.
Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira
Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises.
Lacewell, Alisha N; Buck, Tahisha M; Romero, Steven A; Halliwill, John R
Altered systemic haemodynamics following exercise can compromise cerebral perfusion and result in syncope. As the Wingate anaerobic test often induces presyncope, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test could form the basis of a novel model for the study of postexercise syncope and a test bed for potential countermeasures. Along these lines, breathing through an impedance threshold device has been shown to increase tolerance to hypovolaemia, and could prove beneficial in the setting of postexercise syncope. Therefore, we hypothesized that a modified Wingate test followed by head-up tilt would produce postexercise syncope, and that breathing through an impedance threshold device (countermeasure) would prevent postexercise syncope in healthy individuals. Nineteen recreationally active men and women underwent a 60 deg head-up tilt during recovery from the Wingate test while arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2 and cerebral tissue oxygenation were measured on a control day and a countermeasure day. The duration of tolerable tilt was increased by a median time of 3 min 48 s with countermeasure in comparison to the control (P < 0.05), and completion of the tilt test increased from 42 to 67% with the countermeasure. During the tilt, mean arterial pressure was greater (108.0 ± 4.1 versus 100.4 ± 2.4 mmHg; P < 0.05) with the countermeasure in comparison to the control. These data suggest that the Wingate syncope test produces a high incidence of presyncope, which is sensitive to countermeasures such as inspiratory impedance.
Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.
A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.
Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen
Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024
Hufford, M R
Alcohol dependence and alcohol intoxication are important risk factors for suicidal behavior. However, the mechanism for the relationship remains unclear. This review presents a conceptual framework relating alcohol to suicidal behavior. Distal risk factors create a statistical potential for suicide. Alcohol dependence, as well as associated comorbid psychopathology and negative life events, act as distal risk factors for suicidal behavior. Proximal risk factors determine the timing of suicidal behavior by translating the statistical potential of distal risk factors into action. The acute effects of alcohol intoxication act as important proximal risk factors for suicidal behavior among the alcoholic and nonalcoholic alike. Mechanisms responsible for alcohol's ability to increase the proximal risk for suicidal behavior include alcohol's ability to: (1) increase psychological distress, (2) increase aggressiveness, (3) propel suicidal ideation into action through suicide-specific alcohol expectancies, and (4) constrict cognition which impairs the generation and implementation of alternative coping strategies. Moreover, the proximal risk factors associated with acute intoxication are consistent with Baumeister's (1990) escape theory of suicide. Suggestions for additional research are discussed, including the possibility that a nonlinear cusp catastrophe model characterizes the relationship between alcohol intoxication and suicidal behavior.
Schuckit, M A; Li, T K; Cloninger, C R; Deitrich, R A
Great progress has been made by research on the contribution genetic factors make to a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Animal studies have demonstrated the importance of genetics in ethanol preference and levels of consumption, and human family, twin, and adoption research have revealed a 4-fold higher risk for offspring of alcoholics, even if they were adopted out at birth. The work presented in this symposium reviews the ongoing search for genetic trait markers of a vulnerability toward alcoholism. Dr. Li has used both animal and human research to demonstrate the possible importance of the genetic control of enzymes involved in ethanol metabolism and has worked to help develop an animal model of alcoholism. The possible importance of subgroups with different levels of predisposition toward alcoholism is emphasized by Dr. Cloninger. An overview of the studies of sons of alcoholics, given by Dr. Schuckit, reveals the potential importance of a decreased intensity of reaction to ethanol as part of a predisposition toward alcoholism and discusses the possible impact of some brain waves and ethanol metabolites to an alcoholism vulnerability. Dr. Deitrich reviews interrelationships between studies of animals and humans in the search for factors involved in a genetic vulnerability toward alcoholism. Taken together, these presentations underscore the importance of genetic factors in alcoholism, review animal and human research attempting to identify markers of a vulnerability, and reveal the high level of interaction between human and animal research.
Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.
Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…
Brown, Sandra A.; And Others
Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…
Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.
Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.
Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.
Webster, L.; Chen, J. G.; Flores, L.; Tan, S.
Exercise will be used primarily to countermeasure against deconditioning on extended space flight. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an expert system for exercise countermeasure protocol management. Currently, the system includes two major subsystems: baseline prescription and prescription adjustment. The baseline prescription subsystem is designed to provide initial exercise prescriptions while prescription adjustment subsystem is designed to modify the initial prescription based on the exercised progress. The system runs under three different environments: PC, SUN workstation, and Symbolic machine. The inference engine, baseline prescription module, prescription adjustment module and explanation module are developed under the Symbolic environment by using the ART (Automated Reasoning Tool) software. The Sun environment handles database management features and interfaces with PC environment to obtain physical and physiological data from exercise units on-board during the flight. Eight subjects' data have been used to evaluate the system performance by comparing the prescription of nine experienced exercise physiologists and the one prescribed by the expert system. The results of the validation test indicated that the performance of the expert system was acceptable.
Torok, Natalie J
Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%-50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies.
Macintyre, Kate; Bloss, Emily
Countries in much of Africa are struggling with large tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. Although the treatment programs are being implemented as well as the many constraints allow, more prevention of TB is needed. Based on literature on alcohol and TB, and observations and case studies, we consider one potential area for intervention might be the popular and ubiquitous small bars and beer huts in many towns and cities. In these usually poverty-ridden sites, with their densely packed clientele, large amounts of alcohol are consumed often by those with compromised immune systems who are at risk of acquiring the disease. The alcohol brewers-called Mama Pimas (from kupima, to measure, in Kiswahili) in Kenya-are the subject of this editorial. We look at the risks and potential benefits of reaching these women. Medical anthropologists are needed to help provide better evidence for TB prevention programs.
Vallee, B L
The role of ethanol in the history of human development is here summarized under seven topics: I. Alcohol: the substitute for water as the major human beverage; II. Alcohol as a component of the diet and source of calories; III. Alcohol, concentration by distillation; IV. The Reformation, Temperance and Prohibition; V. Potable nonalcoholic beverages: Boiled water (coffee, tea); VI. Purification and sanitation of water; VII. The present and future.
Wilsnack, Richard W; Wilsnack, Sharon C
Clinicians should periodically assess their menopausal patients' alcohol use. Specific health hazards from excessive alcohol consumption, as well as potential benefits of low-level consumption (for cardiovascular disease, bone health, and type 2 diabetes), should be discussed with their patients who drink. The information in this Practice Pearl can help clinicians provide evidence-based guidance about alcohol consumption and its relationship to common health concerns.
Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J
Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice.
In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…
... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...
a series of experimentscarbon granules were slurred with a solution of sodium nitrate and the slurry dried. The resultant mixture, cast into cakes 2... granules impregnated with an oxidizing agent and ig- nited either by a burster charge or, if necessary, by some spontaneously inflammable material...coating the granules . The number of canisters for each application of the countermeasure depends on the size of the ship to be protected. PROBLEM STATUS
Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen
Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188
Tan, Jianhua; Sheng, Zhichong
Based on analyzing the regional character of higher vocational graduates employment, this paper analyzes the reasons for this employment trend, advances relevant countermeasures for employment of higher vocational graduates, and explores the direction for higher vocational graduates employment.
Radiation exposure represents a serious hindrance for long-term interplanetary missions because of the high uncertainty on risk coefficients, and to the lack of simple countermeasures. Even if uncertainties in risk assessment will be reduced in the next few years, there is little doubt that appropriate countermeasures have to be taken to reduce the exposure or the biological damage produced by cosmic radiation. In addition, it is necessary to provide effective countermeasures against solar particle events, which can produce acute effects, even life threatening, for inadequately protected crews. Strategies that may prove to be effective in reducing exposure, or the effects of the irradiation, include shielding, administration of drugs or dietary supplements to reduce the radiation effects, crew selection based on a screening of individual radiation sensitivity. It is foreseeable that research in passive and active radiation shielding, radioprotective chemicals, and individual susceptibility will boost in the next years to provide efficient countermeasures to the space radiation threat.
Walsh, K.; Alexander, G.
Alcohol is a major cause of liver cirrhosis in the Western world and accounts for the majority of cases of liver cirrhosis seen in district general hospitals in the UK. The three most widely recognised forms of alcoholic liver disease are alcoholic fatty liver (steatosis), acute alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis. The exact pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury is still not clear but immune mediated and free radical hepatic injury are thought to be important. There is increasing interest in genetic factors predisposing to hepatic injury in susceptible individuals. Diagnosis is based on accurate history, raised serum markers such as γ-glutamyltransferase, mean corpuscular volume, and IgA and liver histology when obtainable. Abstinence is the most important aspect of treatment. Newer drugs such as acamprosate and naltrexone are used to reduce alcohol craving. Vitamin supplements and nutrition are vital while corticosteroids have a role in acute alcoholic hepatitis where there is no evidence of gastrointestinal haemorrhage or sepsis. Liver transplantation has excellent results in abstinent patients with end stage liver disease but there are concerns about recidivism after transplant. Keywords: cirrhosis; liver disease; alcohol PMID:10775280
Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah K; Reyna, Valerie F; Marchell, Timothy C; Frank, Jeremy; Ives, Stephanie
This research extends the growing literature about online alcohol prevention programs for first-year college students. Two independent randomized control studies, conducted at separate universities, evaluated the short-term effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise, an online alcohol prevention program not previously studied. It was hypothesized the prevention program would increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol consumption, including high-risk alcohol-related behaviors, among first-year college students. At both universities, the intervention significantly increased alcohol-related knowledge. At one university, the prevention program also significantly reduced alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking behaviors, such as playing drinking games, heavy drinking, and extreme ritualistic alcohol consumption. Implications for the use of online alcohol prevention programs and student affairs are discussed.
Mine Countermeasures 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Malcolm H. Potts , LCDR, USN 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...DEDICATED SEA MINE COUNTERMEASURES by Malcolm H. Potts LCDR, United States Navy A paper submitted to the Faculty of the Joint Advanced...covertly seeded with a mix of acoustic and contact sea mines, many of which are mal -deployed and became near surface floating explosives. This
Bailly, Matthew D; King, Alan R
Modest alcohol and aggressive trait effects on laboratory-induced aggression among men have been reported with some consistency in the literature. Relationships between aggressive personality traits and laboratory-induced aggression appear to become less consistent under the influence of alcohol. Several research teams have found suggestions that the effects of alcohol on laboratory aggression may be reduced or even reversed among individuals with aggressive personality traits. This study examined the effects of alcohol on the aggressive responding on the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) of eight undergraduate men who generated evidence on the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (MCMI-II) of sadistic-aggressive personality disorder features. This sample was compared with a group of 18 undergraduate male peers without MCMI-II elevations described in a previous study. Neither alcohol ingestion (0.8 ml/kg) nor aggressive personality traits predicted laboratory behavior in isolation, but alcohol was found to selectively attenuate (d = 0.75) PSAP responding for the sadistic-aggressive as opposed to the control subjects (i.e., a significant aggressive trait by alcohol interaction). The possible value of this counterintuitive response tendency in identifying men at elevated risk for alcohol-related aggression was discussed. Large, immediate reductions in laboratory-based aggressive responding while under the influence of alcohol might provide a paradoxical high risk indicator that has not been previously identified.
Clugston, Robin D.; Blaner, William S.
The objective of this review is to explore the relationship between alcohol and the metabolism of the essential micronutrient, vitamin A; as well as the impact this interaction has on alcohol-induced disease in adults. Depleted hepatic vitamin A content has been reported in human alcoholics, an observation that has been confirmed in animal models of chronic alcohol consumption. Indeed, alcohol consumption has been associated with declines in hepatic levels of retinol (vitamin A), as well as retinyl ester and retinoic acid; collectively referred to as retinoids. Through the use of animal models, the complex interplay between alcohol metabolism and vitamin A homeostasis has been studied; the reviewed research supports the notion that chronic alcohol consumption precipitates a decline in hepatic retinoid levels through increased breakdown, as well as increased export to extra-hepatic tissues. While the precise biochemical mechanisms governing alcohol’s effect remain to be elucidated, its profound effect on hepatic retinoid status is irrefutable. In addition to a review of the literature related to studies on tissue retinoid levels and the metabolic interactions between alcohol and retinoids, the significance of altered hepatic retinoid metabolism in the context of alcoholic liver disease is also considered. PMID:22690322
Bien, T H; Miller, W R; Tonigan, J S
Relatively brief interventions have consistently been found to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption or achieving treatment referral of problem drinkers. To date, the literature includes at least a dozen randomized trials of brief referral or retention procedures, and 32 controlled studies of brief interventions targeting drinking behavior, enrolling over 6000 problem drinkers in both health care and treatment settings across 14 nations. These studies indicate that brief interventions are more effective than no counseling, and often as effective as more extensive treatment. The outcome literature is reviewed, and common motivational elements of effective brief interventions are described. There is encouraging evidence that the course of harmful alcohol use can be effectively altered by well-designed intervention strategies which are feasible within relatively brief-contact contexts such as primary health care settings and employee assistance programs. Implications for future research and practice are considered.
