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Sample records for alcohol countermeasures literature

  1. Teaching English Literature in China: Importance, Problems, and Countermeasures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Qiping; Chen, Shubo

    2002-01-01

    Argues for the importance of teaching literature in English departments in Chinese universities. Presents a number of countermeasures to combat policies promoting a shallow "pragmatism" in English teaching in China today. (Author/VWL)

  2. Countermeasures for Reducing Alcohol-Related Crashes.

    PubMed

    Voas, R B

    2000-01-01

    Programs to prevent alcohol-related crashes occur at several levels. Although most of the public thinks of drunk-driving prevention only in terms of the criminal justice system, much can be done to prevent alcohol-related highway deaths before the drinking-and-driving offender gets on the road. In recent years, the field of alcohol safety has merged with the area of public health concerned with preventing alcohol- and drug-related traumatic injury and death. This paper provides an overview of the status of road safety programs directed at reducing impaired driving. It covers ten topics falling into the three levels of prevention: primary programs to reduce alcohol consumption; secondary programs to prevent driving after drinking; and tertiary programs to prevent recidivism among convicted drinking drivers. PMID:26256029

  3. 77 FR 33266 - Proposed Collection of Information; Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Proposed Collection of Information; Alcohol Impaired Driving... CFR, Part 1313, Alcohol Impaired Driving Countermeasures--Section 410. OMB Number: 2127-0501. Type of... alcohol fatality rate of 0.5 or less per 100 million vehicle miles traveled as determined by using...

  4. Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, G. C.

    The employment of electronic countermeasures (ECM) to preempt the use of the electromagnetic spectrum by hostile forces is discussed, noting the historic spoof beams to misdirect German bombers following radio beams to London in WW II. Other methods for jamming radio controlled gun sighting and long range radar tracking by creating noise or overriding the main lobe are described, and it is noted that for any existing radar controlled weapon there is an ECM. Procedures to provide ECM to conscan radars, monopulse tracking systems, and range gate pull-off techniques are explored, and velocity gate pull-off is mentioned as an effective means to thwart CW or pulse Doppler radars. Finally, techniques for producing active decoys and future ECM measures for noise range denial are detailed, including the use of ever more powerful jammers.

  5. A Review of the Existing Literature on the Alcoholic Family and Children of Alcoholics. Student Debut Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Jeanmarie

    Noting that little is known about how communication functions in alcoholic families, and about the effects of this alcoholic home environment on children of alcoholics, their communication patterns, and their relationships, this paper identifies strengths and weaknesses in existing literature on the alcoholic family and children of alcoholics. In…

  6. Effectiveness of alcohol media literacy programmes: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Chloe S; Hindmarsh, Chloe S; Jones, Sandra C; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To provide insight into some of these questions, a systematic literature review of alcohol media literacy studies was conducted. The review was guided by the following research question: What considerations are needed to develop an effective school-based alcohol media literacy programme? On the basis of a critical synthesis of 10 interventions (published in the period 1997 to May 2014), our findings provide a comprehensive understanding of the descriptive, methodological and outcome characteristics of this small body of significant research. The review provides considerations for future alcohol media literacy programmes, including the need for an interactive pedagogical approach within the naturalistic school setting, implementation fidelity and a holistic approach to programme evaluation, a means for maintaining relevance, consideration of gender differences, relevance for an international audience and use of follow-up and longitudinal data. PMID:25840435

  7. Identification of Countermeasures for the Youth Crash Problem Related to Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preusser, David F.; And Others

    Past research relevant to the problem and possible countermeasures are discussed as the basis for the survey. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with male New York State drivers. These groups, each containing young and middle aged drivers were sampled as follows: (1) random sample of the general population of licensed drivers, (2) drivers…

  8. Effectiveness of Alcohol Media Literacy Programmes: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindmarsh, Chloe S.; Jones, Sandra C.; Kervin, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol media literacy is an emerging field that aims to address the link between exposure to alcohol advertising and subsequent expectancies and behaviours for children and adolescents. The design, rigour and results of alcohol media literacy programmes vary considerably, resulting in a number of unanswered questions about effectiveness. To…

  9. Factors of Group Psychotherapy for Adult Alcoholics: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jonathan K.

    Research on therapeutic factors of group psychotherapy for adult alcoholics is reviewed. The research in this area has focused on determining whether or not group psychotherapy is an effective treatment modality for alcoholics. This review examines therapeutic factors in three phases of treatment: (1) preadmission, (2) primary intervention, and…

  10. Behavioral Marital Therapy (BMT) for Alcoholics and Wives: Review of Literature and a Proposed Research Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Cutter, Henry S. G.

    After describing a social learning formulation of the male alcoholic's marriage, this paper reviews the few studies of behavioral marital therapy (BMT) for alcoholics and their wives. Although none of these studies are as rigorous as one might wish and many of them are merely case studies, a review of the literature shows that behavioral marital…

  11. Alcoholic ketoacidosis: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noor, Nurulamin M; Basavaraju, Krishna; Sharpstone, Dan

    2016-03-01

    Alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) is a cause of severe metabolic acidosis usually occurring in malnourished patients with a history of recent alcoholic binge, often on a background of alcohol dependency. AKA can be fatal due to associated electrolyte abnormalities and subsequent development of cardiac arrhythmias. This is a diagnosis that is often delayed or missed, in patients who present with a severe lactic and ketoacidosis. Here we report the case of a 64-year-old female who presented with generalized abdominal pain, nausea and shortness of breath. Blood gas analysis showed significant acidaemia with a pH of 7.10, bicarbonate of 2.9 mmol/l, and lactate of 11.7 mmol/l. Serum ketones were raised at 5.5 mmol/l. The diagnosis of AKA was suspected, and subsequent aggressive fluid resuscitation, management and monitoring were instituted. Given the early recognition of AKA and appropriate multidisciplinary team management, our patient had a good outcome and was discharged home without any complication. PMID:26949539

  12. Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers and Male Clients: An Integrative Review of Global Literature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qing; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global literature. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language articles from 1980 to 2008 reporting alcohol consumption among female sex workers (FSWs) or male clients. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative (52 for FSWs, 12 for male clients) and 12 qualitative. Results: Studies increased over the past three decades, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and clients. Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of alcohol to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among both FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Alcohol use was associated with adverse physical health, illicit drug use, mental health problems, and victimization of sexual violence, although its associations with HIV/sexually transmitted infections and unprotected sex among FSWs were inconclusive. Conclusions: Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched. Research in this area in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. PMID:20089544

  13. Social network variables in alcoholics anonymous: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Groh, D R; Jason, L A; Keys, C B

    2008-03-01

    Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most commonly used program for substance abuse recovery and one of the few models to demonstrate positive abstinence outcomes. Although little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms that make this program effective, one frequently cited aspect is social support. In order to gain insight into the processes at work in AA, this paper reviewed 24 papers examining the relationship between AA and social network variables. Various types of social support were included in the review such as structural support, functional support, general support, alcohol-specific support, and recovery helping. Overall, this review found that AA involvement is related to a variety of positive qualitative and quantitative changes in social support networks. Although AA had the greatest impact on friend networks, it had less influence on networks consisting of family members or others. In addition, support from others in AA was found to be of great value to recovery, and individuals with harmful social networks supportive of drinking actually benefited the most from AA involvement. Furthermore, social support variables consistently mediated AA's impact on abstinence, suggesting that social support is a mechanism in the effectiveness of AA in promoting a sober lifestyle. Recommendations are made for future research and clinical practice. PMID:17719158

  14. Recognition of facial expressions by alcoholic patients: a systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, Mariana Fortunata; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol abuse and dependence can cause a wide variety of cognitive, psychomotor, and visual-spatial deficits. It is questionable whether this condition is associated with impairments in the recognition of affective and/or emotional information. Such impairments may promote deficits in social cognition and, consequently, in the adaptation and interaction of alcohol abusers with their social environment. The aim of this systematic review was to systematize the literature on alcoholics’ recognition of basic facial expressions in terms of the following outcome variables: accuracy, emotional intensity, and latency time. Methods A systematic literature search in the PsycINFO, PubMed, and SciELO electronic databases, with no restrictions regarding publication year, was employed as the study methodology. Results The findings of some studies indicate that alcoholics have greater impairment in facial expression recognition tasks, while others could not differentiate the clinical group from controls. However, there was a trend toward greater deficits in alcoholics. Alcoholics displayed less accuracy in recognition of sadness and disgust and required greater emotional intensity to judge facial expressions corresponding to fear and anger. Conclusion The current study was only able to identify trends in the chosen outcome variables. Future studies that aim to provide more precise evidence for the potential influence of alcohol on social cognition are needed. PMID:25228806

  15. Inconsistencies in the Literature on Collegiate Adult Children of Alcoholics: Factors to Consider for African Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodney, H. Elaine

    1996-01-01

    Several inconsistencies in literature on adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) were found. This paper emphasizes that clinicians and those developing prevention programs should stop believing that certain characteristics are typical of all ACOAs. It makes recommendations for factors to be considered in programs for African American collegiate…

  16. [The epidemiological, etiological and motivational aspects of alcohol use and binge drinking: literature review].

    PubMed

    Farkas, Judit; Németh, Zsófia; Urbán, Róbert; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this review was to examine the current literature in the topic of problematic alcohol use, with a special focus on the epidemiological, etiological, and psychological factors to predict problem drinking in college students. We present the terminology of binge drinking used in international studies, because the diversity of definitions, units and labels tend to make international comparisons more difficult. We review the epidemiology and also short- and long-term risk factors linked to binge drinking. The biological and genetic background of alcohol use and related neurophysiologic studies are also addressed. In the last section we summarize the psychological characteristics of binge drinking besides highlighting the most recent direction of studies in the field of alcohol research, which emphasizes the role of expectations and motivation. PMID:23180733

  17. Alcohol-related problems: a critical review of the literature and directions in nurse education.

    PubMed

    Arthur, D

    1998-08-01

    It is generally accepted the around 2-5% of the adult population show major signs of alcohol dependence, that alcohol-related harm is experienced by up to 20% of the population, and that approximately 60% drink at risk-free levels. Further prevalence studies show that there are high numbers of problem drinkers who attend general hospital services for reasons other than their alcohol consumption. Nurses are in constant contact with patients who may have an early problem with alcohol but who are admitted for other reasons, and they are in a prime position to comprehensively assess patients (including alcohol screening), develop rapport and provide 'counselling'. Also, university nursing education is propelling nurses toward adoption of independent discipline focused models of care which are increasingly becoming independent of the medical model. Recent trends in the management of problem drinkers suggest that controlled drinking approaches may well offer treatment options to nurses that the traditional abstinence approaches did not. This paper presents a brief overview of the notion of controlled drinking, then critically reviews the nursing research studies and the descriptive literature providing direction for nursing education. Some recent clinical initiatives are discussed which highlight the flaws existing in nursing education, including lack of sufficient curriculum hours and the need for better designed education models and strategies. PMID:9847741

  18. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  2. A Retrospective Analysis of Dissemination Biases in the Brief Alcohol Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Polanin, Joshua R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined dissemination and reporting biases in the brief alcohol intervention literature. We used retrospective data from 179 controlled trials included in a meta-analysis on brief alcohol interventions for adolescents and young adults. We examined whether the magnitude and direction of effect sizes were associated with publication type, identification source, language, funding, time lag between intervention and publication, number of reports, journal impact factor, and subsequent citations. Results indicated that effect sizes were larger for studies that had been funded (b = 0.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.04, 0.23]), had a shorter time lag between intervention and publication (b = −0.03, 95% CI [−0.05, −.001]), and cited more frequently (b = 0.01, 95% CI [+0.00, 0.01]). Studies that were cited more frequently by other authors also had greater odds of reporting positive effects (odds ratio = 1.10, 95% CI [1.02, 1.18]). Results indicated that time lag bias has increased recently: larger and positive effect sizes were published more quickly in recent years. We found no evidence, however, that the magnitude or direction of effects was associated with location source, language, or journal impact factor. We conclude that dissemination biases may indeed occur in the social and behavioral science literature, as has been consistently documented in the medical literature. As such, primary researchers, journal reviewers, editors, systematic reviewers, and meta-analysts must be cognizant of the causes and consequences of these biases, and commit to engage in ethical research practices that attempt to minimize them. PMID:25134044

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  4. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  5. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  6. The relationship between alcohol consumption and menstrual cycle: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, Kathleen B.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use affects men and women differently, with women being more affected by the health effects of alcohol use (NIAAA, 2011). Yet, a dearth of information investigating the alcohol use in women exists (SAMSHA, 2011). In particular, one dispositional factor hypothesized to contribute to alcohol consumption in women is the menstrual cycle. However, only 13 empirical papers have considered the menstrual cycle as related to alcohol consumption in women. These studies fall out with somewhat mixed findings suggesting that the premenstrual week is associated with increased, decreased, or no change in alcohol consumption, likely due to methodological differences in menstrual cycle determination and measures of alcohol consumption. These methodological differences and possible other contributing factors are discussed here with recommendations for future research in this area. Understanding the contribution of the menstrual cycle to alcohol consumption is one step in addressing an important women’s health concern. PMID:26293593

  7. Collegiate Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior: A Literature Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaly, Perry W.; Heesacker, Martin; Frost, Hanna M.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses two theories of alcohol use and risky behavior: disinhibition theory and alcohol myopia theory. Reviews the empirical research on collegiate alcohol use and high-risk sexual behavior. Suggestions for future research and for student personnel professionals are provided. (Contains 58 references.) (GCP)

  8. The Role of Alcohol Policies in Preventing Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Megan C.; Reidy, Dennis E.; Valle, Linda Anne

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article summarizes existing research on the relationship between alcohol policies and intimate partner violence (IPV). Because alcohol represents an important risk factor for IPV, interventions and policies aimed at decreasing problem drinking may also lead to reductions in IPV. Method Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant peer-reviewed journal articles on alcohol policies and IPV, as well as reference sections of appropriate articles. Only policies that have been studied specifically for impact on IPV were included. Results Three alcohol policy areas (outlet density, hours and days of sale, pricing/taxation) had been studied in relation to IPV outcomes. Research on outlet density had the most consistent findings, with most studies indicating that higher densities of alcohol outlets are associated with higher rates of IPV. Fewer studies had been conducted on pricing policies and policies restricting hours/days of sale, with most studies suggesting no impact on IPV rates. Conclusions Higher density of alcohol outlets appears to be associated with greater rates of IPV. However, there is limited evidence suggesting that alcohol pricing policies and restrictions on hours/days of sale are associated with IPV outcomes. Knowledge about the impact of alcohol-related policies on IPV and violence in general is limited by several significant research gaps. Additional research is needed to assess the impact of alcohol policies on IPV and other forms of violence. PMID:25486390

  9. Does alcohol have any effect on male reproductive function? A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    La Vignera, Sandro; Condorelli, Rosita A; Balercia, Giancarlo; Vicari, Enzo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2013-01-01

    Although alcohol is widely used, its impact on the male reproductive function is still controversial. Over the years, many studies have investigated the effects of alcohol consumption on sperm parameters and male infertility. This article reviews the main preclinical and clinical evidences. Studies conducted on the experimental animal have shown that a diet enriched with ethanol causes sperm parameter abnormalities, a number of alterations involving the reproductive tract inhibition, and reduced mouse oocyte in vitro fertilization rate. These effects were partly reversible upon discontinuation of alcohol consumption. Most of the studies evaluating the effects of alcohol in men have shown a negative impact on the sperm parameters. This has been reported to be associated with hypotestosteronemia and low–normal or elevated gonadotropin levels suggesting a combined central and testicular detrimental effect of alcohol. Nevertheless, alcohol consumption does not seem to have much effect on fertility either in in vitro fertilization programs or population-based studies. Finally, the genetic background and other concomitant, alcohol consumption-related conditions influence the degree of the testicular damage. In conclusion, alcohol consumption is associated with a deterioration of sperm parameters which may be partially reversible upon alcohol consumption discontinuation. PMID:23274392

  10. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  11. Medical nutrition therapy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease – a review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Rusu, E; Enache, G; Jinga, M; Dragut, R; Nan, R; Popescu, H; Parpala, C; Homentcovschi, C; Nitescu, M; Stoian, M; Costache, A; Posea, M; Rusu, F; Jinga, V; Mischianu, D; Radulian, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of liver disease worldwide, with a prevalence of 20%-40% in Western populations. The purpose of this article is to review data related to lifestyle changes in patients with NAFLD. Method: We searched a public domain database (PubMed) with the following categories: disease (NAFLD, fatty liver, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]) and intervention (lifestyle intervention, diet, nutrition) with each possible combination through 25 September 2014, for relevant articles. Review of articles was restricted to those published in English. We selected the studies involving adult patients only. Conclusion: There is no consensus as to what diet or lifestyle approach is the best for NAFLD patients. However, patients with NAFLD may benefit from a moderate- to low-carbohydrate (40%–45% of total calories) diet, coupled with increased dietary MUFA and n-3 PUFAs, reduced SFAs. More CRT are needed to clarify the specific effects of different diets and dietary components on the health of NAFLD patients. Abbreviations: NAFL = Non-alcoholic fatty liver, NAFLD = non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NASH = non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, HCC = hepatocarcinoma, BEE = basal energy expenditure, CRT = A small clinical randomized trial showed that short-term carbohydrate restriction is more efficacious in reducing intrahepatic triglyceride, IHT = intrahepatic triglyceride, VLCD = Very low calorie diets, AST = aspartate aminotransferases, SFAs = saturated fatty acids. PMID:26351523

  12. Pellagrous encephalopathy presenting as alcohol withdrawal delirium: A case series and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol withdrawal delirium (AWD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Pellagra (niacin deficiency) can be a cause of delirium during alcohol withdrawal that may often be overlooked. Objectives We present a three-patient case series of pellagrous encephalopathy (delirium due to pellagra) presenting as AWD. Methods We provide a brief review of pellagra’s history, data on pellagra’s epidemiology, and discuss pellagra’s various manifestations, particularly as related to alcohol withdrawal. We conclude by providing a review of existing guidelines on the management of alcohol withdrawal, highlighting that they do not include pellagrous encephalopathy in the differential diagnosis for AWD. Results Though pellagra has been historically described as the triad of dementia, dermatitis, and diarrhea, it seldom presents with all three findings. The neurocognitive disturbance associated with pellagra is better characterized by delirium rather than dementia, and pellagra may present as an isolated delirium without any other aspects of the triad. Discussion Although endemic pellagra is virtually eradicated in Western countries, it continues to present as pellagrous encephalopathy in patients with risk factors for malnutrition such as chronic alcohol intake, homelessness, or AIDS. It may often be mistaken for AWD. Whenever pellagra is suspected, treatment with oral nicotinamide (100 mg three times daily for 3–4 weeks) prior to laboratory confirmation is recommended as an inexpensive, safe, and potentially life-saving intervention. PMID:23186222

  13. [Suicidal alcoholic patients: profile, risk factors and review of the literature from 1955 to 1988].

    PubMed

    Théret, L; Facy, F; Pascalis, J G

    1989-12-01

    Alcoholism and suicide are two Public Health problems which are linked at the epidemiological and clinical levels. Research over suicide risk factors among alcoholic subjects has developed mainly among medicalized psychiatric populations. Suicide occurs late among alcoholic patients, and affects particularly men and socially isolated subjects. The main risk factors relate to the decrease of the socio-economic status. loss of job and of income-, to the interpersonal loss--i.e. family bereavement or breach of relation, to the existence of a suicidal ideation often communicated or of suicidal antecedents, to a degradation of the physical state or the presence of some affections like gastro-duodenal ulcer. The identified factors are of little specificity. It is difficult to assess their interrelations and their respective true values. The reliable prediction of a later suicide remains presently impossible. Progress in analytic research over the alcoholic patients' suicide could result from the standardization of populations and of studied factors and from the use of multivariate analysis statistical methods. PMID:2700287

  14. Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verner, Zenobia, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    This issue provides a selection of articles about literature and the teaching of literature. Titles include "Sin, Salvation, and Grace in 'The Scarlet Letter,'""'The Road Not Taken': A Study in Ambiguity,""In Search of Shakespeare: The Essential Years,""Right Deeds for Wrong Reasons: Teaching the Bible as Literature,""A Southern Author's Fight for…

  15. Disulfiram-Induced De Novo Convulsions without Alcohol Challenge: Case Series and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Ranganath Ramarao; Bairy, Bhavya K

    2015-01-01

    Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF) an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%), DSF-induced hypertension (HTN) (37.5%), psychosis (12.5%) were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5%) were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5%) even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%). Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution. PMID:26664087

  16. Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention in Workplace Settings and Social Services: A Comparison of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Bernd; O’Donnell, Amy Jane; Kastner, Sinja; Schmidt, Christiane Sybille; Schäfer, Ingo; Reimer, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background: The robust evidence base for the effectiveness of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBIs) in primary health care (PHC) suggests that a widespread expansion of ASBI in non-medical settings could be beneficial. Social service and criminal justice settings work frequently with persons with alcohol use disorders, and workplace settings can be an appropriate setting for the implementation of alcohol prevention programs, as a considerable part of their social interactions takes place in this context. Methods: Update of two systematic reviews on ASBI effectiveness in workplaces, social service, and criminal justice settings. Review to identify implementation barriers and facilitators and future research needs of ASBI in non-medical settings. Results: We found a limited number of randomized controlled trials in non-medical settings with an equivocal evidence of effectiveness of ASBI. In terms of barriers and facilitators to implementation, the heterogeneity of non-medical settings makes it challenging to draw overarching conclusions. In the workplace, employee concerns with regard to the consequences of self-disclosure appear to be key. For social services, the complexity of certain client needs suggest that a stepped and carefully tailored approach is likely to be required. Discussion: Compared to PHC, the reviewed settings are far more heterogeneous in terms of client groups, external conditions, and the focus on substance use disorders. Thus, future research should try to systematize these differences, and consider their implications for the deliverability, acceptance, and potential effectiveness of ASBI for different target groups, organizational frameworks, and professionals. PMID:25339914

  17. Disulfiram-Induced De Novo Convulsions without Alcohol Challenge: Case Series and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Ranganath Ramarao; Bairy, Bhavya K.

    2015-01-01

    Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF) an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%), DSF-induced hypertension (HTN) (37.5%), psychosis (12.5%) were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5%) were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5%) even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%). Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy — seizure induction, emphasizing caution. PMID:26664087

  18. Sugar Alcohols, Caries Incidence, and Remineralization of Caries Lesions: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mäkinen, Kauko K.

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol ≥ xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  19. Sugar alcohols, caries incidence, and remineralization of caries lesions: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, Kauko K

    2010-01-01

    Remineralization of minor enamel defects is a normal physiological process that is well known to clinicians and researchers in dentistry and oral biology. This process can be facilitated by various dietary and oral hygiene procedures and may also concern dentin caries lesions. Dental caries is reversible if detected and treated sufficiently early. Habitual use of xylitol, a sugar alcohol of the pentitol type, can be associated with significant reduction in caries incidence and with tooth remineralization. Other dietary polyols that can remarkably lower the incidence of caries include erythritol which is a tetritol-type alditol. Based on known molecular parameters of simple dietary alditols, it is conceivable to predict that their efficacy in caries prevention will follow the homologous series, that is, that the number of OH-groups present in the alditol molecule will determine the efficacy as follows: erythritol >/= xylitol > sorbitol. The possible difference between erythritol and xylitol must be confirmed in future clinical trials. PMID:20339492

  20. Propofol for Treatment of Refractory Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Brotherton, Amy L; Hamilton, Eric P; Kloss, H Grace; Hammond, Drayton A

    2016-04-01

    The authors evaluated all available evidence on the use of propofol as an adjuvant for the treatment of resistant alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) in comparison to other therapies. A comprehensive PubMed search (1966-December 2015) was conducted using the search terms propofol, alcohol withdrawal, and drug therapy. Articles were cross-referenced for other citations. Clinical studies, case series, and case reports published in the English language assessing the use of propofol in adult patients for treatment of AWS were reviewed for inclusion. Propofol is a sedative-hypnotic that exerts its actions through agonism of GABAA receptors at a different binding site than benzodiazepines and reduces glutamatergic activity through N-methyl-d-aspartase (NMDA) receptor blockade. Dosages from 5 to 100 μg/kg/minute reduced AWS symptoms with frequent development of hypotension and requirement for mechanical ventilation. Patients on propofol often experienced longer durations of mechanical ventilation and length of stay, which may be attributed to more-resistant cases of AWS. When propofol was compared with dexmedetomidine as adjuncts in AWS, both agents showed similar benzodiazepine- and haloperidol-sparing effects. Dexmedetomidine was associated with more numerical rates of bradycardia, while propofol was associated with more numerical instances of hypotension. Dexmedetomidine was used more frequently in nonintubated patients. The available data assessing the utility of propofol for AWS exhibited significant heterogeneity. Propofol may be useful in a specific population of patients with AWS, limited to those who are not clinically responding to first-line therapy with benzodiazepines. Specifically, propofol should be considered in patients who are refractory to or not candidates for other adjuvant therapies, patients already requiring mechanical ventilation, or those with seizure activity or refractory delirium tremens. In severe, refractory AWS, adjuvant therapy with

  1. Alcohol Use Predicts Sexual Decision-Making: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Experimental Literature.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Cunningham, Karlene; Johnson, Blair T; Carey, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is associated with HIV and other sexually transmitted infections through increased sexual risk-taking behavior. Establishing a causal link between alcohol and sexual behavior has been challenging due to methodological limitations (e.g., reliance on cross-sectional designs). Experimental methods can be used to establish causality. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of alcohol consumption on unprotected sex intentions. We searched electronic bibliographic databases for records with relevant keywords; 26 manuscripts (k = 30 studies) met inclusion criteria. Results indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with greater intentions to engage in unprotected sex (d +s = 0.24, 0.35). The effect of alcohol on unprotected sex intentions was greater when sexual arousal was heightened. Alcohol consumption is causally linked to theoretical antecedents of sexual risk behavior, consistent with the alcohol myopia model. Addressing alcohol consumption as a determinant of unprotected sex intentions may lead to more effective HIV interventions. PMID:26080689

  2. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Male Mexican and Central American Im/migrant Laborers: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worby, Paula A.; Organista, Kurt C.

    2007-01-01

    This review addresses a growing concern regarding alcohol use in adult male Latino im/migrant laborers in the United States. The review draws from alcohol studies focusing on "Hispanic" populations, and from health behavior studies of Latino im/migrant laborers, research that includes alcohol use. Specifically, this review addresses (a) alcohol…

  3. Adaptive network countermeasures.

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland-Bane, Randy; Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Carathimas, Anthony G.; Thomas, Eric D.

    2003-10-01

    This report describes the results of a two-year LDRD funded by the Differentiating Technologies investment area. The project investigated the use of countermeasures in protecting computer networks as well as how current countermeasures could be changed in order to adapt with both evolving networks and evolving attackers. The work involved collaboration between Sandia employees and students in the Sandia - California Center for Cyber Defenders (CCD) program. We include an explanation of the need for adaptive countermeasures, a description of the architecture we designed to provide adaptive countermeasures, and evaluations of the system.

  4. Persuasive Features in Web-Based Alcohol and Smoking Interventions: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the use of technologies to persuade, motivate, and activate individuals’ health behavior change has been a quickly expanding field of research. The use of the Web for delivering interventions has been especially relevant. Current research tends to reveal little about the persuasive features and mechanisms embedded in Web-based interventions targeting health behavior change. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to extract and analyze persuasive system features in Web-based interventions for substance use by applying the persuasive systems design (PSD) model. In more detail, the main objective was to provide an overview of the persuasive features within current Web-based interventions for substance use. Methods We conducted electronic literature searches in various databases to identify randomized controlled trials of Web-based interventions for substance use published January 1, 2004, through December 31, 2009, in English. We extracted and analyzed persuasive system features of the included Web-based interventions using interpretive categorization. Results The primary task support components were utilized and reported relatively widely in the reviewed studies. Reduction, self-monitoring, simulation, and personalization seem to be the most used features to support accomplishing user’s primary task. This is an encouraging finding since reduction and self-monitoring can be considered key elements for supporting users to carry out their primary tasks. The utilization of tailoring was at a surprisingly low level. The lack of tailoring may imply that the interventions are targeted for too broad an audience. Leveraging reminders was the most common way to enhance the user-system dialogue. Credibility issues are crucial in website engagement as users will bind with sites they perceive credible and navigate away from those they do not find credible. Based on the textual descriptions of the interventions, we cautiously

  5. Exercise countermeasures for spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A; Sandler, H

    1995-01-01

    The authors present a physiological basis for the use of exercise as a weightlessness countermeasure, outline special considerations for the development of exercise countermeasures, review and evaluate exercise used during space flight, and provide new approaches and concepts for the implementation of novel exercise countermeasures for future space flight. The discussion of the physiological basis for countermeasures examines maximal oxygen uptake, blood volume, metabolic responses to work, muscle function, bone loss, and orthostatic instability. The discussion of considerations for exercise prescriptions during space flight includes operational considerations, type of exercise, fitness considerations, age and gender, and psychological considerations. The discussion of exercise currently used in space flight examines cycle ergometry, the treadmill, strength training devices, electrical stimulation, and the Penguin suit worn by Russian crews. New approaches to exercise countermeasures include twin bicycles, dynamic resistance exercisers, maximal exercise effects, grasim (gravity simulators), and the relationship between exercise and LBNP. PMID:11541470

  6. Countermeasure laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molocher, Bernhard

    2005-11-01

    In the whole scope of developing a countermeasure system against infrared guided missiles, the development of adequate laser sources is one of many aspects, however certainly the most demanding. The article describes from a directed infrared countermeasure (DIRCM) system aspect the functional and operational basics relevant for countering strategies. DIRCM techniques can be categorized into jamming and damaging countermeasure techniques. The resulting requirements for the countermeasure laser sources are briefly explained. Jam laser source types with advantages and drawbacks as well as possible damage laser sources, including the estimation of maturity and their specific features, are described. The FLASH countermeasure demonstrator was developed to validate the concept of having a closed loop jamming and damaging system. The laser setup for the DIRCM demonstrator FLASH is briefly described and the conducted tests including laser performance are explained.

