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Sample records for alcohol dependence symptoms

  1. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  2. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  3. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  4. Borderline Personality Symptoms in Short-Term and Long-Term Abstinent Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Nip, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders (SUDs and AUDs is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual’s ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other. Methods We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in three gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6–15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the SCID-II, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses. Results Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment-avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women vs. men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women vs. men. Conclusions Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least six weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network – in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms. PMID:22309234

  5. Cognitive control moderates the association between emotional instability and alcohol dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J; Spaeth, Destini T

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has linked emotional instability with problematic alcohol use. This may be a function of increased "hot" information processing (which is relatively automatic in nature and highly influenced by emotional states) for individuals with more emotional instability. According to dual-process models, cognitive control may attenuate the impact of emotional instability by preventing an overreliance on hot information processing. It was hypothesized that emotional instability would be positively associated with alcohol-related consequences, but that cognitive control would moderate this association. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 80) who endorsed drinking at moderate levels. Participants completed laboratory assessments of emotional instability, alcohol use and its consequences, and cognitive control. An observed variable path model examined the association between emotional instability and alcohol problems. Consistent with hypotheses, emotional instability was positively associated with alcohol consequences, and this relationship was moderated by cognitive control, at least for dependence symptoms. At low levels of cognitive control, there was a positive association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms (β = 0.514, p < .001), however, this association was attenuated and no longer significant at high levels of cognitive control (β = 0.095, p = .302). Emotional instability may promote alcohol dependence via an overreliance on hot information processing. Consistent with dual-process theory, this relationship is diminished among individuals with more cognitive control. Interventions focusing on increasing cognitive control may be effective in reducing alcohol pathology associated with emotional instability. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Further Analyses of Genetic Association Between GRM8 and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Aliev, Fazil; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Nurnberger, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The gene GRM8, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, has emerged as a gene of interest for its possible role in the development of alcohol dependence, with evidence of association with an electrophysiological endophenotype and level of response to alcohol as well as suggestive evidence of association with alcohol dependence. Method: The present study further investigated the association between GRM8 and alcohol dependence symptom counts among young adults using a new sample of individuals collected as part of the prospective sample (ages 18–26 years; N = 842) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Results: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans using the Nyholt corrected p value of .007: rs886003 (β = -.212, p = .0002) and rs17862325 (β = -.234, p < .0001), but not in African Americans, likely because of the lower power to detect association in this group. Conclusions: These results further implicate the role of glutamate receptor genes such as GRM8 in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25978827

  7. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed.

  8. Interactions between DRD4 and Developmentally Specific Environments in Alcohol Dependence Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Marie D.; Harden, K. Paige; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Social experiences may moderate genetic influences on alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Consistent with this hypothesis, Park, Sher, Todorov, and Heath (2011) previously reported interactions between the dopamine D4 receptor gene (DRD4) and developmentally specific environments in the etiology of AD symptoms during emerging and young adulthood. Using a longitudinal cohort of n = 367 White participants followed from ages 18–27 we examine a series of similar interactions between DRD4 and developmentally sensitive contexts including childhood adversity and work and family roles. In contrast to previous results, we observed no significant interactions between DRD4 and childhood adversity. Overall, results further highlight the need for longitudinal studies of gene × environment interaction in the behavioral sciences and the difficulty of identifying candidate gene × environment interaction effects that are consistent across studies. PMID:26595480

  9. A genome wide association study of alcohol dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jen-Chyong; Foroud, Tatiana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Le, Nhung XH; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Harari, Oscar; Koller, Daniel L; Wetherill, Leah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Brooks, Andrew I; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric O; Kang, Sun; Kapoor, Manav; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Madden, Pamela AF; Manz, Niklas; Martin, Nicholas G; McClintick, Jeanette N; Montgomery, Grant W; Nurnberger, John I; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A; Whitfield, John B; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Heath, Andrew C; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorders, but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence. To maximize the power of the extended family design we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with symptom count were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV alcohol dependence. This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol (p=4.5×10−8, inflation corrected p=9.4×10−7). Results with DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the regions of interest support our findings with symptom count, though the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: non-overlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian twin-family study of alcohol use disorders (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with symptom count was observed in SAGE. The variant that showed strongest association with symptom count, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D′=1, r2≥ 0.95), has previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:23089632

  10. A Preliminary Examination of the Relationships between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Crack/Cocaine, Heroin, and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tull, Matthew T.; Gratz, Kim L.; Aklin, Will M.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and substance use disorders (SUDs) have led to the suggestion that substance use among individuals experiencing PTS symptoms might serve a self-medication function. However, research is still needed to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the unique associations between PTS symptom clusters and substances (licit and illicit) with both anxiolytic/depressant and stimulant properties. Consequently, this study examined the relationship between severity of different PTS symptom clusters and heroin, crack/cocaine, and alcohol dependence among 48 treatment-seeking SUD patients with a history of traumatic exposure. No evidence was found for a relationship between PTS symptom clusters and crack/cocaine or alcohol dependence; however, results suggested a relationship between hyperarousal and avoidance (inversely-related) symptoms and heroin dependence. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding motivations underlying the substance of choice among individuals with PTS symptoms, as well as the development of treatments for co-occurring PTS and SUDs. PMID:19767174

  11. Developmental emergence of alcohol use disorder symptoms and their potential as early indicators for progression to alcohol dependence in a high risk sample: a longitudinal study from childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buu, Anne; Wang, Wei; Schroder, Stephanie A; Kalaida, Natalia L; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    This study characterized developmental emergence of individual alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms, and evaluated their ability as early indicators of progression into alcohol dependence (AD), conditional upon gender, parental alcohol dependence, early onset of drinking, and level of delinquent behavior at onset. The two parameters of interest were (a) likelihood of specific AUD symptom appearance once drinking has begun, and (b) primacy of symptom appearance as an indicator of likelihood for eventual move into diagnosis. We analyzed prospective data from a community sample of high risk youth from childhood to early adulthood. Symptoms that were at higher probability of being experienced at drinking onset and that could serve as good indicators for the early stage of disease progression were: persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control alcohol use (AD4), and continued use despite having persistent or recurrent interpersonal problems (AA4). Tolerance (AD1) may serve as an indicator for the intermediate stage of progression. Young people tended to be at an elevated risk for developing AD6 (activities given up), AD7 (physical/psychological problems), and AA3 (legal problems) in later years so these symptoms may be good indicators for later stages of progression. In addition to being male, an early onset drinker, or high in delinquent behavior, drinkers who experienced AA4 or AD1 as first symptoms were at higher risk for progression to AD. We also identified two high risk clusters: late onset drinkers with AA4 as first symptom, and children of alcoholics with AD1 as first symptom. PMID:21842966

  12. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  13. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  14. Symptoms and signs of acute alcoholic hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Basra, Gurjot; Basra, Sarpreet; Parupudi, Sreeram

    2011-01-01

    Although there is not one specific sign or symptom related to alcoholic hepatitis (AH), a constellation of symptoms and signs can help make the diagnosis of AH with reasonable accuracy. Documentation of chronic and active alcohol abuse is paramount in making a diagnosis of AH. Clinical presentation after abstinence for more than 3 m should raise doubts about the diagnosis of AH and dictate the need for considering other causes of liver disease, decompensation of alcoholic cirrhosis, sepsis and malignancy as the cause of patient’s clinical profile. PMID:21731904

  15. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  16. Stability and Change of Genetic and Environmental Effects on the Common Liability to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Cannabis DSM-IV Dependence Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Young, S. E.; Corley, R. P.; Hopfer, C. J.; Stallings, M. C.; Hewitt, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the stability of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence across adolescence and young adulthood. DSM-IV symptom counts from 2,361 adolescents were obtained using a structured diagnostic interview. Several sex-limited longitudinal common pathway models were used to examine gender differences in the magnitude of additive genetic (A), shared environment, and non-shared environmental effects over time. Model fitting indicated limited gender differences. Among older adolescents (i.e., age >14), the heritability of the latent trait was estimated at 0.43 (0.05, 0.94) during the first wave and 0.63 (0.21, 0.83) during the second wave of assessment. A common genetic factor could account for genetic influences at both assessments, as well as the majority of the stability of SAV over time [rA = 1.00 (0.55, 1.00)]. These results suggest that early genetic factors continue to play a key role at later developmental stages. PMID:23760788

  17. Stability and change of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis DSM-IV dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R H C; Young, S E; Corley, R P; Hopfer, C J; Stallings, M C; Hewitt, J K

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the stability of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence across adolescence and young adulthood. DSM-IV symptom counts from 2,361 adolescents were obtained using a structured diagnostic interview. Several sex-limited longitudinal common pathway models were used to examine gender differences in the magnitude of additive genetic (A), shared environment, and non-shared environmental effects over time. Model fitting indicated limited gender differences. Among older adolescents (i.e., age > 14), the heritability of the latent trait was estimated at 0.43 (0.05, 0.94) during the first wave and 0.63 (0.21, 0.83) during the second wave of assessment. A common genetic factor could account for genetic influences at both assessments, as well as the majority of the stability of SAV over time [rA = 1.00 (0.55, 1.00)]. These results suggest that early genetic factors continue to play a key role at later developmental stages.

  18. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  19. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  20. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  1. Gender differences in trauma history and symptoms as predictors of relapse to alcohol and drug use.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Jaimee L; Blom, Thomas J; Anthenelli, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether there are gender-specific associations between trauma exposure and alcohol or drug relapse in alcohol-dependent adults. Participants were 51 men (n = 24) and women (n = 27) with alcohol dependence, 22 (43.1%) of whom relapsed during study participation. Severity of childhood trauma; number of lifetime events evoking fear, helplessness, or horror; and current trauma symptoms all predicted relapse in women, but not in men. These findings highlight the importance of assessing trauma history and providing treatment of trauma-related symptoms for individuals with alcohol and drug dependence, and for women in particular. PMID:21679261

  2. Nalmefene. Alcohol dependence: no advance.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, severe and sometimes fatal disease. Psychological and social support is a crucial element of patient management. Acamprosate and naltrexone are the drugs of choice to help patients remain abstinent, but they are only moderately effective. Nalmefene, an opioid receptor antagonist related to naltrexone, has been authorised in the European Union to help alcohol-dependent patients reduce their alcohol consumption. Nalmefene has not been compared with naltrexone or acamprosate in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in which nalmefene was taken "on demand" at a dose of one tablet per day. The trials lasted 6 months and included a total of 1322 patients. During an initial two-week period in which all patients received medical and psychosocial support, about one-third of patients in both trials reduced their alcohol consumption without medication. Depending on the subgroup and the trial, about one-third to one-half of patients discontinued medical treatment before the end of the study period. In both trials, patients taking nalmefene had two fewer "heavy drinking days" per month than patients in the placebo groups. However, at the end of the study, they continued to drink heavily at least one week per month on average. Daily alcohol consumption was 5 to 9 grams lower with nalmefene than with placebo. The most frequent adverse effects observed in clinical trials were insomnia, dizziness, headache and nausea, which were severe in more than 10% of patients. Other serious but less frequent adverse effects included confusion, hallucinations and dissociation, usually at the beginning of treatment. These adverse effects affected about 3% of patients treated with nalmefene, a proportion three times higher than in the placebo groups. The consequences of mixing nalmefene with large amounts of alcohol are not known. In practice, the effects of nalmefene in alcohol-dependent

  3. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  4. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I and axis II psychopathology. Alcohol dependent patients who did not meet criteria for alcohol abuse were significantly more likely to be female, have a later age of onset for alcohol dependence, have fewer dependence symptoms, and have a lower rate of positive family history for alcoholism, and were less likely to report a lifetime history of DSM-IV drug use disorders and PTSD. These findings suggest that diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent patients may be clinically useful as an index of severity and higher likelihood of comorbid drug abuse and dependence. Future studies are needed to establish whether these differences are clinically significant in terms of the course of the disorder and response to treatment. PMID:19362427

  5. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of the study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. Stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms were observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  6. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

  7. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  8. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  9. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  10. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  11. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  12. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  13. Externalizing Symptoms among Children of Alcoholic Parents: Entry Points for an Antisocial Pathway to Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Hussong, A.M.; Wirth, R.J.; Edwards, M.C.; Curran, P.J.; Chassin, L.A.; Zucker, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined heterogeneity in risk for externalizing symptoms in children of alcoholic parents as it may inform the search for entry points into an antisocial pathway to alcoholism. Specifically, we tested whether the number of alcoholic parents in a family, the comorbid subtype of parent alcoholism, and the gender of the child predicted trajectories of externalizing symptoms over the early life course as assessed in high-risk samples of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls. Through integrative analyses of two independent, longitudinal studies, we showed that children with either antisocial alcoholic parents or two alcoholic parents were at greatest risk for externalizing symptoms. Moreover, children with a depressed alcoholic parent did not differ from those with an antisocial alcoholic parent in reported symptoms. These findings were generally consistent across mother-, father- and adolescent-reports of symptoms, child gender and child age (ages 2 through 17), and the two independent studies examined. Multi-alcoholic and comorbid-alcoholic families may thus convey a genetic susceptibility to dysregulation along with environments that both exacerbate this susceptibility and provide few supports to offset it. PMID:17696709

  14. Mindfulness Is Associated with Fewer PTSD Symptoms, Depressive Symptoms, Physical Symptoms, and Alcohol Problems in Urban Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce W.; Ortiz, J. Alexis; Steffen, Laurie E.; Tooley, Erin M.; Wiggins, Kathryn T.; Yeater, Elizabeth A.; Montoya, John D.; Bernard, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the association between mindfulness, other resilience resources, and several measures of health in 124 urban firefighters. Method: Participants completed health measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, depressive symptoms, physical symptoms, and alcohol problems and measures of resilience…

  15. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  16. Alcohol Craving and Demand Mediate the Relation between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Alcohol-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; Meshesha, Lidia Z.; Teeters, Jenni B.; Pickover, Alison; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Murphy, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. Method We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol problems. Results Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI = .01 – .10), demand intensity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .0009 – .17), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI = .006 – .03) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol problems. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI = .03 – .19). Conclusions Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption. PMID:26375513

  17. Alcohol craving and demand mediate the relation between posttraumatic stress symptoms and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Tripp, Jessica C; Meshesha, Lidia Z; Teeters, Jenni B; Pickover, Alison M; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Murphy, James G

    2015-10-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms are associated with alcohol-related consequences, but there is a need to understand mediators that may help explain the reasons for this relationship. Individuals with PTS may experience elevated craving and alcohol reward value (demand), which may contribute to risk for alcohol-related consequences. We examined relationships between PTS status, craving, alcohol demand, and alcohol-related consequences in PTS-positive (n = 64) and PTS-negative (n = 200) college students (M age = 21.7; 77% women; 54% Caucasian; 34% African American) who endorsed past-month alcohol use. We tested craving and alcohol demand as mediators of the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving (B = .04, SE = .02, 95% CI [.01, .10]), demand intensity (B = .02, SE = .02, 95% CI [.001, .07]), and demand elasticity (B = .05, SE = .03, 95% CI [.006, .12]) significantly mediated the association between PTS symptoms and alcohol-related consequences. Craving remained a significant mediator in a multiple mediators model (B = .08, SE = .04, 95% CI [.03, .19]). Craving and alcohol demand may partially explain the relation between PTS status and alcohol-related consequences. Craving may be especially salient for individuals with PTS symptoms, as it may lead to more severe alcohol-related consequences even in the absence of elevated alcohol consumption.

  18. [Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Dallos Bareño, Carlos Manuel; González Rueda, Silvia Juliana; Sánchez Herrera, Zayda Marcela; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs). Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations were found between alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.41-7.83), poor self-perceived academic achievement (PR = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.16-5.37), and smoking (PR = 2.47; 95%CI: 1.13-5.40). The authors conclude that there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse in Colombian high school students. Preventive programs are needed to identify early depressive disorders and alcohol abuse. PMID:16158145

  19. ▼Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ▼Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy.

  20. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  1. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  2. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  3. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  4. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  5. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE--NEUROBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biała, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed. PMID:27008795

  6. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  7. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  8. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 A new study finds the number of young children and teens hospitalized … NCADD Joins the Global #GIVINGTUESDAY Mo… 3 November, 2016 The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) has joi… State Votes ...

  9. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  10. Molecular and genetic determinants of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Awofala, Awoyemi A

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a complex disorder affecting all social and ethnic groups. Although the scientific understanding of the mechanism governing this multifactorial disease is still in its infancy, understanding its biological bases, including the potential contribution of genetic factors, is key to characterizing individual's risk and developing efficacious therapeutic target to combat the disease. This review provides an overview of different approaches that are being increasingly integrated to extend our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence.

  11. Caregiving, alcohol use, and mental health symptoms among HMO members.

    PubMed

    Polen, M R; Green, C A

    2001-08-01

    Using data from a survey of 5841 HMO members, we examined alcohol consumption, depression and anxiety symptoms, and health services use among 689 informal caregivers. Characteristics of caregivers included whom they cared for, types of care provided, number of people cared for, and whether care was provided in the caregiver's home. Outcome measures in hierarchical linear and logistic stepwise regression models included indicators of alcohol drinking pattern, symptoms of anxiety and depression, role limits due to emotional problems and self-reported doctor's visits. Adjusting for age and gender differences, caregivers reported more bodily pain, worse role functioning related to emotional problems, were more likely to screen as depressed, and were more likely to report symptoms of anxiety. Older caregivers, and those with greater vitality, had better mental health outcomes; caregivers with higher levels of education reported better psychological well-being and less interference with role functioning due to emotional problems. Caregivers did not make more doctor's visits than non-caregivers. No caregiving characteristics were consistently associated with both mental health and alcohol consumption outcomes. The relationship of the care recipient to the caregiver predicted mental health outcomes better than either the type of care, number cared for, or location of care. Both the type of care and relationship to the care provider were associated with alcohol consumption, and several gender interactions were identified. Our results confirm previous findings of greater mental health problems among caregivers, yet suggest that caregivers may not be seeking services commensurate to their needs. PMID:11488517

  12. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  13. The impact of treatment condition and the lagged effects of PTSD symptom severity and alcohol use on changes in alcohol craving.

    PubMed

    Kaczkurkin, Antonia N; Asnaani, Anu; Alpert, Elizabeth; Foa, Edna B

    2016-04-01

    Given the high rates of comorbidity between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorder (SUD), we investigated an integrated treatment for these disorders. Individuals with comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence were randomized to receive naltrexone or placebo, with or without prolonged exposure (PE). All participants also received BRENDA (supportive counseling). The naltrexone plus PE group showed a greater decline in alcohol craving symptoms than those in the placebo with no PE group. The PE plus placebo and the naltrexone without PE groups did not differ significantly from the placebo with no PE group in terms of alcohol craving. No treatment group differences were found for percentage of drinking days. Alcohol craving was moderated by PTSD severity, with those with higher PTSD symptoms showing faster decreases in alcohol craving. Both PTSD and alcohol use had a lagged effect on alcohol craving, with changes in PTSD symptoms and percentage of days drinking being associated with subsequent changes in craving. These results support the relationship between greater PTSD symptoms leading to greater alcohol craving and suggest that reducing PTSD symptoms may be beneficial to reducing craving in those with co-occurring PTSD/SUD.

  14. [The Amygdala in mechanisms of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2016-01-01

    In the present review for the first time systematized literature data about reactive changes, of neurons in the basolateral and medial nuclei of the Amygdala which occur in response to acute and chronic exposure of ethanol. Summarized information about the mechanisms of disturbances in glutamatergic-and GABAergic systems of the basolateral nucleus that determining an increased level of anxiety, which is seen as a main motivating factor of desire for alcohol, thus involved to the manifestation of alcohol dependence. Reviewed molecular and genetic aspects of rsearchs involvement of medial nucleus in the mechanisms of alcoholism. PMID:27530042

  15. Applying the new genomics to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Miles, Michael F; O'Brien, Megan A; Sanna, Pietro P; Zakhari, Samir; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 6-9, 2014. The overall goal of the symposium titled "Applying the New Genomics to Alcohol Dependence", chaired by Dr. Adron Harris, was to highlight recent genomic discoveries and applications for profiling alcohol use disorder (AUD). Dr. Sean Farris discussed the gene expression networks related to lifetime consumption of alcohol within human prefrontal cortex. Dr. Andrzej Pietrzykowski presented the effects of alcohol on microRNAs in humans and animal models. Alcohol-induced alterations in the synaptic transcriptome were discussed by Dr. Michael Miles. Dr. Pietro Sanna examined methods to probe the gene regulatory networks that drive excessive alcohol drinking, and Dr. Samir Zakhari served as a panel discussant and summarized the proceedings. Collectively, the presentations emphasized the power of integrating multiple levels of genetics and transcriptomics with convergent biological processes and phenotypic behaviors to determine causal factors of AUD. The combined use of diverse data types demonstrates how unique approaches and applications can help categorize genetic complexities into relevant biological networks using a systems-level model of disease.

  16. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious.

  17. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  18. Cocaine withdrawal symptoms identify "Type B" cocaine-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Jamshid; Kampman, Kyle; Dackis, Charles; Sparkman, Thorne; Pettinati, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies of substance dependence typologies briefly show that multivariate systems originally developed for identifying subtypes of alcoholics, such as Babor's Type A and B system, may also be valid in abusers of other substances, such as cocaine. Type B patients are characterized by an earlier onset of addiction and more severe symptoms of their addiction, psychopathology, and impulsivity. The Type B classification has also been associated with deficits in serotonergic function. We have found that patients who exhibit more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms, as measured by scores on the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA), have poor treatment outcome and share many characteristics with "Type B" patients. In this paper, we review baseline characteristics of cocaine-dependent patients from several recently completed outpatient cocaine dependence treatment trials to assess the association of cocaine withdrawal symptom severity and the Type B profile. Identifying subtypes of cocaine-dependent patients may improve our ability to treat cocaine dependence by targeting treatments for specific subtypes of patients. We examined the ability of the CSSA scores to capture Type B characteristics in cocaine dependence by analyzing a series of cocaine medication trials that included 255 cocaine-dependent subjects. High CSSA scores at baseline were associated with a history of violent behavior, a family history of substance abuse, antisocial personality disorder, higher addiction severity, and co-morbid psychiatric diseases. Patients with high CSSA scores are also more likely to meet criteria for Type B (Type II) cocaine dependence. Identifying Type B cocaine-dependent patients may help to develop targeted psychosocial or pharmacological treatments for these difficult-to-treat patients.

  19. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  20. A 'symptom-triggered' approach to alcohol withdrawal management.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, Jay; Marsden, Janet

    In acute hospital settings, alcohol withdrawal often causes significant management problems and complicates a wide variety of concurrent conditions, placing a huge burden on the NHS. A significant number of critical incidents around patients who were undergoing detoxification in a general hospital setting led to the need for a project to implement and evaluate an evidence-based approach to the management of alcohol detoxification-a project that included a pre-intervention case note audit, the implementation of an evidence-based symptom-triggered detoxification protocol, and a post-intervention case note audit. This change in practice resulted in an average reduction of almost 60% in length of hospital stay and a 66% reduction in the amount of chlordiazepoxide used in detoxification, as well as highlighting that 10% of the sample group did not display any signs of withdrawal and did not require any medication. Even with these reductions, no patient post-intervention developed any severe signs of withdrawal phenomena, such as seizures or delirium tremens. The savings to the trust (The Pennine Acute Hospital Trust) are obvious,but the development of a consistent, quality service will lead to fewer long-term negative effects for patients that can be caused by detoxification. This work is a project evaluation of a locally implemented strategy, which, it was hypothesised,would improve care by providing an individualised treatment plan for the management of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

  1. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  2. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  3. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  4. Course of Alcohol Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica J.; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Kim, Kevin H.; Blaze, Thomas J.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Chung, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge of the course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) from adolescence into adulthood, and how SAD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms change together over time. The current study examined how persistent and adolescent-limited SAD relate to alcohol symptom trajectories across adolescence and into adulthood, as well as gender differences in the course of SAD and AUD symptoms. Methods Participants were 788 youth (ages 12 to 18 at the baseline assessment; 46.2% female; 80.5% White) recruited from the community (n = 220) and from clinical programs (n = 568). Youth completed clinical interviews on their lifetime history of AUD symptoms and SAD at baseline and were followed through age 25. Multivariate polynomial growth mixture modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for SAD and AUD symptoms separately, then together in a dual trajectory model. Gender differences were examined using a classify–analyze approach. Results Three SAD trajectory classes were identified: adolescent-limited (15%), persistent (6%), and no SAD (79%). For AUD symptoms, 5 trajectories were identified: severe (10%), moderate (22%), remitting (18%), young adult onset (22%), and stable low (28%). Those with a history of SAD were about twice as likely to be in the severe AUD symptom class compared to those without a history of SAD. Compared to those with persisting SAD, those in the adolescent-limited SAD class were more likely to belong to the stable low AUD trajectory. Compared to males with SAD, females with SAD were less likely to be in the moderate AUD symptom class and were more likely to be in stable low and young adult onset AUD symptom classes. Conclusions A history of SAD was associated with membership in the severe AUD trajectory group. The association of gender with SAD and AUD differed depending on developmental period. Future research should examine whether treating SAD in early adolescence may prevent subsequent AUD symptoms. PMID

  5. Parent Alcoholism Impacts the Severity and Timing of Children's Externalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Huang, Wenjing; Curran, Patrick J.; Chassin, Laurie; Zucker, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies show that children of alcoholic parents have higher rates of externalizing symptoms compared to their peers, it remains unclear whether the timing of children's externalizing symptoms is linked to that of their parent's alcohol-related symptoms. Using a multilevel modeling approach, we tested whether children aged 2…

  6. Alcohol Misuse among College Athletes: Self-Medication for Psychiatric Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, B. E.; Miller, M. N.; Verhegge, R.; Linville, H. H.; Pumariega, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    Surveys a collegiate athlete population for alcohol abuse as well as self-reported depression, anxiety, and other psychiatric symptoms. Significant correlations were found between reported alcohol abuse and self-reported symptoms of depression and general psychiatric symptoms. Findings suggest a possible link between psychopathology and serious…

  7. Association of gene polymorphisms encoding dopaminergic system components and platelet MAO-B activity with alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Jovanovic, Tanja; Pivac, Nela

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association of alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes with platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity, Val108/158Met of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the third exon of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, -1021C/T of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphisms. The study included 1270 Caucasian men and women of Croatian origin: 690 patients with alcohol dependence and 580 healthy controls. Patients with alcohol dependence were subdivided according to the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, aggressive behavior, severity of alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, comorbid depression, suicidal behavior, lifetime suicide attempt and early/late onset of alcohol abuse. The results, corrected for multiple testing, revealed increased platelet MAO-B activity in patients with alcohol dependence, subdivided into those with or without alcohol-related liver diseases, compared to control subjects (P<0.001). In addition, we found an increased frequency of the COMT Met/Met genotype among suicidal (P=0.002) and patients who attempted suicide (P<0.001) and an increased frequency of COMT Val/Val genotype in patients with an early onset of alcohol dependence (P=0.004). This study provides data from a sample of ethnically homogeneous unrelated Caucasian subjects for future meta-analyses and suggests that the increased platelet MAO-B activity might be used as independent peripheral indicator of alcohol dependence, while COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with increased suicidality and early onset of alcohol dependence. PMID:25035107

  8. Socio-Emotional Factors in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3) were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ‘anger in’ and ‘anger out,’ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ‘anger out,’ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other. PMID:24860216

  9. Self-mutilation among male patients with alcohol dependency: the role of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-mutilative behavior with dissociative experiences among men who are alcohol dependent. Participants were 176 inpatients consecutively admitted to an alcohol dependency treatment center. Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-Revised, and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test were conducted to all participants. A sizable proportion of patients (29.0%) reported self-mutilation (SM). Childhood abuse, younger age, early onset of alcoholism, and dissociative taxon membership predicted SM. The overall severity of clinical condition and the frequency of suicide attempts among those who reported SM were higher than those of the remaining patients. The Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon item "auditory verbal hallucinations" and the Symptom Checklist-Revised dimension "hostility" were predictors of SM. There is a complex relationship between dissociation, alcohol use, and SM. Increased awareness among clinicians on this relationship may increase the effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  10. Systemic symptoms in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Newton, Julia L

    2010-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in the Western world and the incidence of the disease is constantly increasing. Most patients with NAFLD do not present with symptoms directly attributable to their underlying liver disease. It is increasingly recognized, however, that those with NAFLD describe a range of non-specific symptoms, which include fatigue and daytime sleepiness, may be the presenting problem and can impact dramatically upon quality of life in this patient group. The recognition of systemic symptoms in NAFLD has important implications for patients as many are potentially modifiable with targeted interventions. Fatigue appears to be a significant problem in NAFLD and the severity of fatigue is not associated with severity of NAFLD or any parameters of liver damage. Instead, fatigue in these patients shows a strong relationship with the symptom of daytime sleepiness and autonomic dysfunction. Daytime sleepiness can frequently be associated with obstructive sleep apnoea in those with NAFLD and is therefore treatable with evidence-based interventions. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in those with early stages of NAFLD. The presence of autonomic nervous system dysfunction leads to symptoms such as postural dizziness and syncope and is also associated with a number of clinical consequences in hepatic and non-hepatic diseases such as cognitive dysfunction, falls and fall-related injuries. On direct questioning, problems with memory and concentration are frequently described by those with NAFLD, with our studies confirming that 50% of NAFLD patients experience mild cognitive symptoms and up to 46% moderate or severe cognitive impairment. There were no positive correlations between cognitive symptoms and biochemical or histological markers of liver damage severity, confirming that cognitive impairment in early-stage NAFLD is not related to hepatic encephalopathy. Falls are

  11. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  12. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  13. Associations between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Domains and DSM-IV Lifetime Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Most studies of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the substance dependence literature have assessed ADHD as a single, categorical entity. This approach limits characterization across the spectrum of ADHD symptomatology and may mask differences across the two core domains of ADHD symptoms—hyperactive-impulsive (HI) and inattention (IN). Further, it is unclear whether relations of HI and IN symptoms to substance dependence extend across drug classes and to the general population. Methods This cross-sectional study investigated associations of lifetime ADHD HI and IN symptom levels to individual classes of lifetime substance dependence (alcohol, nicotine, depressants, opioids, stimulants, cannabis, hallucinogens, polysubstance) in a population-based sample of 34,653 American adults. Results HI and IN were associated with the majority of dependence diagnoses in a linear pattern, such that each additional symptom was associated with a proportional increase in odds of dependence. After adjusting for the overlap between symptom domains, both HI and IN uniquely associated with alcohol, nicotine, and polysubstance dependence, but only HI uniquely associated with dependence on illicit substances. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings suggest that individuals in the general population with elevated levels of ADHD (particularly HI) symptoms are at risk for various forms of substance dependence and could benefit from preventive interventions. PMID:23398223

