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  1. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are Not Alone Like any other chronic disease, addiction to alcohol and other drugs affects people of all ages regardless of income, educational background, country of origin, ethnicity, sexuality, and/or community where they live. ...

  2. Trajectories of alcohol and drug use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: the effects of familial alcoholism and personality.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Fora, David B; King, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    This study describes trajectories of substance use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood. Identified consumption groups include heavy drinking/heavy drug use, moderate drinking/experimental drug use, and light drinking/rare drug use. Dependence groups include alcohol only, drug only, and comorbid groups. The heavy drinking/heavy drug use group was at risk for alcohol and drug dependence and persistent dependence and showed more familial alcoholism, negative emotionality, and low constraint. The moderate drinking/experimental drug use group was at risk for alcohol dependence but not comorbid or persistent dependence and showed less negative emotionality and higher constraint. Familial alcoholism raised risk for alcohol and drug use and dependence in part because children from alcoholic families were more impulsive and lower in agreeableness.

  3. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  4. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  5. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age 12 and Older Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Alcohol / 17,876 Marijuana / 4,476 Pain Relievers / 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / ... Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

  6. Temperament and character model of personality profile of alcohol- and drug-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Yancar, Cenk; Erkiran, Murat

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the differences in dimensions of temperament and character in Turkish alcohol- and drug-dependent inpatients, and to examine which dimensions would predict drug dependency. The subjects consisted of 111 alcohol-dependent and 93 drug-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Subjects were tested using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Among the temperament dimensions, novelty seeking score was higher and reward dependency score was lower in drug-dependent patients than in alcohol-dependent patients. Among the character dimensions, self-directedness and cooperativeness scores were lower in drug-dependent patients. Low age and novelty seeking predicted drug dependency in forward logistic regression model. Subscales that predicted drug dependency other than young age were lower scores on compassion vs revengefulness (C4) and helpfulness (C3), and higher score on spiritual acceptance vs rational materialism (ST3). As in previous studies, which indicate an association between personality and substance choice, in the present study, TCI was shown to be an efficient tool in discriminating alcohol and drug dependents; thus, it seems to be important to consider TCI dimensions in planning the treatment of substance dependency.

  7. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  8. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  9. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  10. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  11. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  12. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  13. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  14. The Role of Early Life Stress as a Predictor for Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. Objective This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Results Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. Conclusions There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized. PMID:20596857

  15. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  19. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. (a) Contracts for treatment services authorized under § 17.80 may be awarded in accordance...

  20. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  1. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure.

  2. [Pharmacological treatment in alcohol-, drug- and benzodiazepine-dependent patients - the significance of trazodone].

    PubMed

    Funk, Sándor

    2013-06-01

    Currently detoxification of drug and alcohol dependent patients is pharmacologically unresolved, and long-term treatment following the acute phase is also not very successful including a high number of relapses. We would need medications that on the short term cease: the severe vegetative symptoms, the pain, the extremely distressing psychosyndrome characterised by restlessness, anxiety or acute depressive symptoms, and the craving. The optimal would be if there was one medication capable of simultaneously alleviating or diminishing all the above symptoms without causing dependency and preventing relapse in the long-term. Dependency is almost all cases accompanied by primary and/or secondary mood disorder or sleep disorder which should also be treated. It should be considered, however, that following withdrawal of the agent benzodiazepine dependency often develops. The serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI) trazodone is effective in the treatment of depression accompanied by sleeping disorder and it has also shown efficacy in alcohol and benzodiazepine-dependency. Its administration may improve the efficacy of detoxification and treatment of following conditions, may decrease medication load and the risk of the development of benzodiazepine dependency. In our clinical practice we frequently use this agent to treat our patients simultaneously suffering from depression and addiction problems, gaining experience comparing it to other pharmacotherapies (benzodiazepines or other antidepressants). The medication is not approved for alcohol and drug dependence, however, treatment t of comorbid conditions is not against to the official recommendations. Our aim was, in addition to reviewing the literature, to share our experience which, although cannot be considered an evidence based study, we deemed worthy of publishing. We cannot, at this point, put forward a protocol addressing all related scientific problems and problems of off-label treatment, and we could

  3. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    context of relevant interventions, various techniques are used, such as role playing. At the level of social policy, different measures may contribute to increase the effectiveness of preventive programs (e.g. prohibition of sale of alcohol in young people). Interventions of tertiary prevention aim at the development of motivation for abstinence in alcohol dependent individuals and the prevention of relapse, as well as the acquisition of new behaviors, which support modification of the problem of alcohol dependence. These interventions can take place in the context of psychotherapeutic follow-up provided to alcohol dependent individuals, and may include various short-term interventions, such as motivational interviewing, but also alternative forms of treatment (e.g. acupuncture, meditation). Elements of prevention in combination with elements of promotion of mental health may be incorporated in the same programme for alcohol dependence, endorsing similar or different activities, which may be complementary and may reinforce the effectiveness of the prevention program. Finally, it is necessary to raise the awareness of mental health professionals regarding prevention and provide specialized education to those who work in drug addiction programmes. Mental health professionals may act as therapists and as intervention coordinators, and performing these roles, they may contribute to the effectiveness of preventive programs and more generally to the treatment of disorders connected with alcohol use.

  4. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... and drugs can do to your overall health. Drugs and Alcohol: Effects on your immune system Drinking too much alcohol ... getting help and finding the treatment you need. Drugs and Alcohol: ... on short- and long-term effects of drinking, with specific information on people who ...

  5. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  6. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  7. Psychosocial functioning, quality of life and clinical correlates of comorbid alcohol and drug dependence syndromes in people with schizophrenia across Europe.

    PubMed

    Carrà, Giuseppe; Johnson, Sonia; Crocamo, Cristina; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Brugha, Traolach; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Toumi, Mondher; Bebbington, Paul E

    2016-05-30

    Little is known about the correlates of comorbid drug and alcohol dependence in people with schizophrenia outside the USA. We tested hypotheses that dependence on alcohol/drugs would be associated with more severe symptoms, and poorer psychosocial functioning and quality of life. The EuroSC Cohort study (N=1204), based in France, Germany and the UK, used semi-structured clinical interviews for diagnoses, and standardized tools to assess correlates. We used mixed models to compare outcomes between past-year comorbid dependence on alcohol/drugs, controlling for covariates and modelling both subject and country-level effects. Participants dependent on alcohol or drugs had fewer negative symptoms on PANSS than their non-dependent counterparts. However, those dependent on alcohol scored higher on PANSS general psychopathology than those who were not, or dependent only on drugs. People with schizophrenia dependent on drugs had poorer quality of life, more extrapyramidal side effects, and scored worse on Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) than those without dependence. People with alcohol dependence reported more reasons for non-compliance with medication, and poorer functioning on GAF, though not on Global Assessment of Relational Functioning. In people with schizophrenia, comorbid dependence on alcohol or drugs is associated with impaired clinical and psychosocial adjustment, and poorer quality of life.

  8. Drug therapy for alcohol dependence in primary care in the UK: A Clinical Practice Research Datalink study

    PubMed Central

    Ashcroft, Darren M.; Owens, Lynn; van Staa, Tjeerd P.; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate drug therapy for alcohol dependence in the 12 months after first diagnosis in UK primary care. Design Open cohort study. Setting General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Database. Participants 39,980 people with an incident diagnosis of alcohol dependence aged 16 years or older between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 2013. Main outcome measure Use of pharmacotherapy (acamprosate, disulfiram, naltrexone, baclofen and topiramate) to promote abstinence from alcohol or reduce drinking to safe levels in the first 12 months after a recorded diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Findings Only 4,677 (11.7%) of the cohort received relevant pharmacotherapy in the 12 months following diagnosis. Of the 35,303 that did not receive pharmacotherapy, 3,255 (9.2%) received psychosocial support. The remaining 32,048 (80.2%) did not receive either mode of treatment in the first 12 months. Factors that independently reduced the likelihood of receiving pharmacotherapy included: being male (Odds Ratio [OR] 0.74; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.78); older (65-74 years: OR 0.61; 95% CI 0.49 to 0.77); being from a practice based in the most deprived quintile (OR 0.58; 95% CI 0.53 to 0.64); and being located in Northern Ireland (OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91). The median duration to initiation of pharmacotherapy was 0.80 months (95% CI 0.70 to 1.00) for acamprosate and 0.60 months (95% CI 0.43 to 0.73) for disulfiram. Persistence analysis for those receiving acamprosate and disulfiram revealed that many patients never received a repeat prescription; persistence at 6 months was 27.7% for acomprosate and 33.2% for disulfiram. The median duration of therapy was 2.10 months (95% CI 1.87 to 2.53) for acamprosate and 3.13 months (95% CI 2.77 to 3.36) for disulfiram. Conclusion Drug therapy to promote abstinence in alcohol dependent patients was low, with the majority of patients receiving no therapy, either psychological or pharmacological. When drug therapy was

  9. Drugs, Alcohol & Pregnancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Christina

    Expectant parents are introduced to the effects of a variety of drugs on the unborn baby. Material is divided into seven sections. Section 1 deals with the most frequently used recreational drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, depressants, stimulants, inhalants, and hallucinogens. Sections 2 and 3 focus on the effects of prescription…

  10. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Tambour, Sophie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, advances in neuroscience led to the development of new medications to treat alcohol dependence and especially to prevent alcohol relapse after detoxification. Whereas the earliest medications against alcohol dependence were fortuitously discovered, recently developed drugs are increasingly based on alcohol's neurobiological mechanisms of action. This review discusses the most recent developments in alcohol pharmacotherapy and emphasizes the neurobiological basis of anti-alcohol medications. There are currently three approved drugs for the treatment of alcohol dependence with quite different mechanisms of action. Disulfiram is an inhibitor of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase and acts as an alcohol-deterrent drug. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, reduces alcohol craving and relapse in heavy drinking, probably via a modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine activity. Finally, acamprosate helps maintaining alcohol abstinence, probably through a normalization of the chronic alcohol-induced hyperglutamatergic state. In addition to these approved medications, many other drugs have been suggested for preventing alcohol consumption on the basis of preclinical studies. Some of these drugs remain promising, whereas others have produced disappointing results in preliminary clinical studies. These new drugs in the field of alcohol pharmacotherapy are also discussed, together with their mechanisms of action.

  11. Acute D3 Antagonist GSK598809 Selectively Enhances Neural Response During Monetary Reward Anticipation in Drug and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J; McGonigle, John; Paterson, Louise; Boyapati, Venkataramana; Ersche, Karen D; Flechais, Remy; Kuchibatla, Shankar; Metastasio, Antonio; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor; Robbins, Trevor W; Lingford-Hughes, Anne; Nutt, David J; Deakin, John Fw; Elliott, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Evidence suggests that disturbances in neurobiological mechanisms of reward and inhibitory control maintain addiction and provoke relapse during abstinence. Abnormalities within the dopamine system may contribute to these disturbances and pharmacologically targeting the D3 dopamine receptor (DRD3) is therefore of significant clinical interest. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the acute effects of the DRD3 antagonist GSK598809 on anticipatory reward processing, using the monetary incentive delay task (MIDT), and response inhibition using the Go/No-Go task (GNGT). A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design approach was used in abstinent alcohol dependent, abstinent poly-drug dependent and healthy control volunteers. For the MIDT, there was evidence of blunted ventral striatal response to reward in the poly-drug-dependent group under placebo. GSK598809 normalized ventral striatal reward response and enhanced response in the DRD3-rich regions of the ventral pallidum and substantia nigra. Exploratory investigations suggested that the effects of GSK598809 were mainly driven by those with primary dependence on alcohol but not on opiates. Taken together, these findings suggest that GSK598809 may remediate reward deficits in substance dependence. For the GNGT, enhanced response in the inferior frontal cortex of the poly-drug group was found. However, there were no effects of GSK598809 on the neural network underlying response inhibition nor were there any behavioral drug effects on response inhibition. GSK598809 modulated the neural network underlying reward anticipation but not response inhibition, suggesting that DRD3 antagonists may restore reward deficits in addiction.

  12. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Sofin, Yvonne; Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Gooren, Tina; Neu, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1%) of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9%) dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention.

  13. Predicting Inpatient Detoxification Outcome of Alcohol and Drug Dependent Patients: The Influence of Sociodemographic Environment, Motivation, Impulsivity, and Medical Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Danker-Hopfe, Heidi; Gooren, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Aims. This prospective study aims to identify patient characteristics as predictors for treatment outcome during inpatient detoxification treatment for drug and alcohol dependent patients. Methods. A mixed gender sample of 832 consecutively admitted drug and alcohol dependent patients were interviewed by an experienced physician. The impact of a variety of factors concerning social environment, therapy motivation, impulsivity related variables, medical history, and addiction severity on treatment outcome was examined. Results. 525 (63.1%) of the patients completed detoxification treatment whereas 307 (36.9%) dropped out prematurely. Being female, living in a partnership, having children, being employed, and having good education were predictive for a positive outcome. Family, health, the fear of losing the job, prosecution, and emergency admission were significant motivational predictors for treatment outcome. Being younger, history of imprisonment, and the number of previous drop-outs were predictive for a negative outcome. Conclusions. Variables concerning social environment and the number of previous drop-outs have been identified as best predictors for treatment outcome. Socially stable patients benefit from the current treatment setting and treatment shall be adapted for patients with negative predictors. Treatment may consequently be tailored with respect to intervention type, duration, and intensity to improve the outcome for those patients that fulfil criteria with negative impact on treatment retention. PMID:28367351

  14. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  15. Community residential care program and contract program for veterans with alcohol and drug dependence disorders--VA. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1996-12-02

    This document updates the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) regulations concerning the Community Residential Care Program and the Contract Program for Veterans with Alcohol and Drug Dependence Disorders by incorporating by reference relevant portions of the latest editions of the National Fire Protection Association Life Safety Code entitled "NFPA 101, Life Safety Code" and "NFPA 101A, Guide on Alternative Approaches to life Safety." This is intended to ensure that buildings used for treatment and residential services for veterans meet appropriate fire and safety standards. Also, this document amends the regulations for such programs by delegating authority to each of the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) Directors of the Veterans Health Administration to grant certain equivalencies or variances to building standards of the Life Safety Code. Further, this final rule does not adopt the portion of the proposed rule concerning the Adult Day Health Care Program since the Adult Day Health Care Program and the corresponding regulations are no longer in existence.

  16. The OPRD1 and OPRK1 loci in alcohol or drug dependence: OPRD1 variation modulates substance dependence risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, H; Kranzler, HR; Yang, B-Z; Luo, X; Gelernter, J

    2011-01-01

    Eleven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning OPRD1 were examined in 1063 European Americans (EAs) (620 cases with substance dependence (SD), including 557 with alcohol dependence (AD), 225 with cocaine dependence (CD) and 111 with opioid dependence (OD), and 443 controls). Nominally significant associations (P < 0.05) of five SNPs with SD were observed; only the association of the non-synonymous variant G80T with OD remained significant after correction for multiple testing using SNPSpD. Haplotype analyses with six tag SNPs indicated that a specific haplotype GCAACT, which harbors G80T G-allele and C921T C-allele, was significantly associated with AD (χ2 = 14.82, degrees of freedom (d.f.) = 1, P < 0.001), CD (χ2 = 9.19, d.f. = 1, P=0.002) and OD (χ2 = 20.68, d.f. = 1, P < 0.001). Logistic regression analyses, with sex and age being considered, demonstrated that this haplotype had a risk effect on AD (P = 0.03, β = 1.86, odds ratio (OR) = 6.43) and especially on OD (P< 0.001, β = 3.92, OR= 50.57). Moreover, seven SNPs covering OPRK1 were examined in the majority of the above subjects (390 cases, including 327 AD, 177 CD and 97 OD subjects, and 358 controls). Although no significant differences in allele, genotype or haplotype frequency distributions were seen between cases and controls, a specific OPRK1 haplotype, GGCTTCT, was significantly associated with AD (χ2 = 8.12, d.f. = 1, P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses also revealed its risk effect on AD (P = 0.009, β = 1.06, OR= 2.90). Population stratification artifact was not observed in the sample. Taken together, our findings supported a positive association between OPRD1 variants and SD, and a positive haplotypic association between OPRK1 and AD in EAs. PMID:17622222

  17. Psychiatric Diagnosis, Substance Use and Dependence, and Arrests among Former Recipients of Supplemental Security Income for Drug Abuse and Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, James A.; Lurigio, Arthur J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the associations among substance use and psychiatric disorders on arrests in a sample of 187 former recipients of Supplemental Security Income for drug addiction and alcoholism. Participants were interviewed at baseline and at 12, 18, and 24 months. Primary measures included urine tests for recent drug use, psychiatric and…

  18. Drug dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... starts using drugs to try to self-treat mental illness. Support Groups Many support groups are available in ... American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  19. Do Drug-Dependent Patients Attending Alcoholics Anonymous Rather than Narcotics Anonymous Do As Well? A Prospective, Lagged, Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Greene, M. Claire; Bergman, Brandon G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is the most prevalent 12-step mutual-help organization (MHO), yet debate has persisted clinically regarding whether patients whose primary substance is not alcohol should be referred to AA. Narcotics Anonymous (NA) was created as a more specific fit to enhance recovery from drug addiction; however, compared with AA, NA meetings are not as ubiquitous. Little is known about the effects of a mismatch between individuals' primary substance and MHOs, and whether any incongruence might result in a lower likelihood of continuation and benefit. More research would inform clinical recommendations. Method: Young adults (N = 279, M age 20.4, SD 1.6, 27% female; 95% White) in a treatment effectiveness study completed assessments at intake, and 3, 6, and 12 months post-treatment. A matching variable was created for ‘primary drug’ patients (i.e. those reporting cannabis, opiates or stimulants as primary substance; n = 198/279), reflecting the proportion of total 12-step meetings attended that were AA. Hierarchical linear models (HLMs) tested this variable's effects on future 12-step participation and percent days abstinent (PDA). Results: The majority of meetings attended by both alcohol and drug patients was AA. Drug patients attending proportionately more AA than NA meetings (i.e. mismatched) were no different than those who were better matched to NA with respect to future 12-step participation or PDA. Conclusion: Drug patients may be at no greater risk of discontinuation or diminished recovery benefit from participation in AA relative to NA. Findings may boost clinical confidence in making AA referrals for drug patients when NA is less available. PMID:25294352

  20. Identifying at risk individuals for drug and alcohol dependence: teaching the competency to students in classroom and clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M; Puskar, Kathryn R; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly; Fioravanti, Marie; Droppa, Mandy; Luongo, Peter F; Lindsay, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and other drug use affect patient healthcare outcomes. This article describes a classroom-to-clinical approach teaching nursing students to utilize motivational interviewing techniques to support patient behavior change. Through the lens of a universal prevention method, nursing students learned about reward circuit activation leading to risky substance use and the difference between addiction and at-risk use. Specific assessment tools and motivational interviewing techniques were presented in the classroom. Students then applied their knowledge in simulation laboratories and clinical rotations.

  1. CHRM2 gene predisposes to alcohol dependence, drug dependence and affective disorders: results from an extended case-control structured association study.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Blumberg, Hilary P; Gelernter, Joel

    2005-08-15

    Cholinergic muscarinic 2 receptor (CHRM2) is implicated in memory and cognition, functions impaired in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Wang et al. [Wang, J.C., Hinrichs, A.L., Stock, H., Budde, J., Allen, R., Bertelsen, S., Kwon, J.M., Wu, W., Dick, D.M., Rice, J. et al. (2004) Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Hum. Mol. Genet., 13, 1903-1911] reported that variation in CHRM2 gene predisposed to alcohol dependence (AD) and major depressive syndrome. We examined the relationships between variation in CHRM2 and AD, drug dependence (DD) and affective disorders, using a novel extended case-control structured association (SA) method. Six markers at CHRM2 and 38 ancestry-informative markers (AIMs) were genotyped in a sample of 871 subjects, including 333 healthy controls [287 European-Americans (EAs) and 46 African-Americans (AAs)] and 538 AD and/or DD subjects (415 with AD and 346 with DD and 382 EAs and 156 AAs). The same CHRM2 markers were genotyped in a sample of 137 EA subjects with affective disorders. All of the six markers were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in controls, but SNP3 (rs1824024) was in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium in the AD and DD groups. Using conventional case-control comparisons, some markers were nominally significantly or suggestively associated with phenotypes before or after controlling for population stratification and admixture effects, but these associations were not significant after multiple test correction. However, regression analysis identified specific alleles, genotypes, haplotypes and diplotypes that were significantly associated with risk for each disorder. We conclude that variation in CHRM2 predisposes to AD, DD and affective disorders. One haplotype block within the 5'-UTR of CHRM2 may be more important for the development of these disorders than other regions. Interaction between two

  2. [Misuse of alcohol and new drug treatments].

    PubMed

    Paille, François

    2011-12-01

    Three drugs are currently marketed in France in the prevention of relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Their efficacy though real remains limited and it is useful to develop other molecules. Some products are at present under evaluation, and are already or could be used in the near future in the treatment of alcohol dependence: baclofene, oxybate de sodium (GHB), nalmefene, topiramate, ondansetron and aripiprazole. The available studies on these molecules are still limited and the results sometimes clinically modest. Nevertheless, some of them open interesting future prospects. If there is no big revolution to wait in the short term in the treatment of alcohol dependence, we can consider some interesting orientations: better effectiveness on alcohol consumption, but also change of paradigm concerning the objectives and the methods of this treatment: reduction of consumption versus abstinence, treatment on request, choice of the molecule guided by objective criteria (psychosocial, biological, genetic...).