  7. Adrenergic Inhibition with Dexmedetomidine to Treat Stress Cardiomyopathy during Alcohol Withdrawal: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Zachary M.; Alonso, Alvaro; Kennedy, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Stress (Takotsubo) cardiomyopathy is a form of reversible left ventricular dysfunction with a heightened risk of ventricular arrhythmia thought to be caused by high circulating catecholamines. We report a case of stress cardiomyopathy that developed during severe alcohol withdrawal successfully treated with dexmedetomidine. The case involves a 53-year-old man with a significant history of alcohol abuse who presented to a teaching hospital with new-onset seizures. His symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal were initially treated with benzodiazepines, but the patient later developed hypotension, and stress cardiomyopathy was suspected based on ECG and echocardiographic findings. Adjunctive treatment with the alpha-2-adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine, was initiated to curtail excessive sympathetic outflow of the withdrawal syndrome, thereby targeting the presumed pathophysiology of the cardiomyopathy. Significant clinical improvement was observed within one day of initiation of dexmedetomidine. These findings are consistent with other reports suggesting that sympathetic dysregulation during alcohol withdrawal produces ideal pathobiology for stress cardiomyopathy and leads to ventricular arrhythmogenicity. Stress cardiomyopathy should be recognized as a complication of alcohol withdrawal that significantly increases cardiac-related mortality. By helping to correct autonomic dysregulation of the withdrawal syndrome, dexmedetomidine may be useful in the treatment of stress-induced cardiomyopathy. PMID:27006838

  8. Evaluating countermeasures in spaceflight analogs.

    PubMed

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2016-04-15

    Countermeasures are defined as solutions to prevent the undesirable physiologic outcomes associated with spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs provide a valuable opportunity for the evaluation of countermeasures because they allow for the evaluation of more subjects, more experimental control, and are considerably less expensive than actual spaceflight. The various human analogs have differing strengths and weaknesses with respect to the development and evaluation of countermeasures. The human analogs are briefly reviewed with a focus on their suitability for countermeasure evaluation. Bed rest is the most commonly used analog for evaluating countermeasures. While countermeasures are typically developed to target one or maybe two particular physiologic issues, it is increasingly important to evaluate all of the organ systems to discern whether they might be unintended consequences on nontargeted tissues. In preparation for Mars exploration it will be necessary to fully integrate countermeasures to protect all organ systems. The synergistic and antagonistic effects of multiple countermeasures needs to be the focus of future work. PMID:26662054

  9. A Systematic Literature Review of Alcohol Education Programmes in Middle and High School Settings (2000-2014)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Timo; Rundle-Thiele, Sharyn; Schuster, Lisa; Connor, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Social marketing benchmark criteria were used to understand the extent to which single-substance alcohol education programmes targeting adolescents in middle and high school settings sought to change behaviour, utilised theory, included audience research and applied the market segmentation process. The paper aims to discuss these issues.…

  10. Cardiovascular Countermeasures for Exploration-Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2004-01-01

    Astronaut missions to Mars may be many years or even decades in thc future but current and planned efforts can be extrapolated to required treatments and prophylaxis for delerious efforts of prolonged space flight on the cardiovascular system. The literature of candidate countermeasures was considered in combination with unpublished plans for countermeasure implementation. The scope of cardiovascular countermeasures will be guided by assessments of the efficacy of mechanical, physiological and pharmacological approaches in protecting the cardiovascular capacities of interplanetary crewmembers. Plans for countermeasure development, evaluation and validation will exploit synergies among treatment modalities with the goal of maximizing protective effects while minimizing crew time and in-flight resource use. Protection of the cardiovascular capacity of interplanetary crewmembers will become more effective and efficient over the next few decades, but trade-offs between cost and effectiveness of efficiency are always possible if the increased level of risk can be accepted.

  11. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis (SBP) caused by Bacillus Cereus in an Alcoholic Patient: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Ansari, Mohammad Aftab Alam; Sarfraz, Asim; Jaiswal, Nitesh; Singh, Siddharth

    2015-02-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is infection of peritoneal covering of the abdomen caused by bacteria, without any known etiology. Common known predisposing factors are cirrhosis of liver and old age among others. Bacillus cereus is an uncommon cause of SBP and often wrongly interpreted as a contaminant. We hereby report a case of peritonitis in chronic alcoholic, elderly male patient presenting in the outpatient department. Bacillus cereus is often regarded as contaminant but must be carefully identified and correlated clinically in case of isolation from peritoneal fluid. PMID:25859458

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  13. Ultrafast laser IR countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafailov, Michael K.

    2009-05-01

    Directional Infrared Countermeasures (DIRCM) is an effective technique to defeat heat-seeking missiles. The major problem of existing DIRCM is that it may work like a beacon for threats that are not susceptible to the jamming code implemented: attracting a missile instead of re-directing it away from the aircraft. Ultra-fast laser pulse technology is discussed as an alternative to a conventional laser DIRCM. An ultra-fast laser is capable of providing a different type of countermeasure which is compatible with existing laser based DIRCM pointing systems as it requires much less peak power than damage inducing systems. A foundation of ultra-fast technology is its unique ability to alter the intrinsic characteristics of the semiconductor. In this paper, we will only consider the effects of a mild lattice disturbance caused by relatively low energy ultra-fast (femto-second) and, to some extent, fast (pico-second) laser pulses.

  14. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  15. Zika Virus: Medical Countermeasure Development Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Robert W.; Homan, Jane; Callahan, Michael V.; Glasspool-Malone, Jill; Damodaran, Lambodhar; Schneider, Adriano De Bernardi; Zimler, Rebecca; Talton, James; Cobb, Ronald R.; Ruzic, Ivan; Smith-Gagen, Julie; Janies, Daniel; Wilson, James

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Reports of high rates of primary microcephaly and Guillain–Barré syndrome associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia and Brazil have raised concerns that the virus circulating in these regions is a rapidly developing neuropathic, teratogenic, emerging infectious public health threat. There are no licensed medical countermeasures (vaccines, therapies or preventive drugs) available for Zika virus infection and disease. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) predicts that Zika virus will continue to spread and eventually reach all countries and territories in the Americas with endemic Aedes mosquitoes. This paper reviews the status of the Zika virus outbreak, including medical countermeasure options, with a focus on how the epidemiology, insect vectors, neuropathology, virology and immunology inform options and strategies available for medical countermeasure development and deployment. Methods Multiple information sources were employed to support the review. These included publically available literature, patents, official communications, English and Lusophone lay press. Online surveys were distributed to physicians in the US, Mexico and Argentina and responses analyzed. Computational epitope analysis as well as infectious disease outbreak modeling and forecasting were implemented. Field observations in Brazil were compiled and interviews conducted with public health officials. PMID:26934531

  16. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  17. A comparison of the prevalence of prenatal alcohol exposure obtained via maternal self-reports versus meconium testing: a systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal self-reports, used for the detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE), may lack validity, necessitating the use of an objective biomarker. The detection of fatty acid ethyl esters (products of non-oxidative ethanol metabolism) in meconium has been established as a novel biomarker of PAE. The purpose of the current study was to compare the prevalence of PAE as reported via maternal self-reports with the results of meconium testing, and to quantify the disparity between these two methods. Methods A systematic literature search for studies reporting on the prevalence of PAE, using maternal self-reports in combination with meconium testing, was conducted using multiple electronic bibliographic databases. Pooled prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated based on eight studies, using the Mantel-Haenszel method, assuming a random effects model. A random effects meta-regression was performed to test for a difference. Results The pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by meconium testing was 4.26 (95% CI: 1.34-13.57) times the pooled prevalence of PAE as measured by maternal self-reports. Large variations across the studies in regard to the difference between estimates obtained from maternal self-reports and those obtained from meconium testing were observed. Conclusions If maternal self-reports are the sole information source upon which health care professionals rely, a number of infants who were prenatally exposed to alcohol are not being recognized as such. However, further research is needed in order to validate existing biomarkers, as well as discover new biomarkers, for the detection of PAE. PMID:24708684

  18. Countermeasures to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin W.

    1989-01-01

    Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.

  19. NASA Now: Exercise Physiology: Countermeasures

    NASA Video Gallery

    Aaron Weaver is a biomedical engineer responsible for setting up and running experiments and recruiting test subjects in the Exercise Countermeasures Laboratory at NASA’s Glenn Research Center in...

  20. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  1. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects in Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pancratz, Diane R.

    This literature review defines Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAE) and considers their causes, diagnoses, prevalence, and educational ramifications. Effects of alcohol during each of the trimesters of pregnancy are summarized. Specific diagnostic characteristics of FAS are listed: (1) growth deficiency, (2) a…

  3. Perceptual countermeasures to speeding.

    PubMed

    Fildes, Brian; Corben, Bruce; Newstead, Stuart; Macaulay, Jemima; Gunatillake, Thanuja; Tziotis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An on-road evaluation of two perceptual countermeasure treatments (an enhanced curve post treatment and peripheral transverse edgelines on the approach to an intersection) was conducted over one year to indicate potential for reducing travel speed. Measures included speed and deceleration profiles, braking, and lateral placement observations taken from video recordings at each site. Data were collected before treatment, immediately after treatment, and 12 months after treatment. The results obtained were quite variable across sites and treatments. At curves, speed effects were mixed with both speed reductions and increases observed immediately after and 12-months later. Braking results tended to support travel speed findings and some improvement in lateral placement were also observed at these locations. At intersections, the results were more stable where speed reductions were more common both immediately after treatment as well as longer-term. There were no differences in braking and lateral placement at these straight-road locations. The findings seem to have been unduly influenced to some degree by misadventure and wear and tear at these sites. It is argued that while the effectiveness of these treatments may be site specific to some degree, they do offer a low-cost solution to reducing travel speed at hazardous locations. PMID:16179136

  4. HIV-Alcohol Risk Reduction Interventions in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Review of the Literature and Recommendations for a Way Forward.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Maria A; Esser, Marissa B; Sparks, Alicia; Kaufman, Michelle R

    2016-03-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears 69 % of the global burden of HIV, and strong evidence indicates an association between alcohol consumption, HIV risk behavior, and HIV incidence. However, characteristics of efficacious HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions are not well known. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarize the characteristics and synthesize the findings of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions implemented in the region and reported in peer-reviewed journals. Of 644 citations screened, 19 met the inclusion criteria for this review. A discussion of methodological challenges, research gaps, and recommendations for future interventions is included. Relatively few interventions were found, and evidence is mixed about the efficacy of HIV-alcohol risk reduction interventions. There is a need to further integrate HIV-alcohol risk reduction components into HIV prevention programming and to document results from such integration. Additionally, research on larger scale, multi-level interventions is needed to identify effective HIV-alcohol risk reduction strategies. PMID:26511865

  5. Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) represents the transition within the US Space program from the 'heroic' era of space flight (characterized most vividly by the Mercury and Apollo programs) to an epoch characterized by routine access to the space environment. In this new era, the unique characteristics of the microgravity environment will enable new types of research activities, primarily in the life sciences, materials science, and biotechnology fields. In addition to its role as a'microgravity science laboratory,' Space Station Freedom (SSF) constitutes the operational platform on which the knowledge and skills needed to continue our exploration of space will be acquired. In the area of spacecraft operations, these skills include the ability to assemble, operate, and maintain large structures in space. In the area of crew operations, the potentially harmful effects of extended exposure to microgravity must be understood in order to keep the crew mission capable. To achieve this goal, the complex process of physiological deconditioning must be monitored, and countermeasures utilized as needed to keep the individual crew members within acceptable physiological limits. The countermeasures program under development for the SSF Program is titled the Biomedical Monitoring and Countermeasures (BMAC) program. As implied by the name, this activity has two primary products, a biomedical monitoring element and a countermeasures development effort. The program is a critical path element in the overall SSF Program, and should be considered an essential element of operations on board the space station. It is readily apparent that the capability to both protect and optimize the health and performance of the human operators on board SSF will be a critical element in the overall success of the SSFP. Previous experience within the Russian space program has demonstrated that the time required for countermeasures on extended missions can become a monumental operational burden

  6. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  7. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  8. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  9. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  10. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  11. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  12. A gravity loading countermeasure skinsuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldie, James M.; Newman, Dava J.

    2011-04-01

    Despite the use of several countermeasures, significant physiological deconditioning still occurs during long duration spaceflight. Bone loss - primarily due to the absence of loading in microgravity - is perhaps the greatest challenge to resolve. This paper describes a conceptual Gravity Loading Countermeasure Skinsuit (GLCS) that induces loading on the body to mimic standing and - when integrated with other countermeasures - exercising on Earth. Comfort, mobility and other operational issues were explored during a pilot study carried out in parabolic flight for prototype suits worn by three subjects. Compared to the 1- or 2-stage Russian Pingvin Suits, the elastic mesh of the GLCS can create a loading regime that gradually increases in hundreds of stages from the shoulders to the feet, thereby reproducing the weight-bearing regime normally imparted by gravity with much higher resolution. Modelling shows that the skinsuit requires less than 10 mmHg (1.3 kPa) of compression for three subjects of varied gender, height and mass. Negligible mobility restriction and excellent comfort properties were found during the parabolic flights, which suggests that crewmembers should be able to work normally, exercise or sleep while wearing the suit. The suit may also serve as a practical 1 g harness for exercise countermeasures and vibration applications to improve dynamic loading.

  13. Program development for exercise countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Stewart, D. F.; Harris, B. A.; Siconolfi, S. F.; Greenisen, M. C.; Larochelle, F. T.

    1992-01-01

    The concern of NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) is to ensure crew physical effectiveness for flight- or mission-related tasks, and encompasses postflight as well as preflight and inflight exercise components. Attention is given to the implementation of ECP via the Space Shuttle Orbiter's treadmill, rower, cycle ergometer, and lower body negative pressure apparatus.

  14. A critical benefit analysis of artificial gravity as a microgravity countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaderka, Justin; Young, Laurence R.; Paloski, William H.

    2010-11-01

    Deconditioning of astronauts during long duration spaceflight, especially with regard to the cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, and neurological systems, is a well-recognized problem that has stimulated significant investments in countermeasure research over the past five decades. Because of its potential salutary effects on all of these systems, artificial gravity via centrifugation has been one of the most persistently discussed countermeasures; however, to date, few studies have tested its efficacy, particularly in comparison to other, system-specific countermeasures. This paper reports results of a meta-analysis we performed to compare previously published results from artificial gravity studies with those from studies utilizing traditional countermeasures, such as resistive exercise, aerobic exercise, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), or some variation of these countermeasures. Published and non-published literature involving human bed rest and immersion studies, human non-bed rest studies, and flight data were examined. Our analyses were confounded by differences in research design from study to study, including subject selection criteria, deconditioning paradigm, physiological systems assessed, and dependent measures employed. Nevertheless we were able to draw comparisons between studies that had some consistency across these variables. Results indicate that for prolonged spaceflight an artificial gravity-based countermeasure may provide benefits equivalent to traditional countermeasures for the cardiovascular system. Too few comparable studies have been performed to draw any conclusions for the musculo-skeletal system. Gaps in the current knowledge of artificial gravity are identified and provide the basis for a discussion of future topics for ground-based research using this countermeasure.

  15. The Elderly Alcoholic: The Counselor's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Douglas; Capuzzi, Dave

    1981-01-01

    A major problem of the elderly, alcoholism, has received little emphasis in counseling literature. This article presents physiological, sociological, and psychological aspects of alcoholism as they apply to the elderly. Conclusions and recommendations for counselor education programing are discussed. (Author)

  16. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity. PMID:11900152

  17. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  18. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  20. Optical countermeasures against human operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    Despite the advent of remotely operated and autonomous targeting systems, human (direct) vision is still critical for the successful performance of many tasks on the battlefield. Since high intensity light sources have the potential to generate a variety of disturbing visual effects, ranging from short-term disruption to lasting eye damage, they may offer a simple and cost-effective method to deny operators the possibility to successfully fulfill their tasks. Here we describe the full range of different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and their associated potential operational impact. To systematically investigate the capability of high intensity light sources to disturb human vision and degrade human task performance we designed test protocols involving a range of military relevant tasks. The effectiveness of optical countermeasures is quantified both through their impact on task performance and through subjective reports on the experienced level of discomfort. We also derived a model that predicts normal driving behavior during exposure to a high intensity light source. These predictions can be directly related to operational requirements and can thus be used to assess the operational effectiveness of optical countermeasures. Unexpectedly, the results from our tests indicate that severe light insults have only very limited effect on human performance, even when the associated levels of visual discomfort are extremely high. Together with the limited window of operation (only during darkness) and other operational limitations (e.g., the difficulty of pointing a beam straight at the adversary) these findings question the effectivity of high intensity light sources as robust countermeasures against human operators. Further research should focus on the stimulus characteristics and methods of delivery to optimize the effectiveness of these countermeasures.

  1. Countermeasure development to space adaptation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larochelle, F. T.; Charles, J.; Harm, D. L.; Fortney, S. M.; Siconolfi, S.

    1992-01-01

    At the Johnson Space Center we are actively involved, with the collaboration of other NASA Centers and the scientific community at large, in the search for ways to counter the negative affects of spaceflight beginning with the improvement in our understanding of the adaptation. Heretofore this search will be broadly referred to as countermeasures development and includes not only the preservation of physiological well-being but also pyschological well-being. The psychological integrity of crews will, undoubtedly, become progressively more important as lengths, remoteness, and risks of missions increase. The character and priorities of our contermeasure development is very much dependent upon the character of the mission and requires a very close liaison between Medical Operations and the investigators. Because of the demands which countermeasure implementation imposes upon crew schedules and because of the potential weight, power, and budget impacts of the hardware and its development, a countermeasure can only become operational when it is either adequately validated or the human risk of not applying the existing technology exceeds the other negative impacts not directly related to crew health and safety.

  2. Laser countermeasures for commercial airlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, Burt

    2005-05-01

    Since the attempted shoot down of an Israeli airliner departing from Mombasa, Kenya in November of 2002, there has been heightened concern that Al Qaeda, or other terrorist factions, will use shoulder-fired heat seeking missiles as part of their tactics. These weapons, known more formally as man-portable air defense systems, or MANPADS, have been widely proliferated, are easy to conceal and deploy, and can be purchased on the black market for as little as $10,000. Recognizing that MANPADS pose a potential threat to commercial airplanes throughout the world, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is executing a system design and development (SDD) program to evaluate the viability of missile countermeasures that would be installed on commercial airplanes. This paper provides an overview of the MANPADS threat, a discussion of associated countermeasure requirements for systems installed on commercial airplanes, and a description of a laser countermeasure system that is being prototyped and demonstrated as part of the DHS Counter-MANPADS program.

  3. NASA Countermeasures Evaluation and Validation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundquist, Charlie M.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    To support its ISS and exploration class mission objectives, NASA has developed a Countermeasure Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP). The goal of this project is to evaluate and validate the optimal complement of countermeasures required to maintain astronaut health, safety, and functional ability during and after short- and long-duration space flight missions. The CEVP is the final element of the process in which ideas and concepts emerging from basic research evolve into operational countermeasures. The CEVP is accomplishing these objectives by conducting operational/clinical research to evaluate and validate countermeasures to mitigate these maladaptive responses. Evaluation is accomplished by testing in space flight analog facilities, and validation is accomplished by space flight testing. Both will utilize a standardized complement of integrated physiological and psychological tests, termed the Integrated Testing Regimen (ITR) to examine candidate countermeasure efficacy and intersystem effects. The CEVP emphasis is currently placed on validating the initial complement of ISS countermeasures targeting bone, muscle, and aerobic fitness; followed by countermeasures for neurological, psychological, immunological, nutrition and metabolism, and radiation risks associated with space flight. This presentation will review the processes, plans, and procedures that will enable CEVP to play a vital role in transitioning promising research results into operational countermeasures necessary to maintain crew health and performance during long duration space flight.

  4. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  5. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  7. The Biomechanics of Exercise Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, Peter R.; Arnold, Steven; Derr, Janice; Sharkey, Neil; Wu, Ge

    1999-01-01

    The Penn State Zero-gravity Simulator (PSZS) is a device developed by the Center for Locomotion Studies (CELOS) to enable ground studies of exercise countermeasures for the bone loss that has been shown to occur during long-term exposure to zero gravity (0G). The PSZS simulates 0G exercise by providing a suspension system that holds an individual in a horizontal (supine) position above the floor in order to enable exercise on a wall-mounted treadmill. Due to this orientation, exercise performed in the PSZS is free of the force of -ravity in the direction that would normally contribute to ground reaction forces. In order for movements to be more similar to those in 0G, a constant force suspension of each segment (equal to the segment weight) is provided regardless of limb position. During the preliminary development of the PSZS, CELOS researchers also designed an optional gravity-replacement simulation feature for the PSZS. This feature was a prototype tethering system that consisted of a spring tension system to pull an exercising individual toward the treadmill. The immediate application of the tethering system was to be the provision of gravity-replacement loading so that exercise in 0G- and 1G-loading conditions could be compared, and the PSZS could then be used to evaluate exercise countermeasures for bone loss during space flight. This tethering system would also be a model for the further refinement of gravity-replacement systems provided for astronaut usage while performing prescribed exercise countermeasures for bone loss during long-term space flights.

  8. RFID identity theft and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrigel, Alexander; Zhao, Jian

    2006-02-01

    This paper reviews the ICAO security architecture for biometric passports. An attack enabling RFID identity theft for a later misuse is presented. Specific countermeasures against this attack are described. Furthermore, it is shown that robust high capacity digital watermarking for the embedding and retrieving of binary digital signature data can be applied as an effective mean against RFID identity theft. This approach requires only minimal modifications of the passport manufacturing process and is an enhancement of already proposed solutions. The approach may also be applied in combination with a RFID as a backup solution (damaged RFID chip) to verify with asymmetric cryptographic techniques the authenticity and the integrity of the passport data.

  9. Alcohol, Drugs and Young Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voas, Robert B.

    This paper reviews the research literature on the relationship of drugs, alcohol, and driving among young people, university students, and a group of young criminals. The data show that young people use drugs more than adults do, and that they drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol, especially at night, more often than adults do, and…

  10. Using a Red Team to devise countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swedenburg, R. L.

    1995-01-01

    The ability of a defense system to operate effectively when deployed in battle is dependent on designs able to deal with countermeasures against the defense. The formation of a technical Red Team to stress the preliminary designs of the defensive system with technologically feasible and effective potential countermeasures provides a means to identify such potential countermeasures. This paper describes the experience of the U.S. Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's (BMDO) Theater Missile Defense Red Team since the Gulf War in 1991, the Red-Blue Exchange process, and the value it has provided to the designers of the U.S. Theater Missile Defense systems for developing robust systems. A wide-range of technologically feasible countermeasures has been devised, analyzed, tested for feasibility, and provided to the system developers for mitigation design. The process for independently analyzing possible susceptibilities of preliminary designs and exploiting the susceptibilities to identify possible countermeasures is explained. Designing and characterizing the Red Team's countermeasures, determining their feasibility, and analyzing their potential effectiveness against the defense are explained. A technique for the Blue Team's designers to deal with a wide range of potential countermeasures is explained.

  11. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  12. A Guide to Planning Alcoholism Treatment Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGough, Dixie P.; Hindman, Margaret H.

    This guide contains information from the alcoholism literature and from interviews with people in state alcoholism agencies, major professional associations, and public and private service programs. It is designed to help readers plan and develop community alcoholism programs by providing an overview of the many considerations involved in starting…

  13. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: A Behavioral Teratology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Karge, Belinda D.

    1986-01-01

    The review examines the literature on the behaviorally teratogenic aspects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, including: (1) prevalence of alcohol abuse among women, (2) acute and chronic effects of alcohol on the fetus, (3) genetic susceptibility, (4) neuropathology, (5) correlative conditions, and (6) animal studies. (Author/DB)

  15. Countermeasures against space flight related bone loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian; Schneider, Victor

    1992-01-01

    A general review is presented of data on bone loss with references to countermeasures for use during spaceflight and bedrest. The two primary countermeasures against skeletal atrophy are skeletal loading such as centrifugation and exercise and/or the administration of drugs designed to alter the rate of bone remodeling. Bone loss is argued to be unavoidable in long-duration spaceflight in spite of countermeasures utilized, but a combination of exercise, biochemical treatments, and post-flight therapy is considered the optimal solution.

  16. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  17. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  18. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  19. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program business model.

    PubMed

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W; Hatchett, Richard J

    2010-12-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a "virtual pharmaceutical firm," coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  20. The NIAID Radiation Countermeasures Program Business Model

    PubMed Central

    Hafer, Nathaniel; Maidment, Bert W.

    2010-01-01

    The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program has developed an integrated approach to providing the resources and expertise required for the research, discovery, and development of radiation/nuclear medical countermeasures (MCMs). These resources and services lower the opportunity costs and reduce the barriers to entry for companies interested in working in this area and accelerate translational progress by providing goal-oriented stewardship of promising projects. In many ways, the radiation countermeasures program functions as a “virtual pharmaceutical firm,” coordinating the early and mid-stage development of a wide array of radiation/nuclear MCMs. This commentary describes the radiation countermeasures program and discusses a novel business model that has facilitated product development partnerships between the federal government and academic investigators and biopharmaceutical companies. PMID:21142762

  1. Sensor-guided threat countermeasure system

    DOEpatents

    Stuart, Brent C.; Hackel, Lloyd A.; Hermann, Mark R.; Armstrong, James P.

    2012-12-25

    A countermeasure system for use by a target to protect against an incoming sensor-guided threat. The system includes a laser system for producing a broadband beam and means for directing the broadband beam from the target to the threat. The countermeasure system comprises the steps of producing a broadband beam and directing the broad band beam from the target to blind or confuse the incoming sensor-guided threat.

  2. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    PubMed

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation. PMID:24834571

  3. A biobehavioral research perspective on alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Brady, J V

    1988-01-01

    An empirical biobehavioral research approach to the conditions generally identified as alcohol abuse and alcoholism emphasizes the temporal ordering of participating biochemical, physiological, and behavioral events that provide an operational basis for characterizing the functional aspects of this complex disorder and identifying distinguishable features of the alcohol abuse and dependence process. The available evidence suggests that alcoholism is a condition determined by a host of continuous variables rather than an entity possessing static qualities that imply intractability. The challenge for biobehavioral research is to determine the details of how chronic and excessive alcohol drinking is generated as well as the conditions under which such overindulgence can be attenuated and prevented. Environmental context, for example, can dramatically alter the frequency and amount of alcohol intake. Such contextual malleability is suggested as an important key to at least some of the inconsistencies in the literature with regard to the conditions under which chronic and excessive alcohol intake occurs. Excessive and chronic alcohol ingestion would seem most parsimoniously viewed as a set of behaviors for which others might have been substituted, and intermittently do, rather than as a highly specific disorder or disease. Though current etiological, preventive, and therapeutic orientations emphasize the role of physical dependence and favor genetic influences as strong determinants of alcohol-related disorders, it is important to recognize that troubled drinking is malleable, waxing and then entering periods of remission, with alcohol drinking even in severely dependent individuals remaining susceptible to control by both antecedent and consequating environmental events. PMID:3141967

  4. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  5. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  6. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  7. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the development and advancement of...

  8. Position paper on active countermeasures for computer networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.

    2003-07-01

    Computer security professionals have used passive network countermeasures for several years in order to secure computer networks. Passive countermeasures such as firewalls and intrusion detection systems are effective but their use alone is not enough to protect a network. Active countermeasures offer new ways of protecting a computer network. Corporations and government entities should adopt active network countermeasures as a means of protecting their computer networks.

  9. Meeting the challenges of medical countermeasure development

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Carmen; Hu‐Primmer, Jean; MacGill, Tracy; Courtney, Brooke; Borio, Luciana

    2012-01-01

    Summary Despite substantial investments since the events of 2001, much work remains to prepare the nation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) attack or to respond to an emerging infectious disease threat. Following a 2010 review of the US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, FDA launched its Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi) to facilitate the development and availability of medical products to counter CBRN and emerging disease threats. As a regulatory agency, FDA has a unique and critical part to play in this national undertaking. Using a three‐pillar approach, FDA is addressing key challenges associated with the regulatory review process for medical countermeasures; gaps in regulatory science for MCM development and evaluation; and issues related to the legal, regulatory and policy framework for an effective public health response. Filling the gaps in the MCM Enterprise is a huge national undertaking, requiring the collaboration of all stakeholders, including federal partners, current and prospective developers of medical countermeasures, relevant research organizations, and state and local responders. Especially critical to success are an appreciation of the long timelines, risks and high costs associated with developing medical countermeasures – and the systems to deliver them – and the requisite support of all stakeholders, including national leadership. PMID:22925432

  10. Meeting the challenges of medical countermeasure development.

    PubMed

    Maher, Carmen; Hu-Primmer, Jean; MacGill, Tracy; Courtney, Brooke; Borio, Luciana

    2012-09-01

    Despite substantial investments since the events of 2001, much work remains to prepare the nation for a chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) attack or to respond to an emerging infectious disease threat. Following a 2010 review of the US Public Health Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise, FDA launched its Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi) to facilitate the development and availability of medical products to counter CBRN and emerging disease threats. As a regulatory agency, FDA has a unique and critical part to play in this national undertaking. Using a three-pillar approach, FDA is addressing key challenges associated with the regulatory review process for medical countermeasures; gaps in regulatory science for MCM development and evaluation; and issues related to the legal, regulatory and policy framework for an effective public health response. Filling the gaps in the MCM Enterprise is a huge national undertaking, requiring the collaboration of all stakeholders, including federal partners, current and prospective developers of medical countermeasures, relevant research organizations, and state and local responders. Especially critical to success are an appreciation of the long timelines, risks and high costs associated with developing medical countermeasures - and the systems to deliver them - and the requisite support of all stakeholders, including national leadership. PMID:22925432

  11. Fatigue Countermeasures: Alertness Management in Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Co, E. L.; Rosekind, M. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Weldon, K. J.; Smith, R. M.; Gregory, K. G.; Miller, D. L.; Gander, P. H.; Lebacqz, J. V.; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Since 1980, the NASA Ames Fatigue Countermeasures Program has studied the effects and impact of fatigue on flight operations . Sleep loss and circadian disruption are two of the primary physiological factors that underlie fatigue in flight operations. The Program has developed an array of fatigue countermeasure recommendations that can be used to combat the effects of fatigue and continues to research potential new countermeasures. For example, one such strategy involved a NASA/FAA study on the effects of planned cockpit rest to improve crewmember alertness and performance. Based partly on the study results, the FAA is currently reviewing a proposed Advisory Circular for controlled rest on the flight deck. Since there is no simple answer to the issue of fatigue in aviation, an Education and Training Module has been developed to provide the industry with pertinent information on sleep, circadian rhythms, how flight operations affect these physiological factors, and recommendations for fatigue countermeasures. The Module will be updated as the Program's continued research efforts uncover new information and develop new countermeasure strategies,

  12. Human Laboratory Paradigms in Alcohol Research

    PubMed Central

    Plebani, Jennifer G.; Ray, Lara A.; Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Mackillop, James; Amlung, Michael; King, Andrea C.

    2014-01-01

    Human laboratory studies have a long and rich history in the field of alcoholism. Human laboratory studies have allowed for advances in alcohol research in a variety of ways, including elucidating of the neurobehavioral mechanisms of risk, identifying phenotypically distinct sub-types of alcohol users, investigating of candidate genes underlying experimental phenotypes for alcoholism, and testing mechanisms of action of alcoholism pharmacotherapies on clinically-relevant translational phenotypes, such as persons exhibiting positive-like alcohol effects or alcohol craving. Importantly, the field of human laboratory studies in addiction has progressed rapidly over the past decade and has built upon earlier findings of alcohol's neuropharmacological effects to advancing translational research on alcoholism etiology and treatment. To that end, the new generation of human laboratory studies has focused on applying new methodologies, further refining alcoholism phenotypes, and translating these findings to studies of alcoholism genetics, medication development, and pharmacogenetics. The combination of experimental laboratory approaches with recent developments in neuroscience and pharmacology has been particularly fruitful in furthering our understanding of the impact of individual differences in alcoholism risk and in treatment response. This review of the literature focuses on human laboratory studies of subjective intoxication, alcohol craving, anxiety, and behavioral economics. Each section discusses opportunities for phenotype refinement under laboratory conditions, as well as its application to translational science of alcoholism. A summary and recommendations for future research are also provided. PMID:22309888

  13. Alcohol Use and Firearm Violence.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Han, SeungHoon; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Although the misuse of firearms is necessary to the occurrence of firearm violence, there are other contributing factors beyond simply firearms themselves that might also be modified to prevent firearm violence. Alcohol is one such key modifiable factor. To explore this, we undertook a 40-year (1975-2014) systematic literature review with meta-analysis. One large group of studies showed that over one third of firearm violence decedents had acutely consumed alcohol and over one fourth had heavily consumed alcohol prior to their deaths. Another large group of studies showed that alcohol was significantly associated with firearm use as a suicide means. Two controlled studies showed that gun injury after drinking, especially heavy drinking, was statistically significant among self-inflicted firearm injury victims. A small group of studies investigated the intersection of alcohol and firearms laws and alcohol outlets and firearm violence. One of these controlled studies found that off-premise outlets selling takeout alcohol were significantly associated with firearm assault. Additional controlled, population-level risk factor and intervention studies, including randomized trials of which only 1 was identified, are needed. Policies that rezone off-premise alcohol outlets, proscribe blood alcohol levels and enhance penalties for carrying or using firearms while intoxicated, and consider prior drunk driving convictions as a more precise criterion for disqualifying persons from the purchase or possession of firearms deserve further study. PMID:26811427

  14. Bayesian methodology incorporating expert judgment for ranking countermeasure effectiveness under uncertainty: example applied to at grade railroad crossings in Korea.