  14. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  15. Gender Differences in the Effect of Depressive Symptoms on Prospective Alcohol Expectancies, Coping Motives, and Alcohol Outcomes in the First Year of College.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon; Jones, Richard N; Barnett, Nancy P

    2015-10-01

    Problematic alcohol use and risk for dependence peak during late adolescence, particularly among first-year college students. Although students matriculating into college with depressive symptoms experience elevated risk for alcohol problems, few studies have examined the intervening mechanisms of risk. In this study, we examined depressed mood at college entry on prospective alcohol expectancies, drinking motives, and alcohol outcomes during the first year of college, adjusting for pre-college factors. Participants (N = 614; 59% female, 33% non-White) were incoming college students from three universities who completed online self-report surveys prior to matriculating into college and at the end of their first year in college. We utilized path analysis to test our hypotheses. In women, the path that linked depressive symptoms to consequences was primarily attributable to the effect of pre-college drinking to cope on drinking to cope in college, which in turn was associated with alcohol consequences. In men, the effect of depressive symptoms on alcohol consequences in college was independent of pre-college and college factors, thus indicating the need for research that identifies mechanisms of risk in males. Interventions that address coping deficits and motivations for drinking may be particularly beneficial for depressed adolescent females during this high-risk developmental period. PMID:26036995

  16. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  17. PER3 Polymorphism and Insomnia Severity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Armitage, Roseanne; Burmeister, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is common, persistent, and associated with relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unstudied, AD patients have impaired circadian rhythms and sleep drive, which may be genetically influenced. A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER34/4, PER34/5, PER35/5) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep homeostasis, and the PER34/4genotype has been characterized by evening preference and decreased sleep drive. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of this polymorphism on insomnia severity in AD patients. We hypothesized that the PER3 polymorphism would be an independent predictor of insomnia severity with greatest severity observed in those with the PER34/4genotype. Design: Cross-sectional association of patient characteristics, genotype, and insomnia severity. Significant (P < 0.05) bivariate correlates were further analyzed by hierarchical, forced entry multiple linear regression. Setting: Alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland. Patients: Diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 285), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Measurements and Results: Drinking frequency, mental and physical health status, childhood abuse, and PER3 genotype were independent predictors of insomnia severity, as measured by a 7-item subscale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, explaining 28.9% of the variance. Addition of the genotype in the final step significantly increased the amount of variance explained by 1.1% (P = 0.027). Those with the PER34/4genotype had the greatest severity of insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: PER3 genotype contributed unique variance in predicting insomnia severity in AD patients. These results are consistent with genetically influenced impairment in sleep regulation mechanisms in AD patients with insomnia. Citation: Brower KJ; Wojnar M; Sliwerska E; Armitage R; Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and

  18. Development of psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Da-Li; Lin, Xiao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. PMID:27703363

  19. Investigation of allyphenyline efficacy in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ubaldi, Massimo; Del Bello, Fabio; Domi, Esi; Pigini, Maria; Nasuti, Cinzia

    2015-08-01

    We have recently demonstrated that allyphenyline, behaving as α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist and α2A-adrenoceptor antagonist, in mice enhanced morphine analgesia, attenuated morphine withdrawal symptoms, showed significant antidepressant-like activity and was devoid of sedative side effects. Opioid and alcohol withdrawal shares several common neurobiological and molecular mechanisms. Therefore, in this study we expanded our analysis of the pharmacological properties of allyphenyline by investigating its ability to prevent the expression of somatic withdrawal signs, anxiety-like behavior and hyperlocomotion associated with chronic ethanol intoxication. Rats were subjected to induction of ethanol dependence via repeated daily intragastric ethanol (20%) administration for 4 consecutive days. Twelve hours after the last alcohol administration, somatic alcohol withdrawal signs were scored. Results revealed a significant expression of physical withdrawal signs that were not affected by intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of allyphenyline at the doses of 0.05, 0.275 and 0.5 mg/kg. In contrast, allyphenyline (0.05 and 0.275 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced hyperanxiety-like behavior observed 6 days after alcohol intoxication as measured using the defensive burying test. Allyphenyline also reduced open field hyperlocomotor activity associated with alcohol withdrawal. Notably, the anxiolytic effect of the compound, as well as the already reported antidepressant action, was observed at very low doses, suggesting the involvement of its α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism. Therefore, the present investigation suggests that allyphenyline might represent an interesting pharmacological tool to investigate the potential of compounds exhibiting α2C-adrenoceptor/serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonism and α2A-adrenoceptor antagonism in the treatment of hyperanxiety and hyperlocomotion occurring during alcohol withdrawal in dependent subjects.

  20. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  1. Is alcohol dependence best viewed as a chronic relapsing disorder?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This 'For Debate' paper starts by recognizing the growing trend towards considering alcohol dependence as a chronic relapsing disorder. We argue that the adoption of this model results from focusing on those in treatment for alcohol dependence rather than considering the larger number of people in the general population who meet criteria for alcohol dependence at some point in their lives. The majority of the general population who ever experience alcohol dependence do not behave as though they have a chronic relapsing disorder: they do not seek treatment, resolve their dependence themselves and do not relapse repeatedly. We suggest that caution is therefore needed in using the chronic relapsing disorder label. Our primary concerns are that this formulation privileges biological aspects of dependence to the detriment of psychological and social contributions, it inhibits much-needed developments in understanding alcohol dependence and leads to inefficient distributions of public health and clinical care resources for alcohol dependence. We invite debate on this issue.

  2. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  3. Pattern of alcohol consumption and its effect on gastrointestinal symptoms in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Garth R; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2010-05-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol's pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn's disease, 38 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 39 patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). All the participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity (the Crohn's disease activity index or ulcerative colitis clinical activity index, respectively) validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients' perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general U.S. population. Specifically, of the 90 inactive IBD patients, 56 (62%) were current drinkers, compared with 61% in the general U.S. population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42) and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (P=.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared with quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  4. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  5. Neuroimaging in Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging, including PET, MRI, and MRS, is a powerful approach to the study of brain function. This article reviews neuroimaging findings related to alcohol and other drugs of abuse that have been published since 2011. Uses of neuroimaging are to characterize patients to determine who will fare better in treatment and to investigate the reasons underlying the effect on outcomes. Neuroimaging is also used to characterize the acute and chronic effects of substances on the brain and how those effects are related to dependence, relapse, and other drug effects. The data can be used to provide encouraging information for patients, as several studies have shown that long-term abstinence is associated with at least partial normalization of neurological abnormalities. PMID:24678450

  6. Smoking initiation and nicotine dependence symptoms in Ukraine: Findings from the Ukraine World Mental Health survey

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Charles P.M.; Bromet, Evelyn J.; Tintle, Nathan L.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Gluzman, Semyon F.; Kostyuchenko, Stanislav; Havenaar, Johan M.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives Cigarette smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in former Soviet countries. This study examined the personal, familial and psychiatric risk factors for smoking initiation and development of nicotine dependence symptoms in Ukraine. Study Design Cross-sectional survey. Methods Smoking history and dependence symptoms were ascertained from N=1,711 adults in Ukraine as part of a national mental health survey conducted in 2002. Separate analyses were conducted for men and women. Results The prevalence of lifetime regular smoking was 80.5% in men and 18.7% in women, with median ages at initiation among smokers of 17 and 18, respectively. Furthermore, 61.2% of men and 11.9% of women were current smokers; among the subgroup of lifetime smokers, 75.9% of men and 63.1% of women currently smoked. The youngest female cohort (born 1965–1984) was 26 times more likely to start smoking than the oldest. Smoking initiation was also linked to childhood externalizing behaviors and antecedent use of alcohol in both genders, as well as marital status and personal alcohol abuse in men, and childhood urbanicity and birth cohort in women. Dependence symptoms developed in 61.7% of male and 47.1% of female smokers. The rate increased sharply in the first four years after smoking initiation. Dependence symptoms were related to birth cohort and alcohol abuse in both genders, as well as growing up in a suburb or town and childhood externalizing behaviors in men, and parental antisocial behavior in women. Conclusions Increased smoking in young women heralds a rising epidemic in Ukraine and underscores the need for primary prevention programs, especially in urban areas. Our findings support the importance of childhood and alcohol-related risk factors, especially in women, while pre-existing depression and anxiety disorders were only weakly associated with starting to smoke or developing dependence symptoms. PMID:17544466

  7. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala κ-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6 μg) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence.

  8. Different Phenotypic and Genotypic Presentations in Alcohol Dependence: Age at Onset Matters*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chu; Prescott, Carol A.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several theoretical typology models have been proposed to classify alcoholism into more homogeneous subtypes using various criteria, for which age at onset of alcohol dependence is shared across many models. We investigated the evidence for the distinction between early- versus late-onset alcoholism by examining relevant phenotypic and genotypic variables. Method: Data are from 1,248 individuals with alcohol dependence, who were interviewed to collect detailed clinical information. Early versus late onset of alcohol dependence was defined by the age at onset of 22 years. Odds ratio (OR) and Cohen's d were calculated as effect size for comparisons of clinical features between the two groups. We adjusted interviewed age and gender in logistic regression models. Case-control genetic analyses were conducted for the association between HTR1B, SLC6A4, DRD2, and OPRμ1 genes and subgroups of alcohol dependence using a sample of 530 controls screened for alcohol problems. Results: Early-onset alcoholism exhibited significantly (p < .01) different clinical characteristics from late-onset alcoholism, including higher severity in alcohol dependence symptoms (d = 0.22) and maximum drinking quantity within 24 hours (d = 0.40), more rapid progression from regular drinking to meet alcohol dependence diagnosis (d = 1.73), higher expectancies for alcohol (d = 0.22−0.47), more comorbidity with externalizing disorders (ORs = 2.8−2.9), and greater prevalence of family alcohol use problems (d = 0.26−0.43). In addition, markers in the HTR1B and OPRμ1 genes showed genetic associations with subgroups of alcohol dependence (ORs = 1.5−2.4). Conclusions: Our findings support that subgroups of alcohol dependence defined by onset age have phenotypic and genetic differences. The early-onset subgroup had more severe features for almost every aspect we examined. Coupled with genetic association findings, age at onset of alcohol dependence may serve as a simple but important

  9. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  10. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  11. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  12. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Head, J; Stansfeld, S; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985–88) was measured in 1991–93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental health (GHQ) were measured at follow up in 1989. Results: Effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with alcohol dependence in men after adjustment for employment grade and other baseline factors related to alcohol dependence. Although effort-reward imbalance predicted future longstanding illness, poor mental health and negative aspects of close relationships, the association between effort-reward imbalance and alcohol dependence in men was only partially mediated through these health and social support measures. In women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades. Men with high job demands or with low work social supports had a slightly reduced risk of alcohol dependence. No association was found between objectively assessed demands, job control, and alcohol dependence in either men or women. Conclusion: A stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was found to be a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. In view of the public health importance of alcohol dependence in working populations these findings call for more emphasis on psychosocial factors in occupational health research and prevention. PMID:14985516

  13. Pattern of Alcohol Consumption and its Effect on Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Garth R.; Sedghi, Shahriar; Farhadi, Ashkan; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential trigger for flare in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) flare because of alcohol’s pro-oxidant effects and its deleterious effects on gut barrier function. The association with alcohol consumption and IBD flare is unclear. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the pattern of alcohol consumption and its self-reported effect on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with IBD. We recruited 129 consecutive patients: 52 patients with Crohn’s Disease, 38 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, and 39 patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). All participants completed a validated questionnaire on disease activity, the CDAI or UCAI respectively, validated questionnaires to quantify alcohol consumption by NIAAA criteria, and two structured questionnaires we designed to access patients’ perception of the effect of alcohol on their GI symptoms and on overall GI symptom severity. The pattern of current, light, moderate, and heavy alcohol consumption in inactive IBD was similar to the general US population. Specifically, 56 of 90 (62%) of inactive IBD patients were current drinkers, compared to 61% in the general US population. Of current drinkers, 75% of IBD (N=42), and 43% of IBS (N=9) reported a worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol consumption (p=0.01); however, overall GI symptom severity did not differ when compared to quantity of alcohol consumed. Patients with inactive IBD drink alcohol in quantities similar to the general population. Current drinkers with inactive IBD are more likely to report worsening of GI symptoms with alcohol than current drinkers with IBS. PMID:20682190

  14. Sub-populations of alcohol-dependent patients: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, A J; Koechling, U M; Voltaire-Carlsson, A; Borg, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the processes underlying relapse to drinking using objective biological validation of self-reported recent alcohol consumption, using the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA), a new biological marker to detect single episodes of drinking, in a sample of 38 male alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-III-R) who were assessed prospectively in terms of their clinical symptomatology over a 6-month treatment period. Results showed that nearly all patients obtained positive 5-HTOL/5-HIAA samples during the course of treatment. However, upon closer inspection, results revealed a bimodal distribution for alcohol intake with high and low frequency of consumption episodes. Results showed that high frequency consumers obtained higher ratings of clinical symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the St Göran's Semi-structured Interview (SGSI) compared to low frequency alcohol consumers on symptoms of inner tension, lack of initiative, risk of relapse (as rated by therapists and as rated by patients themselves), dysphoria, negative craving for alcohol, and positive craving for alcohol. The present results provided evidence for the existence of two sub-populations of alcoholics, those who have frequent lapses and those who have low frequency of sporadic lapses. Further, these two sub-populations were shown to differ with respect to overall psychological functioning, and craving for alcohol. In conclusion, the present findings have important treatment implications in that reliable identification of patients' consumption patterns using biological markers would allow for the design of individually tailored treatment needs. PMID:8879293

  15. The association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and drug use.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Weisner, C

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and the frequency of drug use in a sample of 219 men and 162 women consecutively admitted to nine alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that psychological distress is higher among men who are more severely dependent on alcohol and among those who have lower education; women who are less alcohol dependent and women who are younger have higher scores in psychological distress than other women. With regard to drug use, about 65% of the men and 64% of the women report using a drug other than alcohol at least once a week during the 12 months prior to admission into treatment. Among both men and women, the drugs most frequently used are crack/cocaine, marijuana and methamphetamine. Among men, regression analysis shows that drug use is associated with being younger. Among women results show that the predictors of drug use are being younger, being unemployed, having a higher income, being a heavier drinker and having fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence. These results show a complex pattern of association across alcohol dependence, drug use and psychological distress. Knowledge of this pattern is necessary for tailoring effective clinical interventions to clients with different kinds of comorbidity.

  16. Disaggregating the Distal, Proximal, and Time-Varying Effects of Parent Alcoholism on Children's Internalizing Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussong, A. M.; Cai, L.; Curran, P. J.; Flora, D. B.; Chassin, L. A.; Zucker, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    We tested whether children show greater internalizing symptoms when their parents are actively abusing alcohol. In an integrative data analysis, we combined observations over ages 2 through 17 from two longitudinal studies of children of alcoholic parents and matched controls recruited from the community. Using a mixed modeling approach, we tested…

  17. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  18. Genetic Etiology of the Common Liability to Drug Dependence: Evidence of Common and Specific Mechanisms for DSM-IV Dependence Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Rohan H. C.; Button, Tanya M.; Rhee, Soo H.; Corley, Robin P.; Young, Susan E.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Hewitt, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Background We investigated the etiological nature of comorbid alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis DSM-IV dependence symptoms in late adolescence and young adulthood while accounting for gender differences in the magnitude of genetic and environmental influences. Methods Univariate and multivariate twin modeling was used to determine the heritability of each substance and the etiology of multiple drug problems in a sample of 2484 registrants of the Center for Antisocial Drug Dependence who provided data at the second wave of an ongoing longitudinal study. We report on mean and prevalence levels of whole-life DSM-IV dependence symptoms that were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module. Biometrical analyses were limited to age-adjusted DSM-IV dependence symptom counts from a subset of twins that reported using alcohol, tobacco, or cannabis in their lifetime. Results Male and female alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis DSM-IV symptoms are indicators of a heritable unidimensional latent continuous trait. Additive genetic factors explain more than 60% of the common liability to drug dependence. A larger proportion of the variation in each substance is attributable to substance-specific genetic and environmental factors. Conclusions These data suggest that both common and substance-specific genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in the levels of DSM-IV alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis dependence symptoms. PMID:22243758

  19. Adolescent nicotine dependence symptom profiles and risk for future daily smoking.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jennifer S; Lee, Chien-Ti; Dierker, Lisa C; Selya, Arielle S; Mermelstein, Robin J

    2012-10-01

    Recent research on adolescent smokers suggests that there are important differences in the types of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms that emerge and different patterns of ND symptoms. The purpose of this study was to use data from the longitudinal Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study to identify latent subgroups of adolescent experimental and nondaily smokers varying in number and types of endorsed ND symptoms. Profiles were identified using baseline level of smoking, individual patterns of ND symptoms and other ND risk factors. Discrete time survival analysis was used to examine profile differences in probability of becoming daily smokers 48 months later. Four distinct subgroups of smokers with different patterns of smoking behavior, ND symptoms, and alcohol and other substance use emerged. Heavier smoking adolescents with high symptom endorsement, particularly the need to smoke in the morning, were most likely to become daily smokers 48 months later. A subgroup of social smokers had high smoking exposure and symptom endorsement (except need to smoke in the morning), and high levels of other substance use. Despite lower rates of smoking frequency and quantity compared to the heavier smoking class, 36% of these adolescents smoked daily by 48 months, with a steeper decline in survival rates compared to other lighter smoking classes. Morning smoking symptoms and symptoms prioritizing smoking (i.e., choosing to spend money on cigarettes instead of lunch or smoking when ill or where smoking is forbidden) might quickly identify adolescent non-daily smokers with more severe dependence and higher risk for daily smoking. A focus on skills for avoiding social situations involving use of alcohol and other drugs and reducing peer smoking influences may be an important focus for reducing smoking and other substance use among social smokers. PMID:22673155

  20. Craving and Physiological Reactivity to Trauma and Alcohol Cues in PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Henslee, Amber M.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Landy, Noah

    2013-01-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e.g., salivation, craving) in individuals with PTSD and AD (n=40). Participants displayed reactivity to both trauma and alcohol cues when compared to neutral cues, including increased self-reported craving and distress, as well as, greater salivation. These findings suggest that through repeated pairings of trauma memories and alcohol consumption, salivation may become classically conditioned to trauma cues. Moreover, the fact that the trauma-alcohol cue combination elicited greater alcohol craving, salivary responding, distress, and arousal than either the trauma-neutral or neutral-alcohol cue combinations, suggests that effects of the trauma and alcohol cues were additive in nature. Evidence that AD individuals with PTSD report increased alcohol craving and display greater salivation in response to trauma memories, supplements prior research indicating that PTSD-related negative emotion and trauma-related alcohol craving may play an important role in the maintenance of AD. PMID:20695690

  1. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR Polymorphism and Proximal and Distal Environments in Alcohol Dependence during Emerging and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The manifestation of alcohol dependence at different developmental stages may be associated with different genetic and environmental factors. Taking a developmental approach, the current study characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek involvement, and delayed adult role transition) on alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. Prospective data were obtained from a cohort of 234 Caucasian individuals (56% female) followed up at ages 18 through 34. A longitudinal hierarchical factor model was estimated to model a trait-like persistent alcohol dependence factor throughout emerging and young adulthood and two residual state-like alcohol dependence factors limited to emerging adulthood and young adulthood, respectively. To account for those alcohol dependence factors, three two-way interaction effects between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and the three developmentally specific environment factors were modeled. Carriers of the DRD4 long allele showed greater susceptibility to environmental effects; they showed more persistent alcohol dependence symptoms as childhood adversity increased and more alcohol dependence symptoms limited to emerging adulthood as college/Greek involvement increased. Alcohol dependence among non-carriers of the long allele, however, did not differ as a function of those environments. Although replication is necessary, these findings highlight the importance of repeated phenotypic assessments across development and modeling both distal and proximal environments and their interaction with genetic susceptibility at specific developmental stages. PMID:21381802

  2. Effects of Parental Alcoholism, Sense of Belonging, and Resilience on Depressive Symptoms: A Path Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyunhwa; Williams, Reg A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships between parental alcoholism, sense of belonging, resilience, and depressive symptoms in Koreans in the U.S. Data from 206 Koreans (Mean age = 28.4 years; 59.8% females) living in a Midwestern state were collected in 2009, using a web-based survey, which included Children of Alcoholic Screening Test, Sense of Belonging Instrument, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Path analysis results revealed sense of belonging as the most powerful, and resilience as the second important factor, resisting depressive symptoms associated with parental alcoholism. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are discussed. PMID:23302055

  3. Selective neurocognitive deficits and poor life functioning are associated with significant depressive symptoms in alcoholism-HIV infection comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Sassoon, Stephanie A; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf

    2012-09-30

    Alcoholism, HIV, and depressive symptoms frequently co-occur and are associated with impairment in cognition and life function. We administered the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), measures of life function, and neurocognitive tests to 67 alcoholics, 56 HIV+ patients, 63 HIV+ alcoholics, and 64 controls to examine whether current depressive symptom level (significant, BDI-II>14 vs. minimal, BDI-II<14) was associated with poorer cognitive or psychosocial function in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. Participants with significant depressive symptoms demonstrated slower manual motor speed and poorer visuospatial memory than those with minimal depressive symptoms. HIV patients with depressive symptoms showed impaired manual motor speed. Alcoholics with depressive symptoms showed impaired visuospatial memory. HIV+ alcoholics with depressive symptoms reported the poorest quality of life; alcoholics with depressive symptoms, irrespective of HIV status, had poorest life functioning. Thus, significant depressive symptoms were associated with poorer selective cognitive and life functioning in alcoholism and in HIV infection, even though depressive symptoms had neither synergistic nor additive effects on cognition in alcoholism-HIV comorbidity. The results suggest the relevance of assessing and treating current depressive symptoms to reduce cognitive compromise and functional disability in HIV infection, alcoholism, and their comorbidity.

  4. Maternal Depressive Symptoms as a Predictor of Alcohol Use Onset and Heavy Episodic Drinking in Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamis, Dorian A.; Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study addressed a gap in the literature by investigating the association between maternal depressive symptoms and subsequent timing of their children's alcohol use onset and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Childhood depression/dysthymia symptoms, harsh discipline, and parental positive regard were examined as potential…

  5. Witnessing Violence across the Life Course, Depressive Symptoms, and Alcohol Use among Older Persons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colbert, Sha Juan; Krause, Neal

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether witnessing a very violent act at any point in the life course is associated with depressive symptoms and alcohol use in late life. The data come from a nationwide probability sample of older adults (N = 1,498). The findings reveal that witnessing violence is associated with more symptoms of depression…

  6. The role of neurotransmitters in alcohol dependence: animal research.

    PubMed

    De Witte, P

    1996-03-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol changes neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrenaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One class of neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid peptides, are believed to play an important role in alcohol reinforcement. This view is supported by the reduced preference for alcohol consumption found in rats given an opiate agonist. The widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is also believed to play a fundamental role in mediating the effects of alcohol. A better understanding of the mechanisms that support alcohol dependence in animals offers hope for the development of pharmacological interventions to block these mechanisms, an approach that is now being explored in humans.

  7. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  8. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  9. Continuum beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.

  10. Positive Affect and Stress Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Kaufman, Julia S.; Frost, Katherine H.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reactivity to stress is a common feature of alcohol dependence and is associated with poorer treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent patients. Despite the importance of stress reactivity in alcohol dependence, little is known about markers of resilience to stress in this population. The current study examined whether positive affect buffered the effect of stress on negative affect and alcohol craving in an alcohol-dependent sample. Method: Outpatients (N = 1,375) enrolled in a large, randomized controlled trial for alcohol dependence (the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence [COMBINE] Study) completed measures of stress, positive affect, negative affect, and alcohol craving. In this secondary analysis, we hypothesized that positive affect would moderate the association between stress and negative affect and that positive affect would be negatively associated with craving. Results: Results supported these hypotheses, such that patients with higher levels of positive affect exhibited a weaker relationship between stress and negative affect relative to those with low positive affect. Positive affect was negatively associated with craving but did not moderate the association between stress and craving. Conclusions: These results replicate studies suggesting a protective effect of positive affect on stress reactivity and extend this effect to an alcohol-dependent sample. If positive affect can aid in resilience to stress, the utilization of interventions that enhance positive affect may be of particular utility for alcohol-dependent patients. Future experimental studies testing the causality of this association as well as studies examining the effect of interventions to enhance positive affect are needed. PMID:23200161

  11. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  12. Alcoholism in Black Vietnam Veterans: Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage. Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented. PMID:7120496

  13. Alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans: symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-07-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage.Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented.

  14. The Expected Personality Characteristics of Alcohol-Dependent Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2002-01-01

    Uses the Big Five personality factors as a framework for examining the expected personality characteristics of individuals who are alcohol-dependent. Results help explain prior findings about the social handicap of problem drinking with regard to making friends, dating, marriage, and working. Findings have potential use in alcohol-problem…

  15. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence. PMID:23246707

  16. Typologies of positive psychotic symptoms in methamphetamine dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bousman, Chad A.; McKetin, Rebecca; Burns, Richard; Woods, Steven Paul; Morgan, Erin E.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Everall, Ian P.; Grant, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Understanding methamphetamine associated psychotic (MAP) symptom typologies could aid in identifying individuals at risk of progressing to schizophrenia and guide early intervention. Methods Latent class analysis (LCA) of psychotic symptoms collected from 40 methamphetamine dependent individuals with a history of psychotic symptoms but no history of a primary psychotic disorder. Results Three typologies were identified. In one, persecutory delusions dominated (Type 1), in another persecutory delusions were accompanied by hallucinations (Type 2), and in the third a high frequency of all the assessed hallucinatory and delusional symptoms was observed (Type 3). Discussion and Conclusion MAP is a heterogeneous syndrome with positive symptom typologies. Scientific Significance This study represents the first attempt at identifying typologies of MAP and highlights the potential utility of LCA in future large-scale studies. PMID:25864598

  17. The association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation is elevated for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Sleep problems are associated with suicide risk and alcohol use, and sleep problems may be associated with suicide risk in those with alcohol use disorders. For the present study, we hypothesized that self-reported sleep problems are associated with suicidal thoughts in a sample of adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Methods The sample included 304 patients in addiction treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland who met criteria for alcohol dependence. Measures included demographic characteristics, frequency of alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, suicidal ideation and two measures of insomnia, which differed by time frame: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS, past 1 month) and the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ-7, past 6 months). Multivariable logistic regression models tested the association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts. Results In models that controlled for age, gender, and days of recent drinking, both measures of sleep problems were associated with suicidal ideation: AOR= 2.01 (95% CI: 1.50-2.70) [AIS] and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.29-2.31) [SDQ-7]. The association of sleep problems, as measured by the AIS, with suicide remained significant after adjusting for psychiatric symptoms, although the estimated effect size was smaller (AOR= 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.06). Conclusions Among Polish adults with alcohol dependence, insomnia severity was associated with suicidal ideation. This finding highlights the need to assess for sleep problems, in addition to suicidal thoughts, in alcohol treatment settings and to further examine the potential consequences of poor sleep in this population. PMID:21996494

  18. Parenting, identity development, internalizing symptoms, and alcohol use: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pellerone, Monica; Tolini, Giacomo; Polopoli, Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Background Literature has demonstrated the adaptive function of identity development and parenting toward manifestation of problem behaviors in adolescence. These dimensions act on both internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Methods The objective is to investigate the relationship between identity status, parenting, and adolescent problems, which may manifest through internalized (phobias, obsessions, depression, eating disorders, entropy) and externalized modes (alcohol use and school discomfort). The research involved 198 Italian students (104 males and 94 females) in the 4th year (mean =16.94 years, standard deviation =0.35) and 5th year (mean =17.94 years, standard deviation =0.43) of senior secondary schools, who live in Caltanissetta, a town located in Sicily, Italy. The research lasted for 1 school year. The general group consisted of 225 students with a mortality rate of 12%. They completed an anamnestic questionnaire to provide 1) basic information, 2) alcohol consumption attitude in the past 30 days, and 3) their beliefs about alcohol; the “Ego Identity Process Questionnaire” to investigate identity development; the “Parental Bonding Instrument” to measure the perception of parenting during childhood; and the “Constraints of Mind” to value the presence of internalizing symptoms. Results Data show that identity status influences alcohol consumption. Low-profile identity and excessive maternal control affect the relational dependence and the tendency to perfectionism in adolescents. Among the predictors of alcohol use, there are socioeconomic status, parental control, and the presence of internalizing symptoms. Conclusion Family is the favored context of learning beliefs, patterns, and values that affect the broader regulatory social environment, and for this reason, it is considered the privileged context on which to intervene to reduce the adolescents’ behavior problems. This deviance could be an external manifestation of the difficulty

  19. Associations among depressive symptoms, drinking motives, and risk for alcohol-related problems in veterinary students.

    PubMed

    Diulio, Andrea R; Dutta, Nicole M; Gauthier, Jami M; Witte, Tracy K; Correia, Christopher J; Angarano, Donna

    2015-01-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption among medical students appears to occur at a level comparable to the general population; however, among medical students, it has been found that the motivation to use alcohol partially stems from unique stressors related to their professional training. Although veterinary students may also experience psychological distress in association with their training, little work has focused on the way that these students use alcohol to cope with their distress. The current study sought to examine the severity of depressive symptoms and alcohol consumption among veterinary students as well as students' specific motives for drinking alcohol. The majority of our sample reported experiencing at least one depressive symptom, and a significant proportion engaged in high-risk drinking, with men reporting more harmful alcohol use patterns. Drinking motives related to managing internal bodily and emotional states accounted for variance in drinking patterns. Further, drinking to ameliorate negative emotions partially accounted for the relationship between psychological distress and high-risk drinking. The results of this study suggest that depressive symptoms among veterinary students may be related to harmful drinking patterns, due to alcohol being used as a coping mechanism to regulate emotions. The findings from this study can be used to develop targeted interventions to promote psychological well-being among veterinary students. PMID:25547905

  20. Nalmefene for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a current update.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2014-04-01

    To date, few pharmacotherapies have been established for the treatment of alcoholism. There is a plethora of research concerning the involvement of the opioid-endorphin system in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been found to be effective in alcohol treatment. In addition, the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene was recently approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of alcoholism. The relevant studies followed a harm-reduction, 'as needed' approach and showed a reduction in alcohol consumption with nalmefene 20 mg rather than increased abstinence rates, (which was not the primary goal of the relevant studies). The available literature is reviewed and discussed. Nalmefene appears to be a safe and effective treatment for alcohol dependence.