  3. [Alcohol dependence, temper and personality].

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This review focuses on classical and recent research work in the field of alcohol dependence. Data from psychopathological studies trying to determine a "pre-addictive" personality are exposed. More recent studies assess personality disorders and dimensions of temperament associated to alcohol dependence. Sensation seeking, antisocial personality and novelty seeking appear as the main psychological parameters involved in dependence. Sensation seeking is a dimension of personality often associated to behavioral dependence. Sensation seeking is assessed with a five-component scale including general factor, thrill and adventure seeking, experience-seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. Patients presenting alcohol dependence have a higher level of sensation seeking. Neurophysiological and genetic studies try to correlate these personality features to biological parameters. Preliminary results of these works are presented and discussed.

  4. Acamprosate: a new tool in the battle against alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tara M; Myrick, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Acamprosate, a medication that has been used in Europe for years, is the newest drug to be approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It has been shown to assist in the maintenance of abstinence in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. The following review delineates the proposed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of the drug. Findings of clinical trials are outlined and topics such as cost effectiveness, comparison with other medications used for the treatment of alcohol dependences as well as combination pharmacotherapy are discussed. In combination with psychosocial treatment, acamprosate is a promising tool for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol withdrawal. This review also illustrates the continued need to search for more effective treatments, as the overall effectiveness of our currently available pharmacotherapies remains limited in the long-term maintenance of recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:19412493

  5. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our... he or she stopped using drugs or alcohol. We then determine whether any or all of these...

  6. Acamprosate: A prototypic neuromodulator in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent substance dependence disorders in the world. Advances in research in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence have identified specific neurotransmitter targets for the development of pharmacological treatments. Acamprosate, marketed under the brand name Campral, is an orally administered drug available by prescription in the U.S. and throughout much of the world for treating alcohol dependence. Its safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials worldwide. Here we provide an overview of acamprosate in the context of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol dependence. We propose that unlike previously available pharmacotherapies, acamprosate represents a prototype of a neuromodulatory approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. A neuromodulatory approach seeks to restore the disrupted changes in neurobiology resulting from chronic alcohol intake. It is our opinion that a neuromodulatory approach will provide a heuristic framework for developing more effective pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:20201812

  7. Prevalence of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse among Female AFDC Recipients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisco, Carol B.; Pearson, Carol L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse in 206 female Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients enrolled in welfare-to-work program. Findings support clinical reports of substance abuse problems among public assistance and child welfare populations. Prevalence of alcoholism and drug abuse in sample ranged from 16.1-20.8%.…

  8. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-01

    therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve

  9. Self-efficacy and social networks after treatment for alcohol or drug dependence and major depression: disentangling person and time-level effects.

    PubMed

    Worley, Matthew J; Trim, Ryan S; Tate, Susan R; Roesch, Scott C; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2014-12-01

    Proximal personal and environmental factors typically predict outcomes of treatment for alcohol or drug dependence (AODD), but longitudinal treatment studies have rarely examined these factors in adults with co-occurring psychiatric disorders. In adults with AODD and major depression, the aims of this study were to: (a) disaggregate person-and time-level components of network substance use and self-efficacy, (b) examine their prospective effects on posttreatment alcohol/drug use, and (c) examine whether residential environment moderated relations between these proximal factors and substance use outcomes. Veterans (N = 201) enrolled in a trial of group psychotherapy for AODD and independent MDD completed assessments every 3 months during 1 year of posttreatment follow-up. Outcome variables were percent days drinking (PDD) and using drugs (PDDRG). Proximal variables included abstinence self-efficacy and social network drinking and drug use. Self-efficacy and network substance use at the person-level prospectively predicted PDD (ps < .05) and PDDRG (ps < .05). Within-person, time-level effects of social networks predicted future PDD (ps < .05) but not PDDRG. Controlled environments moderated person-level social network effects (ps < .05), such that greater time in controlled settings attenuated the association between a heavier drinking/using network and posttreatment drinking and drug use. Both individual differences and time-specific fluctuations in proximal targets of psychosocial interventions are related to posttreatment substance use in adults with co-occurring AODD and MDD. More structured environmental settings appear to alleviate risk associated with social network substance use, and may be especially advised for those who have greater difficulty altering social networks during outpatient treatment.

  10. Children of Alcoholics: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials for professionals working with children of alcoholics. The information is divided into four sections: (1) prevention materials that include coping with an alcoholic or drug-abusing parent, kids talking to kids, and networking; (2) curricula including learning to live drug free, and resources for the…

  11. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  12. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  14. [Treatment of alcohol dependence: rational and arguable approaches].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Iu P

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of alcohol dependence consist of alcohol detoxification with withdrawal alleviation and relapse prevention or maintenance therapy. Drugs of choice for alcohol withdrawal cure are benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants are an alternative for them. Relapse prevention and alcohol abuse alleviation are carried out using disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone and nalmefene. Moreover, therapeutic possibilities of memantine, gabapentine, pregabalin, baclofen, modafinil, ondansetron D-cycloserine and aripiprazole are studying nowadays. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including fluvoxamine for alcohol patients is of great importance due to frequent comorbidity of alcoholism, depression and anxiety. There are some doubtful methods of alcoholism treatment accepted in Russian addictive medicine such as clearance detoxification and use of antipsychotics for craving elimination.

  15. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... P1700.24B). (c) Active duty Army personnel apprehended for drunk driving, on or off the installation... drug abuse facility. (d) Active duty Navy personnel apprehended for drunk driving on or off the... individual is dependent on alcohol or other drugs. Active duty Marines apprehended for intoxicated...

  16. Alcohol and nutrient intake: mechanisms of reinforcement and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael J

    2011-07-25

    Alcohol is not only a drug of abuse but is also a food. This combination has a significant impact on the development and consequences of alcohol abuse and dependence. Understanding the neurobiological and behavioral processes that mediate them is perhaps best approached from the perspective of ingestive behavior. Research from the Hoebel laboratory has provided innovation and leadership in understanding that feeding neuropeptides plays a significant role in alcohol intake. The research reviewed here shows that galanin and other feeding peptides increase intake and also motivate abuse and the development of dependence. In addition, the consequences of long term alcohol abuse and dependence alter nutritional systems and drinking behavior. A major challenge is understanding the role of alcohol's dual properties and feeding neuropeptide in the motivation to drink.

  17. Alcohol and Drug Use among "Street" Adolescents: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKirnan, David J.; Johnson, Tina

    Although adolescent alcohol and drug use is decreasing, many teenagers continue to use alcohol and drugs. Studies of adolescent alcohol use typically sample intact high school populations, excluding dropouts and adolescents alienated from straight high school populations. Alcohol and drug use and alcohol related attitudes were measured in 62…

  18. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Morris, Laurel S; Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M; Bullmore, Edward T; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Voon, Valerie

    2017-02-28

    Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50-mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly-drug-dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network-based statistical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol-dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly-drug-dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol-dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly-substance-dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology.

  19. Dependency Traits Among Parents of Drug Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennant, Forest S., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Studies question whether there is a significant association between parents' dependency traits and drug habits in their offspring. Reported here is a survey of 1,091 young males. The reported occurrence of parents' alcohol consumption, smoking, use of stimulants and sedatives, and overeating were compared among abusers and non-users of hashish,…

  20. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  1. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  2. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  3. 14 CFR 61.15 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 61.15... involving alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or State statute relating to... vehicle while intoxicated by alcohol or a drug, while impaired by alcohol or a drug, or while under...

  4. Intravenous Ghrelin Administration Increases Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Heavy Drinkers: a Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Edwards, Steven M.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify novel pharmacological targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role of ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory proof-of-concept study. Non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin 1mcg/kg, 3 mcg/kg or 0 mcg/kg (placebo), followed by a cuereactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol cues. The primary outcome variable was the increase in alcohol craving (also called “urge”) for alcohol, assessed by the Alcohol Visual Analogue Scale. Results Out of 103 screenings, 45 individuals received the study drug. Repeated measures of ANCOVA revealed a group effect across ghrelin doses in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05). A dose-specific examination revealed a significant effect of ghrelin 3 mcg/kg vs. placebo in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05) with a large effect size (d = .94). By contrast, no significant ghrelin effect was found in increasing either urge to drink juice or food craving (p: n.s.). No significant differences in side effects were found (p: n.s.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin increased alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals. Although the small sample requires confirmatory studies, these findings provide preliminary evidence that ghrelin may play a role in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, thus demonstrating a novel pharmacological target for treatment. PMID:24775991

  5. Drugs and chronic alcohol abuse in drivers.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Schneider, Serge; Yegles, Michel; Maul, Armand; Wennig, Robert

    2005-12-20

    Blood specimens from 210 drivers (179 male and 31 female) apprehended in Luxembourg from autumn 2001 to spring 2002 and requested for the determination of their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were tested for medicinal drugs, illicit drugs, and chronic alcohol abuse (by quantification of the carbohydrate-deficient transferrin: CDT). These additional analyses were performed anonymously and with permission of state prosecutor. The 22.8% had consumed medicinal drugs, with benzodiazepines and antidepressants (10.9 and 7.6%, respectively) as main psychoactive classes. Cannabis was the most detected illicit drug (9.5%) but only one in three had THC detectable in their blood. Association of two or more psychoactive substances (poly-drug use) was observed in 27.6% of drivers (90.6% of drug consumers). On the basis of CDT values, 29.5% of drivers investigated were assumed to be chronic alcohol abusers. Statistical analysis revealed that chronic alcohol abuse and medicinal psychoactive drugs were associated with significantly higher BAC. Medicinal psychoactive drugs were clearly associated with poly-drug use, and were furthermore detected at supra-therapeutic levels in 34.9%.

  6. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  7. Drug and Alcohol Arrests Increased in 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    2001-01-01

    U.S. Department of Education (DOE) data showed a 1999 increase in drug and alcohol arrests on college campuses. Also, the number of reported sex offenses rose by 6 percent from 1998-99. Some experts question the validity of the year-to-year comparisons and the DOE data. Presents statistics on sex offenses, drug use, and drinking and football. (SM)

  8. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  9. Drug users' self-reports of behaviors and affective states under the influence of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Fishbein, D H; Jaffe, J H; Synder, F R; Haertzen, C A; Hickey, J E

    1993-12-01

    This study tested a modified version of the Alcohol-Related Behavior Questionnaire (ARBQ) to investigate the influence of alcohol on negative mood states. The ARBQ asked subjects (substance users and those not misusing drugs or alcohol) to recall various moods and behaviors under three drug conditions: sober, drinking, and drunk. Tests of the ARBQ subscales provided support for its reliability and validity. Scale scores measuring negative affect increased as levels of recalled alcohol intake increased, suggesting that larger amounts of alcohol produced more negative and aggressive feelings. Alcohol-dependent subjects reported more anger and aggression with increasing levels of alcohol intake than nonproblem drinkers. These data further indicated that, among those with alcohol dependence, a history of childhood aggression is an important predictor of negative behaviors and feelings associated with alcohol intake. Among other groups of drug users, a diagnosis of antisocial personality was relatively more important.

  10. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  11. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  12. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  13. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  14. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  15. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  16. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  17. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  18. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  19. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  20. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  1. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  2. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  3. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  4. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  5. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  6. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  7. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  8. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  9. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  10. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  11. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  12. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  13. 14 CFR 91.17 - Alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Alcohol or drugs. 91.17 Section 91.17... AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.17 Alcohol or drugs. (a... consumption of any alcoholic beverage; (2) While under the influence of alcohol; (3) While using any drug...

  14. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  15. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which...

  16. Alcohol Consumption Indices of Genetic Risk for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Todd, Richard D.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported a significant genetic correlation between heaviness of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence (AD), but this association might be driven by the influence of AD on consumption rather than the reverse. We test the genetic overlap between AD symptoms and a heaviness of consumption measure among individuals who do not have AD. A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk. Methods Factor analysis of 5 alcohol use measures was used to create a measure of heaviness of alcohol consumption. Quantitative genetic analyses of interview data from the 1989 Australian Twin Panel (n=6257 individuals; M=29.9 years) assessed the genetic overlap between heaviness of consumption, DSM-IV AD symptoms, DSM-IV AD symptom clustering, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Results Genetic influences accounted for 30–51% of the variance in the alcohol measures and genetic correlations were 0.90 or higher for all measures, with the correlation between consumption and dependence symptoms among non-dependent individuals estimated at 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Heaviness of consumption and AD symptoms have a high degree of genetic overlap even among non-dependent individuals in the general population, implying that genetic influences on dependence risk in the general population are acting to a considerable degree through heaviness of use, and that quantitative measures of consumption will likely have a useful role in the identification of genes contributing to AD. PMID:19576574

  17. Drug and Alcohol Involvement in Four Types of Fatal Crashes*

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Eduardo; Voas, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of drunk and drugged driving to the occurrence of fatal crashes associated with speeding, failure to obey/yield, inattention, and seat belt nonuse. Method: We examined data for fatally injured drivers involved in single-vehicle crashes killed in states in which more than 79% of the drivers were tested for drugs other than alcohol and had a known result. Results: About 25% of the drivers tested positive for drugs, a figure almost double that estimated by the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Cannabinoids and stimulants each contributed to about 23% of the drug-positive results (6% among all fatally injured single-vehicle drivers). Stimulants more than cannabinoids were found to be associated with the four types of crashes under study. Some drugs showed a protective effect over the four crash types under study. Significant interactions between drugs and alcohol were observed. Stimulants contributed to the different types of fatal crashes irrespective of the levels of alcohol consumed by the drivers. Conclusions: This study provides further evidence of a link between drug consumption and fatal crashes. It also opens the door to some interesting and sometimes unexpected questions regarding the way drugs contribute to crashes, which we found varies depending on the type of crash considered, the class of drug, and the presence of alcohol. Research is also needed on drugs that could have a protective effect on the occurrence of fatal crashes. These findings could be highly relevant to the design of drug-related traffic laws and programs targeted at curbing drugged driving. PMID:21683038

  18. Clinical experience of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A chart review

    PubMed Central

    Rozatkar, Abhijit R.; Kapoor, Abhishek; Sidana, Ajeet; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Craving is recognized as a formidable barrier in the management of patients with alcohol dependence. Among pharmacological agents that have been used in experimental studies for reduction in craving, baclofen appears to have a significant advantage over other agents. Methodology: The study is retrospective chart review of patients (n = 113) who have been treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in a tertiary hospital of North India. Baseline assessments included sociodemography, motivation, quantity-frequency of alcohol use, and other alcohol-related clinical parameters. Weekly assessments, for a period of 4 weeks, were extracted from records which included dose of baclofen, craving intensity, and alcohol consumption. Results: The study sample was predominantly male, mean age of 41.49 (±9.75) years, most having a family history of substance use (70.97%), and many reporting binge use pattern in last year (49.46%). Baseline assessment revealed 48.7% of the sample was in precontemplation phase for alcohol use and 70% reported severe and persistent craving. This persistent craving was reported by only 15% of the sample by the end of 4 weeks treatment with baclofen (20–40 mg/day). Thirty-four percent of patients reported continued problematic use of alcohol by the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our clinical experience suggests that baclofen reduces craving and alcohol consumption including in those with poor motivation. The drug causes few side effects and does not add to the intoxication effect of alcohol. Considering that baclofen is safe in those with liver cirrhosis and reduces withdrawal symptoms due to alcohol, a controlled trial comparing it with standard treatment is required. PMID:28163402

  19. Alcohol, Drugs and Adolescents. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaChance, Laurie L.

    The foreword states that this publication aims to assist the reader to better understand the dimensions of the drug and alcohol abuse problems of adolescents and the responses of choice by professionals and by those caring for adolescents. These topics are discussed: (1) the stepping stone theory; (2) correlates of substance abuse; (3)…

  20. Kansas Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    One of a series of state profiles, this report describes the dimensions of the problems caused by alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in Kansas and the public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. It highlights positive developments and identifies areas to be strengthened. Demographic characteristics, state agency organization, and state…

  1. Rural Indiana Profile: Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Strategies, Washington, DC.

    This report examines alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use in rural parts of Indiana, as well as public and private initiatives to reduce these problems. The report is based on epidemiological, health, and criminal justice indicators; focus groups; and in-depth interviews with local officials, researchers, service providers, and civic leaders.…

  2. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  3. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  4. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  5. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  6. 49 CFR 219.101 - Alcohol and drug use prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol and drug use prohibited. 219.101 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219.101 Alcohol and... possess alcohol or any controlled substance while assigned by a railroad to perform covered service....

  7. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Dopaminergic agonists and antagonists have both been examined for the treatment of substance abuse with contrasting results. To the best of our knowledge dopamine receptor partial agonists have not been investigated in alcohol use disorders. Thirteen detoxified alcohol-dependent subjects were treated with flexible doses of aripiprazole for 16 weeks. Six patients maintained an alcohol free condition for all the study period. All the subjects experienced a reduction of craving in both OCDS (p < .05) and VAS (p < .05), and a decrease of the SCL-90 General Severity Index (GSI) (p < .05). The data of this pilot clinical study, suggest a possible role for this drug in the treatment of individuals with alcohol problems.

  8. Examining the pathways for young people with drug and alcohol dependence: a mixed-method design to examine the role of a treatment programme

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Sally; Rawstorne, Patrick; Hayen, Andrew; Bryant, Joanne; Baldry, Eileen; Ferry, Mark; Williams, Megan; Shanahan, Marian; Jayasinha, Ranmalie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Young people with drug and alcohol problems are likely to have poorer health and other psychosocial outcomes than other young people. Residential treatment programmes have been shown to lead to improved health and related outcomes for young people in the short term. There is very little robust research showing longer term outcomes or benefits of such programmes. This paper describes an innovative protocol to examine the longer term outcomes and experiences of young people referred to a residential life management and treatment programme in Australia designed to address alcohol and drug issues in a holistic manner. Methods and analysis This is a mixed-methods study that will retrospectively and prospectively examine young people's pathways into and out of a residential life management programme. The study involves 3 components: (1) retrospective data linkage of programme data to health and criminal justice administrative data sets, (2) prospective cohort (using existing programme baseline data and a follow-up survey) and (3) qualitative in-depth interviews with a subsample of the prospective cohort. The study will compare findings among young people who are referred and (a) stay 30 days or more in the programme (including those who go on to continuing care and those who do not); (b) start, but stay fewer than 30 days in the programme; (c) are assessed, but do not start the programme. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been sought from several ethics committees including a university ethics committee, state health departments and an Aboriginal-specific ethics committee. The results of the study will be published in peer-reviewed journals, presented at research conferences, disseminated via a report for the general public and through Facebook communications. The study will inform the field more broadly about the value of different methods in evaluating programmes and examining the pathways and trajectories of vulnerable young people. PMID

  9. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board; Notice of Joint...

  10. 77 FR 39194 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs... commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and alcohol testing required for each operation into one... while maintaining the level of safety intended by the current drug and alcohol testing regulations....

  11. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  12. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section 17... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  13. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  14. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  15. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  16. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  17. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  18. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  19. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  20. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...

  1. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  2. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  3. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  4. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  5. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...

  6. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  7. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... are subject to this part shall implement drug and alcohol testing programs for individuals who...

  8. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  9. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  10. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  11. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  12. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  13. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  14. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-300... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  15. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  16. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  17. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  18. 75 FR 3153 - Drug and Alcohol Testing Program; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Parts 120 and 135 RIN 2120-AJ37 Drug and Alcohol Testing...: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is correcting its drug and alcohol testing regulations... definitions; added wording to the sections describing refusals to submit to drug or alcohol tests;...

  19. 49 CFR 225.18 - Alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug involvement. 225.18 Section 225.18....18 Alcohol or drug involvement. (a) In preparing Form FRA F 6180.54, “Rail Equipment Accident... the circumstances into the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such...

  20. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  1. 14 CFR 105.7 - Use of alcohol and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of alcohol and drugs. 105.7 Section 105...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES PARACHUTE OPERATIONS § 105.7 Use of alcohol and drugs. No... of— (a) Alcohol, or (b) Any drug that affects that person's faculties in any way contrary to safety....

  2. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...

  3. 46 CFR 153.936 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 153.936 Section 153.936... § 153.936 Illness, alcohol, drugs. The master shall ensure that no person participates in cargo related operations who appears to be intoxicated by alcohol or drugs or to be so ill as to be unfit for...

  4. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-741... INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the...

  5. 41 CFR 60-250.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Drugs and alcohol. 60-250... VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-250.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a) Specific activities permitted. The contractor: (1) May prohibit the illegal use of drugs and the use of alcohol at the workplace by...