    PubMed

    Washington, Simon; Oh, Jutaek

    2006-03-01

    Transportation professionals are sometimes required to make difficult transportation safety investment decisions in the face of uncertainty. In particular, an engineer may be expected to choose among an array of technologies and/or countermeasures to remediate perceived safety problems when: (1) little information is known about the countermeasure effects on safety; (2) information is known but from different regions, states, or countries where a direct generalization may not be appropriate; (3) where the technologies and/or countermeasures are relatively untested, or (4) where costs prohibit the full and careful testing of each of the candidate countermeasures via before-after studies. The importance of an informed and well-considered decision based on the best possible engineering knowledge and information is imperative due to the potential impact on the numbers of human injuries and deaths that may result from these investments. This paper describes the formalization and application of a methodology to evaluate the safety benefit of countermeasures in the face of uncertainty. To illustrate the methodology, 18 countermeasures for improving safety of at grade railroad crossings (AGRXs) in the Republic of Korea are considered. Akin to "stated preference" methods in travel survey research, the methodology applies random selection and laws of large numbers to derive accident modification factor (AMF) densities from expert opinions. In a full Bayesian analysis framework, the collective opinions in the form of AMF densities (data likelihood) are combined with prior knowledge (AMF density priors) for the 18 countermeasures to obtain 'best' estimates of AMFs (AMF posterior credible intervals). The countermeasures are then compared and recommended based on the largest safety returns with minimum risk (uncertainty). To the author's knowledge the complete methodology is new and has not previously been applied or reported in the literature. The results demonstrate that the

  15. NASA Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures Project Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loerch, Linda; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Efficient exercise countermeasures are necessary to offset or minimize spaceflight-induced deconditioning and to maximize crew performance of mission tasks. These countermeasure protocols should use the fewest crew and vehicle resources. NASA s Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) Project works to identify, collect, interpret, and summarize evidence that results in effective exercise countermeasure protocols which protect crew health and performance during International Space Station (ISS) and future exploration-class missions. The ExPC and NASA s Human Research Program are sponsoring multiple studies to evaluate and improve the efficacy of spaceflight exercise countermeasures. First, the Project will measure maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) during cycle ergometry before, during, and after ISS missions. Second, the Project is sponsoring an evaluation of a new prototype harness that offers improved comfort and increased loading during treadmill operations. Third, the Functional Tasks Test protocol will map performance of anticipated lunar mission tasks with physiologic systems before and after short and long-duration spaceflight, to target system contributions and the tailoring of exercise protocols to maximize performance. In addition to these studies that are actively enrolling crewmember participants, the ExPC is planning new studies that include an evaluation of a higher-intensity/lower-volume exercise countermeasure protocol aboard the ISS using the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device and second-generation treadmill, studies that evaluate bone loading during spaceflight exercise, and ground-based studies that focus on fitness for duty standards required to complete lunar mission tasks and for which exercise protocols need to protect. Summaries of these current and future studies and strategies will be provided to international colleagues for knowledge sharing and possible collaboration.

  16. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    adaptability. These results indicate that SA training techniques can be added to existing treadmill exercise equipment and procedures to produce a single integrated countermeasure system to improve performance of astro/cosmonauts during prolonged exploratory space missions.

  17. Pharmacotherapy for alcoholic patients with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Vuittonet, Cynthia L.; Halse, Michael; Leggio, Lorenzo; Fricchione, Samuel B.; Brickley, Michael; Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Tavares, Tonya; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose An update on pharmacotherapy for achieving and maintaining abstinence and mitigating hepatic damage in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is presented. Summary Currently there are limited pharmacotherapy options for managing ALD, which encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis and alcoholic hepatitis to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular cancer. Individual variation in the severity, presentation, and complex pathologenesis of ALD defines barriers to effective treatment. Scoring of disease severity using validated assessment instruments should guide treatment approaches; abstinence and proper nutrition continue to be the cornerstones of management. A literature search (through December 31, 2013) identified no reports of randomized controlled trials using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for the treatment of alcohol dependence in ALD-spectrum disorders. Disulfiram, acamprosate, and naltrexone (oral and intramuscular), while approved by FDA for treatment of alcohol dependence, are not currently approved for use in patients with ALD. Baclofen (also not FDA-approved for use in ALD) is the only medication available in the United States with demonstrated safety and efficacy in reducing alcoholic behavior that has been formally tested in clinical trials in patients with ALD. Pharmacotherapy of alcoholic hepatitis using glucocorticoids or pentoxifylline has shown promise, but these options are reserved for severe ALD only. Conclusion Although various treatments have been investigated for ALD in patients with alcoholism, complete abstinence from alcohol is currently the only recommended form of hepatoprotection for the entire spectrum of ALD diagnoses. PMID:25027533

  18. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  19. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  20. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  3. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  4. Alcohol Effects on Stress Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Blaine, Sara K.; Milivojevic, Verica; Fox, Helen

    2016-01-01

    A significant amount of neurobiological research regarding the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) has focused on alcohol-related activation and long-term alterations in the mesocortical dopaminergic reward pathways. However, alcohol does not only interact with brain reward systems. Many of its acute and chronic effects may be related to allostatic adaptations in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways. For example, acute binge intoxication is associated with hypothalamically driven increases in blood cortisol, norepinephrine, and sex steroid metabolite levels. This may contribute to the development of mesocortical sensitization to alcohol. Furthermore, chronic alcohol exposure is associated with systemic dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal medullary system, and sex steroid systems. This dysregulation appears to manifest as neuroendocrine tolerance. In this review, we first summarize the literature suggesting that alcohol-induced alterations in these hypothalamic systems influence craving and contribute to the development of AUDs. We note that for women, the effects of alcohol on these neuroendocrine stress regulation systems may be influenced by the rhythmic variations of hormones and steroids across the menstrual cycle. Second, we discuss how changes in these systems may indicate progression of AUDs and increased risk of relapse in both sexes. Specifically, neuroendocrine tolerance may contribute to mesocortical sensitization, which in turn may lead to decreased prefrontal inhibitory control of the dopaminergic reward and hypothalamic stress systems. Thus, pharmacological strategies that counteract alcohol-associated changes in hypothalamic and extrahypothalamic stress regulation pathways may slow the development and progression of AUDs. PMID:27254089

  5. Optical countermeasures against CLOS weapon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toet, Alexander; Benoist, Koen W.; van Lingen, Joost N. J.; Schleijpen, H. Ric M. A.

    2013-10-01

    There are many weapon systems in which a human operator acquires a target, tracks it and designates it. Optical countermeasures against this type of systems deny the operator the possibility to fulfill this visual task. We describe the different effects that result from stimulation of the human visual system with high intensity (visible) light, and the associated potential operational impact. Of practical use are flash blindness, where an intense flash of light produces a temporary "blind-spot" in (part of) the visual field, flicker distraction, where strong intensity and/or color changes at a discomfortable frequency are produced, and disability glare where a source of light leads to contrast reduction. Hence there are three possibilities to disrupt the visual task of an operator with optical countermeasures such as flares or lasers or a combination of these; namely, by an intense flash of light, by an annoying light flicker or by a glare source. A variety of flares for this purpose is now available or under development: high intensity flash flares, continuous burning flares or strobe flares which have an oscillating intensity. The use of flare arrays seems particularly promising as an optical countermeasure. Lasers are particularly suited to interfere with human vision, because they can easily be varied in intensity, color and size, but they have to be directed at the (human) target, and issues like pointing and eye-safety have to be taken into account. Here we discuss the design issues and the operational impact of optical countermeasures against human operators.

  6. Threats and countermeasures for network security

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1991-01-01

    In the late 1980's, the traditional threat of anonymous break-ins to networked computers was joined by viruses and worms, multiplicative surrogates that carry out the bidding of their authors. Technologies for authentication and secrecy, supplemented by good management practices, are the principal countermeasures. Four articles on these subjects are presented.

  7. Countermeasures for Young Drivers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelz, Donald C.; And Others

    In an effort to reduce the outbreak of highway crashes and citations observed among young males aged 18-19, countermeasure programs were conducted with seniors in 10 suburban high schools including 'driving workshops' conducted one day a week for six weeks under regular teachers trained by project staff. Records of 9,000 subjects, including…

  8. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  9. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  10. Alcoholism between Fiction and Reality.

    PubMed

    Carota, Antonio; Calabrese, Pasquale

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism has always been emphasized in literature, narratives, and theater as its prevalence and related disability are very high, is found throughout the world, and affects women and men of all ages and social classes. There is a tragic or romantic fascination in the deep sense of personal failure that drinking is able to relieve and in the uncontrollable inability to stop drinking. These aspects have been portrayed well by fictional alcoholics in movies and novels. It has become evident that biological traits together with a complex series of psychosocial factors (e.g. negative life events, depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric or personality disorders), which are also well represented in novels and movies, can lead to alcohol addiction. Behavioral (euphoria, disinhibiting behaviors, aggressiveness) and neurological changes (confusion, bradypsychism, slurred speech, ataxia, blackouts) related to alcohol intoxication are also well portrayed by fictional characters. Delirium tremens, epilepsy, alcohol dementia, and Wernicke-Korsakoff disease, however, find less representation in literature and on the stage and screen. The treatment of alcoholic dependence is very difficult (as often reported by fictional and real stories), but should never be considered hopeless. It should be initiated at any stage of the disease. The support offered by Alcoholics Anonymous has always had great appeal for the public. Fictional works can portray alcohol addiction superbly and show some dark sides of human nature (negative emotions and autodestructive thoughts and behaviors), and, at the same time, the severity and pervasiveness of mental illnesses. The psychiatric and psychosocial aspects of alcohol addiction in movies and novels could be an inspiring source for new psychological studies and rehabilitation programs. PMID:23485899

  11. Marital and Family Therapy for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    Following a brief review of literature on marital and family treatment for alcohol problems, this paper describes two types of marital therapy frequently used with alcoholics and presents a brief overview of results from a study in progress comparing the two modalities. Behavioral marital therapy uses communication skills training, contracting,…

  12. Alcoholism Prevention: Guide to Resources and References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide is intended as a compilation of literature pertaining to prevention of alcoholism from 1973 to the present, with the exception of a very few earlier, highly significnat documents. Materials cited were gleaned from searches of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information database, Dissertation Abstracts, ERIC, Hazelden Foundation…

  13. Alcoholism and the hyperactive child syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, D W; Schulsinger, F; Hermansen, L; Guze, S B; Winokur, G

    1975-05-01

    Comparisons were made between alcoholics and nonalcoholics in a sample of Danish adoptees (mean age 30) and it was found that the alcoholics, as children, were more often hyperactive, truant, antisocial, shy, aggressive, disobedient, and friendless. The literature suggesting a relationship between the hyperactive child syndrome and subsequent alcoholism is reviewed, as well as a possible relationship between these disorders and antisocial behavior. The adoptive parent of the two groups did not differ with regard to socioeconomic class, psychopathology, or drinking histories. However, 10 of the 14 alcoholics had biological parents who were alcoholic, with no known alcoholism among the biological parents of the nonalcoholics. As adults, the alcoholics differed from the nonalcoholics only with regard to drinking history, use of drugs, and overt expression of anger. PMID:1151353

  14. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  15. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  16. Alcohol Abuse Prevention Among Latino Adolescents: A Strategy for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambrana, Ruth E.; Aquirre-Molina, Marilyn

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a prevention program funded by the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in 1978 for Latino youth in East Harlem. Literature on Latino youth and alcohol use is reviewed, followed by a description of the program, its setting, and its evaluative methodology. (Author/JAZ)

  17. Development of countermeasures for medical problems encountered in space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.; Rummel, John D.; Leveton, Lauren; Teeter, Ron

    1992-01-01

    Past experience with piloted space missions is reviewed to develop potential countermeasures to the medical problems associated with a long-duration space flight. Particular attention is given to the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Program, which is aimed at ensuring crew health and safety on Space Shuttle missions; Soviet experience with long-duration space flights; and a variety of countermeasures including physiological, psychological, environmental health, radiation protection, and artificial gravity countermeasures.

  18. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-5. Cumulative Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This Grouped Interest Guide is published by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Its purpose is to provide the reader with a regularly published set of bibliographic references for recent, topical literature in designated areas. Topics included in this guide are Youth, Children of Alcoholic Parents, and Social Forces. A wide…

  19. The Effect of Pubertal and Psychosocial Timing on Adolescents' Alcohol Use: What Role Does Alcohol-Specific Parenting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Knibbe, Ronald A.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Burk, William J.

    2011-01-01

    In scientific literature, early pubertal timing emerges as a risk factor of adolescents' drinking, whereas alcohol-specific rules (the degree to which parents permit their children to consume alcohol in various situations) showed to protect against adolescents' drinking. This study investigated whether alcohol-specific rules mediate and/or…

  20. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  1. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  2. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  3. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  7. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  8. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Alcohol Related Birth Defects: Implications and Assurance for Quality of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isbell, Rita A.; Barber, William H.

    1993-01-01

    This literature review describes physical and behavioral characteristics of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects that impact these children's educational needs. Suggestions and strategies are presented to satisfy these needs, along with examples of programs that are necessary to assure that these individuals will have the best possible…

  9. Alcohol-involved Assault: Associations with posttrauma alcohol use, consequences, and expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Bedard-Gilligan, Michele; Kaysen, Debra; Desai, Sruti; Lee, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Victim alcohol consumption is common prior to sexual assault, and a burgeoning literature suggests that victims who were intoxicated during assault may differ in post-assault adjustment compared to those who were not impaired. Less is known about potential relationships between experiencing an alcohol-involved assault (AIA) and later drinking behavior. In this study, we examined the relationships between sexual assault, subsequent drinking behavior and consequences, and alcohol expectancies in a sample of 306 undergraduate women who reported current alcohol use and reported either no trauma history (n = 53), non-AIA (n = 69), or AIA (n = 184). Differences emerged for alcohol use (F(2, 298) = 12.78, p < .001), peak blood alcohol content (F(2, 298) = 9.66, p < .001), consequences (F(2, 296) = 7.38, p < .005), and positive alcohol expectancies (F(14, 796) = 1.93, p < .05). In particular, women with an AIA reported greater alcohol use and positive expectancies compared to women with no trauma history and women with a non-alcohol influenced assault. In addition, both assault groups reported greater drinking consequences than women with no trauma history. Findings suggest that it is the women who are assaulted while under the influence of alcohol who evidence more alcohol use and alcohol-related problems following assault. PMID:21813246

  10. Benefits, Consequences, and Uncertainties of Conventional (Exercise) Countermeasure Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will review the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using exercise countermeasures in hypothetical long duration exploration missions. The use of artificial gravity and exercise will be briefly discussed. One benefit to continued use of exercise is related to our extensive experience with spaceflight exercise hardware and programming. Exercise has been a part of each space mission dating back to the 1960's when simple isometric and bungee exercises were performed in the Gemini capsule. Over the next 50 years, exercise hardware improved cumulating in today's ISS suite of exercise equipment: Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation and Stabilization System (CEVIS), Treadmill (T2) and Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED). Today's exercise equipment is the most robust ever to be flown in space and allows the variety and intensity of exercise that might reasonably be expected to maintain muscle mass and function, bone density and cardiovascular fitness. A second benefit is related to the large body of research literature on exercise training. There is a considerable body of supporting research literature including >40,000 peer reviewed research articles on exercise training in humans. A third benefit of exercise is its effectiveness. With the addition of T2 and ARED to our ISS exercise suite, crew member outcomes on standard medical tests have improved. Additionally exercise has other positive side effects such as stress relief, possible improvement of immune function, improved sleep, etc. Exercise is not without its consequences. The major cons to performance of in-flight exercise are the time and equipment required. Currently crew are scheduled 2.5 hrs/day for exercise and there is considerable cost to develop, fly and maintain exercise hardware. While no major injuries have been reported on ISS, there is always some risk of injury with any form of exercise There are several uncertainties going forward; these relate mostly to the development of

  11. Alcohol and Caffeine: The Perfect Storm

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Mary Claire

    2011-01-01

    Although it is widely believed that caffeine antagonizes the intoxicating effects of alcohol, the molecular mechanisms underlying their interaction are incompletely understood. It is known that both caffeine and alcohol alter adenosine neurotransmission, but the relationship is complex, and may be dose dependent. In this article, we review the available literature on combining caffeine and alcohol. Ethical constraints prohibit laboratory studies that would mimic the high levels of alcohol intoxication achieved by many young people in real-world settings, with or without the addition of caffeine. We propose a possible neurochemical mechanism for the increase in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences that have been observed in persons who simultaneously consume caffeine. Caffeine is a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. During acute alcohol intake, caffeine antagonizes the “unwanted” effects of alcohol by blocking the adenosine A1 receptors that mediate alcohol's somnogenic and ataxic effects. The A1 receptor–mediated “unwanted” anxiogenic effects of caffeine may be ameliorated by alcohol-induced increase in the extracellular concentration of adenosine. Moreover, by means of interactions between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors, caffeine-mediated blockade of adenosine A2A receptors can potentiate the effects of alcohol-induced dopamine release. Chronic alcohol intake decreases adenosine tone. Caffeine may provide a “treatment” for the withdrawal effects of alcohol by blocking the effects of upregulated A1 receptors. Finally, blockade of A2A receptors by caffeine may contribute to the reinforcing effects of alcohol. PMID:24761263

  12. Women and Alcohol Use Disorders: Factors That Lead to Harm.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Renee; Moxham, Lorna; Traynor, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Women, alcohol, and alcohol use disorders are underresearched topics when compared with the plethora of literature exploring male alcohol consumption and its related harms. It is time to change the fact that women are underrepresented in research and programs targeting alcohol use disorders. Given the changing patterns of alcohol consumption by women, coupled with the fact that women experience a telescoping effect in alcohol-related harms, it is time that increasing attention be paid to the way gender influences the experience of alcohol-related harms, including the development of alcohol use disorders. Recovery-orientated systems are not possible without the voices of the consumers being heard. With this in mind, the purposes of this article are to explore factors that lead to alcohol-related harm in women and to highlight the gender-specific barriers to service engagement. PMID:27580194

  13. Human Adaptation to Space: Space Physiology and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogarty, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews human physiological responses to spaceflight, and the countermeasures taken to prevent adverse effects of manned space flight. The topics include: 1) Human Spaceflight Experience; 2) Human Response to Spaceflight; 3) ISS Expeditions 1-16; 4) Countermeasure; and 5) Biomedical Data;

  14. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science...) Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...

  15. 77 FR 15398 - Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... SAFETY BOARD Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction Forum The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) will convene a forum, Attentive Driving: Countermeasures for Distraction, which will begin... the forum, and all five NTSB Board Members will serve as members of the Board of Inquiry. The forum...

  16. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  17. Countering Countermeasures: Detecting Identity Lies by Detecting Conscious Breakthrough

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li

    2014-01-01

    One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures. PMID:24608749

  18. Countering countermeasures: detecting identity lies by detecting conscious breakthrough.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Howard; Filetti, Marco; Alsufyani, Abdulmajeed; Janssen, Dirk; Su, Li

    2014-01-01

    One major drawback of deception detection is its vulnerability to countermeasures, whereby participants wilfully modulate their physiological or neurophysiological response to critical guilt-determining stimuli. One reason for this vulnerability is that stimuli are usually presented slowly. This allows enough time to consciously apply countermeasures, once the role of stimuli is determined. However, by increasing presentation speed, stimuli can be placed on the fringe of awareness, rendering it hard to perceive those that have not been previously identified, hindering the possibility to employ countermeasures. We tested an identity deception detector by presenting first names in Rapid Serial Visual Presentation and instructing participants to lie about their own identity. We also instructed participants to apply a series of countermeasures. The method proved resilient, remaining effective at detecting deception under all countermeasures. PMID:24608749

  19. Risks and Benefits of Nalmefene in the Treatment of Adult Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Published and Unpublished Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Palpacuer, Clément; Laviolle, Bruno; Boussageon, Rémy; Reymann, Jean Michel; Bellissant, Eric; Naudet, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background Nalmefene is a recent option in alcohol dependence treatment. Its approval was controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the aggregated data (registered as PROSPERO 2014:CRD42014014853) to compare the harm/benefit of nalmefene versus placebo or active comparator in this indication. Methods and Findings Three reviewers searched for published and unpublished studies in Medline, the Cochrane Library, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, Current Controlled Trials, and bibliographies and by mailing pharmaceutical companies, the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the US Food and Drug Administration. Double-blind randomized clinical trials evaluating nalmefene to treat adult alcohol dependence, irrespective of the comparator, were included if they reported (1) health outcomes (mortality, accidents/injuries, quality of life, somatic complications), (2) alcohol consumption outcomes, (3) biological outcomes, or (4) treatment safety outcomes, at 6 mo and/or 1 y. Three authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of the trials identified. Relevant trials were evaluated in full text. The reviewers independently assessed the included trials for methodological quality using the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias. On the basis of the I2 index or the Cochrane’s Q test, fixed or random effect models were used to estimate risk ratios (RRs), mean differences (MDs), or standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs. In sensitivity analyses, outcomes for participants who were lost to follow-up were included using baseline observation carried forward (BOCF); for binary measures, patients lost to follow-up were considered equal to failures (i.e., non-assessed patients were recorded as not having responded in both groups). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) versus placebo, with a total of 2,567 randomized participants, were included in the main analysis. None of these studies was performed in the specific population

  20. American Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Caroline, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Published bimonthly by the National Endowment for the Humanities, this edition of "Humanities" focuses on issues in American literature. Articles and their authors consist of: (1) "Conversations about Literature" (an interview with Cleanth Brooks and Willie Morris about writing and writers in America); (2) "The Spine of Literature" (an interview…

  1. Countermeasures against chemical terrorism in Japan.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tetsu; Seto, Yasuo; Fuse, Akira

    2013-04-10

    Japan has experienced numerous incidents of chemical disasters and terrorist attacks. Here we review the history of changes in countermeasures against such incidents. Since 2004, the Civil Protection Law, more formally known as the "Law Concerning the Measures for Protection of the People in Armed Attack Situations etc" was enacted to fully prepare the nation for chemical terrorism. According to this law, the Japanese government must carry out Civil Protection Exercises on an annual basis to gauge response. Problem areas that remain are chosen and addressed one by one until they are judged to be resolved in subsequent exercises. PMID:23434376

  2. Toward an Understanding of Alcohol Abuse Among the Elderly: A Sociological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnis, John R.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews some of the demographics of aging and alcohol abuse among the aged, and offers a theoretical approach from the sociology of deviance literature toward understanding alcohol abuse among elderly people. (Author)

  3. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  4. Musculoskeletal adaptations to weightlessness and development of effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, K. M.; White, T. P.; Arnaud, S. B.; Edgerton, V. R.; Kraemer, W. J.; Kram, R.; Raab-Cullen, D.; Snow, C. M.

    1996-01-01

    A Research Roundtable, organized by the American College of Sports Medicine with sponsorship from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, met in November 1995 to define research strategies for effective exercise countermeasures to weightlessness. Exercise was considered both independently of, and in conjunction with, other therapeutic modalities (e.g., pharmacological nutritional, hormonal, and growth-related factors) that could prevent or minimize the structural and functional deficits involving skeletal muscle and bone in response to chronic exposure to weightlessness, as well as return to Earth baseline function if a degree of loss is inevitable. Musculoskeletal deficits and countermeasures are described with respect to: 1) muscle and connective tissue atrophy and localized bone loss, 2) reductions in motor performance, 3) potential proneness to injury of hard and soft tissues, and 4) probable interaction between muscle atrophy and cardiovascular alterations that contribute to the postural hypotension observed immediately upon return from space flight. In spite of a variety of countermeasure protocols utilized previously involving largely endurance types of exercise, there is presently no activity-specific countermeasure(s) that adequately prevent or reduce musculoskeletal deficiencies. It seems apparent that countermeasure exercises that have a greater resistance element, as compared to endurance activities, may prove beneficial to the musculoskeletal system. Many questions remain for scientific investigation to identify efficacious countermeasure protocols, which will be imperative with the emerging era of long-term space flight.

  5. Requirements for laser countermeasures against imaging seekers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caplan, William D.

    2014-10-01

    Conventional anti-aircraft infrared seekers all operate on the principle of detecting the position of a IR source by modulating the FOV to encode the track of the target. This is a fundamental susceptibility of this class of seeker that renders them vulnerable to laser jamming. There are several DIRCM systems available that meet these requirements and provide a high degree of protection against reticle seekers. The latest generation of IR seekers use imaging technology that discriminates the target position in an essentially different manner. This class of seeker is not susceptible to DIRCM jamming. This paper examines the effectiveness of laser jamming against imaging seekers to derive requirements for laser countermeasures. Imaging seekers processing techniques that can be used to track the target and reject countermeasures are entirely defined by the on-board software of the seeker. Imaging seekers may be vulnerable to higher power laser jamming. The effect of laser dazzle appears to degrade the image quality. However, actual scatter levels can be modelled and it can be shown that usable information is still available to the seeker under dazzle. If neither decoy expendables nor dazzle lasers are expected to be effective against imaging seekers then the logical next step is to increase the laser power to produce damage. Estimates are provided to indicate the laser power levels that would be required against an imaging seeker focal plane. Although it is possible to design seekers that are hardened against laser damage, it is not clear that such designs are practical.

  6. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  7. Physiological strain and countermeasures with firefighting.

    PubMed

    Cheung, S S; Petersen, S R; McLellan, T M

    2010-10-01

    Protective clothing is integral to the task of firefighting, but at the same time can increase physiological strain and impair work capacity. Encapsulation of the head and the high thermal resistance and/or low water vapor permeability of the clothing ensemble impede evaporative heat dissipation, thus elevating the rate of heat storage and creating a state of uncompensable heat stress (UHS). In addition, the additional weight from carrying a supplemental air supply and the greater respiratory work of breathing through a regulator can create a negative spiral of thermal hyperpnea from greater respiratory demands and metabolic heat production. The elevated respiratory demands also increase cardiac strain and potentially the risk for myocardial events. Tolerance time during UHS is determined by three factors: the core temperature at the beginning of the heat stress exposure, the core temperature that can be tolerated before exhaustion or collapse ensues, and the rate of increase in core temperature from the beginning to end of the heat stress exposure. Protective clothing is often employed in highly dynamic environments, making portability, longevity and integration with the task requirements and clothing critical design characteristics for countermeasures. To date, most countermeasures have been relatively indirect in nature, primarily with alterations in work scheduling along with physiological manipulations such as cooling manipulations during recovery periods. Advances are required in materials science to develop lighter and less restrictive protective equipment, concurrent with cooling strategies that target specific regions or which can be effectively implemented during exercise. PMID:21029197

  8. Exercise countermeasure protocol management expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, L.; Chen, J. G.; Flores, L.; Tan, S.

    1993-01-01

    Exercise will be used primarily to countermeasure against deconditioning on extended space flight. In this paper we describe the development and evaluation of an expert system for exercise countermeasure protocol management. Currently, the system includes two major subsystems: baseline prescription and prescription adjustment. The baseline prescription subsystem is designed to provide initial exercise prescriptions while prescription adjustment subsystem is designed to modify the initial prescription based on the exercised progress. The system runs under three different environments: PC, SUN workstation, and Symbolic machine. The inference engine, baseline prescription module, prescription adjustment module and explanation module are developed under the Symbolic environment by using the ART (Automated Reasoning Tool) software. The Sun environment handles database management features and interfaces with PC environment to obtain physical and physiological data from exercise units on-board during the flight. Eight subjects' data have been used to evaluate the system performance by comparing the prescription of nine experienced exercise physiologists and the one prescribed by the expert system. The results of the validation test indicated that the performance of the expert system was acceptable.

  9. Countermeasure for Radiation Protection and Repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Exposure to ionizing radiation during long-duration space missions is expected to cause short-term illness and increase long-term risk of cancer for astronauts. Radiation-induced free radicals overload the antioxidant defense mechanisms and lead to cellular damage at the membrane, enzyme, and chromosome levels. A large number of radioprotective agents were screened, but most had significant side effects. But there is increasing evidence that significant radioprotective benefit is achieved by increasing the dietary intake of foods with high antioxidant potential. Early plant-growing systems for space missions will be limited in both size and volume to minimize power and mass requirements. These systems will be well suited to producing plants containing high concentrations of bioprotective antioxidants. This project explored whether the production of bioprotective compounds could be increased by altering the lighting system, without increasing the space or power requirements for production, and evaluated the effects of environmental conditions (light quantity, light quality, and carbon dioxide [CO2] concentration) on the production of bioprotective compounds in lettuce, which provide a biological countermeasure for radiation exposure. The specific deliverables were to develop a database of bioprotectant compounds in plants that are suitable for use on longduration space missions, develop protocols for maintaining and increasing bioprotectant production under light emitting diodes (LEDs), recommend lighting requirements to produce dietary countermeasures of radiation, and publish results in the Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science.