  1. Profile of dependence symptoms among extramedical opioid analgesic users.

    PubMed

    Martins, Silvia S; Ghandour, Lilian A; Chilcoat, Howard D

    2007-10-01

    Little is known about the extent of problems due to extramedical opioid analgesic use ('analgesic misuse') in the US general population. This study explores the distribution of the seven DSM-IV-defined past-year dependence symptoms in a total household sample of 7,810 past-year extramedical opioid analgesic users using the 2002-2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We tested for differences in opioid analgesic dependence symptom profiles across four subgroups of opioid analgesic users, different levels of deviant behaviors, and presence/absence of serious mental health problems quantified by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview Short Form (CIDI-sf). Generalized Estimated Equations (GEE) models were used to analyze the data. The most common opioid analgesic dependence symptoms were 'tolerance' (17.0%) and 'salience' (13.3%). Opioid analgesic dependence symptom profiles were 'parallel' across the groups of past-year opioid analgesic users, across deviant behavior groups and across presence/absence of serious mental health problems. Extramedical use of opioid analgesics associated with prescription drug use, having high levels of deviant behaviors, and having serious mental health problems were more strongly associated with endorsement of opioid analgesics dependence symptoms.

  2. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  3. NEURAL PLASTICITY, HUMAN GENETICS, AND RISK FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shirley Y.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunities for advances in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence have been facilitated by the development of sophisticated neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques that allow us to have a window on developmental changes in brain structure and function. The search for genes that may increase susceptibility to alcohol dependence has been greatly facilitated by the recognition that intermediate phenotypes, sometimes referred to as endophenotypes. may be closer to the genetic variation than is the more complex alcohol dependence phenotype. This chapter will review the evidence that the brain is highly plastic, exhibiting major postnatal changes, especially during adolescence, in neural circuits that appear to influence addiction susceptibility. This chapter will suggest that heritable aspects of brain structure and function that are seen developmentally may be an important endophenotypic characteristic associated with familial risk for developing alcohol dependence. Finally, a review of studies showing associations between brain structural and functional characteristics and specific genes will be offered. PMID:20813240

  4. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  5. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  6. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  7. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  8. ASTN1 and alcohol dependence: family-based association analysis in multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Weeks, Daniel E; Jones, Bobby L; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2012-06-01

    A previous genome-wide linkage study of alcohol dependence (AD) in multiplex families found a suggestive linkage result for a region on Chromosome 1 near microsatellite markers D1S196 and D1S2878. The ASTN1 gene is in this region, a gene previously reported to be associated with substance abuse, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Using the same family data consisting of 330 individuals with phenotypic data and DNA, finer mapping of a 26 cM region centered on D1S196 was undertaken using SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.15 and pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) of r(2) < 0.8 using the HapMap CEU population. Significant FBAT P-values for SNPs within the ASTN1 gene were observed for four SNPs (rs465066, rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917), the most significant, rs228008, within intron 8 had a P-value of 0.001. Using MQLS, which allows for inclusion of all families, we find three of these SNPs with MQLS P-values < 0.003. In addition, two additional neighboring SNPs (rs10798496 and rs6667588) showed significance at P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively. Haplotype analysis was performed using the haplotype-based test function of FBAT for a block that included rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917. This analysis found one block (GCG) over-transmitted and another (ATA) under-transmitted to affected offspring. Linkage analysis identified a region consistent with the association results. Family-based association analysis shows the ASTN1 gene significantly associated with alcohol dependence. The potential importance of the ASTN1 gene for AD risk may be related its role in glial-guided neuronal migration.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia in a Polish Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhabenko, Nataliya; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is an important symptom in alcohol-dependent patients because it may persist despite abstinence and predispose to relapse to drinking. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in a sample of 302 alcohol-dependent patients admitted to treatment programs in Poland. Methods Participants were mostly men (73.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (9.7) years. Insomnia in the past 1 month was assessed using a total score of 6 or higher on the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results Insomnia affected 62.9% of patients, and delayed sleep induction was the most common subtype. Insomnia was associated in bivariate analyses with less education, inadequate finances, problem drinking at an earlier age of onset, drinking frequency and quantity, drinking-related consequences, severity of alcohol and nicotine dependence, psychiatric and physical severity, and a childhood history of sexual or physical abuse (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that mental and physical health status, severity of alcohol dependence, number of drinking days in the past 3 months, and childhood abuse were independent predictors of insomnia, explaining approximately 30 to 40% of the variance. Conclusions More than 60% of alcohol-dependent patients in a Polish sample screened positive for insomnia using a validated scale, a rate similar to those assessed with other scales in other countries. The study also showed that insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients is associated with poor physical health and childhood abuse, similar to the general population. The multifactorial nature of insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients has treatment implications. PMID:22471339

  10. A Test of Whether Coping Styles Moderate the Effect of PTSD Symptoms on Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Justine A.; Kimbrel, Nathan A.; Dolan, Sara; Meyer, Eric C.; Kruse, Marc I.; Gulliver, Suzy B.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Coping style may partially account for the frequent co-occurrence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol-use disorders (AUD). We hypothesized that PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping would interact, such that veterans high on PTSD symptoms and avoidant coping and low on action-oriented coping would report more negative alcohol-related consequences and drinking a greater number of drinks per week compared to veterans without all three risk factors. The sample (N = 128) of veterans (85.2% male, M = 37.8 years old, 63.3% Caucasian) completed a diagnostic assessment and self-report measures assessing PTSD, alcohol use disorders, coping styles, and alcohol outcomes. Consistent with the main hypothesis, a three-way interaction among PTSD symptom severity, avoidant coping, and action-oriented coping was found in the predicted direction. In addition, post-hoc descriptive analyses indicated that Veterans with a current PTSD diagnosis, low action-oriented coping, and high avoidant coping had worse alcohol outcomes and were twice as likely to meet criteria for current AUD compared with Veterans with two or fewer risk factors. These findings suggest that the combination of PTSD and maladaptive coping styles may be more important for understanding alcohol-related outcomes than the presence of any of these variables in isolation. PMID:25158641

  11. Alcohol use and depressive symptoms among Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Golding, J M; Burnam, M A; Wells, K B

    1990-01-01

    Alcohol use is associated with depressive symptoms in several studies. Using data from a community survey, this study examined whether this relationship (a) can be accounted for by ethnic or sociodemographic differences among persons who engage in various levels of alcohol use; and (b) differs for Mexican Americans (N = 1244) and non-Hispanic Whites (N = 1149). Using large quantities of alcohol, and, among men, daily drinking, were associated with depressed mood. These associations were similar for Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic Whites, and associations of quantity and frequency with depression were independent of each other. Among women, the cultural and demographic characteristics of high-quantity drinkers and abstainers (both of whom tended to be Mexican Americans) accounted for the association of alcohol use with depression. Among men, there was some suggestion that unemployment and unmarried status mediated the association of alcohol quantity with depression. People who drank greater quantities of alcohol per occasion reported more somatic depressive symptoms, and more frequent male drinkers reported more of most types of depressive symptoms. PMID:2222577

  12. PTSD Symptoms, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol-Related Consequences Among College Students with a Trauma History

    PubMed Central

    Tripp, Jessica C.; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E.; Avery, Megan L.; Bracken, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol use, and alcohol-related consequences have been linked to emotion dysregulation. Sex differences exist in both emotion regulation dimensions and alcohol use patterns. This investigation examined facets of emotion dysregulation as potential mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences and whether differences may exist across sexes. Methods Participants included 240 college students with a trauma history who reported using alcohol within the past three months and completed measures of PTSD symptoms, emotion dysregulation, alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and negative affect. The six facets of emotion dysregulation were examined as mediators of the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample and by sex. Results There were differences in sexes on several variables, with women reporting higher PTSD scores and Lack of Emotional Awareness. Men reported significantly higher drinks per week in a typical week and a heavy week. There were significant associations between the variables for the full sample, with PTSD showing associations with five facets of emotion dysregulation subscales: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Directed Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Responses, Lack of Emotional Clarity, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Alcohol-related consequences were associated with four aspects of emotion dysregulation: Impulse Control Difficulties when Upset, Difficulties Engaging in Goal-Direct Behavior, Nonacceptance of Emotional Reponses, and Limited Access to Emotion Regulation Strategies. Two aspects of emotion regulation, Impulse Control Difficulties and Difficulties Engaging in Goal Directed Behavior, mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and alcohol-related consequences in the full sample, even after adjusting for the effects of negative affect

  13. The relationship of alcohol-use disorders and depressive symptoms to tryptophan metabolism: cross-sectional data from a Nepalese alcohol treatment sample

    PubMed Central

    Neupane, Sudan Prasad; Lien, Lars; Martinez, Priscilla; Hestad, Knut; Bramness, Jørgen G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Activation of the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan metabolism results in increased production of potentially depressogenic tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tryptophan availability for serotonin synthesis. Since alcohol consumption affects tryptophan metabolism and disposition, we determined serum levels of kynurenine, tryptophan and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KT ratio) in alcohol-use disorder (AUD) patients and compared their levels considering abstinence duration, AUD severity and comorbid depression. Methods The study sample included 169 AUD inpatients from eight alcohol treatment facilities in Kathmandu, Nepal. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to generate the AUD diagnosis. The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) captured AUD severity and patterns of alcohol use. The Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 was used to reveal current depressive symptoms. Serum kynurenine and tryptophan levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and tryptophan degradation was measured by KT ratio (kynurenine/tryptophan × 103). Results Patients with above average AUDIT scores had higher mean serum levels of kynurenine (2.1μM±0.7 vs 1.8 μM ±0.6, p= 0.006) and KT ratios (48.6±17.6 vs 40.4±14.3, p=0.002) than those with below average scores. Patients with current depressive symptoms had higher mean tryptophan concentrations (49.9 μM ±13 vs 45.7 μM±14.1, p= 0.047) and lower KT ratios (41.4 μM ±14 vs 47.5 μM ±17.6, p=0.028) compared to patients whose reported depressive symptoms were below the standard cut-off. Higher tryptophan levels and lower KT ratios in the depressed group was specific to patients with longer abstinence and higher AUD severity. Conclusions Depression-related deregulation in tryptophan metabolism was found to depend on length of abstinence and on AUD severity. Together, results suggest that in AUD populations, peripheral tryptophan metabolism is subject to interactions

  14. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse/dependence with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Le Fauve, Charlene E; Litten, Raye Z; Randall, Carrie L; Moak, Darlene H; Salloum, Ihsan M; Green, Alan I

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting RSA in Fort Lauderdale, FL. It was organized and cochaired by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Carrie L. Randall. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Raye Z. Litten; (2) Treatment of co-occurring alcohol use and anxiety disorders, by Carrie L. Randall and Sarah W. Book; (3) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependent patients with comorbid depression, by Darlene H. Moak; (4) Efficacy of valproate in bipolar alcoholics: a double blind, placebo-controlled study, by Ihsan M. Salloum, Jack R. Cornelius, Dennis C. Daley, Levent Kirisci, Johnathan Himmelhoch, and Michael E. Thase; (5) Alcoholism and schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotics, by Alan I. Green, Robert E. Drake, Suzannah V. Zimmet, Rael D. Strous, Melinda Salomon, and Mark Brenner; and (6) Conclusions, by Charlene E. Le Fauve; discussant, Raye Z. Litten. Alcohol-dependent individuals have exceptionally high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Although this population is more likely to seek alcoholism treatment than noncomorbid alcoholics, the prognosis for treatment is often poor, particularly among patients with more severe psychiatric illnesses. Development of effective interventions to treat this population is in the early stages of research. Although the interaction between the psychiatric condition and alcoholism is complex, progress has been made. The NIAAA has supported a number of state-of-the-art pharmacological and behavioral trials in a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of these trials have been completed and are presented here. The symposium presented some new research findings from clinical studies with the aim of facilitating the development of treatments that improve alcohol and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. The panel focused on social anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and

  15. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  16. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  17. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  18. Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

  19. Longitudinal Examination of PTSD Symptoms and Problematic Alcohol Use As Risk Factors for Adolescent Victimization

    PubMed Central

    McCart, Michael R; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J; Smith, Daniel W; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The current study examined associations between PTSD symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD symptoms and subsequent victimization. Method Participants included a national longitudinal sample of adolescents (N = 3,604) who were ages 12 to 17 at the initial assessment; 50% were male; and 67% were white, 16% African American, and 12% Hispanic. Cohort-sequential latent growth curve modeling was used to examine associations among the study variables. Results Baseline PTSD symptoms significantly predicted age-related increases in interpersonal victimization, even after accounting for the effects of earlier victimization experiences. In addition, alcohol problems emerged as a partial mediator of this relation, such that one-quarter to one-third of the effect of PTSD symptoms on future victimization was attributable to the impact of PTSD symptoms on alcohol problems (which in turn predicted additional victimization risk). Collectively, the full model accounted for more than half of the variance in age-related increases in interpersonal victimization among youth. Conclusion Results indicate that PTSD symptoms serve as a risk factor for subsequent victimization among adolescents, over and above the risk conferred by prior victimization. This increased risk occurred both independently and through the impact of PTSD symptoms on problematic alcohol use. Based on these findings, it is hypothesized that the likelihood of repeated victimization among youth might be reduced through early detection and treatment of these clinical problems. PMID:22963207

  20. Symptom-Triggered vs. Fixed-Dosing Management of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Reagan T

    2014-01-01

    A literature review was conducted with the objective of creating evidence-based recommendations for use of symptom-triggered therapy (STT) or fixed-schedule dosing in treating alcohol withdrawal syndrome in inpatients. Use of STT reduced duration of therapy as well as the number of patients requiring treatment or medication, potentially reducing costs and risk of adverse medication reactions.

  1. Longitudinal Examination of PTSD Symptoms and Problematic Alcohol Use as Risk Factors for Adolescent Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCart, Michael R.; Zajac, Kristyn; Kofler, Michael J.; Smith, Daniel W.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and future interpersonal victimization among adolescents, after accounting for the impact of early victimization exposure, gender, ethnicity, and household income. In addition, problematic alcohol use was tested as a mediator of the relation between PTSD…

  2. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  3. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient’s and the doctor’s perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient’s active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  4. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  5. Discovering genes involved in alcohol dependence and other alcohol responses: role of animal models.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kari J; Milner, Lauren C; Denmark, Deaunne L; Grant, Seth G N; Kozell, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a variety of genetic animal models, the identification of regions of chromosomal DNA that contain a gene or genes which affect a complex phenotype (i.e., quantitative trait loci [QTLs]) has allowed unbiased searches for candidate genes. Several QTLs with large effects on alcohol withdrawal severity in mice have been detected, and fine mapping of these QTLs has placed them in small intervals on mouse chromosomes 1 and 4 (which correspond to certain regions on human chromosomes 1 and 9). Subsequent work led to the identification of underlying quantitative trait genes (QTGs) (e.g., Mpdz) and high-quality QTG candidates (e.g., Kcnj9 and genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress) and their plausible mechanisms of action. Human association studies provide supporting evidence that these QTLs and QTGs may be directly relevant to alcohol risk factors in clinical populations.

  6. [Personality variables, psychopathological alterations and personality disorders in alcohol-dependent patients according to Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  7. Nicotinic receptor modulation to treat alcohol and drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug dependence are serious public health problems worldwide. The prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in the United States and other parts of the world is significant. Given the limitations in the efficacy of current pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders, research in developing alternative pharmacotherapies continues. Preclinical and clinical evidence thus far has indicated that brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are important pharmacological targets for the development of medications to treat alcohol and drug dependence. The nAChRs are a super family of ligand gated ion channels, and are expressed throughout the brain with twelve neuronal nAChR subunits (α2–α10 and β2–β4) identified. Here, we review preclinical and clinical evidence involving a number of nAChR ligands that target different nAChR subtypes in alcohol and nicotine addiction. The important ligands include cytisine, lobeline, mecamylamine, varenicline, sazetidine A and others that target α4β2* nAChR subtypes as small molecule modulators of the brain nicotinic cholinergic system are also discussed. Taken together, both preclinical and clinical data exist that support nAChR–based ligands as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence. PMID:25642160

  8. Psychological changes in alcohol-dependent patients during a residential rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Ines; Ottonello, Marcella; Vittadini, Giovanni; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive–affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse. Materials and methods The sample included 560 subjects (mean age 46.91±10.2 years) who completed 28-day rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction, following a tailored routine characterized by short duration and high intensity of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The psychological clinical profiles of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and self-perception of a positive change were assessed using the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program. The changes in the psychological variables of the questionnaire were identified and considered as outcome evaluation of the residential intervention. Moreover, differences in the psychological functioning between patients with different characteristics were investigated. Results The score measured by the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation showed significant improvements in all the psychological characteristics assessed, and the profile at discharge was within the normal scores. Some significant differences were found in relation to specific characteristics of the sample, such as age, sex, level of education, type of intervention, and polysubstance use. Conclusion This study shows the changes in psychological profile in subjects undergoing residential rehabilitation from alcohol and how this

  9. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Braitman, Abby; Henson, James M; Schroeder, Valarie; Ladage, Jessica; Gumienny, Leslie

    2010-04-01

    Relationships among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and parent and peer relations and depressive mood were examined among 136 ACOAs and 436 non-ACOAs. As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported less positive relationships to mothers, fathers, and peers, and more depressive mood; however, more positive relationships to parents and peers significantly reduced the strength of the association between ACOA categorization and depressive mood. Examination of data from ACOAs alone revealed that maternal alcoholism was related to less positive relationships to their mothers and to their peers; however, paternal alcoholism did not predict the quality of the relationship to fathers, mothers, or peers. Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs. PMID:20553514

  10. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  11. PTSD symptoms and pain in Canadian military veterans: the mediating roles of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Kara C; Konnert, Candace; Wong, May; O'Neill, Thomas A

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and pain are often comorbid among veterans. The purpose of this study was to investigate to what extent symptoms of anxiety, depression, and alcohol use mediated the relationship between PTSD symptoms and pain among 113 treated male Canadian veterans. Measures of PTSD, pain, anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, and alcohol use were collected as part of the initial assessment. The bootstrapped resampling analyses were consistent with the hypothesis of mediation for anxiety and depression, but not alcohol use. The confidence intervals did not include zero and the indirect effect of PTSD on pain through anxiety was .04, CI [.03, .07]. The indirect effect of PTSD on pain through depression was .04, CI [.02, .07]. These findings suggest that PTSD and pain symptoms among veterans may be related through the underlying symptoms of anxiety and depression, thus emphasizing the importance of targeting anxiety and depression symptoms when treating comorbid PTSD and pain patients.

  12. [Degrees of alcoholic dependency in patient's self evaluation].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L; Debski, L

    The study involved a group of 33 males with diagnosed alcohol abuse. A degree of the disease was determined according to Standard Anamnesis Sheet and Auxilliary Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (Woronowicz's Questionnaire). The patient's results were compared with their wives' results in order to determine trustworthiness. The goal of this study was to determine the factors influencing patient's critical assessment of their disease. The results reveal a relationship between patient's assessment and clinical manifestations of their dependence tend to underestimate the degree of their disease. PMID:8146056

  13. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Fernandes, Austin B.; Goyal, Sunil; Shanker, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens. PMID:27212829

  14. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  15. [Gender differences in alcohol dependence: personality variables, psychopathological profile and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, gender differences in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders of alcohol-dependent patients are described. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent patients attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic (105 men and 55 women). All participants were assessed with various assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). There were no differences in personality variables, but the women had more anxiety and depressive symptoms and also more problems to adapt to everyday life than did the men. Personality disorders were not as prevalent as in the case of men, and the most frequent among women were obsessive-compulsive, dependent and histrionic personality disorders. Implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  16. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  17. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  18. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  19. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  20. Self and partner alcohol-related problems among ACOAs and non-ACOAs: associations with depressive symptoms and motivations for alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Michelle L; Linden, Ashley N; Milletich, Robert J; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kurtz, Erin D; D'Lima, Gabrielle M; Bodkins, Jessica A; Sheehan, Brynn E

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined whether drinking motivations and depressive symptoms would have a stronger impact on alcohol-related problems among adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) and their dating partners as compared to non-ACOAs and their dating partners. Participants were 197 undergraduate (60 ACOAs, 137 non-ACOAs) 18 to 25year-old female drinkers in dating relationships. Participants completed measures of ACOA screening, depressive symptoms, and drinking motives, as well as alcohol-related problems for themselves and their partner. Although no differences were found between ACOA and non-ACOA women's alcohol-related problems, ACOA women and women with greater depressive symptoms were at a higher risk of having a partner with more alcohol-related problems. In addition, we found that regardless of parental history of alcoholism, higher depressive symptoms coupled with stronger motives for drinking to cope with stressors predicted participants' own alcohol-related problems. These findings demonstrate the need for future research to examine additional factors that may moderate the effects of depressive symptoms and ACOA status on female college student drinking problems. A greater understanding of the unique and interactive effects of these variables on alcohol-related problems in both young women and their dating partners can aid in the development of prevention programs more targeted to the specific vulnerabilities of this population. PMID:24182750

  1. Influence of circadian typology on drug consumption, hazardous alcohol use, and hangover symptoms.

    PubMed

    Prat, Gemma; Adan, Ana

    2011-04-01

    Few studies have focused on the influence of circadian typology on drug use, and none has considered the use of illegal drugs and hazardous alcohol consumption. This study analyzes the influence of circadian typology on several types of drug consumption (habitual or sporadic), hangover symptoms (past 12 mos), and, more specifically, hazardous alcohol consumption of young adults. Five hundred seventeen university students (173 males), between 17 and 30 yrs of age, answered the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a self-referred questionnaire on drug consumption during the previous month and on the prevalence of different hangover symptoms during the previous year. Our results confirm a higher prevalence of consumption of addictive substances, both legal (nicotine and cola drinks) and illegal (cannabis and ecstasy), in evening- compared to morning- and neither-type subjects (p < .001 in all cases). Evening-type subjects also obtained a higher total score on the AUDIT (p < .001) and showed a greater prevalence in the subscales of potential alcohol problems (p < .02), as well as more frequent different hangover symptoms (learning difficulties, thirst, tiredness, headaches, sensorial hypersensitivity, anxiety, and irritability; p < .04 in all cases) compared with morning- and neither-type subjects, except for sensorial hypersensitivity and anxiety, for which the evening-type did not differ from the neither-type. Our results provide substantial evidence that the evening circadian typology is a risk factor for the development of drug consumption and that it should be taken into account both in preventive and treatment approaches. Moreover, the data regarding hazardous alcohol use and hangover symptoms emphasize the need to include circadian typology in future studies on the pattern of heavy episodic drinking.

  2. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate for the treatment of comorbid cocaine and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Spratt, Kelly; Wierzbicki, Michael R.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Topiramate increases GABAergic activity and antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors. Through these mechanisms of action, topiramate may reduce alcohol and cocaine reward and may reduce alcohol and cocaine craving. Topiramate has been shown to reduce drinking in persons with alcohol dependence, and reduce relapse in stimulant-dependent patients. The current trial was intended to test the ability of topiramate to promote cocaine and alcohol abstinence among patients addicted to both drugs. METHODS The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 13-week trial involving 170 cocaine and alcohol dependent subjects. After achieving a period of cocaine and alcohol abstinence, subjects were randomized to topiramate, 300 mg daily, or identical placebo capsules. In addition, subjects received weekly individual psychotherapy. Primary outcome measures included self-reported alcohol and cocaine use, and thrice weekly urine drug screens. Secondary outcome measures included cocaine and alcohol craving, Addiction Severity Index results, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and clinical global improvement ratings. RESULTS Topiramate was not better than placebo in reducing cocaine use on the a priori primary outcome measure, or in reducing alcohol use. Topiramate was not better than placebo in reducing cocaine craving. Topiramate-treated subjects, compared to placebo-treated subjects, were more likely to be retained in treatment and more likely to be abstinent from cocaine during the last three weeks of the trial. Subjects who entered treatment with more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms responded better to topiramate. DISCUSSION Topiramate plus cognitive behavioral therapy may reduce cocaine use for some patients with comorbid cocaine and alcohol dependence. PMID:23810644

  3. Pharmacoprophylaxis of alcohol dependence: Review and update Part I: Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhateja, Gaurav; Basu, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major problem in India. The pharmacological armamentarium for relapse prevention of alcohol has widened with the addition of new drugs. In this article, we review the pharmacology and efficacy of the four most important such drugs: disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate and topiramate. The first part of this two-part review series concerns the comparative pharmacology and the second part concerns the efficacy studies. Overall, all four of these drugs have modest but clinically significant usefulness as pharmacoprophylactic agents for relapse prevention or minimization of alcohol dependence. Combinations might be helpful, especially for naltrexone and acamprosate. The issue of supervision and compliance remains important, especially for such drugs as disulfiram and naltrexone. Topiramate is a promising new agent and requires further study. Disulfiram, while very effective in compliant patients, presents challenges in terms of patient selection and side effects. For patients with hepatic impairment, acamprosate is a good choice. PMID:20640061

  4. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol.

  5. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts. PMID:24698092

  6. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  7. Ecological momentary assessment of PTSD symptoms and alcohol use in combat veterans.

    PubMed

    Possemato, Kyle; Maisto, Stephen A; Wade, Michael; Barrie, Kimberly; McKenzie, Shannon; Lantinga, Larry J; Ouimette, Paige

    2015-12-01

    Despite high rates of comorbid hazardous alcohol use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the nature of the functional relationship between these problems is not fully understood. Insufficient evidence exists to fully support models commonly used to explain the relationship between hazardous alcohol use and PTSD including the self-medication hypothesis and the mutual maintenance model. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) can monitor within-day fluctuations of symptoms and drinking to provide novel information regarding potential functional relationships and symptom interactions. This study aimed to model the daily course of alcohol use and PTSD symptoms and to test theory-based moderators, including avoidance coping and self-efficacy to resist drinking. A total of 143 recent combat veterans with PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking completed brief assessments of alcohol use, PTSD symptoms, mood, coping, and self-efficacy 4 times daily for 28 days. Our results support the finding that increases in PTSD are associated with more drinking within the same 3-hr time block, but not more drinking within the following time block. Support for moderators was found: Avoidance coping strengthened the relationship between PTSD and later drinking, while self-efficacy to resist drinking weakened the relationship between PTSD and later drinking. An exploratory analysis revealed support for self-medication occurring in certain times of the day: Increased PTSD severity in the evening predicted more drinking overnight. Overall, our results provide mixed support for the self-medication hypothesis. Also, interventions that seek to reduce avoidance coping and increase patient self-efficacy may help veterans with PTSD decrease drinking.

  8. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard. PMID:27450908

  9. Age moderates the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol use in the National Guard.

    PubMed

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2016-12-01

    Unhealthy drinking is a significant problem contributing to poor health and performance of military personnel. The Iowa Army National Guard and the Iowa Department of Public Health have collaborated with the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration to better identify unhealthy substance use via Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment program (SBIRT). Yet, little research has been conducted on the Guard's use of SBIRT. This study examined depression, age, deployment status, and sex as factors contributing to unhealthy drinking. Of the Guardsmen who took part in SBIRT, 3.7% (n=75) met the criteria for unhealthy drinking and 3.9% (n=78) had some level of depression. The overall multivariate model significantly predicted unhealthy drinking (χ(2)(5)=41.41, p<0.001) with age moderating the association of depressive symptoms and unhealthy alcohol (Wald χ(2)(1)=7.16, p=0.007). These findings add to the existing understanding of factors contributing to unhealthy drinking suggesting the association between the presence of depression and unhealthy drinking depends on age of the Guradsman. This age and depression interaction may be an important diagnostic feature to consider for unhealthy drinking in the Guard. Furthermore, previous research on the general military population finds similar percentages, providing support for SBIRT as an effective screening tool in the Guard.