  6. Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: an educational overview.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Alfredo; Sher, Leo

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol and drug use continues to be a significant global problem with many health and economic consequences. Multiple studies have shown that the majority of adults who end up with an alcohol/drug use disorder have their first contact with these substances as adolescents. This article aims to briefly summarize current prevalence and impact on society, as well as its etiology, comorbid psychiatric disorders, and treatment and prevention of adolescent drug and alcohol use. Alcohol and substance use impacts both the user and society at large, from health risks to the user to increased early pregnancies, car accidents, financial cost, and productivity cost. Substance use and abuse results from intricate interactions between genetic and environmental influences. Also, substance abuse along with a comorbid psychiatric disorder is more common than a solitary substance use disorder in adolescents. Current options for the treatment of substance abuse disorders range from various therapy-based strategies, including behavioral and family-based therapies, to the use of medications. More attention must be placed on the importance of prevention of use, as well as progression of use to dependence. Successful prevention requires a comprehensive plan that needs to include, but should not be limited to, increasing education of all gatekeepers and limiting access of substances and alcohol through policy and reinforcement of those policies. Education of parents, pediatricians, school nurses, teachers, and mental health workers is essential to ensure that children at risk are identified in time to provide appropriate interventions.

  7. Gender differences in trauma history and symptoms as predictors of relapse to alcohol and drug use.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Blom, Thomas J; Anthenelli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are gender-specific associations between trauma exposure and alcohol or drug relapse in alcohol-dependent adults. Participants were 51 men (n = 24) and women (n = 27) with alcohol dependence, 22 (43.1%) of whom relapsed during study participation. Severity of childhood trauma; number of lifetime events evoking fear, helplessness, or horror; and current trauma symptoms all predicted relapse in women, but not in men. These findings highlight the importance of assessing trauma history and providing treatment of trauma-related symptoms for individuals with alcohol and drug dependence, and for women in particular.

  8. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  9. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2006-01-01

    Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities. PMID:17092339

  10. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  11. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  12. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  13. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  14. Dissociative disorders among alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Tamar Gurol, Defne; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2007-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among inpatients with alcohol dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to screen 111 alcohol-dependent patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient unit of a dependency treatment center. Subgroups of 29 patients who scored 30.0 or above and 25 patients who scored below 10.0 were then evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The interviewers were blind to the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 10 (9.0% of the original 111) patients had a dissociative disorder. A considerable number of the remaining patients reported a high level of dissociative experiences. Among the dissociative disorder group, nine patients had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and one patient had depersonalization disorder. Female gender, younger age, history of suicide attempt, childhood emotional and sexual abuse, and neglect were more frequent in the dissociative disorder group than among non-dissociative patients. The dissociative disorder group also had somatization disorder, borderline personality disorder, and lifetime major depression more frequently. For 9 of the 10 dissociative patients, dissociative symptoms started before the onset of alcohol use. Although the probability of having a comorbid dissociative disorder was not higher among alcohol-dependent inpatients than among the general psychiatric inpatients, the dissociative subgroup had distinct features. Many patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis (predominantly men) provided hints of subtle dissociative psychopathology. Implications of comorbid dissociative disorders and dissociative experiences on prevention and treatment of alcohol dependency and the importance of gender-specific characteristics in this relationship require further study.

  15. Cue Reactivity Is Associated with Duration and Severity of Alcohol Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the progression of substance dependence, drug cue-related brain activation is thought to shift from motivational towards habit pathways. However, a direct association between cue-induced brain activation and dependence duration has not yet been shown. We therefore examined the relationship between alcohol cue-reactivity in the brain, cue-induced subjective craving and alcohol dependence duration and severity. Since alcohol dependence is highly comorbid with depression/anxiety, which may modulate brain responses to alcohol cues, we also examined the relation between comorbid depression/anxiety and cue-reactivity. Methods We compared 30 alcohol dependent patients with 15 healthy controls and 15 depression/anxiety patients during a visual alcohol cue-reactivity task using functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenated level-dependent responses and subjective craving as outcomes. Within the alcohol dependent group we correlated cue-reactivity with alcohol dependence severity and duration, with cue-induced craving and with depression/anxiety levels. Results Alcohol dependent patients showed greater cue-reactivity in motivational brain pathways and stronger subjective craving than depression/anxiety patients and healthy controls. Depression/anxiety was not associated with cue-reactivity, but depression severity in alcohol dependent patients was positively associated with craving. Within alcohol dependence, longer duration of alcohol dependence was associated with stronger cue-related activation of the posterior putamen, a structure involved in habits, whereas higher alcohol dependence severity was associated with lower cue-reactivity in the anterior putamen, an area implicated in goal-directed behavior preceding habit formation. Conclusion Cue-reactivity in alcohol dependence is not modulated by comorbid depression or anxiety. More importantly, the current data confirm the hypothesis of a ventral to dorsal striatal shift of learning processes

  16. GABA receptors, alcohol dependence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Sartore, Daniela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Di Pietra, Laura; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the connection between alcohol dependence and criminal behavior by an integrated genetic-environmental approach. The research, structured as a case-control study, examined 186 alcohol-dependent males; group 1 (N = 47 convicted subjects) was compared with group 2 (N = 139 no previous criminal records). Genetic results were innovative, highlighting differences in genotype distribution (p = 0.0067) in group 1 for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs 3780428, located in the intronic region of subunit 2 of the GABA B receptor gene (GABBR2). Some environmental factors (e.g., grade repetition) were associated with criminal behavior; others (e.g., attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous) were inversely related to convictions. The concomitant presence of the genetic and environmental factors found to be associated with the condition of alcohol-dependent inmate showed a 4-fold increase in the risk of antisocial behavior. The results need to be replicated on a larger population to develop new preventive and therapeutic proposals.

  17. Alcoholism, Drug Addiction, and the Road to Recovery: Life on the Edge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stimmel, Barry

    Originally published in 1992 as The Facts About Drug Use, this updated edition contains new information about the effects of alcohol and recreational, mood-altering drugs on the body. The multiple causes of drug use and the options available to those dependent on drugs as a way of life are thoroughly described. Knowledge of the adverse effects of…

  18. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  19. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    PubMed

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  20. Drug dependence: some research issues*

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, D. C.

    1970-01-01

    This paper examines some problems of drug dependence, stressing the importance of a balanced approach. Consideration must be given to the demand for, as well as the supply of, drugs. Without a demand, there would be no continuing supply of man-made agents and no need to control the availability of naturally occurring agents. To achieve a balanced approach, increased research is needed into the effects on man of taking various dependence-producing drugs (particularly when these are used for long periods of time), the natural history of drug taking, the relative effectiveness of various preventive, therapeutic and restorative approaches and techniques, and means of identifying substances that, because of their dependence-producing properties, are apt to induce individual or public health problems. Attention is also called to some problems that may inhibit, but do not preclude, the initiation of studies in the field of drug dependence. PMID:5313071

  1. Chronological relationship between antisocial personality disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Bahlmann, M; Preuss, U W; Soyka, M

    2002-11-01

    Personality disorders, and particularly antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), frequently co-occur with alcohol dependence. ASPD is considered to be an important cofactor in the pathogenesis and clinical course of alcohol dependence. The chronological relationship between the onset of symptoms of ASPD and alcohol-dependence characteristics has not yet been studied in great detail and the role of ASPD in classification schemes of alcohol dependence as suggested by Cloninger and Schuckit has yet to be determined. We studied 55 alcohol-dependent patients to assess the prevalence and age at manifestation of ASPD, conduct disorder characteristics as well as alcohol dependence by employing the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Results indicate that the onset of ASPD characteristics precede that of alcohol dependence by some 4 years. This finding suggests that in patients with ASPD, alcohol dependence might be a secondary syndrome as suggested by previous research.

  2. Epigenetic Modifications, Alcoholic Brain and Potential Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Jangra, Ashok; Sriram, Chandra Shaker; Pandey, Suryanarayan; Choubey, Priyansha; Rajput, Prabha; Saroha, Babita; Bezbaruah, Babul Kumar; Lahkar, Mangala

    2016-01-01

    Acute and chronic alcohol exposure evidently influences epigenetic changes, both transiently and permanently, and these changes in turn influence a variety of cells and organ systems throughout the body. Many of the alcohol-induced epigenetic modifications can contribute to cellular adaptations that ultimately lead to behavioral tolerance and alcohol dependence. The persistence of behavioral changes demonstrates that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. The research activities over the past years have demonstrated a crucial role of epigenetic mechanisms in causing long lasting and transient changes in the expression of several genes in diverse tissues, including brain. This has stimulated recent research work that is aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the long lasting and transient effects of alcohol abuse on the brain in humans and animal models of alcohol addiction. In this study, we update our current understanding of the impact of alcohol exposure on epigenetic mechanisms in the brain and refurbish the knowledge of epigenetics in the direction of new drugs development. PMID:27780992

  3. 41 CFR 60-741.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60... REGARDING INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES Discrimination Prohibited § 60-741.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...

  4. 41 CFR 60-300.24 - Drugs and alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drugs and alcohol. 60..., AND ARMED FORCES SERVICE MEDAL VETERANS Discrimination Prohibited § 60-300.24 Drugs and alcohol. (a... alcohol at the workplace by all employees; (2) May require that employees not be under the influence...

  5. Policy and Procedures Related to Drug and Alcohol Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwynedd-Mercy Coll., Gwynedd Valley, PA.

    This is a statement of policy and procedures for drug and alcohol use at Gwynedd-Mercy College (Pennsylvania). A brief first section states the campus prohibition of possession or consumption of illegal drugs and alcoholic beverages. Several guidelines are listed, first, for special events at which alcoholic beverages may be consumed by those 21…

  6. Alcohol and other drugs: the response of the political and medical institutions.

    PubMed

    Pittman, D J; Staudenmeier, W J; Kaplan, A

    1991-08-01

    Formal and informal social control in shaping individual behaviors toward the use of alcohol and other drugs is discussed. Emphasis is placed on formal social control as it occurs in two major institutions. The state, which embodies the political and legal structures of the society is discussed in terms of the social control of some of the consequences of drinking, such as public drunkenness, alcoholism, operating vehicles with specific blood alcohol levels, and crime and alcohol use. The medical institution's involvement in alcohol and drug control is discussed in terms of the physician's role in diagnosing alcohol and drug dependent individuals. Two contemporary cases, those of pregnant addicts and alcohol-related organ transplant patients, illustrate the significant interactions between the responses of the political and medical institutions, and the broader influences that help shape these responses.

  7. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Buck, Cara L; Malavar, Jordan C; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2014-09-01

    Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol's stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning.

  8. [Nursing students knowledge about alcohol and drugs].

    PubMed

    Vilela, Miriam Vargas; Ventura, Carla Aparecida Arena; da Silva, Edilaine Cristina

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the knowledge of nursing students regarding the use of alcohol and other drugs, particularly addiction, tolerance, withdrawal and intoxication, the reasons students give for drug addiction and commencement, and personal interest in the issue of drug use. A descriptive-exploratory design was used, with a sample of 44 students, by applying a semi-structured questionnaire, constructed by the researchers based on the objectives, with open and closed questions, totaling 24 points. Ethical procedures were followed and data were submitted to exploratory descriptive analysis. It was shown that students knowledge is still limited, comprehension about a patients reasons for using and becoming addicted is incomplete and the interest is current.

  9. Socio-Emotional Factors in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3) were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ‘anger in’ and ‘anger out,’ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ‘anger out,’ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other. PMID:24860216

  10. Neuropeptide Modulation of Central Amygdala Neuroplasticity is a Key Mediator of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and withdrawal syndrome in the absence of drug. The central amygdala (CeA) and neighboring regions (extended amygdala) mediate alcohol-related behaviors and chronic alcohol-induced plasticity. Acute alcohol suppresses excitatory (glutamatergic) transmission whereas chronic alcohol enhances glutamatergic transmission in CeA. Acute alcohol facilitates inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission in CeA, and chronic alcohol increases GABAergic transmission. Electrophysiology techniques are used to explore the effects of neuropeptides/neuromodulators (CRF, NPY, nociceptin, dynorphin, endocannabinoids, galanin) on inhibitory transmission in CeA. In general, pro-anxiety peptides increase, and anti-anxiety peptides decrease CeA GABAergic transmission. These neuropeptides facilitate or block the action of acute alcohol in CeA, and chronic alcohol produces plasticity in neuropeptide systems, possibly reflecting recruitment of negative reinforcement mechanisms during the transition to alcohol dependence. A disinhibition model of CeA output is discussed in the context of alcohol dependence- and anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:22101113

  11. Neuropeptide modulation of central amygdala neuroplasticity is a key mediator of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Roberto, Marisa

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders are characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and withdrawal syndrome in the absence of drug. The central amygdala (CeA) and neighboring regions (extended amygdala) mediate alcohol-related behaviors and chronic alcohol-induced plasticity. Acute alcohol suppresses excitatory (glutamatergic) transmission whereas chronic alcohol enhances glutamatergic transmission in CeA. Acute alcohol facilitates inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission in CeA, and chronic alcohol increases GABAergic transmission. Electrophysiology techniques are used to explore the effects of neuropeptides/neuromodulators (CRF, NPY, nociceptin, dynorphin, endocannabinoids, galanin) on inhibitory transmission in CeA. In general, pro-anxiety peptides increase, and anti-anxiety peptides decrease CeA GABAergic transmission. These neuropeptides facilitate or block the action of acute alcohol in CeA, and chronic alcohol produces plasticity in neuropeptide systems, possibly reflecting recruitment of negative reinforcement mechanisms during the transition to alcohol dependence. A disinhibition model of CeA output is discussed in the context of alcohol dependence- and anxiety-related behaviors.

  12. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  13. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  14. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  15. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  16. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  17. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  18. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  19. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... who implement an FFD program under this subpart shall perform drug and alcohol testing that...

  20. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are...

  1. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  2. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  3. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  4. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  5. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  6. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  7. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Driving Privileges § 634.13 Alcohol and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or...

  8. Health Education: Drugs and Alcohol; An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquino, John; Poliakoff, Lorraine

    This document begins with an article on what drug abuse is and how educators can deal with it. The annotated listing which follows is divided into sections on drug abuse, drug education, alcohol abuse, alcohol education, and venereal disease. Journal articles constitute the majority of the generally post-1971 entries; research studies, books,…

  9. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. The meeting will...: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse....

  10. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  11. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  12. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  13. College Athletes and Alcohol and Other Drug Use. Infofacts/Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Few would argue that athletic success depends on both physical and mental health. Given that, it would be reasonable to expect that college athletes avoid using alcohol and other drugs to preserve their overall health and enhance their athletic performance. In fact, college athletes use alcohol, spit tobacco, and steroids at higher rates than…

  14. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  15. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.

    PubMed

    Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages.

  16. Stress, alcohol and drug interaction: an update of human research

    PubMed Central

    Uhart, Magdalena; Wand, Gary S.

    2008-01-01

    A challenging question that continues unanswered in the field of addiction is why some individuals are more vulnerable to substance use disorders than others. Numerous risk factors for alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including exposure to various forms of stress, have been identified in clinical studies. However, the neurobiological mechanisms that underlie this relationship remain unclear. Critical neurotransmitters, hormones and neurobiological sites have been recognized, which may provide the substrates that convey individual differences in vulnerability to addiction. With the advent of more sophisticated measures of brain function in humans, such as functional imaging technology, the mechanisms and neural pathways involved in the interactions between drugs of abuse, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system and stress systems are beginning to be characterized. This review provides a neuroadaptive perspective regarding the role of the hormonal and brain stress systems in drug addiction with a focus on the changes that occur during the transition from occasional drug use to drug dependence. We also review factors that contribute to different levels of hormonal/brain stress activation, which has implications for understanding individual vulnerability to drug dependence. Ultimately, these efforts may improve our chances of designing treatment strategies that target addiction at the core of the disorder. PMID:18855803

  17. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  18. [Burnout in Residential Drug- and Alcohol Treatment

    PubMed

    Härtel, Roland; Limmer, Uwe; Schiller, Martin; Wolfersdorf, Manfred

    2003-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at comparing burnout in staff members at residential drug and alcohol detoxification wards with and without teamsupervision. METHOD: 4 times in a period of 18 month all staff members (n = 44) were assessed for burnout using a german version (Checkliste Burnoutmerkmale) of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Maslach u. Jackson 1986) to asses the severity and the CBE (Checkliste Burnoutentstehungsmerkmale) for associated burnout risc-factors. RESULT: There was no statistical differences between the mean scores of the 3 different wards due to extreme SDs. The interpersonal differences among staff on the 4 occasions were remarkably. On repeated measurements the intraindividual changes were high. Higher scores were correlated with high workload (seen as frequent admissions). CONCLUSION: Work-related variables (admissions) turned out to be of more importance than supervision in times of chronic staff-shortage.

  19. Colleges Report Increases in Arrests for Drug and Alcohol Violations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    1999-01-01

    Arrests for violations of drug/alcohol laws at colleges and universities rose 7.2 and 3.6%, respectively, from 1996 to 1997. Campus police attribute the increases not to increased drug and alcohol use but to more aggressive enforcement. However, some health researchers feel usage has risen. Campus weapons violations and forcible rape arrests have…

  20. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Elementary and Secondary Education (ED), Washington, DC. Safe and Drug Free Schools Program.

    In response to growing awareness of and concern about alcohol and other drug problems, institutions of higher education are implementing policies and programs in an attempt to curb alcohol and other drug use and its associated negative consequences. Momentum is building for comprehensive prevention approaches that combine traditional education…

  1. Drug and Alcohol Use among Youth in Rural Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Ruth W.

    This paper compares data on the prevalence of alcohol and other drug use by students in grades 8 and 12 across four sizes of communities. Data from the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS), administered in approximately 250 communities during the 1992-93 and 1993-94 school years, were analyzed for four community sizes: very small (population…

  2. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... evaluation procedures, including, but not limited to, determinations of fitness. These personal...

  3. 10 CFR 26.31 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.31 Section 26.31 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Program Elements § 26.31 Drug and alcohol testing... evaluation procedures, including, but not limited to, determinations of fitness. These personal...

  4. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  5. 46 CFR 151.45-8 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...

  6. 46 CFR 151.45-8 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...

  7. 46 CFR 151.45-8 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...

  8. Secondary School Students: Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This resource guide contains a list of materials on drug and alcohol prevention for secondary school students. The information is divided into three sections: (1) prevention materials, including information on inhalants, AIDS, sports and drugs, and sex and alcohol; (2) studies, articles, and reports on secondary school students, including…

  9. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drug Use among Black Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha-Silva, Lee; And Others

    The Centre for Alcohol and Drug Studies, Johannesburg (South Africa) commissioned a study of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among historically disadvantaged black youth aged 10 to 21 years. A national survey explored the prevalence of substance use in this age group through responses of 1,376 children and youths. An in-depth study examined…

  10. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  11. 14 CFR 65.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  12. 14 CFR 63.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  13. 14 CFR 65.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  14. 46 CFR 151.45-8 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...

  15. 14 CFR 63.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  16. 46 CFR 151.45-8 - Illness, alcohol, drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Illness, alcohol, drugs. 151.45-8 Section 151.45-8 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-8 Illness, alcohol, drugs. A person...

  17. 14 CFR 65.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  18. 14 CFR 63.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  19. 14 CFR 63.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 63.12 Section 63.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  20. 14 CFR 65.12 - Offenses involving alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Offenses involving alcohol or drugs. 65.12 Section 65.12 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... alcohol or drugs. (a) A conviction for the violation of any Federal or state statute relating to...

  1. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  2. Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention, Newton, MA.

    This brochure describes the mission, approach, and services of the Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. The Center is the nation's primary resource center for assisting higher education institutions in the development, implementation, and evaluation of alcohol and drug violence prevention policies and programs that…

  3. Students at Risk: Alcohol and Drug Prevention in Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Eileen V.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes recent research on the pattern of college student alcohol and other drug use. Gives a brief historical perspective as it pertains to recent legislative changes that have affected the prevention of substance abuse. Offers a review of students at particular risk of alcohol and other drug abuse. (Includes an index.) (RJM)

  4. High-dose naltrexone therapy for cocaine-alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Green, Charles E; Herin, David V; Stotts, Angela L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of high-dose (100 mg/d) naltrexone versus placebo in a sample of 87 randomized subjects with both cocaine and alcohol dependence. Medication conditions were crossed with two behavioral therapy platforms that examined whether adding contingency management (CM) that targeted cocaine abstinence would enhance naltrexone effects compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) without CM. Primary outcome measures for cocaine (urine screens) and alcohol use (timeline followback) were collected thrice-weekly during 12 weeks of treatment. Retention in treatment and medication compliance rates were low. Rates of cocaine use and drinks per day did not differ between treatment groups; however naltrexone did reduce frequency of heavy drinking days, as did CBT without CM. Notably, adding CM to CBT did not enhance treatment outcomes. These weak findings suggest that pharmacological and behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy in the treatment of a single drug dependence disorder may not provide the coverage needed when targeting dual drug dependence.

  5. Drug dreams in outpatients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Yee, Tonia; Perantie, Dana C; Dhanani, Nafisa; Brown, E Sherwood

    2004-03-01

    Patients with substance abuse or dependence often have dreams about alcohol or drugs during early recovery. However, the literature on drug dreams in rehabilitating patients with drug-related disorders remains limited. No data are available on drug dreams in people with substance-related disorders and other major mental illness. As part of a large study on the use of lamotrigine in patients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence, the frequency and nature of drug dreams, triggers for dreams, and response to the dreams during study participation were assessed in 37 outpatients for as long as 36 weeks. Altogether, 74% of participants experienced at least one drug dream during the study. Furthermore, drug dreams rapidly decreased during study participation. The presence of drug dreams at baseline did not predict mood, cocaine craving, or drug use at exit. No clear risk factors for drug dreams were identified. However, drug dreams were related to survival in the study by a negative U-shaped curve relationship in which those participants with the highest and lowest frequency of drug dreams discontinued from the study the earliest. Content of the dreams frequently included drug use or refusing to use the drug. Dreams of drug use tended to occur during the first few weeks of study participation. Most dreams were associated with triggers for drug use. The findings suggest that drug dreams are common in patients with bipolar disorder and cocaine dependence and are similar in nature to those previously reported in people with pure substance abuse.