  10. Alcoholic liver disease: Clinical and translational research.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; Malnick, Stephen; Maor, Yaakov; Nanau, Radu M; Melzer, Ehud; Ferenci, Peter; Seitz, Helmut K; Mueller, Sebastian; Mell, Haim; Samuel, Didier; Cohen, Lawrence B; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Osna, Natalia A; Ganesan, Murali; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Bautista, Abraham; Bataller, Ramon; French, Samuel W

    2015-12-01

    The present review spans a broad spectrum of topics dealing with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including clinical research, translational research, pathogenesis and therapies. A special accent is placed on alcohol misuse, as alcohol is a legally commercialized and taxable product. Drinking alcohol, particularly from a young age, is a major health problem. Alcoholism is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality. A systematic literature search was performed in order to obtain updated data (2008-2015). The review is focused on genetic polymorphisms of alcohol metabolizing enzymes and the role of cytochrome p450 2E1 and iron in ALD. Alcohol-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis is also discussed in the presence or absence of co-morbidities such as viral hepatitis C as well as therapeutic the role of innate immunity in ALD-HCV. Moreover, emphasis was placed on alcohol and drug interactions, as well as liver transplantation for end-stage ALD. Finally, the time came to eradicate alcohol-induced liver and intestinal damage by using betaine. PMID:26342547

  11. Alcohol Limits and Public Safety.

    PubMed

    Canfield, D V; Dubowski, K M; Cowan, M; Harding, P M

    2014-01-01

    On May 14, 2013, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended lowering the legal blood-alcohol limit to 0.05 g/dL for motor vehicle operators in the United States, in an effort to reduce the risk of injuries and deaths caused by a driver's alcohol impairment (NTSB/SR-13/01). This recommendation has prompted other organizations and agencies, including the National Safety Council, to evaluate and consider supporting this action. In order to determine the scientific and legal feasibility and advisability of lowering or establishing 0.05 per se laws, we examined 554 alcohol-related publications. Risk factors, instrument reliability, law enforcement, and adjudication issues were considered in this overview of the literature. The extensive scientific literature reviewed provides ample support for lowering the operation of motor vehicle alcohol limits to 0.05, and for supporting the NTSB recommendations. Research clearly demonstrates that impairment begins at very low concentrations, well below the recommended NTSB limit, and increases with concentration. Lowering the limit to 0.05 will save many lives and prevent injuries. Breath, blood, and saliva samples have proved to be accurate and reliable specimens for legal acceptability in a court of law. PMID:26226968

  12. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  13. Validation of a Cephalad Fluid Shift Countermeasure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, B.; Cole, C.; Kesari, S.; Hargens, A.; Stenger, M.; Ebert, D.; Lee, S. M. C.; Sargsyan, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This project will provide critical data required to objectively determine how an optimized thigh cuff could be incorporated into the NASA integrated physiological countermeasure suite. This project will determine if thigh cuffs used during simulated spaceflight impact intracranial pressure (ICP), ocular structure and function, and intraocular pressure (IOP) using state of-the-art techniques. Additionally, some of the same methods, hardware, and protocols will be employed in the present investigation to enable direct comparisons to the International Space Station (ISS) "Fluid Shifts" experiment with Chibis-Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP). This study will determine the temporal physiological responses of thigh cuff application and removal on ocular and cerebral variables (including invasive ICP) in a microgravity analog. Furthermore, this proposed study will determine tissue pressure distribution applied by thigh cuffs in order to improve comfort, mobility, and efficacy of the countermeasure. Our specific aim is to determine the efficacy of a novel thigh cuff device to mitigate cephalad fluid shifts. We hypothesize that a thigh cuff countermeasure employed in a microgravity analog will temporarily reverse or attenuate ocular and cerebral-volume-pressure variables, approaching normal Earth-based seated posture, the most frequent posture assumed in daily life. In addition, we hypothesize that the magnitude of fluid and pressure redistribution using a thigh cuff countermeasure may require a longer exposure time than that of Chibis-LBNP (using ground-based data from our "Fluid Shifts" project). This project directly addresses Critical Path Roadmap Risks and Questions regarding "Risk of Spaceflight-Induced Intracranial Hypertension/Vision Alterations," and IRP Gap VIIP13: We need to identify preventative and treatment countermeasures to mitigate changes in ocular structure and function and intracranial pressure during spaceflight. METHODS: Noninvasive

  14. Improved self-protection using dynamically optimized expendable countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovland, Harald

    2007-04-01

    The use of expendable countermeasures is still found to be a viable choice for self protection against Man Portable Air Defense Systems (MANPADS) due to their simplicity, low cost, flexibility, recent improvements in decoy technology, the ability to handle multiple threats simultaneously and the off-board nature of these countermeasures. In civil aviation, the risk of general hazards linked to the use of pyrotechnics is the main argument against expendable countermeasures, whereas for military platforms, the limitation in capacity due to a limited number of rounds is often used as an argument to replace expendable countermeasures by laser-based countermeasures. This latter argument is in general not substantiated by modelling or figures of merit, although it is often argued that a laser based system allows for more false alarms, hence enabling a more sensitive missile approach warning system. The author has developed a model that accounts for the statistical effects of running out of expendable countermeasures during a mission, in terms of the overall mission survival probability. The model includes key parameters of the missile approach warning system (MAWS), and can handle multiple missile types and missile attack configurations, as well as various statistical models of missile attacks. The model enables quantitative comparison between laser based and expendable countermeasures, but also a dynamic optimization of the countermeasures in terms of whether to use small or large countermeasure programs, as well as the dynamic tuning of MAWS key parameters to optimize the overall performance. The model is also well suited for determination of the contributions of the different components of the system in the overall survival probability.

  15. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  16. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  17. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  19. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  20. Alcohol and gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    MacMath, T L

    1990-11-01

    Ethanol has experimentally been shown to be "ulcerogenic," independent of gastric intraluminal pH. Ethanol remains ulcerogenic despite antisecretory doses of H2-receptor antagonists. Low-dose alcohol stimulates acid secretion in man, an effect possibly mediated by histamine or gastrin. High-dose alcohol reduces intraluminal acid by damaging mucosa, thereby enhancing back diffusion of hydrogen ion, and also by direct damage to oxyntic (parietal) cells. Ethanol is capable of increasing gastric mucosal permeability as evidenced by the increase in back diffusion (increases intraluminal pH) and by the characteristic fall in transmucosal potential difference which reflects surface cell layer exfoliation. This exfoliation may offer an explanation for the potentiating effect of alcohol on gastric mucosal injury when it is ingested simultaneously with other gastric irritants. Ethanol of greater than 20% concentration can rapidly destroy the gastric mucus-bicarbonate layer, which may be a defense layer for both the inhibition of back diffusion and bicarbonate neutralization of existing acid. Ethanol depletes sulfhydryl compounds in gastric mucosa. These sulfhydryls may be necessary for stabilization of cell membranes as well as for binding free radicals. Ethanol is damaging to the mucosal microcirculation. The rapidity of ethanol-induced damage makes it unlikely that the process is purely ischemic. The cytoprotective phenomenon, as this brief literature review suggests, is a multifactorial, dynamic process. The complex interplay of mucosal defense factors, endogenous and exogenous stimuli, induction of humoral responses, and ultimately the success or failure of cellular repair, is unlikely to be solely mediated by endogenous prostaglandins. Although prostaglandins are unquestionably significant to cytoprotection, the supporting and, perhaps, major roles of leukotrienes, sulfhydryls, histamines, and like substances cannot be ignored. Several innovative therapeutic agents

  1. The use of epidemiology in alcohol research

    PubMed Central

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Norström, Thor

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper presents examples to illustrate the utility and limitations in the use of epidemiology in alcohol research and discusses some promising new directions. Methods Review of literature, concentrating on epidemiological alcohol research with relevance to public health. Findings and conclusion Epidemiology offers tools for assessment of causes and effects of alcohol consumption as well as the effects of efforts to prevent alcohol consumption and its consequences. Epidemiological studies have made significant contributions to alcohol research with respect to public health and public policy. Fixed-effects modelling, difference-in-differences estimation and integrated qualitative and epidemiological methods are promising but underused methods in epidemiological studies. Many epidemiological studies have limited transferability of knowledge to other cultures and jurisdictions. PMID:23134358

  2. Neuroplasticity and Predictors of Alcohol Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-related neuroadaptations in key neural circuits of emotional and cognitive control play a critical role in the development of, and recovery from, alcoholism. Converging evidence in the neurobiological literature indicates that neuroplastic changes in the prefrontal–striatal–limbic circuit, which governs emotion regulation and decisionmaking and controls physiological responses in the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis system, contribute to chronic alcoholism and also are significant predictors of relapse and recovery. This paper reviews recent evidence on the neuroplasticity associated with alcoholism in humans, including acute and chronic effects, and how these neurobiological adaptations contribute to alcohol recovery, along with the discussion of relevant clinical implications and future research directions. PMID:26259094

  3. [The Amygdala in mechanisms of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2016-01-01

    In the present review for the first time systematized literature data about reactive changes, of neurons in the basolateral and medial nuclei of the Amygdala which occur in response to acute and chronic exposure of ethanol. Summarized information about the mechanisms of disturbances in glutamatergic-and GABAergic systems of the basolateral nucleus that determining an increased level of anxiety, which is seen as a main motivating factor of desire for alcohol, thus involved to the manifestation of alcohol dependence. Reviewed molecular and genetic aspects of rsearchs involvement of medial nucleus in the mechanisms of alcoholism. PMID:27530042

  4. Chinese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Kai-yu

    The earliest recorded Chinese literature that has survived consists of folk songs mixed with verses and rhymes. Two factors determined the general pattern of subsequent development in Chinese literature: the nature of the written Chinese language and the establishment of the Confucian school as the orthodoxy in literary criticism. By 1800 there…

  5. Interrelations between Pain and Alcohol: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Zale, Emily L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Ditre, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Pain and alcohol use are both highly prevalent in the general population, and pain-alcohol interrelations are of increasing empirical interest. Previous research has identified associations between pain and alcohol dependence, and the current review provides novel contributions to this emerging domain by incorporating studies that have tested relations between pain and low-to-moderate alcohol consumption, and by identifying potential psychosocial mechanisms of action. Specifically, we sought to integrate evidence of pain-alcohol relations derived from two directions of empirical inquiry (i.e., effects of alcohol on pain and effects of pain on alcohol use) across psychological, social, and biological literatures. We observed converging evidence that associations between alcohol consumption and pain may be curvilinear in nature. Whereas moderate alcohol use was observed to be associated with positive pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater quality of life), excessive drinking and alcohol use disorder appear to be associated with deleterious pain-related outcomes (e.g., greater pain severity). We also observed evidence that alcohol administration confers acute pain-inhibitory effects, and that situational pain may motivate alcohol consumption (e.g., drinking for pain-coping). Future research can inform theoretical and clinical applications through examination of temporal relations between pain and alcohol consumption, tests of hypothesized mechanisms, and the development of novel interventions. PMID:25766100

  6. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    PubMed

    Uyeki, Timothy M; Erlandson, Karl J; Korch, George; O'Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-07-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  7. Problems in Employment Trend of Higher Vocational Graduates and Countermeasures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Jianhua; Sheng, Zhichong

    2011-01-01

    Based on analyzing the regional character of higher vocational graduates employment, this paper analyzes the reasons for this employment trend, advances relevant countermeasures for employment of higher vocational graduates, and explores the direction for higher vocational graduates employment.

  8. Development of Medical Countermeasures to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Erlandson, Karl J.; Korch, George; O’Hara, Michael; Wathen, Michael; Hu-Primmer, Jean; Hojvat, Sally; Stemmy, Erik J.; Donabedian, Armen

    2016-01-01

    Preclinical development of and research on potential Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) medical countermeasures remain preliminary; advancements are needed before most countermeasures are ready to be tested in human clinical trials. Research priorities include standardization of animal models and virus stocks for studying disease pathogenesis and efficacy of medical countermeasures; development of MERS-CoV diagnostics; improved access to nonhuman primates to support preclinical research; studies to better understand and control MERS-CoV disease, including vaccination studies in camels; and development of a standardized clinical trial protocol. Partnering with clinical trial networks in affected countries to evaluate safety and efficacy of investigational therapeutics will strengthen efforts to identify successful medical countermeasures. PMID:27191188

  9. Neuromuscular aspects in development of exercise countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews data obtained at the Human Life Sciences Research Program at the Kennedy Space Center on the structural and functional characteristics of the human muscle and on the effects of simulated microgravity (head-down bed rest) and exercise on the muscle. It is shown that prolonged exposure to microgravity induced ultrastructural abnormalities and the atrophy of muscle and impaired muscle functioning (especially upon return to terrestrial gravity) and that ground-based models can be effectively used to study these changes. Results indicate that the incorporation of resistive exercise with a strong emphasis on the use of eccentric muscle action, in addition to concentric action, may provide a very effective countermeasure against muscle atrophy and dysfunction caused by long-duration exposures to microgravity.

  10. Cell phone camera ballistics: attacks and countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinebach, Martin; Liu, Huajian; Fan, Peishuai; Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Multimedia forensics deals with the analysis of multimedia data to gather information on its origin and authenticity. One therefore needs to distinguish classical criminal forensics (which today also uses multimedia data as evidence) and multimedia forensics where the actual case is based on a media file. One example for the latter is camera forensics where pixel error patters are used as fingerprints identifying a camera as the source of an image. Of course multimedia forensics can become a tool for criminal forensics when evidence used in a criminal investigation is likely to be manipulated. At this point an important question arises: How reliable are these algorithms? Can a judge trust their results? How easy are they to manipulate? In this work we show how camera forensics can be attacked and introduce a potential countermeasure against these attacks.

  11. Biological countermeasures in space radiation health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ann R; Todd, Paul

    2003-06-01

    Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. The major types of radiation considered to be of importance during space travel are protons and particles of high atomic number and high energy (HZE particles). It is now clear that biological countermeasures can be used to prevent or reduce the levels of biological consequences resulting from exposure to protons or HZE particles, including the induction of cancer, immunosuppression and neurological defects caused by these types of ionizing radiation. Research related to the dietary additions of agents to minimize the risks of developing health-related problems which can result from exposure to space radiations is reviewed. PMID:12959130

  12. Biological countermeasures in space radiation health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Ann R.; Todd, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Exposure to the types of ionizing radiation encountered during space travel may cause a number of health-related problems, but the primary concern is related to the increased risk of cancer induction in astronauts. The major types of radiation considered to be of importance during space travel are protons and particles of high atomic number and high energy (HZE particles). It is now clear that biological countermeasures can be used to prevent or reduce the levels of biological consequences resulting from exposure to protons or HZE particles, including the induction of cancer, immunosuppression and neurological defects caused by these types of ionizing radiation. Research related to the dietary additions of agents to minimize the risks of developing health-related problems which can result from exposure to space radiations is reviewed.

  13. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  14. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  15. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  16. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  17. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  18. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  19. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. Alcohol industry influence on UK alcohol policy: A new research agenda for public health

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    The British government has been criticised for according industry interests too much weight in alcohol policy-making. Consequently, it has been argued that alcohol strategy in the UK is built around policies for which the evidence base is weak. This has clear implications for public health. The purpose of this commentary is to map recent developments in UK alcohol policy and related debates within the alcohol policy literature, thus laying the foundations for a systematic examination of the influence of the alcohol industry on alcohol policy. It highlights the changing structure of the industry and summarises what is known about the positions and strategies of industry actors towards alcohol policy. In so doing, it aims to contribute not just to debates about alcohol policy, but to a broader understanding of health policy processes and the relationships between government and other stakeholders. It advances a new research agenda focused on the role of corporate actors in the field of alcohol policy and public health more broadly. PMID:22815594

  2. Alcoholism: Impact on the Hispanic Child. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Merrill

    This document reviews the literature on the following: (1) studies on the nature of the Hispanic family; (2) studies on the prevalence of Hispanic alcohol use and abuse; (3) general impact studies on the consequences for children of family alcoholism; and (4) studies of family factors that appear to protect or shield high risk children from the…

  3. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  4. Family Supports for Children Who Have Alcohol-Related Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James D.

    2004-01-01

    Since the first publication on fetal alcohol syndrome appeared in the scientific literature over 30 years ago, there has been a great deal of research interest in the topic. This paper reviews findings within the past 10 years related to causes, frequency, and diagnosis of alcohol-related disabilities, before turning to the impact these…

  5. Habit Formation: Implications for Alcoholism Research

    PubMed Central

    O’Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as “goal-directed” (action-outcome) and “habitual” (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming

  6. Predicting women's alcohol risk-taking while abroad.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gabie; Klein, Sarah

    2010-05-01

    Numerous studies have examined risk factors that are associated with heavy alcohol use; however, much of this research has not addressed factors that specifically relate to women's alcohol use. The current study has extended the previous literature on women's alcohol-use behavior by examining factors associated with risky drinking in young women traveling abroad (n = 55). Using a pretest-posttest design, we examined the influence of disinhibition sensation-seeking and endorsement of social enhancement alcohol expectancies in relation to participation in risky alcohol use while abroad for three weeks. Analyses confirmed that disinhibition sensation-seeking and social enhancement alcohol expectancies were associated with participation in risky alcohol-use behaviors while abroad (controlling for alcohol-use at the pretest). Analysis of qualitative data reinforced the importance of social facilitation in women's alcohol risk-taking. Participants' qualitative data also emphasized characteristics of situational disinhibition relating to travel as well as culturally-specific motivations for alcohol-use behaviors. Further research examining women's personal need for disinhibition and the role of situational disinhibition in motivating alcohol risk-taking is warranted. In addition, the current findings suggest that interventions focusing on the connections between alcohol use and enhancement of social relationships and the potential isolating effects of non-use are necessary. PMID:20512745

  7. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  8. Alcohol Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior among Collegiate Women: A Review of Research on Alcohol Myopia Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Jessica A.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Usdan, Stuart L.

    2010-01-01

    A review of current English literature in the areas of high-risk alcohol use and sexual behavior was conducted from September 2007 to December 2008. Objective: The purpose was to specifically review studies that used alcohol myopia theory (AMT) as the theoretical perspective from which they were evaluated and analyzed. Participants: Collegiate…

  9. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  10. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  11. Antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    McElroy, Cameron S; Day, Brian J

    2016-01-15

    The continuing horrors of military conflicts and terrorism often involve the use of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Many CWA and TIC exposures are difficult to treat due to the danger they pose to first responders and their rapid onset that can produce death shortly after exposure. While the specific mechanism(s) of toxicity of these agents are diverse, many are associated either directly or indirectly with increased oxidative stress in affected tissues. This has led to the exploration of various antioxidants as potential medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC exposures. Studies have been performed across a wide array of agents, model organisms, exposure systems, and antioxidants, looking at an almost equally diverse set of endpoints. Attempts at treating CWAs/TICs with antioxidants have met with mixed results, ranging from no effect to nearly complete protection. The aim of this commentary is to summarize the literature in each category for evidence of oxidative stress and antioxidant efficacy against CWAs and TICs. While there is great disparity in the data concerning methods, models, and remedies, the outlook on antioxidants as medical countermeasures for CWA/TIC management appears promising. PMID:26476351

  12. Astronaut Biography Project for Countermeasures of Human Behavior and Performance Risks in Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Akeem

    2012-01-01

    This final report will summarize research that relates to human behavioral health and performance of astronauts and flight controllers. Literature reviews, data archival analyses, and ground-based analog studies that center around the risk of human space flight are being used to help mitigate human behavior and performance risks from long duration space flights. A qualitative analysis of an astronaut autobiography was completed. An analysis was also conducted on exercise countermeasure publications to show the positive affects of exercise on the risks targeted in this study. The three main risks targeted in this study are risks of behavioral and psychiatric disorders, risks of performance errors due to poor team performance, cohesion, and composition, and risks of performance errors due to sleep deprivation, circadian rhythm. These three risks focus on psychological and physiological aspects of astronauts who venture out into space on long duration space missions. The purpose of this research is to target these risks in order to help quantify, identify, and mature countermeasures and technologies required in preventing or mitigating adverse outcomes from exposure to the spaceflight environment

  13. 76 FR 48169 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... following public meeting: ``Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical... multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM) devices, their clinical application and public...

  14. Alcohol Use and Breast Cancer: A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Shield, Kevin D; Soerjomataram, Isabelle; Rehm, Jürgen

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to outline the biological pathways of alcohol-attributable breast cancer, the epidemiological risk relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer, and the global burden of breast cancer incidence and mortality attributable to alcohol consumption, with a focus on light drinking. First, the literature regarding the biological mechanisms of how alcohol affects the risk of breast cancer was reviewed and summarized. Second, a search of meta-analyses that evaluated the risk relationship between alcohol consumption and breast cancer was conducted. Last, the burden of alcohol-attributable breast cancer incidence and mortality was estimated by means of a Population-Attributable Fraction methodology. Data on alcohol consumption were obtained from the Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, and data on cancer incidence and mortality were obtained from the GLOBOCAN database. Alcohol consumption affects breast cancer risk through the alteration in hormone levels and the associated biological pathways, the metabolism of ethanol resulting in carcinogens, and the inhibition of the one carbon metabolism pathway. The systematic review found 15 meta-analyses on the risk relationship between alcohol consumption (also light consumption) and the risk of breast cancer. All but 2 of these analyses showed a dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer. An estimated 144,000 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 88,000 to 200,000) breast cancer cases and 38,000 (95% CI: 2,400 to 53,000) breast cancer deaths globally in 2012 were attributable to alcohol, with 18.8% of these cases and 17.5% of these deaths affecting women who were light alcohol consumers. All levels of evidence showed a risk relationship between alcohol consumption and the risk of breast cancer, even at low levels of consumption. Due to this strong relationship, and to the amount of alcohol consumed globally, the incidence of and mortality

  15. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  16. Alcohol prescription by surgeons in the prevention and treatment of delirium tremens: historic and current practice.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Milton; McCarty, Teresita

    2002-01-01

    Beer, other alcohol beverages, and IV alcohol are still used to prevent or treat alcohol withdrawal delirium on surgical services. The history of the use of alcohol by surgeons may play a role in its continued use for withdrawal. In this policy survey 32 inpatient hospital pharmacies were called and asked if alcohol was available, if it was used to treat alcohol withdrawal, and the medical specialties that requested it. Recommendations about the use of alcohol were examined in recent textbooks and from those published early in the twentieth century. One half of the 32 hospitals surveyed had alcoholic beverages available for patient use and eleven hospitals used either package alcohol or IV alcohol in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal. Surgeons used alcohol before anesthesia to help patients tolerate procedures, and the use of alcohol for treatment of alcohol withdrawal still appears in the surgical literature. This preliminary survey indicates that some hospitals still provide beverage alcohol for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal and that surgeons are the specialty ordering alcohol for their patients. PMID:12100836

  17. Selected Publications on Teenagers and Alcohol. Grouped Interest Guide No. 8-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This brief bibliography is part of a series produced by the Current Awareness Services of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information, and informational service of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. The publications provide readers with regularly codified bibliographic references to recent, topical literature in…

  18. The Effects of Heavy Episodic Alcohol Use on Student Engagement, Academic Performance, and Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Pryor, John

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol use literature has linked heavy episodic alcohol use and academic consequences, but has not examined the influence of such use on student engagement. This study uses survey data from over 40,000 students at 28 selective private colleges and universities to examine the connection between heavy episodic alcohol use and engagement. The…

  19. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  20. Korean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pihl, Marshall R.

    While Chinese was, by and large, the formal and public literary language of the Korean court and aristocracy, native Korean literature survived as an oral tradition in the more informal and private realms of life. The Yi Dynasty which lasted until the Japanese annexation of 1910, produced and recorded a rich treasury of Chinese and Korean…

  1. Women's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.; Quinn, Laura, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this focused journal issue discuss women authors and examine female images in English and American literature. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "Margaret Fuller and Charlotte Perkins Gilman: Rhetoric and the Shape of Learning" (Susan Lundvall Brodie); (2) "Feminist Psychology through Feminist…

  2. Teacher Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemanich, Donald, Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Three articles are included in this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Form Is Not Enough: Thinking the Unthinkable about Teaching Literature," John Milstead recommends a reading program for high school English courses which emphasizes the quantity (rather than quality) of reading material according to individual student interest so…

  3. Literature Ink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geyer, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Using images in the classroom to help students find meaning in literature is not new. Although composition teachers have long used the visual arts as a source for stimulating student engagement, sometimes the subject matter can fail to achieve the desired result. Too often, students lack the vocabulary or frame of reference to be engaged in a work…

  4. Missile warning and countermeasure systems in-flight testing by threat simulation and countermeasure analysis in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabib, Dario; Buckwald, R. A.; Lavi, Moshe; Gil, Amir; Dolev, Jacob; Rahav, Amir; Blau, Moshe

    2006-05-01

    Proliferation and technological progress of Mid Wave Infrared (MWIR) sensors for Missile Warning Systems (MWS) 1,2 and increased sophistication of countermeasures require demanding in-flight testing. The IR sensors are becoming more sensitive for longer range of detection, the spatial resolution is improving for better target detection and identification, spectral discrimination is being introduced for lower False Alarm Rate (FAR), and the imaging frame rate is increasing for faster defensive reaction. As a result, testing a complex MWS/countermeasure system performance before deployment requires more realistic simulation of the threats in their natural backgrounds, and more accurate measurement of the radiometric output, directionality and time response of the countermeasures. Existing stimulator systems for MWS testing during R&D and production cannot reproduce the field conditions faithfully enough, so that it is possible to rely on them for the most sophisticated MWS' testing. CI has developed a unique integrated MWS/countermeasure test system for field use, composed of: i) high intensity dynamic Infrared Threat Stimulator (IRTS), based on large optics and high speed shutter for time dependent scenario construction and projection to several kilometers; ii) sensitive IR Jam Beam Radiometer (JBR) for countermeasure testing. The IRTS/JBR system tests the MWS/countermeasure combination: efficiency range, probability of detection, reaction time, and overall well functioning2 can be determined in-flight through projection of threat profiles prepared in advance by the user, and through measurement of the countermeasure IR radiation output as function of time. Design, performance, and example of operation of the IRTS/JBR are described here.

  5. Alcohol Use and Sudden Infant Death Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Karen B.; Goodwin, Matthew S.; Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    2004-01-01

    Despite general evidence of fetal toxicities associated with sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), there has been limited research focusing on the effects of parental alcohol use on SIDS occurrence, either directly or in interaction with other risk conditions. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on parental, especially maternal,…

  6. Alcohol outlets and clusters of violence

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol related violence continues to be a major public health problem in the United States. In particular, there is substantial evidence of an association between alcohol outlets and assault. However, because the specific geographic relationships between alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence remains obscured, it is important to identify the spatial linkages that may exist, enhancing public health efforts to curb both violence and morbidity. Methods The present study utilizes police-recorded data on simple and aggravated assaults in Cincinnati, Ohio. Addresses of alcohol outlets for Cincinnati, including all bars, alcohol-serving restaurants, and off-premise liquor and convenience stores were obtained from the Ohio Division of Liquor Control and geocoded for analysis. A combination of proximity analysis, spatial cluster detection approaches and a geographic information system were used to identify clusters of alcohol outlets and the distribution of violence around them. Results A brief review of the empirical work relating to alcohol outlet density and violence is provided, noting that the majority of this literature is cross-sectional and ecological in nature, yielding a somewhat haphazard and aggregate view of how outlet type(s) and neighborhood characteristics like social organization and land use are related to assaultive violence. The results of the statistical analysis for Cincinnati suggest that while alcohol outlets are not problematic per se, assaultive violence has a propensity to cluster around agglomerations of alcohol outlets. This spatial relationship varies by distance and is also related to the characteristics of the alcohol outlet agglomeration. Specifically, spatially dense distributions of outlets appear to be more prone to clusters of assaultive violence when compared to agglomerations with a lower density of outlets. Conclusion With a more thorough understanding of the spatial relationships between alcohol outlets and the

  7. Hardware-in-the-loop simulation for IR countermeasure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamble, Barry; Philip, John G.; Sedgbeer, Melvyn D.

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes work performed by the DERA Farnborough UK to provide a laboratory based simulation capability for investigating airborne Infra Red Countermeasure performance against both current reticle threat seekers and future seekers incorporating focal plane array imaging technology. The object of the work was to provide a hardware in the loop facility based around a Five Axis Motion Simulator (FAMS) built by Carco, to allow tests and flyout simulations to be undertaken for performance evaluation. The principal area of research involved the design and construction of a number of source rigs for fitting to the target, or outer, arm of the FAMS to allow both aircraft and countermeasure sources to move realistically in relation to a seeker mounted on the inner FAMS axes. Rigs that have been built include, a multiple point source rig capable of allowing aircraft and multiple countermeasure point sources to move independent of each other, a wide band source rig incorporating a multiple wavelength refractive collimator for investigating spectral countermeasures and two color seeker technology and a rig based on a two port collimator which allows optical mixing of high temperature countermeasure sources.

  8. Radiation countermeasure agents: an update (2011 – 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Victoria L; Romaine, Patricia LP; Wise, Stephen Y; Seed, Thomas M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Despite significant scientific advances over the past 60 years towards the development of a safe, nontoxic and effective radiation countermeasure for the acute radiation syndrome (ARS), no drug has been approved by the US FDA. A radiation countermeasure to protect the population at large from the effects of lethal radiation exposure remains a significant unmet medical need of the US citizenry and, thus, has been recognized as a high priority area by the government. Area covered This article reviews relevant publications and patents for recent developments and progress for potential ARS treatments in the area of radiation countermeasures. Emphasis is placed on the advanced development of existing agents since 2011 and new agents identified as radiation countermeasure for ARS during this period. Expert opinion A number of promising radiation countermeasures are currently under development, seven of which have received US FDA investigational new drug status for clinical investigation. Four of these agents, CBLB502, Ex-RAD, HemaMax and OrbeShield, are progressing with large animal studies and clinical trials. G-CSF has high potential and well-documented therapeutic effects in countering myelosuppression and may receive full licensing approval by the US FDA in the future. PMID:25315070

  9. Smart Grid Integrity Attacks: Characterizations and Countermeasures

    SciTech Connect

    Annarita Giani; Eilyan Bitar; Miles McQueen; Pramod Khargonekar; Kameshwar Poolla

    2011-10-01

    Real power injections at loads and generators, and real power flows on selected lines in a transmission network are monitored, transmitted over a SCADA network to the system operator, and used in state estimation algorithms to make dispatch, re-balance and other energy management system [EMS] decisions. Coordinated cyber attacks of power meter readings can be arranged to be undetectable by any bad data detection algorithm. These unobservable attacks present a serious threat to grid operations. Of particular interest are sparse attacks that involve the compromise of a modest number of meter readings. An efficient algorithm to find all unobservable attacks [under standard DC load flow approximations] involving the compromise of exactly two power injection meters and an arbitrary number of power meters on lines is presented. This requires O(n2m) flops for a power system with n buses and m line meters. If all lines are metered, there exist canonical forms that characterize all 3, 4, and 5-sparse unobservable attacks. These can be quickly detected in power systems using standard graph algorithms. Known secure phase measurement units [PMUs] can be used as countermeasures against an arbitrary collection of cyber attacks. Finding the minimum number of necessary PMUs is NP-hard. It is shown that p + 1 PMUs at carefully chosen buses are sufficient to neutralize a collection of p cyber attacks.

  10. A Countermeasure for Space Motion Sickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reschke, M. F.; Somers, J. T.; Leigh, R. J.; Jones, G. Melvill

    2006-01-01

    Overall, the results obtained in both the U.S. and the Russian space programs indicate that most space crews will experience some symptoms of motion sickness (MS) causing significant impact on the operational objectives that must be accomplished to assure mission success. At this time the primary countermeasure for MS requires the administration of Promethazine. Promethazine is not a benign drug, and is most frequently administered just prior to the sleep cycle to prevent its side effects from further compromising mission objectives. Clearly other countermeasures for SMS must be developed. Currently the primary focus is on two different technologies: (1) developing new and different pharmacological compounds with less significant side effects, (2) preflight training. The primary problem with all of these methods for controlling MS is time. New drugs that may be beneficial are years from testing and development, and preflight training requires a significant investment of crew time during an already intensive pre-launch schedule. Granted, motion sickness symptoms can be minimized with either of the two methods detailed above, however, it may be possible to develop a countermeasure that does not require either extensive adaptation time or exposure to motion sickness. Approximately 25 years ago Professor Geoffrey Melvill Jones presented his work on adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) using optically reversed vision (left-right prisms) during head rotations in the horizontal plane. It was of no surprise that most subjects experienced motion sickness while wearing the optically reversing prisms. However, a serendipitous finding emerged during this research showing that the same subjects did not experience motion sickness symptoms when wearing the reversing prisms under stroboscopic illumination. The mechanism, by which this side-effect was believed to have occurred, is not clearly understood. However, the fact that no motion sickness was ever noted, suggests

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  12. Alcohol ignition interlock programs.