Kim, Oksoo; Park, Kyungil
The study investigated prenatal alcohol consumption and knowledge of alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among Korean women. The participants were 221 Korean women who attended the post-partum care centers in Seoul, Korea. The data included the participants' background characteristics, quantity-frequency typology, Student Alcohol Questionnaire, and a scale on the participants' knowledge of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alcohol was consumed during pregnancy by 12.7% of the participants. Of these, 60.7% drank alcohol with their spouse. A few participants reported that nurses identified their drinking habits and gave them information on alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. Most of the participants did not have the opportunity for prenatal counseling about fetal alcohol syndrome. The knowledge level regarding alcohol risks and fetal alcohol syndrome among the participants was poor. Alcohol consumption before pregnancy was significantly related to prenatal alcohol consumption. Prenatal alcohol consumption was not related to knowledge about alcohol consumption and fetal alcohol syndrome. The assessment of alcohol consumption and counseling about alcohol are needed for pregnant women in order to prevent fetal alcohol syndrome.
... events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community Join the ... Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn more about ...
Attwood, Angela S; Munafò, Marcus R
The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature.
Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris
It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode.
Foltran, Francesca; Gregori, Dario; Franchin, Laura; Verduci, Elvira; Giovannini, Marcello
The effects of alcohol consumption in adults are well described in the literature, while knowledge about the effects of alcohol consumption in children is more limited and less systematic. The present review shows how alcohol consumption may negatively influence the neurobiological and neurobehavioral development of humans. Three different periods of life have been considered: the prenatal term, childhood, and adolescence. For each period, evidence of the short-term and long-term effects of alcohol consumption, including neurodevelopmental effects and associations with subsequent alcohol abuse or dependence, is presented.
This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment
McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J
The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising.
Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron
Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy.
Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael
Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…
Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.
Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)
Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…
The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…
Compared characteristics of female alcoholics receiving treatment with those of male alcoholics. Found male subjects had more psychosocial problems and had more contact with the child welfare authorities during their childhood than did the females. However, the females' offspring had had more such contact than the males' offspring. Socioeconomic…
... with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single mixed drink could contain much ...
Davidson, D M
The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174
Zoric, J P
Environmental Protection Agency regulations 40 CFR Part 112, Oil Pollution Prevention,'' include requirements for a written Oil Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan. This document provides such an SPCC Plan for facilities at 100-N Area managed by Westinghouse Hanford Co. Should an oil spill occur at 100-N Area, the following actions should be followed: stop the flow of oil, contain the oil spill in order to prevent it from reaching the river, and notify Environmental Protection. Environmental Protection will assess the oil spill and determine if remedial action is necessary. If needed, an oil spill response team will deploy oil spill control and clean-up equipment at the river shoreline to remove any oil that enters the river.
Laycock, D. E.
Some efforts in the development of a multistage depressed collector (MSDC) are reviewed. The MSDC is to operate in an electronic countermeasure system (ECM) with minimum overall efficiency in the range 35 to 50%. The effects of interception, harmonic output, and skin effect losses on the design of high-efficiency tubes with a MSDC are briefly discussed. Future experimental work will attempt to put a multistage depressed collector on a 400-watt CW 4.8 to 9.6-GHz helix TWT. By using a unique valve assembly, different collector configurations can be tested while maintaining the circuit under vacuum. The work will determine the sensitivity of overall tube efficiency to the number of collector, length of the collector, aperture size, and plate angle.
Convertino, Victor A.
The paper reviews data obtained at the Human Life Sciences Research Program at the Kennedy Space Center on the structural and functional characteristics of the human muscle and on the effects of simulated microgravity (head-down bed rest) and exercise on the muscle. It is shown that prolonged exposure to microgravity induced ultrastructural abnormalities and the atrophy of muscle and impaired muscle functioning (especially upon return to terrestrial gravity) and that ground-based models can be effectively used to study these changes. Results indicate that the incorporation of resistive exercise with a strong emphasis on the use of eccentric muscle action, in addition to concentric action, may provide a very effective countermeasure against muscle atrophy and dysfunction caused by long-duration exposures to microgravity.
Kennedy, Ann R.; Todd, Paul
Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. The major types of radiation considered to be of importance during space travel are protons and particles of high atomic number and high energy (HZE particles). It is now clear that biological countermeasures can be used to prevent or reduce the levels of biological consequences resulting from exposure to protons or HZE particles, including the induction of cancer, immunosuppression and neurological defects caused by these types of ionizing radiation. Research related to the dietary additions of agents to minimize the risks of developing health-related problems which can result from exposure to space radiations is reviewed.
... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...
Xiao, Mang; Whitnall, Mark H
The acute radiation syndrome (ARS) is defined as the signs and symptoms that occur within several months after exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). This syndrome develops after total- or partial-body irradiation at a relatively high dose (above about 1 Gy in humans) and dose rate. Normal tissue injuries induced by IR differ depending on the target organ and cell type. Organs and cells with high sensitivity to radiation include the skin, the hematopoietic system, the gut, the spermatogenic cells and the vascular system. Exposure to IR causes damage to DNA, protein, and lipids in mammalian cells, as well as increased mitochondria-dependent generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), with subsequent cell cycle checkpoint arrest, apoptosis, and stress-related responses. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are a primary lethal lesion induced by IR. The cellular response to damage is complex and relies on simultaneous activation of a number of signaling networks. Among these, the activation of DNA non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR), and signaling pathways containing ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), play important roles. The transcription factor NFkappaB has emerged as a pro-survival actor in response to IR in ATM and p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD) cascades. Although radiation-induced ARS has been well documented at the clinical level, and mechanistic information is accumulating, successful prophylaxis and treatment for ARS is problematic, even with the use of supportive care and growth factors. There is a pressing need to develop radiation countermeasures that can be used both in the clinic, for small-scale incidents, and outside the clinic, in mass casualty scenarios. In this review we summarize recent information on intracellular and extracellular signaling pathways relevant to radiation countermeasure research.
Bleich, S; Degner, D; Javaheripour, K; Kurth, C; Kornhuber, J
Chronic alcohol consumption can induce alterations in the function and morphology of most if not all brain systems and structures. However, the exact mechanism of brain damage in alcoholics remains unknown. Partial recovery of brain function with abstinence suggests that a proportion of the deficits must be functional in origin (i.e. plastic changes of nerve cells) while neuronal loss from selected brain regions indicates permanent and irreversible damage. There is growing evidence that chronic alcoholism is associated with a derangement in the sulfur amino acid metabolism. Recently, it has been shown that excitatory amino acid (EAA) neurotransmitters and homocysteine levels are elevated in patients who underwent withdrawal from alcohol. Furthermore, it has been found that homocysteine induces neuronal cell damage by stimulating NMDA receptors as well as by producing free radicals. Homocysteine neurotoxicity via overstimulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors may contribute to the pathogenesis of both brain shrinkage and withdrawal seizures linked to alcoholism.
Spengler, Erin K J; Dunkelberg, Jeffrey; Schey, Ron
Alcoholic hepatitis is an acute manifestation of alcoholic liver disease with mortality as high as 40-50% in severe cases. Patients usually have a history of prolonged alcohol abuse with or without a known history of liver disease. Although there is significant range in severity at presentation, patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis typically present with anorexia, fatigue, fever, jaundice, and ascites. The use of either pentoxifylline or corticosteroids in those with severe disease (Maddrey's discriminate function >32) has significant mortality benefit. The addition of N-acetylcysteine to corticosteroids decreases the incidences of hepatorenal syndrome, infection, and short-term mortality, but does not appear to significantly affect 6-month mortality. Nutritional support with high-calorie, high-protein diet is recommended in all patients screening positive for malnutrition. Liver transplantation for a highly selected group of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis may be an option in the future, but is not currently recommended or available at most transplant institutions.
Vargas, Divane de; Luis, Margarita Antonia Villar
The objective of this study was the construction and validation of a scale that would measure the attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and the alcoholic, called the Scale of Attitudes Towards Alcohol, Alcoholism and the Alcoholic. The face and content validations, as well as the factor analysis of the data obtained in a preliminary test with 144 nursing students resulted in a scale consisting of 96 items, divided into 5 factors: Attitudes towards the alcoholic person: care and interpersonal relations; Etiology; Disease; Repercussions deriving from alcohol use/abuse; Alcoholic beverages. The general scale presented a consistency level of 0.90. The resulting instrument is concluded to be a reliable tool to evaluate attitudes towards alcohol, alcoholism and alcohol addicts.
Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes
BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198
Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763
Srinivasan, R. S.; Simanonok, K. E.; Charles, J. B.
Fluid loading is a countermeasure currently in routine use to improve the g-tolerance of crewmembers during reentry and return of Shuttle flights. However, its effectiveness diminishes with mission duration. Countermeasures that will be effective on long-duration flights are needed and are presently under development. This paper discusses the application of computer simulation in the analysis of the effects of countermeasures for reentry orthostatic intolerance. The results suggest improvements upon the fluid loading countermeasure currently in use.
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...
Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G
The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study.
Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.
Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445
... relate to alcohol use. 1 Racial and Ethnic Minority Stress Stress also can arise as a result of a person’s minority status, especially as it pertains to prejudice and discrimination. Such stress may range from mild (e.g., hassles such ...
Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong
Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.
There is good though not conclusive evidence that a small to modest average daily intake of alcohol--that is, 20-30 g/day is associated with increased longevity due mainly to a reduction in death from cardiovascular disease. Larger average daily alcohol intakes--especially those in excess of 60 g/day for men and 40 g/day for women--are associated with gradually increasing morbidity and mortality rates from a variety of diseases. Alcohol may be unrecognised as the cause of somatic disease, which can occur without overt psychosocial evidence of alcohol abuse, unless the index of suspicion is high and a thorough drink history obtained. Laboratory tests for the detection and/or confirmation of alcohol abuse are useful but subject to serious limitations being neither as sensitive nor specific as sometimes believed. The value of random blood and/or breath alcohol measurements, in outpatients, as an aid to diagnosis of alcohol-induced organic disease is probably not sufficiently appreciated and, though relatively insensitive, is highly specific. PMID:6339563
Oroszi, Gabor; Goldman, David
Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing/remitting disease that is frequently unrecognized and untreated, in part because of the partial efficacy of treatment. Only approximately one-third of patients remain abstinent and one-third have fully relapsed 1 year after withdrawal from alcohol, with treated patients doing substantially better than untreated . The partial effectiveness of strategies for prevention and treatment, and variation in clinical course and side effects, represent a challenge and an opportunity to better understand the neurobiology of addiction. The strong heritability of alcoholism suggests the existence of inherited functional variants of genes that alter the metabolism of alcohol and variants of other genes that alter the neurobiologies of reward, executive cognitive function, anxiety/dysphoria, and neuronal plasticity. Each of these neurobiologies has been identified as a critical domain in the addictions. Functional alleles that alter alcoholism-related intermediate phenotypes include common alcohol dehydrogenase 1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 variants that cause the aversive flushing reaction; catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met leading to differences in three aspects of neurobiology: executive cognitive function, stress/anxiety response, and opioid function; opioid receptor micro1 (OPRM1) Asn40Asp, which may serve as a gatekeeper molecule in the action of naltrexone, a drug used in alcoholism treatment; and HTTLPR, which alters serotonin transporter function and appears to affect stress response and anxiety/dysphoria, which are factors relevant to initial vulnerability, the process of addiction, and relapse.
Hillmer, Ansel T.; Mason, Graeme F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.
Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper we review the research generated from neurochemical-specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, e.g., sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Heterogeneity in the clinical symptoms of alcohol abuse was examined in 243 men and 305 women from families of hospitalized alcoholics, who had demonstrated different patterns of inheritance of susceptibility to alcoholism. Discriminant analysis was utilized to identify nine alcoholic symptoms that distinguished male relatives of alcoholic men from those of alcoholic women. Inability to abstain from alcohol, fighting and reckless driving while intoxicated, and alcohol treatment other than Alcoholics Anonymous were more prevalent in families of male probands. Male relatives of female probands experienced later onset of loss of control over drinking associated with benders, and cirrhosis and feelings of guilt. Female relatives of alcoholic men and women showed a marked predominance of the latter (Type 1) features, whereas male relatives had different clinical features, depending on the associated mode of inheritance.
Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros
A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the ‘regulatory pyramid’, alcohol being less regulated than tobacco. PMID:28118411
Martino, Florentine Petronella; Miller, Peter Graeme; Coomber, Kerri; Hancock, Linda; Kypri, Kypros
A growing body of literature points to the role of vested interests as a barrier to the implementation of effective public health policies. Corporate political activity by the alcohol industry is commonly used to influence policy and regulation. It is important for policy makers to be able to critique alcohol industry claims opposed to improved alcohol marketing regulation. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency reviewed alcohol marketing regulations in 2012 and stakeholders were invited to comment on them. In this study we used thematic analysis to examine submissions from the Australian alcohol industry, based on a system previously developed in relation to tobacco industry corporate political activity. The results show that submissions were a direct lobbying tactic, making claims to government that were contrary to the evidence-base. Five main frames were identified, in which the alcohol industry claimed that increased regulation: (1) is unnecessary; (2) is not backed up by sufficient evidence; (3) will lead to unintended negative consequences; and (4) faces legal barriers to implementation; underpinned by the view (5) that the industry consists of socially responsible companies working toward reducing harmful drinking. In contrast with tobacco industry submissions on public policy, which often focused on legal and economic barriers, the Australian alcohol industry placed a heavier emphasis on notions of regulatory redundancy and insufficient evidence. This may reflect differences in where these industries sit on the 'regulatory pyramid', alcohol being less regulated than tobacco.
S, P; S, A; H, A; M, J D; S, A; Foods, A; S, A; M, J D; S, A; Pharmaceuticals, B; Foods, A
the Firming of the Crumb of Bread', by E. M. A. Willhoft (Lyons Central Labs, 149 Hammersmith Rd., London W14), Chem. Ind. 8 (1970), 1017. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'De la rhéologie des systèmes aqueux à base de gommes', by R. A. Schutz (Mulhouse-Dornach, France), Stärke 22 (1970), 116-125. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'Chopin Teleplastometer Study of Dough Consistency, Preliminary Tests', by J. J. Etienne and M. Dubois (Lab. Grands Moulins, Bobigny, France), Bull. Anciens Elèves Ecole Franç. Meunerie, No. 236 (1970), 94-100. 3. Objdve Measurements: 'The Rheological Evaluation of Semisolids', by L. H. Block and P. P. Lamy (Duquesne Univ. Pittsburgh, and Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, Md., U. S. A.), J. Soc. Cosmet. Chem. 21 (1970), 645-660. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Comparison of Tennet Curd Tension with Undenatured Whey Protein as a Measure of Heat Treatment', by U. S. Ashworth and Joseph Nebe (Washington State Univ., Pullman, Wash. 99163, U. S. A.), J. Dairy Sci. 53 (1970), 415-419. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Gelation Temperatures of Starch as Influenced by Polyhydric and Monohydric Alcohols, Phenols, Carboxylic Acids and Some Other Additives', by S. Y. Gersma (Technical Univ. Delft, Julianalaan 67, Delft, Netherlands), Stärke 22 (1970), 3-9. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Disodium Dihydrogen Pyrophosphate Blanch and the Texture of French Fries', by A. S. Jaswal (Res. Prod. Counc., Frederickton, New Brunswick, Canada), Am. Potato J. 47 (5) (1970), 145-7. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Nonstarch Polysaccharides and the Texture of French Fried Potatoes', by A. S. Jaswal (Res. Prod. Counc., Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada), Am. Potato J. 47 (1970), 311-316. 4. Factors Affecting Texture: 'Food Processing Characteristics of Soybean 11S and 7S Proteins. I. Effect of Difference of Protein Components Among Soybean Varieties on Formation of Tofu-Gel', by K. Saio, M. Kamiya, and T. Watanabe (Food Res. Inst., Ministry of Agric. and Forestry, Japan), Agr. Biol. Chem
Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.
INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive
Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin
State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…
Newman, Victoria L; Romaine, Patricia LP; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M
Introduction Despite significant scientific advances over the past 60 years towards the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. A radiation countermeasure to protect the population at large from the effects of lethal radiation exposure remains a significant unmet medical need of the US citizenry and, thus, has been recognized as a high priority area by the government. Area covered This article reviews relevant publications and patents for recent developments and progress for potential ARS treatments in the area of radiation countermeasures. Emphasis is placed on the advanced development of existing agents since 2011 and new agents identified as radiation countermeasure for ARS during this period. Expert opinion A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently under development, seven of which have received US FDA investigational new drug status for clinical investigation. Four of these agents, CBLB502, Ex-RAD, HemaMax and OrbeShield, are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. G-CSF has high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the US FDA in the future. PMID:25315070
Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E
In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed.
Lu, Da-Li; Lin, Xiao-Ling
Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. PMID:27703363
Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Risser, Mark D.
Background Brief alcohol interventions are one approach for reducing drinking among youth, but may vary in effectiveness depending on the type of alcohol assessments used to measure effects. Objectives To conduct a meta-analysis that examined the effectiveness of brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults, with particular emphasis on exploring variability in effects across outcome measurement characteristics. Method Eligible studies were those using an experimental or quasi-experimental design to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention on a post-intervention alcohol use measure for youth ages 11–30. A comprehensive literature review identified 190 unique samples that were included in the meta-analysis. Taking a Bayesian approach, we used random-effects multilevel models to estimate the average effect and model variability across outcome measurement types. Results Brief alcohol interventions led to significant reductions in self-reported alcohol use among adolescents ( g¯ = 0.25, 95% CrI [0.13, 0.37]) and young adults ( g¯ = 0.15, 95% CrI [0.12, 0.18]). These results were consistent across outcomes with varying reference periods, but varied across outcome construct type and assessment instruments. Among adolescents, effects were larger when measured using the Timeline Followback; among young adults, effects were smaller when measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Conclusion The strength of the beneficial effects of brief alcohol interventions on youth’s alcohol use may vary depending upon the outcome measure utilized. Nevertheless, significant effects were observed across measures. Although effects were modest in size, they were clinically significant and show promise for interrupting problematic alcohol use trajectories among youth. PMID:26905387
Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M
With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the
... oral cavity (excluding the lips), pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box) ( 4 ). People who consume 50 or ... developing cancers of the oral cavity , pharynx (throat), larynx , and esophagus than people who use either alcohol ...
Martin, Susan E; Snyder, Leslie B; Hamilton, Mark; Fleming-Milici, Fran; Slater, Michael D; Stacy, Alan; Chen, Meng-Jinn; Grube, Joel W
This article presents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2001 Research Society on Alcoholism meeting in Montreal, Canada. The symposium was organized and chaired by Joel W. Grube. The presentations and presenters were (1) Introduction and background, by Susan E. Martin; (2) The effect of alcohol ads on youth 15-26 years old, by Leslie Snyder, Mark Hamilton, Fran Fleming-Milici, and Michael D. Slater; (3) A comparison of exposure to alcohol advertising and drinking behavior in elementary versus middle school children, by Phyllis L. Ellickson and Rebecca L. Collins; (4) USC health and advertising project: assessment study on alcohol advertisement memory and exposure, by Alan Stacy; and (5) TV beer and soft drink advertising: what young people like and what effects? by Meng-Jinn Chen and Joel W. Grube.
... eye on how drinking affects your eating habits. Calories and Portions Count So, how much can you ... dieting. Keep in mind that alcohol has empty calories. This means it has a lot of calories ( ...
Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642
... http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15201626 . Definitions Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): AUD is a medical ... or more days in the past month. NIAAA’s Definition of Drinking at Low Risk for Developing AUD: ...
McCullough, Brother Thomas
Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)
... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...
... as irreversible dementia, if not promptly treated. Birth defects. Alcohol use during pregnancy may cause miscarriage. It ... as depression or anxiety? Do you use recreational drugs? You're likely to start by seeing your ...
Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H
A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome?
Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis
Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445
genetically determined characteristics such as color blindness and blood type . GENETIC MARKER STUDIES In 1966 Dr. Cruz-Coke and Dr. Varela reported that...and recovery from severe alcoholism symptoms. ■:584-587) Blood - typing marker studies have produced similar mixed results. One study published in...1959 showed a high correlation among 939 alcoholics and blood type A. (20:4 60-4 61) A similar study in 1973 reported no blood type distribution
Cheremisinoff, N. P.; Cheremisinoff, P. N.
A review is provided of biomass and bioconversion technology literature, giving particular attention to gasohol and related fuels. Literature cited and reviewed covers a variety of subjects such as properties of biomass, overviews of bioconversion technologies, toxic and hazardous properties of alcohols, and sources of biomass. Source listings and selected abstracts are provided back to 1965. Both U.S. government reports and journal publications are listed. Foreign publications are also included. A listing is presented of both U.S. and foreign patents on various subjects related to bioconversion technology and gasohol production. Ethanol and methanol production is considered along with automotive and other fuel uses, the production of chemical feedstocks, and the economics of alcohol production.
Mick, Inge; Spring, Konstanze; Uhr, Manfred; Zimmermann, Ulrich S
Acute alcohol challenge studies in rodents and naturalistic observations in drinking alcoholics suggest that alcohol stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system. The literature on respective studies in healthy volunteers is more inconsistent, suggesting differential alcohol effects depending on dosage, recent drinking history, family history of alcoholism and alcohol-induced side effects. These papers and the putative pharmacologic mechanisms underlying alcohol effects on the HPA system are reviewed here and compared with a new study, in which we investigated how secretion of adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol is affected by ingestion of 0.6 g/kg ethanol in 33 young healthy socially drinking males with a paternal history of alcoholism (PHP) versus 30 family history negative (FHN) males. Alcohol and placebo were administered in a 2-day, double-blind, placebo controlled crossover design with randomized administration sequence. After administration of placebo, ACTH and cortisol decreased steadily over 130 minutes. In FHN subjects, secretion of both hormones was even more attenuated after alcohol, resulting in significantly lower levels compared with placebo. In PHP subjects, no alcohol effect on hormone secretion could be detected. The ratio of cortisol to ACTH secretion, each expressed as area under the secretion curve, was significantly increased by alcohol in FHN and PHP participants. These results argue against HPA stimulation being a mechanism that promotes the transition from moderate to dependent drinking. The fact that alcohol-induced HPA suppression was not detected in PHP males is consistent with the general concept that subjects at high risk for alcoholism exhibit less-pronounced alcohol effects.
Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei
Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks.
Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.
Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105
Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J
Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism.
Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda
Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…
Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.
In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…
Johnson, Carol L.; Lapadat, Judith C.
A survey of the research and practice literatures on learning disabilities and on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect revealed parallels in learning characteristics, as well as in the recommended interventions. Based on these parallels, an adolescent with Fetal Alcohol received intervention. Teaching strategies for students with learning disabilities…
Machell, David F.
This article creates a strong theoretical rationale in support of the concept of fellowship, the cornerstone healing influence of Alcoholic Anonymous (AA). It reviews the literature which supports the Alcoholic Anonymous' concept of fellowship or client perceived belongingness. It provides a strong rationale for the establishment of new…
Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.