  6. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Institute on Drug Abuse... Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and...

  7. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  8. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction.

  9. Alcohol and Drugs in Schools: Teachers' Reactions to the Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Willert, H. Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    Although schools are places for learning and growth, they are also places where students engage in alcohol and drug use. This study showed that most teachers were aware of drugs in their schools, but did not regard drug use as an interference in their own classrooms. Many teachers were knowledgeable about their schools' drug policy, but did not…

  10. Pregnant? Drugs and Alcohol Can Hurt Your Unborn Baby.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

    This brochure, directed towards pregnant women, describes the dangers of alcohol, street drugs, smoking, and prescription drugs or over-the-counter medicines. It presents a story (in the mother's words) of a woman who took drugs to get high while pregnant and the ill effects on her son. The brochure claims being drug free means being a better…

  11. Alcohol and Drug Use among College Student Adult Children of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braitman, Abby L.; Kelley, Michelle L.; Ladage, Jessica; Schroeder, Valarie; Gumienny, Leslie A.; Morrow, Jennifer A.; Klostermann, Keith

    2009-01-01

    The present paper compared drinking and drug use in Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs), compared to non-ACOAs, among college students. Participants were 572 undergraduates. ACOAs were more likely to be current drug users than non-ACOAs. ACOAs reported initiating alcohol use earlier than non-ACOAs; however, ACOAs did not drink more often or more…

  12. Relationship Between Service Utilization and Runaway Youths' Alcohol and Other Drug Use.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Meade, Melissa; Tonigan, J Scott

    2001-01-01

    Runaway youths represent a vulnerable, high-risk population that has received little societal attention. Studies show that youths at greatest need are the least likely to access mental health, medical, and other social services. This study evaluated service utilization, including medical visits, psychological, alcohol and drug counseling and 12-step attendance, and substance use. Runaway youths (n = 51) between the ages of 12 and 17 with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or dependence were recruited from two southwestern runaway shelters. Results showed that psychological counseling and medical visits were associated with less alcohol use while 12-step attendance was associated with more alcohol use at pretreatment. Service utilization was not associated with illicit drug use. The findings suggest that alcohol and other drug use are affected differently by service utilization in this sample of youths. More research is required to evaluate and develop treatments which can effectively intervene with this high-risk group.

  13. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  14. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  15. Prazosin for Treatment With PTSD And Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD and alcohol dependence . The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prazosis (16mg

  16. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk among Juvenile Drug Court Offenders

    PubMed Central

    TOLOU-SHAMS, MARINA; HOUCK, CHRISTOPHER D.; NUGENT, NICOLE; CONRAD, SELBY M.; REYES, AYANARIS; BROWN, LARRY K.

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile drug courts (JDC) largely focus on marijuana and other drug use interventions. Yet, JDC offenders engage in other high-risk behaviors, such as alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors, which can compromise their health, safety and drug court success. An examination of alcohol use and sexual risk behaviors among 52 male substance abusing young offenders found that over 50% were using alcohol, 37% reported current marijuana use and one-third of all sexual intercourse episodes were unprotected. After accounting for recent marijuana use, the odds of a juvenile having vaginal or anal sex was 6 times greater if they had recently used alcohol. Juvenile drug courts may benefit from delivering alcohol and sexual risk reduction interventions to fully address the needs of these young offenders. PMID:22997487

  17. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  18. Use of a single alcohol screening question to identify other drug use

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Peter C; Cheng, Debbie M; Allensworth-Davies, Donald; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background People who consume unhealthy amounts of alcohol are more likely to use illicit drugs. We tested the ability of a screening test for unhealthy alcohol use to simultaneously detect drug use. Methods Adult English speaking patients (n=286) were enrolled from a primary care waiting room. They were asked the screening question for unhealthy alcohol use “How many times in the past year have you had X or more drinks in a day?”, where X is 5 for men and 4 for women, and a response of one or more is considered positive. A standard diagnostic interview was used to determine current (past year) drug use or a drug use disorder (abuse or dependence). Oral fluid testing was also used to detect recent use of common drugs of abuse. Results The single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was 67.6% sensitive (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.2%- 82.0%) and 64.7% specific (95% CI, 58.4%- 70.6%) for the detection of a drug use disorder. It was similarly insensitive for drug use detected by oral fluid testing and/or self-report. Conclusions Although a patient with a drug use disorder has twice the odds of screening positive for unhealthy alcohol use compared to one without a drug use disorder, suggesting patients who screen positive for alcohol should be asked about drug use, a single screening question for unhealthy alcohol use was not sensitive or specific for the detection of other drug use or drug use disorders in a sample of primary care patients. PMID:24768061

  19. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  20. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  1. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  2. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  3. 49 CFR 219.701 - Standards for drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Standards for drug and alcohol testing. 219.701... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Drug and Alcohol Testing Procedures § 219.701 Standards for drug and alcohol testing. (a) Drug testing required or authorized by subparts...

  4. Genetic and biological markers in drug abuse and alcoholism

    SciTech Connect

    Braude, M.C.; Chao, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains 11 selections. Some of the titles are: Polymorphic Gene Marker Studies; Pharmacogenetic Approaches to the Prediction of Drug Response; Genetic Markers of Drug Abuse in Mouse Models; Genetics as a Tool for Identifying Biological Markers of Drug Abuse; and Studies of an Animal Model of Alcoholism.

  5. Neurobiology of alcohol dependence: focus on motivational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Koob, George F

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain's stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol's effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies.

  6. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  7. Alcohol and adult hippocampal neurogenesis: promiscuous drug, wanton effects.

    PubMed

    Geil, Chelsea R; Hayes, Dayna M; McClain, Justin A; Liput, Daniel J; Marshall, S Alex; Chen, Kevin Y; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-10-03

    Adult neurogenesis is now widely accepted as an important contributor to hippocampal integrity and function but also dysfunction when adult neurogenesis is affected in neuropsychiatric diseases such as alcohol use disorders. Excessive alcohol consumption, the defining characteristic of alcohol use disorders, results in a variety of cognitive and behavioral impairments related wholly or in part to hippocampal structure and function. Recent preclinical work has shown that adult neurogenesis may be one route by which alcohol produces hippocampal neuropathology. Alcohol is a pharmacologically promiscuous drug capable of interfering with adult neurogenesis through multiple mechanisms. This review will discuss the primary mechanisms underlying alcohol-induced changes in adult hippocampal neurogenesis including alcohol's effects on neurotransmitters, CREB and its downstream effectors, and the neurogenic niche.

  8. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  9. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  10. Relationship between Alcohol Dependence, Escape Drinking, and Early Neural Attention to Alcohol-Related Cuess

    PubMed Central

    Dickter, Cheryl L.; Forestell, Catherine A.; Hammett, Patrick J.; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previous work has indicated that implicit attentional biases to alcohol-related cues are indicative of susceptibility to alcohol dependence and escape drinking, or drinking to avoid dysphoric mood or emotions. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine whether alcohol dependence and escape drinking were associated with early neural attentional biases to alcohol cues. Methods EEG data were recorded from 54 college students who reported that they regularly drank alcohol, while they viewed alcohol and control pictures that contained human content (active) or no human content (inactive). Results Those who were alcohol dependent showed more neural attentional bias to the active alcohol-related stimuli than to the matched control stimuli early in processing, as indicated by N1 amplitude. Escape drinkers showed greater neural attention to the active alcohol cues than non-escape drinkers, as measured by larger N2 amplitudes. Conclusions While alcohol dependence is associated with enhanced automatic attentional biases early in processing, escape drinking is associated with more controlled attentional biases to active alcohol cues during a relatively later stage in processing. These findings reveal important information about the time-course of attentional processing in problem drinkers and have important implications for addiction models and treatment. PMID:24292342

  11. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  12. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  13. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  14. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  15. 31 CFR 700.7 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, and... beverages, narcotics, and drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon, by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous...

  16. Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention on College Campuses: Model Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    In response to recent alcohol-related tragedies and to ongoing concern about unacceptable levels of alcohol and other drug use on college campuses, Congress authorized the U.S. Department of Education to identify and promote effective campus-based prevention programs. Since 1999, the U.S. Department of Education has awarded approximately $3.5…

  17. Alcohol and Drug Abusers Entering Treatment: How Different Are They?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seraganian, Peter; And Others

    A major shift in drug abuse epidemiology has been witnessed in North America over the past decade. Although alcohol continues to be widely abused, usage of other substances has proliferated. While addicted individuals share some attributes, certain demographic, psychological, and cognitive characteristics may distinguish alcoholics from those who…

  18. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence: target symptoms and target mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Egli, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Alcoholism is a major public health problem and resembles, in many ways, other chronic relapsing medical conditions. At least 2 separate dimensions of its symptomatology offer targetable pathophysiological mechanisms. Systems that mediate positive reinforcement by alcohol are likely important targets in early stages of the disease, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. In contrast, long term neuroadaptive changes caused by chronic alcohol use primarily appear to affect systems mediating negative affective states, and gain importance following a prolonged history of dependence. Feasibility of pharmacological treatment in alcoholism has been demonstrated by a first wave of drugs which consists of 3 currently approved medications, the aldehyde dehydrogenase blocker disulfiram, the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) and the functional glutamate antagonist acamprosate (ACM). The treatment toolkit is likely to be expanded in the near future. This will improve overall efficacy and allow individualized treatment, ultimately taking in account the patient's genetic makeup. In a second wave, early human efficacy data are available for the 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron, the GABA-B agonist baclofen and the anticonvulsant topiramate. The third wave is comprised of compounds predicted to be effective based on a battery of animal models. Using such models, a short list of additional targets has accumulated sufficient preclinical validation to merit clinical development. These include the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, receptors modulating glutamatergic transmission (mGluR2, 3 and 5), and receptors for stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nociceptin. Once novel treatments are developed, the field faces a major challenge to assure their delivery to patients.

  19. Drug and Alcohol Arrests Increased on Campuses in 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklin, Julie L.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the latest institutional reports of college crime to the U.S. Department of Education, including an increase in violations of drug and alcohol laws. Includes several data tables of campus crime. (EV)

  20. Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print This Topic En español Talk to Your Kids about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drugs Browse Sections The ... smokers start smoking before they turn 18. Many kids start using tobacco by age 11 and are ...

  1. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  2. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program Manual on Comprehensive K-12 School-Based Prevention and Intervention Alcohol and Drug Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program.

    This document presents a manual to help program developers plan for a comprehensive school and community-based response to the drug problem as required by the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act. Part I explains the purpose of the manual and discusses other work being conducted by the North Carolina Alcohol and Drug Defense Program. Part II…

  3. Effects of alcohol on human carboxylesterase drug metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Robert B.; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Meibohm, Bernd; Laizure, S. Casey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective Human carboxylesterase-1 (CES1) and human carboxylesterase-2 (CES2) play an important role in metabolizing many medications. Alcohol is a known inhibitor of these enzymes but the relative effect on CES1 and CES2 is unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of alcohol on the metabolism of specific probes for CES1 (oseltamivir) and CES2 (aspirin). Methods The effect of alcohol on CES1- and CES2-mediated probe drug hydrolysis was determined in vitro using recombinant human carboxylesterase. To characterize the in vivo effects of alcohol, healthy volunteers received each probe drug alone and in combination with alcohol followed by blood sample collection and determination of oseltamivir, aspirin, and respective metabolite pharmacokinetics. Results Alcohol significantly inhibited oseltamivir hydrolysis by CES1 in vitro but did not affect aspirin metabolism by CES2. Alcohol increased the oseltamivir area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from 0-6 h by 27% (range 11-46%, p=0.011) and decreased the metabolite/oseltamivir AUC 0-6 h ratio by 34% (range 25-41%, p<0.001). Aspirin pharmacokinetics were not affected by alcohol. Conclusions Alcohol significantly inhibited the hydrolysis of oseltamivir by CES1 both in vitro and in humans, but did not affect the hydrolysis of aspirin to salicylic acid by CES2. These results suggest that alcohol's inhibition of CES1 could potentially result in clinically significant drug interactions with other CES1-substrate drugs, but it is unlikely to significantly affect CES2-substrate drug hydrolysis. PMID:25511794

  4. Adolescent depression, alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Deykin, E Y; Levy, J C; Wells, V

    1987-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview Schedule was employed to ascertain the prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), alcohol and substance abuse in a sample of 424 college students aged 16 to 19 years. Applying DSM III criteria, the prevalence of MDD was 6.8 per cent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 per cent; and of substance abuse 9.4 per cent. Alcohol abuse was associated with MDD, but not with other psychiatric diagnoses. Substance abuse was associated both with MDD and with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. The onset of MDD almost always preceded alcohol or substance abuse suggesting the possibility of self-medication as a factor in the development of alcohol or substance abuse. PMID:3492151

  5. Substance abuse vulnerability in offspring of alcohol and drug abusers.

    PubMed

    McCaul, M E

    1998-03-01

    Epidemiological research has clearly demonstrated the importance of a family history as a determinant of future alcohol and, possibly, drug use in offspring of alcoholics. Laboratory studies have examined a wide range of potential markers both in the presence and absence of alcohol challenge, which may predict those subjects at high risk for the future development of alcoholism. While this body of research has yielded several replicable differences in FHP and FHN subjects, it also has been marked by many discrepancies in outcomes across studies. Future refinements in subject ascertainment and laboratory methodologies may help to bring greater procedural uniformity and consistency in study outcomes.

  6. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  7. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  8. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug...

  9. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug...

  10. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug...

  11. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug...

  12. 33 CFR 95.030 - Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.030 Section 95.030 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.030 Evidence of under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. Acceptable evidence of when a vessel operator is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug...

  13. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  14. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  15. 33 CFR 95.020 - Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of alcohol or a dangerous drug. 95.020 Section 95.020 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... ALCOHOL OR A DANGEROUS DRUG § 95.020 Standard for under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug. An individual is under the influence of alcohol or a dangerous drug when: (a) The individual is operating...

  16. Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS: A Consumer Guide for African Americans

    MedlinePlus

    Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS A Consumer Guide Drugs & Alcohol What do drugs and alcohol have to do with HIV? Drug and alcohol use can ... behavior that can increase your exposure to HIV/AIDS. For example, using or sharing needles or other ...

  17. Gait and Balance in Treatment-Naive Active Alcoholics with and without a Lifetime Drug Codependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Smith, Stan; Greenstein, David

    2012-01-01

    Background Disturbed gait and balance are among the most consistent sequelae of chronic alcoholism. However, although a majority of alcoholics have never sought treatment, most investigations showing ataxia in alcohol dependent individuals have relied on samples drawn from treated populations. In addition, few studies have addressed the associations of codependence on other drugs with alcoholic gait and balance disturbance. Methods The present study employed the Walk-a-line Ataxia Battery (Fregly et al. 1972) to assess gait and balance in treatment-naive, actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women (TNA; n = 69) who were dependent on alcohol only (ALC; n = 43), or who also had a lifetime drug dependence (ALC+DRG; n = 26; i.e., methamphetamine, cocaine, opiates, and/or marijuana), compared with non-substance abusing controls (NSAC; n = 74). We also examined associations between lifetime alcohol use and age with gait and balance measures. Results Our main findings were 1) no evidence of disturbed gait and balance in ALC vs. NSAC and 2) significantly disturbed gait and balance in ALC+DRG, relative to both NSAC and ALC, along with steeper age-associated decline in gait and balance performance in ALC vs. ALC+DRG. Conclusions Our results provide evidence consistent with previous studies that TNA (without a lifetime drug codependence) may represent a population that is different and less impaired (including in gait and balance) than treated alcoholics. Additionally, we provide evidence that ALC+DRG, with greater alcohol use and family drinking density than ALC, have an accelerated effect of age on gait and balance disturbance compared to both NSAC and ALC. The ALC+DRG group likely represents a subset of TNA with different characteristics than ALC. PMID:22390787

  18. Puberty, hormones, and sex differences in alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ellen D

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during puberty. This paper reviews experimental and correlational studies of gonadal and stress-related hormone changes and their effects on alcohol drinking and other associated actions of alcohol. Mechanisms are suggested by which reproductive hormones and stress-related hormones may modulate neural circuits within the brain reward system to produce sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence which become apparent during the late pubertal period.

  19. Proof-of-concept human laboratory study for protracted abstinence in alcohol dependence: effects of gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J; Light, John M; Williams, Lauren D; Drobes, David J

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for safe medications that can effectively support recovery by treating symptoms of protracted abstinence that may precipitate relapse in alcoholics, e.g. craving and disturbances in sleep and mood. This proof-of-concept study reports on the effectiveness of gabapentin 1200 mg for attenuating these symptoms in a non-treatment-seeking sample of cue-reactive, alcohol-dependent individuals. Subjects were 33 paid volunteers with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV alcohol dependence and a strength of craving rating 1 SD or greater for alcohol than water cues. Subjects were randomly assigned to gabapentin or placebo for 1 week and then participated in a within-subjects trial where each was exposed to standardized sets of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant visual stimuli followed by alcohol or water cues. Gabapentin was associated with significantly greater reductions than placebo on several measures of subjective craving for alcohol as well as for affectively evoked craving. Gabapentin was also associated with significant improvement on several measures of sleep quality. Side effects were minimal, and gabapentin effects were not found to resemble any major classes of abused drugs. Results suggest that gabapentin may be effective for treating the protracted abstinence phase in alcohol dependence and that a randomized clinical trial would be an appropriate next step. The study also suggests the value of cue-reactivity studies as proof-of-concept screens for potential antirelapse drugs.

  20. A Review of Alcohol and Other Drug Control Policy Research

    PubMed Central

    Treno, Andrew J.; Marzell, Miesha; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Holder, Harold

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This article provides a historical review of alcohol and other drug policy research and its impact on public health over the past 75 years. We begin our summary with the state of the field circa 1940 and trace the development across the subsequent decades. We summarize current thinking and suggest possible future directions the field of alcohol and other drug policy may take. Specific topics discussed include the minimum legal drinking age, pricing and taxation, hours and days of sale, outlet density, and privatization effects. The future of drug policy research is also considered. Method: A comprehensive search of the literature identified empirical studies, reviews, and commentaries of alcohol and other drug policy research published from 1940 to 2013 that contributed to the current state of the field. Results: Our review demonstrates the historical emergence of alcohol problems as a public health issue over the early part of the 20th century, the public health policy response to this issue, subsequent research, and current and future research trends. Conclusions: Alcohol and other drug policy research over the last several decades has made great strides in its empirical and theoretical sophistication of evaluating alcohol policy effects. This history is not only remarkable for its analytic complexity, but also for its conceptual sophistication. PMID:24565316

  1. The Effect of History of Injection Drug Use and Alcoholism on HIV Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Viviane Dias; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Kozai, Tsubasa; Salters, Kate A.; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in preventing disease progression can be negatively influenced by the high prevalence of substance use among patients. Here, we quantify the effect of history of injection drug use and alcoholism on virologic and immunologic response to HAART. Clinical and survey data, collected at the start of HAART and at the interview date, were based on the study Longitudinal Investigations into Supportive and Ancillary Health Services (LISA) in British Columbia, Canada. Substance use was a three-level categorical variable, combining information on history of alcohol dependence and of injection drug use, defined as: no history of alcohol and injection drug use, history of alcohol or injection drug use and history of both alcohol and injection drug use. Virologic response (pVL) was defined by ≥2 log10 copy/mL drop in viral load. Immunologic response was defined as an increase in CD4 cell count percent of ≥100%. We used cumulative logit modeling for ordinal responses to address our objective. Of the 537 HIV-infected patients, 112 (21%) were characterized as having history of both alcohol and injection drug use, 173 (32%) were non adherent (<95%), 196 (36%) had CD4+/pVL+ (Best) response, 180 (34%) a CD4+/pVL− or a CD4−/pVL+ (Incomplete) response, and 161 (30%) a CD4−/pVL− (Worst) response. For individuals with history of both alcohol and injection drug use, the estimated probability of of Best, Incomplete and Worse responses, respectively. Screening and detection of substance dependence will identify individuals at high-risk for non-adherence and ideally prevent their HIV disease from progressing to advanced stages where HIV disease can become difficult to manage. PMID:23767757

  2. Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Choate, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent’s own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26529024

  3. Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents.

    PubMed

    Choate, Peter W

    2015-10-29

    Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents' experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent's own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Assessment of Alcohol and Other Drug Use by Runaway Youths: A Test-Retest Study of the Form 90.

    PubMed

    Slesnick, Natasha; Tonigan, J Scott

    2004-06-21

    While excellent adolescent alcohol and drug screening tools are available, there are relatively few, if any, psychometrically validated measures to use in the assessment of adolescent treatment outcome. This study conducted a test-retest exercise of the Form 90 Drug and Alcohol (Form 90 DnA) to determine the stability of adolescent responses when administering the day-by-day calendar/grid approach. Homeless youth (N = 37) with alcohol, drug, or alcohol and drug abuse/dependence combined were recruited to participate in the test-retest study. High pre-post stability in means was obtained on measures of frequency of substance use in general, and on specific measures of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana use. The findings from this paper provide support for the reliability and validity of the Form 90 for use with adolescent runaways with a substance abuse or dependence diagnosis.