  10. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  11. Neuropeptide Y Opposes Alcohol Effects on GABA Release in Amygdala and Blocks the Transition to Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Misra, Kaushik; Herman, Melissa A.; Cruz, Maureen T.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Background During the transition to alcohol and drug addiction, neuromodulator systems in the extended amygdala are recruited to mediate aspects of withdrawal and relapse via convergence on inhibitory GABA neurons in central amygdala (CeA). Methods This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in excessive alcohol drinking by making rats dependent on alcohol via alcohol vapor inhalation. This study also utilized intracellular and whole-cell recording techniques to determine the effects of NPY on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in CeA, synaptic mechanisms involved in these NPY effects, and NPY interactions with alcohol in the CeA of alcohol-naïve and alcohol-dependent rats. Results Chronic NPY treatment blocked excessive operant alcohol-reinforced responding associated with alcohol dependence, as well as gradual increases in alcohol responding by intermittently tested non-dependent controls. NPY decreased baseline GABAergic transmission and reversed alcohol-induced enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CeA by suppressing GABA release via actions at presynaptic Y2 receptors. Conclusions These results highlight NPY modulation of GABAergic signaling in central amygdala as a promising pharmacotheraputic target for the treatment of alcoholism. GABA neurons in the CeA likely constitute a major point of convergence for neuromodulator systems recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:21459365

  12. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  13. Functional Limitation, Pain, and Alcohol Use: Exploring Gender Differences in the Mediating Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robyn Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study considered the processes linking functional limitation and pain with depressive symptoms and two alcohol-related outcomes (past-month drinking and problematic drinking) over a 3-year period. Method: Data were drawn from a two-wave Miami-Dade County community study of people with physical disabilities (N = 559). Structural equation modeling was used to assess whether depressive symptoms mediated the associations among functional limitation, bodily pain, and the alcohol-related outcomes considered, and whether these associations were moderated by gender. Results: When the effects of the sociodemographic control variables were controlled for, depressive symptoms partly explained the effects of Wave 1 functional limitation and bodily pain on problematic drinking at Wave 2. The mediating effects of depressive symptoms on problematic drinking were significantly greater for men than for women. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate clear linkages between two physical health indicators, depressive symptoms and drinking, and highlight the circumstances in which gender matters most for understanding these associations. PMID:26402362

  14. Relationship of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom severity with severity of alcohol-related problems in a sample of inpatients with alcohol use disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bozkurt, Muge; Evren, Cuneyt; Umut, Gokhan; Evren, Bilge

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been shown to be related to a higher risk of developing psychiatric problems such as depressive disorders, substance use disorder, and impulsivity. Adults who have comorbid ADHD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are at greater risk of negative outcomes. Thus, it is important to evaluate the relationship of ADHD symptoms and the severity of alcohol-related problems among patients with AUD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ADHD symptoms on severity of alcohol-related problems, while controlling the effects of depression and impulsivity in a sample of inpatients with AUD. Patients and methods Participants (n=190) were evaluated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Short Form Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale. Results Severity of the scale scores was positively correlated with each other. Although severity of depression and impulsivity (particularly non-planning impulsivity) predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems in a linear regression model, when severity of ADHD symptoms was included in the analysis, the inattentive subscale score, in particular, predicted the severity of alcohol-related problems together with non-planning impulsivity, whereas depression was no longer a predictor. Conclusion These findings suggest that, together with non-planning impulsivity, symptoms of ADHD (particularly inattentive factor) are an important factor that predict alcohol-related problems, while controlling the severity of depressive symptoms among inpatients with AUD. PMID:27462159

  15. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Alcohol and Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Pendharkar, Shreyas; Kandappan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    There are limited numbers of studies which have evaluated the sexual dysfunction (SD) in patients with alcohol and opioids dependence. This article reviews the existing literature. Electronic searches were carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect to locate the relevant literature. Subjects addicted to heroin or on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) show higher rates of SD in comparison to the general population. SD rates have ranged 34-85% for heroin addicts, 14-81% for MMT, 36-83% for BMT, and 90% for naltrexone maintenance. The rates of SD in alcohol-dependent population have ranged 40-95.2%, with rates being consistently much higher in alcohol-dependent population than in the healthy controls or social drinkers. The common SDs reported have been erectile dysfunction followed by premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation and decreased sexual desire among men, and dyspareunia and vaginal dryness among women. This review suggests that long-term use of alcohol and opioids are associated with SD in almost all domains of sexual functioning. There is a need to increase the awareness of clinicians about this association as many times SD in patients with substance abuse lead to poor treatment compliance and relapse. Further, there is a need to carry out more number of studies to understand the relationship in a better way. PMID:25336765

  16. Clinical effectiveness of KSS formula, a traditional folk remedy for alcohol hangover symptoms.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuho; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Sadamoto, Kiyomi

    2010-10-01

    A formula (KSS formula) containing the pith of Citrus tangerine Hort. et Tanaka (Kitsuraku), the rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Shokyo), and brown sugar has been traditionally used in China for the treatment of discomfort and cold sensation in the abdomen after ingestion of large amounts of alcohol. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of this formula on signs and symptoms of alcohol hangover (AH). Of the twenty-two symptoms listed, significant decreases in severity scores were shown in nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea when the formula was administered in scheduled prophylactic doses. The score in overall well-being, ranging from 0 to 100 (worst possible condition), was 68.9 +/- 16.5 (mean +/- SD) in the control group and it decreased to 46.9 +/- 27.3 and to 44.4 +/- 26.4 in the two groups that included a dosing point prior to alcohol ingestion. Regardless of dosing schedules, KSS formula did not alter the time required for complete recovery from AH symptoms. These findings suggest the possibility that KSS formula may become a candidate for AH remedy when administered prophylactically.

  17. Reciprocal Relations between Internalizing Symptoms and Frequency of Alcohol Use: Findings from a Longitudinal Study of Mexican-origin Youth

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Krystal H.; Atherton, Olivia E.; Quintana, Alina; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Alcohol consumption and internalizing symptoms, which often co-occur, pose considerable risk to the developing adolescent and have lasting public health consequences. Previous research has documented concurrent associations between alcohol use and symptoms of anxiety and depression, but the dearth of longitudinal research, particularly for ethnic minority youth, raises questions about the replicability and causal direction of these effects. The goal of the present research was to clarify these issues, and investigate whether different facets of anxiety and depression are uniquely associated with alcohol use in adolescence. Method The present research examined cross-lagged relations between frequency of alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, using data from a longitudinal study of 674 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) assessed at ages 14 and 16. Results Alcohol use at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in overall internalizing symptoms, and overall internalizing symptoms at age 14 prospectively predicted increases in alcohol use. Reciprocal effects were consistently found for the general distress and anxious arousal facets, but not for anhedonic depression and a scale measuring the cognitive aspects of anxiety. Conclusions The findings provide evidence of reciprocal relations between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, but also highlight the danger of treating all symptoms of anxiety and depression as interchangeable components of a single broad domain. Instead, symptoms common to both anxiety and depressive disorders (e.g., general distress) have the most robust reciprocal relations with alcohol use. Thus, intervention programs aimed at reducing early alcohol use by Mexican-origin youth should target this component of the internalizing domain. PMID:26999352

  18. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    PubMed

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  19. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  20. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. PMID:25608962

  1. A multi-site dose ranging study of nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Pettinati, Helen; Zweben, Allen; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole; Bohn, Michael J; McCaul, Mary E; Anthenelli, Robert; Salloum, Ihsan; Galloway, Gantt; Garbutt, James; Swift, Robert; Gastfriend, David; Kallio, Antero; Karhuvaara, Sakari

    2004-08-01

    The opiate antagonist nalmefene has been shown in 2 single-site studies to reduce alcohol consumption and relapse drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. This safety and preliminary multisite efficacy study evaluated 3 doses of nalmefene (5, 20, or 40 mg) in a double-blind comparison to placebo over a 12-week treatment period in 270 recently abstinent outpatient alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants concomitantly received 4 sessions of a motivational enhancement therapy (with a medication compliance component) delivered from trained counselors. Although more subjects in the active medication groups terminated the study early secondary to adverse events, the rates did not differ significantly from that of placebo. The 20-mg/d group experienced more insomnia, dizziness, and confusion, while the 5-mg group also had more dizziness and the 40-mg group had more nausea than the placebo group. Most of these symptoms were mild and improved over time. Although all subjects had a reduction in heavy drinking days, craving, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations over the course of the study, there was no difference between the active medication and placebo groups on these measures. The time to first heavy drinking day was also not significantly different between the placebo and the active treatment groups. This relatively small multisite trial showed that nalmefene was reasonably well tolerated in recently abstinent alcoholics. However, possibly because of variation among the sites or the comparatively small sample size, there was no evidence of superior efficacy outcomes with nalmefene treatment.

  2. Primary hyperhidrosis: Implications on symptoms, daily life, health and alcohol consumption when treated with botulinum toxin.

    PubMed

    Shayesteh, Alexander; Boman, Jens; Janlert, Urban; Brulin, Christine; Nylander, Elisabet

    2016-08-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis affects approximately 3% of the population and reduces quality of life in affected persons. Few studies have investigated the symptoms of anxiety, depression and hazardous alcohol consumption among those with hyperhidrosis and the effect of treatment with botulinum toxin. The first aim of this study was to investigate the effect of primary hyperhidrosis on mental and physical health, and alcohol consumption. Our second aim was to study whether and how treatment with botulinum toxin changed these effects. One hundred and fourteen patients answered questionnaires regarding hyperhidrosis and symptoms, including hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS), visual analog scale (VAS) 10-point scale for hyperhidrosis symptoms, hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT) and short-form health survey (SF-36) before treatment with botulinum toxin and 2 weeks after. The age of onset of hyperhidrosis was on average 13.4 years and 48% described heredity for hyperhidrosis. Significant improvements were noted in patients with axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis regarding mean HDSS, VAS 10-point scale, HADS, SF-36 and sweat-related health problems 2 weeks after treatment with botulinum toxin. Changes in mean AUDIT for all participants were not significant. Primary hyperhidrosis mainly impairs mental rather than physical aspects of life and also interferes with specific daily activities of the affected individuals. Despite this, our patients did not show signs of anxiety, depression or hazardous alcohol consumption. Treatment with botulinum toxin reduced sweat-related problems and led to significant improvements in HDSS, VAS, HADS and SF-36 in our patients. PMID:26875781

  3. Alcohol-dependence syndrome: Postural challenge on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Sucharita, S.; Pradeep, Johnson; Vincent, Anoop; Vaz, M.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic involvement in Alcohol-Dependence Syndrome (ADS) patients has been demonstrated using conventional autonomic tests. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) without normalization has also been reported. Aims: To evaluate cardiac autonomic changes with postural challenge using HRV in ADS and controls while controlling for confounding factors. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study involving 27 male subjects with ADS and age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Clinical assessments included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. Spectral measures of HRV while lying and with active standing were assessed. Results: There was an attenuated response in delta high-frequency (P=0.06) and delta low-frequency (P=0.04) power to standing in ADS subjects compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ADS appear to have attenuated cardiac vagal and sympathetic responses to standing. HRV with postural challenge may help earlier recognition of autonomic dysfunction in ADS. PMID:23226850

  4. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits.

  5. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover.

  6. Red ginseng relieves the effects of alcohol consumption and hangover symptoms in healthy men: a randomized crossover study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Hyang; Kwak, Jung Hyun; Jeon, Gayoung; Lee, Jong-Won; Seo, Jang-Ho; Lee, Hoon-Sang; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-03-01

    Heavy drinking causes hangover symptoms, because the action of alcohol dehydrogenase forms acetaldehyde, which is metabolized by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase into acetate. Red ginseng shows positive effects on alcohol metabolism in animal studies. We investigated the effects of red ginseng on relieving alcohol and hangover symptoms in 25 healthy men in a randomized crossover study. At each visit (0, 1, and 2 weeks), the subjects drank 100 mL whiskey (40% alcohol) and either 100 mL water or 100 mL of a 0.321 mg mL(-1) red ginseng anti-hangover drink (RGD). We took blood samples periodically until 240 min after alcohol consumption, and we investigated the blood profiles, alcohol levels, and acetaldehyde levels. We also measured anthropometric parameters, expiratory air-alcohol levels, and hangover symptoms. The plasma alcohol concentrations within the RGD group were significantly lower than those within the placebo group after 30 min (p = 0.002), 45 min (p = 0.016), and 60 min (p = 0.009); the areas under the response curves revealed a positive effect of RGD (p = 0.051). Furthermore, the expiratory alcohol concentration was significantly lower after 30 min (p = 0.005) and 60 min (p = 0.065), and the areas under the response curves (p = 0.058) likewise revealed a positive effect of RGD. The plasma acetaldehyde level was significantly elevated at 120 min (p = 0.020), but the areas under the response curves showed a similar trend (p = 0.054). While the plasma acetaldehyde concentration slightly increased, the RGD showed positive effects on hangover symptoms. Considering the reduction of plasma alcohol levels, expiratory concentrations, and hangover severity, we conclude that red ginseng relieves the symptoms of alcohol hangover. PMID:24458173

  7. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms. PMID:25602606

  8. Racial/ethnic discrimination, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and alcohol problems in a longitudinal study of Hispanic/Latino college students.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Mallinckrodt, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Racial/ethnic discrimination has been identified as a risk factor in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in persons of color (Carter, 2007). Many persons, regardless of race/ethnicity, with PTSD symptoms resulting from combat, violent crimes, sexual assault, or natural disasters use alcohol in an attempt to cope. This longitudinal study surveyed 203 Hispanic/Latino students twice at approximately a 1-year interval, and used a cross-lagged design to compare Time 1 links from alcohol use and experiences of discrimination with the same variables at Time 2, plus symptoms of PTSD. Each survey included the General Ethnic Discrimination scale and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Only Time 2 packets contained the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian. Cross-lagged analyses conducted by comparing nested structural equation models found that fixing the causal paths to zero from Time 1 experiences of discrimination to Time 2 alcohol problems and PTSD resulted in a significantly worse fit of the data. However, fixing the paths to zero from Time 1 maladaptive alcohol use to Time 2 PTSD and experiences of discrimination resulted in no significant difference in model fit. Thus, this pattern of findings is consistent with an inference that Hispanic/Latino college students who experience racial/ethnic discrimination are at risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress and increased maladaptive alcohol use; conversely, maladaptive alcohol use does not appear to be a risk factor for later experiences of discrimination or PTSD symptoms.

  9. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention. PMID:26278235

  10. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  11. Association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Oksoo; Kim, Bo Hye

    2013-03-01

    The association of asthma symptoms with cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption in Korean adolescents was investigated in this study using the data of Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Associated risk factors for experiencing asthma symptoms were explored in 3432 adolescents. In the symptomatic group, 21.7% were current smokers, compared to 10.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current smokers in the symptomatic group also smoked more cigarettes than those in the asymptomatic group. In the symptomatic group, 27.4% were current drinkers, compared to 17.9% in the asymptomatic group. Current drinkers in the symptomatic group were more likely to drink alcohol and to have experienced severe intoxication than those in the asymptomatic group. Participants who had been diagnosed within one year (odds ratio = 5.19, 95% confidence interval = 4.17-6.44) and those who had smoked over 20 days during the past 30 days (odds ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.26-2.49) were more likely to experience asthma symptoms. Healthcare providers should identify the risk behaviors of adolescents with asthma and counsel them and their parents simultaneously.

  12. Evaluation of the effect of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, on osteoarthritis symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Puente, Roberto; Illnait, José; Mas, Rosa; Carbajal, Daisy; Fernández, Julio César; Mesa, Meilis; Gámez, Rafael; Reyes, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs relieve osteoarthritis (OA) symptoms but cause adverse effects. D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, is effective against experimental OA. A pilot study found that D-002 (50 mg/day) for 8 weeks improves OA symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of D-002 (50 to 100 mg/day) administered for 6 weeks on OA symptoms. Methods Patients with OA symptoms were double-blindly randomized to D-002 (50 mg) or placebo for 6 weeks. Symptoms were assessed by the Western Ontario and McMaster Individual Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) and the visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Patients without symptom improvement at week 3 were titrated to two daily tablets. The primary outcome was the total WOMAC score. WOMAC pain, joint stiffness and physical function scores, VAS score, and use of rescue medications were secondary outcomes. Results All randomized patients (n = 60) completed the study, and 23 experienced dose titration (two in the D-002 and 21 in the placebo groups). At study completion, D-002 reduced total WOMAC (65.4%), pain (54.9%), joint stiffness (76.8%), and physical function (66.9%) WOMAC scores, and the VAS score (46.8%) versus placebo. These reductions were significant beginning in the second week, and became enhanced during the trial. The use of rescue medication by the D-002 (6/30) group was lower than that in the placebo (17/30) group. The treatment was well tolerated. Seven patients (two in the D-002 and five in the placebo group) reported adverse events. Conclusions These results indicate that D-002 (50 to 100 mg/day) for 6 weeks ameliorated arthritic symptoms and was well tolerated. PMID:24648802

  13. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  14. Objective Assessment of ADHD Core Symptoms in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14 years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n = 43), and non-exposed children (CON, n = 54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's < .05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, and had longer response latencies and increased variability in response time; moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  15. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  16. Vitamin-Dependent Methionine Metabolism and Alcoholic Liver Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ethanol-induced alterations in hepatic methionine metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Because malnutrition is a universal clinical finding in this disease and hepatic methionine metabolism is dependent upon dietary folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12, ALD can be considered an induced nutritional disorder that is conditioned by alcohol abuse. The present review describes the etiologies of these 3 vitamin deficiencies in ALD and how they interact with chronic ethanol exposure to alter hepatic methionine metabolism. Subsequent sections focus on molecular mechanisms for the interactions of aberrant methionine metabolism with ethanol in the pathogenesis of ALD, in particular the role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in regulating the epigenetic expressions of genes relevant to pathways of liver injury. The review will conclude with descriptions of studies on the efficacy of SAM in the treatment of ALD and with discussion of potentially fruitful future avenues of research. PMID:22332083

  17. The Associations between Self-Consciousness, Depressive State and Craving to Drink among Alcohol Dependent Patients Undergoing Protracted Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Denoël, Catherine; Hebborn, Ludger; Derely, Marc; Desseilles, Martin; Luminet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Context In order to understand how certain personality traits influence the relation between depression symptoms and craving for alcohol, trait self-consciousness (trait SC) was examined during a withdrawal and detoxification program. Methods Craving (Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale), depressive state (Beck Depression Inventory) and trait SC (Revised Self-Consciousness Scale) were assessed in alcohol-dependent inpatients (DSM-IV, N = 30) both at the beginning (T1: day 1 or 2) and at the end (T2: day 14 to18) of protracted withdrawal during rehabilitation. Results A significant decrease in craving and depressive symptoms was observed from T1 to T2, while SC scores remained stable. At both times, strong positive correlations were observed between craving and depression. Moreover, regression analyses indicated that trait SC significantly moderated the impact of depression on cravings for alcohol. Limitations This study was performed on a relatively small sample size. Administration of medications during detoxification treatment can also be a confounding factor. Finally, craving could have been evaluated through other types of measurements. Conclusions During protracted withdrawal, alcohol craving decreased with the same magnitude as depressive mood. Depressive symptoms were related to alcohol craving but only among patients with high trait SC scores. Our results suggest that metacognitive approaches targeting SC could decrease craving and, in turn, prevent future relapses. PMID:24013131

  18. Cannabis dependence in the San Francisco Family Study: age of onset of use, DSM-IV symptoms, withdrawal, and heritability.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Gizer, Ian R; Vieten, Cassandra; Gilder, David A; Stouffer, Gina M; Lau, Philip; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C

    2010-02-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, yet the role of genetics in individual symptoms associated with cannabis use disorders has not been evaluated. The purpose of the present set of analyses was to describe the symptomatology and estimate the heritability of DSM-IV criteria/symptoms of cannabis dependence in a large sample of families. Participants were 2524 adults, participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) Family Study of alcoholism. Seventy percent of the sample had ever used cannabis and 13.9% met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Younger age at first cannabis use was found to be significantly associated with a shortened survival to becoming cannabis dependent. Although a greater percentage of men met criteria for cannabis dependence, women were found to demonstrate "telescoping" as indexed by a shorter survival time from initial use to dependence as compared to men. A cannabis withdrawal syndrome was identified in users, the primary symptoms of which were nervousness, appetite change, and sleep disturbance. Cannabis use (h(2)=0.31) and dependence (h(2)=0.20), age at first use, individual DSM-IV criteria for dependence, and cannabis-use associated symptoms of depression, trouble concentrating and paranoia were all found to be heritable. These findings suggest that within this population that cannabis use and dependence, as well as individual cannabis dependence symptoms have a significant heritable component, that cannabis dependence is more likely to occur when use begins during adolescence, and that the cannabis dependence syndrome includes a number of heritable untoward psychiatric side effects including withdrawal.

  19. The effects of trauma history, gender, and race on alcohol use and posttraumatic stress symptoms in a college student sample.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Sloan, Denise M

    2003-12-01

    The present study examined the extent to which different types of traumatic experiences interact with sex and race to effect alcohol use, posttraumatic stress symptomatology, and general psychological distress among a college student sample. Approximately 600 participants completed measures that assessed for a childhood sexual abuse (CSA) history, alcohol consumption, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and overall psychological functioning. Findings indicated that participants with a history of CSA reported greater psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms compared to participants with a trauma history other than CSA and participants with no trauma history. Despite group differences in psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms, no differences in alcohol use were detected across groups. Gender appeared to affect posttraumatic stress symptoms as a function of group. The implications of the results are discussed.

  20. Determination of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C polymorphisms on alcohol dependence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ekin Ozgur; Kocak, Aytaç; Senol, Ender; Celik, Handan Ak; Coskunol, Hakan; Berdeli, Afig; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholism is a complex genetically influenced disorder which refers to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. There are controversial results on the role of gene polymorphisms in alcohol dependence in the literature. Differences in population groups and selective inclusion criteria for alcohol dependence may affect results. In this study, we investigated the role of ADH1B Arg48His (rs1229984) and, ADH1C Ile350Val (rs698) gene polymorphisms in Turkish population. 100 healthy volunteers and 75 patients who were admitted to Ege University Alcohol Dependence Unit enrolled in the study. We found significant increase both in ADH1B (Arg48His) polymorphism Arg allele and Arg/Arg genotype frequency in patients. No profound connection between alcohol dependence and ADH1C Ile350Val gene polymorphism was detected. Alcohol dependence is an important health problem that depends on many genetic and environmental factors but we think that it is possible to interpret genetic risk for developing early diagnostic methods and treatment strategies by comprehensive linkage and association studies.

  1. Do importance of religious faith and healthy lifestyle modify the relationships between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption? A survey of students across seven universities in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    El Ansari, Walid; Sebena, Rene; Stock, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    We examined the associations between depressive symptoms and four indicators of alcohol consumption (high frequency of drinking, frequency of heavy episodic drinking, problem drinking, and possible alcohol dependence). We also explored whether personal importance of religious faith as well as healthy lifestyle had any modifying roles in these relationships. During 2007-2008, 3,220 students at seven UK universities completed a questionnaire containing questions on CAGE, frequency alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking, modified Beck-Depression Inventory, physical activity and sleep, and importance of religious faith. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed separately for four alcohol consumption indicators, stratified by gender. Controlling for demographic variables, depressive symptoms were positively associated with problem drinking and possible alcohol dependence for both genders. Religiosity was negatively associated with frequency of drinking and heavy episodic drinking among both genders, while healthy lifestyle was not associated with any of the four measures of alcohol consumption among both genders. No evidence suggested that either religiosity or healthy lifestyle modified the relationships between depressive symptoms and any of the four measures of alcohol consumption. This study shows a link between hazardous drinking and mental ill health and suggests religiosity as a protective factor for high alcohol consumption. Promotion of students' mental and spiritual health could have a preventive role in hazardous drinking at universities.

  2. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  3. The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Meyers, R J; Delaney, H D

    1998-06-01

    Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

  4. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, Stuart; Lind, Penelope A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Richter, Melinda M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic origins. The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated. This study tested for associations between nine polymorphisms in ALDH2 and 41 in the seven ADH genes, and alcohol-related flushing, alcohol use and dependence symptom scores in 4597 Australian twins. The vast majority (4296) had consumed alcohol in the previous year, with 547 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for AD. There were study-wide significant associations (P < 2.3 × 10−4) between ADH1B-Arg48His (rs1229984) and flushing and consumption, but only nominally significant associations (P < 0.01) with dependence. Individuals carrying the rs1229984 G-allele (48Arg) reported a lower prevalence of flushing after alcohol (P = 8.2 × 10−7), consumed alcohol on more occasions (P = 2.7 × 10−6), had a higher maximum number of alcoholic drinks in a single day (P = 2.7 × 10−6) and a higher overall alcohol consumption (P = 8.9 × 10−8) in the previous year than those with the less common A-allele (48His). After controlling for rs1229984, an independent association was observed between rs1042026 (ADH1B) and alcohol intake (P = 4.7 × 10−5) and suggestive associations (P < 0.001) between alcohol consumption phenotypes and rs1693482 (ADH1C), rs1230165 (ADH5) and rs3762894 (ADH4). ALDH2 variation was not associated with flushing or alcohol consumption, but was weakly associated with AD measures. These results bridge the gap between DNA sequence variation and alcohol-related behavior, confirming that the ADH1B-Arg48His polymorphism affects both alcohol-related flushing in Europeans and alcohol intake. The absence of study-wide significant effects on AD results from the low P-value required when testing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes. PMID:18996923

  5. Motivational enhancement of cognitive control depends on depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ravizza, Susan M.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2014-01-01

    Performance feedback can motivate improvements in executive function (Ravizza et al., 2012). The present study examines whether the enhancement of task switching with performance feedback is modulated by the level of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms have been linked to deficits in processing affective information inherent to such feedback (Henriques, 1994; Pizzagalli, et al., 2005). Task switching speed was assessed when performance feedback about accuracy was present or absent in a group of participants with minimal to moderate levels of depression. A significant positive correlation was observed between depressive symptoms and feedback effects on executive function indicating that those with lower depressive symptoms were more likely to show improvements in switching speed when performance feedback was present. These results suggest a novel link between executive function deficits and depression symptoms; namely, that greater levels of depressive symptoms are linked to diminished executive functioning via deficits in processing the affective component of performance feedback. PMID:24866522

  6. Reciprocal Associations between PTSD Symptoms and Alcohol Involvement in College: A Three-Year Trait-State-Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Read, Jennifer P.; Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Colder, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    Bidirectional associations between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and alcohol involvement have been theorized, but have not been tested empirically. In this study, we examined these relations at the transition into and over the first three years of college by using an analytic approach (Trait-State-Error Modeling; TSE; Kenny & Zautra, 1995) that allowed us to examine prospective, reciprocal associations among these constructs while accounting for intra-individual stability. Young adults (N=486) were recruited at matriculation into college and assessed by web survey in September of the 1st college year (T1) and 11 additional time points over three years. Findings showed evidence of prospective associations from alcohol involvement (both use and problems) to PTSD symptoms over the three year assessment period. We also observed prospective relations from PTSD symptoms to alcohol involvement over time. Patterns of covariation in trait vulnerability for alcohol involvement and PTSD symptoms differed from crossed-lagged associations among state-like variance in these constructs. Results suggest that PTSD symptoms and alcohol involvement each predict the other over the course of college. Findings also highlight the importance of considering both time-varying and stable sources of variation in these associations. PMID:24364601

  7. Alcohol, Smoking, Physical Activity, Protein, and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Prospective Longitudinal Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Min Soo; Han, Jun Hyun; Shin, Tae Young; Ko, Kyungtae; Lee, Won Ki; Cho, Sung Tae; Lee, Sang Kon; Lee, Seong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate risk factors for deterioration of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in elderly men in a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort study. Methods: In a suburban area in Korea, 1,514 subjects aged ≥45 years were randomly selected by systematic sampling. A total of 918 elderly subjects were enrolled in this in-depth clinical study in 2004. Of these, 547 participants were followed up for 3 years and the data was analyzed in 2014. Standard questionnaires were administered face-to-face by trained interviewers. After excluding women, 224 male participants with complete data including transrectal ultrasonography were included in the final analysis. LUTS were diagnosed using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Symptom deterioration was defined as a score of ≥8 points during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: LUTS prevalence increased to 13.1% and the mean IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. After adjusting for confounders, a smoking history of ≥50 pack-years was an independent risk factor for deterioration of LUTS and storage subsymptoms compared with no history of smoking (3.1 and 5.1 odds, respectively). Physical activity had a protective effect on voiding subsymptoms. However, high protein diet and alcohol intake were not associated with LUTS deterioration. Conclusions: The LUTS prevalence among elderly men living in a suburban area increased to 13.1% and the IPSS increased by 2.6 points during the 3-year period. A history of heavy smoking, low physical activity, and high protein intake were associated with LUTS deterioration. However, there was no significant association between alcohol intake and LUTS deterioration. PMID:26620903

  8. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits. PMID:25921475

  9. Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year.

  10. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  11. Investigating biases of attention and memory for alcohol-related and negative words in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression after day-clinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fridrici, Christina; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kremer, Georg; Kissler, Johanna; Beblo, Thomas

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression compared to healthy controls. We assumed that both groups of alcohol-dependents would show attentional and memory biases for alcohol-related words. For the alcohol-dependents with depression, we additionally expected both types of biases for negative words. Alcohol-dependents without co-morbidity (Alc) and alcohol-dependents with major depression (D-Alc) as well as control participants with a moderate consumption of alcohol (Con) completed an alcohol Stroop task and a directed forgetting paradigm using word stimuli from three categories: neutral, negative, and alcohol-related. Stroop effects showed that not only alcohol-dependents but also control participants were more distracted by alcohol-related than by negative words. In the directed forgetting procedure, all participants showed a significant effect for each word-category, including alcohol-related and negative words. The D-Alc-group memorized more alcohol-related than negative to-be-remembered words. The results do not corroborate the hypothesis of more pronounced attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents. However, in alcohol-dependents with depression a memory bias for alcohol-related material was found, suggesting that this group may be more pre-occupied with alcohol than patients without such co-morbidity.

  12. Sex Differences in the Pathways to Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Gardner, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to develop an empirical, broad-based developmental model for sex differences in risk for symptoms of alcohol use disorders, here called alcohol problems (AP). Methods We assessed 18 risk factors in five developmental tiers in both members of 1,377 opposite sex dizygotic twin pairs from the Virginia population-based twin registry. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Results The best-fitting model explained 73% of the variance in men and 71% in women for last year AP. 49% of paths differed significantly across sexes. Ten variables had appreciably different predictive effects on AP in males versus females. Three were stronger in females: familial risk, early onset anxiety disorders, and nicotine dependence. Seven predictors had a stronger total effect in males: novelty seeking, conduct disorder, childhood sexual abuse, parental loss, neuroticism, low self-esteem, and low marital satisfaction. Conclusions In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, we found numerous sex differences in predictors of last year AP. Factors that were more prominent in men and in women were diverse, reflecting both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The model was slightly more successful at predicting AP in men than in women. PMID:25845269

  13. EFFECT OF NALTREXONE AND ONDANSETRON ON ALCOHOL CUE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF THE VENTRAL STRIATUM IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K.; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Context Medication treatment of alcoholism is presently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Objective To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Design, Setting, Participants Functional brain imaging (Phillips 1.5T scanner) was conducted during alcohol cue presentation in 90 non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (less than 14 drinks per week) paid volunteers recruited through advertisements at an academic center. Interventions A taste of alcohol and a series of alcohol related pictures, neutral beverage pictures and visual control images were provided to volunteers after seven days of double blind randomly assigned daily dosing with 50mg naltrexone (n=23), 0.50mg ondansetron (n=23), the combination of the two medications (n=20), or matching placebos (n=24). Main Outcome Measures Difference in brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance when viewing alcohol pictures versus neutral beverage pictures with a particular focus on ventral striatum activity comparison across medication groups. Self-ratings of alcohol craving. Results The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (p=0.02) or without (p=0.049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a regions specific analysis. Conclusions Consistent with animal data suggesting that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy. PMID

  14. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  15. [Creation of a scale for evaluating attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale to evaluate characteristics of how alcohol-dependent people perceive the attitudes of their partners toward alcohol dependency. Based on previous research, we created the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale, from the perspective of the alcohol dependent individual. Using the new scale, 71 alcohol-dependent people (52 men, 19 women) were surveyed after obtaining their consent, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. The results identified 3 factors, "indifference", "acceptance" and "hypersensitivity", and factorial validity was verified. Relatively high reliability was obtained on each sub-scale (alpha = .60-.82). Furthermore, correlations were obtained with the alcohol-dependency "Denial and Awareness Scale (for alcohol-dependent people)" and with the 13-item "Usefulness of heterosexual love relations for recovery from alcohol dependency" questionnaire, which includes content on "beneficial" or "obstructive" to recovery, and with the satisfaction and the importance of relations. This demonstrates that the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale has reliability and criterion-related validity. The scale facilitates evaluation of types of attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency, and may thus be useful as one tool for investigating the influence of partners in heterosexual love relationships for recovery, and for providing advice.