Religiousness has consistently emerged in the literature as a protective factor for alcohol use. Relatively few studies have empirically explored possible mechanisms for this robust effect. The present study examines descriptive drinking norms as a potential mediator of the religiousness--alcohol consumption association. Consistent with the…
Johnson, Graham; Guha, Indra Neil
Objective To quantify James Bond’s consumption of alcohol as detailed in the series of novels by Ian Fleming. Design Retrospective literature review. Setting The study authors’ homes, in a comfy chair. Participants Commander James Bond, 007; Mr Ian Lancaster Fleming. Main outcome measures Weekly alcohol consumption by Commander Bond. Methods All 14 James Bond books were read by two of the authors. Contemporaneous notes were taken detailing every alcoholic drink taken. Predefined alcohol unit levels were used to calculate consumption. Days when Bond was unable to consume alcohol (such as through incarceration) were noted. Results After exclusion of days when Bond was unable to drink, his weekly alcohol consumption was 92 units a week, over four times the recommended amount. His maximum daily consumption was 49.8 units. He had only 12.5 alcohol free days out of 87.5 days on which he was able to drink. Conclusions James Bond’s level of alcohol intake puts him at high risk of multiple alcohol related diseases and an early death. The level of functioning as displayed in the books is inconsistent with the physical, mental, and indeed sexual functioning expected from someone drinking this much alcohol. We advise an immediate referral for further assessment and treatment, a reduction in alcohol consumption to safe levels, and suspect that the famous catchphrase “shaken, not stirred” could be because of alcohol induced tremor affecting his hands. PMID:24336307
Ricci, Lidia; Pelosi, Marcello; Ricci, Serafino
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a cause of high risk for morbidity and mortality. It has been debated in alcoholic cirrhosis, if alcohol exerts an exclusive and causal role upon gastropathy or whether it is linked to cirrhotic portal hypertension. The authors describe an autopsy report regarding mortality caused by gastric bleeding in a 53-year-old patient who suffered from cirrhosis. Literature has evidence of direct, marked damage of alcohol upon the gastric mucosa and there is noteworthy statistical data implying the revaluation of the pathogenesis of the bleeding. PMID:27504310
Brondum, Matthew C; Collier, Zachary A; Luke, Christopher S; Goatcher, Buddy L; Linkov, Igor
Wild pigs are a widespread invasive species that pose significant environmental and social risks. A number of wild pig eradication and control measures exist, but many eradication campaigns are ultimately unsuccessful. Decision making regarding how to design and execute an eradication plan is difficult because of multiple costs and benefits spanning various decision criteria that are associated with different eradication and control countermeasures. Moreover, multiple stakeholders are often involved with differing and sometimes competing objectives, and wild pigs are adaptive adversaries, meaning that the ideal countermeasure may change over time. In this paper, we propose the use of formal decision analytic tools which can structure decision problems into a set of relevant criteria, countermeasures, and stakeholder preferences to facilitate the evaluation of tradeoffs. We operationalize this method in a simple Excel-based decision tool and conclude with a path forward regarding how to successfully implement such tools for effective wild pig control.
Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth
Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented.
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill
Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests
Antonutto, G; di Prampero, P E
Microgravity is an extreme environment inducing relevant adaptive changes in the human body, especially after prolonged periods of exposure. Since the early sixties, numerous studies on the effects of microgravity, during manned Space flights, have produced an increasing amount of information concerning its physiological effects, globally defined "deconditioning". Microgravity deconditioning of the cardiovascular system (CVD) is briefly reviewed. It consists of: (1) a decrease of circulating blood and interstitial fluid volumes, (2) a decrease of arterial blood diastolic pressure, (3) a decrease of ventricular stroke volume, (4) a decrease of the estimated left ventricular mass and (5) resetting of the carotid baroreceptors. The negative effects of microgravity deconditioning manifest themselves mostly upon the reentry to Earth. They consist mainly of: (1) dizziness, (2) increased heart rate and heart palpitations, (3) an inability to assume the standing position (orthostatic intolerance), (4) pre-syncopal feelings due to postural stress and (5) reduced exercise capacity. To avoid these drawbacks several countermeasures have been proposed; they will be briefly mentioned with emphasis on the "Twin Bikes System" (TBS). This consists of two coupled bicycles operated by astronauts and counter-rotating along the inner wall of a cylindrical Space module, thus generating a centrifugal force vector, mimicking gravity.
Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla
Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.
Gilligan, S B; Reich, T; Cloninger, C R
Etiologic heterogeneity in alcohol abuse was evaluated in 195 extended pedigrees, comprising 288 nuclear families of 140 male and 55 female Caucasian American hospitalized alcoholics. Previous adoption studies in Sweden demonstrated differential heritability of two patterns of alcohol abuse in men: type-2 alcoholism exhibited early onset of abuse associated with criminal behavior, while type-1 abuse began at a later age, uncomplicated by antisocial traits. Alcohol abuse in female Swedish adoptees was relatively homogeneous and similar to the late-onset, type-1 abuse. The notion of etiologic heterogeneity, as suggested by the Stockholm Adoption Studies, was examined in the American pedigrees by contrasting the models of familial transmission of susceptibility to alcoholism obtained via segregation analyses of families of male versus female probands. Families of male probands demonstrated significant familial resemblance, accounted for by a multifactorial-polygenic background in addition to a major (gene) effect. In contrast, familial resemblance in the pedigrees of female probands was attributed solely to a multifactorial-polygenic effect. We considered whether some families of male alcoholics were similar to families of female probands, who expressed type-1 abuse predominantly. Pedigrees of male probands were separated in two groups: (1) "female-like" families had a better likelihood for the model obtained for families of female probands than the one for families of all male probands, (2) "male-like" families had a better likelihood for the model of familial transmission describing families of all male probands. A statistically significant difference in the pattern of familial transmission was observed between the "male-like" and "female-like" groups. Discriminant function analysis of alcohol-related symptoms showed that the familial subtypes differed in clinical features as well. Alcohol abuse by male relatives in "male-like" families was characterized by the
Jenkins, Lyle M.
Environmental countermeasures for preventing the negative effects of global climate change and ozone depletion are discussed with special emphasis on the possibilities of space-based actions. Among the programs addressed are the Mission to Planet Earth, the Solar Power Satellite (and linkage to the Space Exploration Initiative), and proposed projects such as a lunar-based power generator that utilizes He-3 as a fusion fuel when combined with deuterium. The concept of regional working groups is proposed for initiating the programs for effective countermeasures.
Ebert, Douglas; Macias, Brandon; Sargsyan, Ashot; Garcia, Kathleen; Stenger, Michael; Hargens, Alan; Johnston, Smith; Kemp, David; Danielson, Richard
Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure.
Ebert, D.; Macias, B.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Stenger, M.; Kemp, D.; Hargens, A.; Johnston, S.
Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs (Braslets) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; Chibis) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure.
Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.
Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094
Kachadourian, Lorig K; Homish, Gregory G; Quigley, Brian M; Leonard, Kenneth E
The direct and interactive effects of alcohol expectancies for aggression, dispositional hostility, and heavy alcohol consumption on alcohol-related physical aggression were examined across the first four years of marriage in a sample of 634 newlywed couples. For husbands, alcohol aggression expectancies predicted increases in alcohol-related aggression; across husbands and wives, however, aggression expectancies were not found to interact with hostility or alcohol consumption to predict physical aggression. Consistent with previous research, hostility and alcohol consumption interacted with each other to predict alcohol-related aggression. Specifically, for both husbands and wives high in dispositional hostility, heavy alcohol consumption was positively associated with the occurrence of alcohol-related aggression; for those low in dispositional hostility, however, there was no association between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related aggression. Findings are contrasted with previous longitudinal research on alcohol aggression expectancies and physical aggression in married couples. The article discusses the extent to which findings may vary depending on whether expectancies are assessed in relation to alcohol's effect on one's own behavior versus alcohol's effect on others' behavior.
The literature exploring commonalities between four-year and community college student alcohol use is relatively scarce. A possible reason for this discrepancy is the heavy focus on alcohol issues at university colleges. Coll (1999) presented one of the first brief assessments comparing community and four-year colleges on alcohol use and related…
Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N
Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website.
Sundberg-Anderson, R. K.; Saylor, J. R.
Mesler entrainment has been studied extensively in water and, more recently, in silicone oils. Studies of Mesler entrainment in liquids other than these are rare. The extant experimental results in water show significant irreproducibility both in the qualitative characteristics of Mesler entrainment and in the existence or nonexistence of Mesler entrainment when, for example, drops of the same diameter are released from the same height. In contrast, in silicone oils, Mesler entrainment is highly reproducible, essentially occurring either all of the time, or none of the time for a given set of conditions. A goal of the present work was to determine which of these two behaviors is the "standard" behavior—that is, to determine whether Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable or not. The experimental studies presented herein were conducted in three liquids that have not been the subject of detailed investigation to date: ethyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, and methyl alcohol. All of these alcohol results showed behavior very similar to that observed in silicone oils, suggesting that Mesler entrainment is typically repeatable and that water is an atypical fluid, causing irreproducible results. Additionally, we present data obtained in silicone oils and combine that with the alcohol data in an attempt to develop a combination of dimensionless groups that predicts the boundaries within which Mesler entrainment occurs for liquids other than water.
Scholz, Henrike; Mustard, Julie A
For invertebrates to become useful models for understanding the genetic and physiological mechanisms of alcoholism related behaviors and the predisposition towards alcoholism, several general requirements must be fulfilled. The animal should encounter ethanol in its natural habitat, so that the central nervous system of the organism will have evolved mechanisms for responding to ethanol exposure. How the brain adapts to ethanol exposure depends on its access to ethanol, which can be regulated metabolically and/or by physical barriers. Therefore, a model organism should have metabolic enzymes for ethanol degradation similar to those found in humans. The neurons and supporting glial cells of the model organism that regulate behaviors affected by ethanol should share the molecular and physiological pathways found in humans, so that results can be compared. Finally, the use of invertebrate models should offer advantages over traditional model systems and should offer new insights into alcoholism-related behaviors. In this review we will summarize behavioral similarities and identified genes and mechanisms underlying ethanol-induced behaviors in invertebrates. This review mainly focuses on the use of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the honey bee Apis mellifera and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as model systems. We will discuss insights gained from those studies in conjunction with their vertebrate model counterparts and the implications for future research into alcoholism and alcohol-induced behaviors.
Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana
Multiple lines of evidence strongly indicate that genetic factors contribute to the risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD). There is substantial heterogeneity in AUD, which complicates studies seeking to identify specific genetic factors. To identify these genetic effects, several different alcohol-related phenotypes have been analyzed, including diagnosis and quantitative measures related to AUDs. Study designs have used candidate gene analyses, genetic linkage studies, genomewide association studies (GWAS), and analyses of rare variants. Two genes that encode enzymes of alcohol metabolism have the strongest effect on AUD: aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 and alcohol dehydrogenase 1B each has strongly protective variants that reduce risk, with odds ratios approximately 0.2-0.4. A number of other genes important in AUD have been identified and replicated, including GABRA2 and alcohol dehydrogenases 1B and 4. GWAS have identified additional candidates. Rare variants are likely also to play a role; studies of these are just beginning. A multifaceted approach to gene identification, targeting both rare and common variations and assembling much larger datasets for meta-analyses, is critical for identifying the key genes and pathways important in AUD.
Moonat, Sachin; Pandey, Subhash C
Acute and chronic stressors have been associated with alterations in mood and increased anxiety that may eventually result in the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders. Stress and associated disorders, including anxiety, are key factors in the development of alcoholism because alcohol consumption can temporarily reduce the drinker's dysphoria. One molecule that may help mediate the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that regulates the structure and function of the sites where two nerve cells interact and exchange nerve signals (i.e., synapses) and which is involved in numerous physiological processes. Aberrant regulation of BDNF signaling and alterations in synapse activity (i.e., synaptic plasticity) have been associated with the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders and alcoholism. Mechanisms that contribute to the regulation of genetic information without modification of the DNA sequence (i.e., epigenetic mechanisms) may play a role in the complex control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity-for example, by modifying the structure of the DNA-protein complexes (i.e., chromatin) that make up the chromosomes and thereby modulating the expression of certain genes. Studies regarding the epigenetic control of BDNF signaling and synaptic plasticity provide a promising direction to understand the mechanisms mediating the interaction between stress and alcoholism.