  5. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P < .05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.43-2.75) and drank wine (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.16-2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  6. Hopelessness in Alcohol- and Heroin-Dependent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale to alcoholic (N=20) and heroin-addicted (N=20) women. Results indicated that although both groups expressed comparable levels of overall hopelessness, alcoholic women anticipated more success and better lives in the next 10 years than did the heroin-dependent women. (LLL)

  7. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... licensee or other entity to perform the suitability and fitness evaluations required under § 26.419....

  8. 10 CFR 26.405 - Drug and alcohol testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol testing. 26.405 Section 26.405 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS FFD Program for Construction § 26.405 Drug and... suitability and fitness evaluations required under § 26.419....

  9. 78 FR 41999 - Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 120 RIN 2120-AK01 Combined Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Federal Aviation... or on-demand operators that also conduct commercial air tour operations to combine the drug and... 13, 2013. Any currently held exemptions allowing part 121 or part 135 operators to combine their...

  10. Psychometric Properties of the "Drug and Alcohol Survey".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Joel M.; And Others

    Results obtained from scaling the "Drug and Alcohol Survey" (DAS), a questionnaire that assesses the drug involvement of secondary school students are documented. The scales are evaluated in terms of their psychometric properties, their compatability with a change model, and their utility as outcome measures of substance abuse prevention…

  11. 76 FR 59574 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary 49 CFR Part 40 RIN 2105-AE13 Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs: Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form; Technical Amendment AGENCY... of a new Federal Drug Testing Custody and Control Form (CCF) in its drug testing program. Use of...

  12. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  13. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  14. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  15. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  16. 48 CFR 1823.570 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free..., OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Drug-Free Workplace 1823.570 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. This section sets sets forth NASA requirements for mandatory drug and alcohol testing of...

  17. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  18. Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Deficit in Detoxified Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sujin; Kang, Ilhyang; Lee, Boung Chul; Jeon, Yujin; Cho, Han Byul; Yoon, Sujung; Lim, Soo Mee; Kim, Jungyoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program. Significantly thinner cortical thickness in patients with alcohol dependence than healthy comparison subjects was noted in the left superior frontal cortical region, correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting with age and hemispheric average cortical thickness. There was a significant association between thickness in the cluster of the left superior frontal cortex and the duration of alcohol use. The prefrontal cortical region may particularly be vulnerable to chronic alcohol exposure. It is also possible that the pre-existing deficit in this region may have rendered individuals more susceptible to alcohol dependence. PMID:28035184

  19. Critical Needs in Drug Discovery for Cessation of Alcohol and Nicotine Polysubstance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Van Skike, C.E.; Maggio, S.E.; Reynolds, A.R.; Casey, E.M.; Bardo, M.T.; Dwoskin, L.P.; Prendergast, M.A.; Nixon, K.

    2015-01-01

    Polysubstance abuse of alcohol and nicotine has been overlooked in our understanding of the neurobiology of addiction and especially in the development of novel therapeutics for its treatment. Estimates show that as many as 92% of people with alcohol use disorders also smoke tobacco. The health risks associated with both excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking create an urgent biomedical need for the discovery of effective cessation treatments, as opposed to current approaches that attempt to independently treat each abused agent. The lack of treatment approaches for alcohol and nicotine abuse/dependence mirrors a similar lack of research in the neurobiology of polysubstance abuse. This review discusses three critical needs in medications development for alcohol and nicotine co-abuse: (1) the need for a better understanding of the clinical condition (i.e. alcohol and nicotine polysubstance abuse) (2) the need to better understand how these drugs interact in order to identify new targets for therapeutic development and (3) the need for animal models that better mimic this human condition. Current and emerging treatments available for the cessation of each drug and their mechanisms of action are discussed within this context followed by what is known about the pharmacological interactions of alcohol and nicotine. Much has been and will continue to be gained from studying comorbid alcohol and nicotine exposure. PMID:26582145

  20. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces - that could play a role in the increased permeability - and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  1. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits.

  2. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  3. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  4. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... illegal drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES... Conduct on NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.20 - What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drugs and alcohol? 1280.20 Section 1280.20 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND... NARA Property? Prohibited Activities § 1280.20 What is your policy on illegal drugs and alcohol? You... property while under the influence of illegal drugs or alcohol. Using alcoholic beverages on NARA...

  8. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:25893214

  9. Effects of Depression on Treatment Motivation in Male Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  10. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  11. Automatic Avoidance Tendencies for Alcohol Cues Predict Drinking After Detoxification Treatment in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:27935726

  12. Primary alcohol versus primary drug use among adolescents: An examination of differences

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Glebova, Tatiana; Glade, Aaron

    2008-01-01

    Examination of differences between primary alcohol and drug abusing adolescents can provide valuable direction to intervention efforts, though little research in this area has been conducted. The current study compared primary alcohol and primary drug abusing runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual. Baseline differences, as well as response to treatment, were examined separately for alcohol and drug use and by gender. Although few baseline differences were found, hierarchical linear modeling indicated that alcohol and drug abusing male and female adolescents responded differently to therapy. Primary drug using males showed poorer alcohol use outcomes than did primary alcohol abusers. Specifically, alcohol use increased for primary drug using males receiving family therapy, while drug use decreased in all groups. Findings suggest that alcohol and drug use outcomes might be improved at treatment planning through consideration of client’s gender and primary alcohol versus drug use. PMID:16564644

  13. Some pharmacological aspects of drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Chesher, G B

    1975-12-06

    The self-administration of drugs to achieve altered states of consciousness is recognized as normal human behaviour. Community attitudes towards drug use vary according to the drug and often bear little relationship to the known pharmacological and toxicological effects of the drug. For an objective assessment of the potential dangers associated with drug use, a distinction is made between drug use and drug abuse. It is stressed that the progression from drug use to drug abuse involves social and psychological factors in addition to the pharmacological factors which are outlined in this paper. The sequential development of drug dependency is described under the headings: Induction; continued consumption; compulsive consumption; withdrawal; abstinence; reinduction. Man uses psychotropic drugs because he finds the effects rewarding. Some experimental models to explore the neurophysiological basis of the reward are described. Experiments employing inhibitors of protein synthesis suggest that the phenomena of tolerance and physical dependence involve the synthesis of new protein. It has been suggested that the new protein might be new receptor molecules for the drug or neurotransmitter substances. These new receptors might constitute a "drug memory" and provide a possible explanation for high relapse rate of drug dependent subjects. A pharmacological basis for the methadone maintenance programme of management of narcotic dependent subjects is briefly outlined.

  14. Alcohol dependence and free-choice drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol dependence continues to be an important health concern and animal models are critical to furthering our understanding of this complex disease. A hallmark feature of alcoholism is a significant increase in alcohol drinking over time. While several different animal models of excessive alcohol (ethanol) drinking exist for mice and rats, a growing number of laboratories are using a model that combines chronic ethanol exposure procedures with voluntary ethanol drinking with mice as experimental subjects. Primarily, these studies use a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure pattern to render mice dependent and a 2-h limited access procedure to evaluate drinking behavior. Compared to non-dependent mice that also drink ethanol, the ethanol-dependent mice demonstrate significant increases in voluntary ethanol drinking. The increased drinking significantly elevates blood and brain ethanol concentrations compared to the non-dependent control mice. Studies report that the increased drinking by dependent mice is driven by neuroadaptations in glutamatergic and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in different brain regions known to be involved in alcohol-related behaviors. The dysregulation of these systems parallels findings in human alcoholics and treatments that demonstrate efficacy in alcoholics can also reduce drinking in this model. Moreover, preclinical findings have informed the development of human clinical trials, further highlighting the translational potential of the model. As a result of these features, the CIE exposure and free-choice drinking model is becoming more widely used and promises to provide more insight into mechanisms of excessive drinking that may be important for developing treatments for human alcoholics. The salient features and possible future considerations for CIE exposure and free-choice drinking in mice are discussed.

  15. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Piechniczek-Buczek, Joanna; Knapp, Clifford; Afshar, Maryam; Devine, Eric; Sickles, Laurie; Uwodukunda, Emma; Richambault, Courtney; Koplow, Jillian; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this open-label pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anticonvulsant agent, levetiracetam, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A maximal dose of 2000 mg was administered daily for 10 weeks to alcohol dependent subjects (n = 20). Mean reported ethanol intake declined significantly from 5.3 to 1.7 standard drinks per day. Levetiracetam was well tolerated by most subjects. PMID:18584574

  16. Improving Care for the Treatment of Alcohol and Drug Disorders

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Dennis; Gustafson, David; Capoccia, Victor A.; Cotter, Frances

    2008-01-01

    The Network for the Improvement of Addiction Treatment (NIATx) teaches alcohol and drug treatment programs to apply process improvement strategies and make organizational changes that improve quality of care. Participating programs reduce days to admission, increase retention in care and spread the application of process improvement within their treatment centers. More generally, NIATx provides a framework for addressing the Institute of Medicine’s six dimensions of quality care (i.e., safe, effective, patient-centered, efficient, timely and equitable) in treatments for alcohol, drug and mental health disorders. NIATx and its extensions illustrate how the behavioral health field can respond to the demand for higher quality treatment services. PMID:18259871

  17. Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Problems through Drug Education. Policy Bulletin No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, William J.

    Public schools have a responsibility to educate students about drug abuse, and states have a responsibility to assist schools in their efforts. Properly designed and implemented drug education programs are the most cost-effective means of preventing alcohol and other drug problems. Poorly designed and implemented programs, on the other hand, can…

  18. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE...) Under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or any combination thereof, to a degree that... entitled to use alcohol or another drug. (c) Tests. (1) At the request or direction of an authorized...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.23 Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs. (a) Operating or... alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or any combination thereof, to a degree that renders the operator...

  20. New perspectives on the similarities and differences of alcoholism and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Keeley, K A; Solomon, J

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the similarities and differences of alcoholism and drug abuse from a biopsychosocial perspective. Special emphasis is given to newer developments. In biology, the role of endorphins and isoquinolines is considered against the more traditionally recognized clinical differences between alcohol and drug disorders. Consideration is given to psychological themes such as the utility of the addictive personality concept, the impact of more sophisticated prevention strategies, and the combined treatment of alcoholics and drug abusers. Reports from social fields include a cross-cultural view of chemical dependence and an appraisal of legal and political trends which influence chemical use and the civil rights of chemical users. Recent developments in the biologic, psychologic and social sciences have solidified the impression that the chemical dependencies, for all their differences, share a number of important characteristics. The etiology of alcoholism and drug abuse has been attributed to biopsychosocial causes, currently a widely accepted hypothesis. From one perspective, this theory could be seen as a grab bag approach, since no specific universal cause has been discovered while many have been postulated. From another aspect, the hypothesis is a rational synthesis of present knowledge which finds no one etiological factor to be either preeminent or ubiquitous. This article presents in succession an overview of the biology, psychology and sociology of chemical dependence with emphasis on integrating newer developments with familiar knowledge.

  1. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  2. Anterior Cingulate Glutamate Is Reduced by Acamprosate Treatment in Patients With Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A; Hinton, David J; Karpyak, Victor M; Biernacka, Joanna M; Gunderson, Lee J; Feeder, Scott E; Choi, Doo-Sup; Port, John D

    2016-12-01

    Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls. The Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale was used to assess craving intensity. At baseline, before treatment, the mean cerebrospinal fluid-corrected MACC glutamate (Glu) level was significantly elevated in subjects with alcohol dependence compared with controls (P = 0.004). Four weeks of acamprosate treatment reduced glutamate levels (P = 0.025), an effect that was not observed in subjects who did not take acamprosate. At baseline, there was a significant positive correlation between cravings, measured by the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale, and MACC (Glu) levels (P = 0.019). Overall, these data would suggest a normalizing effect of acamprosate on a hyperglutamatergic state observed in recently withdrawn patients with alcohol dependence and a positive association between MACC glutamate levels and craving intensity in early abstinence. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of these findings for clinical practice, including monitoring of craving intensity and individualized selection of treatment with antidipsotropic medications in subjects with alcohol dependence.

  3. Prefrontal correlates of approach preferences for alcohol stimuli in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lena H; Plichta, Michael M; Dresler, Thomas; Zesewitz, Anna K; Tupak, Sara V; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fischer, Matthias; Polak, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-05-01

    An approach bias for alcohol stimuli (i.e. faster approach than avoidance reactions) might facilitate relapses in alcohol dependence. Neurobiological models suggest hypersensitivity in the reward system [inter alia nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] to cause pathologically enhanced approach impulses towards alcohol stimuli. At the same time, in alcohol dependence, these structures are only insufficiently controlled by a hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study investigated the cortical aspects of this model with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in 21 alcohol-dependent in-patients and 21 healthy controls (HC; comparable in age, gender and education) during performance of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for the first time. Complementing previous findings, in reaction times (RTs), patients showed stronger approach preferences for alcohol than non-alcohol stimuli. For non-alcohol stimuli, patients even displayed avoidance preferences. The reversed pattern was found in HC. Group differences in activity of the OFC were identical to those in RTs, revealing patients to assign higher subjective value to approaching alcohol stimuli. In both groups, regulatory activity in the right DLPFC was stronger during avoiding than approaching alcohol pictures. Probable awareness of the behavioural hypotheses due to explicit task instructions and patients' deficient prefrontal function might account for this equally aligned pattern. Results are discussed with regard to recent findings revealing a reduced behavioural approach bias and risk for relapse by applying a retraining version of the AAT. Functional measurements might serve as a method for monitoring the corresponding neurobiological changes and-possibly-predicting the success of such a training.

  4. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  5. Spirituality, drugs, and alcohol: a philosophical analysis.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Godlaski, Theodore M; Staton-Tindall, Michele

    2013-09-01

    Spirituality has long been associated with recovery from the socially constructed "addictive disease." Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and its analogs have enjoyed widespread acceptance as a spiritual approach for achieving recovery. AA or its derivatives are the predominant approaches in treatment programs even though a wide array of evidence-based approaches are now promoted by governmental sources in the United States. This philosophical analysis contrasts the state of science about addictive disorders with the reliance on a spiritual approach that is heavily grounded in Christian theology. We present four problems that need consideration before accepting the applicability of 12-step spiritual practices as the backbone of addiction treatment or recovery.

  6. Recognizing alcohol and drug abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Conason, A H; Brunstein Klomek, A; Sher, L

    2006-05-01

    Eating disorders and alcohol/drug abuse are frequently comorbid. Eating-disordered patients are already at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality, so alcohol and drug use pose additional dangers for these patients. Restricting anorexics, binge eaters, and bulimics appear to be distinct subgroups within the eating-disordered population, with binge eaters and bulimics more prone to alcohol and drug use. Personality traits such as impulsivity have been linked to both bulimia nervosa and substance abuse. Many researchers have proposed that an addictive personality is an underlying trait that predisposes individuals to both eating disorders and alcohol abuse. Interviewing is generally the most useful tool in diagnosing alcohol and substance abuse disorders in individuals with eating disorders. It is essential for the physician to be non-judgmental when assessing for substance abuse disorders in this population. We discuss interviewing techniques, screening instruments, physical examination, and biological tests that can be used in evaluating patients with comorbid eating disorders and substance abuse. More studies are needed to understand psychobiological mechanisms of this comorbidity, and to develop treatments for individuals with comorbid eating disorders and substance misuse.

  7. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  8. Costs of alcohol and drug-involved crime.

    PubMed

    Miller, Ted R; Levy, David T; Cohen, Mark A; Cox, Kenya L C

    2006-12-01

    A large proportion of violent and property crimes involve alcohol or other drugs (AOD). AOD use only causes some of these crimes. This paper estimates the costs of AOD-involved and AOD-attributable crimes. Crime counts are from government statistics adjusted for underreporting. The AOD-involved portion of crime costs is estimated from inmate surveys on alcohol and illicit drug use at the time of the crime. The costs and AOD-attributable portion of AOD-involved crimes come from published studies. They include tangible medical, mental health, property loss, future earnings, public services, adjudication, and sanctioning costs, as well as the value of pain and suffering. An estimated 5.4 million violent crimes and 8 million property crimes involved AOD use in 1999. Those AOD-involved crimes cost society over 6.5 billion dollars in medical and mental health care and almost 65 billion dollars in other tangible expenses (in 1999 dollars). If the value of pain, suffering, and lost quality of life is added, AOD-involved crime costs totaled 205 billion dollars. Violent crimes accounted for more than 85% of the costs. Roughly estimated, crimes attributable to alcohol cost 84 billion dollars, more than 2 times the 38 billion dollars attributable to drugs. Although American media--news and entertainment--dwell on the links between drugs and crime, alcohol-attributable crime costs are double drug-attributable ones. Effective efforts to reduce the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs should reduce costs associated with crime.

  9. Development of a drug and alcohol information survey.

    PubMed

    Gough, H G

    1985-04-01

    Psychological measurement in regard to using drugs, alcohol, or other substances should attend to personological, attitudinal, and informational factors. Standardized tests are available for assessing personological and attitudinal variables, but not for knowledge. To develop a test of information, 45 multiple-choice items were correlated with total and part scores in samples of 132 men and 71 women; 35 items with significant (p less than .05) coefficients and other desirable properties were retained for a Drug and Alcohol Information Survey (DAIS). For 33 male and 36 female college students participating in an intensive psychological assessment program, scores on the DAIS were positively associated with (1) ratings of modernity, sensation seeking, originality, and nonorderliness; (2) personality scales for status propensity, sociability, social presence, and rebelliousness; and (3) a nonverbal test of field-independent cognitive ability. High scorers on the DAIS also reported more frequent use of marijuana, alcohol, and tobacco than did students with low scores.

  10. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans.

  11. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs May Harm the Unborn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Paddy Shannon; And Others

    This book combines in a single volume the findings of basic research and clinical studies conducted on the effects of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs on the fetus, the mother, and the baby after birth and through lactation. It first outlines changing perspectives on teratology (the study of causes for birth defects), as knowledge about the…

  12. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  13. Nutrition and Drug/Alcohol Rehabilitation: A Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Judith; McIntosh, Elaine

    1987-01-01

    Diet histories of clients entering a drug/alcohol treatment facility showed need for improved eating habits. At least 50% had customarily low intakes of several nutrients plus calories. Nutritional adequacy improved during treatment, as did caloric excesses. Clients needed nutrition education. (Author/NB)

  14. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and…

  15. The Consequences of Drug and Alcohol Use for Indian Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beauvais, Fred

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of students in grades 8 and 12 revealed that high-risk behaviors and serious consequences (including arrests, accidents, and interpersonal problems) related to drug and alcohol use were most frequent among reservation Indian youth and least frequent among non-Indians, with nonreservation Indian youth intermediate. (SV)

  16. Oregon Driver Education. Alcohol/Drugs and Driving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem. Div. of Curriculum and School Improvement.

    This curriculum unit contains 10 modules, to be used in 10 driver education class sessions, on driving under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs (DUI). The unit aims to combat the Oregon DUI problem, especially among 15- to 24-year-olds, with values clarification, awareness of risk factors and personal boundaries, refusal skills, social…

  17. Public Funding Resources for Alcohol and Other Drug Programs. [Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaver, Michael

    In recent years there has been a remarkable increase in the number of alcohol and other drug education, prevention, and treatment programs in higher education and funding has not kept pace with program development. The purpose of this document is to help those unfamiliar with the process of funding development to identify possible resources and to…

  18. Community Development Strategies To Prevent Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Alert, 1992

    1992-01-01

    How community-based groups are confronting and preventing alcohol and other drug problems and related crime in their communities is the focus of this publication. A wide range of approaches and strategies, used by 10 nonprofit, community-based organizations representative of urban and rural areas, are presented. Case studies describe two community…

  19. A Consumer's Guide to Alcohol and Other Drug Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Roy M.; And Others

    This consumer's guide provides descriptive information about currently available surveys of student alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Its purposes are to inform schools and communities about the instruments available to survey student AOD use, and to delineate the issues faced by educators while selecting or developing a survey instrument to…

  20. Ending Discrimination against People with Alcohol and Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    People with alcohol or other drug disease face public and private policies that restrict their access to appropriate health care, employment, and public benefits, discouraging them from seeking treatment, robbing them of hope for recovery, and costing society millions of dollars. Join Together, a project of Boston University School of Public…

  1. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  2. Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records. Participant Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coggins, Patrick C.; And Others

    This participant manual is designed to provide an overview of federal laws and regulations pertaining to the confidentiality of alcohol and drug abuse patient records. The relationship of federal laws to state laws and regulations is also discussed. The materials, useful for persons involved in the fields of substance abuse treatment or…

  3. Does retigabine affect the development of alcohol dependence?--A pharmaco-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Zwierzyńska, Ewa; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Pietrzak, Bogusława

    2016-01-12

    New antiepileptic drugs have been investigated for their potential role in the treatment of alcohol dependence. One of these drugs is retigabine and this study examines the effect of retigabine co-administered with ethanol on the development of alcohol dependence and the course of acute withdrawal syndrome. A pharmaco-EEG method was used to examine this impact in selected brain structures of rabbits (midbrain reticular formation, hippocampus and frontal cortex). Retigabine was administered p.o. at a dose of 5mg/kg/day with ethanol ad libitum for 6 weeks and then alone for 2 weeks during an abstinence period. Changes in bioelectric activity, which demonstrated the inhibitory effect of alcohol on the brain structures, were already visible after 2 weeks of ethanol administration. In the abstinence period, changes were of a different nature and significant neuronal hyperactivity was observed, particularly in the midbrain reticular formation and the hippocampus. This findings reveal that retigabine decreased ethanol-induced changes during both alcohol administration and abstinence periods. In particular, the modulatory effect of retigabine on the hippocampus may be a significant element of its mechanism of action in alcohol dependence therapy.