    PubMed

    Beirness, D J; Marques, P R

    2004-09-01

    The alcohol ignition interlock is an in-vehicle DWI control device that prevents a car from starting until the operator provides a breath alcohol concentration (BAC) test below a set level, usually .02% (20 mg/dl) to .04% (40 mg/dl). The first interlock program was begun as a pilot test in California 18 years ago; today all but a few US states, and Canadian provinces have interlock enabling legislation. Sweden has recently implemented a nationwide interlock program. Other nations of the European Union and as well as several Australian states are testing it on a small scale or through pilot research. This article describes the interlock device and reviews the development and current status of interlock programs including their public safety benefit and the public practice impediments to more widespread adoption of these DWI control devices. Included in this review are (1) a discussion of the technological breakthroughs and certification standards that gave rise to the design features of equipment that is in widespread use today; (2) a commentary on the growing level of adoption of interlocks by governments despite the judicial and legislative practices that prevent more widespread use of them; (3) a brief overview of the extant literature documenting a high degree of interlock efficacy while installed, and the rapid loss of their preventative effect on repeat DWI once they are removed from the vehicles; (4) a discussion of the representativeness of subjects in the current research studies; (5) a discussion of research innovations, including motivational intervention efforts that may extend the controlling effect of the interlock, and data mining research that has uncovered ways to use the stored interlock data record of BAC tests in order to predict high risk drivers; and (6) a discussion of communication barriers and conceptual rigidities that may be preventing the alcohol ignition interlock from taking a more prominent role in the arsenal of tools used to control

  13. Pharmacotherapy for Alcohol Use Disorder: Current and Emerging Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert M.; Aston, Elizabeth R.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder is a heterogeneous illness with a complex biology that is controlled by many genes and gene-by-environment interactions. Several efficacious, evidence-based treatments currently exist for treating and managing alcohol use disorder, including a number of pharmacotherapies that target specific aspects of biology that initiate and maintain dangerous alcohol misuse. This article reviews the neurobiological and neurobehavioral foundation of alcohol use disorder, the mechanisms of action and evidence for the efficacy of currently approved medications for treatment, and the literature on other emerging pharmacotherapies. PMID:25747925

  14. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  15. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  16. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  18. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  19. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  20. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  2. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  3. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  6. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  7. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  8. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  9. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  10. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  11. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  12. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  13. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  14. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  15. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  16. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  17. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  18. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  19. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  20. Stressful life experiences, alcohol consumption, and alcohol use disorders: the epidemiologic evidence for four main types of stressors

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Katherine M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to stress is potentially important in the pathway to alcohol use and alcohol use disorders. Stressors occur at multiple time points across the life course, with varying degrees of chronicity and severity. Method We review evidence from epidemiologic studies on the relationship between four different stressors (fateful/catastrophic events, child maltreatment, common adult stressful life events in interpersonal, occupational, financial, and legal domains, and minority stress) and alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. Results Studies generally demonstrate an increase in alcohol consumption in response to exposure to terrorism or other disasters. Research has demonstrated little increase in incident alcohol use disorders, but individuals with a history of alcohol use disorders are more likely to report drinking to cope with the traumatic event. Childhood maltreatment is a consistent risk factor for early onset of drinking in adolescence and adult alcohol use disorders, and accumulating evidence suggests that specific polymorphisms may interact with child maltreatment to increase risk for alcohol consumption and disorder. Stressful life events such as divorce and job loss increase the risk of alcohol disorders, but epidemiologic consensus on the specificity of these associations across gender has not been reached. Finally, both perceptions of discrimination and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and alcohol use disorders among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. Conclusion Taken together, these literatures demonstrate that exposure to stress is an important component in individual differences in risk for alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of alcohol use disorders and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:21373787

  1. [Association between alcohol consumption and cardiovascular risk factors: a narrative review].

    PubMed

    Foerster, Maryline; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2010-03-10

    Moderate alcohol consumption has been associated with lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, the impact of higher alcohol consumption on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) is conflicting. We examined the association between alcohol consumption, CVRFs and the estimated 10-year CHD risk in the population-based CoLaus study in Lausanne, Switzerland. Among 5,769 participants without cardiovascular disease, 73% of the participants were alcohol drinkers; 16% consumed 14-34 drinks/week and 2% consumed > or = 35 drinks/week. This article shows the impact of high alcohol consumption on CVRFs and reviews the literature on the associations between alcohol consumption and CVRFs. PMID:20373697

  2. Facility for testing infrared imaging seekers in a countermeasures environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidery, Colin J.; Pyle, Andrew

    2001-08-01

    A new Imaging Infrared Countermeasure Hardware-in-the-Loop facility has been designed and built by Matra BAe Dynamics to test imaging sensors in a complex infrared environment. Drawing upon currently available leading edge technologies and UK expertise, the test bed has ben completed in a twelve-month program. The facility comprises a Thermal Picture Synthesizer with up to four further independent channels, each capable of representing a countermeasure (jammer, flare or laser) within the scene. A six stage broadband reflective collimator relays the complex scene to the sensor.

  3. [Russian system of countermeasures: the present and future].

    PubMed

    Kozlovskaya, I B; Yarmanova, E N; Fomina, E V

    2013-01-01

    The paper considers the fundamental principles of the Russian countermeasures system validated successfully in multiple long-term missions to the Russian space stations. The system adopted on the ISS Russian segment is detailed. In particular, it is pinpointed that physical training of cosmonauts was adjusted to the demands of the stages of ISS assembly and utilization. The locomotion training performed with departures from the flight documentation (ODFs) is described. The concluding section of the paper lays out the picture of vistas for the system of countermeasures in future exploration missions. PMID:23700612

  4. The Need for Continued Development of Ricin Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Reisler, Ronald B.; Smith, Leonard A.

    2012-01-01

    Ricin toxin, an extremely potent and heat-stable toxin produced from the bean of the ubiquitous Ricinus communis (castor bean plant), has been categorized by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as a category B biothreat agent that is moderately easy to disseminate. Ricin has the potential to be used as an agent of biological warfare and bioterrorism. Therefore, there is a critical need for continued development of ricin countermeasures. A safe and effective prophylactic vaccine against ricin that was FDA approved for “at risk” individuals would be an important first step in assuring the availability of medical countermeasures against ricin. PMID:22536516

  5. Integrated Locomotor Function Tests for Countermeasure Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Landsness, E. C.; Black, F. O.

    2005-01-01

    Following spaceflight crewmembers experience locomotor dysfunction due to inflight adaptive alterations in sensorimotor function. Countermeasures designed to mitigate these postflight gait alterations need to be assessed with a new generation of tests that evaluate the interaction of various sensorimotor sub-systems central to locomotor control. The goal of the present study was to develop new functional tests of locomotor control that could be used to test the efficacy of countermeasures. These tests were designed to simultaneously examine the function of multiple sensorimotor systems underlying the control of locomotion and be operationally relevant to the astronaut population. Traditionally, gaze stabilization has been studied almost exclusively in seated subjects performing target acquisition tasks requiring only the involvement of coordinated eye-head movements. However, activities like walking involve full-body movement and require coordination between lower limbs and the eye-head-trunk complex to achieve stabilized gaze during locomotion. Therefore the first goal of this study was to determine how the multiple, interdependent, full-body sensorimotor gaze stabilization subsystems are functionally coordinated during locomotion. In an earlier study we investigated how alteration in gaze tasking changes full-body locomotor control strategies. Subjects walked on a treadmill and either focused on a central point target or read numeral characters. We measured: temporal parameters of gait, full body sagittal plane segmental kinematics of the head, trunk, thigh, shank and foot, accelerations along the vertical axis at the head and the shank, and the vertical forces acting on the support surface. In comparison to the point target fixation condition, the results of the number reading task showed that compensatory head pitch movements increased, peak head acceleration was reduced and knee flexion at heel-strike was increased. In a more recent study we investigated the

  6. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  7. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  8. Medical net cost of low alcohol consumption - a cause to reconsider improved health as the link between alcohol and wage?

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Gerdtham, Ulf G; Selin, Klara Hradilova

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have found a positive effect of low/moderate alcohol consumption on wages. This has often been explained by referring to epidemiological research showing that alcohol has protective effects on certain diseases, i.e., the health link is normally justified using selected epidemiological information. Few papers have tested this link between alcohol and health explicitly, including all diseases where alcohol has been shown to have either a protective or a detrimental effect. Aim Based on the full epidemiological information, we study the effect of low alcohol consumption on health, in order to determine if it is reasonable to explain the positive effect of low consumption on wages using the epidemiological literature. Methods We apply a non-econometrical cost-of-illness approach to calculate the medical care cost and episodes attributable to low alcohol consumption. Results Low alcohol consumption carries a net cost for medical care and there is a net benefit only for the oldest age group (80+). Low alcohol consumption also causes more episodes in medical care then what is saved, although inpatient care for women and older men show savings. Conclusion Using health as an explanation in the alcohol-wage literature appears invalid when applying the full epidemiological information instead of selected information. PMID:19852776

  9. Early identification of alcohol abuse: 2: Clinical and laboratory indicators.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, S; Skinner, H A; Israel, Y

    1981-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in hospital and in general medical practice. The diagnosis of alcohol abuse has been emphasized repeatedly in the literature but far less attention has been paid to indicators that would permit detection of excessive drinking at a stage when intervention might be more effective and less costly. The search for indicators of early alcohol abuse is complicated since many of the medical sequelae of alcoholism are nonspecific and may only be manifested after a number of years of excessive drinking. Part 2 of this two-part series considers various clinical and laboratory features related to alcohol abuse and highlights items that are potentially more sensitive for detecting early stages of problem drinking. Use by physicians of a composite profile of both biomedical and psychosocial indicators of excessive alcohol consumption is recommended for early identification of this problem. PMID:7016289

  10. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  11. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  12. Adult Children of Alcoholics: An Examination of the Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemwell, G. Henry, Jr.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of 89 graduate students using criteria taken from popular literature describing the adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) category. No empirical support is found for the ACOA category as defined in popular literature (no significant differences in how ACOA students and non-ACOA students responded to items that are…

  13. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  14. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  15. Drug Education through Literature: An Annotated Bibliography for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; And Others

    Many people acknowledge that youth need to be educated so that they value healthy lifestyles and abstain from alcohol and other drug use. Literature particularly lends itself to these issues. In addition, language arts material and literature may specifically address issues of alcohol and other drug use by young people or their families and…

  16. A short history of tsunami research and countermeasures in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shuto, Nobuo; Fujima, Koji

    2009-01-01

    The tsunami science and engineering began in Japan, the country the most frequently hit by local and distant tsunamis. The gate to the tsunami science was opened in 1896 by a giant local tsunami of the highest run-up height of 38 m that claimed 22,000 lives. The crucial key was a tide record to conclude that this tsunami was generated by a “tsunami earthquake”. In 1933, the same area was hit again by another giant tsunami. A total system of tsunami disaster mitigation including 10 “hard” and “soft” countermeasures was proposed. Relocation of dwelling houses to high ground was the major countermeasures. The tsunami forecasting began in 1941. In 1960, the Chilean Tsunami damaged the whole Japanese Pacific coast. The height of this tsunami was 5–6 m at most. The countermeasures were the construction of structures including the tsunami breakwater which was the first one in the world. Since the late 1970s, tsunami numerical simulation was developed in Japan and refined to become the UNESCO standard scheme that was transformed to 22 different countries. In 1983, photos and videos of a tsunami in the Japan Sea revealed many faces of tsunami such as soliton fission and edge bores. The 1993 tsunami devastated a town protected by seawalls 4.5 m high. This experience introduced again the idea of comprehensive countermeasures, consisted of defense structure, tsunami-resistant town development and evacuation based on warning. PMID:19838008

  17. A Potential Cost Effective Liquefaction Mitigation Countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation

    SciTech Connect

    Bian Hanbing; Jia Yun; Shahrour, Isam

    2008-07-08

    This work is devoted to illustrate the potential liquefaction mitigation countermeasure: Induced Partial Saturation. Firstly the potential liquefaction mitigation method is briefly introduced. Then the numerical model for partially saturated sandy soil is presented. At last the dynamic responses of liquefiable free filed with different water saturation is given. It shows that the induced partial saturation is efficiency for preventing the liquefaction.

  18. Injury reduction opportunities of far side impact countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Bostrom, Ola; Gabler, Hampton C; Digges, Kennerly; Fildes, Brian; Sunnevang, Cecilia

    2008-10-01

    Over 17,000 non-struck or far side occupants in side and rollover crashes are seriously or fatally injured annually in the US. Although no legal or rating tests exist for far side crashes, test methods including appropriate dummies as well as countermeasures have been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and risk of injury / fatality as a function of vehicle change in velocity (Deltav) for the most frequent injuries of belted, far side occupants in side impacts. The study was based upon the NASS/CDS 1995-2006 records of 5,653 occupants exposed to a far side crash. 401 of these were seriously or fatally injured. Combining this data with new and previously published crash test results, the potential opportunities of various concepts of far side countermeasures were evaluated. Head/thorax injuries caused by interaction with the struck side interior were found to dominate. Countermeasures such as side support airbags and altered three-point belt geometry (e.g. four-point belts) are relevant for Deltav of at least 20-30 km/h. The opportunity for mitigating AIS3+ injuries in these severity ranges was found to be 19%- 57%. Countermeasures such as struck-side curtains are able to provide cushioning at Deltav 30 to 50 km/h, which would cover almost a third of all fatalities. PMID:19026245

  19. Analysis of the Reasons and Countermeasures for Academic Corruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Xia; Bin, Feng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a perspective of the various types of academic corruption that is currently running rife in society, a theoretical analysis of the roots of academic corruption, and proposals for a number for countermeasures to put a stop to academic corruption. (Contains 3 notes.) [This article was translated by Ted Wang.

  20. Clinical data quality problems and countermeasure for real world study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Runshun; Wang, Yinghui; Liu, Baoyan; Song, Guangli; Zhou, Xuezhong; Fan, Shizhen; Pan, Xishui

    2014-09-01

    Real world study (RWS) has become a hotspot for clinical research. Data quality plays a vital role in research achievement and other clinical research fields. In this paper, the common quality problems in the RWS of traditional Chinese medicine are discussed, and a countermeasure is proposed. PMID:25129380

  1. Spaceflight-induced Bone Loss: Countermeasures and Their Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.

    2008-01-01

    The learning objectives of this viewgraph presentation are to: (1) Understand the biomedical effects of spaceflight and their associated health risks. (2) Understand how the "Factor of Risk" for fracture can be calculated in the adult skeleton for space travel. and (3) Understand how various countermeasures [CMs] influence the Factor of Risk.

  2. Injury Reduction Opportunities of Far side Impact Countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Bostrom, Ola; Gabler, Hampton C.; Digges, Kennerly; Fildes, Brian; Sunnevang, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Over 17,000 non-struck or far side occupants in side and rollover crashes are seriously or fatally injured annually in the US. Although no legal or rating tests exist for far side crashes, test methods including appropriate dummies as well as countermeasures have been recently suggested. The aim of this study was to establish the incidence and risk of injury/fatality as a function of vehicle change in velocity (Δv) for the most frequent injuries of belted, far side occupants in side impacts. The study was based upon the NASS/CDS 1995–2006 records of 5,653 occupants exposed to a far side crash. 401 of these were seriously or fatally injured. Combining this data with new and previously published crash test results, the potential opportunities of various concepts of far side countermeasures were evaluated. Head/thorax injuries caused by interaction with the struck side interior were found to dominate. Countermeasures such as side support airbags and altered three-point belt geometry (e.g. four-point belts) are relevant for Δv of at least 20–30 km/h. The opportunity for mitigating AIS3+ injuries in these severity ranges was found to be 19%–57%. Countermeasures such as struck-side curtains are able to provide cushioning at Δv 30 to 50 km/h, which would cover almost a third of all fatalities. PMID:19026245

  3. Causes for Ineffective College English Teaching and Relevant Countermeasures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Changyu; Li, Lijuan

    2009-01-01

    Through a questionnaire and a survey, the paper analyses the present College English teaching and the contributing factors for the ineffective College English teaching. Based on the analysis, the paper suggests four countermeasures to improve College English teaching quality. According to this paper, only when teachers and educational workers…

  4. Managing fatigue in operational settings. 1: Physiological considerations and countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, M. R.; Gander, P. H.; Gregory, K. B.; Smith, R. M.; Miller, D. L.; Oyung, R.; Webbon, L. L.; Johnson, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors consider three aspects of managing fatigue in the workplace. They provide a brief overview of important scientific findings related to sleep and circadian physiology that establish the psychobiological foundation of fatigue. Their major focus is on the relevance of these findings to operational settings. In addition, they provide examples to describe practical fatigue countermeasures that can be used in operational settings.

  5. Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, Adrian; Matsumoto, Toshio; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Shapiro, Jay; Lang, Thomas F.; Smith, Scott M.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Sibonga, Jean; Evans, Harlan; Spector, Elisabeth; Koslovskaya, Inessa

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates as a Countermeasure to Space Flight Induced Bone Loss (Bisphosphonates) will determine whether antiresorptive agents, in conjunction with the routine inflight exercise program, will protect ISS crewmembers from the regional decreases in bone mineral density documented on previous ISS missions.

  6. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  7. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  8. Alcohol dependence in adult children of alcoholics: longitudinal evidence of early risk.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk for alcohol dependence in adult children of alcoholics (ACAs) with a control group of non-ACAs. A cohort of 12,686 young adults from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) is examined over a five-year period and conventional and lineal intergenerational models of alcoholism transmission are assessed. The results of multivariate logistic regression analyses indicate that the risk is relatively greater for male ACAs; sons of alcoholics drink significantly more heavily, experience problems earlier, and develop alcohol dependence more extensively than female ACAs or non-ACAs of either gender. The extent of dependence found in subjects with a lineal history of alcoholism on the father's side of the family, as well as heavy drinking, cigarette smoking and drinking onset in adolescence should be considered as critical predisposing factors of high risk for dependence at later ages. These observations corroborate clinical studies and support a growing body of biopsychosocial research literature. PMID:9567578

  9. Evidence-based alcohol policy in the Americas: strengths, weaknesses, and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F; Caetano, Raul

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this article are to describe the evidence base for alcohol policy in the Americas, to evaluate the extent to which national policies are likely to have an impact on public health, and to identify areas where alcohol policies could be improved. The paper begins with a brief review of epidemiological surveys of the prevalence of alcohol problems in the Americas. This is followed by an analysis of 32 prevention strategies and interventions in terms of the evidence for their effectiveness, amount of research support, cost to implement, and other feasibility issues. Overall, the strategies and interventions with the greatest amount of empirical support are low blood alcohol concentration levels for driving while intoxicated, controls on alcohol availability, age limits on alcohol purchases, and relatively high alcohol prices. The implications of the evidence are next discussed in relation to alcohol policy initiatives in the Americas, based on an analysis of the extent to which strategies and interventions currently used in 25 countries of the Americas are likely to have a public health impact on alcohol-related problems. The countries that have adopted the policies with the highest expected impact overall are Colombia, Costa Rica, Venezuela, and El Salvador. Nevertheless, the analysis indicates that almost all the countries of the Americas could improve the likelihood of preventing alcohol-related problems. Policy efforts in the developing countries of Latin America should focus on improving countermeasures against driving while intoxicated, measures that alter the drinking context, and limits on physical availability. For the developed, high-income countries of North America the goal should be to prevent deterioration of current drinking patterns and to reduce the overall volume of drinking. Given the low to moderate cost of many of the policies reviewed in this article, it now seems possible for communities and nations to substantially reduce the

  10. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  11. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  12. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  13. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  14. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  15. Updated Clinical Guidelines for Diagnosing Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Hoyme, H Eugene; Kalberg, Wendy O; Elliott, Amy J; Blankenship, Jason; Buckley, David; Marais, Anna-Susan; Manning, Melanie A; Robinson, Luther K; Adam, Margaret P; Abdul-Rahman, Omar; Jewett, Tamison; Coles, Claire D; Chambers, Christina; Jones, Kenneth L; Adnams, Colleen M; Shah, Prachi E; Riley, Edward P; Charness, Michael E; Warren, Kenneth R; May, Philip A

    2016-08-01

    The adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure constitute a continuum of disabilities (fetal alcohol spectrum disorders [FASD]). In 1996, the Institute of Medicine established diagnostic categories delineating the spectrum but not specifying clinical criteria by which diagnoses could be assigned. In 2005, the authors published practical guidelines operationalizing the Institute of Medicine categories, allowing for standardization of FASD diagnoses in clinical settings. The purpose of the current report is to present updated diagnostic guidelines based on a thorough review of the literature and the authors' combined expertise based on the evaluation of >10 000 children for potential FASD in clinical settings and in epidemiologic studies in conjunction with National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism-funded studies, the Collaborative Initiative on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, and the Collaboration on FASD Prevalence. The guidelines were formulated through conference calls and meetings held at National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism offices in Rockville, MD. Specific areas addressed include the following: precise definition of documented prenatal alcohol exposure; neurobehavioral criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome, partial fetal alcohol syndrome, and alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder; revised diagnostic criteria for alcohol-related birth defects; an updated comprehensive research dysmorphology scoring system; and a new lip/philtrum guide for the white population, incorporating a 45-degree view. The guidelines reflect consensus among a large and experienced cadre of FASD investigators in the fields of dysmorphology, epidemiology, neurology, psychology, developmental/behavioral pediatrics, and educational diagnostics. Their improved clarity and specificity will guide clinicians in accurate diagnosis of infants and children prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:27464676

  16. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  17. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  18. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  20. The Influence of Gender and Sexual Orientation on Alcohol Use and Alcohol-Related Problems: Toward a Global Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Kantor, Lori Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Although there are wide differences in alcohol use patterns among countries, men are consistently more likely than women to be drinkers and to drink heavily. Studies of alcohol use among sexual minorities (SMs), however, reflect a more complex picture. Such research has found higher rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems among SM persons than among heterosexuals and greater differences between SM and heterosexual women than between SM and heterosexual men. A variety of factors may contribute to differences in alcohol use and alcohol-related problems between men and women and between SM and heterosexual people. An improved understanding of these factors is important to guide prevention and treatment efforts. Although there is a dearth of literature on use of alcohol by SMs in many parts of the world, especially lower- and middle-income countries, we attempt to review and integrate the sparse data that are available from these lower-resourced countries. The global perspective presented in this article is the first attempt to go beyond a general review of literature in the Western world to document the gender paradox in alcohol use among heterosexuals and SMs in diverse countries worldwide. PMID:27159819

  1. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  2. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  3. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  4. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  6. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  7. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  8. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  9. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  10. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  11. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  12. The glass is half full: evidence for efficacy of alcohol-wise at one university but not the other.

    PubMed

    Croom, Katherine; Staiano-Coico, Lisa; Lesser, Martin L; Lewis, Deborah K; Reyna, Valerie F; Marchell, Timothy C; Frank, Jeremy; Ives, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This research extends the growing literature about online alcohol prevention programs for first-year college students. Two independent randomized control studies, conducted at separate universities, evaluated the short-term effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise, an online alcohol prevention program not previously studied. It was hypothesized the prevention program would increase alcohol knowledge and reduce alcohol consumption, including high-risk alcohol-related behaviors, among first-year college students. At both universities, the intervention significantly increased alcohol-related knowledge. At one university, the prevention program also significantly reduced alcohol consumption and high-risk drinking behaviors, such as playing drinking games, heavy drinking, and extreme ritualistic alcohol consumption. Implications for the use of online alcohol prevention programs and student affairs are discussed. PMID:25909233

  13. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  14. Integrated Testing Regimen: Assessment of Countermeasures for Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to induce changes in the physiology of crewmembers which can adversely affect their performance. The objectives of Countermeasures Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP) are to develop and validate potential countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight for operational implementation and use. In order to accomplish this objective, a group of standardized tests, the Integrated Testing Regimen or ITR, will be utilized for the evaluation of candidate countermeasures. Additionally, the ITR will illuminate intersystem effects of the potential countermeasures and provide normative values for the physiological responses. Due to the small number of crewmembers available as test subjects, statistically rigorous validation of countermeasures presents a challenging problem. Strategies for reliable evaluation of small N clinical studies will be utilized for these activities. These approaches will permit effective analysis of promising countermeasure to support human space flights of increasing duration.

  15. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  16. Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption on the Processing of Emotion in Faces: Implications for Understanding Alcohol-Related Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, Angela S.; Munafò, Marcus R.

    2016-01-01

    The negative consequences of chronic alcohol abuse are well known, but heavy episodic consumption ("binge drinking") is also associated with significant personal and societal harms. Aggressive tendencies are increased after alcohol but the mechanisms underlying these changes are not fully understood. While effects on behavioural control are likely to be important, other effects may be involved given the widespread action of alcohol. Altered processing of social signals is associated with changes in social behaviours, including aggression, but until recently there has been little research investigating the effects of acute alcohol consumption on these outcomes. Recent work investigating the effects of acute alcohol on emotional face processing has suggested reduced sensitivity to submissive signals (sad faces) and increased perceptual bias towards provocative signals (angry faces) after alcohol consumption, which may play a role in alcohol-related aggression. Here we discuss a putative mechanism that may explain how alcohol consumption influences emotional processing and subsequent aggressive responding, via disruption of OFC-amygdala connectivity. While the importance of emotional processing on social behaviours is well established, research into acute alcohol consumption and emotional processing is still in its infancy. Further research is needed and we outline a research agenda to address gaps in the literature. PMID:24920135

  17. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode. PMID:26781580

  18. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  19. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  20. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  1. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  2. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  3. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  4. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  5. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  6. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  7. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  8. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  9. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  10. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  11. A review of the development of optical countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titterton, David H.

    2004-12-01

    Optical countermeasures have been used for several millenia to provide a defensive capability capability. The fundamental approach is to use an intense optical source to dazzle a sensor or distract an operator or target tracking system causing a weapon to miss its intended target. The development of the laser has provided a stimulus for anumber of soft-kill weapon systems used to enhance platform survivability and anti-air missile applications; in this case the laser may cause dazzle, or if the beam is sufficiently intense it may cause damage. Laser technology is also crucial for an aspect of directed energy weapons. The various aspects of optical countermeasures are considered in this paper, including defeat mechanisms of active and passive techniques. The review includes a historical perspective through to prospects for the future.

  12. Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duda, K. R.; Newman, D. J.

    The “ Variable Vector Countermeasure Suit (V2Suit) for Space Exploration” is an integrated countermeasure platform to mitigate the spaceflight-induced physiologic adaptation and de-conditioning that manifests during long-duration spaceflight and gravitational transitions. The V2Suit integrates flywheel gyroscopes and inertial measurement units within a wearable module that can be placed on the body segments, and when commanded in a coordinated manner provides a “ viscous resistance” during movements. The system architecture, human-system integration, and three six degree-of-freedom simulations are presented which describe the magnitude and direction of the gyroscopic torque and resulting force within the module during representative arm movements. The results demonstrate of the ability of the V2Suit module design to generate a reaction force along a specified direction and reject perturbations due to body kinematics - collectively illustrating the feasibility of the concept.

  13. The countermeasures against the blinding attack in quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jindong; Wang, Hong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the single photon detectors (SPDs) based on the avalanche photodiode (APD) can be blinded and controlled by the bright light and short trigger pulses. Eavesdropper can get the full information without causing additional quantum bit error rate. Hence, in order to guarantee the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, some countermeasures, by changing the characteristic of the SPD or monitoring the parameters of the detector, are presented by some research groups. In this paper, we provide a new and effective countermeasure against the blinding attack based on improving the optical scheme of the decoding unit in the QKD system rather than only considering the characteristic of the SPD. In our proposal we use a coupler with asymmetric splitting ratio to distinguish the detection characteristic of the SPD with blinding attack from that without blinding attack. The detailed analysis shows that the proposed scheme is feasible to defense the blinding attack.

  14. A new countermeasure device for long duration space flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobrick, Ryan L.; Dara, Sarita; Burley, John; Gill, Stuart

    2006-05-01

    This paper discusses a conceptual design of a new countermeasure device named Virtual Gravity Artificial Reality (ViGAR). The device was part of a complete concept called The Human Spaceflight Training Recommendations Against Weightlessness Project (H-STRAW Project). The H-STRAW Project was a submission in the Human Missions Category for the European Space Agency's 1st Aurora Student Design Contest. ViGAR is a combined countermeasure concept design for a space station, which includes artificial gravity, exercise and virtual reality. The subsystems of ViGAR are outlined in this report and the potential difficulties are identified. ViGAR is a complete system that could potentially be a key design guide for future space missions beyond low Earth orbit and on to Mars.

  15. A Comparison of Victim, Offender, and Event Characteristics of Alcohol- and Non-Alcohol-Related Homicides

    PubMed Central

    Pridemore, William Alex; Eckhardt, Krista

    2009-01-01

    The authors used narrative data from court and police records of homicides in Russia to compare alcohol- and non-alcohol-related incidents on victim, offender, and event characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were estimated for neither participant drinking, offender drinking, victim drinking, and both drinking. Consistent differences were found between alcohol- and non-alcohol-related homicides across the models. Alcohol-related homicides were significantly more likely to occur overnight, to occur on weekends, and to result from acute arguments and significantly less likely to occur between strangers, to be profit motivated or premeditated, and to be carried out to hide other crimes. No significant differences between the drinking and nondrinking samples were found for victim’s gender, primary weapon used, or event location. The authors place these findings into the literature on the situational context of crime and create a tentative typology of homicide events, grounded in the results of their inductive approach, based on alcohol use by homicide offenders and victims. PMID:19802358

  16. Alcoholism and African-American women: a medical sociocultural perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, J. H.; Rogers, C.

    1996-01-01

    Today's research explaining women's usage of alcohol is inaccurate. Researchers have failed to include the powerful variable of race. African-American females are increasing their use of alcohol, yet the literature fails to tell why. To understand alcoholism among African-American women, it is necessary to conceive their culture, values, and role in society. This article highlights the biopsychosocial issues impacting female African Americans, and the need for unbiased research and treatment. Women who have the dual status of addiction and are members of a racial minority face a special range of stressors. Therefore, clinicians who serve them must possess more than generalized clinical skills. PMID:8776062

  17. Artificial gravity intermittent centrifugation as a space flight countermeasure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vernikos, J.

    1997-01-01

    Head-down bed rest was used to simulate weightlessness in an experiment that examined variations in dose, time, and frequency of +Gz stimuli countermeasures. Results indicate that 4 hr. standing was most effective for orthostatic intolerance, walking was most effective in achieving peak oxygen consumption, 4 hr. of standing or walking had the best effect on plasma volume, and 4 hr. of walking was most effective in maintaining urinary calcium excretion.

  18. Countermeasure Evaluation and Validation Project (CEVP) Database Requirement Documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Sung Y.