Sklar, Alfredo L.; Nixon, Sara Jo
Rationale Evidence from a growing body of literature suggests that alcohol, even at moderate dose levels, disrupts the ability to ignore distractors. However, little work has been done to elucidate the neural processes underlying this deficit. Objective The present study was conducted to determine if low-to-moderate alcohol doses affect sensory gating, an electrophysiological phenomenon believed to reflect the pre-attentive filtering of irrelevant sensory information. Methods Sixty social drinkers were administered one of three doses intended to produce breath alcohol concentrations of 0.0% (placebo), .04% (i.e., low dose), and .065% (i.e., moderate dose). A paired-click paradigm consisting of 100 pairs of identical tones (S1 and S2) was used to assess sensory gating. Amplitudes of the P50, N100 and P200 auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) were used to calculate gating difference (S1 – S2) and ratio (S2/S1) scores. Results The moderate alcohol dose significantly decreased P50 and N100 gating relative to placebo. Comparisons between the difference and ratio scores helped characterize the gating mechanisms affected at these stages of information processing. Alcohol did not alter P200 sensory gating. Conclusions These data suggest that alcohol disrupts pre-attentional sensory filtering processes at BrACs below the current .08% legal limit. Future studies should perform a combined assessment of sensory gating and selective attention to better understand the relationship between these two alcohol-induced deficits. PMID:24800896
Chan, James G.
Introduces the development and theoretical underpinnings of family-involved treatment for alcoholism. Describes several interventions from the family therapy literature with an emphasis on behavioral techniques. Outlines efficacy research and considers some problems with the family approach. (Contains 42 references.) (GCP)
Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ
This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…
Thomason, Timothy C.
Reviews the literature on the treatment of Native Americans who abuse alcohol or have dependence disorders and provides an interpretation of the research on this topic. The most common treatment modalities are described and critiqued. Recommendations are made regarding revising standard treatments to make them more culturally appropriate for this…
The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…
College teachers can help students rethink two stereotypes emerging in American literature classes--the self-destructive writer who must necessarily be addicted, and the beer-guzzling, wild-partying college student--through an examination of the impact of alcoholism on the author's life. A course on Tennessee Williams illustrates the approach.…
Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others
Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…
A review of recent literature suggests excessive drinking by parents has a negative impact on the behaviors of the child. The families in First Nations communities in Canada have suffered considerably because of alcohol and the pressures of the surrounding non-native community; valuable teachings of the Elders have come under attack and the loss…
Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander
Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...
... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...
Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.
Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746
Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M
The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis.
Martin, Teri L; Solbeck, Patricia A M; Mayers, Daryl J; Langille, Robert M; Buczek, Yvona; Pelletier, Marc R
The operation of a motor vehicle requires the integrity of sensory, motor, and intellectual faculties. Impairment of these faculties following the consumption of alcohol has been studied extensively through laboratory, closed-course and on-road driving, and epidemiological studies. The scientific literature was reviewed critically, with a focus on low-to-moderate blood alcohol concentrations (BAC ≤ 0.100%), to identify the most reliable determinants of alcohol-impaired driving. Variables such as age, gender, driving skill, and tolerance were shown to have limited impact on impairment. It was concluded the most relevant variables are BAC and complexity of the driving task. The scientific literature provides a high degree of confidence to support the conclusion that a BAC of 0.050% impairs faculties required in the operation of a motor vehicle. Whether impairment is apparent depends upon the complexity of the driving task, which applies to both study design and actual driving.
Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.
Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the
Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J
Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature.
Huebner, Robert B.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang
Researchers are working on numerous and varied approaches to improving the accessibility, quality, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of treatment for alcohol use disorders (AUDs). This overview article summarizes the approaches reviewed in this issue, including potential future developments for alcoholism treatment, such as medications development, behavioral therapy, advances in technology that are being used to improve treatment, integrated care of patients with AUDs and co-occurring disorders, the role of 12-step programs in the broader realm of treatment, treating patients with recurring and chronic alcohol dependence, strategies to close the gap between treatment need and treatment utilization, and how changes in the health care system may affect the delivery of treatment. This research will not only reveal new medications and behavioral therapies but also will contribute to new ways of approaching current treatment problems. PMID:23580014
The ten-fold increase in aviation fuel prices in eight years has caused a reassessment of alcohol fuels. In a recent test, methanol fuel-flow rate was high at takeoff, and levelled off at 10,000 feet, but above 18,000 fell 30% below avgas use. Because methanol sells thirty cents below avgas per gallon it is already an attractive fuel for piston-engine aircraft. But as 95% of aviation fuel is burned as kerosene in turbines a test program has been set up to look at the performance of small shaft turbine engines with various combinations of alcohols and water, and of straight methanol, and to look at major thrust engine at optimum fuel as well. These tests should determine the overall alcohol potentials for aviation. The tests will also tell if the breakthrough will be modest or major.
Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.
The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.
Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.
The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.
Frenzel, H; Roth, H; Schwartzkopff, B
Because of the high frequency of cardiovascular diseases and a steadily increasing consumption of alcohol the potentially causal relationship between alcohol and cardiovascular diseases gains great interest for public health policy. Alcohol and its metabolites induce a toxic damage of myocardial metabolism with an injury of electromechanic coupling. As a consequence of acute alcoholic intake cardiac arrhythmias and a reduced contractility of the myocardium are found not only for chronic alcoholics but also in healthy non-drinkers. Chronic abuse of alcoholic beverages for many years can be the cause of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in a small percentage of patients, who have a bad prognosis. Atria and ventricles are dilated, light and electron microscopic changes of the myocardium are unspecific. The pathogenesis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy is unknown, modulations of cardiomyocytic membranes are discussed in the course of a toxic damage. In the genesis of atherosclerosis alcohol can approach from different sites: Changings on thrombocytes and an increase of HDL-cholesterin can be protective, however an increase in blood pressure support the process of atherosclerosis. In numerous investigations a smaller degree of atherosclerosis was found for little or moderate alcohol intake, while in chronic heavy abuse of alcohol a higher extent of atherosclerosis was observed. As the amount of alcohol, assumed to be protective against the development of atherosclerosis, is consumed already by the majority of the population, there is no reason to propagate a regulate consume of moderate amount of alcoholic beverages.
Henriksen, Lisa; Feighery, Ellen C.; Schleicher, Nina C.; Fortmann, Stephen P.
Purpose This longitudinal study examined the influence of alcohol advertising and promotions on the initiation of alcohol use. A measure of receptivity to alcohol marketing was developed from research about tobacco marketing. Recall and recognition of alcohol brand names were also examined. Methods Data were obtained from in-class surveys of 6th, 7th, and 8th graders at baseline and 12-month follow-up. Participants who were classified as never drinkers at baseline (n=1,080) comprised the analysis sample. Logistic regression models examined the association of advertising receptivity at baseline with any alcohol use and current drinking at follow-up, adjusting for multiple risk factors, including peer alcohol use, school performance, risk taking, and demographics. Results At baseline, 29% of never drinkers either owned or wanted to use an alcohol branded promotional item (high receptivity), 12% students named the brand of their favorite alcohol ad (moderate receptivity) and 59% were not receptive to alcohol marketing. Approximately 29% of adolescents reported any alcohol use at follow-up; 13% reported drinking at least 1 or 2 days in the past month. Never drinkers who reported high receptivity to alcohol marketing at baseline were 77% more likely to initiate drinking by follow-up than those were not receptive. Smaller increases in the odds of alcohol use at follow-up were associated with better recall and recognition of alcohol brand names at baseline. Conclusions Alcohol advertising and promotions are associated with the uptake of drinking. Prevention programs may reduce adolescents’ receptivity to alcohol marketing by limiting their exposure to alcohol ads and promotions and by increasing their skepticism about the sponsors’ marketing tactics. PMID:18155027
Roussaux, J P; Hers, D; Ferauge, M
A population of 127 alcoholics of both sexes, hospitalized and weaned (DSM III diagnose: Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence) received Acamprosate (n = 63) or placebo (n = 64) in a double blind randomized therapeutic trail. The patients were followed during three months and anamnestic as well as biological data were recorded. It appeared no significant differences between the two groups of patients. This negative result could perhaps be explained by the heaviness of the pathology of this hospitalized alcoholic population.
Harper, C G; Kril, J J
There are wide ranging effects of alcohol on the nervous system. Some interfere with physiological and neurochemical functions but ultimately structural damage occurs. During life one of the most impressive changes is brain shrinkage which can be visualized using neuroradiological imaging techniques. This article reviews the pathological explanations for brain shrinkage and addresses the question of the pathogenesis of the reversible component of this damage in relation to prolonged abstinence from alcohol. This shrinkage seems to relate to a loss of white matter. However, the cortex is also abnormal in that there is a loss of neurones from the frontal region. In this and other regions of the cortex examined there is shrinkage of the neuronal soma. This is reflected in a retraction of the neuronal dendritic arbor which plays a crucial role in cell-to-cell communication. In addition, the cerebellum appears to be vulnerable in alcoholic patients although it may well be that associated nutritional deficiencies play an important role. The Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is another important deficiency disorder which is seen most frequently in alcoholic patients. Two important population groups which are considered in this review are females and moderate ('social') drinkers. Females are thought to be more susceptible to the damaging effects of alcohol than males and this is examined in the light of the scant data available. Similarly, there are few neuropathological data on people who drink 30-80 grams of alcohol per day. In order to assess so-called 'safe levels of drinking' this is an important group to study.
Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes
There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.
Oei, T P; Young, R M
Recent literature showed that expectancies or cognitions have been proposed as a major factor in influencing the amount of alcohol an individual consumes and the behavioral consequences following consumption. However, how alcohol expectancies influence alcohol consumption is unclear; this paper reports two studies of the relationship. Study I examined the relationship between alcohol consumption and alcohol-related positive and negative self-statements in 110 social drinkers. The results showed that, in a nondrinking situation, the alcohol expectancies and variables measuring consumption and alcohol-related problems were correlated. Also, subjects who perceived their "alcoholic sets" as negative consumed more than those who perceived theirs as positive. Study II investigated changes in self-statement responding in 8 light and 8 heavy drinkers in a "normal" pub drinking situation. The results showed that alcohol-dependent self-statements in the light drinkers were relatively stable across time and between drinking and nondrinking environments. However, the alcohol-dependent self-statements of heavy drinkers became more negative during the drinking session. Furthermore, the degree and nature of such changes appeared to be related to alcohol-associated problems and consumption.
Goldowitz, Daniel; Matthews, Douglas B.; Hamre, Kristin M.; Mittleman, Guy; Chesler, Elissa J; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Jones, Sara R.; Mathews, Tiffany A; Miles, Michael F.; Kerns, Robnet; Grant, Kathleen A.
ALCOHOL ABUSE AND alcoholism result from the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Stress is a factor that is widely thought to contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. One consequence of stressful experiences is anxiety, and there is a rich literature on the interactions between alcohol and anxiety. Less is known about brain mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and system levels that mediate stress effects that contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. In addition, it is not clear whether and/or how genetic factors that contribute to excessive drinking interact with neural stress mechanisms.
Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.
Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.
Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.
An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Wilke, C.R.
An improved fermentation process is disclosed for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases. One is a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and the other is a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using ''water load balancing'' (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, M.W.; Cysewski, G.R.
An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).
Experimental data are presented with respect to "experimental alcohol blastopathy" performed in our laboratory. As in our interpretation the notion of blastopathy involves both pathological changes during preimplantation development due to previous, preconceptional or preimplantation influences and later, pre- or postnatal effects induced by factors active during the preimplantation period, up to now the following experimental models were applied (on rats and mice): chronic and acute maternal, biparental or paternal ethanol alcoholization; preimplantation treatment with acetaldehyde or disulfiram followed by ethanol administration; acute ethanol intoxication before implantation on the background of chronic maternal ethanol intake; chronic maternal intake of various beverages. The main components of experimental alcohol blastopathy detected (by using a complex control methodology) were: pathological changes during the preimplantation developmental stages (lower mean number of embryos/animal, retardation of development, lowered migration rate of the embryos from the oviduct to the uterus, higher number of pathological morphological features), delayed implantation, disturbances of the early postimplantation development, retarded late foetal and placental growth. The effect of ethanol may be direct (ethanol being detectable in the oviductal and uterine fluid after both acute and chronic alcoholization) or indirect, via changes of the maternal macro- or microenvironment. The increase of the maternal blood acetaldehyde level may contribute to the appearance of alcohol blastopathy. Chronic beer and wine intake and acute intoxication with cognac suggest - up to now - the enhancing effect of beverage congeners. The noxious effect of acute ethanol intoxication superposed to chronic alcoholization is more marked that the separate effect of the two kinds of treatment. The chronic ethanol intake of fertilizing males (in mice) leads, both in the case of treated or untreated
Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Caldwell, E. E. (Inventor); Feiveson, A. H.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Peters, B. T.; Ploutz-Synder, L. L.; Reschke, M. F.; Ryder, J. W.; Taylor, L. C.; Wood, S. J.