  4. Abstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre; D'Hondt, Fabien; Briane, Yasmine; Devynck, Faustine; Douilliez, Céline; Billieux, Joël; Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals. One hundred recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (29 females; mean age = 49.51-years-old) recruited during the 3rd week of their treatment in a detoxification center were compared to 100 healthy controls (29 females; mean age = 48.51-years-old) recruited in the experimenters' social network, matched at the group level for age, gender, and educational level. All participants completed the Mini Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale measuring abstract/analytic and concrete/experiential repetitive thinking modes as well as complementary psychopathological measures (Beck Depression Inventory and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory). Alcohol-dependent individuals have similar levels of concrete repetitive thinking as controls but report significantly higher levels of abstract repetitive thinking (p < 0.001; d = 1.28). This effect remains significant after controlling for depression and anxiety. Relative to healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients report more frequent use of abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, with preserved concrete/experiential thinking. Despite the cross-sectional nature of the study, the frequent use of abstract repetitive thinking thus appears to constitute a main feature of alcohol-dependence.

  5. Linkage Scan of Alcohol Dependence in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizer, Ian R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Seaton-Smith, Kimberly L.; Feiler, Heidi S.; Lee, James V.; Segall, Samantha K.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2010-01-01

    Ample data suggest alcohol dependence represents a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder. In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for alcohol dependence was conducted in a community sample of 565 probands and 1080 first-degree relatives recruited through the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to derive DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses. Although no loci achieved genome-wide significance (i.e., LOD score > 3.0), several linkage peaks of interest (i.e., LOD score > 1.0) were identified. When the strict DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis requiring the temporal clustering of symptoms served as the phenotype, linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22, 2q37.3, 8q24.3, and 18p11.21–p11.2. When the temporal clustering of symptoms was not required, linkage peaks were again identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22 and 8q24.3 as well as novel loci on chromosomes 1p22.3, 2p24.3–p24.1, 9p24.1–p23, and 22q12.3–q13.1. Follow-up analyses were conducted by performing linkage analysis for the 12 alcohol dependence symptoms assessed by the SSAGA across the support intervals for the observed linkage peaks. These analyses demonstrated that different collections of symptoms often assessing distinct aspects of alcohol dependence (e.g., uncontrollable drinking and withdrawal vs. tolerance and drinking despite health problems) contributed to each linkage peak and often yielded LOD scores exceeding that reported for the alcohol dependence diagnosis. Such findings provide insight into how specific genomic regions may influence distinct aspects of alcohol dependence. PMID:20817416

  6. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  7. Excitability of jcBNST neurons is reduced in alcohol-dependent animals during protracted alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Szücs, Attila; Berton, Fulvia; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Francesconi, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and withdrawal has been shown to cause neuroadaptive changes at multiple levels of the nervous system. At the neuron level, adaptations of synaptic connections have been extensively studied in a number of brain areas and accumulating evidence also shows the importance of alcohol dependence-related changes in the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. At the same time, it is still largely unknown how such neural adaptations impact the firing and integrative properties of neurons. To address these problems, here, we analyze physiological properties of neurons in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) in animals with a history of alcohol dependence. As a comprehensive approach, first we measure passive and active membrane properties of neurons using conventional current clamp protocols and then analyze their firing responses under the action of simulated synaptic bombardment via dynamic clamp. We find that most physiological properties as measured by DC current injection are barely affected during protracted withdrawal. However, neuronal excitability as measured from firing responses under simulated synaptic inputs with the dynamic clamp is markedly reduced in all 3 types of jcBNST neurons. These results support the importance of studying the effects of alcohol and drugs of abuse on the firing properties of neurons with dynamic clamp protocols designed to bring the neurons into a high conductance state. Since the jcBNST integrates excitatory inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and cortical inputs from the infralimbic and the insular cortices and in turn is believed to contribute to the inhibitory input to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) the reduced excitability of the jcBNST during protracted withdrawal in alcohol-dependent animals will likely affect ability of the jcBNST to shape the activity and output of the CeA.

  8. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  9. European guidelines for workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair.

    PubMed

    Salomone, A; Tsanaclis, L; Agius, R; Kintz, P; Baumgartner, M R

    2016-10-01

    Guidelines for Legally Defensible Workplace Drug Testing have been prepared and updated by the European Workplace Drug Testing Society (EWDTS). They are based on the 2010 version published by Pascal Kintz and Ronald Agius (Guidelines for European workplace drug and alcohol testing in hair. Drug Test. Anal. 2010, 2, 367) and in concordance with the Society of Hair Testing guidelines (Society of Hair Testing guidelines for drug testing in hair. Forensic Sci. Int. 2012, 218, 20-24). The European Guidelines are designed to establish best practice procedures whilst allowing individual countries to operate within the requirements of national customs and legislation. The EWDTS recommends that all European laboratories that undertake legally defensible workplace drug testing use these guidelines as a template for accreditation. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    PubMed

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified.

  11. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  12. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  13. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  14. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO...

  16. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO...

  17. 36 CFR 4.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 4.23 Section 4.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO...

  19. 36 CFR 1004.23 - Operating under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...'s blood or breath at the time of testing is less than alcohol concentrations specified in paragraph... operator, at the time of the alleged violation, was under the influence of alcohol, or a drug, or drugs, or... of alcohol or drugs. 1004.23 Section 1004.23 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO...

  20. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  1. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  2. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager...

  3. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  4. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  6. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  7. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager...

  8. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  9. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  10. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager...

  11. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  13. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  14. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  15. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  16. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  17. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  18. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  19. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  20. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  1. 49 CFR 40.341 - Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Transportation PROCEDURES FOR TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Roles and Responsibilities of Service Agents § 40.341 Must service agents comply with DOT drug and alcohol testing... requirements of this part and the DOT agency drug and alcohol testing regulations. (b) If you do not...

  2. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 219 RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of... CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25...-6313); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955)....

  3. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  4. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  5. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  6. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  7. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  8. 49 CFR 655.49 - Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. 655... TRANSIT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PREVENTION OF ALCOHOL MISUSE AND PROHIBITED DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.49 Refusal to submit to a drug or alcohol test. (a)...

  9. Environmental Management: An Approach to Alcohol and Other Drug Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse and Violence Prevention, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Most campus alcohol and other drug (AOD) programs include prevention, intervention, and treatment services designed to address individual students' knowledge of the consequences of alcohol and other drug use, to improve their skills in resisting such behavior, or to address existing problematic use of or addiction to alcohol or other drugs.…

  10. Traumatic Brain Injury: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet examines alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with traumatic brain injury. The characteristics and incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) are noted. The implications of alcohol and other drug use are discussed, emphasizing that TBI is often related to lifestyles where alcohol and other drug abuse and risk taking…

  11. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  12. 48 CFR 1852.223-74 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free... and Clauses 1852.223-74 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. As prescribed in 1823.570-2, insert the following clause: Drug- and Alcohol-Free Workforce (MAR 1996) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause...

  13. 48 CFR 1852.223-74 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free... and Clauses 1852.223-74 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. As prescribed in 1823.570-2, insert the following clause: Drug- and Alcohol-Free Workforce (MAR 1996) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.223-74 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Drug- and alcohol-free... and Clauses 1852.223-74 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. As prescribed in 1823.570-2, insert the following clause: Drug- and Alcohol-Free Workforce (MAR 1996) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause...

  15. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager...

  16. 14 CFR 91.1047 - Drug and alcohol misuse education program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drug and alcohol misuse education program... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1047 Drug and alcohol misuse education program. (a) Each... instructor, or aircraft maintenance duties with drug and alcohol misuse education. (b) No program manager...

  17. 49 CFR 1.50 - Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. 1.50... POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.50 Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance. The Office of Drug & Alcohol Policy & Compliance advises the Secretary on national...

  18. 48 CFR 1852.223-74 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free... and Clauses 1852.223-74 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. As prescribed in 1823.570-2, insert the following clause: Drug- and Alcohol-Free Workforce (MAR 1996) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause...

  19. 48 CFR 1852.223-74 - Drug- and alcohol-free workforce.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug- and alcohol-free... and Clauses 1852.223-74 Drug- and alcohol-free workforce. As prescribed in 1823.570-2, insert the following clause: Drug- and Alcohol-Free Workforce (MAR 1996) (a) Definitions. As used in this clause...

  20. 49 CFR 225.17 - Doubtful cases; alcohol or drug involvement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Doubtful cases; alcohol or drug involvement. 225..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.17 Doubtful cases; alcohol or drug involvement. (a) The reporting officer of... the possible involvement of alcohol or drug use or impairment in such accident or incident. If...

  1. β‐Arrestin 2 dependence of δ opioid receptor agonists is correlated with alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T; Sansuk, K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose δ Opioid receptor agonists are being developed as potential treatments for depression and alcohol use disorders. This is particularly interesting as depression is frequently co‐morbid with alcohol use disorders. Yet we have previously shown that δ receptor agonists range widely in their ability to modulate alcohol intake; certain δ receptor agonists actually increase alcohol consumption in mice. We propose that variations in β‐arrestin 2 recruitment contribute to the differential behavioural profile of δ receptor agonists. Experimental Approach We used three diarylmethylpiperazine‐based non‐peptidic δ receptor selective agonists (SNC80, SNC162 and ARM390) and three structurally diverse δ receptor agonists (TAN‐67, KNT127 and NIH11082). We tested these agonists in cAMP and β‐arrestin 2 recruitment assays and a behavioural assay of alcohol intake in male C57BL/6 mice. We used β‐arrestin 2 knockout mice and a model of depression‐like behaviour to further study the role of β‐arrestin 2 in δ receptor pharmacology. Key Results All six tested δ receptor agonists were full agonists in the cAMP assay but displayed distinct β‐arrestin 2 recruitment efficacy. The efficacy of δ receptor agonists to recruit β‐arrestin 2 positively correlated with their ability to increase alcohol intake (P < 0.01). The effects of the very efficacious recruiter SNC80 on alcohol intake, alcohol place preference and depression‐like behaviour were β‐arrestin 2‐dependent. Conclusions and Implications Our finding that δ receptor agonists that strongly recruit β‐arrestin 2 can increase alcohol intake carries important ramifications for drug development of δ receptor agonists for treatment of alcohol use disorders and depressive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26507558

  2. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  3. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  4. Alcohol as a Gateway Drug: A Study of US 12th Graders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Tristan; Barry, Adam E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Gateway Drug Theory suggests that licit drugs, such as tobacco and alcohol, serve as a "gateway" toward the use of other, illicit drugs. However, there remains some discrepancy regarding which drug--alcohol, tobacco, or even marijuana--serves as the initial "gateway" drug subsequently leading to the use of…

  5. Medication assisted treatment in the treatment of drug abuse and dependence in HIV/AIDS infected drug users.

    PubMed

    Kresina, Thomas F; Bruce, R Douglas; McCance-Katz, Elinore F

    2009-07-01

    Drug use and HIV/AIDS are global public health issues. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 30% of HIV infections are related to drug use and associated behaviors. The intersection, of the twin epidemics of HIV and drug/alcohol use, results in difficult medical management issues for the health care providers and researchers who work in the expanding global HIV prevention and treatment fields. Access to care and treatment, medication adherence to multiple therapeutic regimens, and concomitant drug -drug interactions of prescribed treatments are difficult barriers for drug users to overcome without directed interventions. Injection drug users are frequently disenfranchised from medical care and suffer sigma and discrimination creating additional barriers to care and treatment for their drug abuse and dependence as well as HIV infection. In an increasing number of studies, medication assisted treatment of drug abuse and dependence has been shown to be an important HIV prevention intervention. Controlling the global transmission of HIV will require further investment in evidence-based interventions and programs to enhance access to care and treatment of individuals who abuse illicit drugs and alcohol. In this review, we present the cumulative evidence of the importance of medication assisted treatment in the prevention, care, and treatment of HIV infected individuals who also abuse drugs and alcohol.

  6. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol.

  7. Online Network Influences on Emerging Adults’ Alcohol and Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Stephanie H.; Gordon-Messer, Deborah; Zimmerman, Marc A.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have reported that network characteristics are associated with substance use behavior. Considering that social interactions within online networks are increasingly common, we examined the relationship between online network characteristics and substance use in a sample of emerging adults (ages 18–24) from across the United States (N = 2,153; M = 21 years old; 47 % female; 70 % White). We used regression analyses to examine the relationship between online ego network characteristics (i.e., characteristics of individuals directly related to the focal participant plus the relationships shared among individuals within the online network) and alcohol use and substance use, respectively. Alcohol use was associated with network density (i.e., interconnectedness between individuals in a network), total number of peer ties, and a greater proportion of emotionally close ties. In sex-stratified models, density was related to alcohol use for males but not females. Drug use was associated with an increased number of peer ties, and the increased proportion of network members’ discussion and acceptance of drug use, respectively. We also found that online network density and total numbers of ties were associated with more personal drug use for males but not females. Conversely, we noted that social norms were related to increased drug use and this relationship was stronger for females than males. We discuss the implications of our findings for substance use and online network research. PMID:23212348

  8. Immunological parameters in patients suffering from alcohol-dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leksowski, W; Kawalaski, H; Czuba, Z; Krol, W; Gorczyca, P; Dworniczak, S; Rajca, M; Shani, J

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major cause of abnormal liver development and activity. In addition to enzymatic malfunction, alcohol and its metabolites induce changes in the levels of some liver antigens, resulting in immunological disturbance. The purpose of the present study is to correlate the severity of liver function impairment with the length of alcohol abuse, in order to be able to use such tests as indicative of the severity of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome. Thirty-one alcohol abusers were allocated to three groups on the basis of the levels of their liver enzymes, and were tested for a variety of immunological parameters and skin reactions. The data indicate that even though not all immunological values measured differed significantly from the control values, in those that did (granulocytes, lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 ratio, C3, IgG, IgM and some skin positive reactions), the biggest difference was between the healthy volunteers and the group with the longest abuse period. It is suggested that changes in selected immunological parameters in alcohol abusers may indicate the severity of their liver dysfunction.

  9. Ectopic hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent male rats following alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Morris, Stephanie A; Marshall, S Alexander; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The adolescent hippocampus is highly vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage, which could contribute to their increased susceptibility to alcohol use disorder. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents one potential mechanism by which alcohol (ethanol) affects hippocampal function. Based on the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to alcohol-induced damage, and prior reports of long-term alcohol-induced effects on adult neurogenesis, we predicted adverse effects on adult neurogenesis in the adolescent brain following abstinence from alcohol dependence. Thus, we examined neurogenesis in adolescent male rats during abstinence following a 4-day binge model of alcohol dependence. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed a 2.2-fold increase in subgranular zone cell proliferation after 7 days of abstinence. Increased proliferation was followed by a 75% increase in doublecortin expression and a 56% increase in surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells 14 and 35 days post-ethanol exposure, respectively. The majority of newborn cells in ethanol and control groups co-localized with NeuN, indicating a neuronal phenotype and therefore a 1.6-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence. Although these results mirror the magnitude of reactive neurogenesis described in adult rat studies, ectopic bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin positive cells were detected in the molecular layer and hilus of adolescent rats displaying severe withdrawal symptoms, an effect that has not been described in adults. The presence of ectopic neuroblasts suggests that a potential defect exists in the functional incorporation of new neurons into the existing hippocampal circuitry for a subset of rats. Age-related differences in functional incorporation could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to ethanol.

  10. Alcohol Dependence, Co-occurring Conditions and Attributable Burden

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, B.L.; Gual, A.; DeCourcy, J.; Perry, R.; Pike, J.; Heron, L.; Rehm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Alcohol dependence is associated with high rates of co-occurring disorders which impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and add to the cost-of-illness. This study investigated the burden of alcohol dependence and associated co-occurring conditions on health and productivity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in eight European countries. Physicians (Psychiatrists and General Practitioners) completed patient record forms, which included assessment of co-occurring conditions, and patients completed matching self-completion forms. Drinking risk level (DRL) was calculated and the relationship between DRL, co-occurring conditions, work productivity, hospitalisations and rehabilitation stays was explored. Results Data were collected for 2979 alcohol-dependent patients (mean age 48.8 ± 13.6 years; 70% male). In total, 77% of patients suffered from moderate-to-severe co-occurring psychiatric and/or somatic conditions. High DRL was significantly associated with depression, greater work productivity losses, increased hospitalisations and rehabilitation stays. Co-occurring conditions were significantly associated with poorer HRQoL and decreased work productivity, with a statistical trend towards an increased frequency of rehabilitation stays. Conclusions Alcohol-dependent patients manifest high rates of co-occurring psychiatric and somatic conditions, which are associated with impaired work productivity and HRQoL. The continued burden of illness observed in these already-diagnosed patients suggests an unmet need in both primary and secondary care. PMID:26246514

  11. Neonatal behavior after drug dependent pregnancy.

    PubMed Central

    van Baar, A L; Fleury, P; Soepatmi, S; Ultee, C A; Wesselman, P J

    1989-01-01

    Neurobehavioural development of 35 infants of drug dependent mothers was compared with the development of 37 reference infants as part of a prospective longitudinal research project. Infants of drug dependent mothers had more poor responses than the other children on neurological examination. This difference is significant only when data of infants of drug dependent mothers born at full term are analysed. Two tailed testing indicated that significantly more infants of drug dependent mothers than reference children had electro-encephalograms rated as suspect or abnormal. By the end of the first month the infants of drug dependent mothers tended to be more active, and they had worse scores than the reference children on the neonatal behavioural assessment scale. Analysing data only of infants born at full term, the groups differ significantly on the interactive items. The results of this study show that even after treatment for the neonatal abstinence syndrome, infants of drug dependent mothers seem to differ from comparison children, which could indicate later developmental problems. PMID:2467626

  12. In silico Models of Alcohol Dependence and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris; Breton, Marc; Johnson, Bankole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we view alcohol dependence and the response to treatment as a recurrent bio-behavioral process developing in time and propose formal models of this process combining behavior and biology in silico. The behavioral components of alcohol dependence and treatment are formally described by a stochastic process of human behavior, which serves as an event generator challenging the metabolic system. The biological component is driven by the biochemistry of alcohol intoxication described by deterministic models of ethanol pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics to enable simulation of drinking addiction in humans. Derived from the known physiology of ethanol and the literature of both ethanol intoxication and ethanol absorption, the different models are distilled into a minimal model (as simple as the complexity of the data allows) that can represent any specific patient. We use these modeling and simulation techniques to explain responses to placebo and ondansetron treatment observed in clinical studies. Specifically, the response to placebo was explained by a reduction of the probability of environmental reinforcement, while the effect of ondansetron was explained by a gradual decline in the degree of ethanol-induced neuromodulation. Further, we use in silico experiments to study critical transitions in blood alcohol levels after specific average number of drinks per day, and propose the existence of two critical thresholds in the human – one at 5 and another at 11 drinks/day – at which the system shifts from stable to critical and to super critical state indicating a state of alcohol addiction. The advantages of such a model-based investigation are that (1) the process of instigation of alcohol dependence and its treatment can be deconstructed into meaningful steps, which allow for individualized treatment tailoring, and (2) physiology and behavior can be quantified in different (animal or human) studies and then the results can be integrated in silico

  13. Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism1

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Justin T.; Foster Olive, M.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a dramatic accumulation of evidence indicating that the excitatory amino acid glutamate plays an important role in drug addiction and alcoholism. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings on glutamatergic substrates of addiction, surveying data from both human and animal studies. The effects of various drugs of abuse on glutamatergic neurotransmission are discussed, as are the effects of pharmacological or genetic manipulation of various components of glutamate transmission on drug reinforcement, conditioned reward, extinction, and relapse-like behavior. In addition, glutamatergic agents that are currently in use or are undergoing testing in clinical trials for the treatment of addiction are discussed, including acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and mematine. All drugs of abuse appear to modulate glutamatergic transmission, albeit by different mechanisms, and this modulation of glutamate transmission is believed to result in long-lasting neuroplastic changes in the brain that may contribute to the perseveration of drug-seeking behavior and drug-associated memories. In general, attenuation of glutamatergic transmission reduces drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. On the other hand, potentiation of glutamatergic transmission appears to facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behavior. However, attempts at identifying genetic polymorphisms in components of glutamate transmission in humans have yielded only a limited number of candidate genes that may serve as risk factors for the development of addiction. Nonetheless, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be a promising avenue of research in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. PMID:17706608

  14. Alcohol criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders among DUI offenders: Greater severity among women and multiple offenders

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Grucza, Richard A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Kramer, John R.; Bierut, Laura Jean; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Data from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), a high-risk family study of alcohol dependence, were used to examine differences in alcohol diagnostic criteria endorsement and psychiatric and drug use disorders by gender and by number of DUI offenses. Results Individuals with two or more DUIs exhibited greater severity of alcohol dependence than those with none or one DUI. This severity was characterized in three ways: (1) higher endorsement of alcohol diagnostic criterion items, with evidence of greater severity among women, (2) higher prevalence of co-occurring lifetime psychiatric disorders, and (3) higher rates of drug use and of dependence on cocaine, stimulants, and, for women only, marijuana and opiates. Conclusions By examining gradations of disorder within a combination of two high-risk indicators, DUI and family vulnerability, this study provides useful information for clinical research about individuals with chronic and severe alcohol problems. In addition, the observed gender differences in this high-risk sample will contribute to the literature on alcohol dependence among women at the more severe end of the dependence spectrum. PMID:19167170

  15. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  16. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Sheketha R; Hedlund, Peter B; Roberts, Amanda J; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed-including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction.