    2003-01-01

    The initial focus of the project by the JSC laboratories will be to develop, test and implement a standardized complement of integrated physiological test (Integrated Testing Regimen, ITR) that will examine both system and intersystem function, and will be used to validate and certify candidate countermeasures. The ITR will consist of medical requirements (MRs) and non-MR core ITR tests, and countermeasure-specific testing. Non-MR and countermeasure-specific test data will be archived in a database specific to the CEVP. Development of a CEVP Database will be critical to documenting the progress of candidate countermeasures. The goal of this work is a fully functional software system that will integrate computer-based data collection and storage with secure, efficient, and practical distribution of that data over the Internet. This system will provide the foundation of a new level of interagency and international cooperation for scientific experimentation and research, providing intramural, international, and extramural collaboration through management and distribution of the CEVP data. The research performed this summer includes the first phase of the project. The first phase of the project is a requirements analysis. This analysis will identify the expected behavior of the system under normal conditions and abnormal conditions; that could affect the system's ability to produce this behavior; and the internal features in the system needed to reduce the risk of unexpected or unwanted behaviors. The second phase of this project have also performed in this summer. The second phase of project is the design of data entry screen and data retrieval screen for a working model of the Ground Data Database. The final report provided the requirements for the CEVP system in a variety of ways, so that both the development team and JSC technical management have a thorough understanding of how the system is expected to behave.

  19. Assessment of the efficacy of medical countermeasures in space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, A.; Sulzman, F.; Radtke, M.; Bungo, M.

    Changes in body fluids, electrolytes, and muscle mass are manifestations of adaptation to space flight and readaptation to the 1- g environment. The purposes of this paper are to review the current knowledge of biomedical responses to short- and long-duration space missions and to assess the efficacy of countermeasures to 1- g conditioning. Exercise protocols, fluid hydration, dietary and potential pharmacologic measures are evaluated, and directions for future research activities are recommended.

  20. Driver sleepiness and individual differences in preferences for countermeasures.

    PubMed

    Anund, Anna; Kecklund, Göran; Peters, Björn; Akerstedt, Torbjörn

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the present national questionnaire study was to relate the use of sleepiness countermeasures among drivers to possible explanatory factors such as age, sex, education, professional driving, being a shift worker, having experience of sleepy driving, sleep-related crashes, problems with sleep and sleepiness in general and sleep length during working days. Also the attitude to countermeasures related to information or driver support system was studied. A random sample of 3041 persons was drawn from the national register of vehicle owners. The response rate was 62%. The most common countermeasures were to stop to take a walk (54%), turn on the radio/stereo (52%), open a window (47%), drink coffee (45%) and to ask passengers to engage in conversation (35%). Logistic regression analysis showed that counteracting sleepiness with a nap (a presumably efficient method) was practiced by those with experience of sleep-related crashes or of driving during severe sleepiness, as well as by professional drivers, males and drivers aged 46-64 years. The most endorsed means of information to the driver about sleepiness was in-car monitoring of driving performance providing drivers with information on bad or unsafe driving. This preference was related to experience of sleepy driving, not being a professional driver and male gender. Four clusters of behaviours were identified: alertness-enhancing activity while driving (A), stopping the car (S), taking a nap (N) and ingesting coffee or other sources of caffeine (C) (energy drinks, caffeine tablets). The participants were grouped according to their use of any of the four categories of countermeasures. The most common cluster was those who used activity, as well as stopping and drinking caffeine. PMID:18275551

  1. Assessment of Countermeasure Efficacy for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Paloski, William H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    One of the main functions of the upcoming International Space Station (ISS) will be to provide a venue for testing proposed countermeasures for their ability to protect humans from the debilitating effects of longterm space flight. However, several limiting factors preclude an evaluation process similar to that used in clinical trials which traditionally are implemented with large sample sizes of subjects, including control groups, and with blind or double-blind application of treatments according to factorial or other balanced experimental designs. In particular, only very limited numbers of human subjects will be available for actual field testing in the ISS With no more than 125 subjects planned to fly on all ISS missions over 10 years, it is not possible to test extensive combinations of some 15-20 proposed countermeasures. Furthermore because of safety concerns and operational considerations, it is unlikely that anything other than the current best guess at the most effective countermeasure package will ever be used on ISS. In particular, control or placebos will not be allowed. In view of these limitations, historical data and groundbased or animal studies will have to be used to compensate for small sample sizes and lack of controls in the field. As a result, statistical analysis methodology will have to be developed which allows for the integration of these disparate data types into a meaningful evaluation process. The process must be sequential, providing objective rules for deciding through time whether to reject or modify an ineffective countermeasure, or whether to certify one as effective. Additional output should include performance characteristics for all relevant physiological systems, including uncertainty analyses and estimates of accept/reject decision error rates.

  2. Radiation Hazards and Countermeasures for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James

    2004-01-01

    The protection of astronauts from the hazards of ionizing radiation in space is a moral and legal obligation of NASA. If there are to be manned deep-space missions, means must be found to provide this protection. There are two parts to providing this protection: understanding the effects of space radiation on humans so that radiation exposure limits can be established; and developing countermeasures so that exposures can be kept below these limits. This talk will cover both parts of this problem.

  3. Exercise Countermeasure Hardware Evolution on ISS: The First Decade.

    PubMed

    Korth, Deborah W

    2015-12-01

    The hardware systems necessary to support exercise countermeasures to the deconditioning associated with microgravity exposure have evolved and improved significantly during the first decade of the International Space Station (ISS), resulting in both new types of hardware and enhanced performance capabilities for initial hardware items. The original suite of countermeasure hardware supported the first crews to arrive on the ISS and the improved countermeasure system delivered in later missions continues to serve the astronauts today with increased efficacy. Due to aggressive hardware development schedules and constrained budgets, the initial approach was to identify existing spaceflight-certified exercise countermeasure equipment, when available, and modify it for use on the ISS. Program management encouraged the use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, or hardware previously developed (heritage hardware) for the Space Shuttle Program. However, in many cases the resultant hardware did not meet the additional requirements necessary to support crew health maintenance during long-duration missions (3 to 12 mo) and anticipated future utilization activities in support of biomedical research. Hardware development was further complicated by performance requirements that were not fully defined at the outset and tended to evolve over the course of design and fabrication. Modifications, ranging from simple to extensive, were necessary to meet these evolving requirements in each case where heritage hardware was proposed. Heritage hardware was anticipated to be inherently reliable without the need for extensive ground testing, due to its prior positive history during operational spaceflight utilization. As a result, developmental budgets were typically insufficient and schedules were too constrained to permit long-term evaluation of dedicated ground-test units ("fleet leader" type testing) to identify reliability issues when applied to long-duration use. In most cases

  4. Alcohol Consumption in Russia and Some Aspects of Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Jargin, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Context The problem of alcohol misuse in Russia is immense; but nonetheless there is a tendency to exaggerate it, which is evident for inside observers. Such exaggeration tends to veil shortcomings of the health care system with responsibility shifted onto the patients, that is, self-inflicted diseases caused by excessive alcohol consumption. The aim of this report is to draw attention to the above-mentioned and other problems related to the alcohol consumption in Russia, not clearly perceptible from the literature, e.g. toxicity of some legally sold alcoholic beverages. Evidence Acquisition This report is based on a review of literature and observations by the author during the period 1970 - 2014. Results Predictable increase of alcohol consumption after the anti-alcohol campaign facilitated the economical reforms of the early 1990s: workers and some intelligentsia did not oppose privatizations of state-owned enterprises partly due to their drunkenness, involvement in workplace theft and use of equipment for profit, which was often tolerated by the management at that and earlier time. Conclusions Last time, a gradual change of the alcohol consumption pattern in Russia has been noticed: less heavy binge drinking of vodka, fortified wine and surrogates; more moderate consumption of beer. PMID:27162763

  5. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  6. FDA Experience with Medical Countermeasures under the Animal Rule

    PubMed Central

    Aebersold, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule in May 2002 to permit the Agency to approve drugs or license biological products on the basis of animal efficacy studies for use in ameliorating or preventing serious or life-threatening conditions caused by exposure to lethal or permanently disabling toxic biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substances. Only two drugs were approved in the first nine years of the “Animal Rule” despite massive investment by the federal government since 2001 to stimulate development of medical countermeasures to biological threats. This article therefore examines the Food and Drug Administration reviews made public after approval of those two drugs and the public discussion at the Agency's Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee of one biological product under development under the Animal Rule. Despite the paucity of approved drugs or licensed biological products as medical countermeasures, several investigational drugs have been placed in the National Strategic Stockpile for use as medical countermeasures, if needed. PMID:21991452

  7. Information Overload and Viral Marketing: Countermeasures and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jiesi; Sun, Aaron; Zeng, Daniel

    Studying information diffusion through social networks has become an active research topic with important implications in viral marketing applications. One of the fundamental algorithmic problems related to viral marketing is the Influence Maximization (IM) problem: given an social network, which set of nodes should be considered by the viral marketer as the initial targets, in order to maximize the influence of the advertising message. In this work, we study the IM problem in an information-overloaded online social network. Information overload occurs when individuals receive more information than they can process, which can cause negative impacts on the overall marketing effectiveness. Many practical countermeasures have been proposed for alleviating the load of information on recipients. However, how these approaches can benefit viral marketers is not well understood. In our work, we have adapted the classic Information Cascade Model to incorporate information overload and study its countermeasures. Our results suggest that effective control of information overload has the potential to improve marketing effectiveness, but the targeting strategy should be re-designed in response to these countermeasures.

  8. Countermeasures for pasture-associated laminitis in ponies and horses.

    PubMed

    Harris, Patricia; Bailey, Simon R; Elliott, Jonathan; Longland, Annette

    2006-07-01

    Laminitis occurs throughout the world in horses and ponies and has major welfare implications. It is obviously important to be able to recognize and treat the condition in its early stages so that pain and suffering are kept to a minimum. However, ideally it would be preferred to be able to recommend certain interventions/countermeasures that avoid or prevent the condition from occurring in the first place. Because pasture-associated laminitis occurs with grass consumption, one obvious way to avoid the condition is to prevent access to pasture and to feed forage alternatives that are known to be low in rapidly fermentable material. For the majority of horses, total restriction is not always a viable or desired option for financial, welfare, and health reasons. It also may not be necessary for those animals that are not predisposed to laminitis. This review discusses the possible countermeasures that could be considered now and in the future in the following 7 key areas: 1) Identifying animals predisposed to the condition; 2) Limiting development of insulin resistance; 3) Avoiding high intakes of rapidly fermentable material; 4) Preventing/reducing the formation and absorption of the various "triggering factors"; 5) Reducing/preventing oxidative damage; 6) Preventing/reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity; and 7) Preventing changes in blood flow. It is unfortunate that little or no hard data exist at present on effective countermeasures, only mechanistic evidence for avoiding risk factors. However, there is much to gain, and research in this area is urgently required. PMID:16772514

  9. Efficacy of radiation countermeasures depends on radiation quality.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lynnette H; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Salber, Rudolph E; Ledney, G David; Whitnall, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    The detonation of a nuclear weapon or a nuclear accident represent possible events with significant exposure to mixed neutron/γ-radiation fields. Although radiation countermeasures generally have been studied in subjects exposed to pure photons (γ or X rays), the mechanisms of injury of these low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations are different from those of high-LET radiation such as neutrons, and these differences may affect countermeasure efficacy. We compared 30-day survival in mice after varying doses of pure γ and mixed neutron/γ (mixed field) radiation (MF, Dn/Dt = 0.65), and also examined peripheral blood cells, bone marrow cell reconstitution, and cytokine expression. Mixed-field-irradiated mice displayed prolonged defects in T-cell populations compared to mice irradiated with pure γ photons. In mouse survival assays, the growth factor granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was effective as a (post-irradiation) mitigator against both γ-photons and mixed-field radiation, while the thrombopoietin (TPO) mimetic ALXN4100TPO was effective only against γ irradiation. The results indicate that radiation countermeasures should be tested against radiation qualities appropriate for specific scenarios before inclusion in response plans. PMID:22468705

  10. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  11. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-05-06

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  12. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-05

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  13. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-11-23

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  14. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2012-04-17

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  15. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

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  16. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-07-02

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  17. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  18. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

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  19. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2013-07-16

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  20. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

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  1. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  2. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

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  3. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  4. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  5. Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy interactive toxicity beliefs and daily medication adherence and alcohol use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Pellowski, Jennifer A; Kalichman, Seth C; Kalichman, Moira O; Cherry, Chauncey

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol-antiretroviral therapy (ART) interactive toxicity beliefs reflect perceived adverse outcomes of mixing alcohol and ART. Previous research has shown a significant relationship between alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and ART non-adherence, over and above other correlates of non-adherence such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)symptoms and frequency of alcohol use. Most past studies have collected data over extended periods and have not determined if alcohol use and missed medications occur at the day-level among people holding interactive toxicity beliefs. Previous daily analyses, however, have been limited by self-reported adherence and relatively short periods of observation. To address these gaps in the literature, men and women living with HIV in Atlanta, GA, were enrolled in a 45-day observational cohort study. Daily alcohol use was collected using two-way interactive text message surveys and daily adherence was collected via the Wisepill device. Fifty-seven participants completed a measure of alcohol-ART interactive toxicity beliefs and contributed 2565 days of daily data. Participants who endorsed high levels of interactive toxicity beliefs had significantly more days when they missed doses of medication. Alcohol-antiretroviral toxicity beliefs predicted missing doses of medication on days when participants were drinking and on days when they were not drinking. Multilevel multivariate regressions showed that these toxicity beliefs predicted daily missed doses of medication over and above quantity of alcohol consumed, depression and general medication concerns. This study replicates and extends previous literature and indicates the necessity of addressing alcohol-ART toxicity beliefs within adherence interventions. PMID:26964014

  6. Food Safety, Food Fraud, and Food Defense: A Fast Evolving Literature.

    PubMed

    Manning, Louise; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-04-01

    Intentional food crime is plural in nature in terms of the types of crime and the differing levels of financial gain. Successful models of food crime are dependent on how well the crime has been executed and at what point, or even if, detection actually occurs. The aim of this paper is to undertake a literature review and critique the often contradictory definitions that can be found in the literature in order to compare and contrast existing food crime risk assessment tools and their application. Food safety, food defense, and food fraud risk assessments consider different criteria in order to determine the degree of situational risk for each criteria and the measures that need to be implemented to mitigate that risk. Further research is required to support the development of global countermeasures, that are of value in reducing overall risk even when the potential hazards may be largely unknown, and specific countermeasures that can act against unique risks. PMID:26934423

  7. Understanding the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol use in college students: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Schry, Amie R; White, Susan W

    2013-11-01

    Many college students use alcohol, and most of these students experience problems related to their use. Emerging research indicates that socially anxious students face heightened risk of experiencing alcohol-related problems, although the extant research on alcohol use and social anxiety in this population has yielded inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol variables in college students. A literature search was used to identify studies on college students that included measures of social anxiety and at least one of the alcohol variables of interest. All analyses were conducted using random effects models. We found that social anxiety was negatively correlated with alcohol use variables (e.g., typical quantity and typical frequency), but significantly positively correlated with alcohol-related problems, coping, conformity, and social motives for alcohol use, and positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies. Several moderators of effect sizes were found to be significant, including methodological factors such as sample ascertainment approach. Given that social anxiety was negatively related to alcohol use but positively related to alcohol-related problems, research is needed to address why individuals high in social anxiety experience more problems as a result of their alcohol use. Avoidance of social situations among socially anxious students should also be taken into account when measuring alcohol use. The primary limitation of this study is the small number of studies available for inclusion in some of the analyses. PMID:23906724

  8. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

  9. Understanding Korean Families With Alcoholic Fathers in a View of Confucian Culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Sihyun; Schepp, Karen G

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to interpret the dynamics of Korean alcoholic family through the lens of Confucianism, using research conducted in South Korea. To gain an in-depth understanding of the family dynamics and the lived experiences of a certain alcoholic family having a specific ethnicity, health professionals must first understand the uniqueness of their own cultural bases and how those cultural components can shape dynamics of alcoholic family. Thus, we reviewed qualitative studies of Korean families with alcoholic fathers to investigate the unique characteristics of Korean alcoholic families in terms of Confucian thoughts and values and discuss how the Confucian thoughts affect family dynamics in those Korean alcoholic families. Relevant literature was found through Korean database Research Information Sharing Service by using several (Korean) searching terms: alcoholic, home, spouse, wife, children, and family. Articles were included if they were studies of a Korean alcoholic family and used qualitative methodology. If the studies did not include familial perspectives or not focused on alcoholism issues, those studies were excluded. Eleven qualitative studies of alcoholic family were searched. The members of alcoholic families in South Korea, including the alcoholic member, have expected roles and duties because of the influence of Confucian thoughts and values. By associating with family member's alcoholism, those expectations are a big burden on those family members. Therefore, future plans for community interventions and programs for this population should incorporate the findings from this study. PMID:26340569

  10. Development of a Countermeasure to Mitigate Postflight Locomotor Dysfunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Cohen, H. S.; Richards, J. T.; Miller, C. A.; Brady, R.; Warren, L. E.; Ruttley, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts returning from space flight experience locomotor dysfunction following their return to Earth. Our laboratory is currently developing a gait adaptability training program that is designed to facilitate recovery of locomotor function following a return to a gravitational environment. The training program exploits the ability of the sensorimotor system to generalize from exposure to multiple adaptive challenges during training so that the gait control system essentially learns to learn and therefore can reorganize more rapidly when faced with a novel adaptive challenge. Evidence for the potential efficacy of an adaptive generalization gait training program can be obtained from numerous studies in the motor learning literature which have demonstrated that systematically varying the conditions of training enhances the ability of the performer to learn and retain a novel motor task. These variable practice training approaches have been used in applied contexts to improve motor skills required in a number of different sports. The central nervous system (CNS) can produce voluntary movement in an almost infinite number of ways. For example, locomotion can be achieved with many different combinations of joint angles, muscle activation patterns and forces. The CNS can exploit these degrees of freedom to enhance motor response adaptability during periods of adaptive flux like that encountered during a change in gravitational environment. Ultimately, the functional goal of an adaptive generalization countermeasure is not necessarily to immediately return movement patterns back to normal. Rather the training regimen should facilitate the reorganization of available sensory and motor subsystems to achieve safe and effective locomotion as soon as possible after long duration space flight. Indeed, this approach has been proposed as a basic feature underlying effective neurological rehabilitation. We have previously confirmed that subjects participating in an adaptive

  11. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  12. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  13. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  14. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  15. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  16. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722

  17. [Alcohol and working life].

    PubMed

    Kaarne, Tiina; Aalto, Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol-related harm constitutes a significant factor decreasing work productivity. Of heavy alcohol users, most participate in working life. According to labour contract law, a person attending the workplace inebriated can be fired. If the employer applies a deferral to treatment practice, the drug- or alcohol-addicted person can be provided with the choice of therapy and rehabilitation instead of terminating the employment. According to the recent recommendation by the trade unions, organizations should have a program for preventing substance abuse. The employer should take care of the worker's intoxicant education and train the foremen to intervene in the situations on time. PMID:19492706

  18. Marital Interaction in Alcoholic and Nonalcoholic Couples: Alcoholic Subtype Variations and Wives’ Alcoholism Status

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Frank J.; Daugherty, Michelle Klotz; Fitzgerald, Hiram H.; Cranford, James A.; Zucker, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined problem-solving marital interactions of alcoholic and nonalcoholic couples (N = 132). Four alcoholic groups (husband alcoholic with antisocial personality disorder or not, paired with alcoholic or nonalcoholic wives) were compared with each other and with a both-spouses-nonalcoholic group. Consistent with the alcoholic subtypes hypothesis, couples with an antisocial alcoholic husband had higher levels of hostile behavior regardless of wives’ alcoholism status. In contrast, rates of positive behaviors and the ratio of positive to negative behaviors were greatest among couples in which either both or neither of the spouses had alcoholic diagnoses and were lowest among alcoholic husbands with nonalcoholic wives. Discussion focuses on possible mechanisms linking antisocial alcoholism and discrepant alcoholic diagnoses to poorer marital outcomes. PMID:16492103

  19. Alcohol consumption and venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Franchini, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    A light to moderate consumption of certain types of alcoholic beverages may exert a favorable effect on cardiovascular risk, but no conclusive information is available on the putative relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We performed an electronic search on Medline and Scopus, using the keywords "venous thromboembolism", "venous thrombosis" and "alcohol", to identify clinical studies linking alcohol intake and VTE risk. The literature search generated 16 studies, 4 of which are case-control, 1 cross-sectional and 11 prospective. Significant reduction of VTE associated with alcohol intake is observed in only 4/16 studies, and in all these the association is only meaningful for a moderate amount of alcohol (i.e., 2-4 glasses). Unlike these trials, two other studies observe that alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of VTE, whereas the association is insignificant in the remainder. Binge drinking increases the VTE risk in one study but not in another. The consumption of beer is associated with a decreased VTE risk in one study but not in two others. We hence conclude that the relationship between intake of alcoholic beverages and increased or decreased risk of VTE is largely elusive. PMID:26446524

  20. Genetical genomic determinants of alcohol consumption in rats and humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabakoff, Boris; Saba, Laura; Printz, Morton; Flodman, Pam; Hodgkinson, Colin; Goldman, David; Koob, George; Richardson, Heather N; Kechris, Katerina; Bell, Richard L; Hübner, Norbert; Heinig, Matthias; Pravenec, Michal; Mangion, Jonathan; Legault, Lucie; Dongier, Maurice; Conigrave, Katherine M; Whitfield, John B; Saunders, John; Grant, Bridget; Hoffman, Paula L

    2009-01-01

    Background We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant inbred rat strains. In addition, in two populations of humans, we assessed genetic polymorphisms associated with alcohol consumption using a custom genotyping array for 1,350 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our goal was to ascertain whether our approach, which relies on statistical and informatics techniques, and non-human animal models of alcohol drinking behavior, could inform interpretation of genetic association studies with human populations. Results In the HXB/BXH recombinant inbred (RI) rats, correlation analysis of brain gene expression levels with alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice paradigm, and filtering based on behavioral and gene expression quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, generated a list of candidate genes. A literature-based, functional analysis of the interactions of the products of these candidate genes defined pathways linked to presynaptic GABA release, activation of dopamine neurons, and postsynaptic GABA receptor trafficking, in brain regions including the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum and amygdala. The analysis also implicated energy metabolism and caloric intake control as potential influences on alcohol consumption by the recombinant inbred rats. In the human populations, polymorphisms in genes associated with GABA synthesis and GABA receptors, as well as genes related to dopaminergic transmission, were associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusion Our results emphasize the importance of the signaling pathways identified using the non-human animal models, rather than single gene products, in identifying factors responsible for complex traits such as alcohol consumption. The results suggest cross-species similarities in pathways that influence predisposition to consume alcohol by rats and humans

  1. Alcohol and Staff Leisure Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camping Magazine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the problem of alcohol use and abuse by camp staff. Describes alcohol policies of two different camps. Camp Highlands allows responsible drinking but not intoxication. Camp Olympia requires total abstinence from alcohol. A policy that clearly expresses the camp's philosophy toward alcohol and spells out all expectations and results is…

  2. Theories of the Alcoholic Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles

    Several theories of the alcoholic personality have been devised to determine the relationship between the clusters of personality characteristics of alcoholics and their abuse of alcohol. The oldest and probably best known theory is the dependency theory, formulated in the tradition of classical psychoanalysis, which associates the alcoholic's…

  3. Alcohol Policies on College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Rebecca J.; Toomey, Traci L.; Erickson, Darin

    2005-01-01

    State and local alcohol policies can minimize opportunities for people to use alcohol, thereby reducing consumption and alcohol-related problems. Little is known, however, about the prevalence of campus policies aimed at reducing college students' alcohol use and related problems. The authors surveyed school administrators in Minnesota and…

  4. Alcohol in Suicides and Homicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Donald W.

    This paper discusses research findings about 2 sources of violent death associated with alcohol -- suicide and homicide. After depression, alcoholism is the 2nd most common psychiatric diagnosis among suicide victims. Suicide attempters also are frequently alcoholic. The association between alcoholism and suicide, however, may only apply to white…

  5. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... be a combination of a person's: Genes Environment Psychology, such as being impulsive or having low self- ... using alcohol. This is called abstinence. Having strong social and family support can help make it easier ...

  6. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... drink other beverages instead, such as water, fruit juices or milk. Questions to Ask Your Doctor If your baby was born with fetal alcohol syndrome: What health problems does my baby have? Does my baby ...

  7. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... tension-type headache. Cluster headache patients have higher alcohol sensitivity (about 50-80%). In a forward-looking study (PAMINA) published in 2007 Austrian researchers examined a large number of factors related to ...

  8. Inpatient alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monte-Secades, R; Rabuñal-Rey, R; Guerrero-Sande, H

    2015-03-01

    A 55-year-old man was admitted for a femur fracture; an alcohol fetor was noted on admission. The following day, the patient began to experience tremors and nervousness. Intravenous haloperidol was administered. Shortly afterwards, the patient experienced two generalized seizures and then began to experience delirium and uncontrollable agitation. The patient was diagnosed with alcohol withdrawal syndrome; high doses of intravenous midazolam were prescribed and infused. A few hours later, the patient presented signs of respiratory depression, requiring a transfer to the intensive care unit. After a review of the medical history, it was determined that the patient had been admitted on 3 previous occasions due to alcohol withdrawal and had progressed to delirium tremens after experiencing seizures. Can the risk of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and the need for prophylactic treatment be assessed on admission? Were appropriate monitoring and treatment measures employed? Would it have been possible to change his outcome? PMID:25559647

  9. Indian Alcoholism and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Wayne; Patch, Kenneth

    1981-01-01

    Educational programs about alcohol should be presented in the formal school setting for Indian youth and in the communities for the general population. The primary outcome of these programs would be the development of self-management skills. (Author)

  10. Calorie count - Alcoholic beverages

    MedlinePlus

    ... want to watch how much you drink. Cocktails mixed with soda, cream, or ice cream can have especially high calorie counts. If you find you are having trouble cutting back on alcohol , talk with your doctor. Here is a list ...

  11. Alcohol and Cirrhosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a non-drinker with hepatitis C has. Alcohol and hepatitis C both damage the liver, so together, the risk of serious liver damage (cirrhosis) is much higher than with either alone. < Previous Living with Hepatitis ...

  12. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  13. Analysis of Alcohols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brother Thomas

    1984-01-01

    Presents a novel approach to identification of unknown alcohols using experimental measurements of boiling point and viscosity which are easily obtained without expensive equipment of instrumentation. Provides instructions for preparing capillary viscometer, listing special hints for obtaining good results. (JM)

  14. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy: Pathophysiologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Piano, Mariann R.; Phillips, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is a specific heart muscle disease found in individuals with a history of long-term heavy alcohol consumption. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy is associated with a number of adverse histological, cellular, and structural changes within the myocardium. Several mechanisms are implicated in mediating the adverse effects of ethanol, including the generation of oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics/stress, derangements in fatty acid metabolism and transport, and accelerated protein catabolism. In this review, we discuss the evidence for such mechanisms and present the potential importance of drinking patterns, genetic susceptibility, nutritional factors, race, and sex. The purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic paradigm for future research in the area of alcoholic cardiomyopathy. PMID:24671642

  15. Alcohol and Hepatitis C

    MedlinePlus

    ... Combat Veterans & their Families Readjustment Counseling (Vet Centers) War Related Illness & Injury Study Center Homeless Veterans Returning ... break of 1 hour between drinks. Drink soda, water, or juice after a drink with alcohol. Do ...

  16. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... time to break down the alcohol in your system. The caffeine in coffee may help you stay awake. However, it will not improve your coordination or decision-making skills. These can be impaired for several hours ...

  17. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a range of acute consequences, including injuries, sexual assaults, and even deaths—including those from car crashes. ... of 18 and 24 report experiencing alcohol-related sexual assault or date rape. 28 Roughly 20 percent of ...

  18. Alcohol Facts and Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... deaths (31 percent of overall driving fatalities). 11 Economic Burden: In 2010, alcohol misuse problems cost the ... teenage years could interfere with normal adolescent brain development and increase the risk of developing an AUD. ...

  19. The Portal Hypertensive Gastropathy: A Case and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Lidia; Pelosi, Marcello; Ricci, Serafino

    2016-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a cause of high risk for morbidity and mortality. It has been debated in alcoholic cirrhosis, if alcohol exerts an exclusive and causal role upon gastropathy or whether it is linked to cirrhotic portal hypertension. The authors describe an autopsy report regarding mortality caused by gastric bleeding in a 53-year-old patient who suffered from cirrhosis. Literature has evidence of direct, marked damage of alcohol upon the gastric mucosa and there is noteworthy statistical data implying the revaluation of the pathogenesis of the bleeding. PMID:27504310

  20. Electrophysiological studies in alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Blackstock, Eileen; Rushworth, Geoffrey; Gath, Dennis

    1972-01-01

    Using a range of electrophysiological techniques, it has been possible to demonstrate impaired function in smaller calibre motor fibres and in distal large cutaneous sensory nerve fibres in both alcoholic patients without neuropathy and in those alcoholics with clinical manifestations of peripheral nerve disease. Evidence of more proximal involvement of Ia sensory fibres was obtained, but in the majority of our patients, large motor fibres functioned normally. The nature of the underlying pathological process is discussed. Images PMID:4338445

  1. Artificial Gravity as a Multi-System Countermeasure for Exploration Class Space Flight Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paloski, William H.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's vision for space exploration includes missions of unprecedented distance and duration. However, during 30 years of human space flight experience, including numerous long-duration missions, research has not produced any single countermeasure or combination of countermeasures that is completely effective. Current countermeasures do not fully protect crews in low-Earth orbit, and certainly will not be appropriate for crews journeying to Mars and back over a three-year period. The urgency for exploration-class countermeasures is compounded by continued technical and scientific successes that make exploration class missions increasingly attractive. The critical and possibly fatal problems of bone loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, muscle weakening, neurovestibular disturbance, space anemia, and immune compromise may be alleviated by the appropriate application of artificial gravity (AG). However, despite a manifest need for new countermeasure approaches, concepts for applying AG as a countermeasure have not developed apace. To explore the utility of AG as a multi-system countermeasure during long-duration, exploration-class space flight, eighty-three members of the international space life science and space flight community met earlier this year. They concluded unanimously that the potential of AG as a multi-system countermeasure is indeed worth pursuing, and that the requisite AG research needs to be supported more systematically by NASA. This presentation will review the issues discussed and recommendations made.

  2. Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance in relation to coping and conformity motives for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers.