  16. The metabolic syndrome in patients with alcohol dependency: Current research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependency and disorders such as liver disease and cancer has been thoroughly researched. However, the effects of alcohol on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Several reports found low to moderate alcohol consumption to be associated with a lower risk for cardiometabolic disorders. In contrast, excessive alcohol consumption has been related to an increased risk. Most of these studies were performed in non-clinical populations, therefore limiting the explanatory power to non-dependent patients. Only a few studies examined cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, in particular the metabolic syndrome (MetS), in alcohol dependent patients. We here present a narrative review of studies performed so far on the MetS in alcohol dependency, and provide current hypotheses on the association of alcohol dependency, appetite regulation and the development of the MetS.

  17. Memantine reduces alcohol drinking but not relapse in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Buttolo, Romain; Houchi, Hakim; Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with consequences on health and that requires more effective treatments. Among alternative therapies, the therapeutic potential of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine has been suggested. Despite promising results, its efficiency in the treatment of alcoholism remains controversial. Currently, there is no pre-clinical data regarding its effects on the motivation for ethanol in post-dependent (PD) animals exposed to intermittent ethanol vapor, a validated model of alcoholism. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of acute injections of memantine (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) on operant ethanol self-administration in non-dependent (ND) and PD rats tested either during acute withdrawal or relapse after protracted abstinence. Our results showed that memantine (25 mg/kg) abolished ethanol self-administration in ND rats and reduced by half the one of PD rats during acute withdrawal. While this effect was observed only 6 hours after treatment in ND rats, it was long lasting in PD rats (at least 30 hours after injection). Furthermore, our results indicated that memantine did not modify the breaking point for ethanol. This suggests that memantine probably act by potentiating the pharmacological effect of ethanol but not by reducing motivation for ethanol. Finally, memantine was also ineffective in reducing relapse after protracted abstinence. Altogether, our pre-clinical results highlighted a potential therapeutic use of memantine that may be used as a replacement therapy drug but not as relapse-preventing drug.

  18. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives. PMID:24841182

  19. Impact of Mid-Life Symptoms of Alcoholism on the Health and Wellbeing of Aging Parents of Adults with Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subharati; Ha, Jung-Hwa; Pai, Manacy; Essenfeld, Harper; Park, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the effect of adult children's disability on parents' physical health in later life and the extent to which parents' symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life moderates the link between children's disability and later life parental health. Analyses are based on data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study. The analytic sample included parents of children with developmental disabilities (n = 145) or mental health problems (n = 200) and 2,432 parents of unaffected children. The results showed that the negative health consequences in later life of having a child with a developmental disability were greater for those who showed more symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life. However, symptoms of alcoholism in mid-life did not significantly moderate the impact of an adult child's mental health problems on parents' later life physical health. The findings suggest a potential area where gerontological social workers could intervene, given the negative impact of symptoms of alcoholism on the health of aging parents of children with a disability who may be significantly more susceptible to the negative health impacts of alcohol compared to their younger counterparts.

  20. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: Behavioral and physiological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kwako, L. E.; Schwandt, M. L.; Sells, J. R.; Ramchandani, V. A.; George, D. T.; Sinha, R.; Heilig, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. Objectives The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier Social Stress Test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress, and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Methods Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with comorbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the NIAAA inpatient research facility. They participated in a four week inpatient study of the efficacy of a NK1 antagonist to treat comorbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Results Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in ACTH and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Conclusions Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress vs. alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of comorbid PTSD and AD on craving. PMID:24806358

  1. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  2. From genetic studies to precision medicine in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fan; Sun, Yankun; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors contribute to more than 50% of the variation in the vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD). Although significant advances have been made in medications for AD, these medications do not work for all people. Precise tailoring of medicinal strategies for individual alcoholic patients is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. This review updates the most promising information on genetic variants in AD, which may be useful for improving diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring strategies. We describe genetic candidates of various neurotransmitter and enzyme systems. In addition to biological and allelic associations with AD, genetic effects on AD-related phenotypes and treatment responses have also been described. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been considered. Potential applications of genomewide and epigenetic approaches for identifying genetic biomarkers of AD have been discussed. Overall, the application of genetic findings in precision medicine for AD will likely involve an integrated approach that distinguishes effect sizes of specific genetic predictors with regard to sex, pharmacotherapy, ethnicity, and AD-related aspects and considers gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Our work may pave the way toward more precise treatment for AD that could ultimately improve clinical management and interventions. PMID:26580132

  3. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients.

  4. Polysomnographic measures of sleep in cocaine dependence and alcohol dependence: Implications for age‐related loss of slow wave, stage 3 sleep

    PubMed Central

    Bjurstrom, Martin F.; Olmstead, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Sleep disturbance is a prominent complaint in cocaine and alcohol dependence. This controlled study evaluated differences of polysomnographic (PSG) sleep in cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent subjects, and examined whether substance dependence interacts with age to alter slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Design Cross‐sectional comparison. Setting Los Angeles and San Diego, CA, USA. Participants Abstinent cocaine‐dependent subjects (n = 32), abstinent alcohol‐dependent subjects (n = 73) and controls (n = 108); mean age 40.3 years recruited 2005–12. Measurements PSG measures of sleep continuity and sleep architecture primary outcomes of Stage 3 sleep and REM sleep. Covariates included age, ethnicity, education, smoking, body mass index and depressive symptoms. Findings Compared with controls, both groups of substance dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep (P < 0.001). A substance dependence × age interaction was found in which both cocaine‐ and alcohol‐dependent groups showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than controls (P < 0.05 for all), and cocaine‐dependent subjects showed loss of Stage 3 sleep at an earlier age than alcoholics (P < 0.05). Compared with controls, REM sleep was increased in both substance‐dependent groups (P < 0.001), and cocaine and alcohol dependence were associated with earlier age‐related increase in REM sleep (P < 0.05 for all). Conclusions Cocaine and alcohol dependence appear to be associated with marked disturbances of sleep architecture, including increased rapid eye movement sleep and accelerated age‐related loss of slow wave, Stage 3 sleep. PMID:26749502

  5. Ecological Momentary Assessment of Acute Alcohol Use Disorder Symptoms: Associations With Mood, Motives, and Use on Planned Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Robert D.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Day, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Several theories posit that alcohol is consumed both in relation to one’s mood and in relation to different motives for drinking. However, there are mixed findings regarding the role of mood and motives in predicting drinking. Ecological momentary assessment (EMA) methods provide an opportunity to evaluate near real-time changes in mood and motives within individuals to predict alcohol use. In addition, endorsement of criteria of an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may also be sensitive to changes within subjects. The current study used EMA with 74 moderate drinkers who responded to fixed and random mood, motive, alcohol use, and AUD criteria prompts over a 21-day assessment period. A temporal pattern of daytime mood, evening drinking motivation, and nighttime alcohol use and acute AUD symptoms on planned drinking days was modeled to examine how these associations unfold throughout the day. The results suggest considerable heterogeneity in drinking motivation across drinking days. Additionally, an affect regulation model of drinking to cope with negative mood was observed. Specifically, on planned drinking days, the temporal association between daytime negative mood and the experience of acute AUD symptoms was mediated via coping motives and alcohol use. The current study found that motives are dynamic, and that changes in motives may predict differential drinking patterns across days. Further, the study provides evidence that emotion-regulation-driven alcohol involvement may need to be examined at the event level to fully capture the ebb and flow of negative affect motivated drinking. PMID:24932896

  6. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  7. Interactions Between Internalizing Symptoms and Urgency in the Prediction of Alcohol Use and Expectancies Among Low-Income, Minority Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Marmorstein, Naomi R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether urgency, a disposition to rash action under conditions of strong emotion, moderates associations between internalizing symptoms and alcohol use and related expectancies. Data from the Camden Youth Development Study, a longitudinal, community-based study of early adolescents (N = 144, mean age at intake = 11.9 years; 65% Hispanic, 30% African-American; 50% male), were used. Self-report questionnaire measures of depressive symptoms, social and generalized anxiety symptoms, urgency, alcohol use, and alcohol expectancies were used. Mixed models were used to examine the effects of internalizing symptoms, urgency, and their interaction on alcohol use and expectancy trajectories over time. Depressive symptoms interacted with urgency such that youth with high levels of both tended to have elevated levels of global positive alcohol expectancies. Social anxiety symptoms interacted with urgency to be associated with increasing levels of social behavior alcohol expectancies such that youth with high levels of both tended to experience particular increases in these expectancies over time. Generalized anxiety was not found to be associated with alcohol-related constructs. Therefore, high levels of urgency combine with depressive and social anxiety symptoms to be associated with particularly increased risk for alcohol expectancies that are associated with later alcohol use and problems, indicating particular risk for youth with these combinations of personality traits and psychopathology symptoms. PMID:27512337

  8. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  9. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  10. Association of Smoking with Mu- Opioid Receptor Availability Before and During Naltrexone Blockade in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Frost, J.James; Wong, Dean F.; McCaul, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared to social drinkers or nondrinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [11C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BPND) across mesolimbic regions including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BPND in mesolimbic regions Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BPND in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BPND across multiple brain regions in AD subjects. PMID:23252742

  11. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  12. Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, B F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to provide direct estimates of the number of US children younger than 18 years who are exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 4 children younger than 18 years in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for approaches that integrate systems of services to enhance the lives of these children. PMID:10630147

  13. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  14. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part I. Epidemiology of dual diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a review of the literature on the comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. A condition when alcohol dependence is accompanied by another mental disorder is much more common than it is commonly believed. It is estimated that more than one third of people diagnosed with mental disorders, abuses or is dependent on psychoactive substances, especially alcohol; among alcohol-dependent patients 37% suffer from other mental disorders. Alcohol dependence is associated with increased risk of mood disorders - more than three times higher, depression - almost four times higher, bipolar disorder - more than six times higher, anxiety disorders in general - more than twice, generalized anxiety disorder - more than four times higher, panic disorders - almost double, posttraumatic stress disorder - more than twice. Underestimating of comorbidity is an important problem during treatment of such population of patients. Social skills training can improve a stress management and decrease alcohol and drug use among dual diagnosed patients.

  15. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community.

    PubMed

    Walt, Lisa C; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A

    2013-06-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  16. Structural brain differences in alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Abe, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Pennington, David; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 50% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) also use other substances. Therefore, brain structural abnormalities observed in alcohol dependent individuals may not be entirely related to alcohol consumption. This MRI study assessed differences in brain regional tissue volumes between short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals without (ALC) and with current substance use dependence (polysubstance users, PSU). Methods Nineteen, one-month-abstinent PSU and 40 ALC as well as 27 light-drinkers (LD) were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Whole brain T1-weighted images were segmented automatically into regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. MANOVA assessed group differences of intracranial volume-normalized tissue volumes of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes as well as regional subcortical GM volumes. The volumetric measures were correlated with neurocognitive measures to assess their functional relevance. Results Despite similar lifetime drinking and smoking histories, PSU had significantly larger normalized WM volumes than ALC in all lobes. PSU also had larger frontal and parietal WM volumes than LD, but smaller temporal GM volumes as well as smaller lenticular and thalamic nuclei than LD. By contrast, ALC had smaller frontal, parietal, and temporal GM, thalamic GM and cerebellar volumes than LD. ALC also had more sulcal CSF volumes than both PSU and LD. Conclusion One-month-abstinent ALC and PSU exhibited different patterns of gross brain structural abnormalities. The larger lobar WM volumes in PSU in the absence of widespread GM volume loss contrast with widespread GM atrophy in ALC. These structural differences between ALC and PSU may demand different treatment approaches to mitigate specific functionally relevant brain abnormalities. PMID:25263262

  17. Risks for Conduct Disorder Symptoms Associated with Parental Alcoholism in Stepfather Families versus Intact Families from a Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael; Gardner, Charles O.; Maes, Hermine H.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is not known if the prevalence of parental psychiatric disorders is higher in stepfather than intact families, or if parental alcoholism is differentially associated with risk for conduct disorder (CD) symptoms in stepfather families versus intact families. Method: The sample comprised 839 girls and 741 boys from 792 intact families…

  18. Is Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Related to Inattention and Hyperactivity Symptoms in Children? Disentangling the Effects of Social Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, A.; Olsen, J.; Kotimaa, A. J.; Kaakinen, M.; Moilanen, I.; Henriksen, T. B.; Linnet, K. M.; Miettunen, J.; Obel, C.; Taanila, A.; Ebeling, H.; Jarvelin, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Studies concerning whether exposure to low levels of maternal alcohol consumption during fetal development is related to child inattention and hyperactivity symptoms have shown conflicting results. We examine the contribution of covariates related to social adversity to resolve some inconsistencies in the extant research by conducting…

  19. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  20. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  1. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  2. Translating the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism in the Western Pacific: Rationale, Study Design and Reliability of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amity E.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; McGeary, John E.; Amoa, Francine; Kranzler, Henry R.; Francazio, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Swift, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to develop a bilingual version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) in English and Samoan and determine the reliability of assessments of alcohol dependence in American Samoa. Methods: The study consisted of development and reliability-testing phases. In the development phase, the SSADDA alcohol module was translated and the translation was evaluated through cognitive interviews. In the reliability-testing phase, the bilingual SSADDA was administered to 40 ethnic Samoans, including a sub-sample of 26 individuals who were retested. Results: Cognitive interviews indicated the initial translation was culturally and linguistically appropriate except items pertaining to alcohol tolerance, which were modified to reflect Samoan concepts. SSADDA reliability testing indicated diagnoses of DSM-III-R and DSM-IV alcohol dependence were reliable. Reliability varied by language of administration. Conclusion: The English/Samoan version of the SSADDA is appropriate for the diagnosis of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, which may be useful in advancing research and public health efforts to address alcohol problems in American Samoa and the Western Pacific. The translation methods may inform researchers translating diagnostic and assessment tools into different languages and cultures. PMID:24936588

  3. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  4. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  5. Acute effects of nicotine on alcohol cue-reactivity in nondependent and dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Daniel S; Peloquin, Marcel P; Ferdinand, Justin C; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from alcohol self-administration studies suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may influence subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. However, its effect on alcohol cue-reactivity is unknown. The present study examined the impact of acutely administered nicotine on subjective responses to alcohol-focused pictorial stimuli. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, nondependent smokers (n = 51) and dependent smokers (n = 45) who socially drink were assigned to either a nicotine (4 mg) or placebo lozenge condition following overnight tobacco abstinence. Following lozenge absorption, participants viewed neutral images followed by alcohol-focused pictures. Craving measures for alcohol and tobacco were completed at baseline, following lozenge absorption, following neutral cues, and following alcohol cues. The presentation of alcohol cues increased alcohol-related craving relative to neutral cues, especially among men, but the administration of nicotine did not influence the magnitude of these effects. Nicotine lozenges were found to decrease intentions to smoke and withdrawal-related craving in dependent but not in nondependent smokers. Finally, the presentation of alcohol cues was found to increase intentions to smoke relative to neutral cues across participants regardless of lozenge condition. Findings suggest that although the presentation of alcohol cues can increase alcohol- and tobacco-related cravings in smokers, such effects do not appear to be affected by acute nicotine administration. PMID:25643027

  6. Gene co-expression networks in human brain identify epigenetic modifications in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Igor; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse causes widespread changes in gene expression in human brain, some of which contribute to alcohol dependence. Previous microarray studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes, but efforts to generate an integrated view of molecular and cellular changes underlying alcohol addiction are lacking. Here, we applied a novel systems approach to transcriptome profiling in postmortem human brains and generated a systemic view of brain alterations associated with alcohol abuse. We identified critical cellular components and previously unrecognized epigenetic determinants of gene co-expression relationships and discovered novel markers of chromatin modifications in alcoholic brain. Higher expression levels of endogenous retroviruses and genes with high GC content in alcoholics were associated with DNA hypomethylation and increased histone H3K4 tri-methylation, suggesting a critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol addiction. Analysis of cell type – specific transcriptomes revealed remarkable consistency between molecular profiles and cellular abnormalities in alcoholic brain. Based on evidence from this study and others, we generated a systems hypothesis for the central role of chromatin modifications in alcohol dependence that integrates epigenetic regulation of gene expression with pathophysiological and neuroadaptive changes in alcoholic brain. Our results offer implications for epigenetic therapeutics in alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:22302827

  7. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.

  8. DSM-IV alcohol dependence and drug abuse/dependence in a treatment sample of whites, blacks and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Schafer, J

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-IV alcohol dependence, drug use and DSM-IV drug/abuse dependence in a sample of White (n = 256), Black (n = 263) and Mexican American (n = 212) men consecutively admitted to five alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that drug use is higher among Blacks and Mexican Americans than among Whites. About 35% of the Whites 43% of the Blacks and 35% of the Mexican Americans are both alcohol and drug dependent. Among alcohol dependent individuals, about 44% of the Whites, 72% of the blacks and 52% of the Mexican Americans report using at least one drug other than alcohol once a week or more in the 12 months previous to the interview. The drug most frequently used by Whites is marijuana, followed by cocaine and amphetamines. The drug most frequently used by Blacks and Mexican Americans is cocaine, followed by marijuana. Severity of drug dependence is inversely related to severity of alcohol dependence among Whites. Alcohol treatment programs for Whites, Blacks and Mexican Americans must offer assessment, treatment matching and relapse prevention that takes into consideration this high prevalence of drug use and dependence.

  9. Cannabis receptor haplotype associated with fewer cannabis dependence symptoms in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian J; Young, Susan E; Purcell, Shaun; Crowley, Thomas J; Stallings, Michael C; Corley, Robin P; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Smolen, Andrew; Krauter, Ken; Hewitt, John K; Ehringer, Marissa A

    2006-12-01

    Cannabis is a major substance of abuse, and the gene encoding for the central cannabinoid receptor (CNR1) is a logical candidate gene for vulnerability toward developing symptoms of cannabis dependence. We studied four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CNR1 gene for association with having one or more symptoms of cannabis dependence in 541 adolescent subjects who had all tried cannabis five or more times. Cases (327) were defined as those who had tried marijuana and developed one or more symptoms, and controls (214) as those who had tried marijuana but developed no dependence symptoms. Cannabis dependence symptoms were assessed in these youth when they were 17 or older with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview--Substance Abuse Module. Univariate (single-marker) association tests demonstrated that SNP rs806380, located in intron 2 of the CNR1 gene, was significantly associated with developing one or more cannabis dependence symptoms, with the G allele having a protective effect (P < 0.02). This was consistent with the results of the global haplotype test (P < 0.01). One of the common haplotypes examined (present in 21% of the subjects) was significantly associated with a lower rate of having one or more cannabis dependence symptoms. Our findings provide evidence suggesting that a common CNR1 haplotype is associated with developing fewer cannabis dependence symptoms among adolescents who have experimented with cannabis.

  10. CO-OCCURRENCE OF ALCOHOL, DRUG USE, DSM-5 ALCOHOL USE DISORDER AND SYMPTOMS OF DRUG USE DISORDER ON BOTH SIDES OF THE U.S.-MEXICO BORDER

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Zemore, Sarah; Orozco, Ricardo; Cherpitel, Cheryl J.; Ye, Yu; Bond, Jason; Maxwell, Jane Carlisle; Wallisch, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Background The U.S.-Mexico border displays elevated rates of hazardous alcohol and drug use. Whether the co-occurrence of alcohol and drug use and disorders is also high in the border area is unknown. Methods Data are from the U.S.-Mexico Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a cross-sectional survey of randomly selected respondents interviewed from 2011–2013. Participants included 1,690 Mexican Americans from Texas (572 in an off-border city and 1,118 from 3 border cities) and 1,293 Mexicans from Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas (415 in an off-border city and 878 from 3 Mexican cities bordering Texas) who reported drinking in the last 12 months. Participants were interviewed regarding the prevalence of and risk factors for: a) co-occurring hazardous alcohol use (5+/4+ at least monthly) and drug use (medical and illicit), and b) co-occurring presence of a DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 2 symptoms (hazardous use and quit/control) of drug use disorders (DUD symptoms). Results Co-occurring hazardous alcohol and drug use was more common in the U.S. border cities (14.7%) than off-border (7.2%), but similar for Mexican border (1.2%) and off-border (1.4%) cities. Co-occurrence of AUD and DUD symptoms was likewise more common at the U.S. border (6.8%) than off-border (3.3%), as well as at the Mexican border (1.3%), compared to off-border (0.6%), but not statistically significant for Mexico. In models adjusting for demographics, mobility factors and exposure to the U.S. culture, border residence in both countries related to a nearly two-fold increase in prevalence ratios (PR) of co-occurring AUD and DUD symptoms (PR=1.97, 95%CI=1.36–2.85). Conclusions Increased rates of co-occurring alcohol and drug use disorders suggest an added negative impact on already difficult conditions of the border population. PMID:25833029

  11. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salujha, S. K.; Chaudhury, S.; Menon, P. K.; Srivastava, K.; Gupta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO) personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2*2 (0.50), ADH3*1 (0.67) and ALSH2*2 (0.09) were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence. PMID:25535445

  12. Chronic Care Management for Dependence on Alcohol and Other Drugs: The AHEAD Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W.; Meli, Seville M.; Allensworth-Davies, Don; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance People with substance dependence have health consequences, high healthcare utilization and frequent comorbidity but often receive poor quality care overall and for dependence. Chronic care management has been proposed as an approach to improve care and outcomes. Objective To determine whether chronic care management (CCM) for alcohol and other drug (AOD) dependence improves substance use outcomes compared to usual primary care. Design, Setting, and Participants The AHEAD study was a randomized trial in people with AOD dependence, not necessarily seeking treatment, at a Boston hospital-based primary care practice. Of the 655 eligible participants, 563 (86%) were randomized. Study participants were recruited from September 2006 to September 2008 from a free-standing residential detoxification unit (74%) and referrals from an urban teaching hospital and advertisements (26%). Participants were randomized to CCM (n=282) or no CCM (n=281). Intervention CCM included longitudinal care coordinated with a primary care clinician, motivational enhancement therapy, relapse prevention counseling, and on-site medical, addiction and psychiatric treatment, social work assistance and referrals (including mutual help). The no CCM group received a primary care appointment, and a list of treatment resources including a phone number to arrange counseling. Main Outcome and Measure The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking. Biomarkers were secondary outcomes. We employed longitudinal analyses for data from 3, 6 and 12 months (last interview January 21, 2010). Results Of 563 participants, 95% completed 12-month follow-up. Baseline characteristics of the study participants were similar across randomization groups, but differed significantly for race and depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference in abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking between the CCM (44%) and control (42%) groups (adjusted odds

  13. Alcohol and Masculinity: A Review and Reformulaton of the Sex Role, Dependency, and Power Theories of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemle, Russell

    This review examines three theories of alcohol abuse by American males: (1) the sex role theory which states that men drink heavily because American culture accepts and encourages that activity in males; (2) the dependency theory, which interprets drinking as a means by which men secretly gratify their dependency needs while manifesting an…

  14. Boarding and Public Schools: Navajo Educational Attainment, Conduct Disorder, and Alcohol Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Gabriel, K. Ruben; McCright, Aaron; Levy, Jerrold E.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with over 1,000 Navajos aged 21-67 in 1992-95 found that alcohol dependency was less common among high school graduates than dropouts but was also disproportionately low among older men with no schooling. Despite abusive conditions that prevailed in some Indian boarding schools, alcohol dependency rates did not differ by type of school…

  15. The Role of Therapeutic Alliance in Treatment for People with Mild to Moderate Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Deirdre F.; Adamson, Simon J.; Deering, Daryle E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory study of Therapeutic Alliance (TA) in brief outpatient treatment for alcohol dependence the relationship was investigated between TA and treatment outcome (measured at 6 weeks and 6 months) for 69 alcohol dependent clients participating in a randomised control trial between Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Non Directive…

  16. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  17. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  18. The Role of Constraint in the Development of Nicotine, Marijuana, and Alcohol Dependence in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Vrieze, Scott I.; Vaidyanathan, Uma; Hicks, Brian M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The personality-related construct of behavioral disinhibition is hypothesized to confer a generalized risk for alcohol and drug dependence. On average, rates of substance use and scores on measures of disinhibition peak in adolescence and decline as people mature into adulthood. The present study investigated this developmental change by evaluating the relationship between disinhibition and substance use disorders using a longitudinal study of 2,608 twins assessed at ages 17, 24, and 29. These ages include the period of highest risk for substance use disorders (ages 17-24) as well as when substance dependence symptoms typically decline (ages 24-29). Disinhibition was measured with the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire higher-order scale of Constraint, as well as its constituent facet scales of Harm Avoidance, Control, and Traditionalism. Constraint’s relationship with substance dependence was statistically significant but small and largely genetic, with the genetic relationship declining from adolescence into adulthood. However, this result appeared to be almost entirely driven by Traditionalism, a propensity to hold traditional moral and social values, and not an obvious component of behavioral disinhibition. The results suggest that personality measures of Control and Harm Avoidance play only a small role in the development of substance dependence during late adolescence, and previous findings linking personality measures of disinhibition and substance use may be driven significantly by social and moral values than deficits in impulse control. PMID:24343204

  19. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Brooke; Haller, Gabe; Edenberg, Howard; Tischfield, Jay; Brooks, Andy; Kramer, John; Schuckit, Marc; Nurnberger, John; Goate, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs) on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans) to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima’s D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies. PMID:26270548

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  1. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  2. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  3. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  4. Comparison of direct and indirect alcohol markers with PEth in blood and urine in alcohol dependent inpatients during detoxication.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Skopp, G; Alt, A; Miltner, E; Jochum, Th; Daenhardt, C; Sporkert, F; Gnann, H; Weinmann, W; Thierauf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of direct and indirect alcohol markers to evaluate alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly recognized. While some markers are used to prove abstinence from ethanol, other markers are suitable for detection of alcohol misuse. Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) is ranked among the latter. There is only little information about the correlation between PEth and other currently used markers (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and methanol) and about their decline during detoxification. To get more information, 18 alcohol-dependent patients in withdrawal therapy were monitored for these parameters in blood and urine for up to 19 days. There was no correlation between the different markers. PEth showed a rapid decrease at the beginning of the intervention, a slow decline after the first few days, and could still be detected after 19 days of abstinence from ethanol. PMID:23274938

  5. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  6. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  7. Neurocognitive deficits, craving, and abstinence among alcohol-dependent individuals following detoxification.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Bradshaw, John L; Lubman, Dan I; Sheppard, Dianne

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing disorder, is characterized by an impaired ability to regulate compulsive urges to consume alcohol. Very few empirical studies have examined the presence of these executive deficits, how they relate to craving, and the enduring nature of these deficits during abstinence. As such, the current study aimed to characterize these cognitive deficits within a sample of 24 alcohol-dependent participants post-detoxification and 23 non-alcohol-dependent participants. Participants were administered the Sustained Attention to Response Task to measure response inhibition and sustained attention and the Random Number Generation Task to examine executive deficits. Correlations between cognitive performance and clinical measures of alcohol dependence were examined. As predicted, the alcohol-dependent group exhibited poorer performance across the domains of response inhibition, executive function, and attentional control. Cognitive performance was related to clinical measures of craving and years of alcohol consumption, whereas the duration of abstinence was not associated with improved cognitive performance. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to target these enduring neurocognitive deficits in improving the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:24334264

  8. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening.

  9. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  10. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women*

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to characterize the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in women, distinguishing PTSD-specific influences on AD from the contribution of co-occurring psychiatric conditions and from the influences of trauma more generally. Method: Trauma histories and DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses, including PTSD and AD, were obtained via telephone interview from 3,768 female twins. Based on PTSD status and trauma history, participants were categorized as no trauma (43.7%), trauma without PTSD (52.6%), or trauma with PTSD (3.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted using trauma/PTSD status to predict AD, first adjusting only for ethnicity and parental problem drinking, then including conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, regular smoking, and cannabis abuse. Results: Before accounting for psychiatric covariates, elevated rates of AD were evident in both trauma-exposed groups, but those with PTSD were at significantly greater risk for AD than those without PTSD. This distinction was no longer statistically significant when psychiatric covariates were included in the model, but both trauma-exposed groups continued to show elevated odds of developing AD compared with the no trauma group. Conclusions: The elevated rates of AD in women who have experienced trauma are not accounted for in full by psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur with AD and trauma exposure. The greater likelihood of developing AD in the subset of trauma-exposed individuals who develop PTSD may reflect higher levels of distress and/ or higher rates of psychopathology associated with traumas that lead to PTSD rather than PTSD-specific influences. PMID:20946737

  11. Reciprocal Effects of Internalizing and Oppositional Defiance Symptoms on Heavy Drinking and Alcohol-Related Harms in Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kara D.; Leadbeater, Bonnie J.; Ames, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for longitudinal research to understand how psychopathology relates to the onset and maintenance of substance use from adolescence into young adulthood. Hence, we investigate the longitudinal, reciprocal influences of internalizing (anxiety and depression) and externalizing (oppositional defiance) symptoms on heavy episodic drinking (HED; ≥5 drinks per occasion) and alcohol-related harms in a community-based sample of youth aged 12–27 years. Participants were chosen from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, followed six times, biennially between 2003 and 2013 (N = 662). Analyses used cross-lagged panel models to examine reciprocal relations over time. Differences across age and sex were also tested. Defiance symptoms predicted increases in HED, which reciprocally predicted increases in defiance symptoms for females. Internalizing symptoms were related to HED within time for females. Alcohol-related harms had reciprocal positive associations with internalizing and defiance symptoms for both males and females. Associations were largely invariant across age groups, suggesting that the presence and strength of associations persisted across development. While psychopathology preceded the onset of HED and harms, the overall findings suggest that these risk processes are mutually reinforcing across development and that youth may become entrenched in an interdependent cycle that significantly increases their risk of comorbid disorders in adulthood. PMID:26819553

  12. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mancha, Brent E.; Rojas, Vanessa C.; Latimer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7–12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests. Several alcohol use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions. PMID:22840814

  13. Alcohol use, alcohol problems, and problem behavior engagement among students at two schools in northern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mancha, Brent E; Rojas, Vanessa C; Latimer, William W

    2012-11-01

    This study examined the association between alcohol-use problem severity, defined by number of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence symptoms and frequency of alcohol use, and problem behavior engagement among Mexican students. A confidential survey was administered to 1229 students in grades 7-12 at two schools in a northern border city in Mexico. Youths were categorized into five groups based on their alcohol use frequency and symptoms of DSM-IV alcohol Abuse and Dependence, specifically: no lifetime alcohol use, lifetime alcohol use but none in the past year, past year alcohol use, one or two alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms, and three or more alcohol Abuse or Dependence symptoms. The association between five levels of alcohol-use problem severity and three problem behaviors, lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble, was examined using chi-square or Fisher's exact tests. Several alcohol-use problem severity categories were significantly different with respect to rates of lifetime marijuana use, lifetime sexual intercourse, and past year arrest/law trouble. Higher alcohol-use problem severity was associated with greater endorsement of problem behaviors. Knowing about variations in adolescent alcohol use and alcohol problems may be instrumental in determining if youths are also engaging in a range of other risk behaviors. Considering varying levels of alcohol use and alcohol problems is important for effective targeted prevention and treatment interventions.