Astronauts experience Postflight disturbances in postural and locomotor control due to sensorimotor adaptation to the unique environment of spaceflight. These alterations might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress were required following a Mars landing or on return to Earth after a water landing. Currently, no operational countermeasure is targeted to mitigate Postflight balance and locomotor dysfunction.
Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.; Gregory, K. B.; Smith, R. M.; Miller, D. L.; Oyung, R.; Webbon, L. L.; Johnson, J. M.
The authors consider three aspects of managing fatigue in the workplace. They provide a brief overview of important scientific findings related to sleep and circadian physiology that establish the psychobiological foundation of fatigue. Their major focus is on the relevance of these findings to operational settings. In addition, they provide examples to describe practical fatigue countermeasures that can be used in operational settings.
Li, Changyu; Li, Lijuan
Through a questionnaire and a survey, the paper analyses the present College English teaching and the contributing factors for the ineffective College English teaching. Based on the analysis, the paper suggests four countermeasures to improve College English teaching quality. According to this paper, only when teachers and educational workers…
Bian Hanbing; Jia Yun; Shahrour, Isam
This work is devoted to illustrate the potential liquefaction mitigation countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation. Firstly the potential liquefaction mitigation method is briefly introduced. Then the numerical model for partially saturated sandy soil is presented. At last the dynamic responses of liquefiable free filed with different water saturation is given. It shows that the induced partial saturation is efficiency for preventing the liquefaction.
LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa
Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.
Sibonga, Jean D.
The learning objectives of this viewgraph presentation are to: (1) Understand the biomedical effects of spaceflight and their associated health risks. (2) Understand how the "Factor of Risk" for fracture can be calculated in the adult skeleton for space travel. and (3) Understand how various countermeasures [CMs] influence the Factor of Risk.
Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji
The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a "tsunami earthquake". In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 "hard" and "soft" countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5-6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning.
Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng
This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.
Peng, Hua-sheng; Wang, De-qun; Hao, Jin-da; Xie, Jin; Liu, He-ling; Peng, Dai-yin; Huang, Lu-qi
As an important part of Chinese medicinal materials, uncommon-territorial herbs are also the most complex parts in the herbal medicine markets. Through years of investigation on the key markets of Chinese herbal medicine, the meaning of uncommon-territorial herbs, their historical evolution, origin and characteristics were clarified in this paper, and some countermeasures were put forward for its development.
Workman, Jane E.
Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…
Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…
Pike, William A.
In an attempt to educate American Indians about the problems of alcohol abuse, the 36-lesson book presents historical, cultural, legal, medical, social, and personal facts about alcohol and alcohol abuse. Each 3- or 4-page lesson is illustrated in black and white and consists of an introductory narrative, learning activities, and follow-up…
Moore, Roland S; Ames, Genevieve M; Cunradi, Carol B
Background Heavy alcohol consumption rates are higher in the young adult military enlisted population than among civilians of the same age. The literature on alcohol availability, both generally and specifically with respect to work-related drinking, establishes clear links between ease of access, alcohol consumption rates and alcohol-related problems. Methods In this paper, a qualitative analysis of 50 semi-structured interviews with U.S. Navy personnel was combined with quantitative findings from a mail survey of 713 young enlisted men and women in order to shed light on alcohol availability and its correlates in the home port environments of young adult enlisted personnel. The interviews were analyzed by two anthropologists seeking recurring themes or topics related to alcohol availability. These qualitative data were contextualized by descriptive statistics of the survey responses regarding ease of obtaining alcohol on and around naval bases, and from friends in and out of the Navy. Results Findings associated with social and physical availability of alcohol include low prices in Navy Exchange base stores, frequent barracks parties, drink promotions in bars surrounding bases, and multiple opportunities for underage drinking despite age limits on alcohol purchases and official efforts to deglamorize alcohol use in the Navy. Both qualitative and qualitative findings suggest that respondents found alcohol and opportunities to drink overwhelmingly available in both on-base and off-base settings, and from friends both in and out of the Navy. Conclusion There is qualitative and quantitative evidence for extensive physical and social availability of alcohol in and around bases for young adults in the military. Policy implications include raising the presently tax-free alcohol prices in base stores and enforcing existing policies regarding underage drinking, particularly the provision of alcohol by people of legal drinking age, and by bars in and around bases
Scagnolari, Stefano; Walker, Joan; Maggi, Rico
This paper proposes an analysis of mobility preferences of young people at nighttime. In OECD countries in the last decades, data show that road crashes are the single biggest cause of death of 15-24 years-old drivers. On average, over 8500 young drivers were killed each year and it is demonstrated that the accidents tend to occur on weekend nights and when young people drive under the influence of alcohol. Focusing on the demand for mobility, we approach the problem from several points of view, concentrating on the relationship between attitudes towards alcohol and some of the most common countermeasures implemented to address young-driver risk. In particular, we examine the potential demand of young drivers for new modes of public transport, understand their preferences for plans designed to reduce and/or prevent the number of risky situations. Our analysis covers different aspects of private modes of transport, including amounts of fines and police checkpoints. We also investigate the characteristics of existing and available public transport systems (e.g. fares and levels of services). Through a Stated Preferences experiment (SP), we collected young people's preferences about nighttime mobility within our application area (Lugano, Switzerland). Using the Hybrid Choice Models technique, we developed an approach and we estimated a model designed to incorporate simultaneously three dimensions of the problem: attributes of the alternatives, characteristics of young drivers, and alcohol-related psychological variables. Our estimates suggest that, first, there are young drivers who are willing to choose public alternatives; secondly, the countermeasures considered can increase their number; and, thirdly, people with a higher attitude to alcohol are more willing to switch to new public transport alternatives and more sensitive to "Drinking and Driving Do not Mix" policies. Action plans developed on the basis of these findings and on the relevance of the psychological
... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction products of alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). 721.10485 Section 721.10485 Protection of... alcohols, alkyl alcohols, amino alcohols and methanol sodium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...
... Your Health » Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol's Effects on the Body Drinking too much – on a ... hours after getting drunk. Learn more about alcohol’s effects on the body. Clinical Trials Get Updates Follow ...
... problem, don't blame yourself. continue How Does Alcoholism Affect Families? If you live with a parent ... needs to get help from a treatment center. Alcoholism affects family members just as much as it ...
Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.
New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.
Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.
A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.
... crashes, other injuries, high blood pressure, stroke, violence, suicide, and certain types of cancer. What is a ... than those of male alcoholics, including deaths from suicides, alcohol-related accidents, heart disease and stroke, and ...
Jensen, William B.
The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.
Cloninger, C R
Clinical, genetic, and neuropsychopharmacological studies of developmental factors in alcoholism are providing a better understanding of the neurobiological bases of personality and learning. Studies of the adopted-away children of alcoholics show that the predisposition to initiate alcohol-seeking behavior is genetically different from susceptibility to loss of control after drinking begins. Alcohol-seeking behavior is a special case of exploratory appetitive behavior and involves different neurogenetic processes than do susceptibility to behavioral tolerance and dependence on the antianxiety or sedative effects of alcohol. Three dimensions of personality have been described that may reflect individual differences in brain systems modulating the activation, maintenance, and inhibition of behavioral responses to the effects of alcohol and other environmental stimuli. These personality traits distinguish alcoholics with different patterns of behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuropharmacological responses to alcohol.
Whitmire, A.; Johnston, S.; Sipes, W.
The NASA Human Research Program's (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP) supports and conducts research to mitigate deleterious outcomes related to fatigue, sleep loss, circadian desynchronization, and work overload. Objective evidence indicates that within the context of the International Space Station (ISS), sleep is reduced and there is circadian misalignment. Despite chronic sleep loss and high workloads; however, astronauts successfully complete their missions. Contributing to their success is not only the tremendous skills and capabilities of each astronaut, but also the collaborative team efforts amongst the crew, between flight and ground crews, and through real-time care provided by medical personnel. It is anticipated that risks to human health and performance will increase in the context of exploration missions, where crewmembers will venture to deep space for extended durations and in small vehicles with limited communication with home. Hence, fatigue-related countermeasures are being developed and/or validated that include unobtrusive monitoring technologies to detect fatigue-related performance decrements, environmental countermeasures, and sleep education and training for flight and ground crews. Given that fatigue is an issue in current ISS missions, the BHP works collaboratively with Space Medicine operations to collect data in the operational environment, to validate fatigue-related countermeasures, and provide evidence-based mitigations. Our presentation will summarize fatigue-related operational research that is underway through NASA's BHP in partnership with its operational counterparts. Efforts include studies evaluating the effects of hypnotics, lighting protocols as countermeasures for circadian entrainment, and investigations involving education and training. This presentation will further identify, based on flight and terrestrial evidence, additional sleep and circadian countermeasures that may still be needed to support
Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson
Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the
... combination of alcohol and drugs or that enact alcohol ignition interlock laws. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— 24-7 sobriety program means a State law or program that authorizes a State court or a... device, or by an alternative method approved by NHTSA. Alcohol means wine, beer and distilled...
... combination of alcohol and drugs or that enact alcohol ignition interlock laws. (b) Definitions. As used in this section— 24-7 sobriety program means a State law or program that authorizes a State court or a... device, or by an alternative method approved by NHTSA. Alcohol means wine, beer and distilled...
MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.
Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244
Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W
Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.
Singh, Vijay K.; Romaine, Patricia L.P.; Newman, Victoria L.; Seed, Thomas M.
ABSTRACT Introduction: The global threat of a chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) disaster is an important priority for all government agencies involved in domestic security and public health preparedness. Radiological/nuclear (RN) attacks or accidents have become a larger focus of the United States Food and Drug administration (US FDA) over time because of their increased likeliness. Clinical signs and symptoms of a developing acute radiation syndrome (ARS) are grouped into three sub-syndromes named for the dominant organ system affected, namely the hematopoietic (H-ARS), gastrointestinal (GI-ARS), and neurovascular systems. The availability of safe and effective countermeasures against radiological/nuclear threats currently represents a significant unmet medical need. Areas covered: This article reviews the development of RN threat medical countermeasures and highlights those specific countermeasures that have been recently patented and approved following the FDA Animal Rule. Patents for such agents from 2015 have been presented. Expert opinion: Two granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-based radiation countermeasures (Neupogen® (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA) and Neulasta® (Amgen, Thousand Oaks, CA)) have recently been approved by the FDA for treatment of H-ARS and both these agents are radiomitigators, used after radiation exposure. To date, there are no FDA-approved radioprotectors for ARS. PMID:27610458
Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J
Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well.
Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang
Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.
Brake, Kathryn J.
Provides a rationale for services to children of alcoholics and describes school-based interventions to help these children. Asserts that schools are the logical setting for providing knowledge, skills, and support to help children of alcoholics understand the dysfunctional effects of familial alcoholism. Offers suggestions for school counselors…
Sigmon, Scott B.
To better serve people in a counseling relationship, it is useful to understand them not only culturally, but demographically as well. This paper traces historical, religious, demographic aspects and treatment of alcohol abuse in African Americans. Historically, alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence have varied for African Americans. During the…
Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.
Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…
Estes, Nada J.; Heinemann, M. Edith
This book is intended to contribute to the theoretical knowledge of alcoholism workers so that the needs of people with alcohol related problems may be met with greater understanding. Contributors to the book represent a variety of disciplines and address a broad spectrum of topics. Part One deals with developmental perspectives of alcoholism,…
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 7.71 Section 7.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF MALT BEVERAGES Interim Regulations for Alcoholic Content Statements § 7.71 Alcoholic content....
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholic content. 4.36 Section 4.36 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Labeling Requirements for Wine § 4.36 Alcoholic content. (a) Alcoholic content shall...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE..., and Removal of Products § 19.366 Alcohol. (a) Containers. A proprietor may put alcohol for...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Isopropyl alcohol. 21.113 Section 21.113 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Methyl alcohol. 21.116 Section 21.116 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants §...
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcohol content. 5.37 Section 5.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Distilled Spirits § 5.37 Alcohol content. (a) Statements—(1) Mandatory statement. The alcohol content...
Neves, Delma Pessanha
This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.
Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others
A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)
Farris, Coreen; Hepner, Kimberly A.