    PubMed

    Howell, Ashley N; Leyro, Teresa M; Hogan, Julianna; Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance have been identified as important factors related to alcohol use motives and alcohol-related problems. Yet, these variables are highly correlated and little work has delineated whether these psychological vulnerability factors are differentially related to alcohol use motives and problems. To fill this gap in the existing literature, the present study evaluated whether anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and discomfort intolerance were differentially related to high-risk alcohol use motives (i.e., coping and conformity motives) and alcohol use problems among 224 young adult, current drinkers (52.3% women; M(age)=21.18, SD=7.08). Results indicated that distress tolerance, but not anxiety sensitivity or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to coping motives for alcohol use. Additionally, anxiety sensitivity, but not distress tolerance or discomfort intolerance, was significantly related to conformity motives for drinking. For both sets of analyses, the observed significant effects were evident above and beyond the variance accounted for by alcohol consumption level, smoking rate, negative affectivity, and non-criterion alcohol use motives. Additionally, discomfort intolerance and anxiety sensitivity each predicted alcohol use problems; effects were not attributable to negative affectivity, cigarettes smoked per day, or shared variance with distress tolerance. Findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotional sensitivity and intolerance in terms of the motivational bases for alcohol use and alcohol use problems among young adult drinkers. PMID:20719435

  3. Stress and Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, KM.; Hatzenbuehler, ML.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to stress often is psychologically distressing. The impact of stress on alcohol use and the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) depends on the type, timing during the life course, duration, and severity of the stress experienced. Four important categories of stressors that can influence alcohol consumption are general life stress, catastrophic/fateful stress, childhood maltreatment, and minority stress. General life stressors, including divorce and job loss, increase the risk for AUDs. Exposure to terrorism or other disasters causes population-level increases in overall alcohol consumption but little increase in the incidence of AUDs. However, individuals with a history of AUDs are more likely to drink to cope with the traumatic event. Early onset of drinking in adolescence, as well as adult AUDs, are more common among people who experience childhood maltreatment. Finally, both perceptions and objective indicators of discrimination are associated with alcohol use and AUDs among racial/ethnic and sexual minorities. These observations demonstrate that exposure to stress in many forms is related to subsequent alcohol consumption and AUDs. However, many areas of this research remain to be studied, including greater attention to the role of various stressors in the course of AUDs and potential risk moderators when individuals are exposed to stressors. PMID:23584105

  4. Neuropathology of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Greg T; Sheedy, Donna; Kril, Jillian J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in structural changes to the brain. In alcoholics without coexisting thiamine deficiency or liver disease this is largely restricted to a loss of white-matter volume. When it occurs, neuronal loss is limited in anatomic distribution and only detected with quantitative techniques. This relative paucity of neurodegeneration is reflected in studies of gene and protein expression in postmortem brain where findings are subtle and discordant between studies. In alcoholics with coexisting pathologies, neuronal loss is more marked and affects a wider range of anatomic regions, especially subcortical nuclei. Although this more widespread damage may reflect a more severe drinking history, there is evidence linking thiamine deficiency and the consequences of liver disease to the pathogenesis of alcohol-related brain damage. Furthermore, a range of other factors, such as cigarette smoking and mood disorders, that are common in alcoholics, have the potential to influence studies of brain pathology and should be considered in further studies of the neuropathology of alcoholism. PMID:25307599

  5. Measuring College Students' Alcohol Consumption in Natural Drinking Environments: Field Methodologies for Bars and Parties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clapp, John D.; Holmes, Megan R.; Reed, Mark B.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Freisthler, Bridget; Lange, James E.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years researchers have paid substantial attention to the issue of college students' alcohol use. One limitation to the current literature is an over reliance on retrospective, self-report survey data. This article presents field methodologies for measuring college students' alcohol consumption in natural drinking environments.…

  6. The Effects of Sleep Problems and Depression on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wattenmaker McGann, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Previous literature provides an overview of the multiple relationships between alcohol use, protective behavioral strategies (PBS), alcohol-related negative consequences, depression, and sleep problems among college students, as well as differences by individual level characteristics, such as age, gender, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this…

  7. Religiousness and Alcohol Use in College Students: Examining Descriptive Drinking Norms as Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brechting, Emily H.; Carlson, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Religiousness has consistently emerged in the literature as a protective factor for alcohol use. Relatively few studies have empirically explored possible mechanisms for this robust effect. The present study examines descriptive drinking norms as a potential mediator of the religiousness--alcohol consumption association. Consistent with the…

  8. Implications of Recent Neuropsychopharmacologic Research for Understanding the Etiology and Development of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Anton, Raymond F.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies show the neuropsychopharmacologic basis of alcoholism. Studies involving the serotonergic and opioidergic neurotransmitter systems have shown consistent results. Concurrent nosologic developments have led to identification of subtypes of alcoholism. This article reviews literature in these various areas in an effort to enhance…

  9. Parallels between Learning Disabilities and Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect: No Need To Reinvent the Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carol L.; Lapadat, Judith C.

    2000-01-01

    A survey of the research and practice literatures on learning disabilities and on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Effect revealed parallels in learning characteristics, as well as in the recommended interventions. Based on these parallels, an adolescent with Fetal Alcohol received intervention. Teaching strategies for students with learning disabilities…

  10. I don't know how I feel, therefore I act: alexithymia, urgency, and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Hanako; Gaher, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relationships between alexithymia, impulsivity, and alcohol use and related problems. The sample consisted of 429 undergraduate students who reported drinking alcohol at least once in the past 3 months. Negative urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, whereas positive urgency mediated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol consumption. In addition, positive urgency moderated the relationship between alexithymia and alcohol-related problems, increasing the strength of this association. These results indicate distinct relationships between alexithymia and negative urgency and positive urgency in predicting alcohol consumption and related problems. The findings of this research contribute to the body of the literature on alexithymia, self-regulation, and etiology of alcohol misuse and related consequences. Furthermore, the findings of the current study provide support for the importance of emotion identification and expression skills training in substance abuse treatment. PMID:23384454

  11. Drug and Alcohol Exposed Children: Implications for Special Education for Students Identified as Behaviorally Disordered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Anne M.

    1991-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on children prenatally exposed to drugs and alcohol, the potential impact on the educational and social services systems, and implications for programing for children identified as behaviorally disordered. (Author/JDD)

  12. Were James Bond’s drinks shaken because of alcohol induced tremor?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Graham; Guha, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify James Bond’s consumption of alcohol as detailed in the series of novels by Ian Fleming. Design Retrospective literature review. Setting The study authors’ homes, in a comfy chair. Participants Commander James Bond, 007; Mr Ian Lancaster Fleming. Main outcome measures Weekly alcohol consumption by Commander Bond. Methods All 14 James Bond books were read by two of the authors. Contemporaneous notes were taken detailing every alcoholic drink taken. Predefined alcohol unit levels were used to calculate consumption. Days when Bond was unable to consume alcohol (such as through incarceration) were noted. Results After exclusion of days when Bond was unable to drink, his weekly alcohol consumption was 92 units a week, over four times the recommended amount. His maximum daily consumption was 49.8 units. He had only 12.5 alcohol free days out of 87.5 days on which he was able to drink. Conclusions James Bond’s level of alcohol intake puts him at high risk of multiple alcohol related diseases and an early death. The level of functioning as displayed in the books is inconsistent with the physical, mental, and indeed sexual functioning expected from someone drinking this much alcohol. We advise an immediate referral for further assessment and treatment, a reduction in alcohol consumption to safe levels, and suspect that the famous catchphrase “shaken, not stirred” could be because of alcohol induced tremor affecting his hands. PMID:24336307

  13. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. PMID:25307566

  14. Induction of skin carcinogenicity by alcohol and ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Saladi, R N; Nektalova, T; Fox, J L

    2010-01-01

    In western societies, casual consumption of alcohol during such outdoor activities as barbecuing and sunbathing is common. The current literature shows that alcohol drinkers have increased episodes of sunburn and a higher prevalence of skin cancer. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the combination of subcarcinogenic (minimal) ultraviolet (UV) exposure with other behavioural, environmental and xenobiotic factors has resulted in increased incidents of skin-related health problems that also result in skin-cancer formation. We hypothesize that the combination of alcohol consumption with UV radiation can potentiate the skin carcinogenic effects through the intermediate biproducts or metabolites of alcohol, which serve as the photosensitizers, consequently enhancing the cellular damage. We have proposed a mechanism that explains the combined alcohol-UV radiation carcinogenicity and its potential involvement in enhancing skin damage in the multistep skin carcinogenesis process. Previous literature has explored this mutual effect but no studies have definitively ascribed the reasons for increased skin cancer prevalence among alcohol drinkers. Nevertheless, the preceding epidemiological data and clinical studies recognize this matter, making the further testing of this hypothesis necessary. PMID:19778305

  15. Vapor-liquid equilibria for alcohol + alcohol + sodium iodide at 298.15 K

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, H.; Fukase, K.; Shibata, J.

    1996-09-01

    Estimation and correlation of phase equilibria data in chemical engineering are indispensable for the design of equilibrium separation processes. If a salt, being completely nonvolatile, is added to the solvent mixture, the relative volatility generally changes; this is known as the salting-in or -out effect on vapor-liquid equilibria. Vapor-liquid equilibria for methanol + propan-1-ol + NaI, methanol + propan-2-ol + NaI, ethanol + propan-1-ol + NaI, and ethanol + propan-2-ol + NaI systems were measured at 298.15 K using a static method. The apparatus was tested by comparing results for ethanol + water and ethanol + water + CaCl{sub 2} with literature results. Results were tested for thermodynamic consistency by Herinton`s area test and point test. NaI exerted a salting-in effect on all binary alcohol solutions and the order of the salt effect of NaI was methanol + ethanol < ethanol + propan-1-ol < ethanol + propan-2-ol < methanol + propan-1-ol < methanol + propan-2-ol. Hala`s model was applied for the correlation of four alcohol + alcohol + salt systems using observed data. Calculated {beta} values in Hala`s equation were between 2.8 and 3.9 for the four alcohol + alcohol + NaI systems.

  16. Current ISS Exercise Countermeasures: Where are we now?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. C.; Loerch, L.; Davis-Street, J.; Haralson, Cortni; Sams, C.

    2006-01-01

    Current International Space Station (ISS) crew schedules include 1.5 h/d for completion of resistive exercise and 1 h/d of aerobic exercise , 6 d/wk. While ISS post flight decrements in muscle strength, bone m ineral density, and aerobic capacity improved in some crewmembers, de conditioning was still evident even with this volume of exercise. Res ults from early ISS expeditions show maximum loss in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and pelvis in excess of 1.5% per month, with all crewmembers demonstrating significant bone loss in one or more re gions. Similarly, post flight muscle strength losses in the hamstring and quadriceps muscle groups exceeded 30% in the immediate post miss ion period in some crewmembers. Measures of aerobic capacity early in the mission show average decrements of 15%, but with onboard aerobic exercise capability, the crew has been able to "train up" over the co urse of the mission. These findings are highly variable among crewmem bers and appear to be correlated with availability and reliability of the inflight resistive exercise device (RED), cycle ergometer, and t readmill. This suite of hardware was installed on ISS with limited op erational evaluation in groundbased test beds. As a result, onorbit hardware constraints have resulted in inadequate physical stimulus, d econditioning, and increased risk for compromised performance during intra and extravehicular activities. These issues indicate that the c urrent ISS Countermeasures System reliability or validity are not ade quate for extendedduration exploration missions. Learning Objective: A better understanding of the status of ISS exercise countermeasures , their ability to protect physiologic systems, and recommendations for exploration exercise countermeasures.

  17. Vitamin E: tocopherols and tocotrienols as potential radiation countermeasures

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vijay K.; Beattie, Lindsay A.; Seed, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the potential devastating health consequences of intense total-body irradiation, and the decades of research, there still remains a dearth of safe and effective radiation countermeasures for emergency, radiological/nuclear contingencies that have been fully approved and sanctioned for use by the US FDA. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant, effective in scavenging free radicals generated by radiation exposure. Vitamin E analogs, collectively known as tocols, have been subject to active investigation for a long time as radioprotectors in patients undergoing radiotherapy and in the context of possible radiation accidents or terrorism scenarios. Eight major isoforms comprise the tocol group: four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. A number of these agents and their derivatives are being investigated actively as radiation countermeasures using animal models, and several appear promising. Although the tocols are well recognized as potent antioxidants and are generally thought to mediate radioprotection through ‘free radical quenching’, recent studies have suggested several alternative mechanisms: most notably, an ‘indirect effect’ of tocols in eliciting specific species of radioprotective growth factors/cytokines such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). The radioprotective efficacy of at least two tocols has been abrogated using a neutralizing antibody of G-CSF. Based on encouraging results of radioprotective efficacy, laboratory testing of γ-tocotrienol has moved from a small rodent model to a large nonhuman primate model for preclinical evaluation. In this brief review we identify and discuss selected tocols and their derivatives currently under development as radiation countermeasures, and attempt to describe in some detail their in vivo efficacy. PMID:23658414

  18. A comprehensive program for countermeasures against potentially hazardous objects (PHOs)

    SciTech Connect

    Huebner, Walter; Giguere, P T; Bradley, P; Guzik, J A; Plesko, C; Wohletz, K; Johnson, L N; Boice, D C; Chocron, S; Ghosh, A; Goldstein, R; Mukerherjee, J; Patrick, W; Walker, J D

    2008-01-01

    At the hundredth anniversary of the Tunguska event in Siberia it is appropriate to discuss measures to avoid such occurrences in the future. Recent discussions about detecting, tracking, cataloguing, and characterizing near-Earth objects (NEOs) center on objects larger than about 140 m in size. However, objects smaller than 100 m are more frequent and can cause significant regional destruction of civil infrastructures and population centers. The cosmic object responsible for the Tunguska event provides a graphic example: although it is thought to have been only about 50 to 60 m in size, it devastated an area of about 2000 km{sup 2}. Ongoing surveys aimed at early detection of a potentially hazardous object (PHO: asteroid or comet nucleus that approaches the Earth's orbit within 0.05 AU) are only a first step toward applying countermeasures to prevent an impact on Earth. Because 'early' may mean only a few weeks or days in the case of a Tunguska-sized object or a long-period comet, deflecting the object by changing its orbit is beyond the means of current technology, and destruction and dispersal of its fragments may be the only reasonable solution. Highly capable countermeasures - always at the ready - are essential to defending against an object with such short warning time, and therefore short reaction time between discovery and impending impact. We present an outline for a comprehensive plan for countermeasures that includes smaller (Tunguska-sized) objects and long-period comets, focuses on short warning times, uses non-nuclear methods (e.g., hyper-velocity impactor devices and conventional explosives) whenever possible, uses nuclear munitions only when needed, and launches from the ground. The plan calls for international collaboration for action against a truly global threat.

  19. Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Colletti, Laura M.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Tam, Patricia Y.; Dinges, David F.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. No system currently exists to assist in managing alertness, and countermeasure options are limited. Surveys reveal many pilots use breaks as an in-flight countermeasure, but there have been no controlled studies of their effectiveness. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that brief, regular breaks could improve alertness and performance during an overnight flight. METHOD: A 6-h, uneventful, nighttime flight in a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator was flown by fourteen two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received 5 short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received 1 break in the middle of cruise. Continuous EEG/EOG, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance performance data were collected. RESULTS: During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15 min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity, and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25 min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. There was no evidence of objective vigilance performance improvement at 15-25 min post-break, with expected performance deterioration occurring due to elevated sleep drive and circadian time. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological and subjective data indicate the breaks reduced nighttime sleepiness for at least 15 min post-break and may have masked sleepiness for up to 25 min, suggesting the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure.

  20. Recent bed rest results and countermeasure development at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Bedrest studies of normal subjects provide opportunities to understand physiologic responses to supine posture and inactivity. Furthermore, head-down tilt has been a valuable procedure to investigate adaptation to microgravity and development of countermeasures to maintain the health and well-being of humans during space-flight. Recent bedrest experiments at NASA have ranged in duration from a few hours to 17 weeks. Acute studies of 6 degrees head-down tilt indicate that elevation of capillary blood pressure from 28 to 34 mm Hg and increased capillary perfusion in tissues of the head cause facial and intracranial edema. Intracranial pressure increases from 2 to 17 mm Hg going from upright posture to 6 degrees head-down tilt. Microvessels of the head have a low capacity to constrict and diminish local perfusion. Elevation of blood and tissue fluid pressures/flow in the head may also explain the higher headward bone density associated with long-term head-down tilt. These mechanistic studies of head-down tilt, along with a better understanding of the relative stresses involved with upright posture and lower body negative pressure, have facilitated development of suitable physiologic countermeasures to maintain astronaut health during microgravity. Presently no exercise hardware is available to provide a blood pressure gradient from head to feet in space. However, recent studies in our laboratory suggest that treadmill exercise using a graded lower-body compression suit and 100 mmHg lower body negative pressure provides equivalent or greater physiologic stress than similar upright exercise on Earth. Therefore, exercise within a lower body negative pressure chamber may provide a cost-effective and simple countermeasure to maintain the cardiovascular and neuro-musculoskeletal systems of astronauts during long-duration flight.

  1. Acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Ten Have, Thomas R; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2011-01-01

    A case-control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  2. WOMEN ALCOHOLICS : ARE THEY DIFFERENT FROM MEN ALCOHOLICS ?

    PubMed Central

    Selvaraj, V.; Suveera, Prasad; Ashok, M.V.; Appaya, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Women alcoholics seeking psychiatric help have been increasing steadily over the years. The data on this subgroup however, is limited. Eighteen women alcoholics who presented to us over one year have been compared to twenty-eight men alcoholics who presented to us over one calendar month. Gender differences in the functions and effects of problem drinking were found. Men and women alcoholics differed in marital and occupational status, initiating and maintaining factors for drinking, course of alcoholism and alcohol related damage. PMID:21584094

  3. Acute Alcohol Consumption, Alcohol Outlets, and Gun Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Richmond, Therese S.; Ten Have, Thomas R.; Wiebe, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A case–control study of 149 intentionally self-inflicted gun injury cases (including completed gun suicides) and 302 population-based controls was conducted from 2003 to 2006 in a major US city. Two focal independent variables, acute alcohol consumption and alcohol outlet availability, were measured. Conditional logistic regression was adjusted for confounding variables. Gun suicide risk to individuals in areas of high alcohol outlet availability was less than the gun suicide risk they incurred from acute alcohol consumption, especially to excess. This corroborates prior work but also uncovers new information about the relationships between acute alcohol consumption, alcohol outlets, and gun suicide. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:21929327

  4. The role of alcohol in Thailand motorcycle crashes.

    PubMed

    Kasantikul, Vira; Ouellet, James V; Smith, Terry; Sirathranont, Jetn; Panichabhongse, Viratt

    2005-03-01

    In order to identify motorcycle accident cause factors and countermeasures in Thailand, a large prospective study was undertaken. Researchers conducted on-scene, in-depth investigation and reconstruction of 969 collisions involving 1082 motorcycle riders. Accidents were randomly sampled and included all levels of injury severity. Alcohol proved to be the most outstanding cause factor, with 393 drinking riders in crashes. Alcohol accidents were distinctly different from non-alcohol crashes. Alcohol accidents were more frequent on weekends and particularly at night, usually when the rider was on his way home. Drinking riders were more likely to lose control of the motorcycle, usually by running off the road. They were more likely to be in a single vehicle accident, to violate traffic control signals, and to be in non-intersection collisions. Males were far more likely to drink and ride than females. Drinking riders were far more likely to be inattentive to the driving task just before they crashed, and to be the primary or sole cause of the accident. One-fourth of all riders did not go to the hospital, and another 42% needed only treatment in the emergency room. Drinking riders were more likely to be hospitalized and far more likely to be killed. The higher hospitalization and fatality rates of drinking riders resulted from the kinds of accidents in which they were involved, not from the minimal differences in speeds and helmet use. Problems with balance and coordination were about equally rare among drinking and non-drinking riders. Inattention was a far greater contributing factor. PMID:15667823

  5. The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Reimuller, Alison; Hussong, Andrea; Ennett, Susan T

    2011-12-01

    Alcohol-specific communication, a direct conversation between an adult and an adolescent regarding alcohol use, contains messages about alcohol relayed from the adult to the child. The current study examined the construct of alcohol-specific communication and the effect of messages on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Parent-adolescent dyads were assessed biannually for 3 years (grades 9-11 at wave 6) to examine these relations in a large longitudinal study of adolescents initially in grades 6 through 8. An exploratory factor analysis identified two factors among alcohol-specific communication items, permissive messages and negative alcohol messages. Results showed previous level of adolescent alcohol use moderated the relation between permissive messages and alcohol use outcomes. Plotting of these interactions showed greater alcohol use and consequences with increasing permissive messages in adolescents with higher versus lower levels of previous alcohol use. Results suggest that parental messages regarding alcohol use may impact adolescent alcohol use beyond the effect of general parenting style and parental alcohol use. PMID:21667141

  6. Poxvirus countermeasures during an emergency in the United States.

    PubMed

    Bice, Steve; Yeskey, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    Although smallpox was eradicated worldwide by 1980, national security experts remain concerned that it could be used in a deliberate attack. The United States and other governments have given priority to developing and stockpiling vaccines and antivirals to protect their populations from the potential reintroduction of this deadly disease. Public health officials are also concerned about the spread of related zoonotic orthopoxviruses such as monkeypox and cowpox, against which smallpox vaccine provides protection. This report analyzes how medical countermeasures available in the US Strategic National Stockpile will be given priority and used in the event of an intentional or accidental release of smallpox in the United States. PMID:26060872

  7. Autogenic-feedback training: A countermeasure for orthostatic intolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Kamiya, Joe; Miller, Neal E.; Pickering, Thomas G.

    1991-01-01

    NASA has identified cardiovascular deconditioning as a serious biomedical problem associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity in space. High priority has been given to the development of countermeasures for this disorder and the resulting orthostatic intolerance experienced by crewmembers upon their return to the 1g norm of Earth. The present study was designed to examine the feasibility of training human subjects to control their own cardiovascular responses to gravitational stimulation (i.e., a tilt table). Using an operant conditioning procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training (AFT), we would determine if subjects could learn to increase their own blood pressure voluntarily.

  8. Causes and nursing countermeasures in pediatric PICC catheter complications.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Mingli; Li, Na; Yi, Lan; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the complications and nursing countermeasures of PICC (Peripherally Inserted Central Catheter) catheters using children PICC catheter technique 40 cases, complications were observed, and analyze the original causes, in order to propose a solution. There were 10 cases of catheter blockage, 5 cases of catheter infection, 6 cases of phlebitis, 5 cases of puncture difficulties, 2 cases of poor feeding tube, 2 cases of bleeding puncture site with the continuous exploration and research of nursing intervention, the production of clinical complications from PICC has been used in children were greatly reduced. PMID:27005500

  9. Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures Plan: 100 Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, Y.M.

    1989-06-01

    The purpose of this Chemical Spill Prevention, Control, and Countermeasures (SPCC) Plan is to identify the chemical spill control practices, procedures, and containment devices Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) employs to prevent a reportable quantity (RQ) of a hazardous substance (as defined in 40 CFR Part 302) from being released to the environment. The chemical systems and chemical storage facilities in the 100 Areas are described. This document traces the ultimate fate of accidental chemical spills at the 100 Areas. Also included in the document destinations, spill containment devices, and systems surveillance frequencies. 2 tabs.

  10. Optimization of massive countermeasure design in complex rockfall settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agliardi, Federico; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2015-04-01

    Rockfall protection is a major need in areas impended by subvertical rockwalls with complex 3D morphology and little or no talus to provide natural rockfall attenuation. The design of massive embankments, usually required to ensure such protection, is particularly difficult in complex rockfall settings, due to: widespread occurrence of rockfall sources; difficult characterization of size distribution and location of unstable volumes; variability of failure mechanisms; spatial scattering of rockfall trajectories; high expected kinetic energies. Moreover, rockwalls in complex lithological and structural settings are often prone to mass falls related to rock mass sector collapses. All these issues may hamper a safe application of classic embankment analysis approaches, using empirical rules or 2D-based height/energy statistics, and point to the need of integrated analyses of rock slope instability and rockfall runout in 3D. We explore the potential of combining advanced rock mass characterisation techniques and 3D rockfall modelling to support challenging countermeasure design at a site near Lecco (Southern Alps, Italy). Here subvertical cliffs up to 600 m high impend on a narrow (< 150 m) strip of flat land along the Como Lake shore. Rock is thickly bedded limestone (Dolomia Principale Fm) involved in a ENE-trending, S-verging kilometre-scale anticline fold. The spatial variability of bedding attitude and fracture intensity is strongly controlled by the geological structure, with individual block sizes varying in the range 0.2-15 m3. This results in spatially variable rockfall susceptibility and mechanisms, from single block falls to mass falls. Several rockfall events occurred between 1981 and 2010 motivated the design of slope benching and a massive embankment. To support reliable design verification and optimization we performed a 3D assessment of both rock slope instability and rockfall runout. We characterised fracture patterns and rock mass quality associated

  11. Dispensing medical countermeasures: emergency use authorities and liability protections.

    PubMed

    Kels, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel. PMID:25813980

  12. Dispensing Medical Countermeasures: Emergency Use Authorities and Liability Protections

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013 (PAHPRA) enhances emergency use authorities with respect to both approved and unapproved medical countermeasures (MCMs). PAHPRA authorities can also be critical to preserving tort liability protections for public health stakeholders, since these protections are often contingent upon appropriate authorizations for the MCMs utilized. This article details the evolution of emergency use authorities and liability protections, analyzes how these separate legal doctrines can intersect in practice, and discusses implications for facilitating preparedness and response activities and for protecting associated personnel. PMID:25813980

  13. The validity of different measures of automatic alcohol action tendencies.

    PubMed

    Kersbergen, Inge; Woud, Marcella L; Field, Matt

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that automatic alcohol action tendencies are related to alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. These action tendencies are measured with reaction time tasks in which the latency to make an approach response to alcohol pictures is compared with the latency to make an avoidance response. In the literature, 4 different tasks have been used, and these tasks differ on whether alcohol is a relevant (R) or irrelevant (IR) feature for categorization and on whether participants must make a symbolic approach response (stimulus-response compatibility [SRC] tasks) or an overt behavioral response (approach avoidance tasks [AAT]) to the pictures. Previous studies have shown positive correlations between measures of action tendencies and hazardous drinking and weekly alcohol consumption. However, results have been inconsistent and the different measures have not been directly compared with each other. Therefore, it is unclear which task is the best predictor of hazardous drinking and alcohol consumption. In the present study, 80 participants completed all 4 measures of action tendencies (i.e., R-SRC, IR-SRC, R-AAT, and IR-AAT) and measures of alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking. Stepwise regressions showed that the R-SRC and R-AAT were the only significant predictors of hazardous drinking, whereas the R-AAT was the only reliable predictor of alcohol consumption. Our results confirm that drinking behavior is positively correlated with automatic alcohol approach tendencies, but only if alcohol-relatedness is the relevant feature for categorization. Theoretical implications and methodological issues are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25134039

  14. The Quality and Accuracy of Mobile Apps to Prevent Driving After Drinking Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanov, Stoyan R; Gandabhai, Shailen; Baldwin, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background Driving after the consumption of alcohol represents a significant problem globally. Individual prevention countermeasures such as personalized mobile apps aimed at preventing such behavior are widespread, but there is little research on their accuracy and evidence base. There has been no known assessment investigating the quality of such apps. Objective This study aimed to determine the quality and accuracy of apps for drink driving prevention by conducting a review and evaluation of relevant mobile apps. Methods A systematic app search was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. App quality was assessed using the Mobile App Rating Scale (MARS). Apps providing blood alcohol calculators (hereafter “calculators”) were reviewed against current alcohol advice for accuracy. Results A total of 58 apps (30 iOS and 28 Android) met inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Drink driving prevention apps had significantly lower engagement and overall quality scores than alcohol management apps. Most calculators provided conservative blood alcohol content (BAC) time until sober calculations. None of the apps had been evaluated to determine their efficacy in changing either drinking or driving behaviors. Conclusions This novel study demonstrates that most drink driving prevention apps are not engaging and lack accuracy. They could be improved by increasing engagement features, such as gamification. Further research should examine the context and motivations for using apps to prevent driving after drinking in at-risk populations. Development of drink driving prevention apps should incorporate evidence-based information and guidance, lacking in current apps. PMID:27502956

  15. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  16. Alcohol and porphyrin metabolism.

    PubMed

    Doss, M O; Kühnel, A; Gross, U

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol is a porphyrinogenic agent which may cause disturbances in porphyrin metabolism in healthy persons as well as biochemical and clinical manifestations of acute and chronic hepatic porphyrias. After excessive consumption of alcohol, a temporary, clinically asymptomatic secondary hepatic coproporphyrinuria is observable, which can become persistent in cases of alcohol-induced liver damage. Nowadays, the alcohol-liver-porphyrinuria syndrome is the first to be mentioned in secondary hepatic disturbances of porphyrin metabolism. Acute hepatic porphyrias (acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria) are considered to be molecular regulatory diseases, in contrast to non-acute, chronic hepatic porphyria, clinically appearing as porphyria cutanea tarda (PCT). Porphyrins do not accumulate in the liver in acute porphyrias, whereas in chronic hepatic porphyrias they do. Thus, chronic hepatic porphyria is a porphyrin-accumulation disease, whereas acute hepatic porphyrias are haem-pathway-dysregulation diseases, characterized in general by induction of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase in the liver and excessive stimulation of the pathway without storage of porphyrins in the liver. The clinical expression of acute hepatic porphyrias can be triggered by alcohol, because alcohol augments the inducibility of delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. In chronic hepatic porphyrias, however, which are already associated with liver damage, alcohol potentiates the disturbance of the decarboxylation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrinogen, which is followed by a hepatic accumulation of uro- and heptacarboxyporphyrin and their sometimes extreme urinary excretion. Especially in persons with a genetic deficiency of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase, but also in patients with the so-called sporadic variety of PCT, alcohol is able to transform an asymptomatic coproporphyrinuria into PCT. Alcohol has many biochemical and clinical effects on porphyrin and haem

  17. [Counteraction against alcoholism in religious letters of 18th century].

    PubMed

    Rok, B

    1999-01-01

    The Polish historiography talks at length about the problem of alcoholism in Poland in the 18th century. Estimates were made about the scale and consumption of alcoholic beverages. Many records are available today, mainly in the form of diaries, which describe the extent of drunkenness at that time. Much information on drinking bouts comes from satires (this article quotes after an anonymous satire found in the Polish manuscripts of the 18th century). Apart from the literature, also preachers contributed to the present knowledge of alcohol consumption within that period. Drunkenness was often mentioned in sermons and varied types of religious guides. The 18th century priests deemed drunkenness as a heavy sin and fiercely counteracted the abuse of alcoholic beverages, by condemning people in a state of intoxication. PMID:14631978

  18. Flash Points of Secondary Alcohol and n-Alkane Mixtures.

    PubMed

    Esina, Zoya N; Miroshnikov, Alexander M; Korchuganova, Margarita R

    2015-11-19

    The flash point is one of the most important characteristics used to assess the ignition hazard of mixtures of flammable liquids. To determine the flash points of mixtures of secondary alcohols with n-alkanes, it is necessary to calculate the activity coefficients. In this paper, we use a model that allows us to obtain enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of the pure components to calculate the liquid-solid equilibrium (LSE) and vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). Enthalpy of fusion and enthalpy of vaporization data of secondary alcohols in the literature are limited; thus, the prediction of these characteristics was performed using the method of thermodynamic similarity. Additionally, the empirical models provided the critical temperatures and boiling temperatures of the secondary alcohols. The modeled melting enthalpy and enthalpy of vaporization as well as the calculated LSE and VLE flash points were determined for the secondary alcohol and n-alkane mixtures. PMID:26491811

  19. [The effects of alcohol on the developing brain].