  14. Nalmefene: a review of its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-09-01

    The opioid system modulator nalmefene (Selincro®) is approved in the EU for as-needed use to reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of as-needed oral nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational trials (ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2), as-needed nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days (in both trials) and total alcohol consumption (in ESENSE 1) at month 6. In the randomized, double-blind, multinational SENSE trial, as-needed nalmefene significantly improved both of these endpoints at month 13, but not at month 6. As-needed nalmefene had a greater beneficial effect in the target population (i.e. alcohol-dependent patients with at least a high drinking risk level at screening and randomization), with post hoc analyses revealing significant reductions in both the number of heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at month 6 (in ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2) and at month 13 (in SENSE). Oral nalmefene was generally well tolerated in patients with alcohol dependence, with the most commonly occurring adverse events including nausea, insomnia and dizziness. In conclusion, as-needed nalmefene provides an important new option for use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  15. Factors Related to Depressive Symptoms in Mothers of Technology-Dependent Children

    PubMed Central

    Toly, Valerie Boebel; Musil, Carol M.

    2015-01-01

    Mothers caring for technology-dependent children at home often suffer clinically significant and unrecognized depressive symptoms. The study aim was to determine factors related to elevated depressive symptoms and provide information to target interventions that assists mothers in self-management of their mental health. Secondary data analysis from a descriptive, correlational study of 75 mothers was performed. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis results indicate that younger, unpartnered mothers with lower normalization efforts and personal resourcefulness, and less care hours had increased depressive symptoms. The importance of personal resourcefulness and the potential for a resourcefulness training intervention to reduce depressive symptoms are discussed. PMID:26309171

  16. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the extended amygdala is recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the extended amygdala, a conceptual macrostructure in the basal forebrain important for regulation of negative affective states. NPY has been attributed a central role in anxiety-like behavior, fear, nociception, and reward in rodents. Deletion of the NPY gene in mice produces a high-anxiety high-alcohol-drinking phenotype. NPY infused into the brains of rats selectively bred to consume high quantities of alcohol suppresses alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that is mediated by central amygdala (CeA). Likewise, alcohol-preferring rats exhibit basal NPY deficits in CeA. NPY infused into the brains of alcohol-dependent rats blocks excessive alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that also has been localized to the CeA. NPY in CeA may rescue dependence-induced increases in anxiety and alcohol drinking via inhibition of downstream effector regions that receive GABAergic inputs from CeA. It is hypothesized here that NPY modulates anxiety-like behavior via Y2R regulation of NPY release, whereas NPY modulation of alcohol-drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent animals occurs via Y2R regulation of GABA release.

  17. Disrupted Regulation of Social Exclusion in Alcohol-Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game (‘cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC–insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states. PMID:22510722

  18. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  19. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  20. An Update on CRF Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol Use Disorders and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Macedo, Giovana Camila; Domingues, Liz Paola; Favoretto, Cristiane Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF-binding protein, and urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides.

  1. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  2. The Use of Gestalt Interventions in the Treatment of the Resistant Alcohol-Dependent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews ethical and practical dilemmas associated with clients who have hidden alcohol dependencies, and proposes an approach rooted in Gestalt counseling theory which confronts these issues and is compatible with a current emerging alcohol-treatment model. Suggests specific activities for addressing client resistance to revealing a hidden alcohol…

  3. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  4. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  7. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  8. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  9. Repeated seizures in an elderly patient with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Terao, Takeshi; Araki, Yasuo; Hatano, Koji

    2013-11-22

    A 69-year-old man with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) suffered from repeated tonic-clonic seizures. The seizures typically occurred several hours after his last alcohol intake at home (early withdrawal seizure) and 22 days after his last intake of alcohol (14 days after the last dose of diazepam substituting for alcohol: late withdrawal seizure) on the ward. Psychiatrists in charge of this patient found it difficult to attribute his seizures to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) because of the atypical onset. The patient responded to diazepam resumption and valproate combination. This case highlights the need to always consider AWS as a possible cause of seizures and to gradually decrease diazepam as a substitute for alcohol. Moreover, in this patient, MCI may have induced vulnerability in the brain for AWS and the patients' older age might have decreased liver function leading to delayed onset of the seizures after diazepam withdrawal.

  10. Characteristics and drinking patterns of veterans with alcohol dependence with and without post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Fuehrlein, Brian; Ralevski, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Erin; Jane, J Serrita; Arias, Albert J; Petrakis, Ismene L

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are highly prevalent and commonly co-occur, notably in veterans. We explored differences in the pre-treatment characteristics of veterans with alcohol dependence (AD) alone compared to those with co-occurring AD and PTSD. Veterans were recruited to participate in two different treatment studies and baseline characteristics were compared. Those with co-occurring illnesses demonstrated significantly higher pre-treatment pathology across all psychopathological domains. While those with AD alone averaged more days of drinking and had more heavy drinking days, those with co-occurring illnesses reported more drinking-related symptoms. The presence of a major depressive episode had no effect on drinking. Within the PTSD group, combat exposure was associated with increased drinking independent of the severity of PTSD symptoms. This study underscores the importance of screening for comorbidity in clinical treatment settings, and for collecting detailed drinking histories and assessing psychiatric symptoms across all domains of psychopathology.

  11. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening. PMID:27654556

  12. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  13. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  14. Childhood ADHD and Conduct Disorder as Independent Predictors of Male Alcohol Dependence at Age 40*

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Sullivan, Margaret A.; Murtaza, Syed; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes. Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two childhood measures were correlated, a multiple regression showed that each independently predicted a measure of lifetime alcoholism severity. Conclusions: ADHD comorbid with CD was the strongest predictor of later alcohol dependence. PMID:19261228

  15. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present current hypotheses on pathogenesis of dual diagnosis as well as recommendations for its treatment. The role of disturbances in functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathogenesis of co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with anxiety and affective disorders is presented. Researchers studying dual diagnosis underline the fact that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders increases the chance to improve patients` functioning. Inappropriate treatment without complete management of all existing problems may make full recovery impossible.

  16. Antisocial behavior reduces the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use in a large population-based sample of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lövenhag, Sara; Larm, Peter; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate possible effects of antisocial behavior on reducing the association between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms (inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity) and alcohol use. Boys and girls were analyzed separately using a population-based Swedish adolescent sample. A randomly selected cross-sectional survey was performed in secondary and upper secondary schools in Västmanland County during 2010. Participants were a population of 2,439 15-16 year-olds and 1,425 17-18 year-olds (1,947 girls and 1,917 boys). Psychosocial adversity, antisocial behaviors, symptoms of ADHD and alcohol use were assessed by questionnaires. Except for girls' inattention, subdimensions of ADHD symptoms were not associated with alcohol use when variance due to antisocial behavior was accounted for. Among boys, instead of an indirect effect of antisocial behavior on the association between impulsivity and alcohol use, a moderating effect was found. Among girls, the inattention component of ADHD was independently associated with alcohol use even when adjusted for antisocial behavior. The reduced associations between symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and alcohol use for boys and girls after adjusting for antisocial behavior suggest a considerable overlap between hyperactivity, impulsivity, and antisocial behavior. The direct pathway between inattention and alcohol use among girls suggests that girls with inattention symptoms are at risk of alcohol use regardless of antisocial behavior. Special attention should be given to these girls. Accounting for antisocial behavior reduced the relation between subdimensions of ADHD symptoms and alcohol use, and antisocial behaviors should therefore be screened for when symptoms of ADHD are present.

  17. Physical Pain in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Entering Treatment in Poland—Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic pain and problematic alcohol use commonly co-exist, as the use of alcohol is commonly considered a useful pain self-management strategy. The purpose of this study was to characterize pain and pain-related problems in a group of primary alcohol-dependent individuals entering treatment facilities. Method: A sample of 366 (73.5% men and 26.5% women) alcohol-dependent (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria) subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, social functioning, sexual and physical abuse during childhood, and severity of alcohol and sleep problems as well as level of impulsivity and general psychopathology. The study group was divided into a “mild or no pain” group and a “moderate or greater pain” group. Results: Among the study group, 34.4% of individuals reported moderate or greater physical pain during the last 4 weeks. The statistical analysis revealed that the experience of physical pain was significantly associated with lower level of education, unemployment, experience of sexual abuse before 18 years of age, and severity of alcohol dependence as well as other potential predictors of relapse (impulsivity, sleep problems, general psychopathology). When entered into logistic regression analysis with other dependent variables, the level of general psychopathology, severity of sleep problems, age, and education were all significantly associated with pain severity. Conclusions: Physical pain is a prevalent and potentially impairing experience in adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing pain in alcohol-dependent individuals should be studied to evaluate their impact on improving overall treatment outcomes. PMID:26098037

  18. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  19. Alcohol dependence, family history, and D2 dopamine receptor function as neuroendocrinologically assessed with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Mauerer, C; Thome, J; Jakob, F; Boening, J

    1995-11-01

    Fifteen alcohol dependent men with an alcohol dependent first degree relative (i.e. family history positive or FHP), 15 well matched alcohol dependent men without a family history for alcohol dependence (i.e. family history negative or FHN), and 15 healthy controls (CONTR) participated in this study. The three groups were compared according to their postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptor function as assessed by growth hormone release after stimulation with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Statistical evaluation was done by planned comparisons within a one-way ANOVA. Alcohol dependent subjects significantly differed from CONTRs as long as family history was not taken into account (t(42) = 2.38; P = 0.022*). When differentiating according to family history, both FHPs and FHNs maintained a blunted growth hormone response. However, the difference between FHNs and CONTRs, though present, dropped out of statistical significance (t(42) = 1.65; P = 0.105); at the same time, the difference between FHPs and CONTRs became slightly stronger (t(42) = 2.47; p = 0.017*). In conclusion, our data give neuroendocrinological support to the assumption that a reduced D2 dopamine receptor function in alcohol dependent men is not only a state marker of residual heavy drinking but also a genetically determined trait marker.

  20. Khat Dependency and Psychophysical Symptoms among Chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alsanosy, Rashad M.; Alsharqi, Abdallah; Ismail, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Khat chewing is highly prevalent in Africa, Yemen and Jazan region, southwest of Saudi Arabia. Most of Jazani Khat chewers consider khat session as a social activity and do not consider khat dependency. The aim of this study was to explore khat dependency and its relationship with the psychophysical symptoms among chewers. Methods. Cross-sectional study on seventy Saudi male khat chewers living in Jazan area. Psychological dependence to khat chewing was evaluated using the Severity of Dependency Scale (SDS). The participants filled in a self-administrated assisted structured questionnaire designed to collect data about their medical history, neurological symptoms, and their chewing behavior. Results. Half (52.2%) of khat chewers showed psychological dependency. Those having longer khat sessions (≥6 hours) were more liable for dependency. Physical and psychological symptoms were more prevalent among khat dependent chewers. Conclusions. khat has a psychological dependence effect that can be measured by the SDS, even in low doses and with irregular use. SDS scale is a useful tool to expect the burden of either physical or psychological symptoms on khat chewers. PMID:27022605

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  2. Symptom-dependent taste aversion induced by an anticoagulant rodenticide in the brown rat (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    Smith, P; Inglis, I R; Cowan, D P; Kerins, G M; Bull, D S

    1994-09-01

    In a series of 3 experiments with different experimental paradigms, feeding patterns of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) were monitored in 2-choice feeding tests after intubation with a sublethal dose of an anticoagulant rodenticide. We report for the first time that contrary to accepted wisdom, anticoagulants can induce taste aversions. Furthermore, we report behavioral symptoms within the 1st day after dosing. Our data suggest that the taste aversion is induced through an inhibition of the vitamin K cycle and is transient, attenuating over the same period as the levels of vitamin K-dependent proteins return to normal. Because the taste aversion is expressed most strongly when symptoms are most pronounced and is not expressed after symptoms have disappeared, we term this novel form of control symptom-dependent taste aversion. PMID:7924258

  3. Increased risk of alcohol dependency in a cohort of National Guard troops with PTSD: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kline, Anna; Weiner, Marc D; Ciccone, Donald S; Interian, Alejandro; St Hill, Lauren; Losonczy, Miklos

    2014-03-01

    Studies show high rates of co-morbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) but there is no consensus on the causal direction of the relationship. Some theories suggest AUD develops as a coping mechanism to manage PTSD symptoms and others that AUD is a vulnerability factor for PTSD. A third hypothesis posits independent developmental pathways stemming from a shared etiology, such as the trauma exposure itself. We examined these hypotheses using longitudinal data on 922 National Guard soldiers, representing a subsample (56%) of a larger pre- and post-deployment cross-sectional study of New Jersey National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq. Measures included the PTSD Checklist (PCL), DSM-IV-based measures of alcohol use/misuse from the National Household Survey of Drug Use and Health and other concurrent mental health, military and demographic measures. Results showed no effect of pre-deployment alcohol status on subsequent positive screens for new onset PTSD. However, in multivariate models, baseline PTSD symptoms significantly increased the risk of screening positive for new onset alcohol dependence (AD), which rose 5% with each unit increase in PCL score (AOR = 1.05; 95% CI = 1.02-1.07). Results also supported the shared etiology hypothesis, with the risk of a positive screen for AD increasing by 9% for every unit increase in combat exposure after controlling for baseline PTSD status (AOR = 1.09; 95% CI = 1.03-1.15) and, in a subsample with PCL scores <34, by 17% for each unit increase in exposure (AOR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.05-1.31). These findings have implications for prevention, treatment and compensation policies governing co-morbidity in military veterans.

  4. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  5. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  6. [Alcohol dependence mediated by monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huafeng; Lai, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing brain disease with the characteristics of drinking alcohol out of control, has become a serious social problem. Monoamine neurotransmitters, mainly including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryp¬tamine, play important roles in the occurrence, development and neural dysfunction of alcohol dependence syndrome. In this review, the roles of key factors of the monoamine system (dopamine receptor genes, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, transporter genes, tyrosine hydroxylase gene, tryptophanhydroxylase gene and monoamine oxidase gene) in alcohol dependence were discussed, and strategies for further studies of molecular mechanisms were proposed based on gene knockout mice models generated in our laboratory. Then, combining with studies on tyrosine hydroxylase activator CaMKII in our lab, therapeutic targets were discussed. Besides, epigenetic strategies for prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome were proposed. Furthermore, manipulating methylation levels in gene regulatory regions and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs might also have clinical implications. Finally, based on new findings on genetic polymorphism, it is of great potential to carry out individual prevention and treatment for patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

  7. Incongruent reduction of dopamine transporter availability in different subgroups of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Yen, Che-Hung; Shih, Mei-Chen; Cheng, Cheng-Yi; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Lu, Ru-Band; Huang, San-Yuan

    2016-08-01

    The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD), and males have more risk factors for the development of AD. However, imaging studies on brain DAT availability in males with AD comorbid with MD (AD/MD) are limited, and the association of DAT availability with cognitive function and depressive scores in patients with AD/MD has not been analyzed. Hence, this study examined the relationship between brain DAT availability, cognitive function, and depressive symptoms in different subgroups of males with AD.Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging with Tc-TRODAT-1 as a ligand was used to measure striatal DAT availability in 49 patients with AD (28 pure AD and 21 AD/MD) and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to assess neurocognitive function and depressive scores, respectively. Patients with AD showed a significant reduction of DAT availability in 3 brain regions (P < 0.001), and this reduction was more pronounced in the patients with pure AD compared to healthy controls. The patients with AD showed significantly poorer performance on the WCST, but only in the control group was DAT availability significantly negatively correlated with total errors and perseverative errors (P < 0.001).These preliminary findings suggest that DAT availability is associated with neurocognitive function, and incongruent reduction of DAT may play a pathophysiological role in different subgroups of AD. In addition, decreased DAT availability may be associated with the severity of depressive symptoms in patients with AD/MD. PMID:27537550

  8. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Methods Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Results Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. Conclusions These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity. PMID:27575491

  9. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  10. [The characteristics of the abdominal symptoms in craniocerebral trauma sustained in a state of alcoholic intoxication].

    PubMed

    Pedachenko, Ie H; Udod, S V

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on 63 cases of syndrome of nonprimary acute abdomen (SNPAA) in craniocerebral injury (CCI) sustained in the state of alcoholic intoxication, and 59 observations connected with cranio-abdominal injuries (CAI). In the presence of cerebral injuries, one of the specific characteristics of alcohol was that it entailed changes in the abdominal symptomatology either concealing manifestations of severe damage to the abdominal organs or potentiating SNPAA. In all the observations the abdominal symptomatology was less pronounced that in those victims who do not take alcoholic drinks. There have been identified four variants of SNPAA course. In 12.7% of cases manifestations of the above syndrome were related to the CCI pattern only, being associated with origination of pseudodefense of "truncal" genesis. It is advisable that instrumental methods of study into abdominal organs should come to be more widely used in those settings where there is alcohol intoxication with suspected CAI.

  11. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  12. Feasibility randomized controlled trial of cognitive and behavioral interventions for depression symptoms in patients accessing drug and alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Jaime; Gore, Stuart; Ali, Shehzad; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Gilchrist, Gail; McMillan, Dean; Hughes, Elizabeth

    2015-08-01

    Depressed mood often co-exists with frequent drug and alcohol use. This trial examined the feasibility of screening, recruitment, randomization and engagement of drug and alcohol users in psychological interventions for depression symptoms. A total of 50 patients involved in community drugs and alcohol treatment (CDAT) were randomly allocated to behavioral activation delivered by psychological therapists (n = 23) or to cognitive behavioral therapy based self-help introduced by CDAT workers (n = 27). We examined recruitment and engagement rates, as well as changes in depression (PHQ-9) symptoms and changes in percent days abstinent (PDA within last month) at 24 weeks follow-up. The ratio of screened to recruited participants was 4 to 1, and the randomization schedule successfully generated 2 groups with comparable characteristics. Follow-up was possible with 78% of participants post-treatment. Overall engagement in psychological interventions was low; only 42% of randomized participants attended at least 1 therapy session. Patients offered therapy appointments co-located in CDAT clinics were more likely to engage with treatment (odds ratio = 7.14, p = .04) compared to those offered appointments in community psychological care clinics. Intention-to-treat analyses indicated no significant between-group differences at follow-up in mean PHQ-9 change scores (p = .59) or in PDA (p = .08). Overall, it was feasible to conduct a pragmatic trial within busy CDAT services, maximizing external validity of study results. Moderate and comparable improvements in depression symptoms over time were observed for participants in both treatment groups. PMID:25819701

  13. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  14. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  15. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  16. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; Fernandez, F.; Salas, R.; de Erausquin, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcoholism can lead to damage of the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and it can be lethal, costing hundreds of billions to the health care system. Despite the existence of cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, and spiritually integrated treatment to treat it, alcohol dependence has a high relapse rate and poor prognosis, albeit with high interindividual variability. In this review, we discuss the use of two neuromodulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), and their advantages and disadvantages compared to first-line pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. We also discuss rTMS and DBS targets for alcohol dependence treatment, considering experimental animal and human evidence, with careful consideration of methodological issues preventing the identification of feasible targets for neuromodulation treatments, as well as inter-individual variability factors influencing alcoholism prognosis. Lastly, we anticipate future research aiming to tailor the treatment to each individual patient by combining neurofunctional, neuroanatomical and neurodisruptive techniques optimizing the outcome. PMID:25598743

  17. Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

  19. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Social factors play vital role in unfolding of alcohol use disorders in any given population. Several factors beyond the confines of treatment settings influence treatment outcome in alcohol dependence syndrome. Social support has positive effect in treatment outcome of alcohol dependence syndrome. This has not been much studied in India in past. Therefore we decided to study the perception of social support in cases of alcohol dependence syndrome admitted in a busy hospital in armed forces. Aim The aim was to study the perception of social support across relapsed and abstinent group and see if it reached any statistical proportion and also to see if any socio-demographic variables also affected perception of social support. Materials and Methods Fifty five consecutive male patients of alcohol dependent syndrome without a co-morbid neurological/psychiatric diagnosis were assessed for their perception of social support after taking informed consent. They were explained the procedure and their alcoholic milestones were recorded in specially designed pro-forma. Subjects were then divided in abstinent and relapsed group. Subsequently they were assessed for their perception of social support by administering Social provision scale and Social support questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Data were tabulated and statistically analysed by using chi square test, Mann Whitney U-Test and Rank ANOVA test where applicable p-value <.05 was taken as significant. Results Results indicated that perception of social support across abstinent (n=18) and relapsed (n= 37) group reached significant statistical proportion as measured by social provision scale and social support questionnaire. Duration of use, dependence and family history of alcoholism did not influence perception of social support across patient population. There was inverse relationship between patients with alcohol related problem and their perception of social support. Professional and qualified soldiers

  20. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research.

  1. The Influence of Gene–Environment Interactions on the Development of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug dependence are common psychiatric disorders with a heritability of about 50%; therefore genetic and environmental influences are equally important. Early-life stress is a predictor of adolescent problem drinking/drug use and alcohol/drug dependence in adulthood, but moderating factors governing the availability of alcohol/drug are important. The risk–resilience balance for addiction may be due in part to the interaction between genetic variation and environment stressors (G×E); this has been confirmed by twin studies of inferred genetic risk. Measured genotype studies to detect G×E effects have used a range of alcohol consumption and diagnostic phenotypes and stressors ranging from early-life to adulthood past year life events. In this article, the current state of the field is critically reviewed and suggestions are put forth for future research. PMID:22367454

  2. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  3. Examination of the causes of covariation between conduct disorder symptoms and vulnerability to drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Button, Tanya M M; Hewitt, John K; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; Stallings, Michael C

    2006-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and substance dependence commonly co-occur. Both phenotypes are highly heritable and a common genetic influence on the covariation has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which genes and environment contribute to the covariance between CD and drug dependence using twins from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Sample and the Colorado Twin Registry. A total of 880 twin pairs (237 monozygotic [MZ] female, 195 MZ male, 116 dizygotic [DZ] female, 118 DZ male and 214 DZ opposite-sex) aged 13 to 18 (mean = 15.65) were included in the analysis. CD was assessed by lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) symptom count and a polysubstance dependence vulnerability index was developed from responses to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview--Substance Abuse Module. A bivariate Cholesky Decomposition model was used to partition the cause of variation and covariation of the two phenotypes. No sex-limitation was observed in our data, and male and female parameter estimates were constrained to be equal. Both CD symptoms and dependence vulnerability were significantly heritable, and genes, shared environment and nonshared environment all contributed to the covariation between them. Genes contributed 35% of the phenotypic covariance, shared environment contributed 46%, and nonshared environmental influences contributed the remaining 19% to the phenotypic covariance. Therefore, there appears to be pleiotropic genetic influence on CD symptoms and dependence vulnerability.

  4. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Post, Hans; Tarvainen, Mika; de Bruijn, Avalon; Perna, Elizabeth De Sousa Fernandes; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients' natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response to experimental exposure to alcohol and soft drink advertisements were measured during detoxification treatment using heart rate variability and subjective rating of craving. Following discharge, patients monitored exposure to alcohol advertisements for five consecutive weeks with a diary and were followed up with an assessment of relapse at 5 weeks and 3 months post-discharge. The results indicated that the presence of alcohol cues such as the portrayal of the drug and drinking behaviour induced physiological cue reactivity and craving. Additionally, cue reactivity and craving were positively correlated, and cue reactivity was larger for patients with shorter histories of alcohol dependence. Further, patients reported a substantial daily exposure to alcohol cues. The magnitude of cue reactivity and the craving response to alcohol cues at baseline and degree of exposure to alcohol cues in patients' natural environment did not predict relapse. It is concluded that the presence of alcohol cues such as portrayal of alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour induces cue reactivity and craving in alcohol dependence through a conditioned appetitive response.

  5. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  6. Heart rate variability biofeedback in patients with alcohol dependence: a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Penzlin, Ana Isabel; Siepmann, Timo; Illigens, Ben Min-Woo; Weidner, Kerstin; Siepmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background and objective In patients with alcohol dependence, ethyl-toxic damage of vasomotor and cardiac autonomic nerve fibers leads to autonomic imbalance with neurovascular and cardiac dysfunction, the latter resulting in reduced heart rate variability (HRV). Autonomic imbalance is linked to increased craving and cardiovascular mortality. In this study, we sought to assess the effects of HRV biofeedback training on HRV, vasomotor function, craving, and anxiety. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled study in 48 patients (14 females, ages 25–59 years) undergoing inpatient rehabilitation treatment. In the treatment group, patients (n=24) attended six sessions of HRV biofeedback over 2 weeks in addition to standard rehabilitative care, whereas, in the control group, subjects received standard care only. Psychometric testing for craving (Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale), anxiety (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), HRV assessment using coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CVNN) analysis, and vasomotor function assessment using laser Doppler flowmetry were performed at baseline, immediately after completion of treatment or control period, and 3 and 6 weeks afterward (follow-ups 1 and 2). Results Psychometric testing showed decreased craving in the biofeedback group immediately postintervention (OCDS scores: 8.6±7.9 post-biofeedback versus 13.7±11.0 baseline [mean ± standard deviation], P<0.05), whereas craving was unchanged at this time point in the control group. Anxiety was reduced at follow-ups 1 and 2 post-biofeedback, but was unchanged in the control group (P<0.05). Following biofeedback, CVNN tended to be increased (10.3%±2.8% post-biofeedback, 10.1%±3.5% follow-up 1, 10.1%±2.9% follow-up 2 versus 9.7%±3.6% baseline; P=not significant). There was no such trend in the control group. Vasomotor function assessed using the mean duration to 50% vasoconstriction of cutaneous vessels after deep inspiration was improved following biofeedback

  7. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. PMID:27569012

  8. Research opportunities for medications to treat alcohol dependence: addressing stakeholders' needs.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade.

  9. Clinical relevance of as-needed treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reimer, Jens; Nutt, David J; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; François, Clément; Chick, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nalmefene is the first drug approved for reduction of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients with a high drinking risk level from two randomised placebo-controlled 6-month studies (NCT00811720 and NCT00812461). Response criteria were based on alcohol consumption, Clinical Global Impression, and Short Form Health Survey mental component summary scores at month 6, analysed using logistic regression. The proportion of responders was higher in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group with odds ratios significantly in favour of nalmefene for all responder criteria; numbers-needed-to-treat ranged from 6 to 10. Significant differences from placebo in clinician-rated and patient-reported outcomes, and liver enzymes further supported the clinical relevance of the treatment effect. In conclusion, this study supports the clinical relevance of nalmefene treatment in patients with alcohol dependence. Nalmefene may help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap, with currently less than 10% of alcohol-dependent patients in Europe receiving treatment.

  10. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society.

  11. [Normative definition of staff requirement for a guideline-adherent inpatient qualified detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Kiefer, F; Koopmann, A; Godemann, F; Wolff, J; Batra, A; Mann, K

    2016-03-01

    The central element of the "qualified withdrawal treatment" of alcohol dependence is - in addition to physical withdrawal treatment - psychotherapy. The treatment of the underlying addictive disorder that is displayed by intoxication, harmful behaviour and withdrawal symptoms is only possible with a combination of somatic and psychotherapeutic treatment elements. The successfully established multimodal therapy of the "qualified alcohol withdrawal treatment", postulated in the current S3-Treatment Guidelines, requires a multi-disciplinary treatment team with psychotherapeutic competence. The aim of the present work is to calculate the normative staff requirement of a guideline-based 21-day qualified withdrawal treatment and to compare the result with the staffing regulations of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. The present data support the hypothesis that even in the case of a hundred per cent implementation of these data, adequate therapy of alcohol-related disorders, according to the guidelines, is not feasible. This has to be considered when further developing the finance compensation system based on the described superseded elements of the German Institute for Hospital Reimbursement. PMID:26842899

  12. Dissociated Accumbens and Hippocampal Structural Abnormalities across Obesity and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Elijah; Chien, Yee; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing of food and drug rewards involves specific neurocircuitry, and emerging evidence implicates subcortical abnormalities, particularly the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. We specifically hypothesized that these 2 established regions in addiction neurocircuitry are associated with distinctive in vivo structural abnormalities in obesity and alcohol dependence. Methods: To specifically investigate anatomically discrete volumetric changes associated with overconsumption of different rewards, we acquired T1 MRI data from 118 subjects in 3 groups comprising obesity (n=42), alcohol dependence (n=32), and healthy volunteer controls (n=44). To exploit novel methods of automated hippocampal subfield segmentation, we used Freesurfer software to generate volumetric data in subject groups for the hippocampal subiculum and its major striatal efferent target, the nucleus accumbens. Hypothesis-led, selective group difference comparisons were analyzed. Results: We found markedly greater accumbens volumes (P=.002) and relatively preserved hippocampal subfield volumes in obesity. Conversely, in alcohol dependence, we found preserved accumbens volumes but atrophy of specific ventral hippocampal subfields, the subiculum and presubiculum. Smaller global subcortical gray-matter volume was found in the alcohol dependence group only. Conclusions: Reward neurocircuitry including the accumbens and ventral hippocampus may show key structural abnormalities in disorders involving processing of both food and drug rewards, although the foci of disruption may vary as a function of reward modality. Structural differences may subserve altered reward and motivational processes in obesity and alcohol dependence and represent a potential biomarker for therapeutic targeting in key public health disorders. PMID:27207916

  13. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  14. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  15. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24997776

  16. TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels: neurobiological markers of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients?