  17. Negative Symptoms are Associated with Less Alcohol Use, Craving, and “High” in Alcohol Dependent Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Batki, Steven L.; Leontieva, Luba; Dimmock, Jacqueline A.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently co-occur with and exacerbate schizophrenia, yet the specific relationships between schizophrenia symptoms and alcohol use remain unclear. Methods PANSS scores were correlated with measures of alcohol and other substance use in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and AUDs entering a trial of monitored naltrexone treatment. Data were analyzed from the first 80 participants; 55% had schizophrenia and 45% had schizoaffective disorder. All had AUDs; 95% had alcohol dependence and 5% alcohol abuse; 34% also had cannabis abuse/dependence and 31% cocaine abuse/dependence. Results PANSS Negative scores were inversely correlated with Addiction Severity Index alcohol composite score, alcohol craving, quality of alcohol “high” (euphoria), and with frequency of cannabis use. An exploratory analysis indicated that the negative symptoms that may most strongly correlate with less alcohol use, craving or euphoria were passive/apathetic social withdrawal, blunted affect, difficulty in abstract thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Higher PANSS Composite scores, indicating the predominance of positive over negative PANSS symptoms, correlated with more alcohol craving and cannabis use. Higher PANSS General scores were associated with more alcohol craving. Conclusions These findings extend previous reports of the association of negative schizophrenia symptoms with less alcohol and substance use to patients with AUDs and indicate that this relationship also includes less alcohol craving and less alcohol euphoria. The findings may also provide some initial evidence that specific negative symptoms may be key to these relationships. PMID:18701256

  18. An Exploration of Quality of Life and Its Predictors in Patients with Addictive Disorders: Gambling, Alcohol and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Victoria; Gomez, Brenda; Guo, Song; Low, Yee Deng; Koh, Puay Kee; Wong, Kim Eng

    2012-01-01

    The study set out to examine Quality of Life (QoL), specifically subjective well being in three different addiction populations (260 alcohol-dependent, 282 drug-dependent, and 132 pathological gambling outpatients) at their first visit to treatment, using the Personal Well being Index (PWI). The mean PWI score for all patients was significantly…

  19. Neuropsychological consequences of alcohol and drug abuse on different components of executive functions.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Serrano, María José; Pérez-García, Miguel; Schmidt Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2010-09-01

    Several studies have shown alterations in different components of executive functioning in users of different drugs, including cannabis, cocaine and heroin. However, it is difficult to establish a specific association between the use of each of these drugs and executive alterations, since most drug abusers are polysubstance abusers, and alcohol is a ubiquitous confounding factor. Moreover, in order to study the association between consumption of different drugs and executive functioning, the patterns of quantity and duration of drugs used must be considered, given the association between these parameters and the executive functioning alteration degree. Based on the multicomponent approach to executive functions, the aims of the present study were: (i) to analyse the differential contribution of alcohol versus cocaine, heroin and cannabis use on executive functions performance; and (ii) to analyse the contribution made by the severity of the different drugs used (quantity and duration patterns) on these functions in a sample of polysubstance abusers that requested treatment for cannabis-, cocaine- or heroin-related problems. We administered measures of fluency, working memory, analogical reasoning, interference, cognitive flexibility, decision-making and self-regulation to two groups: 60 substance-dependent individuals (SDIs) and 30 healthy control individuals (HCIs). SDIs had significantly poorer performance than HCIs across all of the executive domains assessed. Results from hierarchical regression models showed the existence of common correlates of the use of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine on verbal fluency and decision-making; common correlates of quantity of cannabis and cocaine use on verbal working memory and analogical reasoning; common correlates of duration of cocaine and heroin use on shifting; and specific effects of duration of cocaine use on inhibition measures. These findings indicate that alcohol abuse is negatively associated with fluency and

  20. Behaviors, Attitudes and Knowledge of UNO Students Regarding Drugs, Alcohol and Tobacco: 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David; Davis, Joe

    1989-01-01

    This report describes alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use among 715 University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) students. The report focuses on drug use at the higher frequency levels, rather than reporting proportions who have ever used various drugs. The separate classes of drugs distinguished are alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, marijuana, and…

  1. The Important People Drug and Alcohol Interview: Psychometric Properties, Predictive Validity, and Implications for Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zywiak, William H.; Neighbors, Charles J.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2009-01-01

    Research with the Important People instrument has demonstrated that social support for abstinence is related to alcohol treatment outcomes but less work has been done on the role of network support in drug treatment outcomes. A drug and alcohol version of the Important People instrument (IPDA) was developed and administered to 141 patients in residential treatment for cocaine dependence. Three components were found, all with acceptable internal consistency: (1) substance involvement of the network, (2) general/treatment support, and (3) support for abstinence. These components and three fundamental network characteristics (size of daily network, size of network, and importance of the most important people) were investigated as correlates of pretreatment and posttreatment alcohol and drug use. The general/treatment support component and network size were inversely related to pretreatment days using drugs while network substance involvement positively correlated with pretreatment drinking frequency. Size of the daily network predicted less drinking, less drug use, and less problem severity during the 6 months after treatment whereas general/treatment support and support for abstinence did not predict outcome. Network substance involvement decreased for patients who stayed abstinent but not for those who later relapsed. Results suggest that increasing the number of people the patient sees daily while replacing substance-involved with abstinent-supportive people may improve treatment outcomes. Treatment programs may use the IPDA to identify clients most likely to benefit from changes in their social networks. PMID:18835677

  2. The Important People Drug and Alcohol interview: psychometric properties, predictive validity, and implications for treatment.

    PubMed

    Zywiak, William H; Neighbors, Charles J; Martin, Rosemarie A; Johnson, Jennifer E; Eaton, Cheryl A; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2009-04-01

    Research with the Important People instrument has shown that social support for abstinence is related to alcohol treatment outcomes, but less work has been done on the role of network support in drug treatment outcomes. A drug and alcohol version of the Important People instrument (IPDA) was developed and administered to 141 patients in residential treatment for cocaine dependence. Three components were found, all with acceptable internal consistency: (a) substance involvement of the network, (b) general/treatment support, and (c) support for abstinence. These components and three fundamental network characteristics (size of daily network, size of network, and importance of the most important people) were investigated as correlates of pretreatment and posttreatment alcohol and drug use. The general/treatment support component and network size were inversely related to pretreatment days using drugs, whereas network substance involvement positively correlated with pretreatment drinking frequency. Size of the daily network predicted less drinking, less drug use, and less problem severity during the 6 months after treatment, whereas general/treatment support and support for abstinence did not predict outcome. Network substance involvement decreased for patients who stayed abstinent but not for those who later relapsed. Results suggest that increasing the number of people the patient sees daily while replacing substance-involved with abstinent-supportive people may improve treatment outcomes. Treatment programs may use the IPDA to identify clients most likely to benefit from changes in their social networks.

  3. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  4. The role of topiramate and other anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major health problem worldwide. Various pharmacological agents have been used in the management of alcohol dependence. This review looks at the role of topiramate and other anticonvulsants in the management of alcohol dependence. Topiramate is the most widely used anticonvulsant in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The literature on topiramate is reviewed and critically analyzed, along with its proposed mechanism of action in alcohol dependence. A review of data available on other anticonvulsants like carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate, gabapentin and levetiracetam are presented and their potential in the treatment of alcohol dependence is considered, together with future research directions.

  5. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model

    PubMed Central

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Roberts, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  6. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be.

  7. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    PubMed

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  8. Disinhibitory psychopathology and delay discounting in alcohol dependence: personality and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Bobova, Lyuba; Finn, Peter R; Rickert, Martin E; Lucas, Jesolyn

    2009-02-01

    Increased discounting of delayed rewards may reflect a decision bias that contributes to excessive use of alcohol and more generally, to an impulsive, disinhibitory predisposition that is characterized by a preference for immediate over long-term rewards. The current study examined the association between delay discounting of rewards and the covariation among several types of disinhibitory problems that are often comorbid with alcohol dependence (AD). Lifetime problems with alcohol, marijuana, other drugs, childhood conduct disorder, and adult antisocial behavior were assessed in a sample of 426 young adults, 257 of whom had a lifetime diagnosis of AD. Higher delay discounting rates were associated with the covariation among all domains of disinhibitory problems and were not uniquely associated with any one domain. Higher delay discounting rates also were associated with lower intelligence, lower working memory capacity, and higher trait impulsivity. The results suggest that increased delay discounting of rewards may reflect aspects of a general vulnerability to externalizing, disinhibitory disorders.

  9. College Students' Perceptions of Severity and Willingness to Seek Psychological Help For Drug and Alcohol Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 201 college students were surveyed with respect to their perceptions of severity and willingness to seek psychological help for drug and alcohol problems. Results indicated that students perceive alcohol problems as significantly less serious than drug problems and are significantly less willing to seek help for alcohol problems. Males…

  10. Teamwork for Healthy Campuses. NYS College Alcohol and Other Drug Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Frances M.

    This manual offers information on developing, implementing, and maintaining college alcohol and other drug programs at New York institutions of higher education. The document notes that alcohol is the drug of choice for college students and that therefore alcohol-related issues and programs are the primary focus of the manual. Part 1 of the manual…

  11. 36 CFR 3.11 - When is testing for alcohol or drugs required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BOATING AND WATER USE ACTIVITIES § 3.11 When is testing for alcohol or drugs... procedures of the blood, breath, saliva or urine for the purpose of determining blood alcohol and/or drug... admissible in any related judicial proceeding. (2) Any test or tests for the presence of alcohol and...

  12. Drug and Alcohol Use in College Students with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Leigh; Prevatt, Frances; Proctor, Briley

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examines differences in reported levels of drug and alcohol use between college students with and without ADHD. Method: The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) and several self-report and interview questions, developed by Barkley, were used to examine the drug and alcohol use of college students with and without ADHD.…

  13. Surrender To Win: How Adolescent Drug and Alcohol Users Change Their Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Courtney; Long, Wesley

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the uniqueness and complexity of adolescent drug and alcohol abuse recovery, particularly the early years and events catalyzing the surrender process. Offers individual interviews of seven adolescents who surrendered their alcohol and drug addictions and constructed sober identities through participation in Alcoholics Anonymous. (GCP)

  14. 78 FR 54735 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 9005 of August 30, 2013 National Alcohol... Proclamation Each day, millions of Americans take courageous steps toward recovery from alcohol and drug... those struggling to break free from addiction. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery...

  15. Group Work as Facilitation of Spiritual Development for Drug and Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes group work designed to promote spiritual development with drug and alcohol abusers. Provides a definition of spirituality. Discusses research that relates to the spiritual development of members of drug and alcohol groups. Compares the ways that group work and Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual development. (Author/MKA)

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Addiction Severity Index in Male Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    DEMİRBAŞ, Hatice; ÖZGÜR İLHAN, İnci; DOĞAN, Yıldırım Beyatlı; CANATAN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Turkish translation of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in 115 male alcohol-dependent patients. Method The reliability of the instrument was assessed by measuring test-retest, interrater and internal reliabilities. In the validity analysis, the correlation coefficients between corresponding severity ratings and composite scores of each subscale and concurrent validity were assessed. Moreover, the discriminant validity and concurrent validity scores were calculated. Results The test-retest reliability of the ASI scores ranged from .79 to .91. The interrater reliability assigned by three raters was high (.74 to .99). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency was .85 for all scales, and it varied between .64 and .77 for the subscales. The Beck Depression Inventory moderately correlated with the Psychatric status, and the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale correlated with the Alcohol and Drug Use subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The correlation coefficient was .91 for the alcohol use subscale. Conclusion The results obtained in this study suggest that the Turkish version of the ASI could be used as a reliable and valid instrument in alcohol-dependent patients.

  17. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  18. Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arpana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Dunn, Gerald; Bertelsen, Sarah; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Cloninger, C Robert; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-01-11

    Dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs frequently co-occur. Results from a number of twin studies suggest that heritable influences on alcohol dependence and drug dependence may substantially overlap. Using large, genetically informative pedigrees from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed quantitative linkage analyses using a panel of 1717 SNPs. Genome-wide linkage analyses were conducted for quantitative measures of DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria, cannabis dependence criteria and dependence criteria across any illicit drug (including cannabis) individually and in combination as an average score across alcohol and illicit drug dependence criteria. For alcohol dependence, LOD scores exceeding 2.0 were noted on chromosome 1 (2.0 at 213 cM), 2 (3.4 at 234 cM) and 10 (3.7 at 60 cM). For cannabis dependence, a maximum LOD of 1.9 was noted at 95 cM on chromosome 14. For any illicit drug dependence, LODs of 2.0 and 2.4 were observed on chromosome 10 (116 cM) and 13 (64 cM) respectively. Finally, the combined alcohol and/or drug dependence symptoms yielded LODs >2.0 on chromosome 2 (3.2, 234 cM), 10 (2.4 and 2.6 at 60 cM and 116 cM) and 13 (2.1 at 64 cM). These regions may harbor genes that contribute to the biological basis of alcohol and drug dependence.

  19. A Guide for College Presidents and Governing Boards: Strategies for Eliminating Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse on Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upcraft, M. Lee; Welty, John D.

    This guide outlines the extent of drug use and alcohol problems on college campuses and recommends five strategies for institutions of higher education: (1) develop clear policies concerning alcohol and other drugs; (2) enforce alcohol and other drug regulations; (3) provide alcohol and other drug education and prevention programs; (4) ensure…

  20. Falling through the cracks: a qualitative study of HIV risks among women who use drugs and alcohol in Northeast India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV risks for women who inject drugs and those who engage in sex work are well documented. Women who are dependent on non-injecting drugs and alcohol are also likely to have increased vulnerability to HIV infection, but until they actually inject drugs or engage in sex work, are unlikely to come to the attention of HIV prevention programs. Methods We undertook a qualitative study involving nine focus group discussions (FGDs) and 27 key informant interviews to investigate the context of female drug and alcohol use in two high HIV prevalence states of India (Manipur and Nagaland) and to describe their HIV risks. The FGD and interview transcripts were thematically analyzed Results The women were relatively young (mean age 31 years in Manipur and 28 years in Nagaland), but 64% in Manipur and 35% in Nagaland were widowed or divorced. Both heroin and alcohol were commonly used by the women from Manipur, while alcohol was primarily used by the women from Nagaland, especially in the context of ‘booze joints’ (illicit bars). Reasons for drug and alcohol use included: to avoid symptoms of withdrawal, to suppress emotional pain, to overcome the shame of sex work, pleasure, and widowhood. HIV vulnerability was clearly described, not only in relation to injecting drug use and sex work, but also alcohol consumption. Conclusions The contribution of alcohol use to the HIV vulnerability of women is not currently considered when HIV prevention programs are being designed and implemented leaving a group of high-risk women uncovered by much needed services such as treatment for a range of health problems including alcohol dependence. PMID:23360360

  1. General and Specific Predictors of Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence in Early Adulthood: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret A; Hicks, Brian M; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study builds on previous work delineating a hierarchical model of family environmental risk in relation to a hierarchical model of externalizing disorders (EXTs) by evaluating for gene–environment interplay in these relationships. The associations between parent–child relationship quality (conflict, bonding, and management) and substance-specific adolescent family environments (parental/sibling tobacco/alcohol use) in relation to young adult EXTs (age ∼22 years nicotine, alcohol, and other drug dependence; antisocial and risky sexual behavior) were evaluated. Method: The sample included 533 adopted offspring and 323 biological offspring. Because adopted youth do not share genes with their parents, a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs would provide evidence against passive gene–environment correlation (rGE). Significant associations between parental tobacco/alcohol use in relation to offspring nicotine/alcohol dependence in the adopted offspring support common environmental influence. Significant associations detected for the biological offspring only suggest common genetic influence. Results: For both adoptive and biological offspring, there was a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs. Parental tobacco/alcohol use was unrelated to EXTs. Sibling tobacco/alcohol use was related to EXTs, but only for the biological siblings. Parental tobacco use was associated with the residual variance in nicotine dependence in adopted offspring. Conclusions: Findings replicate a long-term influence of adolescent parent–child relationship quality on adult EXTs. Findings extend previous research by providing evidence against passive rGE in this association. The association between parental tobacco use and adult nicotine dependence appears to be environmentally mediated, but caution is warranted as we found this relationship only for adopted youth. PMID:24988261

  2. Sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men: A study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Pendharkar, Shreyas; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. Methods: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Participants in both the groups were assessed on Arizona Sexual experience scale (ASEX), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, patients with AD were assessed on Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) for severity of AD and revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar) to ensure that no participant was in active alcohol withdrawal state. Results: Overall, 58.4 per cent of patients in the AD group had sexual dysfunction. Among the domains, the highest frequency was seen for dysfunction for arousal (57.4%), followed by problems in desire (54.4%), erection (36.6%), satisfaction with orgasm (34.6%) and ability to reach orgasm was least affected (12.87%). The patient and control groups differed significantly in overall dyadic adjustment, in the domains of dyadic satisfaction and affective expression. Interpretation & conclusions: The finding of this study showed that a significant proportion of patients with AD has sexual dysfunction. Longitudinal studies using validated assessment tools should be done to confirm these findings. PMID:28139538

  3. Systems of reinforcement and drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Valdman, A V; Zvartau, E E

    1982-12-01

    Experimental data are presented in support of the hypothesis on the role of positive and negative reinforcing systems in the mechanism of drug dependence. Drugs with abuse potential (DAP) may change the manner of response to negative emotional stimuli, activate positive emotional reactions in animals, and possess primary reinforcing properties. Reward and punishment systems respond sensitively to withdrawal from DAP or antagonist administration. Catecholaminergic and peptidergic processes are of importance in the mechanisms of the emotionally positive action of DAP.

  4. Alcohol-induced sedation and synergistic interactions between alcohol and morphine: A key mechanistic role for Toll-Like Receptors and MyD88-dependent signalling

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Frances; Wu, Yue; Tuke, Jonathan; Coller, Janet K.; Rice, Kenner C.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.; Watkins, Linda R.; Somogyi, Andrew A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates induction of proinflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 signaling by morphine and, TLR4 signaling by alcohol; thus indicating a common site of drug action and a potential novel innate immune-dependent hypothesis for opioid and alcohol drug interactions. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the role of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 (as a critical TLR-signalling participant), NF-κB, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β; as a downstream proinflammatory effector molecule) and the µ opioid receptor (MOR; as a classical site for morphine action) in acute alcohol-induced sedation (4.5 g/kg) and alcohol (2.5 g/kg) interaction with morphine (5 mg/kg) by assessing the loss of righting reflex (LORR) as a measure of sedation. Wild-type male Balb/c mice and matched genetically-deficient TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 strains were utilized, together with pharmacological manipulation of MOR, NF-κB, TLR4 and Interleukin-1β. Alcohol induced significant LORR in wild-type mice; this was halved by MyD88 and TLR4 deficiency, and surprisingly nearly completely eliminated by TLR2 deficiency. In contrast, the interaction between morphine and alcohol was found to be MOR-, NF-κB-, TLR2- and MyD88-dependent, but did not involve TLR4 or Interleukin-1β. Morphine-alcohol interactions caused acute elevations in microglial cell counts and NF-κB-p65 positive cells in the motor cortex in concordance with wild-type and TLR2 deficient mouse behavioral data, implicating neuroimmunopharmacological signaling as a pivotal mechanism in this clinically problematic drug-drug interaction. PMID:25542736

  5. The impact of a culturally enhanced drug prevention program on drug and alcohol refusal efficacy among urban African American girls.

    PubMed

    Belgrave, Faye Z; Reed, Melba C; Plybon, Laura E; Corneille, Maya

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the utility of the Specific Event Drug and Alcohol Refusal Efficacy scale (SEDARE) as an outcome of a culturally enhanced drug abuse prevention program for urban African-American girls in early adolescence. The SEDARE captures the perceived likelihood that youth will use drugs and alcohol in specific situations. Ninety-two girls participated in the program. Girls in the intervention group had higher drug refusal efficacy as measured by the SEDARE than girls in the comparison group. Girls varied in situations they perceived they could refuse drugs and alcohol. Findings are discussed with implications for drug abuse prevention programs for urban African-American girls.

  6. Drug dependence: its significance and characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Eddy, Nathan B.; Halbach, H.; Isbell, Harris; Seevers, Maurice H.