Abstract On the 2012 Workplace and Gender Relations Survey on Active Duty Service Members, 23 percent of female and 4 percent of male service members indicated that they had experienced a completed or attempted sexual assault during their military service. In addition, official numbers show no decline in sexual assaults, despite the implementation of sexual assault prevention programs across the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). Alcohol misuse is also a problem in the military: One-third of active-duty service members reported binge drinking, a rate that compares unfavorably with that of their civilian counterparts. DoD has invested considerable resources in universal sexual assault prevention programs and social media campaigns, but evaluation results are not yet available, and the effectiveness of these programs is unclear. Research on civilian populations—particularly college students, who share some characteristics with junior enlisted personnel—could provide insights for DoD. For example, the research indicates a connection between alcohol and aggression, including sexual aggression. Alcohol can also have a range of effects on the risk of victimization—from a reduced awareness of risk indicators to incapacitation or unconsciousness. An extensive review of the existing research provides some guidance for how DoD can implement and evaluate efforts to reduce alcohol misuse as part of a larger strategy to reduce the incidence of sexual assault among members of the armed forces. PMID:28083353
Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.
Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…
Hofman, V.; Hauck, D.
Recent price increases and temporary shortages of petroleum products have caused farmers to search for alternate sources of fuel. The production of ethyl alcohol from grain is described and the processes involved include saccharification, fermentation and distillation. The resulting stillage has potential as a livestock feed.
Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…
Sloan, Chantel D.; Sayarath, Vicki; Moore, Jason H.
Alcoholism is a common disease resulting from the complex interaction of genetic, social, and environmental factors. Interest in the high heritability of alcoholism has resulted in many studies of how single genes, as well as an individual’s entire genetic content (i.e., genome) and the proteins expressed by the genome, influence alcoholism risk. The use of large-scale methods to identify and characterize genetic material (i.e., high-throughput technologies) for data gathering and analysis recently has made it possible to investigate the complexity of the genetic architecture of susceptibility to common diseases such as alcoholism on a systems level. Systems genetics is the study of all genetic variations, their interactions with each other (i.e., epistasis), their interactions with the environment (i.e., plastic reaction norms), their relationship with interindividual variation in traits that are influenced by many genes and contribute to disease susceptibility (i.e., intermediate quantitative traits or endophenotypes1) defined at different levels of hierarchical biochemical and physiological systems, and their relationship with health and disease. The goal of systems genetics is to provide an understanding of the complex relationship between the genome and disease by investigating intermediate biological processes. After investigating main effects, the first step in a systems genetics approach, as described here, is to search for gene–gene (i.e., epistatic) reactions. PMID:23584748
Examines factors contributing to and determining adolescent drinking disorders, synthesizing ideas from Fromm-Reishmann, Fromm, and Erikson. Discusses ideas within the framework of Freud's speculative postulation of the "oceanic feeling." Addresses empirically oriented treatment of concrete features exhibited in adolescent alcoholism. (Author/BH)
School Libraries in Canada, 2001
Includes 15 articles that relate to Canadian children's literature, including the power of literature; using Canadian literature in Canada; the principal's role in promoting literacy; Canadian Children's Book Centre; the National Library of Canada's children's literature collection; book promotion; selection guide; publisher's perspective; and…
Cohen, Monroe D., Ed.
Articles concerning the teaching of literature to children are presented. "Providing Balanced Contacts with Literature for Children" covers the potential of literature in the curriculum. In "The Classics in Children's Literature," a classic is defined as a book or story or poem that usually has long outlived its author. "Fostering Lifetime Reading…
Literature Circles are a great way to supplement a reading program in a literature-based classroom. In this lesson plan, students create and answer comprehension questions, discover new vocabulary, and examine elements of literature. The students feel ownership in Literature Circles, because they are responsible for the meeting. Any genre of…
Dimock, Edward C., Jr., Ed.
The unifying theme of the papers in this book is the use of creative literature as source material for the study of cultural history. Titles and authors of the papers are: "Encounter and Growth in Bengali Literature, A Survey of Medieval Bengali Literature" by T.W. Clark; "The Hindu Chiefdom in Middle Bengali Literature" by…
Geuder, Patricia A.
One rich cultural beginning embedded in contemporary Chicano literature is the language(s) of the literature. In this respect, Chicano literature and sociolinguistics are concomitants: the use of sociolinguistics increases the understanding of the use of the language(s) found in the literature: of the contextual references made about language(s):…
Lowry, Howard F.; And Others
This classic report on the relationship of literature and American education is an exposition of the importance of literature to the common man in a democratic society. No artificial distinction, the authors stress, is made between literature in the vernacular and literature in foreign languages. A defense of letters leads to a discussion of…
This report discusses the opposition to fantasy, as well as the support for it, both as an activity of the mind and as literature, and concludes that fantasy literature is useful in promoting language development and literature appreciation. The report then discusses characteristics of fantasy literature, lists works suitable for class use, and…
Howard, B J; Beresford, N A; Voigt, G
Over the last decade, there has been considerable progress in the development of countermeasures for preventing or reducing contamination of animal products by radioisotopes of iodine, caesium and strontium. In this paper, recent significant technical improvements are summarised and the current availability of countermeasures and their usefulness in the event of a nuclear accident reviewed. An improved understanding of factors controlling the metabolism of radioiodine and radiostrontium has enabled previously suggested countermeasures to be either optimised or dismissed. For radiocaesium in particular, experience since the Chernobyl accident has enabled effective and feasible countermeasures to be identified and successfully implemented in different situations. It has also been more widely understood that countermeasure effectiveness, although important, is not the only criterion which needs to be determined. In addition, cost and practical considerations such as availability, technical feasibility, acceptability and side-effects need to be taken into account. Evaluation of these factors has shown that some previously recommended countermeasures are unlikely to be feasible.
Sams, Clarence F.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)
Space flight has been shown to induce changes in the physiology of crewmembers which can adversely affect their performance. The objectives of Countermeasures Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP) are to develop and validate potential countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight for operational implementation and use. In order to accomplish this objective, a group of standardized tests, the Integrated Testing Regimen or ITR, will be utilized for the evaluation of candidate countermeasures. Additionally, the ITR will illuminate intersystem effects of the potential countermeasures and provide normative values for the physiological responses. Due to the small number of crewmembers available as test subjects, statistically rigorous validation of countermeasures presents a challenging problem. Strategies for reliable evaluation of small N clinical studies will be utilized for these activities. These approaches will permit effective analysis of promising countermeasure to support human space flights of increasing duration.
Homer, Mary J; Raulli, Robert; DiCarlo-Cohen, Andrea L; Esker, John; Hrdina, Chad; Maidment, Bert W; Moyer, Brian; Rios, Carmen; Macchiarini, Francesca; Prasanna, Pataje G; Wathen, Lynne
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is fully committed to the development of medical countermeasures to address national security threats from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear agents. Through the Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, HHS has launched and managed a multi-agency, comprehensive effort to develop and operationalize medical countermeasures. Within HHS, development of medical countermeasures includes the National Institutes of Health (NIH), (led by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Preparedness and Response/Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA); with the Division of Medical Countermeasure Strategy and Requirements, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Food and Drug Administration as primary partners in this endeavor. This paper describes various programs and coordinating efforts of BARDA and NIH for the development of medical countermeasures for radiological and nuclear threats.
Avila Escribano, José Juan; González Parra, David
Recent epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol consumption in women has increased in the last few years, which suggests that alcoholism in women will also increase in the near future. Moreover, this disease shows differential characteristics in women, and knowledge of these characteristics is important so that treatment can begin as early as possible. The objective of the present study was to explore clinical differences in alcohol use disorders according to patients' gender. It was carried out with a sample of 370 patients, 325 men (87.8%) and 45 women (12.2%), with mean ages of 42.83 and 44.6 years, respectively. The patients were assessed through the Europasi interview and analytical studies with liver enzyme profiles and blood tests. The most notable results were: women began alcohol consumption significantly later than men (19.61 and 16.9 years, respectively; p < 0.008); they were significantly older than men when the consumption pattern became problematic (30.93 and 24.68 years, respectively; p < 0.003); they had been drinking for fewer years (13.26 versus 17.85 years; p < 0.02); and they drank fewer grams of alcohol (117.7 and 133.8 g., respectively; n.s.). Women scored significantly higher than men on the Europasi psychiatric scale (2.91 and 1.97, respectively; p < 0.007) and men had more legal problems than women (1.2 and 1.0, respectively; p < 0.000). In the biological tests the GGT enzyme values were higher in men (137.51) than in women (96.7), but this difference was not significant, and the VCM value was significantly higher for women (98.1) than for men (95.05). Another important finding was that the percentage of women who had sought private professional help was higher than that of men (15% versus 4.6%; p < 0.01).
Singh, Shalini; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh
Excessive use of alcohol has been identified as a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Excessive use of alcohol is a component cause of more than 200 disease and injury conditions. Alcohol use has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality across all regions of the world including South-East Asia. Epidemiological as well as clinic-based studies from Western countries have reported a high prevalence of co-occurrence of alcohol use disorder and psychiatric disorders. The research has established the clinical relevance of this comorbidity as it is often associated with poor treatment outcome, severe illness course, and high service utilization. Understandably, dual disorders in from of alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders present diagnostic and management challenge. The current article is aimed to review systematically the published Indian literature on comorbid alcohol use disorders and psychiatric disorders. PMID:27011396
Hanson, Jessica D; Winberg, Austin; Elliott, Amy
Alcohol-exposed pregnancies are especially of concern for American Indians. The Indian Health Service reported that 47% to 56% of pregnant patients admitted to drinking alcohol during their pregnancy. In addition, rates of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome are estimated to be as high as 3.9 to 9.0 per 1,000 live births among American Indians in the Northern Plains, making prevention of alcohol-exposed pregnancies an important public health effort for this population. The goal of this article is to add to the literature on universal prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum disorders by describing the development, dissemination, and evaluation of a media campaign on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders that was created by and for American Indian communities in the Northern Plains.
Talikoti, Anand T; Sindhu, BS; Kavyashree, SP; Kumar, KS Kishore
Alcohol is a drug consumed at some time in life by up to 80% of the population according to western statistics. Wide differences in socioeconomic status in India contribute to various degrees and severity of alcoholism and its associated complications. The symptoms of alcohol withdrawal range from such minor ones as insomnia and tremulousness to severe complications such as withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. Although alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been reported in the literature in post-operative periods and in Intensive Care Unit, there is paucity of information on treatment and preparation of a patient with alcohol withdrawal syndrome coming for emergency surgical procedures. The surgical stress and deranged liver function in such cases poses an additional challenge to the anaesthesiologist. Here, we report the successful management of a case of acute alcoholic delirium tremens who presented with hollow viscous perforation for emergency exploratory laparotomy. PMID:22701216
This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…
Delker, Erin; Brown, Qiana; Hasin, Deborah S.
Alcohol consumption is common across subpopulations in the United States. However, the health burden associated with alcohol consumption varies across groups, including those defined by demographic characteristics such as age, race/ethnicity, and gender. Large national surveys, such as the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, found that young adults ages 18–25 were at particularly high risk of alcohol use disorder and unintentional injury caused by drinking. These surveys furthermore identified significant variability in alcohol consumption and its consequences among racial/ethnic groups. White respondents reported the highest prevalence of current alcohol consumption, whereas alcohol abuse and dependence were most prevalent among Native Americans. Native Americans and Blacks also were most vulnerable to alcohol-related health consequences. Even within ethnic groups, there was variability between and among different subpopulations. With respect to gender, men reported more alcohol consumption and binge drinking than women, especially in older cohorts. Men also were at greater risk of alcohol abuse and dependence, liver cirrhosis, homicide after alcohol consumption, and drinking and driving. Systematic identification and measurement of the variability across demographics will guide prevention and intervention efforts, as well as future research. PMID:27159807
Chen, Li-Chiou; Carley, Kathleen M
Countermeasures such as software patches or warnings can be effective in helping organizations avert virus infection problems. However, current strategies for disseminating such countermeasures have limited their effectiveness. We propose a new approach, called the Countermeasure Competing (CMC) strategy, and use computer simulation to formally compare its relative effectiveness with three antivirus strategies currently under consideration. CMC is based on the idea that computer viruses and countermeasures spread through two separate but interlinked complex networks-the virus-spreading network and the countermeasure-propagation network, in which a countermeasure acts as a competing species against the computer virus. Our results show that CMC is more effective than other strategies based on the empirical virus data. The proposed CMC reduces the size of virus infection significantly when the countermeasure-propagation network has properties that favor countermeasures over viruses, or when the countermeasure-propagation rate is higher than the virus-spreading rate. In addition, our work reveals that CMC can be flexibly adapted to different uncertainties in the real world, enabling it to be tuned to a greater variety of situations than other strategies.