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Käser, Marius; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Rhein, Mathias; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 30 male alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them with the levels obtained from 18 healthy male controls. IL-6 (day 1: T = 2,593, p = 0.013; day 7: T = 2,315, p = 0.037; day 14: T = 1,650, p = 0.112) serum levels were significantly increased at the beginning of alcohol withdrawal. TNF-α (T = 3,202, p = 0.03) serum levels were significantly elevated in the patients' group during the whole period of withdrawal. IL-6 serum levels decreased significantly during withdrawal (F = 16.507, p < 0.001), whereas TNF-α levels did not change significantly (day 1-14). IL-6 serum levels were directly associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.392, p = 0.047) on day 1. Moreover, the IL-6 serum levels were associated with alcohol craving (PACS total score day 1: r = -0.417, p = 0.022, the score of the obsessive subscale of the OCDS on day 14 [r = -0.549, p = 0.022]), depression (r = -0.507, p = 0.005), and trait anxiety (r = -0.674, p < 0.001) on day 1. We found an association with the duration of active drinking following the last period of abstinence and the TNF-α serum levels (day 1:r = 0.354, p = 0.009; day 7: r = 0.323, p = 0.022; day 14: r = 0.303, p = 0.034) as well as an association with the severity of alcohol dependence measured by the SESA scale (r = 0.454, p = 0.015). Moreover, we found a significant association between the BDNF serum levels and the TNF-α serum levels (r = -0.426, p = 0.021). Our results support an association between alterations in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels and alcohol consumption. PMID:25262503

  17. Association of ADH and ALDH Genes With Alcohol Dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Alexander, Jeffry; Jiang, Cizhong; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. Methods: We conducted a case–control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. Results: All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 × 10−5), and 5′ of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 × 10−4). Conclusion: We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD. PMID:18331377

  18. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  19. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  20. Does negative affect mediate the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and daily alcohol involvement in female rape victims? Evidence from 14 days of interactive voice response assessment

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy; Hagman, Brett T.; Moore, Kathleen; Mitchell, Jessica; Ehlke, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The negative reinforcement model of addiction posits that individuals may use alcohol to reduce with negative affective (NA) distress. The current study investigated the mediating effect of daily NA on the relationship between daily PTSD symptoms and same-day and next-day alcohol involvement (consumption and desire to drink) in a sample of 54 non-treatment-seeking female rape victims who completed 14 days of interactive voice response assessment. The moderating effect of lifetime alcohol use disorder diagnosis (AUD) on daily relationships was also examined. Multilevel models suggested that NA mediated the relationship between PTSD and same-day, but not next-day alcohol involvement. NA was greater on days characterized by more severe PTSD symptoms, and alcohol consumption and desire to drink were greater on days characterized by higher NA. Further, daily PTSD symptoms and NA were more strongly associated with same-day (but not next-day) alcohol consumption and desire to drink for women with an AUD than without. Results suggest that NA plays an important role in female rape victims’ daily alcohol use. Differences between women with and without an AUD indicate the need for treatment matching to sub-types of female rape victims. PMID:24731112

  1. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  2. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  3. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Results and conclusions Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR = 7.17), a family history of suicide (OR = 4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR = 2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR = 1.84 – 2.42). Limitations Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure. PMID:18835498

  4. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as rated by youth, parents, and teachers, decreased from late childhood into adolescence, whereas rates of youth-rated life events did not change significantly over time. Initial levels of depressive symptoms were positively associated with initial levels of life events. Furthermore, after controlling for the initial association between the two constructs, increases in depressive symptoms (as assessed by parents and youth) were positively associated with increases in life events over time. The study builds on prior research by focusing specifically on negative dependent life events, examining results across multiple informants, and employing latent growth curve modeling to evaluate associations between trajectories of life events and depressive symptoms in a longitudinal adolescent sample. Additional studies employing latent growth modeling to examine the changes in this association during adolescence are needed. PMID:22592931

  5. Childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and the development of adolescent alcohol problems: A prospective, population-based study of Swedish twins.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Pettersson, Erik; Lundström, Sebastian; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Långström, Niklas; Gumpert, Clara Hellner; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; D'Onofrio, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of problematic alcohol and other substance use in adolescence. This study used data from an ongoing, prospective, population-based twin study of Swedish children and adolescents to evaluate the extent to which the association between ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems reflects a unique source of genetic or environmental risk related to ADHD versus a broader predisposition to youth externalizing behavior. We used all available data from same-sex monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins on ADHD symptoms in childhood (age 9/12; N = 15,549) and alcohol problems in late adolescence (age 18; N = 2,564). Consistent with prior longitudinal studies, the phenotypic association between hyperactive/impulsive ADHD symptoms and alcohol problems was small in magnitude, whereas the association for inattentive symptoms was even weaker. Additive genetic influences explained 99.8% of the association between hyperactive/impulsive symptoms and alcohol problems. Furthermore, we found that the genetic risk specifically associated with hyperactive/impulsive symptoms was attenuated when estimated in the context of externalizing behavior liability during childhood, of which ADHD symptoms were specific expressions. In sensitivity analyses exploring hyperactivity in mid-adolescence, we found a similar pattern of genetic associations. These results are consistent with previous findings of genetically driven overlap in the etiology of ADHD and problematic alcohol use. At least some of this co-occurrence may result from a general predisposition to externalizing behaviors in youth. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. IMPULSIVE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS PREDICT POST-TREATMENT RELAPSE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Results Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, df=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95%C.I. = 1.13–6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% C.I. = 1.18–3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. Conclusions This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates. PMID:18556146

  7. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    PubMed

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  8. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  9. Sleep abnormalities during abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Landolt, H P; Gillin, J C

    2001-01-01

    Virtually every type of sleep problem occurs in alcohol-dependent patients. Typically, these individuals take a longer time to fall asleep and show decreased sleep efficiency, shorter sleep duration and reduced amounts of slow wave sleep when compared with healthy controls. Their sleep patterns are fragmented, and the typical time course of electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave activity is severely disrupted. The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be reduced or increased. Sleep changes can persist during months or years of abstinence, and recent studies indicate that certain alterations in sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep complaints, predict relapse to alcoholism. The mechanisms of action of short and long term alcohol administration on sleep are incompletely understood. They may arise from an interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), adenosine or other neurotransmitter systems. While only a few pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to improve or normalise disturbed sleep in individuals who have recovered from alcoholism have been studied, the use of benzodiazepines, other hypnosedatives or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is not recommended. Therapies include sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, meditation, relaxation methods, and other nonpharmacological approaches. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between sleep, sleep abnormalities and alcoholism, and to establish new approaches to improve sleep in alcohol-dependent patients and to prevent withdrawal reactions that affect sleep during abstinence.

  10. Disease recognition is related to specific autobiographical memory deficits in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marie; Neumann, Aurore; Luminet, Olivier; Vande Weghe, Noémie; Philippot, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The particularly high treatment gap in alcohol-dependence suggests the existence of important barriers to treatment decision and in particular difficulties in problem recognition. This study tested the relation between problem recognition and self-related memories. Forty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (AD) were compared to twenty alcoholic subjects that were abstinent for 6 months or more (recruited among alcoholics-anonymous (AA)), and to twenty controls on autobiographical memories elicited by pictures depicting or not alcohol using the autobiographical memory test. Autonoetic consciousness was measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. We tested whether memories performances were related with data obtained on the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) or with consciousness of the severity of drinking. AD subjects provided less specific memories than control and AA subjects, and fewer Remember responses than controls. The deficits in AD subjects were not specific for memories elicited by pictures depicting alcohol, suggesting a global deficit. Autobiographical memories specificity was negatively correlated to scores of consciousness of the severity of drinking but not to RCQ. Our results support potential recovery of autobiographical memory with abstinence. AD's deficits in autobiographical memory were related to capacities to recognize the severity and therefore may be a barrier to treatment decision. PMID:26365688

  11. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder. PMID:17172772

  12. Gender differences in the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms: a cross-sectional study among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yue; Hong, Lingyao; Guo, Lan; Gao, Xue; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-12-07

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms among adolescents, with a particular focus on gender differences. A total of 19,578 middle and high school students in Chongqing Province were surveyed. Self-reported cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, depressive symptoms, and family- and school-related factors were assessed. A total of 8.8% adolescents reported smoking cigarettes. Tobacco use by boys (16.5%) was significantly higher than by girls (1.9%). Approximately 23.5% of adolescents reported alcohol consumption. Consumption in boys (31.5%) was significantly higher than in girls (16.2%). Depressive symptoms were prevalent in 9.1% of the sample. Girls reported significantly more symptoms (10.4%) than boys (7.7%). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the association between alcohol consumption and depressive symptoms was stronger among girls (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.8-2.5) than boys (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.4-2.1). A significant association (AOR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.4) between cigarette smoking and depressive symptoms was revealed in girls only. The significant gender differences found above may provide a basis for the early identification of individuals at high risk for depression.

  13. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes. PMID:26092776

  14. Alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among late adolescent Hispanics: Testing associations of acculturation and enculturation in a bicultural transaction model.

    PubMed

    Cano, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Marcel A; Castro, Yessenia; Vaughan, Ellen L; Castillo, Linda G; Lorenzo-Blanco, Elma I; Piña-Watson, Brandy; Berger Cardoso, Jodi; Ojeda, Lizette; Cruz, Rick A; Correa-Fernandez, Virmarie; Ibañez, Gladys; Auf, Rehab; Molleda, Lourdes M

    2015-10-01

    Research has indicated that Hispanics have high rates of heavy drinking and depressive symptoms during late adolescence. The purpose of this study was to test a bicultural transaction model composed of two enthnocultural orientations (acculturation and enculturation); and stressful cultural transactions with both the U.S. culture (perceived ethnic discrimination) and Hispanic culture (perceived intragroup marginalization) to predict alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms among a sample of 129 (men=39, women=90) late adolescent Hispanics (ages 18-21) enrolled in college. Results from a path analysis indicated that the model accounted for 18.2% of the variance in alcohol use severity and 24.3% of the variance in depressive symptoms. None of the acculturation or enculturation domains had statistically significant direct effects with alcohol use severity or depressive symptoms. However, higher reports of ethnic discrimination were associated with higher reports of alcohol use severity and depressive symptoms. Similarly, higher reports of intragroup marginalization were associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further, both ethnic discrimination and intragroup marginalization functioned as mediators of multiple domains of acculturation and enculturation. These findings highlight the need to consider the indirect effects of enthnocultural orientations in relation to health-related outcomes.

  15. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  16. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  17. [Clinical efficacy of octreotide acetate in cancer patients with malignant bowel symptoms depend on terminal stage].

    PubMed

    Uchino, Ryojin; Kusano, Shuichi; Hanada, Norihisa; Ohara, Chitoshi; Okino, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Kenji

    2011-02-01

    There are many reports that octreotide acetate(SMS)is effective for terminally ill cancer patients with malignant bowel obstructions such as nausea, vomiting and abdominal distension. We retrospectively found that the clinical efficacy of SMS in 23 patients with these symptoms depended on the early terminal stage(about six months until death)or middle terminal stage(within one month until death). SMS was more effective to relieve abdominal distension(p=0. 01)and these bowel symptoms occurred among cancer patients in the early terminal stage rather than in the middle terminal stage(p<0. 001).

  18. Development of symptoms of tobacco dependence in youths: 30 month follow up data from the DANDY study

    PubMed Central

    DiFranza, J; Savageau, J; Rigotti, N; Fletcher, K; Ockene, J; McNeill, A; Coleman, M; Wood, C

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine if there is a minimum duration, frequency or quantity of tobacco use required to develop symptoms of dependence. Design and setting: A retrospective/prospective longitudinal study of the natural history of tobacco dependence employing individual interviews conducted three times annually in two urban school systems over 30 months. Detailed histories of tobacco use were obtained including dates, duration, frequency, quantity, patterns of use, types of tobacco, and symptoms of dependence. Participants: A cohort of 679 seventh grade students (age 12–13 years). Main outcome measures: The report of any of 11 symptoms of dependence. Results: Among 332 subjects who had used tobacco, 40% reported symptoms, with a median latency from the onset of monthly smoking of 21 days for girls and 183 days for boys. The median frequency of use at the onset of symptoms was two cigarettes, one day per week. The report of one or more symptoms predicted continued smoking through the end of follow up (odds ratio (OR) 44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17 to 114, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Symptoms of tobacco dependence commonly develop rapidly after the onset of intermittent smoking, although individuals differ widely in this regard. Girls tend to develop symptoms faster. There does not appear to be a minimum nicotine dose or duration of use as a prerequisite for symptoms to appear. The development of a single symptom strongly predicted continued use, supporting the theory that the loss of autonomy over tobacco use begins with the first symptom of dependence. PMID:12198274

  19. Assessment of nicotine dependence symptoms in adolescents: a comparison of five indicators

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, J; DiFranza, J; Tarasuk, J; Meshefedjian, G; McMillan-Davey, E; Paradis, G; Tyndale, R; Clarke, P; Hanley, J

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychometric properties, test-retest reliability, and convergent construct validity of five indicators of nicotine dependence (ND) symptoms in adolescents. Design: Analysis of baseline data from a prospective study on the natural history of ND in 1264 adolescents aged 12–13 years. Setting: Ten Montreal high schools. Subjects: 233 grade 7 students who had smoked cigarettes one or more times in the three months preceding the baseline data collection. Main outcome measures: Five indicators of ND symptoms including two that are multi-dimensional (a proxy measure of ICD-10 criteria for tobacco dependence; the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC)) and three new indicators of "symptom clusters" that emerged from principal component analysis (ND/cravings, withdrawal symptoms, self medication). Results: All five indicators demonstrated acceptable internal and test-retest reliability. The correlation between the HONC and ND/cravings was 0.910. All other correlations between indicators ranged between 0.716–0.824. There was considerable overlap in the independent correlates identified for each indicator. Conclusions: All five indicators performed well psychometrically. Until the meaning, relative importance, and usefulness of each scale is clarified in longitudinal work, decisions regarding which scale(s) are most informative will depend more on the content of the scales, the need for a multi- or unidimensional indicator, and whether or not the scale is theory based. PMID:12432161

  20. A comparison of U.S. jail inmates and the U.S. general population with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV alcohol use disorders: sociodemographic and symptom profiles.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Bradley T

    2008-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare sociodemographic and symptom profiles between U.S. jail inmates and the U.S. general population with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) alcohol use disorder. Data for the study were derived from two large nationally representative surveys, the 2002 Survey of Inmates in Local Jails and the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. U.S. inmates were significantly more likely (P<.007) to be younger, male, Black or Hispanic, to have lower education, and to be separated/divorced/widowed or never married relative to their U.S. general population counterparts. Inmates were also more likely to have more severe alcohol abuse and dependence. Implications of this study are discussed in terms of meeting the unique alcohol treatment needs of U.S. jail inmates including implementation of more intensive alcohol treatment and intervention programs targeting specific needs of inmates with alcohol use disorder as revealed from unique sociodemographic profiles.

  1. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  2. Tryptophan for the sleeping disorder and mental symptom of new-type drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongming; Li, Wenzhen; Xiao, Yang; He, Wulong; Wei, Weiquan; Yang, Longyu; Yu, Jincong; Song, Fujian; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: New-type drugs are popular with adolescents and could lead to psychiatry disorders, but no medications have been proven to be effective for these disorders of new-type drug dependence. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of tryptophan on sleeping disorders and mental symptoms in detoxified individuals with new-type drug dependence. Methods: This randomized, placebo-controlled trial included 80 detoxified individuals with new-type drug dependence, recruited successively from a Compulsory Residential Drug Abstinence Institution in Wuhan, China, from April 2012 to November 2012. Eligible participants were randomly allocated to be treated with tryptophan (1000 mg/d, n = 40) or placebo (n = 40) for 2 weeks. The sleeping disorders and mental symptoms were assessed using Athens Insomnia Scale and Symptom Check-List-90 at baseline and 2 weeks. Results were analyzed according to the “intention-to-treat” approach. Results: Forty-five participants completed the 2-week study, 24 in the tryptophan group and 21 in the placebo group. There were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups and the treatment adherence was similar between groups. The reduction in the Athens Insomnia Scale score in the tryptophan group was significantly greater than that in the placebo group (P = 0.017). However, no significant differences were found in Symptom Check-List-90 scores (either by individual dimension or the overall score) between groups (all P > 0.05). The frequency of adverse events was similar and no serious adverse events were reported during the study. Conclusion: Tryptophan was unlikely to be effective for mental symptoms, but could alleviate sleep disorders in short term among detoxified individuals with new-type drug dependence. Future large-scale trials are required to confirm findings from this study. PMID:27428201

  3. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  4. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  5. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  6. The outcome of patients sustaining a proximal femur fracture who suffer from alcohol dependency.

    PubMed

    Faroug, R; Amanat, S; Ockendon, M; Shah, S V; Gregory, J J

    2014-07-01

    There are many negative health consequences associated with alcohol dependency. Fractures of the proximal femur carry significant morbidity and mortality. This study examines the outcomes in patients with alcohol dependency, who sustain a fracture of the proximal femur. Twenty-eight consecutive alcohol dependent patients who suffered a fracture of the proximal femur were identified over a three year period. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, surgical factors, mobility and mortality. The median age of patients was 61 years. The median weekly alcohol intake was 158 units. Thirteen patients sustained an extra-capsular fracture and 15 an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated with internal fixation and six with arthroplasty. The overall mortality rate was 29% at a median of 15 months post fracture. The failure rate of intra-capsular fractures fixed with cannulated screws was 56% at a median time of 43 days. All patients had a reduction in mobility compared to their pre-operative function. The reduction in mobility was greatest in patients with intra-capsular fractures treated with cannulated screw fixation. Alcohol dependent patients sustaining a fracture of the proximal femur are significantly younger than non-alcohol dependent patients sustaining the same injury. Despite the younger age at presentation the one year mortality rate of this group was high (29%). The high rate of complications with fracture fixation and high one year mortality suggest that hemiarthroplasty may be the best treatment option for intra-capsular fractures in this patient group.

  7. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Flaudias, Valentin; Brousse, Georges; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Planche, François; Brun, Julien; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB) under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST). The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42) and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16), recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19), and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23). Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075). Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06) was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42), itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55) (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09). Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment and for the value of these methods to diminish AB during detoxification. PMID:23785237

  8. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Kallupi, Marsida; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Carmichael, Casey Y; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-09-01

    Electrophysiological data suggest a dual role of Y2 receptors (Y2 Rs) as autoreceptors regulating neuropeptide Y release and heteroceptors regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid release in the central amygdala (CeA). Here, we report that neither systemic (JNJ-31020028) nor intra-CeA (BIIE0246) Y2 R antagonism altered operant alcohol responding by alcohol-dependent or non-dependent rats. Conversely, BIIE0246 in the CeA reduced anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-naïve rats. The finding that Y2 R antagonism reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking suggests that these two effects may occur via different functions of the Y2 R (e.g. autoreceptor versus heteroceptor function).

  9. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  10. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  11. [Psychometric properties of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) in a sample of smokers treated for their alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Nogueiras, Luis; Flórez, Gerardo; Alvarez, Sandra; Vázquez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of nicotine dependence with brief instruments is of great relevance for the better detection of this disorder. Here we present the results with the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) by Shiffman, Waters and Hickcox (2004) in a sample of 183 patients treated at an Alcohol Dependence Unit who were also cigarette smokers. The results indicate that the general factor which evaluates nicotine dependence (NDSS-T) has good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). Factor analysis identifies four of the five factors proposed in the original version, those of drive, priority, continuity and stereotypy. Reliability of the scales derived ranges from very good (0.80) to moderate (0.63). The NDSS-T correlates significantly with the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ), with the DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence assessed through the SCID, and with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The ROC curves indicate an NDSS-T score of 0.80 under the curve (0.70 for the FTND), showing that it adequately predicts nicotine dependence. This study confirms the utility of this new instrument for assessing nicotine dependence in smokers who also abuse or depend upon alcohol.

  12. Depressive symptoms in people with and without alcohol abuse: factor structure and measurement invariance of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) across groups.

    PubMed

    Skule, Cecilie; Ulleberg, Pål; Dallavara Lending, Hilde; Berge, Torkil; Egeland, Jens; Brennen, Tim; Landrø, Nils Inge

    2014-01-01

    This study explored differences in the factor structure of depressive symptoms in patients with and without alcohol abuse, and differences in the severity of depressive symptoms between the two groups. In a sample of 358 patients without alcohol problems and 167 patients with comorbid alcohol problems, confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the same factor structures, Beck et al.'s two-factor Somatic Affective-Cognitive (SA-C) model, and Buckley et al.'s three-factor Cognitive-Affective- Somatic (C-A-S) model, demonstrated the best fit to the data in both groups. The SA-C model was preferred due to its more parsimonious nature. Evidence for strict measurement invariance across the two groups for the SA-C model was found. MIMIC (multiple-indicator-multiple-cause) modeling showed that the level of depressive symptoms was found to be highest on both factors in the group with comorbid alcohol problems. The magnitude of the differences in latent mean scores suggested a moderate difference in the level of depressive symptoms between the two groups. It is argued that patients with comorbid depression and alcohol abuse should be offered parallel and adequate treatment for both conditions. PMID:24533075

  13. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  14. Alcohol abuse-duration dependent decrease in plasma testosterone and antioxidants in males.

    PubMed

    Maneesh, M; Dutta, Sanjiba; Chakrabarti, Amit; Vasudevan, D M

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is a testicular toxin and it causes fertility abnormalities with low sperm count and impaired sperm motility in men. The present study was designed to investigate plasma testosterone level and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis function in alcoholic men and also effect of ethanol on systemic oxidative stress. Forty six male alcohol abusers in the age group 20-40 years were selected. Fifty five, males in the same age group served as control. Alcohol abusers had significantly low plasma testosterone with low luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition they had significantly high thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, and low glutathione, ascorbic acid, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, serum testosterone level in alcoholics negatively correlated with duration of alcohol abuse, and TBARS. Duration dependent decreased serum testosterone level in alcohol abusers might be due to 1) increased oxidative stress which can damage Leydig and supporting Sertoli cells and 2) impaired HPG axis.

  15. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Irene; Gentili, Claudio; Nelli, Gloria; Guazzelli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT) Unit – University of Pisa (Italy). We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET) with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL) any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p < 0.0037). Furthermore, the number of drop-outs at three months of treatment was also significantly lower in the MET than in the NULL group (17% vs. 57%; chi square of 23.22, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol. PMID:17176456

  16. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcome measure was the consumption of alcohol, rated according to the World Health Organization criteria for risk of chronic harm. Results: While all patients were rated “at high risk” at baseline, approximately half of them were rated “at low risk” at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The sum of patients who were at “low risk” and at “moderate risk” (improved patients) was 84% at 3 months, 70% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, and 62% at 2 years. The constancy of improvement over the 2-years was remarkable. The average maximal dose of baclofen taken was 147 mg/day. Ninety-two percentage of patients reported that they experienced the craving-suppressing effect of baclofen. Significant relationships were found between the amount in grams of alcohol taken before treatment and the maximal dose of baclofen required, and between the existence of a mental disorder and a lesser effect of baclofen. Conclusion: Baclofen produces an effortless decrease or suppression of alcohol craving when it is prescribed with no superior limit of dose. Potential limitations in the effectiveness of baclofen include the coexistence of a mental disorder, the concomitant use of other psychotropic drugs, a lack of real motivation in patients to stop drinking, and the impossibility to reach the optimal dose of baclofen because of unbearable side-effects (sometimes possibly related to too sharp a protocol of dose escalation). PMID:23316172

  17. Field Dependency, n Power and Locus of Control Variables in Alcohol Aversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.

    1983-01-01

    Compared individual differences and treatment effectiveness in male volunteer alcoholics (N=47) in a 10-day electroconditioning aversion program. Follow-up showed combination therapy was more successful. Internals and hard liquor drinkers tended to be abstinent as predicted. Field dependency was a more unstable variable for outcome. (Author/JAC)

  18. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  19. Integrated Psychosocial and Opioid-Antagonist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Review of Controlled Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological characteristics and outcomes of 14 controlled clinical investigations of integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist alcohol dependence treatment were evaluated. The 14 studies were identified through computerized bibliographic and manual literature searches. Clients receiving integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist…

  20. Empirically defined subtypes of alcohol dependence in an Irish family sample.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Kendler, Kenneth S; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G; Prescott, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. The goal of this study was to explore AD subtypes among a sample of 1221 participants in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for AD. Variables used to identify the subtypes included major depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, illicit drug dependence (cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opioids, and hallucinogens), nicotine dependence, the personality traits of neuroticism and novelty seeking, and early alcohol use. Using latent class analysis, a 3-class solution was identified as the most parsimonious description of the data. Individuals in a Mild class were least likely to have comorbid psychopathology, whereas a severe class had highest probabilities of all comorbid psychopathology. The third class was characterized by high probabilities of major depression and higher neuroticism scores, but lower likelihood of other comorbid disorders than seen in the severe class. Overall, sibling pair resemblance for class was stronger within than between classes, and was greatest for siblings within the severe class, suggesting a stronger familial etiology for this class. These findings are consistent with the affective regulation and behavioral disinhibition subtypes of alcoholism, and are in line with prior work suggesting familial influences on subtype etiology.

  1. The contribution of emotional maltreatment to alcohol dependence in a treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Studies reporting a link between child maltreatment and addiction have typically focused on physical and sexual abuse. In contrast, emotional maltreatment has rarely been studied in substance-abusing samples although it is associated with a wide range of dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the specific impact of different types of maltreatment and peer victimization on alcohol dependence and to examine the potentially mediating role of psychopathology. A sample of treatment seeking adults with alcohol dependence (N=72) underwent an extensive clinical examination including both a standardized interview and self-report measures. Child maltreatment, peer victimization, severity of alcohol dependence, and general psychopathology were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that emotional maltreatment was the strongest predictor of alcohol dependence severity whereas a unique contribution of peer victimization was not found. Our findings suggest that emotional maltreatment might have a major role in the etiology of AD that seems to exceed the contribution of other abuse and victimization experiences. Thereby, the study underscores the need for considering child maltreatment experiences in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24561015

  2. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  3. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  4. Nalmefene for Reducing Alcohol Consumption in People with Alcohol Dependence: An Evidence Review Group Perspective of a NICE Single Technology Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Matt; Pandor, Abdullah; Stevens, John W; Rawdin, Andrew; Rice, Peter; Thompson, Jez; Morgan, Marsha Y

    2015-08-01

    produced alternative cost per QALY values for the comparison undertaken by the company and suggested three further comparisons deemed relevant: (1) nalmefene with psychological intervention as defined in NICE CG115; (2) delayed use of nalmefene in those who did not respond to psychological intervention as recommended in NICE CG115 alone; and (3) use of naltrexone outside of its marketing authorisation. The ERG thought it probable that using nalmefene in only those people who do not respond to psychological intervention alone was likely to be more cost effective compared with its immediate use in the entire licensed population. The Appraisal Committee accepted the comparison with psychosocial support in the form of BRENDA and believed that the most plausible cost per QALY was likely to be below £5100. Therefore, the Appraisal Committee concluded that nalmefene in conjunction with psychosocial support was a cost effective use of NHS resources compared with psychosocial support alone for treating people with alcohol dependence drinking at a high risk level, without physical withdrawal symptoms and not requiring immediate assisted withdrawal from alcohol.

  5. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  6. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  7. Predicting the future relapse of alcohol-dependent patients from structural and functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sambu; Mohr, Johannes; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.

  8. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    PubMed Central

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10−5). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

  9. Loss in connectivity among regions of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Raj, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) regions. LoCo scores are computed from WM abnormality masks derived at two levels: (1) groupwise differences of alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) versus light-drinking (LD) controls and (2) differences of each ALC individual versus the LD control group. LoCo scores based on groupwise WM differences show that GM regions belonging to the extended brain reward system (BRS) network have significantly higher LoCo (i.e., disconnectivity) than those not in this network (t = 2.18, P = 0.016). LoCo scores based on individuals' WM differences are also higher in BRS versus non-BRS (t = 5.26, P = 3.92 × 10(-6) ) of ALC. These results suggest that WM alterations in alcohol dependence, although subtle and spatially heterogeneous across the population, are nonetheless preferentially localized to the BRS. LoCo is shown to provide a more sensitive estimate of GM involvement than conventional volumetric GM measures by better differentiating between brains of ALC and LD controls (rates of 89.3% vs. 69.6%). However, just as volumetric measures, LoCo is not significantly correlated with standard metrics of drinking severity. LoCo is a sensitive WM measure of regional cortical disconnectivity that uniquely characterizes anatomical network disruptions in alcohol dependence.

  10. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  11. Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jesse J.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men, but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender response to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems, or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. PMID:19034737

  12. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Hintz, Thomas; Jung, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Comorbidity in alcohol research refers to the presence of alcohol dependency and another major psychiatric disorder. The existence of additional disorders may have consequences for treatment planning and success. The aims of this paper are therefore: 1) to give an overview on prevalence rates in studies with representative cohorts and hospital-based samples; 2) to report results on gender differences and 3) to determine the impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome. Comorbidity was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in N = 118 (61 male and 57 female) alcohol-dependent patients who were socially well integrated. Results show that 65% of the female patients but only 28% of the male patients had a lifetime history of additional psychiatric disorders. Significantly more phobic/anxiety disorders, mood disorders occur in female patients. One year after inpatient treatment, overall 39% had suffered a relapse. More detailed analysis revealed that 55% of the non-comorbid but only 28% of the comorbid women suffered a relapse, thus contradicting our initial hypothesis that comorbid patients have a poorer prognosis with regard to their alcohol dependence. Male comorbid (40.9%) and non-comorbid (35.3%) patients showed no significant differences regarding relapse rates.