    1965-01-01

    It has become impossible in practice, and is scientifically unsound, to maintain a single definition for all forms of drug addiction and/or habituation. A feature common to these conditions as well as to drug abuse in general is dependence, psychic or physical or both, of the individual on a chemical agent. Therefore, better understanding should be attained by substitution of the term drug dependence of this or that type, according to the agent or class of agents involved, in discussions of these conditions, especially inter-disciplinary. Short descriptions, followed by concise listings of their characteristics, are formulated for the various types of dependence on at present widely abused major groups of substances. PMID:5294186

  7. Typologies of alcohol dependence. From Jellinek to genetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A; Fenton, Miriam; Bonenfant, Erica; Swift, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    The goal of typology research is to identify subtypes of alcohol dependent (AD) patients sharing fundamental characteristics and try to match each subtype, with the most precise treatment strategy. This review provides a comprehensive history of the literature on alcohol dependent subtypes starting from the earliest attempt made by Jellinek. The binary models identified most closely with Cloninger and Babor as well as the successively more complex classifications are discussed. Typology classification potentially useful in guiding the treatment of AD patients, especially in the case of the serotonergic medications. Contrasting data suggests that other factors could influence the response to a medication and/or that more complex typologies should be identified. In summary, typology models may assist in the ascertainment criteria for clinical trials performed in behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Greater emphasis, however, must be made to more clearly delineate this field of research, while moving toward more standardized typologies.

  8. Neurological complications of alcohol and misuse of drugs.

    PubMed

    Welch, Killian A

    2011-08-01

    The nature of many of the symptoms associated with substance and alcohol use means that patients often present to neurologists. The frequently catastrophic consequences of overlooking these patients makes this an important cause to identify. Here I will discuss various acute and non-acute substance misuse associated presentations, with particular emphasis on the neurology. As neurological sequelae are particularly common in alcohol use, there will be an emphasis on this drug while other substances are included when relevant, extending to the recently notorious 'legal highs'. I hope this review will increase vigilance to the possibility of substance use disorder, and persuade neurologists that they have a role in the detection and treatment of these conditions.

  9. Drugs and Alcohol: A Handbook for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Jim

    This booklet, suitable for intermediate grade and junior high school students, concerns drug education and development of decision-making skills regarding drug use. Following an introduction, material is divided into four parts. Part 1, a glossary, defines such basic vocabulary as addiction, overdose, withdrawal, and dependence, and differentiates…

  10. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    A liquid formulation of sodium oxybate (Alcover(®)), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is approved in Italy and Austria for use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of sodium oxybate in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate that sodium oxybate was at least as effective as diazepam and clomethiazole in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, rapidly alleviating symptoms, and was at least as effective as naltrexone or disulfiram in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated. The risk of sodium oxybate abuse is generally low when it is administered to alcohol-dependent patients at its approved dosage, under the supervision of a designated family member and with continuous strict medical surveillance. However, certain patient groups, such as patients with alcohol dependence and borderline personality disorder or who are in remission from heroin or cocaine addiction, may not be suitable candidates for sodium oxybate therapy because of an increased risk of abuse. In conclusion, sodium oxybate is a useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

  11. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  12. Faculty buy-in to teach alcohol and drug use screening.

    PubMed

    Puskar, Kathy; Mitchell, Ann M; Kane, Irene; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly S

    2014-09-01

    Educating nursing faculty about the use of an evidence-based practice to screen and intervene earlier along the continuum of alcohol and other drug use, misuse, and dependence is essential in today's health care arena. Misuse of alcohol and other drugs is a significant problem for both individual health and societal economic welfare. The purpose of this article is to describe nursing faculty buy-in for the implementation of an evidence-based addiction training program at a university-based school of nursing. Derived from an academic-community partnership, the training program results suggest implications for continuing education and curriculum innovation in schools of nursing and clinical practice. The training content presented can be used in continuing education for nursing faculty across all types of nursing school programs and professional nursing staff employed in multiple settings. The training program was funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration.

  13. The Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs and the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies: a history of the evolution of alcohol research.

    PubMed

    Candon, Paul M; Ward, Judit H; Pandina, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews the history of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs as well as the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies. Each has its roots in the Yale Laboratory of Applied Physiology and the era shortly after the repeal of National Prohibition in the United States. The journal was founded as the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol in 1940 by Howard W. Haggard, M.D., director of the Yale Laboratory of Physiology. Alcohol, although not originally the sole focus of the laboratory, eventually became the main and then only focus. A Section of Alcohol Studies and later Center of Alcohol Studies formally became components of the laboratory. The faculty grew to include notable figures such as Elvin Morton Jellinek and Mark Keller, among other influential people who helped establish a modern, multidisciplinary, scientific approach to alcohol problems in the United States. The first alcohol education program, originally called the Summer Session of the School of Alcohol Studies, was also founded there in 1943. The center later moved to Rutgers University in New Jersey, becoming the Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies in 1962. With it came the summer school and the Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, which in 1975 became the Journal of Studies on Alcohol. The journal again changed names in 2007, becoming the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, reflecting an increasing focus among substance use researchers on drugs other than alcohol. This article discusses the influence of the journal and the center in the larger historical context of alcohol studies throughout the 20th century to the modern day.

  14. The development and initial validation of the identification of alcohol dependence in women scale.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol; Maranda, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop the Identification of Alcohol Dependence in Women (IADW) Scale, which is a 51-question instrument, designed to discriminate between alcohol and non-alcohol dependent women. Questions focus on physical, psychological, family and home life, and use of alcohol. Initial testing of the IADW Scale provides preliminary evidence that it is reliable, has content validity, and is capable of correctly classifying group membership with accuracy. Eighty-six percent of the cases in the alcohol dependent group and 98% of the non-alcohol dependent group were correctly classified using direct and stepwise methods of discriminant analysis.

  15. The Association Between Impulsivity and Alcohol/Drug Use Among Prison Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Michael H.; McSheffrey, Savannah N.; van den Berg, Jacob J.; Vela, Jamie E.; Stein, LAR; Roberts, Mary B.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Clarke, Jennifer G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the relation between impulsivity and drug involvement with prison inmates, in spite of their heavy drug use. Among this small body of work, most studies look at clinically relevant drug dependence, rather than drug use specifically. Method N=242 adult inmates (34.8% female, 52% White) with an average age of 35.58(SD=9.19) completed a modified version of the 15-item Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and measures assessing lifetime alcohol, opiates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, cannabis, hallucinogens, and polysubstance use. Lifetime users also reported the frequency of use for the 30 days prior to incarceration. Results Impulsivity was higher among lifetime users (versus never users) of all substances other than cannabis. Thirty day drug use frequency was only related to impulsivity for opiates and alcohol. Discussion This study extends prior work, by showing that a lifetime history of nonclinical substance use is positively associated with impulsivity among prison inmates. Implications for drug interventions are considered for this population, which is characterized by high rates of substance use and elevated impulsivity. PMID:25462662

  16. Alcohol and Other Drug Resistance Strategies Employed by Rural Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice; Hecht, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    This study seeks to identify how rural adolescents make health decisions and utilize communication strategies to resist influence attempts in offers of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 113 adolescents from rural school districts to solicit information on ATOD norms, past ATOD experiences, and substance offer-response episodes. Rural youths’ resistance strategies were similar to previous findings with urban adolescents – refuse, explain, avoid, and leave (the REAL typology) – while unique features of these strategies were identified including the importance of personal narratives, the articulation of a non-user identity, and being “accountable” to self and others. PMID:21552345

  17. Panic disorder in a Spanish sample of 89 patients with pure alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Seguí, J; Márquez, M; Canet, J; Cascio, A; García, L; Ortiz, M

    2001-07-01

    High rates of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD), have been found in patients suffering from alcohol dependence (AD). It has been suggested that alcoholic subjects with PD represent a more severe subgroup of patients. Eighty-nine patients with 'pure' AD (without abuse of other drugs) were examined and compared for the presence of PD. Several clinical scales were administered to assess symptomatology and severity. Twenty-three patients (25.8%) met the criteria for PD. The mean age at onset for alcohol use was 18.7 versus 28.5 years for PD onset. Our finding of an earlier onset for alcoholism than for PD in a sample of Spanish patients illustrates the potential importance of transcultural factors. These patients were more likely to be women and to have first-degree relatives with PD. Overall, alcoholic patients with comorbid PD showed greater clinical severity. They were found to have more comorbidity with axis I disorders (major depression and dysthymia), greater clinical severity, and a history of more suicide attempts.

  18. Bringing the Evidence Base to the Alcohol and Other Drugs Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelling, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The National Drug Sector Information Service is committed to supporting those who work to prevent or reduce the harm to individuals, families, communities and the nation caused by alcohol and other drugs. This paper describes a project to assist particular members of the alcohol and other drugs sector to improve quality and the transfer of…

  19. Laws about Tobacco, Alcohol, and Other Drugs: A Guidebook for California's Parents and Educators. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Jill; Munger, Beth

    With the increasing concern over alcohol and other drug use among young people, adults must educate themselves about legal issues. This booklet is a resource for parents and educators to help them learn tobacco, alcohol, and other drug laws in California. The material is organized by type of drug with the legal codes as they apply to that drug…

  20. Drug Dependence Treatment Awareness among Japanese Female Stimulant Drug Offenders

    PubMed Central

    Yatsugi, Shinzo; Fujita, Koji; Kashima, Saori; Eboshida, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Few stimulant drug users receive adequate treatment. This cross-sectional study describes the characteristics of female drug offenders that use stimulants and clarifies the factors related to the awareness of treatment for drug dependencies. We included 80 females imprisoned due to stimulant control law violations from 2012 to 2015. The characteristics of the female prisoners were stratified according to various treatment awareness levels, and associations between each characteristic and treatment awareness were evaluated using logistic regression models. The average period of stimulant drug use was 17.7 years. Participants imprisoned for the second time were significantly more likely to consider treatment compared to those imprisoned only once: odds ratio (OR) = 3.2 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–10.7). This elevated OR was diluted in repeat offenders. Participants who had experienced multiple aftereffects (≥7) or serious depressive symptoms were also more likely to consider treatment: OR = 6.1 (95% CI: 1.8–20.8) and OR = 2.5 (95% CI: 1.0–6.2), respectively. Second-time stimulant offenders or offenders who had experienced health problems were more likely to consider it important to receive drug dependence treatment. To overcome relapses of stimulant use, it is recommended that stimulant use offenders are encouraged to accept adequate treatment. PMID:27845738

  1. Griffith Edwards' work on the life course of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E Jane

    2015-07-01

    In 1976 Edwards & Gross proposed the concept of the alcohol dependence syndrome, based on the clinical observation that heavy drinkers manifested an inter-related clustering of signs and symptoms. That this modest 'provisional description' turned out to be so significant and influential is perhaps unsurprising when the context in which it was made is appreciated. Griffith Edwards and his colleagues at the Maudsley Hospital had undergone a rigorous 3-year training in clinical psychiatry, during which they had been taught to think critically and were grounded in the art of clinical observation. As he assessed patients for various alcohol research studies he realized that there was a clustering of certain elements. Thus clinical observation and an appreciation of the patient's drinking history contributed to the genesis of the concept. This paper reflects on the integration of his rigorous training at the Maudsley, his enquiring mind and encyclopaedic knowledge of the historical and research literature which enabled him to formulate a testable hypothesis about the alcohol dependence syndrome.

  2. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  3. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on... visit. Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National...

  4. Researching the spiritual dimensions of alcohol and other drug problems.

    PubMed

    Miller, W R

    1998-07-01

    Although religions have been far from silent on the use of psychoactive drugs, and spirituality has long been emphasized as an important factor in recovery from addiction, surprisingly little research has explored the relationships between these two phenomena. Current findings indicate that spiritual/religious involvement may be an important protective factor against alcohol/drug abuse. Individuals currently suffering from these problems are found to have a low level of religious involvement, and spiritual (re)engagement appears to be correlated with recovery. Reasons are explored for the lack of studies testing spiritual hypotheses, and promising avenues for future research are discussed. Comprehensive addictions research should include not only biomedical, psychological and socio-cultural factors but spiritual aspects of the individual as well.

  5. Predictors of moderated drinking in a primarily alcohol dependent sample of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Kuerbis, Alexis; Morgenstern, Jon; Hail, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Understanding for whom moderated drinking is a viable, achievable, and sustainable goal among those with a range of alcohol use disorders (AUD) remains an important public health question. Despite common acceptance as severe risk factors, there is little empirical evidence to conclude whether co-occurring mental health disorders or drug dependence contribute to an individual’s inability to successfully moderate his drinking. Utilizing secondary data analysis, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of moderation among both treatment seeking and non-treatment seeking, primarily alcohol dependent, problem drinking men who have sex with men (MSM), with an emphasis on the high risk factors psychiatric comorbidity and drug dependence. Problem drinkers (N=187) were assessed, provided feedback about their drinking, given the option to receive brief AUD treatment or change their drinking on their own, and then followed for 15 months. Findings revealed that neither psychiatric comorbidity or drug dependence predicted ability to achieve moderation when controlling for alcohol dependence severity. Those who were younger, more highly educated, and had more mild alcohol dependence were more likely to achieve moderated drinking. Impact of treatment on predictors is explored. Limitations of this study and arenas for future research are discussed. PMID:22201219

  6. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  7. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  8. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  9. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  10. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in...

  11. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  12. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  13. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  14. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse... ALCOHOL ABUSE PREVENTION General § 86.1 What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? The purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations is to implement section 22...

  15. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in...

  16. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  17. 46 CFR 4.06-3 - Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a serious marine incident.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements for alcohol and drug testing following a... drug testing is conducted: (a) Alcohol testing. (1) Alcohol testing must be conducted on each... only if the alcohol testing meets all of the requirements of this part. (b) Drug testing. (1)...

  18. 49 CFR 655.12 - Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Required elements of an anti-drug use and alcohol... and alcohol misuse program. An anti-drug use and alcohol misuse program shall include the following: (a) A statement describing the employer's policy on prohibited drug use and alcohol misuse in...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  1. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1535... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is...

  3. Drug and alcohol trajectories among adults with schizophrenia: Data from the CATIE Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dorn, Richard A.; Desmarais, Sarah L.; Tueller, Stephen J.; Jolley, Jennifer M.; Johnson, Kiersten L.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary aim is to describe drug and alcohol trajectories in adults with schizophrenia. Method Growth mixture models were used to examine disordered and non-disordered use and abstinence in the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness trial. Results Five classes—always abstinent; fluctuating use, abuse, and occasional abstinence; occasional (ab)use; stopped (ab)use; abusing—fit best. Overlap exists between always abstinent drug and alcohol classes; less overlap exists across other classes. Conclusion There is heterogeneity in drug and alcohol use among adults with schizophrenia. The lack of overlap between classes, save always abstinent, suggests modeling drug and alcohol use separately. PMID:23726721

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  5. Talking to adolescents about alcohol, drugs and sexuality.

    PubMed

    Bagley, S; Shrier, L; Levy, S

    2014-02-01

    A discussion of alcohol, drugs and sexuality is an important part of routine health advice and guidance for adolescents. It is important for providers to use a systematic approach that includes building rapport and asking standard screening questions using non-judgmental and gender-neutral language. This strategy minimizes the chance of omitting key questions and increases efficiency of the interview, while being respectful of the adolescent's autonomy and choices. During adolescence, some of the health visit will occur with the adolescent alone. As part of that transition, clinicians should explain conditional confidentiality to both the adolescent and the parent. When discussing alcohol and drug use, clinicians should have information about the epidemiologic patterns in their practice area, use standard tools for screening and be familiar with local resources for treatment. Similarly, when discussing sexuality, clinicians should use a standard approach such as the "5 P's." Clinicians can provide adolescents with a safe environment to share sensitive information and risk taking behaviors using a clear and consistent approach.

  6. Medication assisted treatment of drug abuse and dependence: global availability and utilization.

    PubMed

    Kresina, Thomas F

    2007-01-01

    Clinical trials and clinical studies, using patented drugs and drugs off patent, provide data that impact the best treatment practices for substance abuse and dependence. In the United States, medications have been approved for use in the treatment of both alcohol and opioid dependence. Medications are used in the detoxification from drug abuse and dependence in the symptomatic relief of withdrawal. For long term treatment or medical maintenance treatment, medications eliminate the physiological effects of drug use by blocking drug-receptor binding in the brain. Therefore, patented drugs showing interactions with neurotransmitters in the brain, are attractive candidates for treatment efficacy trials. An effective long term treatment paradigm for reducing drug dependence is the combinatorial use of medications that block the effects of drug use with behavior change counseling and psychotherapy. Medications used for the long term treatment of opioid dependence are methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone. Pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of alcohol dependence include acamprosate, antabuse and naltrexone. A reliable indicator for successful treatment of drug dependence is time in treatment. Patients remain in long term treatment when they perceive that their health care environment is supportive and non-stigmatizing and with a good patient-provider relationship where their needs are identified and met. Additional medications are needed for individual comprehensive substance abuse treatment plans, particularly for individuals who abuse stimulants. Patented drugs remain an important source of candidate pharmacotherapies comprising medication assistant treatment, part of a comprehensive treatment plan for drug dependence that addresses the medical, social, and psychological needs of the patient. Adapting this drug treatment paradigm globally requires identifying and testing new drug candidates while building and changing programs to patient centered treatment

  7. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  8. [The relationship of drug and alcohol addiction in teenagers with the character of their relations with parents].

    PubMed

    Mendelevich, V D; Makushkina, O P

    2013-01-01

    An experimental-psychological study of 62 male teenagers with drug addiction and alcohol addiction revealed that the character of their relations with parents was dependent on the form of addiction. It has been concluded that these types of addictions have different psychological mechanisms of formation.

  9. The Role of Gender in Adolescents' Social Networks and Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drug Use: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Wura; Goodson, Patricia; Barry, Adam E.; McLeroy, Kenneth R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite previous research indicating an adolescents' alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use is dependent upon their sex and the sex composition of their social network, few social network studies consider sex differences and network sex composition as a determinant of adolescents' ATOD use behavior. Methods: This systematic…

  10. Aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with alcohol dependence: a double-blind, comparison trial vs. naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, G; Di Nicola, M; Di Giannantonio, M; Janiri, L

    2009-03-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that both partial dopamine agents and mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor drugs independently show significant efficacy in reducing alcohol use in both animals and humans. Aripiprazole, which acts as a dopamine/5-HT system stabilizer, approaches the optimal characteristics sought in medication to be considered for testing in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In this randomised, double-blind, confrontation trial with naltrexone, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of aripiprazole on alcohol-drinking indices. Craving and psychiatric symptom improvements were the secondary end points. Seventy-five alcohol dependent subjects were detoxified and were subsequently randomised into two groups, receiving 50 mg of naltrexone and 5-15 mg of aripiprazole, respectively. Craving (Visual Analogue Scale; Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale) and withdrawal (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment) rating scales were applied; psychiatric symptoms were evaluated through the Symptom Check List 90-Revised. The number of subjects remained alcohol free for the entire study period (16 weeks) and the number of subjects relapsed were not significantly different in the two groups. The survival function showed that patients treated with aripiprazole remained abstinent from any alcohol amount for a longer time with respect to those treated with naltrexone. As for craving scores, patients treated with naltrexone showed a better outcome. Results from this study globally place aripiprazole at the same range of efficacy of naltrexone, one of the approved drugs used in alcohol relapse prevention. If it could be demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials that aripiprazole is efficacious in decreasing alcohol use, lessening craving, and attenuating psychopathological symptom severity, we will have gained a powerful agent for the treatment of alcohol-dependent subjects.

  11. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.

    2016-01-01

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  12. Worldwide Survey of Alcohol and Nonmedical Drug Use Among Military Personnel: 1985

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    Substance Abuse Prevention Programs ....... 147 1. A Prevention Perspective ....... ................ 147 2. Perceptions of the Acceptability and Risk of...and to beliefs about the harmful effects of drugs. vii The psychological belief variables (harmful effects of drugs, drug prevention efforts...military personnel. 1. The Context of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Programs Most military personnel feel that drinking and drug use are not

  13. Chapter 11. Narratives of clients' experiences of drug use and treatment of substance use-related dependency.

    PubMed

    von Braun, Therese; Larsson, Sam; Sjöblom, Yvonne

    2013-11-01

    The article focuses on narratives of clients' experiences of using/misusing alcohol and drugs and includes comments on their therapeutic process during treatment for dependency on psychoactive drugs. It discusses the role of narratives that focus on clients' experiences of understanding the use/misuse of psychoactive drugs, emphasizing the importance of the narratives. Narrative therapy for substance-use-related dependency is discussed. Insight into the treatment processes of dependency, based on narrative case illustrations, is also provided.

  14. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  15. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  16. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  17. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs. Entering or being on the property, or operating a motor vehicle thereon by a person under the influence of alcoholic beverages,...

  18. 31 CFR 91.8 - Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcoholic beverages, narcotics... BUREAU OF THE MINT BUILDINGS AND GROUNDS § 91.8 Alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic and... the influence of alcoholic beverages, narcotics, hallucinogenic or dangerous drugs is prohibited....

  19. Facts about Alcohol and Other Drug Use during Pregnancy. ARC Facts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Retarded Citizens, Arlington, TX.

    The fact sheet provides basic information about how alcohol and drug use during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and Alcohol Related Birth Defects (ARBD), resulting in such problems as mental retardation, sleep disturbances, learning disabilities, muscle problems, heart defects, and small head size. The question and answer format…

  20. 75 FR 38422 - Procedures for Transportation Workplace Drug and Alcohol Testing Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Alcohol Testing Programs AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Transportation published a final rule authorizing the use of an updated Alcohol Testing Form with... INFORMATION CONTACT: For program issues, Bohdan Baczara, Office of Drug and Alcohol Policy and...