    PubMed

    Zimatkin, S M; bon', E I

    2014-01-01

    In the review the literature data on the effect of alcohol on the developing brain of human and animals are summarized. The information is presented on the neuroimaging, histological, cellular and molecular-genetic disturbances in the brain in fetal alcohol syndrome and following exposure to alcohol during the early postnatal period. The structural developmental abnormalities of the different parts of the brain, disorders of neurogenesis and neuronal apoptosis, changes in metabolism, receptors and secondary signals system of neurons are described. Prenatal alcohol exposure causes significant, various long-term disturbances of the brain structures at the organ, tissue, cellular and subcellular level, which may lay in the basis of the observed neurological, behavioral and metal disorders. PMID:25282832

  20. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N

    2016-05-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website. PMID:27086005

  1. Spectrum of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Chacko, Kristina Rachel; Reinus, John

    2016-08-01

    Liver disease from excessive alcohol consumption is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. There is a clear relationship between alcohol and a variety of health and socioeconomic problems. According to the World Health Organization, 3.3 million people die of alcohol-related causes annually. Despite public knowledge of its potential adverse effects, alcohol consumption and the morbidity and mortality from alcoholic liver disease (ALD) have increased. ALD comprises a spectrum of injury, including simple steatosis, acute alcoholic hepatitis, and cirrhosis. Rather than being distinct disease entities, these pathologic processes frequently overlap. PMID:27373606

  2. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see Chick and Nutt ((2012) Substitution therapy for alcoholism: time for a reappraisal? J Psychopharmacol 26:205–12)]. Methods: Literature review. Results: All criteria appear either satisfied or partially satisfied, though studies relying on medical cannabis patients may be limited by selection bias and/or retrospective designs. Individual-level factors, such as severity of alcohol problems, may also moderate substitution. Conclusions: There is no clear pattern of outcomes related to cannabis substitution. Most importantly, the recommendation to prescribe alcohol-dependent individuals cannabis to help reduce drinking is premature. Future studies should use longitudinal data to better understand the consequences of cannabis substitution. PMID:24402247

  3. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  4. An Examination of Family-Involved Approaches to Alcoholism Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, James G.

    2003-01-01

    Introduces the development and theoretical underpinnings of family-involved treatment for alcoholism. Describes several interventions from the family therapy literature with an emphasis on behavioral techniques. Outlines efficacy research and considers some problems with the family approach. (Contains 42 references.) (GCP)

  5. Suicide, Homicide, and Alcoholism Among American Indians: Guidelines for Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frederick, Calvin J., Comp.; And Others

    Designed to help alleviate some of the health problems among American Indians and Eskimos, this booklet covers suicide, homicide, and alcoholism. It can be used to provide: (1) "how-to" guidelines which describe ways for recognizing, handling, and preventing possible suicides among American Indians; and (2) survey data and literature for use as a…

  6. Adult Children of Alcoholics: Adjustment to a College Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutler, Heather A.; Radford, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Provides a literature review of family-of-origin issues related to adult children of alcoholics (ACOA) and their adjustment to college. Implications for college personnel are presented, as is a case study to illustrate the many issues an ACOA college student may face in his or her transition. (Author/GCP)

  7. Methodological Issues in Alcohol Screening and Brief Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kypri, Kypros

    2007-01-01

    The research literature on screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy alcohol use is large and diverse. More than 50 clinical trials and 9 systematic reviews have been published on SBI in a range of healthcare settings, and via a variety of delivery approaches, in general practice, hospital wards, emergency departments, addiction…

  8. Young drivers' night-time mobility preferences and attitude toward alcohol consumption: A Hybrid Choice Model.

    PubMed

    Scagnolari, Stefano; Walker, Joan; Maggi, Rico

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes an analysis of mobility preferences of young people at nighttime. In OECD countries in the last decades, data show that road crashes are the single biggest cause of death of 15-24 years-old drivers. On average, over 8500 young drivers were killed each year and it is demonstrated that the accidents tend to occur on weekend nights and when young people drive under the influence of alcohol. Focusing on the demand for mobility, we approach the problem from several points of view, concentrating on the relationship between attitudes towards alcohol and some of the most common countermeasures implemented to address young-driver risk. In particular, we examine the potential demand of young drivers for new modes of public transport, understand their preferences for plans designed to reduce and/or prevent the number of risky situations. Our analysis covers different aspects of private modes of transport, including amounts of fines and police checkpoints. We also investigate the characteristics of existing and available public transport systems (e.g. fares and levels of services). Through a Stated Preferences experiment (SP), we collected young people's preferences about nighttime mobility within our application area (Lugano, Switzerland). Using the Hybrid Choice Models technique, we developed an approach and we estimated a model designed to incorporate simultaneously three dimensions of the problem: attributes of the alternatives, characteristics of young drivers, and alcohol-related psychological variables. Our estimates suggest that, first, there are young drivers who are willing to choose public alternatives; secondly, the countermeasures considered can increase their number; and, thirdly, people with a higher attitude to alcohol are more willing to switch to new public transport alternatives and more sensitive to "Drinking and Driving Do not Mix" policies. Action plans developed on the basis of these findings and on the relevance of the psychological

  9. Consumption of Alcohol Surrogates Among Alcohol-Dependent Women.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    This is the first in-depth study of alcohol and surrogate drinking patterns, types, reasons, and correlates among alcohol-dependent women in Belarus. The structured interviews were performed in 2013 with 103 alcohol-dependent women admitted to a narcological clinic in Grodno, Belarus. The results suggest that at least 30.3% of alcohol-dependent women regularly consume samogon (moonshine) and 10.8% of women use surrogates, the most popular among which are medications with a high percentage of ethanol and industrial spirits. The belief that samogon exceeds licensed vodka in quality is the main motive for its consumption. The results from the present study confirm that noncommercial alcohol use is common among alcohol-dependent women although its use may be underreported. These findings emphasize that the implementation of a comprehensive alcohol policy must take fully into account the consumption of alcohol from illicit sources. PMID:26549001

  10. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse URL ... this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/languages/alcoholismandalcoholabuse.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  12. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855. Contact Person:...

  13. 78 FR 21615 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial ] Review... Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse &...

  14. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol Comparative Effectiveness & Implementation...

  15. Doxasozin for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent preclinical and clinical evidence using prazosin indicates that a1-blockade may represent a new approach to treat alcohol dependence (AD). While most of the alcohol research on a1-blockade has been conducted testing prazosin, O’Neil and colleagues recently performed a set of preclinical experiments testing another a1-blocker, i.e. doxazosin that has a longer half-life that may enhance clinical utility. Doxazosin and prazosin share the same chemical structure, in which the central element is a piperazine ring. O’Neil et al.’s main results are that doxazosin significantly reduced alcohol intake without affecting locomotor activity. As such, O’Neil and colleagues provide the first preclinical evidence of the possible role of doxazosin in AD. Additional translational research is needed to further test this hypothesis. PMID:23278505

  16. Neuroplasticity in Human Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Cardenas, Valerie A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a lack of control over excessive alcohol consumption despite significant negative consequences. This impulsive and compulsive behavior may be related to functional abnormalities within networks of brain regions responsible for how we make decisions. The abnormalities may result in strengthened networks related to appetitive drive—or the need to fulfill desires—and simultaneously weakened networks that exercise control over behaviors. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in abstinent alcoholics suggest that abstinence is associated with changes in the tone of such networks, decreasing resting tone in appetitive drive networks, and increasing resting tone in inhibitory control networks to support continued abstinence. Identifying electroencephalographic (EEG) measures of resting tone in these networks initially identified using fMRI, and establishing in longitudinal studies that these abstinence-related changes in network tone are progressive would motivate treatment initiatives to facilitate these changes in network tone, thereby supporting successful ongoing abstinence. PMID:26259093

  17. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  18. World Literature Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Robert J.

    The development of a curriculum for graduate-level education in world literature, a logical extension of comparative literature, poses many problems. Among these is the misinterpretation and misuse of the term "world literature," which should be defined as literature from all over the world that is taught by those who read it in the original…

  19. Fantasy in Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, John

    This report discusses the opposition to fantasy, as well as the support for it, both as an activity of the mind and as literature, and concludes that fantasy literature is useful in promoting language development and literature appreciation. The report then discusses characteristics of fantasy literature, lists works suitable for class use, and…

  20. Literature Circles: Getting Started.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Literature Circles are a great way to supplement a reading program in a literature-based classroom. In this lesson plan, students create and answer comprehension questions, discover new vocabulary, and examine elements of literature. The students feel ownership in Literature Circles, because they are responsible for the meeting. Any genre of…

  1. Young Adult Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Ernestine P., Ed.

    1981-01-01

    The major articles in this journal issue deal with various aspects of young adult literature. Specific topics covered in the articles are (1) questions worth asking students about young adult novels, (2) the five major functions of adolescent literature in high school literature programs, (3) Southwestern literature for adolescents, (4) teaching…

  2. [Pathogenesis of alcoholic chronic hepatitis].

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Saito, Takashi; Kakuda, Masahiro; Matsue, Yasuhiro; Minato, Takashiro; Fukumura, Atsushi; Ozaki, Kazuaki; Tsuchisima, Mutsumi; Tsutsumi, Mikihiro

    2014-10-01

    In 1983, Nei et al. reported that alcoholic chronic hepatitis (ACH)(chronic hepatitis induced tal area. Recently, the number of alcoholics patients diagnosed with ACH has been increased In this review, we discussed the characteristics of liver histopathology and blood chemistry of ACH patients. In ACH, pericellular fibrosis, ballooned hepatocytes and/or bridging fibrosis, and infiltration of mononuclear lymphocytes is decreased after 6 to 8 weeks of abstinence from results suggest that ACH could be one type of alcoholic liver disease. The precise mechanism by alcohol) as one type of alcoholic liver disease. Since then, it has been discussed whether alcohol abuse, suggesting that alcohol may play a role in the infiltration of mononuclear lym ACH is one type of alcoholic liver disease, because there could be infection of unknown hepatitis virus in alcoholics and it is not clear why mononuclear lymphocytes infiltrate into the porphocytes in portal region. After abstinence of alcohol, serum levels of AST, ALT, and γ-GTP in patients with ACH returned to normal as in other types of alcoholic liver disease such as alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic fibrosis, alcoholic hepatitis and alcoholic liver cirrhosis. These results suggest that ACH could be one type of alcoholic liver disease. The precise mechanism of the infiltration of mononuclear lymphocytes into portal areas of ACH patients is not known. We propose that the reason for the infiltration of natural killer (T) cells into portal areas could be due to the influx of endotoxin into portal vein resulting from the increased permeability of gut induced by alcohol. PMID:25651616

  3. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: Testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data

    PubMed Central

    Ellingson, Jarrod M.; Fleming, Kimberly A.; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Sher, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature. PMID:24508184

  4. Working memory as a moderator of impulsivity and alcohol involvement: testing the cognitive-motivational theory of alcohol use with prospective and working memory updating data.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, Jarrod M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Vergés, Alvaro; Bartholow, Bruce D; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-11-01

    Research consistently shows that individuals high in impulsivity are at increased risk for excessive alcohol use and alcohol-related problems including alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Recent theorizing posits that working memory (WM) ability might moderate this association, but extant studies have suffered from methodological shortcomings, particularly mischaracterizing WM as a single, unitary construct and using only cross-sectional designs. This paper reports two studies that attempted to replicate and extend previous investigations of the relationship between WM, impulsivity, and alcohol involvement using two independent samples. Study 1 used a large (N=489 at baseline), prospective cohort of college students at high and low risk for AUD to investigate interactions between WM capacity and impulsivity on cross-sectional and prospective alcohol involvement. Study 2 used a large (N=420), cross-sectional sample of participants in an alcohol challenge study to investigate similar interactions between WM updating and impulsivity on recent alcohol involvement. Whereas Study 1 found that WM capacity moderates the relationship between some measures of impulsivity and alcohol involvement, with effects prospectively predicting alcohol involvement for up to three years, Study 2 did not find similar moderation effects when using measures of WM updating. These findings highlight the multifaceted nature of WM, which is often overlooked in the alcohol and impulsivity literature. PMID:24508184

  5. An extended critical review of twenty years of countermeasures used in agriculture after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Fesenko, Sergey V; Alexakhin, Rudolf M; Balonov, Mikhail I; Bogdevitch, Iossif M; Howard, Brenda J; Kashparov, Valery A; Sanzharova, Natalia I; Panov, Alexey V; Voigt, Gabriele; Zhuchenka, Yury M

    2007-09-20

    A wide range of different countermeasures has been used to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The paper comprehensively brings together key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and critically evaluates the response to the accident with respect to agriculture. The extents of countermeasures implementation in various periods following the ChNPP accident are documented. Examples of best practices and drawbacks in remediation of affected areas are identified. Data on the effectiveness of agricultural countermeasures have been evaluated and the impact of countermeasures implementation to mitigate consequences of the accident has been assessed for the period 1986-2006. Implementation of agricultural countermeasures averted 30-40% of the internal collective dose that would have been received by the residents of affected regions without the use of countermeasures. The current situation in agriculture of areas subjected to contamination following the Chernobyl accident is described. Current and future needs for remediation, including a consideration of various strategies of rehabilitation of affected areas are presented. PMID:17573097

  6. Exercise as a countermeasure for physiological adaptation to prolonged spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    1996-08-01

    Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources. PMID:8871910

  7. Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  8. Exercise as a countermeasure for physiological adaptation to prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Exercise represents the primary countermeasure used during spaceflight to maintain or restore maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max), musculoskeletal structure, and orthostatic function. However, no single exercise or combination of prescriptions has proven entirely effective in restoring cardiovascular and musculoskeletal functions to preflight levels following prolonged spaceflight. As human spaceflight exposures increase in duration, assessment and development of various effective exercise-based protective procedures become paramount. This must involve improvement in specific countermeasure prescription as well as development of additional approaches that will allow space travelers greater flexibility and medical safety during long flights. Effective exercise prescription will be based on identification of basic physiological stimuli that maintain normal function in terrestrial gravity and understanding of how specific combinations of exercise characteristics e.g., duration, frequency, intensity, mode) can mimic these stimuli and affect the overall process of adaptation to microgravity. This can be accomplished only with greater emphasis of research on ground-based experiments. Future attention must be directed to improving exercise compliance while minimizing both crew time and the impact of the exercise on life-support resources.

  9. Lessons learned from Shuttle/Mir: psychosocial countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Gushin, Vadim; Weiss, Daniel S.; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: During future long-duration space missions, countermeasures need to be developed to deal with psychosocial issues that might impact negatively on crewmember performance and well-being. METHODS: In our recently completed NASA-funded study of 5 U.S. astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir program, we evaluated a number of important psychosocial issues such as group tension, cohesion, leadership role, and the displacement of negative emotions from crewmembers to people in mission control and from mission control personnel to management. RESULTS: Based on our findings, which are reviewed, a number of psychosocial countermeasures are suggested to help ameliorate the negative impact of potential psychosocial problems during future manned space missions. CONCLUSIONS: Crewmembers should be selected not only to rule out psychopathology but also to select-in for group compatibility and facility in a common language. Training should include briefings and team building related to a number of psychosocial issues and should involve both crewmembers and mission control personnel. During the mission, both experts on the ground and the crewmembers themselves should be alert to potential interpersonal problems, including the displacement of negative emotions from the crew to the ground. Supportive activities should consist of both individual and interpersonal strategies, including an awareness of changing leisure time needs. Finally, attention should be given to postmission readjustment and to supporting the families on Earth.

  10. Low-Back Pain in Microgravity: Causes and Countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snijders, C. J.; Richardson, C. A.

    2005-06-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is common not only on Earth, but also in space.This is remarkable because, on Earth, LBP is ascribed mostly to heavy spinal loading.The Topical Team was established by ESA to answer the question "What is the aetiology of LBP during flight and what countermeasures may be developed?" The starting point for the Team's activities is a biomechanical model developed at the Erasmus Medical Centre in Rotterdam (NL) that describes the function of a deep-muscle corset to stabilise lumbar and pelvic joints. For spaceflight, the hypothesis was formulated that muscle atrophy and neuroplasticity in the absence of gravity loading destabilises the lumbopelvic area. The outcome of the Team activities is the development of a theory for the source of pain in microgravity that identifies in particular the iliolumbar ligaments.To help verify the theory,Team members were involved in the Berlin Bedrest Study and the Dutch Soyuz Mission. Based on the results of these studies, countermeasures can be developed and implemented.

  11. Performance Data Errors in Air Carrier Operations: Causes and Countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Benjamin A.; Dismukes, R Key; Jobe, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Several airline accidents have occurred in recent years as the result of erroneous weight or performance data used to calculate V-speeds, flap/trim settings, required runway lengths, and/or required climb gradients. In this report we consider 4 recent studies of performance data error, report our own study of ASRS-reported incidents, and provide countermeasures that can reduce vulnerability to accidents caused by performance data errors. Performance data are generated through a lengthy process involving several employee groups and computer and/or paper-based systems. Although much of the airline indUStry 's concern has focused on errors pilots make in entering FMS data, we determined that errors occur at every stage of the process and that errors by ground personnel are probably at least as frequent and certainly as consequential as errors by pilots. Most of the errors we examined could in principle have been trapped by effective use of existing procedures or technology; however, the fact that they were not trapped anywhere indicates the need for better countermeasures. Existing procedures are often inadequately designed to mesh with the ways humans process information. Because procedures often do not take into account the ways in which information flows in actual flight ops and time pressures and interruptions experienced by pilots and ground personnel, vulnerability to error is greater. Some aspects of NextGen operations may exacerbate this vulnerability. We identify measures to reduce the number of errors and to help catch the errors that occur.

  12. Development of an in-vehicle intersection collision countermeasure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierowicz, John

    1997-02-01

    Intersection collisions constitute approximately twenty-six percent of all accidents in the United States. Because of their complexity, and demands on the perceptual and decision making abilities of the driver, intersections present an increased risk of collisions between automobiles. This situation provides an opportunity to apply advanced sensor and processing capabilities to prevent these collisions. A program to determine the characteristics of intersection collisions and identify potential countermeasures will be described. This program, sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, utilized accident data to develop a taxonomy of intersection crashes. This taxonomy was used to develop a concept for an intersection collision avoidance countermeasure. The concept utilizes in-vehicle position, dynamic status, and millimeter wave radar system and an in-vehicle computer system to provide inputs to an intersection collision avoidance algorithm. Detection of potential violation of traffic control device, or proceeding into the intersection with inadequate gap will lead to the presentation of a warning to the driver. These warnings are presented to the driver primarily via a head-up display and haptic feedback. Roadside to vehicle communication provides information regarding phased traffic signal information. Active control of the vehicle's brake and steering systems are described. Progress in the development of the systems will be presented along with the schedule of future activities.

  13. Variation in stakeholder opinion on countermeasures across Europe.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, A F; Mercer, J A; Rantavaara, A; Hanninen, R; Vandecasteele, C; Hardeman, F; Ioannides, K G; Tzialla, C; Ollagnon, H; Pupin, V; Jullien, T

    2005-01-01

    A compendium of agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options has been compiled as part of the EC STRATEGY (Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems) project. The compendium was discussed by the FARMING (Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups) network of stakeholders during meetings of national panels in the UK, Finland, Belgium, Greece and France in 2002. Their preliminary feedback has been summarised in terms of whether an option is generally acceptable, unacceptable or only acceptable under specific circumstances. A considerable divergence of opinion between national panels was apparent for many of the options considered. This could be attributed to differences in geomorphology, climate, land management, infrastructure, consumer confidence, sociopolitical context and culture. Where consensus was reached between stakeholders it was generally for those countermeasures that provide public reassurance, sustain farming practices and minimise environmental impact. Furthermore, whilst there was general agreement that contaminated food should not enter the food chain, many of the options proposed for its subsequent management were not generally acceptable to stakeholders. PMID:15951071

  14. Managing alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease continues to be a significant cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality throughout the world. A number of diagnostic and prognostic models have been developed in the management of this condition, although specific roles for liver biopsy still remain particularly in the setting of alcoholic hepatitis. Despite a large number of recent treatment trials, the ideal pharmacotherapy approach remains undefined. Most essential is the supportive care and focus on abstinence and nutrition. Owing in part to a great deal of attention from governmental funding sources, a number of new treatment approaches are undergoing rigorous evaluation, hopefully providing future treatment options in this very severe condition. PMID:26523266

  15. Fermentative alcohol production

    DOEpatents

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  16. Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Therapy.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Paulina K; Lucey, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) causes great morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Advances in therapy have proven difficult. In part, this reflects challenges in diagnosis, including the distinction between AH and acute-on-chronic liver failure. Liver biopsy is the best method to clarify the cause in circumstances whereby conflicting clinical data confound the diagnosis. All treatment of AH begins with abstinence from alcohol. All patients with AH should be given sufficient nutrition. Prednisolone has become the principal agent for treating patients with severe AH. PMID:27373613

  17. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  18. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    1988-01-01

    Compared utility of two common alcohol nomograms on impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, knowledge of relationship between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and consumer evaluation measures, to utility of alcohol information warning card. Nomograms were no more effective than cards warning…

  19. Relationship between Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol Problems in Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationship among alcohol problems and alcohol consumption variables in 410 college students. Total alcohol-related problems, drinking and driving problems, and school problems increased significantly when subjects drank moderately. Physical illness problems increased during light drinking, while interpersonal and legal problems…

  20. Alcohol Promotional Clothing Items and Alcohol Use by Underage Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jane E.

    2003-01-01

    Of 154 female and 106 male adolescents, 76.3% had tried alcohol; more than 36% owned alcohol promotional clothing and more than half had seen such clothing at school. Ownership increased with alcohol use status. Those who received such clothing from their parents were more likely to perceive parental approval of their drinking. (Contains 59…

  1. Information on Blood Alcohol Concentration: Evaluation of Two Alcohol Nomograms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werch, Chudley E.

    The purpose of this study was to compare with an alcohol information warning card the utility of two common alcohol nomograms (statistical information tables) in impacting decisions regarding drinking, driving after drinking, the development of knowledge of the relations between personal alcohol consumption and the legal level of intoxication, and…

  2. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Fetal Alcohol Effects: Principles for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess,Donna M.; Streissguth, Ann P.

    1992-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), the leading cause of mental retardation, often goes unrecognized because of social and emotional taboos about alcohol and alcoholism. This article describes medical and behavioral characteristics of FAS children and describes guiding principles for educators, based on early intervention, teaching communication and…

  3. Chicano Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism in the Barrio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasso, Ricardo

    Conducted in January 1977, the community survey examined alcohol abuse and alcoholism among Chicanos in the barrios. Data were obtained from 160 respondents (119 females and 41 males) from 3 geographic areas in San Antonio: the Special Impact Area of Casa Del Sol (an alcoholism program) and the cities of San Antonio and Alamo Heights. Information…

  4. Progress in Using Mouse Inbred Strains, Consomics, and Mutants to Identify Genes Related to Stress, Anxiety, and Alcohol Phenotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Goldowitz, Daniel; Matthews, Douglas B.; Hamre, Kristin M.; Mittleman, Guy; Chesler, Elissa J; Becker, Howard C.; Lopez, Marcelo F.; Jones, Sara R.; Mathews, Tiffany A; Miles, Michael F.; Kerns, Robnet; Grant, Kathleen A.

    2006-01-01

    ALCOHOL ABUSE AND alcoholism result from the complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Stress is a factor that is widely thought to contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. One consequence of stressful experiences is anxiety, and there is a rich literature on the interactions between alcohol and anxiety. Less is known about brain mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and system levels that mediate stress effects that contribute to excessive drinking and alcoholism. In addition, it is not clear whether and/or how genetic factors that contribute to excessive drinking interact with neural stress mechanisms.

  5. Responding to Literature: Theme 2, Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rexford

    This study presents the second of four reports of the results of the 1970-71 National Assessment of Literature. The educational attainments of nine-year-olds, thirteen-year-olds, seventeen-year-olds, and adults (ages 26-35) were surveyed according to the subjects' ability to become engaged in, find meanings in, and evaluate a work of literature.…

  6. Alcohol consumption by aging adults in the United States: health benefits and detriments.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Maria Pontes; Weems, M K Suzy

    2008-10-01

    The most rapidly growing segment of the US population is that of older adults (> or =65 years). Trends of aging adults (those aged > or =50 years) show that fewer women than men consume alcohol, women consume less alcohol than men, and total alcohol intake decreases after retirement. A U- or J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and mortality exists among middle-aged (age 45 to 65 years) and older adults. Thus, alcohol can be considered either a tonic or a toxin in dose-dependent fashion. Active areas of research regarding the possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption among aging individuals include oxidative stress, dementia, psychosocial functioning, dietary contributions, and disease prevention. Yet, due to the rising absolute number of older adults, there may be a silent epidemic of alcohol abuse in this group. Dietary effects of moderate and excessive alcohol consumption are reviewed along with mechanisms by which alcohol or phytochemicals modify physiology, mortality, and disease burden. Alcohol pharmacokinetics is considered alongside age-related sensitivities to alcohol, drug interactions, and disease-related physiological changes. International guidelines for alcohol consumption are reviewed and reveal that many nations lack guidelines specific to older adults. A review of national guidelines for alcohol consumption specific to older adults (eg, those offered by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse) suggests that they may be too restrictive, given the current literature. There is need for greater quantification and qualification of per capita consumption, consumption patterns (quantity, frequency, and stratified combinations), and types of alcohol consumed by older adults in the United States. PMID:18926132

  7. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... a serious toll on your health. Here’s how alcohol can affect your body: Brain: Alcohol interferes with the brain’s communication pathways, and can affect the way the brain looks and works. These ...

  8. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  9. Kids and Alcohol (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Alcohol Abuse Alcohol interferes with a person's perception of reality and ability to make good decisions. ... drinking include: distorted vision, hearing, and coordination altered perceptions and emotions impaired judgment, which can lead to ...

  10. New type of trifunctional alcohol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, H. E., Jr.; Hutchison, J. J.

    1972-01-01

    New type of trifunctional alcohol was synthesized from commercially available trimer acid. Trifunctional alcohol is hydrocarbon with widely separated terminal hydroxyl groups, and was expressly developed as crosslinking agent for preparation of polyurethane propellants, binders and case liners.

  11. Family Group Counseling for Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    kinsella, Samuel B.

    1970-01-01

    After personal involvement as a group leader with alcoholics under treatment and their families, the author stresses the need for this type of counseling to educate family on alcoholism and to help dispel their prejudices. (Author/CJ)

  12. Alcohol and Memory: Retrieval Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Isabel M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The influence of alcohol intoxication on the retrieval of information from memory was investigated in nonalcoholic subjects Intoxicated subjects recalled fewer categories and words within categories. The retrieval stage of memory did not appear to be affected by alcohol. (SW)

  13. The Origin of Alcohol Proof

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.

    2004-01-01

    The origin of the "proof" system for measuring the ethanol content of alcoholic beverages is presented. The proof system was originally established for purposes of taxing liquors according to their alcohol content and is different in different countries.

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... FASD Cancel Submit Search The CDC Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a group of conditions that ...

  15. Genomic Measures to Predict Adaptation to Novel Sensorimotor Environments and Improve Personalization of Countermeasure Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreutzberg, G. A.; Zanello, S.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    . Results. Average ranks according to first trial time and recovery rate revealed that the top half performers were on average significantly faster at each trial, but both groups had similar recovery rates. Comparison of the gene allele frequency revealed higher occurrences of Met carriers at COMT and Val-Val carriers at BDNF for the top half versus bottom half performers. Discussion. Although this approach was limited by its small sample size, some observations could be made which support further exploration of this topic. Examination of allele frequency separated by performance-based ranking revealed higher frequencies of certain COMT and BDNF alleles for top half performers, which implies that these genes may play a significant role in influencing adaptation to novel sensorimotor environments. This would be in agreement with other findings in the literature that have associated COMT Met alleles with higher dopamine levels and BDNF Met alleles with impaired motor skills and learning. These results suggest that the identification of alleles at these genes may help inform the design of customized countermeasures to enhance sensorimotor adaptability during gravitational transitions.

  16. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  17. Hemolysis in Acute Alcoholic Hepatitis: Zieve's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sitrin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A 45-year-old man presented with acute alcoholic hepatitis, jaundice, and anemia on admission. There was no history of bleeding or any evidence of gastrointestinal blood loss. Lab studies revealed hemolysis as the cause of anemia. The patient was diagnosed with Zieve's syndrome and managed with supportive measures. He recovered well and was discharged to a detoxification unit in a stable condition. Zieve's syndrome has been described in literature, mostly in non-English language case studies, but is largely under-recognized and under-reported. Diagnosis should be made quickly to avoid unnecessary invasive diagnostic interventions. PMID:26203455

  18. Role of exercise in the treatment of alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    MANTHOU, EIRINI; GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; GIANOULAKIS, CHRISTINA; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use can cause harmful effects on the human body, which are associated with serious health problems, and it can also lead to the development of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). There is certain evidence that physical exercise positively affects excessive alcohol use and the associated problems by leading to reduced alcohol intake. A literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, Medline and Web of Science. The search terms used as keywords were: Addiction, abuse, alcohol use disorders, exercise training, β-endorphin, opioids, brain, ethanol and alcohol. The current study presents the studies that reported on the use of exercise in the treatment of AUDs between 1970 and 2015. The potential psychological and physiological mechanisms that contribute to the action of exercise were also reviewed, highlighting the role of β-endorphin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in AUDs and the possible association among physical activity, the endogenous opioid system and the desire for alcohol. Only 11 studies were identified that refer to the effect of exercise on alcohol consumption and/or the associated outcomes. Six of those studies concluded that exercise may have a positive impact towards alcohol consumption, abstinence rates or the urge to drink. One of those studies also indicated that a bout of exercise affects the endogenous opioids, which may be associated with the urge to drink. Another 3 studies indicated that responses to acute exercise in individuals with AUDs are different compared to those in healthy ones. Generally, despite limited research data and often contradictory results, there is certain early promising evidence for the role of exercise as an adjunctive tool in the treatment of AUDs. Physiological and biochemical parameters that would confirm that exercise is safe for individuals with AUDs should be examined in future studies. PMID:27123244

  19. Measuring Alcohol Expectancies in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Karen A.; Gerend, Mary A.; Miller, Brenda A.

    2006-01-01

    Beliefs about the consequences of using alcohol, alcohol expectancies, are powerful predictors of underage drinking. The Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire-Adolescent form (AEQ-A) has been widely used to measure expectancies in youth. Despite its broad use, the factor structure of the AEQ-A has not been firmly established. It is also not known…

  20. Photobiomodulation on alcohol induced dysfunction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Fang

    2007-05-01

    Alcohol, which is ubiquitous today, is a major health concern. Its use was already relatively high among the youngest respondents, peaked among young adults, and declined in older age groups. Alcohol is causally related to more than 60 different medical conditions. Overall, 4% of the global burden of disease is attributable to alcohol, which accounts for about as much death and disability globally as tobacco and hypertension. Alcohol also promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or interferes with the body's normal defense mechanisms against these compounds through numerous processes, particularly in the liver. Photobiomodulation (PBM) is a cell-specific effect of low intensity monochromatic light or low intensity laser irradiation (LIL) on biological systems. The cellular effects of both alcohol and LIL are ligand-independent so that PBM might rehabilitate alcohol induced dysfunction. The PBM on alcohol induced human neutrophil dysfunction and rat chronic atrophic gastritis, the laser acupuncture on alcohol addiction, and intravascular PBM on alcoholic coma of patients and rats have been observed. The endonasal PBM (EPBM) mediated by Yangming channel, autonomic nervous systems and blood cells is suggested to treat alcohol induced dysfunction in terms of EPBM phenomena, the mechanism of alcohol induced dysfunction and our biological information model of PBM. In our opinion, the therapeutic effects of PBM might also be achieved on alcoholic myopathy.