The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) supports research to elucidate the specific genetic factors, now largely unknown, which underlie susceptibility to alcoholism and its medical complications (including fetal alcohol syndrome). Because of the genetic complexity and heterogeneity of alcoholism, identification of the multiple underlying factors will require the development of new study designs and methods of analysis of data from human families. While techniques of genetic analysis of animal behavioral traits (e.g., targeted gene disruption, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping) are more powerful that those applicable to humans (e.g., linkage and allelic association studies), the validation of animal behaviors as models of aspects of human alcoholism has been problematic. Newly developed methods for mapping QTL influencing animal behavioral traits can not only permit analyses of human family data to be directly informed by the results of animal studies, but can also serve as a novel means of validating animal models of aspects of alcoholism. 55 refs.
North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.
This curriculum resource guide on alcohol and drug prevention provides suggested activities for teachers of grades 10 through 12. Four integrated learning activities for communication skills/ English IV and healthful living are presented. Communication skills/literature goals include experiencing young adult literature, using effective techniques…
Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold
Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316
Haber, Jon Randolph; Koenig, Laura B; Jacob, Theodore
A review of the literature on the relationships between alcoholism, personality, and religion identified patterns that may help explain the inverse association between alcoholism and religion/spirituality (R/S). Personality plays a central role in two etiological models of alcoholism. The personality traits of high behavioral undercontrol (low Agreeableness and low Conscientiousness) and high negative affect (high Neuroticism) are both significantly related to higher alcohol use. Religiosity is also correlated with these traits, but in the opposite direction (e.g., with low behavioral undercontrol and low negative affect). Thus, the personality profiles associated with alcoholism and religion are the inverse of one another. In addition, evidence suggests that R/S moderates genetic variation on both Neuroticism and Disinhibition (part of behavioral undercontrol). Implications are discussed in terms of competing explanatory models: a basic research model which argues for genetically-determined stability in personality and alcoholism risk, and a clinical treatment model which argues for the primacy of environmental interventions in treatment and the possibility of personality change as a pathway to recovery.
Steiner, Jennifer L.; Crowell, Kristen T.; Lang, Charles H.
Alcohol has profound effects on tissue and whole-body fuel metabolism which contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with alcohol use disorder. This review focuses on the glucose metabolic effects of alcohol, primarily in the muscle, liver and adipose tissue, under basal postabsorptive conditions and in response to insulin stimulation. While there is a relatively extensive literature in this area, results are often discordant and extrapolating between models and tissues is fraught with uncertainty. Comparisons between data generated in experimental cell and animals systems will be contrasted with that obtained from human subjects as often times results differ. Further, the nutritional status is also an important component of the sometimes divergent findings pertaining to the effects of alcohol on the regulation of insulin and glucose metabolism. This work is relevant as the contribution of alcohol intake to the development or exacerbation of type 2 diabetes remains ill-defined and a multi-systems approach is likely needed as both alcohol and diabetes affect multiple targets within the body. PMID:26426068
CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan
Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.
Jaurigue, Maryconi M; Cappell, Mitchell S
Alcoholism results in about 2.5 million deaths annually worldwide, representing 4% of all mortality. Although alcoholism is associated with more than 60 diseases, most mortality from alcoholism results from alcoholic liver disease (ALD). ALD includes alcoholic steatosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and alcoholic cirrhosis, in order of increasing severity. Important scoring systems of ALD severity include: Child-Pugh, a semi-quantitative scoring system useful to roughly characterize clinical severity; model for end-stage liver disease, a quantitative, objective scoring system used for prognostication and prioritization for liver transplantation; and discriminant function, used to determine whether to administer corticosteroids for alcoholic hepatitis. Abstinence is the cornerstone of ALD therapy. Psychotherapies, including twelve-step facilitation therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement therapy, help support abstinence. Disulfiram decreases alcohol consumption by causing unpleasant sensations after drinking alcohol from accumulation of acetaldehyde in serum, but disulfiram can be hepatotoxic. Adjunctive pharmacotherapies to reduce alcohol consumption include naltrexone, acamprosate, and baclofen. Nutritional therapy helps reverse muscle wasting, weight loss, vitamin deficiencies, and trace element deficiencies associated with ALD. Although reduced protein intake was previously recommended for advanced ALD to prevent hepatic encephalopathy, a diet containing 1.2-1.5 g of protein/kg per day is currently recommended to prevent muscle wasting. Corticosteroids are first-line therapy for severe alcoholic hepatitis (discriminant function ≥ 32), but proof of their efficacy in decreasing mortality remains elusive. Pentoxifylline is an alternative therapy. Complications of advanced ALD include ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, esophageal variceal bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and
Day, Anne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Ahern, David C.; Clark, Uraina S.
There is a wealth of research about the links between executive functioning (EF) and alcohol use. However, difficulty may arise in interpreting findings because of the variability between studies regarding the specific components of EF measured, as well as the variability of tasks used to examine each EF construct. The current article considers each of these problems within the context of a literature review that focuses on two topics: (1) the efficacy of EF in predicting alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences, and (2) the effect of acute alcohol intoxication on EF task performance. An additional goal was to identify and describe commonly used EF measures with the intention of providing alcohol researchers information on the assessment of different EF domains. Our findings indicate that there is strong evidence supporting a relation between EF difficulties (particularly response inhibition and information updating) and alcohol use, with additional evidence of a significant interaction between EF and implicit associations on alcohol use. In contrast, research supporting a link between set shifting abilities and later alcohol use is scarce. Additionally, this review found evidence of alcohol acutely affecting many EF processes (particularly response inhibition). Overall, there is a need to replicate these findings with commonly used EF tasks (versus developing numerous tasks within individual laboratories) to better advance our understanding of the relation between EF and alcohol use. PMID:25877524
Coskunpinar, Ayca; Dir, Allyson L.; Cyders, Melissa A.
Background Although there is considerable support for the relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use, the use of multidimensional conceptualizations of impulsivity and alcohol use has lead to varying relationship sizes across studies. The aims of the current meta-analysis are to (1) examine variability in the magnitude of the bivariate relationship between impulsivity and alcohol use across studies, and (2) describe the pattern of effects between specific impulsivity traits and alcohol use variables, using the UPPS Model of Impulsivity. Methods Ninety-six studies were meta-analyzed using a random effects model to examine the relationship between general impulsivity and alcohol use, as well as the relationships among separate impulsivity traits based in the UPPS model of impulsivity and specific alcohol use outcomes. Results Results indicate that, in general, impulsivity and alcohol use are related (r = .28); however, this effect size varied significantly across studies (from −.05 to 1.02). Drinking quantity was most strongly predicted by lack of perseverance (r = .32), whereas all traits equally predicted drinking frequency. Drinking problems were most highly related to negative (r = .35) and positive (r = .34) urgency, and alcohol dependence was most highly related to negative urgency (r = .38) and lack of planning (r = .37). Conclusion Effect sizes between impulsivity and alcohol use vary significantly by UPPS trait used in each study; thus, findings suggest and further reinforce the view in the literature that specific impulsivity-related constructs differentially relate to specific alcohol use outcomes. PMID:23578176
Many pregnant women drink varying quantities of alcohol, although several guidelines recommend total abstinence. What is known of the dangers of alcohol for the outcome of pregnancy and for the unborn child? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which combines facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and intellectual disability, occurs in about 5% of children who are regularly exposed to at least five standard units per day (about 50 g of alcohol per day). Four studies have explored the link between heavy maternal alcohol use over a short period and the risk of cognitive impairment in the child. The results were inconclusive, however, and the authors failed to take concomitant chronic alcohol consumption into account. A methodologically sound study showed an increase in neurological abnormalities (seizures and epilepsy) when the mother drank heavily during short periods between the 11th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. There is a risk of cognitive and behavioural problems in children whose mothers regularly drank more than 2 standard units per day. Studies involving a total of about 150 000 pregnancies sought a link between low-level alcohol consumption and abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Very few showed a statistically significant link, and the results are undermined by the failure to take other risk factors into account. Weekly consumption of 5 standard units or more during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of cryptorchidism. Studies in a total of 57 000 pregnancies showed no effect of minimal alcohol consumption on the risk of malformations. A study of 1000 pregnancies showed a statistically significant risk of major malformations, but there were several apparent biases. A link between infant mortality and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined in large cohort studies. Consumption of at least 4 standard units per week increased the risk of early neonatal
Baker, Susan S.; Baker, Robert D.; Liu, Wensheng; Nowak, Norma J.; Zhu, Lixin
Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a serious form of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Previous studies suggested that intestinal bacteria produced more alcohol in obese mice than lean animals. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate whether alcohol is involved in the pathogenesis of NASH, the expression of inflammation, fibrosis and alcohol metabolism related genes in the liver tissues of NASH patients and normal controls (NCs) were examined by microarray (NASH, n = 7; NC, n = 4) and quantitative real-time PCR (NASH, n = 6; NC, n = 6). Genes related to liver inflammation and fibrosis were found to be elevated in NASH livers compared to normal livers. The most striking finding is the increased gene transcription of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes, genes for catalase and cytochrome P450 2E1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Immunoblot analysis confirmed the increased expression of ADH1 and ADH4 in NASH livers (NASH, n = 9; NC, n = 4). Conclusions/Significance The augmented activity of all the available genes of the pathways for alcohol catabolism suggest that 1) alcohol concentration was elevated in the circulation of NASH patients; 2) there was a high priority for the NASH livers to scavenge alcohol from the circulation. Our data is the first human evidence that suggests alcohol may contribute to the development of NAFLD. PMID:20221393
Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.
A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923
Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A
A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.
Kaywell, Joan F.
Describes a seven-step process that uses young adult literature to help teenagers understand and deal with their troubles. Offers brief annotations of five young adult titles in each of nine areas: alienation and identity; divorce; dropouts, delinquency, and gangs; poverty; teenage pregnancy; abused children; alcohol and drugs; homosexuality; and…
Molesworth, Brett R C; Burgess, Marion; Gunnell, Belinda
The aim of the present research is to provide a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin. As such, the relative effect of noise, at a level typical of an aircraft cabin was compared with varying levels of alcohol intoxication in the same subjects. Since the detrimental effect of noise is more pronounced on non-native speakers, both native English and non-native English speakers featured in the study. Noise cancelling headphones were also tested as a simple countermeasure to mitigate the effect of noise on performance. A total of 32 participants, half of which were non-native English speakers, completed a cued recall task in two alcohol conditions (blood alcohol concentration 0.05 and 0.10) and two audio conditions (audio played through the speaker and noise cancelling headphones). The results revealed that aircraft noise at 65 dB (A) negatively affected performance to a level comparable to alcohol intoxication of 0.10. The results also supported previous research that reflects positively on the benefits of noise cancelling headphones in reducing the effects of noise on performance especially for non-native English speakers. These findings provide for personnel involved in the aviation industry, a user-friendly index of the relative impairment associated with noise in the aircraft cabin as compared with the effects of alcohol. They also highlight the benefits of a simple countermeasure such as noise cancelling headphones in mitigating some of the detrimental effects of noise on performance.
... Services. More Health News on: Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcohol Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get ...
... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...
Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M
Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863
Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.
According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.
Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.
Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.
Walloch, J E; Burger, P H; Kornhuber, J
In the field of adult psychiatry in German-speaking countries, little attention is as yet paid to the psychic defects that a fetus can sustain as a result of prenatal exposure to alcohol. Although children of alcohol-dependent mothers do present to psychiatric institutions as adults with manifold symptoms, e. g., attention deficit disorders, affective disorders or intellectual disability, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are rarely diagnosed as an underlying cause. Appropriate therapy guidelines do not exist. Current review papers within the German-speaking countries usually stem from paediatric and adolescent psychiatry or medicine. Based on a selected review of the literature, the following paper addresses and discusses the disease entity of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome and their significance for adult psychiatry and also identifies open questions and research requirements, e. g., the development of diagnostic instruments or the establishment of diagnostic categories.