  13. Use of genetic analyses to refine phenotypes related to alcohol tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, J C

    2001-02-01

    Various explanations for the dependence on alcohol are attributed to the development of tolerance to some of alcohol's effects, alterations in sensitivity to its rewarding effects, and unknown pathologic consequences of repeated exposure. All these aspects of dependence have been modeled in laboratory rodents, and these studies have consistently shown a significant influence of genetics. Genetic mapping studies have identified the genomic location of the specific genes for some of these contributing phenotypes. In addition, studies have shown that some genes in mice seem to affect both alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal severity: genetic predisposition to high levels of drinking covaries with genetic predisposition to low withdrawal severity, and vice versa. Finally, the role of genetic background on which genes are expressed is important, as are the specifics of the environment in which genetically defined animals are tested. Understanding dependence will require disentangling the multiple interactions of many contributing phenotypes, and genetic analyses are proving very helpful. However, rigorous understanding of both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions will be required to interpret genetic experiments clearly.

  14. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  15. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Okan Ufuk; Yavuz, Kaasim Fatih; Ulusoy, Sevinc; Sahin, Oktay; Kurt, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods: According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance dependence (SD), and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group) were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30) were used to evaluate the participants. Results: Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group (P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group). Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005). Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group). There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440). Conclusions: Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy. PMID:26495260

  16. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  17. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  18. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  19. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  20. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  1. Neurophysiological endophenotypes, CNS disinhibition, and risk for alcohol dependence and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi

    2007-01-01

    Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2), including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and CHRM2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations) helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic findings related to

  2. Serum Insulin Levels Are Reduced by Intravenous Ghrelin Administration but Do Not Correlate with Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Danielle E.; Lee, Mary R.; Zywiak, William H.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports a role for appetite-regulating pathways like ghrelin, insulin, and leptin in alcoholism. We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) exogenous ghrelin increases alcohol craving. We also reported i.v. ghrelin reduces endogenous serum leptin, whose levels, in turn, negatively correlated with alcohol craving. Exogenous ghrelin administration decreases insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. ghrelin may also decrease endogenous serum insulin levels in alcoholic individuals. Additionally, we explored possible correlations between serum insulin and alcohol craving, since a correlation between insulin and alcohol craving was previously reported. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study (n=43). Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers were randomized to receive i.v. ghrelin or placebo, followed by an alcohol cue-reactivity procedure. Results: There was a main effect for i.v. ghrelin, compared to placebo in reducing serum insulin (P<.05). There was also a time effect (P<.001) but not ghrelin x time interaction (P>.05). We did not find a correlation between the reduction of serum insulin and alcohol craving (P>.05). The change in serum insulin was consistent with a parallel reduction in serum connective-peptide in the ghrelin group compared with placebo, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.076). No similar effects were found for other glucose-regulating hormones analyzed i.e. glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastric inhibitory peptide (Ps>.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate i.v. ghrelin administration has an effect on reducing serum insulin in alcohol-dependent individuals; however, the reduction of insulin did not correlate with changes in alcohol cue-elicited craving. We speculate that, unlike for leptin, the interactions between ghrelin and insulin relationship are limited at

  3. Improving personality/character traits in individuals with alcohol dependence: the influence of mindfulness-oriented meditation.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The study of personality is critical to enhance current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of alcohol dependence. Recent evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation positively influences healthy individuals' character. Here, it was assessed whether 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation promotes similar changes in a group of alcohol-dependent individuals. A control group with alcohol dependence was also tested. Mindfulness-oriented meditation participants showed an increase in the character scores of the temperament and character inventory together with reduced risks of relapse. These longitudinal data highlight the importance of assessing personality in alcohol-dependent individuals and support the utility of therapeutic interventions for alcohol dependence aimed at enhancing individuals' character.

  4. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Alcoholic Liver Disease Via a Macrophage Autophagy-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Denaës, Timothé; Lodder, Jasper; Chobert, Marie-Noële; Ruiz, Isaac; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of the liver, play a major role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We have previously demonstrated that CB2 receptor protects against alcoholic liver disease by inhibiting alcohol-induced inflammation and steatosis via the regulation of Kupffer cell activation. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying these effects and hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of CB2 receptor in Kupffer cells rely on activation of autophagy. For this purpose, mice invalidated for CB2 receptor (CB2Mye−/− mice) or for the autophagy gene ATG5 (ATG5Mye−/− mice) in the myeloid lineage, and their littermate wild-type mice were subjected to chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. CB2Mye−/− mice showed exacerbated alcohol-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and steatosis. Studies in cultured macrophages demonstrated that CB2 receptor activation by JWH-133 stimulated autophagy via a heme oxygenase-1 dependent pathway. Moreover, JWH-133 reduced the induction of inflammatory genes by lipopolysaccharide in wild-type macrophages, but not in ATG5-deficient cells. The CB2 agonist also protected from alcohol-induced liver inflammation and steatosis in wild-type mice, but not in ATG5Mye−/− mice demonstrating that macrophage autophagy mediates the anti-inflammatory and anti-steatogenic effects of CB2 receptor. Altogether these results demonstrate that CB2 receptor activation in macrophages protects from alcohol-induced steatosis by inhibiting hepatic inflammation through an autophagy-dependent pathway. PMID:27346657

  5. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  6. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: behavioral and physiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Schwandt, Melanie L; Sells, Joanna R; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently co-morbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier social stress test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with co-morbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism inpatient research facility. They participated in a 4-week inpatient study of the efficacy of a neurokinin 1 antagonist to treat co-morbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress versus alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of co-morbid PTSD and AD on craving.

  7. Nicotine Modulates Alcohol-Seeking and Relapse by Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats in a Time Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Getachew, Bruk; Oster, Scott M.; Dhaher, Ronnie; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol is frequently co-abused with smoking. In humans, nicotine use can increase alcohol craving and consumption. The objectives of the current study were to assess the acute effects of nicotine on alcohol seeking and relapse at two different time points. Method Adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) and water on a concurrent fixed-ratio 5 – fixed-ratio 1 (FR5-FR1) schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-hr sessions. Following 10 weeks of daily 1-hr sessions, rats underwent 7 extinction sessions, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without EtOH or water being present for 4 sessions (Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery [PSR]). Rats were then given a week in their home cage before being returned to the operant chambers with access to EtOH and water (relapse). Nicotine (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) was injected s.c. immediately or 4-hr prior to PSR or relapse testing. Results Injections of nicotine immediately prior to testing reduced (5–10 responses PSR; 50–60 responses relapse), whereas injections of nicotine 4-hr prior to testing increased (up to 150 responses for PSR; up to 400 responses for relapse with 1.0 mg/kg dose) responses on the EtOH lever during PSR and relapse tests. Discussion The results of this study demonstrate that acute effects of nicotine on EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors may be time-dependent, with the immediate effects being a result of nicotine possibly acting as a substitute for EtOH whereas, with a delay of 4-hr, priming effects of nicotine alterations in nicotinic receptors, and/or the effects of nicotine’s metabolites (i.e., cotinine, nornicotine) may enhance the expression of EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors. PMID:21689122

  8. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD Symptoms among Young Persons and the Relationship with Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption and Illicit Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Young, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigates the relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and cigarette smoking, alcohol use and illicit drug use. Method: The participants were 10,987 pupils in the final three years of their compulsory education in Iceland (ages 14-16 years). The participants completed questionnaires in…

  9. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  10. The effects of the monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 on craving in alcohol dependent individuals: A human laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Steensland, Pia; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with a dysregulated dopamine system modulating reward, craving and cognition. The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) can counteract both hyper- and hypo-dopaminergic states and we recently demonstrated that it attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors in long-term drinking rats. The present Phase II exploratory human laboratory study investigated to our knowledge for the first time the effects of OSU6162 on cue- and priming-induced craving in alcohol dependent individuals. Fifty-six alcohol dependent individuals were randomized to a 14-day-treatment period of OSU6162 or placebo after their baseline impulsivity levels had been determined using the Stop Signal Task. On Day 15, participants were subjected to a laboratory alcohol craving test comprised of craving sessions induced by: i) active - alcohol specific cues, ii) neutral stimuli and iii) priming - intake of an alcoholic beverage (0.20g ethanol/kg bodyweight). Subjective ratings of alcohol craving were assessed using the shortened version of the Desire for Alcohol Questionnaire and visual analog scales (VAS). OSU6162 treatment had no significant effect on cue-induced alcohol craving, but significantly attenuated priming-induced craving. Exploratory analysis revealed that this effect was driven by the individuals with high baseline impulsivity. In addition, OSU6162 significantly blunted the subjective liking of the consumed alcohol (VAS). Although the present 14-day-treatment period, showed that OSU6162 was safe and well tolerated, this exploratory human laboratory study was not designed to evaluate the efficacy of OSU6162 to affect alcohol consumption. Thus a larger placebo-controlled efficacyclinical trial is needed to further investigate the potential of OSU6162 as a novel medication for alcohol dependence.

  11. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  12. A Review of the Interactions between Alcohol and the Endocannabinoid System: Implications for Alcohol Dependence and Future Directions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Pava, Matthew J.; Woodward, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past fifty years a significant body of evidence has been compiled suggesting an interaction between the endocannabinoid (EC) system and alcohol dependence. However, much of this work has been conducted only in the past two decades following the elucidation of the molecular constituents of the EC system that began with the serendipitous discovery of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1). Since then, novel pharmacological and genetic tools have enabled researchers to manipulate select components of the EC system, to determine their contribution to the motivation to consume ethanol. From these preclinical studies, it is evident that CB1 contributes the motivational and reinforcing properties of ethanol, and chronic consumption of ethanol alters EC transmitter levels and CB1 expression in brain nuclei associated with addiction pathways. These results are augmented by in vitro and ex vivo studies showing that acute and chronic treatment with ethanol produces physiologically relevant alterations in the function of the EC system. This report provides a current and comprehensive review of the literature regarding the interactions between ethanol and the EC system. We begin be reviewing the studies published prior to the discovery of the EC system that compared the behavioral and physiological effects of cannabinoids with ethanol in addition to cross-tolerance between these drugs. Next, a brief overview of the molecular constituents of the EC system is provided as context for the subsequent review of more recent studies examining the interaction of ethanol with the EC system. These results are compiled into a summary providing a scheme for the known changes to the components of the EC system in different stages of alcohol dependence. Finally, future directions for research are discussed. PMID:22459871

  13. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.

    2016-01-01

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  14. Resting-state functional connectivity and presynaptic monoamine signaling in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Dutta, Nisha; Helton, Sarah G; Schwandt, Melanie; Yan, Jia; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Cortes, Carlos R; Kerich, Mike; Hall, Samuel; Sun, Hui; Phillips, Monte; Momenan, Reza; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol Dependence (AD) is a chronic relapsing disorder with high degrees of morbidity and mortality. While multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the complex symptomatology of AD, monoamine dysregulation and subsequent neuroadaptations have been long postulated to play an important role. Presynaptic monoamine transporters, such as the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1), are likely critical as they represent a key common entry point for monoamine regulation and may represent a shared pathway for susceptibility to AD. Excessive monoaminergic signaling as mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1 might affect functional brain connectivity in particular in alcoholics compared to controls. We conducted resting-state fMRI functional connectivity (FC) analysis using the independent component analysis (ICA) approach in 68 AD subjects and 72 controls. All subjects were genotyped for the Thr136Ile (rs1390938) variant in VMAT1. Functional connectivity analyses showed a significant increase of resting-state FC in 4 networks in alcoholics compared to controls (P < 0.05, corrected). The FC was significantly positively correlated with Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS). The hyperfunction allele 136Ile was associated with a significantly decreased FC in the Default Mode Network, Prefrontal Cortex Network, and Executive Control Network in alcohol dependent participants (P < 0.05, corrected), but not in controls. Our data suggest that increased FC might represent a neuroadaptive mechanism relevant to AD that is furthermore mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1. The hyperfunction allele Thr136Ile might have a protective effect that is, in particular, relevant in AD by mechanism of increased monoamine transport into presynaptic storage vesicles.

  15. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Noori, Hamid R; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C

    2016-03-15

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse.

  16. Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    2001-05-01

    Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities

  17. Impaired Regulation of ALDH2 Protein Expression Revealing a Yet Unknown Epigenetic Impact of rs886205 on Specific Methylation of a Negative Regulatory Promoter Region in Alcohol-Dependent Patients.

    PubMed

    Haschemi Nassab, Mani; Rhein, Mathias; Hagemeier, Lars; Kaeser, Marius; Muschler, Marc; Glahn, Alexander; Pich, Andreas; Heberlein, Annemarie; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Frieling, Helge; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Acetaldehyde, the carcinogenic metabolite of ethanol known to provoke aversive symptoms of alcohol consumption, is predominantly eliminated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2). Reduced ALDH2 activity correlates with low alcohol tolerance and low risk for alcohol dependence. The ALDH2 promoter polymorphism rs886205 (A>G) is associated with decreased promoter activity, but a molecular mechanism and allele-dependent ALDH2 protein expression has not been described yet. On the basis of allele-dependent epigenetic effects, we analyzed the rs886205 genotype, methylation rates of cytosine-phosphatidyl-guanine (CpG)-sites within a regulatory promoter region and ALDH2 protein levels in 82 alcohol-dependent patients during a 2-week withdrawal and compared them to 34 matched controls. Patients without the G-allele of rs886205 showed higher methylation of the promoter region than controls and readily adapted epigenetically as well as on protein level during withdrawal, while patients with the G-allele displayed retarded methylation readjustment and no change in ALDH2 protein levels. Our data provide novel insights into an unknown genetic-epigenetic interaction, revealing impaired ALDH2 protein expression in patients with the G-allele of rs886205. Additionally, we checked for an association between rs886205 and protection against alcohol dependence and found a trend association between the G-allele and protection against alcohol dependence that needs replication in a larger Caucasian cohort. PMID:26339786

  18. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Gaylord, Susan A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2010-06-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned less than $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. Thirty-seven participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society.

  19. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  20. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  1. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  2. Effects of environmental enrichment during induction of methamphetamine dependence on the behavioral withdrawal symptoms in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajheidari, Samira; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein; Bigdeli, Imanollah

    2015-09-25

    This study was designed to examine the effect of environmental enrichment during METH administration on the behavioral withdrawal symptoms after drug abstinence in rats. Rats reared in standard (SE) or enriched environment (EE) during induction of METH dependence with bi-daily injections of METH (2mg/kg, at 12-h. intervals) for 14 days. Then, rats were evaluated for behavioral withdrawal symptoms, and also for anxiety (elevated plus maze-EPM) and depression (Forced swim test-FST) over a ten day period of abstinence. The results showed that stereotypic behaviors score and the number of rearing were significantly lower in METH/EE rats compared to the SE group during 1-4 days. Also, The METH/EE group exhibited more weight gain during 6-10 days of abstinence. The METH/EE rats exhibited lower levels of immobility after METH abstinence than control group in the FST. EE had no effect on anxiety-like behavior. This study showed that exposure to EE diminished the severity of withdrawal symptoms and depressive-like behavior during spontaneous withdrawal from METH.

  3. Factors affecting severity of positive and negative symptoms of psychosis in a polysubstance using population with psychostimulant dependence.

    PubMed

    Willi, Taylor S; Honer, William G; Thornton, Allen E; Gicas, Kristina; Procyshyn, Ric M; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel; Panenka, William J; Aleksic, Ana; Leonova, Olga; Jones, Andrea A; MacEwan, G William; Barr, Alasdair M

    2016-06-30

    Approximately half of psychostimulant users experience psychotic symptoms, which include both positive and negative symptoms. Prior reports have exclusively used positive symptoms to characterize psychostimulant associated psychosis. Symptoms vary dramatically in severity, though most investigations categorize psychosis as a dichotomous occurrence. To explore the association between different substances of abuse and the severity of psychotic symptoms, we investigated 171 individuals meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for psychostimulant (cocaine or methamphetamine) dependence in an observational cross-sectional study. Participants were predominantly male (72.5%), recruited from a socially disadvantaged neighborhood in Vancouver, Canada, with a mean age of 45.5(±8.8) years. Of the total sample, 85% were dependent on cocaine, and 28.1% were dependent on methamphetamine. Participants had a median total PANSS score of 63, ranging from 37 to 111. Demographic information, current substance use and early substance exposure were used to predict positive and negative psychotic symptom severity in linear regression models. Increased severity of positive psychotic symptoms was significantly related to greater methamphetamine and marijuana use in the past 28 days, and methadone-abstinence. Negative symptom severity was related to increased opioid use in the past 28 days. There was no overlap between predictors of positive and negative symptom severity. PMID:27138828

  4. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI) delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN) will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED) of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods. Discussion This paper

  5. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  6. Genetic variation in the CHRNA5 gene affects mRNA levels and is associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Grucza, R; Cruchaga, C; Hinrichs, A L; Bertelsen, S; Budde, J P; Fox, L; Goldstein, E; Reyes, O; Saccone, N; Saccone, S; Xuei, X; Bucholz, K; Kuperman, S; Nurnberger, J; Rice, J P; Schuckit, M; Tischfield, J; Hesselbrock, V; Porjesz, B; Edenberg, H J; Bierut, L J; Goate, A M

    2009-05-01

    Alcohol dependence frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking, another common addictive behavior. Evidence from genetic studies demonstrates that alcohol dependence and smoking cluster in families and have shared genetic vulnerability. Recently a candidate gene study in nicotine dependent cases and nondependent smoking controls reported strong associations between a missense mutation (rs16969968) in exon 5 of the CHRNA5 gene and a variant in the 3'-UTR of the CHRNA3 gene and nicotine dependence. In this study we performed a comprehensive association analysis of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) families to investigate the role of genetic variants in risk for alcohol dependence. Using the family-based association test, we observed that a different group of polymorphisms, spanning CHRNA5-CHRNA3, demonstrate association with alcohol dependence defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV) criteria. Using logistic regression we replicated this finding in an independent case-control series from the family study of cocaine dependence. These variants show low linkage disequilibrium with the SNPs previously reported to be associated with nicotine dependence and therefore represent an independent observation. Functional studies in human brain reveal that the variants associated with alcohol dependence are also associated with altered steady-state levels of CHRNA5 mRNA.

  7. Prazosin Effects on Stress- and Cue-Induced Craving and Stress Response in Alcohol Dependent Individuals: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, George M; Tuit, Keri; Hansen, Julie; Kimmerling, Anne; Siedlarz, Kristen M; Morgan, Peter T; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress, alcohol cues and dysregulated stress responses increase alcohol craving and relapse susceptibility, but few pharmacologic agents are known to decrease stress and cue-induced alcohol craving and associated stress dysregulation in humans. Here we report findings from a preliminary efficacy study of the alpha1 receptor antagonist, prazosin, in modulating these relapse-relevant factors in alcohol dependent (AD) individuals. Methods Seventeen early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals (12 Males /5 Females) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 16 mg daily prazosin in a double-blind, placebo controlled manner over four weeks. During week 4, all patients participated in a 3-day laboratory experiment involving 5-min guided imagery exposure to stress, alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing/control conditions, one exposure per day, on consecutive days in a random, counterbalanced order. Alcohol craving, anxiety and negative emotion, cardiovascular measures, plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA; cortisol, ACTH) were assessed repeatedly in each session. Results The prazosin group (n=9) versus the placebo group (n=8) showed significantly lower alcohol craving, anxiety and negative emotion following stress exposure. The placebo group also showed significantly increased stress and cue-induced alcohol craving, anxiety, negative emotion and blood pressure as well as a blunted HPA response relative to the neutral condition, while the prazosin group showed no such increases in craving, anxiety, negative emotion and blood pressure, and no blunted HPA response to stress and alcohol cue exposure. Conclusions Prazosin appears efficacious in decreasing stress- and cue-induced alcohol craving and may normalize the stress dysregulation associated with early recovery from alcoholism. Further research to assess the efficacy of prazosin in reducing alcohol craving and stress-related relapse risk is warranted. PMID:21919922

  8. Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical metabolites (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered concentrations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. Metabolite levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical metabolite concentrations were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While metabolite concentrations in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599

  9. Are perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity associated with alcohol consumption? A survey of freshmen university students across five European countries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association of perceived stress, depressive symptoms and religiosity with frequent alcohol consumption and problem drinking among freshmen university students from five European countries. Methods 2529 university freshmen (mean age 20.37, 64.9% females) from Germany (n = 654), Poland (n = 561), Bulgaria (n = 688), the UK (n = 311) and Slovakia (n = 315) completed a questionnaire containing the modified Beck Depression Inventory for measuring depressive symptoms, the Cohen’s perceived stress scale for measuring perceived stress, the CAGE-questionnaire for measuring problem drinking and questions concerning frequency of alcohol use and the personal importance of religious faith. Results Neither perceived stress nor depressive symptoms were associated with a high frequency of drinking (several times per week), but were associated with problem drinking. Religiosity (personal importance of faith) was associated with a lower risk for both alcohol-related variables among females. There were also country differences in the relationship between perceived stress and problem drinking. Conclusion The association between perceived stress and depressive symptoms on the one side and problem drinking on the other demonstrates the importance of intervention programs to improve the coping with stress. PMID:22640549

  10. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  11. 38 CFR 17.81 - Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part II) and the... CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical Records” (38 U.S.C. 7332), and will be made... treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.81 Section...

  12. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  13. RISK FACTORS FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS IN VICTIMS OF PARTNER VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Ashare, Rebecca L.; Jaquier, Véronique; Tennen, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of alcohol problems and disorders among women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV), factors related to current alcohol use are understudied. We examined current risk factors for alcohol problems among 143 substance-using, IPV-exposed women recruited from an urban community from 2007-2010. PTSD symptom severity was associated with alcohol-related problems and a positive alcohol screen; physical IPV severity was related to alcohol dependence. Posthoc analyses revealed that PTSD symptom severity mediated relationships between physical IPV severity and hazardous, harmful, and dependent drinking. Focusing on managing PTSD symptoms and physical IPV in community-based interventions may halt the progression from alcohol use to dependence. PMID:22360665

  14. Efficacy of Add-On Deep Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Comorbid Alcohol Dependence and Dysthymic Disorder: Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Casale, Antonio Del; Bersani, Francesco S.; Solfanelli, Andrea; Scatena, Paola; Raccah, Ruggero N.; Brugnoli, Roberto; Digiacomantonio, Vittorio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Fensore, Claudio; Tatarelli, Roberto; Angeletti, Gloria; Ferracuti, Stefano; Girardi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Background: Craving for alcohol is associated with abnormal activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Deep transcranial magnetic stimulation (dTMS) has shown promise in the treatment of depression. There are few treatment options for treatment-resistant dysthymic disorder comorbid with alcohol use disorder. Objective: To investigate the possible anticraving efficacy of bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex high-frequency dTMS in 3 patients with comorbid long-term DSM-IV-TR dysthymic disorder and alcohol use disorder. Method: Three patients with alcohol use disorder with dysthymic disorder in their detoxification phase (abstaining for > 1 month) underwent twenty 20-minute sessions of 20 Hz dTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex over 28 days between 2011 and 2012. Alcohol craving was rated with the Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale and depressive symptoms with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Results: All 3 patients responded unsatisfactorily to initial intravenous antidepressant and antianxiety combinations but responded after 10 dTMS sessions, improving on both anxiety-depressive symptoms and craving. This improvement enabled us to reduce antidepressant dosages after dTMS cycle completion. Discussion: High-frequency bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dTMS with left prevalence was found to produce significant anticraving effects in alcohol use disorder comorbid with dysthymic disorder. The potential of dTMS for reducing craving in patients with substance use disorder deserves to be further investigated. PMID:23724355

  15. A randomized, controlled study of treatment for alcohol dependence in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Van Horn, Deborah H A; Lynch, Kevin G; Lucey, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol is the second most common cause of cirrhosis necessitating liver transplantation in the United States, yet rates of posttransplant drinking approach 50% and no controlled clinical trials of alcoholism treatment exist in this population. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or referral to local treatment sources ("treatment as usual" [TAU]). Addictive behavior, mood states, and general health were compared. Candor concerning alcohol use was encouraged by keeping drinking questionnaires in confidence, except in medical emergencies. Ninety-one subjects were studied; 46 received MET, 45 received TAU, 29 proceeded to transplantation (MET, n = 13; TAU, n = 16). A total of 69 subjects completed 24 weeks of observation, and 25 subjects were assessed at 96 weeks. No difference in study attendance was observed, but significantly more MET subjects attended 1 or more treatment sessions. Twenty-three subjects (25% of sample) drank after randomization but before transplant. Excluding an extreme outlier, MET drinkers had significantly fewer drinks per drinking days than TAU drinkers. Neither treatment plan resulted in significant variances in measures of psychosocial health. In conclusion, although MET afforded no significant benefit over TAU for mood or general health outcomes, this study provides some degree of support for MET to limit the quantity and frequency of pretransplant alcohol consumption among liver transplant candidates with alcohol dependence. However, because of the limited number of study subjects, these data must be interpreted cautiously. Further research to validate our findings or to identify better methods to identify and intervene with patients at risk of pretransplant and posttransplant drinking should continue. PMID:21506242

  16. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals and 32 controls performed an ultimatum game (UG), in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR). Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed in order to examine whether—emotional and behavioral—reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD. PMID:26217293

  17. [The concept of alcohol craving].

    PubMed

    Iwanicka, Katarzyna Agnieszka; Olajossy, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article was to assess how the perception of alcohol craving, which is one of the symptoms of alcohol dependence, evolved, as well as how it was reflected in the diagnostic classifications. The purpose of this article was also a discussion of the models of the origins of craving, explaining the etiology of this phenomenon and the tools for measuring this concept. The concept of craving, defined as a strong need or compulsion to drink alcohol, functioned for many years, not only in the clinical practice but also as a concept inherently associated with alcohol dependence. However, among experts and researchers, there was no consensus about the etiology of this phenomenon and its development. Some emphasize the emotional - motivational aspect of it, while in the literature also its cognitive - behavioral nature is highlighted. Craving as a symptom has been recognized as a diagnostic criterion of alcohol dependence in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems - ICD 10. In the year 2013, it was also indicated as a symptom of disorder resulting from alcohol abuse in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - DSM 5. It seems to be significant also to discuss the tools used to measure craving, both in clinical trials and therapeutic practice, among them: the Alcohol Specific Role Play Test, Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS) Lubeck Craving Scale (LCRR) and Alcohol Urge Questionnaire (AUQ).

  18. Give them prizes, and they will come: contingency management for treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Martin, B; Cooney, J L; Kranzler, H R

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) procedure that provided opportunities to win prizes as reinforcers. At intake to outpatient treatment, 42 alcohol-dependent veterans were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment or standard treatment plus CM, in which they earned the chance to win prizes for submitting negative Breathalyzer samples and completing steps toward treatment goals. Eighty-four percent of the CM participants were retained in treatment for an 8-week period compared with 22% of the standard treatment participants (p < .001). By the end of the treatment period, 69% of those receiving CM were still abstinent, but 61% of those receiving standard treatment had used alcohol (p < .05). These results support the efficacy of this CM procedure. Participants earned an average of $200 in prizes. This CM procedure may be suitable for use in standard treatment settings because prizes can be solicited from the community. PMID:10780125

  19. Prevalence of Childhood Physical Abuse in Adult Male Veteran Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Melodie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The study of 100 adult male alcoholics found that about one-third reported they had been physically abused as children. Abused alcoholics reported having more severe psychological symptoms and distress than nonabused counterparts, though they did not differ in the onset, severity, or treatment history for alcohol dependency. (Author/DB)

  20. Effect of functionally significant deiodinase single nucleotide polymorphisms on drinking behavior in alcohol dependence: an exploratory investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, MR; Schwandt, ML; Bollinger, JW; Dias, AA; Oot, EN; Goldman, D; Hodgkinson, CA; Leggio, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis have been reported in alcoholism, however, there is no definitive agreement on the specific thyroid abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms in alcohol dependence (AD). The biological activity of thyroid hormones or the availability of T3 is regulated by the three deiodinase enzymes D1, D2 and D3. In the context of alcohol use, functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of these deiodinase genes may play a role in HPT dysfunction. Methods The present study explored the effect of three functionally significant SNP’s (D1: rs2235544, D2: rs225014 and rs12885300) of deiodinase genes on drinking behavior and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in alcohol dependent (N=521) and control subjects (N=228). Results Rs225014 was associated with significant differences in the amount of naturalistic alcohol drinking assessed by the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB). Alcohol-dependent subjects had significantly higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels compared to controls; however, there was no effect of genotype on TSH levels for either group. Conclusions These findings extend previous studies on thyroid dysfunction in alcoholism and provide novel, albeit preliminary, information by linking functionally significant genetic polymorphisms of the deiodinase enzymes with alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:26207529

  1. Resting state connectivity in alcohol dependent patients and the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jochem M; van Wingen, Guido; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is thought to result from an overactive neural motivation system and a deficient cognitive control system, and rebalancing these systems may mitigate excessive alcohol use. This study examines the differences in functional connectivity of the fronto-parietal cognitive control network (FPn) and the motivational network (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex) between alcohol dependent patients (ADPs) and healthy controls (HCs), and the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on these networks. This randomized controlled trial included 38 ADPs and 37 HCs, matched on age, gender and education. Participants were randomly assigned to sham or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) stimulation with rTMS. A 3T resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan was acquired before and after active or sham 10Hz rTMS. Group differences of within and between network connectivity and the effect of rTMS on network connectivity was assessed using independent component analysis. Results showed higher connectivity within the left FPn (p=0.012) and the left fronto-striatal motivational network (p=0.03) in ADPs versus HCs, and a further increase in connectivity within the left FPn after active stimulation in ADPs. ADPs also showed higher connectivity between the left and the right FPns (p=0.025), and this higher connectivity was related to fewer alcohol related problems (r=0.30, p=0.06). The results show higher within and between network connectivity in ADPs and a further increase in fronto-parietal connectivity after right dlPFC rTMS in ADPs, suggesting that frontal rTMS may have a beneficial influence on cognitive control and may result in lower relapse rates.

  2. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  3. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescen