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Sample records for alcohol dependent individuals

  1. The Expected Personality Characteristics of Alcohol-Dependent Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Schutte, Nicola S.

    2002-01-01

    Uses the Big Five personality factors as a framework for examining the expected personality characteristics of individuals who are alcohol-dependent. Results help explain prior findings about the social handicap of problem drinking with regard to making friends, dating, marriage, and working. Findings have potential use in alcohol-problem…

  2. Diagnosing alcohol abuse in alcohol dependent individuals: diagnostic and clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Lara A.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Miranda, Robert; Francione, Caren; Chelminski, Iwona; Young, Diane; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In DMS-IV, the diagnosis of alcohol abuse is precluded by the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. The goal of this study was to examine the diagnostic and clinical implications of diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent individuals. Treatment-seeking psychiatric outpatients with a lifetime history of alcohol dependence (n = 544), some of whom (n = 45) did not meet lifetime criteria for alcohol abuse completed in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured clinical assessments of DSM-IV axis I and axis II psychopathology. Alcohol dependent patients who did not meet criteria for alcohol abuse were significantly more likely to be female, have a later age of onset for alcohol dependence, have fewer dependence symptoms, and have a lower rate of positive family history for alcoholism, and were less likely to report a lifetime history of DSM-IV drug use disorders and PTSD. These findings suggest that diagnosing alcohol abuse among alcohol dependent patients may be clinically useful as an index of severity and higher likelihood of comorbid drug abuse and dependence. Future studies are needed to establish whether these differences are clinically significant in terms of the course of the disorder and response to treatment. PMID:19362427

  3. The community reinforcement approach with homeless alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Smith, J E; Meyers, R J; Delaney, H D

    1998-06-01

    Homeless alcohol-dependent individuals were randomly assigned to receive either a behavioral intervention (i.e., the Community Reinforcement Approach [CRA]) or the standard treatment (STD) at a large day shelter. Ninety-one men and 15 women participated. The majority of participants were White (64%), but both Hispanic (19%) and Native American (13%) individuals were represented as well. Overall, the decline in drinking levels from intake through follow-ups was significant. As predicted, CRA participants significantly outperformed STD group members on drinking measures across the 5 follow-ups, which ranged from 2 months to 1 year after intake. Both conditions showed marked improvement in employment and housing stability.

  4. Structural brain differences in alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Abe, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Pennington, David; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 50% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) also use other substances. Therefore, brain structural abnormalities observed in alcohol dependent individuals may not be entirely related to alcohol consumption. This MRI study assessed differences in brain regional tissue volumes between short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals without (ALC) and with current substance use dependence (polysubstance users, PSU). Methods Nineteen, one-month-abstinent PSU and 40 ALC as well as 27 light-drinkers (LD) were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Whole brain T1-weighted images were segmented automatically into regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. MANOVA assessed group differences of intracranial volume-normalized tissue volumes of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes as well as regional subcortical GM volumes. The volumetric measures were correlated with neurocognitive measures to assess their functional relevance. Results Despite similar lifetime drinking and smoking histories, PSU had significantly larger normalized WM volumes than ALC in all lobes. PSU also had larger frontal and parietal WM volumes than LD, but smaller temporal GM volumes as well as smaller lenticular and thalamic nuclei than LD. By contrast, ALC had smaller frontal, parietal, and temporal GM, thalamic GM and cerebellar volumes than LD. ALC also had more sulcal CSF volumes than both PSU and LD. Conclusion One-month-abstinent ALC and PSU exhibited different patterns of gross brain structural abnormalities. The larger lobar WM volumes in PSU in the absence of widespread GM volume loss contrast with widespread GM atrophy in ALC. These structural differences between ALC and PSU may demand different treatment approaches to mitigate specific functionally relevant brain abnormalities. PMID:25263262

  5. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: Behavioral and physiological outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kwako, L. E.; Schwandt, M. L.; Sells, J. R.; Ramchandani, V. A.; George, D. T.; Sinha, R.; Heilig, M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently comorbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. Objectives The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with comorbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier Social Stress Test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress, and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Methods Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with comorbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the NIAAA inpatient research facility. They participated in a four week inpatient study of the efficacy of a NK1 antagonist to treat comorbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Results Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in ACTH and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Conclusions Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress vs. alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of comorbid PTSD and AD on craving. PMID:24806358

  6. Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198

  7. Risk of All-Cause Mortality in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis☆

    PubMed Central

    Laramée, Philippe; Leonard, Saoirse; Buchanan-Hughes, Amy; Warnakula, Samantha; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence (AD) carries a high mortality burden, which may be mitigated by reduced alcohol consumption. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis investigating the risk of all-cause mortality in alcohol-dependent subjects. Methods MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process, Embase and PsycINFO were searched from database conception through 26th June 2014. Eligible studies reported all-cause mortality in both alcohol-dependent subjects and a comparator population of interest. Two individuals independently reviewed studies. Of 4540 records identified, 39 observational studies were included in meta-analyses. Findings We identified a significant increase in mortality for alcohol-dependent subjects compared with the general population (27 studies; relative risk [RR] = 3.45; 95% CI [2.96, 4.02]; p < 0.0001). The mortality increase was also significant compared to subjects qualifying for a diagnosis of alcohol abuse or subjects without alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Alcohol-dependent subjects continuing to drink heavily had significantly greater mortality than alcohol-dependent subjects who reduced alcohol intake, even if abstainers were excluded (p < 0.05). Interpretation AD was found to significantly increase an individual's risk of all-cause mortality. While abstinence in alcohol-dependent subjects led to greater mortality reduction than non-abstinence, this study suggests that alcohol-dependent subjects can significantly reduce their mortality risk by reducing alcohol consumption. PMID:26629534

  8. Improving personality/character traits in individuals with alcohol dependence: the influence of mindfulness-oriented meditation.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The study of personality is critical to enhance current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of alcohol dependence. Recent evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation positively influences healthy individuals' character. Here, it was assessed whether 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation promotes similar changes in a group of alcohol-dependent individuals. A control group with alcohol dependence was also tested. Mindfulness-oriented meditation participants showed an increase in the character scores of the temperament and character inventory together with reduced risks of relapse. These longitudinal data highlight the importance of assessing personality in alcohol-dependent individuals and support the utility of therapeutic interventions for alcohol dependence aimed at enhancing individuals' character.

  9. Internet Addictive Individuals Share Impulsivity and Executive Dysfunction with Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhu, Hongmei; Li, Cui; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty in suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), and 22 normal controls (NC). All participants were measured with BIS-11, go/no-go task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that Barratt impulsiveness scale 11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores, and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25202248

  10. The effects of the monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 on craving in alcohol dependent individuals: A human laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Steensland, Pia; Guterstam, Joar; Beck, Olof; Carlsson, Arvid; Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is associated with a dysregulated dopamine system modulating reward, craving and cognition. The monoamine stabilizer (-)-OSU6162 (OSU6162) can counteract both hyper- and hypo-dopaminergic states and we recently demonstrated that it attenuates alcohol-mediated behaviors in long-term drinking rats. The present Phase II exploratory human laboratory study investigated to our knowledge for the first time the effects of OSU6162 on cue- and priming-induced craving in alcohol dependent individuals. Fifty-six alcohol dependent individuals were randomized to a 14-day-treatment period of OSU6162 or placebo after their baseline impulsivity levels had been determined using the Stop Signal Task. On Day 15, participants were subjected to a laboratory alcohol craving test comprised of craving sessions induced by: i) active - alcohol specific cues, ii) neutral stimuli and iii) priming - intake of an alcoholic beverage (0.20g ethanol/kg bodyweight). Subjective ratings of alcohol craving were assessed using the shortened version of the Desire for Alcohol Questionnaire and visual analog scales (VAS). OSU6162 treatment had no significant effect on cue-induced alcohol craving, but significantly attenuated priming-induced craving. Exploratory analysis revealed that this effect was driven by the individuals with high baseline impulsivity. In addition, OSU6162 significantly blunted the subjective liking of the consumed alcohol (VAS). Although the present 14-day-treatment period, showed that OSU6162 was safe and well tolerated, this exploratory human laboratory study was not designed to evaluate the efficacy of OSU6162 to affect alcohol consumption. Thus a larger placebo-controlled efficacyclinical trial is needed to further investigate the potential of OSU6162 as a novel medication for alcohol dependence.

  11. Neurocognitive deficits, craving, and abstinence among alcohol-dependent individuals following detoxification.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Bradshaw, John L; Lubman, Dan I; Sheppard, Dianne

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing disorder, is characterized by an impaired ability to regulate compulsive urges to consume alcohol. Very few empirical studies have examined the presence of these executive deficits, how they relate to craving, and the enduring nature of these deficits during abstinence. As such, the current study aimed to characterize these cognitive deficits within a sample of 24 alcohol-dependent participants post-detoxification and 23 non-alcohol-dependent participants. Participants were administered the Sustained Attention to Response Task to measure response inhibition and sustained attention and the Random Number Generation Task to examine executive deficits. Correlations between cognitive performance and clinical measures of alcohol dependence were examined. As predicted, the alcohol-dependent group exhibited poorer performance across the domains of response inhibition, executive function, and attentional control. Cognitive performance was related to clinical measures of craving and years of alcohol consumption, whereas the duration of abstinence was not associated with improved cognitive performance. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to target these enduring neurocognitive deficits in improving the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:24334264

  12. Readiness for Change and Treatment Outcome among Individuals with Alcohol Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewes, Robert L.; Janikowski, Timothy P.

    1998-01-01

    Uses the Addiction Severity Index and Stage of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale to evaluate individuals with primary alcohol-abuse problems involved in treatment programs. Results indicate that participants showed significant improvement in problems related to alcohol use. No significant differences were found between participants…

  13. Prazosin Effects on Stress- and Cue-Induced Craving and Stress Response in Alcohol Dependent Individuals: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, George M; Tuit, Keri; Hansen, Julie; Kimmerling, Anne; Siedlarz, Kristen M; Morgan, Peter T; Sinha, Rajita

    2011-01-01

    Background Stress, alcohol cues and dysregulated stress responses increase alcohol craving and relapse susceptibility, but few pharmacologic agents are known to decrease stress and cue-induced alcohol craving and associated stress dysregulation in humans. Here we report findings from a preliminary efficacy study of the alpha1 receptor antagonist, prazosin, in modulating these relapse-relevant factors in alcohol dependent (AD) individuals. Methods Seventeen early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals (12 Males /5 Females) were randomly assigned to receive either placebo or 16 mg daily prazosin in a double-blind, placebo controlled manner over four weeks. During week 4, all patients participated in a 3-day laboratory experiment involving 5-min guided imagery exposure to stress, alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing/control conditions, one exposure per day, on consecutive days in a random, counterbalanced order. Alcohol craving, anxiety and negative emotion, cardiovascular measures, plasma hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA; cortisol, ACTH) were assessed repeatedly in each session. Results The prazosin group (n=9) versus the placebo group (n=8) showed significantly lower alcohol craving, anxiety and negative emotion following stress exposure. The placebo group also showed significantly increased stress and cue-induced alcohol craving, anxiety, negative emotion and blood pressure as well as a blunted HPA response relative to the neutral condition, while the prazosin group showed no such increases in craving, anxiety, negative emotion and blood pressure, and no blunted HPA response to stress and alcohol cue exposure. Conclusions Prazosin appears efficacious in decreasing stress- and cue-induced alcohol craving and may normalize the stress dysregulation associated with early recovery from alcoholism. Further research to assess the efficacy of prazosin in reducing alcohol craving and stress-related relapse risk is warranted. PMID:21919922

  14. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  15. Alcohol dependence--classificatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Lesch, O M; Ades, J; Badawy, A; Pelc, I; Sasz, H

    1993-01-01

    The term alcoholism or alcohol dependence has acquired a broad range of meanings. The Plinius Maior Society herewith presents new classificatory considerations and suggests additional recording of special dimensions according to the individual hypothesis and design of a study.

  16. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  17. Serum Insulin Levels Are Reduced by Intravenous Ghrelin Administration but Do Not Correlate with Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Giovenco, Danielle E.; Lee, Mary R.; Zywiak, William H.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Kenna, George A.; Swift, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasing evidence supports a role for appetite-regulating pathways like ghrelin, insulin, and leptin in alcoholism. We previously reported that intravenous (i.v.) exogenous ghrelin increases alcohol craving. We also reported i.v. ghrelin reduces endogenous serum leptin, whose levels, in turn, negatively correlated with alcohol craving. Exogenous ghrelin administration decreases insulin secretion both in vitro and in vivo experiments. This study tested the hypothesis that i.v. ghrelin may also decrease endogenous serum insulin levels in alcoholic individuals. Additionally, we explored possible correlations between serum insulin and alcohol craving, since a correlation between insulin and alcohol craving was previously reported. Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study (n=43). Non-treatment-seeking, alcohol-dependent, heavy drinkers were randomized to receive i.v. ghrelin or placebo, followed by an alcohol cue-reactivity procedure. Results: There was a main effect for i.v. ghrelin, compared to placebo in reducing serum insulin (P<.05). There was also a time effect (P<.001) but not ghrelin x time interaction (P>.05). We did not find a correlation between the reduction of serum insulin and alcohol craving (P>.05). The change in serum insulin was consistent with a parallel reduction in serum connective-peptide in the ghrelin group compared with placebo, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P=.076). No similar effects were found for other glucose-regulating hormones analyzed i.e. glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1, and gastric inhibitory peptide (Ps>.05). Conclusions: These findings indicate i.v. ghrelin administration has an effect on reducing serum insulin in alcohol-dependent individuals; however, the reduction of insulin did not correlate with changes in alcohol cue-elicited craving. We speculate that, unlike for leptin, the interactions between ghrelin and insulin relationship are limited at

  18. Methods for inducing alcohol craving in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder: behavioral and physiological outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Schwandt, Melanie L; Sells, Joanna R; Ramchandani, Vijay A; Hommer, Daniel W; George, David T; Sinha, Rajita; Heilig, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that presents a substantial public health problem, and is frequently co-morbid with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Craving for alcohol is a predictor of relapse to alcohol use, and is triggered by cues associated with alcohol and trauma. Identification of reliable and valid laboratory methods for craving induction is an important objective for alcoholism and PTSD research. The present study compares two methods for induction of craving via stress and alcohol cues in individuals with co-morbid alcohol dependence (AD) and PTSD: the combined Trier social stress test and cue reactivity paradigm (Trier/CR), and a guided imagery (Scripts) paradigm. Outcomes include self-reported measures of craving, stress and anxiety as well as endocrine measures. Subjects were 52 individuals diagnosed with co-morbid AD and PTSD seeking treatment at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism inpatient research facility. They participated in a 4-week inpatient study of the efficacy of a neurokinin 1 antagonist to treat co-morbid AD and PTSD, and which included the two challenge procedures. Both the Trier/CR and Scripts induced craving for alcohol, as well as elevated levels of subjective distress and anxiety. The Trier/CR yielded significant increases in adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, while the Scripts did not. Both paradigms are effective laboratory means of inducing craving for alcohol. Further research is warranted to better understand the mechanisms behind craving induced by stress versus alcohol cues, as well as to understand the impact of co-morbid PTSD and AD on craving.

  19. Varenicline effects on drinking, craving and neural reward processing among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Joseph P.; Anton, Raymond F.; Randall, Patrick K.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Myrick, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline has been reported to reduce drinking among both heavy-drinking smokers and primary alcoholics, and this effect may be related to varenicline-mediated reduction of alcohol craving. Among smokers, varenicline has been reported to modulate cigarette cue-elicited brain activation in several reward-related areas. Objectives This pilot study tested varenicline’s effects on drinking, alcohol craving, and alcohol cue-elicited activation of reward-related brain areas among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals. Methods Thirty-five such individuals (mean age = 30, 57% male, 76% heavy drinking days in the past month, 15 smokers) were randomized to either varenicline (titrated to 2 mg) or placebo for 14 days, and were administered an alcohol cue reactivity fMRI task on day 14. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) were bilateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), right ventral striatum (VS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Results Despite good medication adherence, varenicline did not reduce heavy drinking days or other drinking parameters. It did, however, increase self-reported control over alcohol-related thoughts and reduced cue-elicited activation bilaterally in the OFC, but not in other brain areas. Conclusions These data indicate that varenicline reduces alcohol craving and some of the neural substrates of alcohol cue reactivity. However, varenicline effects on drinking mediated by cue-elicited brain activation and craving might be best observed among treatment-seekers motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption. PMID:24647921

  20. Women with Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Trial of Couple versus Individual plus Couple Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K.

    2016-01-01

    Couple therapy for women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yields positive drinking outcomes, but many women prefer individual to conjoint treatment. The present study compared conjoint cognitive behavioral therapy for women with AUDs to a blend of individual and conjoint therapy. Participants were 59 women with AUDs (95% Caucasian, mean age = 46 years) and their male partners randomly assigned to 12 sessions of Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) or to a blend of five individual CBT sessions and seven sessions of ABCT (Blended-ABCT). Drinking and relationship satisfaction were assessed during and for one year post-treatment. Treatment conditions did not differ significantly on number of treatment sessions attended, percent of drinking days (PDD), or heavy drinking days (PDH), during or in the 12 months following treatment. However, effect size estimates suggested a small to moderate effect of Blended-ABCT over ABCT in number of treatment sessions attended, d=−.41, and first- and second-half within treatment PDD, d=−.41, d=−.28, and PDH, d=−.46, d=−.38. Moderator analyses found that women lower in baseline sociotropy had lower PDH across treatment weeks 1–8 in Blended-ABCT than ABCT and that women lower in self-efficacy had lower PDH during follow-up in Blended-ABCT than ABCT. The two treatment groups did not differ significantly in within-treatment or post-treatment relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that blending individual and conjoint treatment yields similar or slightly better outcomes than ABCT, is responsive to women’s expressed desire for individual sessions as part of their treatment, and decreases the challenges of scheduling conjoint sessions. PMID:27214168

  1. Tianeptine and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Favre, J D; Guelfi-Sozzi, C; Delalleau, B; Lôo, H

    1997-10-01

    Several arguments are in favour of the use of antidepressant drugs in alcohol-dependent patients, especially those acting on the serotoninergic system: (1) neurochemical data indicate the interaction between alcohol and 5-HT metabolism, (2) pharmacological studies show an improvement in the behaviour of alcoholized animals treated with antidepressants, (3) depression is a frequent disease in alcoholic patients. Tianeptine has been shown to be active in the treatment of depression in patients with history of alcohol abuse or dependence. In a first double-blind study performed versus amitryptiline, depression after withdrawal was improved by tianeptine, and biological abnormalities usually related to chronic alcohol intake tended to decrease. Similar results were found in an open study carried out on 277 alcoholic patients treated for 1 year. As these patients were depressed, no definite conclusion could be drawn from these results in respect of a specific action of tianeptine on alcohol dependence. Thus, a multicentre double-blind study has been performed which compared tianeptine (12.5 mg t.i.d) and placebo in 342 non-depressed patients fulfilling DSM-III-R criteria for Psychoactive Substance Dependence (alcohol). Other inclusion criteria were: daily alcohol intake higher than 80 g, minimum score of 3 on the Short-Mast Questionnaire, mean corpuscular volume above 98 fl and/or gamma Gt more than twice the upper limit of normal. The patients were treated for 9 months. The intention-to-treat population and the per protocol population were made up of 327 patients and 111 patients, respectively. The main efficacy criterion was the absence of alcoholic relapse (abstinence) defined by the patient's statements, the investigators clinical judgement and some biological parameters: alcohol blood levels, gamma Gt levels. Secondary criteria were the evolution of the alcohol consumption in the patients who relapsed, cumulative abstinence duration, a visual analogue scale for the

  2. Difficult Behaviors in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of Housed, Homeless and Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Background This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events. Methods Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP) (n = 50), men from the general homeless population (GH) (n = 61), and men residing in low-income housing (LIH) (n = 58) were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817) from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours. Results Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3–16.5) and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2–17.3) times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43–59.65%), 24% (95% CI 19–29%), and 20% (95% CI 16–24%) of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72) and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69), respectively. Conclusions Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents. PMID:25919015

  3. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor genotype is associated with brain gray and white matter tissue volumes recovery in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mon, A.; Durazzo, T. C.; Gazdzinski, S.; Hutchison, K. E.; Pennington, D.; Meyerhoff, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have linked the methionine (Met) allele of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ) gene to abnormal regional brain volumes in several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. However, no neuroimaging studies assessed the effects of this allele on brain morphology in alcohol use disorders and its demonstrated change during abstinence from alcohol. Here we assessed the effects of the BDNF Val66Met (rs6265) polymorphism on regional brain tissue volumes and their recovery during short-term abstinence in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals. 3D T1 weighted magnetic resonance images from 62 individuals were acquired at 1.5 T at one week of abstinence from alcohol; 41 of the participants were rescanned at 5 weeks of abstinence. The images were segmented into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid and parcellated into regional volumes. The BDNF genotype was determined from blood samples using the TaqMan technique. Alcohol-dependent Val (Valine)/Met heterozygotes and Val homozygotes had similar regional brain volumes at either time point. However, Val homozygotes had significant GM volume increases, while Val/Met heterozygotes increased predominantly in WM volumes over the scan interval. Longitudinal increases in GM but not WM volumes were related to improvements in neurocognitive measures during abstinence. The findings suggest that functionally significant brain tissue volume recovery during abstinence from alcohol is influenced by BDNF genotype. PMID:22989210

  4. Cortical Perfusion in Alcohol Dependent Individuals During Short-term Abstinence: Relationships to Resumption of Hazardous Drinking Following Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Relapse to hazardous levels of alcohol consumption following treatment for an alcohol use disorders is common. Investigation of the neurobiological correlates of resumption of hazardous drinking is necessary to clarify the mechanisms contributing to relapse. Fifty-seven treatment-seeking alcohol dependent participants (ALC) completed arterial spin labeling perfusion MRI of the frontal and parietal gray matter (GM) at 7 ± 3 days of abstinence (baseline). ALC participants were restudied after 35 ± 11 days of abstinence (assessment point 2: AP2). Twenty-eight non-smoking, light drinking controls (nsLD) from the community were studied with perfusion MRI. ALC Participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as Abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n = 19) and Resumers (any alcohol consumption; n = 38) at follow-up. Cross-sectional and longitudinal perfusion was compared in Abstainers, Resumers and nsLD. At baseline Resumers demonstrated significantly lower frontal and parietal GM perfusion than nsLD and Abstainers. Abstainers and nsLD were not different on frontal or parietal GM perfusion. No significant longitudinal perfusion changes were observed in Abstainers and Resumers. At AP2, Resumers showed significantly lower frontal GM perfusion than nsLD and Abstainers, while no group differences were observed for parietal GM. Abstainers and nsLD were not different on frontal GM perfusion. The significantly decreased frontal GM perfusion in Resumers compared to both Abstainers and nsLD across the assessment interval suggests premorbid and/or acquired neurobiological abnormalities of the frontal GM in Resumers. PMID:20682188

  5. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  6. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures. PMID:27672544

  7. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-01-01

    Summary Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  8. Molecular and genetic determinants of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Awofala, Awoyemi A

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a complex disorder affecting all social and ethnic groups. Although the scientific understanding of the mechanism governing this multifactorial disease is still in its infancy, understanding its biological bases, including the potential contribution of genetic factors, is key to characterizing individual's risk and developing efficacious therapeutic target to combat the disease. This review provides an overview of different approaches that are being increasingly integrated to extend our knowledge of the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence.

  9. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition. PMID:26035281

  10. Quantitative electroencephalography analysis in university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Jaramillo, Luis; Vega-Perera, Paulo; Ramírez-Lugo, Leticia; Reyes-López, Julián V; Santiago-Rodríguez, Efraín; Herrera-Morales, Wendy V

    2015-07-01

    Hazardous alcohol consumption is a pattern of consumption that leads to a higher risk of harmful consequences either for the user or for others. This pattern of alcohol consumption has been linked to risky behaviors, accidents, and injuries. Individuals with hazardous alcohol consumption do not necessarily present alcohol dependence; thus, a study of particular neurophysiological correlates of this alcohol consumption pattern needs to be carried out in nondependent individuals. Here, we carried out a quantitative electroencephalography analysis in health sciences university students with hazardous alcohol consumption, but not alcohol dependence (HAC), and control participants without hazardous alcohol consumption or alcohol dependence (NHAC). We analyzed Absolute Power (AP), Relative Power (RP), and Mean Frequency (MF) for beta and theta frequency bands under both eyes closed and eyes open conditions. We found that participants in the HAC group presented higher beta AP at centroparietal region, as well as lower beta MF at frontal and centroparietal regions in the eyes closed condition. Interestingly, participants did not present any change in theta activity (AP, RP, or MF), whereas previous reports indicate an increase in theta AP in alcohol-dependent individuals. Our results partially resemble those found in alcohol-dependent individuals, although are not completely identical, suggesting a possible difference in the underlying neuronal mechanism behind alcohol dependence and hazardous alcohol consumption. Similarities could be explained considering that both hazardous alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence are manifestations of behavioral disinhibition.

  11. Genetic factors influencing alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, R D; Harris, R A; Schuckit, M A

    2008-01-01

    Plentiful data from both animal and human studies support the importance of genetic influences in substance abuse and dependence (Bierut et al., 1998; Tsuang et al., 1998; Kendler et al., 2003). This review summarizes the evidence supporting such genetic influences, places them into perspective regarding animal and human studies, discusses the importance of both genes and environment, and highlights some specific genes of interest regarding the vulnerabilities for problems associated with alcohol use disorders. A long history of repetitive heavy use of alcohol exists across generations as well as the high prevalence of alcohol-related problems in Western societies. Moreover, the information offered here addresses the importance of more general issues regarding genetics and gene expression related to alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:18362899

  12. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  13. Individual susceptibility to alcoholic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Apte, Minoti V; Pirola, Romano C; Wilson, Jeremy S

    2008-03-01

    The observation that only a minority of heavy drinkers develop pancreatitis has prompted an intensive search for a trigger factor/cofactor/susceptibility factor that may precipitate a clinical attack. Putative susceptibility factors examined so far include diet, smoking, amount and type of alcohol consumed, the pattern of drinking and lipid intolerance. In addition, a range of inherited factors have been assessed including blood group antigens, human leukocyte antigen serotypes, alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes and several genotypes. The latter group comprises mutations/polymorphisms in genes related to alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, detoxifying enzymes, pancreatic digestive enzymes, pancreatic enzyme inhibitors, cystic fibrosis and cytokines. Disappointingly, despite this concerted research effort, no clear association has been established between the above factors and alcoholic pancreatitis. Experimentally, the secretagogue cholecystokinin (CCK) has been investigated as a candidate 'trigger' for alcoholic pancreatitis. However, the clinical relevance of CCK as a trigger factor has to be questioned, as it is difficult to envisage a situation in humans where abnormally high levels of CCK would be released into the circulation to trigger pancreatitis in alcoholics. In contrast, bacterial endotoxemia is a candidate cofactor that does have relevance to the clinical situation. Plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS, an endotoxin) levels are significantly higher in drinkers (either after chronic alcohol intake or a single binge) compared to non-drinkers. We have recently shown that alcohol-fed animals challenged with otherwise innocuous doses of LPS exhibit significant pancreatic injury. Moreover, repeated LPS exposure in alcohol-fed rats leads to progressive injury to the gland characterized by significant pancreatic fibrosis. These studies support the concept that endotoxin may be an important factor in the initiation and progression of alcoholic pancreatitis. Scope remains for

  14. Nalmefene. Alcohol dependence: no advance.

    PubMed

    2014-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic, severe and sometimes fatal disease. Psychological and social support is a crucial element of patient management. Acamprosate and naltrexone are the drugs of choice to help patients remain abstinent, but they are only moderately effective. Nalmefene, an opioid receptor antagonist related to naltrexone, has been authorised in the European Union to help alcohol-dependent patients reduce their alcohol consumption. Nalmefene has not been compared with naltrexone or acamprosate in clinical trials. Clinical evaluation is mainly based on two double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trials in which nalmefene was taken "on demand" at a dose of one tablet per day. The trials lasted 6 months and included a total of 1322 patients. During an initial two-week period in which all patients received medical and psychosocial support, about one-third of patients in both trials reduced their alcohol consumption without medication. Depending on the subgroup and the trial, about one-third to one-half of patients discontinued medical treatment before the end of the study period. In both trials, patients taking nalmefene had two fewer "heavy drinking days" per month than patients in the placebo groups. However, at the end of the study, they continued to drink heavily at least one week per month on average. Daily alcohol consumption was 5 to 9 grams lower with nalmefene than with placebo. The most frequent adverse effects observed in clinical trials were insomnia, dizziness, headache and nausea, which were severe in more than 10% of patients. Other serious but less frequent adverse effects included confusion, hallucinations and dissociation, usually at the beginning of treatment. These adverse effects affected about 3% of patients treated with nalmefene, a proportion three times higher than in the placebo groups. The consequences of mixing nalmefene with large amounts of alcohol are not known. In practice, the effects of nalmefene in alcohol-dependent

  15. Interpersonal dependency in alcoholic and obese men.

    PubMed

    Mills, J K

    1995-06-01

    While psychological conflict about dependency needs of alcoholic and obese persons has been widely observed, few studies have examined differences in dependency characteristics between these clinical groups. The Interpersonal Dependency Inventory was administered to 22 alcoholic and 8 morbidly obese men in intensive treatment for alcohol and obesity. The original hypothesis that alcoholic and obese men would show similar dependency needs was supported. Dependency correlates of personality may serve as useful predictor variables in the clinical treatment of alcoholic and obese persons.

  16. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Fein, George

    2015-12-01

    We review our clinical studies of psychiatric comorbidity in short-term and long-term abstinent and in treatment naïve alcoholics (STAA, LTAA and TNA). TNA ypically have less severe alcoholism than treated abstinent samples and evidence less severe psychiatric disturbance. Lifetime psychiatric diagnoses are the norm for STAA and LTAA but not for TNA. Individuals with alcohol and drug use disorders show greater antisocial personality disturbance, but do not show differences in the mood or anxiety domains or in borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms. The studies show that alcoholics can achieve and maintain abstinence in the face of ongoing mood, anxiety, or BPD problems. By contrast, for ASPD, LTAA essentially stop current antisocial behaviors in all seven domains of antisocial behaviors. We believe that ongoing antisocial behavior is not consistent with maintaining abstinence, and that LTAA modify their antisocial behavior despite continued elevated social deviance proneness and antisocial dispositionality. Abstinent individuals without lifetime psychiatric disorders and TNA show more (subdiagnostic threshold) psychiatric symptoms and abnormal psychological measures than non-alcoholic controls in the mood, anxiety, BPD, and antisocial domains. In summary, our studies show that although LTAA have achieved multi-year abstinence, they still report significant psychological distress compared to NAC. We believe this distress may negatively affect their quality of life. This suggests the importance of developing effective care models to address comorbid mental health problems in LTAA. We also show that antisocial personality disorder symptoms decline to the levels seen in normal controls, and that excluding individuals from research with a psychiatric diagnosis does not control for subdiagnostic psychiatric differences between alcoholics and controls. PMID:26590836

  17. Serial longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging data indicate non-linear regional gray matter volume recovery in abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Yeh, Ping-Hong; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2015-09-01

    The trajectory of regional volume changes during the first year of sustained abstinence in those recovering from an alcohol use disorder is unclear because previous research typically employed only two assessment points. To better understand the trajectory of regional brain volume recovery in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC), regional brain volumes were measured after 1 week, 1 month and 7.5 months of sustained abstinence via magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T. ALC showed significant volume increases in frontal, parietal and occipital gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM), total cortical GM and total lobar WM, thalamus and cerebellum, and decreased ventricular volume over 7.5 months of abstinence. Volume increases in regional GM were significantly greater over 1 week to 1 month than from 1 month to 7.5 months of abstinence, indicating a non-linear rate of change in regional GM over 7.5 months. Overall, regional lobar WM showed linear volume increases over 7.5 months. With increasing age, smoking ALC showed lower frontal and total cortical GM volume recovery than non-smoking ALC. Despite significant volume increases, ALC showed smaller GM volumes in all regions, except the frontal cortex, than controls after 7.5 months of abstinence. ALC and controls showed no regional WM volume differences at any assessment point. In non-smoking ALC only, increasing regional GM and WM volumes were related to improving processing speed. Findings may indicate a differential rate of recovery of cell types/cellular components contributing to GM and WM volume during early abstinence, and that GM volume deficits persist after 7.5 months of sustained sobriety in this ALC cohort.

  18. Appraisal of a specific scale for quality of life (AlQoL-9) in Greek alcohol dependent individuals attending: A confirmatory factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Pappa, A S; Ginieri-Coccossis, M; Richardson, C; Charalampi, A; Liappas, I A; Paparrigopoulos, Th

    2016-01-01

    Αlcohol abuse/dependence seriously affects quality of life (QoL). The AlQoL-9 scale, derived from the generic instrument SF-36, is the only instrument in the international literature which is specific as a measure of QoL for alcohol-dependent patients. It can provide health carers with valuable information regarding the needs of alcoholic individuals and the effects of therapeutic interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Greek version of AlQoL-9 taking as a basis the research on the original French and English versions. A sample of 170 participants (118 males, 52 females) aged 24-74 years (mean age=48.2 years, SD=9.6) recruited from inpatient and outpatient detoxification units in different regions of Greece completed the AlQoL-9 questionnaire and the World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment - short version (WHOQOL-BREF). The internal structure of the AlQoL-9 questionnaire was examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The associations of AlQoL-9 with sociodemographic and clinical variables were examined. The correlation coefficients between AlQoL-9 and scores on the domains of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire were computed as an indication of convergent validity. The average inter-item correlation between the AlQoL-9 items was 0.403. CFA supported a single factor underlying the AlQoL-9 items. Cronbach's alpha for the Greek version of the scale showed high internal consistency, 0.837, and could not be improved by omitting any item. The AlQoL-9 score showed significant associations with gender (mean 29.2, SD=6.2 for males; mean 26.1, SD=7.2 for females: p=0.004) and with comorbidity (mean 25.7, SD=7.8 with comorbidity, mean 29.5, SD=5.8 without: p=0.001). The AlQoL-9 score was significantly correlated (p<0.001) with all scores of the WHOQOL-BREF, most strongly with the WHOQOL domains of physical health (Pearson's r=0.720) and psychological health (r=0.693) and less so with social relationships (0

  19. Estimating Risk of Alcohol Dependence Using Alcohol Screening Scores*

    PubMed Central

    Rubinsky, Anna D.; Kivlahan, Daniel R.; Volk, Robert J.; Maynard, Charles; Bradley, Katharine A.

    2010-01-01

    Brief alcohol counseling interventions can reduce alcohol consumption and related morbidity among non-dependent risky drinkers, but more intensive alcohol treatment is recommended for persons with alcohol dependence. This study evaluated whether scores on common alcohol screening tests could identify patients likely to have current alcohol dependence so that more appropriate follow-up assessment and/or intervention could be offered. This cross-sectional study used secondary data from 392 male and 927 female adult family medicine outpatients (1993–1994). Likelihood ratios were used to empirically identify and evaluate ranges of scores of the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C, two single-item questions about frequency of binge drinking, and the CAGE questionnaire for detecting DSM-IV past-year alcohol dependence. Based on the prevalence of past-year alcohol dependence in this sample (men: 12.2%; women: 5.8%), zones of the AUDIT and AUDIT-C identified wide variability in the post-screening risk of alcohol dependence in men and women, even among those who screened positive for alcohol misuse. Among men, AUDIT zones 5–10, 11–14 and 15–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 18–87%, and AUDIT-C zones 5–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 22–75%. Among women, AUDIT zones 3–4, 5–8, 9–12 and 13–40 were associated with post-screening probabilities of past-year alcohol dependence ranging from 6–94%, and AUDIT-C zones 3, 4–6, 7–9 and 10–12 were associated with probabilities ranging from 9–88%. AUDIT or AUDIT-C scores could be used to estimate the probability of past-year alcohol dependence among patients who screen positive for alcohol misuse and inform clinical decision-making. PMID:20042299

  20. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-03-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt's Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence.

  1. Alcoholism, Field Dependency and Organic Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Patricia; Kahn, Marvin W.

    Although research has suggested that field dependency is a relatively stable characteristic of alcoholics, the results have been confounded by the use of different measures and different time intervals. To investigate the degree of organic brain impairment and its association with measured field dependency amongst alcoholics, 41 male alcoholics,…

  2. Craving and Physiological Reactivity to Trauma and Alcohol Cues in PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Henslee, Amber M.; Baillie, Lauren E.; Landy, Noah

    2013-01-01

    The high comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) has been firmly established. Although laboratory studies have examined self-reported craving in response to trauma and alcohol cues, no studies have reported on alcohol-related physiological responding in response to trauma cues in PTSD-AD individuals. Using a cue reactivity paradigm, this study examined the impact of personalized trauma-image cues and in vivo alcohol cues on alcohol-related responding (e.g., salivation, craving) in individuals with PTSD and AD (n=40). Participants displayed reactivity to both trauma and alcohol cues when compared to neutral cues, including increased self-reported craving and distress, as well as, greater salivation. These findings suggest that through repeated pairings of trauma memories and alcohol consumption, salivation may become classically conditioned to trauma cues. Moreover, the fact that the trauma-alcohol cue combination elicited greater alcohol craving, salivary responding, distress, and arousal than either the trauma-neutral or neutral-alcohol cue combinations, suggests that effects of the trauma and alcohol cues were additive in nature. Evidence that AD individuals with PTSD report increased alcohol craving and display greater salivation in response to trauma memories, supplements prior research indicating that PTSD-related negative emotion and trauma-related alcohol craving may play an important role in the maintenance of AD. PMID:20695690

  3. A human laboratory pilot study with baclofen in alcoholic individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; McGeary, John E.; Edwards, Steven; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Shoaff, Jessica R.; Addolorato, Giovanni; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that the GABAB receptor agonist baclofen may represent a pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence (AD). However, the mechanisms by which baclofen affects drinking are not well characterized; thus this pilot study investigated possible baclofen’s biobehavioral mechanisms. The design was a double-blind controlled randomized human laboratory pilot study. Fourteen non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking subjects received either baclofen 10 mg t.i.d. or an active placebo (cyproheptadine 2 mg t.i.d., to control for sedation) for a 7-day period. At day 8, participants performed an alcohol cue-reactivity (CR) followed by an alcohol self-administration (ASA). Additionally, we explored possible moderators that might guide future larger studies, i.e. anxiety, family history and onset of alcoholism, and D4 dopamine receptor (DRD4) and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms. The main results were a significant effect of baclofen for increasing stimulation (p=.001) and sedation (p<.01). Furthermore, when drinking during the ASA and the 2 days before was analyzed as a composite variable, there was a significant effect of baclofen to reduce alcohol consumption (p<.01). As for the exploratory analyses, baclofen’s effects to increase alcohol sedation and to reduce alcohol consumption were limited to those individuals with DRD4 ≥7 repeats (DRD4L). Yet, baclofen’s effects on alcohol consumption were also moderated by 5-HTTLPR LL genotype. In conclusion, baclofen’s ability to reduce alcohol drinking may be related to its effects on the biphasic effects of alcohol, but larger studies are needed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:23262301

  4. ▼Nalmefene for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    The burden of morbidity and mortality resulting from alcohol dependence is high. World Health Organization (WHO) figures suggest that in the UK the prevalence of alcohol use disorders in those aged 15 years and older is around 6.4% for men and 1.5% for women.1 Reduction of harm resulting from alcohol dependence remains a high priority in all four devolved health services in the UK.2-5 Several medicines are licensed for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. However, until recently no drug was licensed for the management of alcohol dependence in people who are still drinking. ▼Nalmefene (Selincro, Lundbeck), an opioid modulator licensed for the reduction of alcohol consumption, was launched in the UK in May 2013.6,7 Here we discuss the evidence for its effectiveness and safety and consider its place in therapy.

  5. A preliminary, randomized trial of aerobic exercise for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Richard A; Abrantes, Ana M; Minami, Haruka; Read, Jennifer P; Marcus, Bess H; Jakicic, John M; Strong, David R; Dubreuil, Mary Ella; Gordon, Alan A; Ramsey, Susan E; Kahler, Christopher W; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-07-01

    Interventions targeting physical activity may be valuable as an adjunct to alcohol treatment, but have been relatively untested. In the current study, alcohol dependent, physically sedentary patients were randomized to: a 12-week moderate-intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention (AE; n=25) or a brief advice to exercise intervention (BA-E; n=23). Results showed that individuals in AE reported significantly fewer drinking and heavy drinking days, relative to BA-E during treatment. Furthermore adherence to AE strengthened the beneficial effect of intervention on alcohol use outcomes. While high levels of moderate-intensity exercise appeared to facilitate alcohol recovery regardless of intervention arm, attending the group-based AE intervention seemed to further enhance the positive effects of exercise on alcohol use. Study findings indicate that a moderate intensity, group aerobic exercise intervention is an efficacious adjunct to alcohol treatment. Improving adherence to the intervention may enhance its beneficial effects on alcohol use.

  6. Impulsivity, risky behaviors and accidents in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Podgórska, Anna; Barry, Kristen; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity and alcohol drinking are both considered as important predictors of unintentional as well as intentional injuries. However, relationships of impulsivity with risky behaviors and a history of accidents have not been investigated in alcohol dependence. The aim of this study was to analyze relationships between the frequency of risky behaviors and level of behavioral as well as cognitive impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. By means of Barratt’s Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and stop-signal task, the levels of cognitive and behavioral impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. Also, patients were asked to answer questions from the Short Inventory of Problems applying to risky behaviors and accidents after alcohol drinking. In addition participants completed a questionnaire to assess frequency of other behaviors from the analyzed spectrum (use of other drugs, driving or aggressive behavior after alcohol drinking). The statistical analysis revealed a significant association between impulsivity and frequency of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent patients. Individuals with higher scores in BIS behaved more frequently in a risky way and had significantly more accidents after alcohol drinking. The association with risky behaviors was strongest for non-planning and attentional impulsivity subscales, whereas frequency of accidents was particularly associated with motor impulsivity. A multivariate analysis revealed that impulsivity was the most important predictor of risky behaviors, but did not significantly predict a history of accidents. Our study confirms that impulsivity is an important correlate of risky behaviors in alcohol-dependent individuals, along with global psychopathology and severity of alcohol dependence. PMID:23246707

  7. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  8. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  9. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  10. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  11. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  12. ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE--NEUROBIOLOGY AND TREATMENT.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Agnieszka; Biała, Grazyna

    2016-01-01

    The consequences of alcohol dependence concern serious health care, social and economic problems. The scope of many studies is to better understand mechanisms underlying alcohol addiction in order to work out new, more effective treatment strategies. Alcohol affects many neurotransmission systems within the brain. In general, acute alcohol enhances inhibitory transmission, up-regulating the GABAergic system and impairing glutamatergic function, therefore interfering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. Chronic alcohol consumption, meanwhile, in order to restore equilibrium leads to neuroadaptive changes caus- ing both decreased GABAergic and increased glutamatergic activity. Also function of other neurotransmitters and modulators is modified by the presence of alcohol, including glycine, adenosine, serotonin and dopamine. Moreover, a significant impact of alcohol on the endogenous opioid system, nicotinic cholinergic transmission and the endocannabinoids system has been also established. At present, only four medications are approved for the treatment of alcohol dependence in Europe, that is naltrexone, acamprosate, disulfiram and the most recent nalmefene. Among other promising strategies the following drugs are mentioned: baclofen, topiramate, ondansetron, aripiprazole, rimonabant and varenicline. Additionally, the role of appetite-regulating hormones, neuroimmune modulators or the body's stress-response system modulators in reducing alcohol consumption is currently of great interest, however, further investigations are needed. PMID:27008795

  13. Alcohol dependence as a chronic pain disorder

    PubMed Central

    Egli, Mark; Koob, George F.; Edwards, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of pain neurocircuitry and neurochemistry has been increasingly recognized as playing a critical role in a diverse spectrum of diseases including migraine, fibromyalgia, depression, and PTSD. Evidence presented here supports the hypothesis that alcohol dependence is among the pathologies arising from aberrant neurobiological substrates of pain. In this review, we explore the possible influence of alcohol analgesia and hyperalgesia in promoting alcohol misuse and dependence. We examine evidence that neuroanatomical sites involved in the negative emotional states of alcohol dependence also play an important role in pain transmission and may be functionally altered under chronic pain conditions. We also consider possible genetic links between pain transmission and alcohol dependence. We propose an allostatic load model in which episodes of alcohol intoxication and withdrawal, traumatic stressors, and injury are each capable of dysregulating an overlapping set of neural substrates to engender sensory and affective pain states that are integral to alcohol dependence and comorbid conditions such as anxiety, depression, and chronic pain. PMID:22975446

  14. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2016 A new study finds the number of young children and teens hospitalized … NCADD Joins the Global #GIVINGTUESDAY Mo… 3 November, 2016 The National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) has joi… State Votes ...

  15. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  16. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  17. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol abuse/dependence with psychiatric comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Le Fauve, Charlene E; Litten, Raye Z; Randall, Carrie L; Moak, Darlene H; Salloum, Ihsan M; Green, Alan I

    2004-02-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a symposium at the 2003 annual meeting RSA in Fort Lauderdale, FL. It was organized and cochaired by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Carrie L. Randall. The presentations were (1) Introduction, by Charlene E. Le Fauve and Raye Z. Litten; (2) Treatment of co-occurring alcohol use and anxiety disorders, by Carrie L. Randall and Sarah W. Book; (3) Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependent patients with comorbid depression, by Darlene H. Moak; (4) Efficacy of valproate in bipolar alcoholics: a double blind, placebo-controlled study, by Ihsan M. Salloum, Jack R. Cornelius, Dennis C. Daley, Levent Kirisci, Johnathan Himmelhoch, and Michael E. Thase; (5) Alcoholism and schizophrenia: effects of antipsychotics, by Alan I. Green, Robert E. Drake, Suzannah V. Zimmet, Rael D. Strous, Melinda Salomon, and Mark Brenner; and (6) Conclusions, by Charlene E. Le Fauve; discussant, Raye Z. Litten. Alcohol-dependent individuals have exceptionally high rates of co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Although this population is more likely to seek alcoholism treatment than noncomorbid alcoholics, the prognosis for treatment is often poor, particularly among patients with more severe psychiatric illnesses. Development of effective interventions to treat this population is in the early stages of research. Although the interaction between the psychiatric condition and alcoholism is complex, progress has been made. The NIAAA has supported a number of state-of-the-art pharmacological and behavioral trials in a variety of comorbid psychiatric disorders. Some of these trials have been completed and are presented here. The symposium presented some new research findings from clinical studies with the aim of facilitating the development of treatments that improve alcohol and psychiatric outcomes among individuals with alcohol-use disorders and co-occurring psychiatric disorders. The panel focused on social anxiety disorder, depression, bipolar disorder, and

  18. [The Amygdala in mechanisms of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Akhmadeev, A V; Kalimullina, L B

    2016-01-01

    In the present review for the first time systematized literature data about reactive changes, of neurons in the basolateral and medial nuclei of the Amygdala which occur in response to acute and chronic exposure of ethanol. Summarized information about the mechanisms of disturbances in glutamatergic-and GABAergic systems of the basolateral nucleus that determining an increased level of anxiety, which is seen as a main motivating factor of desire for alcohol, thus involved to the manifestation of alcohol dependence. Reviewed molecular and genetic aspects of rsearchs involvement of medial nucleus in the mechanisms of alcoholism. PMID:27530042

  19. Applying the new genomics to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Pietrzykowski, Andrzej Z; Miles, Michael F; O'Brien, Megan A; Sanna, Pietro P; Zakhari, Samir; Mayfield, R Dayne; Harris, R Adron

    2015-12-01

    This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 6-9, 2014. The overall goal of the symposium titled "Applying the New Genomics to Alcohol Dependence", chaired by Dr. Adron Harris, was to highlight recent genomic discoveries and applications for profiling alcohol use disorder (AUD). Dr. Sean Farris discussed the gene expression networks related to lifetime consumption of alcohol within human prefrontal cortex. Dr. Andrzej Pietrzykowski presented the effects of alcohol on microRNAs in humans and animal models. Alcohol-induced alterations in the synaptic transcriptome were discussed by Dr. Michael Miles. Dr. Pietro Sanna examined methods to probe the gene regulatory networks that drive excessive alcohol drinking, and Dr. Samir Zakhari served as a panel discussant and summarized the proceedings. Collectively, the presentations emphasized the power of integrating multiple levels of genetics and transcriptomics with convergent biological processes and phenotypic behaviors to determine causal factors of AUD. The combined use of diverse data types demonstrates how unique approaches and applications can help categorize genetic complexities into relevant biological networks using a systems-level model of disease.

  20. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  1. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious.

  2. Nalmefene and its use in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gual, A; Bruguera, P; López-Pelayo, H

    2014-05-01

    Nalmefene is the first available drug approved in the E.U. to reduce alcohol use in alcohol-dependent patients. Reduction in alcohol use in heavy drinkers diminishes mortality risk and socio-economic burden. Nalmefene has shown efficacy at 6 months in alcohol-dependent patients with high or very high drinking risk levels in reducing total alcohol consumption (-7.6 g/day [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.6 to -3.5]; P = 0.0003), heavy drinking days (-2.00 days/month [95% CI: -3.00 to -1.00]; P ⟨ 0.00001) and other secondary outcome measures such as γ-glutamyl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, drinking risk level and Clinical Global Impression. It is generally well tolerated and has limited contraindications and interactions. As-needed dosage is a novel concept in the addictions field, which may overcome limitations of traditional regimens. In the pivotal trials, nalmefene was taken 52% of the days and compliance with the as-needed treatment regimen was good (above 80% of the days) in 68% of the nalmefene-treated patients. A new pharmacological approach combined with a brief psychosocial intervention for alcoholism is available and appears to be feasible, safe and efficacious. PMID:24918835

  3. Gender differences in interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent patients and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra E; Degen, Bigna; Petitjean, Sylvie; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Walter, Marc

    2009-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is a heavy burden on patients, their families, and society. Epidemiological studies indicate that alcohol dependence will affect many individuals at some time in their lives, with men affected more frequently than women. Since alcohol-dependent patients often exhibit a lack of social skills and suffer from interpersonal problems, the aim of this study is to elucidate whether men and women experience the same interpersonal problems. Eighty-five alcohol-dependent patients (48 men; 37 women) after detoxification and 62 healthy controls (35 men; 27 women) were recruited. Interpersonal problems were measured with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP-64). Additionally, alcohol-dependent patients were interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and were subtyped according to Lesch's Alcohol Typology (LAT). There were no significant gender differences in the AUDIT and LAT between alcohol-dependent men and women. Interpersonal problems of alcohol-dependent men differed significantly in one out of eight dimensions from controls; alcohol-dependent men perceive themselves as colder than male controls. Alcohol-dependent women differed in four out of eight interpersonal dimensions from female controls. Alcohol-dependent women rated themselves as significantly more vindictive, more introverted, more overly accommodating and more intrusive than female controls. Results suggest that alcohol-dependent men and women suffer from different interpersonal problems and furthermore alcohol-dependent women perceive more interpersonal problems, whereas the severity of alcohol dependence did not differ between the groups. Our findings indicate that alcohol-dependent women may profit more from a gender-specific treatment approach aimed at improving treatment outcome than alcohol-dependent men.

  4. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  5. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  6. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  7. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Donadon, M F; Osório, F L

    2016-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  8. Impaired inhibition of proactive interference in abstinent individuals with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Noël, Xavier; Billieux, Joël; Van der Linden, Martial; Dan, Bernard; Hanak, Catherine; de Bournonville, Stéphanie; Baurain, Céline; Verbanck, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive impairment has been associated with higher risk of alcoholism and relapse. Recent theoretical refinements have separated inhibition of dominant response and inhibition of proactive interference. We assessed the latter using a directed-forgetting procedure in 38 recently detoxified individuals with alcoholism and in 26 controls. On this task, memory performance of letter trigrams was compared when presented alone, followed by a second trigram to be recalled, then a second trigram to be forgotten (directed-forgetting condition). Individuals with alcoholism recalled more letters to be forgotten and performed worse than controls in the directed-forgetting condition, which significantly correlated with the duration of alcoholism.

  9. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts. PMID:24698092

  10. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  11. [Effect of comorbid depression on the development and course of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Rybakova, K V; Rybakova, T G; Neznanov, N G; Eryshev, O F

    2013-01-01

    It was compared 72 patients with alcohol dependence (AD) and endogenous depression (ED) and 30 patients with AD without comorbid affective pathology. It has been shown that the development of alcohol dependence in individuals with ED is slower than in patients without ED. A lack of a family history of addictive pathology was noted to be a predictor of a more favorable course of alcohol dependence in patients with ED.

  12. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  13. Socio-Emotional Factors in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3) were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ‘anger in’ and ‘anger out,’ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ‘anger out,’ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other. PMID:24860216

  14. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  15. ASTN1 and alcohol dependence: family-based association analysis in multiplex alcohol dependence families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Weeks, Daniel E; Jones, Bobby L; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2012-06-01

    A previous genome-wide linkage study of alcohol dependence (AD) in multiplex families found a suggestive linkage result for a region on Chromosome 1 near microsatellite markers D1S196 and D1S2878. The ASTN1 gene is in this region, a gene previously reported to be associated with substance abuse, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Using the same family data consisting of 330 individuals with phenotypic data and DNA, finer mapping of a 26 cM region centered on D1S196 was undertaken using SNPs with minor allele frequency (MAF) ≥ 0.15 and pair-wise linkage disequilibrium (LD) of r(2) < 0.8 using the HapMap CEU population. Significant FBAT P-values for SNPs within the ASTN1 gene were observed for four SNPs (rs465066, rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917), the most significant, rs228008, within intron 8 had a P-value of 0.001. Using MQLS, which allows for inclusion of all families, we find three of these SNPs with MQLS P-values < 0.003. In addition, two additional neighboring SNPs (rs10798496 and rs6667588) showed significance at P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively. Haplotype analysis was performed using the haplotype-based test function of FBAT for a block that included rs228008, rs6668092, and rs172917. This analysis found one block (GCG) over-transmitted and another (ATA) under-transmitted to affected offspring. Linkage analysis identified a region consistent with the association results. Family-based association analysis shows the ASTN1 gene significantly associated with alcohol dependence. The potential importance of the ASTN1 gene for AD risk may be related its role in glial-guided neuronal migration.

  16. [Creation of a scale for evaluating attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale to evaluate characteristics of how alcohol-dependent people perceive the attitudes of their partners toward alcohol dependency. Based on previous research, we created the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale, from the perspective of the alcohol dependent individual. Using the new scale, 71 alcohol-dependent people (52 men, 19 women) were surveyed after obtaining their consent, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. The results identified 3 factors, "indifference", "acceptance" and "hypersensitivity", and factorial validity was verified. Relatively high reliability was obtained on each sub-scale (alpha = .60-.82). Furthermore, correlations were obtained with the alcohol-dependency "Denial and Awareness Scale (for alcohol-dependent people)" and with the 13-item "Usefulness of heterosexual love relations for recovery from alcohol dependency" questionnaire, which includes content on "beneficial" or "obstructive" to recovery, and with the satisfaction and the importance of relations. This demonstrates that the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale has reliability and criterion-related validity. The scale facilitates evaluation of types of attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency, and may thus be useful as one tool for investigating the influence of partners in heterosexual love relationships for recovery, and for providing advice.

  17. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  18. Depression, Alcohol Dependence and Abuse, and Drinking and Driving Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Sloan, Frank A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence/abuse and depression are positively related. Prior studies focused on relationships between drinking and driving and alcohol dependence/abuse, drinking and driving and problem drinking, or drinking and driving and depression separately. No study has addressed how depression is linked to drinking and driving through various underlying channels in the same study. Methods This study investigated relationships between depression, alcohol dependence/abuse, and the number of self-reported drinking and driving episodes. We also explored underlying behavioral channels between depression and alcohol dependence/abuse and binge drinking, reducing drinking amounts when planning to drive, and use of designated drivers. Data on 1,634 drinkers came from a survey fielded in eight U.S. cities. We employed ordinary least squares regression (OLS) and path analysis to assess drinking and driving and underlying channels. Results With OLS, being depressed increased the number of drinking and driving episodes during the past year by 0.572. This increase decreased to 0.411 episodes/year increase after adding socio-demographic characteristics and household income and lost statistical significance after controlling for alcohol dependence/abuse. The path analysis showed that depression is positively associated with drinking and driving, indirectly operating through not using a designated driver, but is not directly associated with drinking and driving. Alcohol dependence/abuse is directly associated with drinking and driving, and indirectly with drinking and driving through binge drinking. Conclusion Our results suggest that treatment should focus on helping individuals with depression to obtain assistance from others, such as obtaining a designated driver. Since self-control of drinking in anticipation of driving did not significantly reduce drinking and driving episodes, this study finds no empirical support for emphasizing improved self-control when the

  19. Alcohol Dependence in Adult Children of Alcoholics: Longitudinal Evidence of Early Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennison, Karen M.; Johnson, Kenneth A.

    1998-01-01

    Investigates familial alcoholism effects and the comparative probability of risk that adult children of alcoholics have for alcohol dependence. Results, based on a national survey of 12,686 young adults over a five-year period, show that the risk for alcoholism is relatively greater for males than females. (MKA)

  20. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  1. Is alcohol dependence best viewed as a chronic relapsing disorder?

    PubMed

    Cunningham, John A; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-01-01

    This 'For Debate' paper starts by recognizing the growing trend towards considering alcohol dependence as a chronic relapsing disorder. We argue that the adoption of this model results from focusing on those in treatment for alcohol dependence rather than considering the larger number of people in the general population who meet criteria for alcohol dependence at some point in their lives. The majority of the general population who ever experience alcohol dependence do not behave as though they have a chronic relapsing disorder: they do not seek treatment, resolve their dependence themselves and do not relapse repeatedly. We suggest that caution is therefore needed in using the chronic relapsing disorder label. Our primary concerns are that this formulation privileges biological aspects of dependence to the detriment of psychological and social contributions, it inhibits much-needed developments in understanding alcohol dependence and leads to inefficient distributions of public health and clinical care resources for alcohol dependence. We invite debate on this issue.

  2. Individual differences in subjective alcohol responses and alcohol-related disinhibition.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2016-04-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol's disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a 2-factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects-but not sedative-like effects-experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by cued go/no-go task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol's acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  3. Age of Alcohol-Dependence Onset: Associations with Severity of Dependence and Seeking Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hingson, Ralph W.; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We explored whether people who become alcohol dependent at younger ages are more likely to seek alcohol-related help or treatment or experience chronic relapsing dependence. Methods: In 2001-2002 the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism completed a face-to-face interview survey with a multistage probability sample of 43…

  4. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy : The result of dosage and individual predisposition.

    PubMed

    Maisch, B

    2016-09-01

    The individual amount of alcohol consumed acutely or chronically decides on harm or benefit to a person's health. Available data suggest that one to two drinks in men and one drink in women will benefit the cardiovascular system over time, one drink being 17.6 ml 100 % alcohol. Moderate drinking can reduce the incidence and mortality of coronary artery disease, heart failure, diabetes, ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. More than this amount can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy, which is defined as alcohol toxicity to the heart muscle itself by ethanol and its metabolites. Historical examples of interest are the Munich beer heart and the Tübingen wine heart. Associated with chronic alcohol abuse but having different etiologies are beriberi heart disease (vitamin B1 deficiency) and cardiac cirrhosis as hyperdynamic cardiomyopathies, arsenic poising in the Manchester beer epidemic, and cobalt intoxication in Quebec beer drinker's disease. Chronic heavy alcohol abuse will also increase blood pressure and cause a downregulation of the immune system that could lead to increased susceptibility to infections, which in turn could add to the development of heart failure. Myocardial tissue analysis resembles idiopathic cardiomyopathy or chronic myocarditis. In the diagnostic work-up of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, the confirmation of alcohol abuse by carbohydrate deficient transferrin (CDT) and increased liver enzymes, and the involvement of the heart by markers of heart failure (e.g., NT-proBNP) and of necrosis (e.g., troponins or CKMb) is mandatory. Treatment of alcoholic cardiomyopathy consists of alcohol abstinence and heart failure medication. PMID:27582365

  5. Neuroimaging in Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging, including PET, MRI, and MRS, is a powerful approach to the study of brain function. This article reviews neuroimaging findings related to alcohol and other drugs of abuse that have been published since 2011. Uses of neuroimaging are to characterize patients to determine who will fare better in treatment and to investigate the reasons underlying the effect on outcomes. Neuroimaging is also used to characterize the acute and chronic effects of substances on the brain and how those effects are related to dependence, relapse, and other drug effects. The data can be used to provide encouraging information for patients, as several studies have shown that long-term abstinence is associated with at least partial normalization of neurological abnormalities. PMID:24678450

  6. Relationships of impulsiveness and depressive symptoms in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Topolewska-Wochowska, Aleksandra; Serafin, Piotr; Sadowska-Mazuryk, Joanna; Pupek-Pyzioł, Julia; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms as well as high levels of impulsivity are subjects of special interest in alcohol dependence, as these factors are considered to influence the course of this disorder. However, until now mutual relationships between impulsivity and depression have not been investigated thoroughly in alcohol-dependent patients. Methods By means of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11) and stop-signal task, levels of impulsivity among 304 alcohol-dependent patients were measured. The stop-signal task was used as a manipulation-free method of estimating the level of behavioral impulsiveness, and the BIS-11 is a self report measure of global as well as cognitive impulsivity. Patients were also asked to complete the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hopelessness Scale (BHS). The results were analyzed in order to examine relationships between impulsiveness and depressive symptoms. Results Statistical analyses revealed significant associations between impulsiveness and severity of depressive symptoms. Individuals with higher scores on the BDI were more impulsive on the BIS-11, whereas patients with higher scores on the BHS were more impulsive on both the stop-signal task and BIS-11. The strongest correlations were found with the attention impulsivity subscale of BIS-11. Adjusting for other variables, a linear regression analysis revealed that cognitive impulsivity was the strongest predictor of depression severity. Limitations The main limitation of the study is a not fully representative sample, with exclusion of patients with active mood disorders Conclusions The results indicate a strong association between depressive symptoms and impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients, and suggest an important distinction between hopelessness and other depressive symptoms. PMID:22030134

  7. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  8. Smoking Behavior and Alcohol Consumption in Individuals With Panic Attacks

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Amanda R.; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Buckner, Julia D.; Smits, Jasper A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with anxiety often report greater smoking and drinking behaviors relative to those without a history of anxiety. In particular, smoking and alcohol use have been directly implicated among individuals experiencing panic attacks, diagnosed with panic disorder, or high on panic-relevant risk factors such as anxiety sensitivity. Less is known, however, about specific features of panic that may differentiate among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. The purpose of the current study was to replicate previous research findings of an association between panic symptomatology, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption, as well as extend findings by examining whether specific symptoms of panic attacks differentiated among those who do or do not use cigarettes or alcohol. Participants (n = 489) completed the Panic Attack Questionnaire-IV, a highly detailed assessment of panic attacks and symptoms, as well as self-report measures of smoking history and alcohol use. Consistent with previous research, participants who reported a history of panic attacks (n = 107) were significantly more likely to report current daily or lifetime daily cigarette smoking, and significantly greater hazardous or harmful alcohol use than participants with no panic history (n = 382). Although smoking and hazardous alcohol use were highly associated regardless of panic status, participants with panic attacks showed elevated hazardous alcohol use after controlling for daily or lifetime smoking. Surprisingly, although participants who reported having had at least one panic attack were more likely to smoke, panic attack symptoms, intensity, or frequency did not differentiate panickers who did or did not smoke. Furthermore, panic-related variables were not shown to differentially relate to problematic drinking among panickers. Implications for understanding the complex relationship between panic attacks and smoking and drinking behaviors are discussed. PMID:21915160

  9. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  10. Gene co-expression networks in human brain identify epigenetic modifications in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarev, Igor; Wang, Shi; Zhang, Lingling; Harris, R Adron; Mayfield, R Dayne

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse causes widespread changes in gene expression in human brain, some of which contribute to alcohol dependence. Previous microarray studies identified individual genes as candidates for alcohol phenotypes, but efforts to generate an integrated view of molecular and cellular changes underlying alcohol addiction are lacking. Here, we applied a novel systems approach to transcriptome profiling in postmortem human brains and generated a systemic view of brain alterations associated with alcohol abuse. We identified critical cellular components and previously unrecognized epigenetic determinants of gene co-expression relationships and discovered novel markers of chromatin modifications in alcoholic brain. Higher expression levels of endogenous retroviruses and genes with high GC content in alcoholics were associated with DNA hypomethylation and increased histone H3K4 tri-methylation, suggesting a critical role of epigenetic mechanisms in alcohol addiction. Analysis of cell type – specific transcriptomes revealed remarkable consistency between molecular profiles and cellular abnormalities in alcoholic brain. Based on evidence from this study and others, we generated a systems hypothesis for the central role of chromatin modifications in alcohol dependence that integrates epigenetic regulation of gene expression with pathophysiological and neuroadaptive changes in alcoholic brain. Our results offer implications for epigenetic therapeutics in alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:22302827

  11. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of the study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. Stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and Barratt Impulsiveness Scale to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms were observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  12. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

  13. Psychosocial predictors of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Mika, Katarzyna; Bugaj, Marcin; Konopa, Aleksandra; Podgórska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important risk factor of severe course of alcohol dependence. However, the significance of environmental determinants of impulsivity has been underestimated. The aim of this study was to identify psychosocial factors increasing the level of impulsivity in alcoholics. Levels of impulsivity were measured in 304 alcohol-dependent patients. The stop-signal task was used to assess behavioral impulsivity, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, to measure global and cognitive impulsivity. Correlations between impulsivity and psychosocial variables were examined. A significant association between level of impulsivity and severity of psychopathological symptoms was observed. Patients who reported childhood sexual or physical abuse, lower social support, and more severe course of alcohol dependence were more impulsive, especially in the cognitive domain. When entered into a linear regression analysis model, severity of alcohol dependence, psychopathology, and childhood physical abuse remained significant. These results suggest that psychosocial variables are important factors associated with high levels of impulsivity in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:23274294

  14. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  15. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  16. Alcohol-Adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Deffenbacher, Jerry L; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the 6-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for 6 months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients.

  17. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  18. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  19. The psychosocial work environment and alcohol dependence: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Head, J; Stansfeld, S; Siegrist, J

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To examine whether a stressful psychosocial work environment predicts alcohol dependence. Methods: Alcohol dependence of participants in the Whitehall II occupational cohort of London based civil servants (1985–88) was measured in 1991–93 using the CAGE questionnaire. The psychosocial work environment was measured by self report questions on the job demand-support-control model and on the model of effort-reward imbalance. Potential mediators including physical illness and poor mental health (GHQ) were measured at follow up in 1989. Results: Effort-reward imbalance at work was associated with alcohol dependence in men after adjustment for employment grade and other baseline factors related to alcohol dependence. Although effort-reward imbalance predicted future longstanding illness, poor mental health and negative aspects of close relationships, the association between effort-reward imbalance and alcohol dependence in men was only partially mediated through these health and social support measures. In women, low decision latitude was related to alcohol dependence to some extent, but alcohol dependence among women was more prevalent in higher occupational grades. Men with high job demands or with low work social supports had a slightly reduced risk of alcohol dependence. No association was found between objectively assessed demands, job control, and alcohol dependence in either men or women. Conclusion: A stressful psychosocial work environment in terms of effort-reward imbalance was found to be a risk factor for alcohol dependence in men. In view of the public health importance of alcohol dependence in working populations these findings call for more emphasis on psychosocial factors in occupational health research and prevention. PMID:14985516

  20. DSM-IV alcohol dependence and drug abuse/dependence in a treatment sample of whites, blacks and Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Schafer, J

    1996-12-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-IV alcohol dependence, drug use and DSM-IV drug/abuse dependence in a sample of White (n = 256), Black (n = 263) and Mexican American (n = 212) men consecutively admitted to five alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that drug use is higher among Blacks and Mexican Americans than among Whites. About 35% of the Whites 43% of the Blacks and 35% of the Mexican Americans are both alcohol and drug dependent. Among alcohol dependent individuals, about 44% of the Whites, 72% of the blacks and 52% of the Mexican Americans report using at least one drug other than alcohol once a week or more in the 12 months previous to the interview. The drug most frequently used by Whites is marijuana, followed by cocaine and amphetamines. The drug most frequently used by Blacks and Mexican Americans is cocaine, followed by marijuana. Severity of drug dependence is inversely related to severity of alcohol dependence among Whites. Alcohol treatment programs for Whites, Blacks and Mexican Americans must offer assessment, treatment matching and relapse prevention that takes into consideration this high prevalence of drug use and dependence.

  1. Alcohol and Memory: Storage and State Dependency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Effects of acute alcohol intoxication on the storage phase of memory were evaluated with two tasks that minimized response retrieval: unpaced paired-associate learning with highly available responses and forced-choice picture recognition. It was concluded that storage processes are sensitive to disruption by alcohol. (CHK)

  2. Translating the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism in the Western Pacific: Rationale, Study Design and Reliability of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Amity E.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; McGeary, John E.; Amoa, Francine; Kranzler, Henry R.; Francazio, Sarah; McGarvey, Stephen T.; Swift, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were to develop a bilingual version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for Drug Dependence and Alcoholism (SSADDA) in English and Samoan and determine the reliability of assessments of alcohol dependence in American Samoa. Methods: The study consisted of development and reliability-testing phases. In the development phase, the SSADDA alcohol module was translated and the translation was evaluated through cognitive interviews. In the reliability-testing phase, the bilingual SSADDA was administered to 40 ethnic Samoans, including a sub-sample of 26 individuals who were retested. Results: Cognitive interviews indicated the initial translation was culturally and linguistically appropriate except items pertaining to alcohol tolerance, which were modified to reflect Samoan concepts. SSADDA reliability testing indicated diagnoses of DSM-III-R and DSM-IV alcohol dependence were reliable. Reliability varied by language of administration. Conclusion: The English/Samoan version of the SSADDA is appropriate for the diagnosis of DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, which may be useful in advancing research and public health efforts to address alcohol problems in American Samoa and the Western Pacific. The translation methods may inform researchers translating diagnostic and assessment tools into different languages and cultures. PMID:24936588

  3. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  4. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  5. Different Phenotypic and Genotypic Presentations in Alcohol Dependence: Age at Onset Matters*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Chu; Prescott, Carol A.; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G.; Riley, Brien P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kuo, Po-Hsiu

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Several theoretical typology models have been proposed to classify alcoholism into more homogeneous subtypes using various criteria, for which age at onset of alcohol dependence is shared across many models. We investigated the evidence for the distinction between early- versus late-onset alcoholism by examining relevant phenotypic and genotypic variables. Method: Data are from 1,248 individuals with alcohol dependence, who were interviewed to collect detailed clinical information. Early versus late onset of alcohol dependence was defined by the age at onset of 22 years. Odds ratio (OR) and Cohen's d were calculated as effect size for comparisons of clinical features between the two groups. We adjusted interviewed age and gender in logistic regression models. Case-control genetic analyses were conducted for the association between HTR1B, SLC6A4, DRD2, and OPRμ1 genes and subgroups of alcohol dependence using a sample of 530 controls screened for alcohol problems. Results: Early-onset alcoholism exhibited significantly (p < .01) different clinical characteristics from late-onset alcoholism, including higher severity in alcohol dependence symptoms (d = 0.22) and maximum drinking quantity within 24 hours (d = 0.40), more rapid progression from regular drinking to meet alcohol dependence diagnosis (d = 1.73), higher expectancies for alcohol (d = 0.22−0.47), more comorbidity with externalizing disorders (ORs = 2.8−2.9), and greater prevalence of family alcohol use problems (d = 0.26−0.43). In addition, markers in the HTR1B and OPRμ1 genes showed genetic associations with subgroups of alcohol dependence (ORs = 1.5−2.4). Conclusions: Our findings support that subgroups of alcohol dependence defined by onset age have phenotypic and genetic differences. The early-onset subgroup had more severe features for almost every aspect we examined. Coupled with genetic association findings, age at onset of alcohol dependence may serve as a simple but important

  6. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits

    PubMed Central

    Kittles, Rick A.; Long, Jeffrey C.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Eggert, Monica; Virkkunen, Matti; Linnoila, Markku; Goldman, David

    1999-01-01

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism—antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism. PMID:10097188

  7. The role of neurotransmitters in alcohol dependence: animal research.

    PubMed

    De Witte, P

    1996-03-01

    Animal studies have demonstrated that alcohol changes neurotransmitter concentrations in the brain. These changes in levels of dopamine, serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), endogenous opioid peptides, and noradrenaline are associated with activation of reward centres in the brain. It is this property of alcohol that is believed to be responsible for the reinforcing effect of alcohol consumption in rats. One class of neurotransmitters, the endogenous opioid peptides, are believed to play an important role in alcohol reinforcement. This view is supported by the reduced preference for alcohol consumption found in rats given an opiate agonist. The widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA is also believed to play a fundamental role in mediating the effects of alcohol. A better understanding of the mechanisms that support alcohol dependence in animals offers hope for the development of pharmacological interventions to block these mechanisms, an approach that is now being explored in humans.

  8. Positive Affect and Stress Reactivity in Alcohol-Dependent Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Kaufman, Julia S.; Frost, Katherine H.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Reactivity to stress is a common feature of alcohol dependence and is associated with poorer treatment outcome among alcohol-dependent patients. Despite the importance of stress reactivity in alcohol dependence, little is known about markers of resilience to stress in this population. The current study examined whether positive affect buffered the effect of stress on negative affect and alcohol craving in an alcohol-dependent sample. Method: Outpatients (N = 1,375) enrolled in a large, randomized controlled trial for alcohol dependence (the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence [COMBINE] Study) completed measures of stress, positive affect, negative affect, and alcohol craving. In this secondary analysis, we hypothesized that positive affect would moderate the association between stress and negative affect and that positive affect would be negatively associated with craving. Results: Results supported these hypotheses, such that patients with higher levels of positive affect exhibited a weaker relationship between stress and negative affect relative to those with low positive affect. Positive affect was negatively associated with craving but did not moderate the association between stress and craving. Conclusions: These results replicate studies suggesting a protective effect of positive affect on stress reactivity and extend this effect to an alcohol-dependent sample. If positive affect can aid in resilience to stress, the utilization of interventions that enhance positive affect may be of particular utility for alcohol-dependent patients. Future experimental studies testing the causality of this association as well as studies examining the effect of interventions to enhance positive affect are needed. PMID:23200161

  9. Combined alcohol and energy drink use: hedonistic motives, adenosine, and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2014-07-01

    Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with both short- and long-term risks beyond those observed with alcohol alone. AmED use has been associated with heavy episodic (binge) drinking, risky behaviors, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. However, the reason consumers find AmED beverages particularly appealing has been unclear. A recent report by Droste and colleagues (Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2014; 38:2087-2095) is the first study to investigate motivations related to AmED consumption and to determine which motives predict AmED consumption patterns, experience of drinking-related harms, and risk of alcohol dependence. The findings of this study significantly enhance our understanding of why AmED consumption is related to the risk of alcohol dependence and change our understanding of why consumers choose AmED beverages. The authors report that hedonistic motives strongly predicted AmED use and the harms associated with use. While intoxication-reduction motives predicted self-reported accidents and injuries, these motives did not predict AmED consumption patterns and risk of dependence. The risk of alcohol dependence may arise from repeated experiences when drinking alcohol is more pleasurable when energy drinks are consumed with the alcohol. This commentary will focus on why energy drinks might increase the rewarding properties of alcohol in social drinkers. In addition, discussion is provided explaining why more research on the neurotransmitter, adenosine, may actually inform us about the mechanisms contributing to the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25040590

  10. Physical Pain in Alcohol-Dependent Patients Entering Treatment in Poland—Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Blow, Frederic C.; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Chronic pain and problematic alcohol use commonly co-exist, as the use of alcohol is commonly considered a useful pain self-management strategy. The purpose of this study was to characterize pain and pain-related problems in a group of primary alcohol-dependent individuals entering treatment facilities. Method: A sample of 366 (73.5% men and 26.5% women) alcohol-dependent (according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria) subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, social functioning, sexual and physical abuse during childhood, and severity of alcohol and sleep problems as well as level of impulsivity and general psychopathology. The study group was divided into a “mild or no pain” group and a “moderate or greater pain” group. Results: Among the study group, 34.4% of individuals reported moderate or greater physical pain during the last 4 weeks. The statistical analysis revealed that the experience of physical pain was significantly associated with lower level of education, unemployment, experience of sexual abuse before 18 years of age, and severity of alcohol dependence as well as other potential predictors of relapse (impulsivity, sleep problems, general psychopathology). When entered into logistic regression analysis with other dependent variables, the level of general psychopathology, severity of sleep problems, age, and education were all significantly associated with pain severity. Conclusions: Physical pain is a prevalent and potentially impairing experience in adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence. Therapeutic interventions aimed at reducing pain in alcohol-dependent individuals should be studied to evaluate their impact on improving overall treatment outcomes. PMID:26098037

  11. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  12. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  13. Nalmefene for the treatment of alcohol dependence: a current update.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael

    2014-04-01

    To date, few pharmacotherapies have been established for the treatment of alcoholism. There is a plethora of research concerning the involvement of the opioid-endorphin system in mediating the reinforcing effects of alcohol. The opioid antagonist naltrexone has been found to be effective in alcohol treatment. In addition, the mu-opioid antagonist and partial kappa agonist nalmefene was recently approved by the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of alcoholism. The relevant studies followed a harm-reduction, 'as needed' approach and showed a reduction in alcohol consumption with nalmefene 20 mg rather than increased abstinence rates, (which was not the primary goal of the relevant studies). The available literature is reviewed and discussed. Nalmefene appears to be a safe and effective treatment for alcohol dependence.

  14. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  15. Suicide Attempts During Heavy Drinking Episodes Among Individuals Entering Alcohol Treatment in Warsaw, Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Ilgen, Mark A.; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Acute alcohol intoxication itself may act as a trigger for suicidal thoughts and attempts among individuals at risk and may influence the potential lethality of the suicide attempt. This study in alcohol-dependent patients compared the correlates of suicide attempts during a heavy drinking episode with those of suicide attempts during relative sobriety. Methods: In two outpatient and two residential alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland, 113 patients who reported a suicide attempt during their lifetime were interviewed. The analyses focused on the patients’ most serious suicide attempts and on whether these occurred during a heavy drinking episode. Results: Over two-thirds of the patients reported that their most serious suicide attempt occurred during a period of heavy drinking. A multivariable logistic model indicated that the following factors significantly distinguished those patients whose most serious suicide attempt occurred during a heavy drinking episode: male gender, younger current age, greater severity of alcohol dependence and the attempt being unplanned. Conclusion: Among the patients in treatment for alcohol dependence who made a suicide attempt, the most serious attempt was likely to have been unplanned and committed by men when it occurred during a heavy drinking episode. PMID:22691386

  16. NEURAL PLASTICITY, HUMAN GENETICS, AND RISK FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shirley Y.

    2013-01-01

    Opportunities for advances in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence have been facilitated by the development of sophisticated neurophysiological and neuroimaging techniques that allow us to have a window on developmental changes in brain structure and function. The search for genes that may increase susceptibility to alcohol dependence has been greatly facilitated by the recognition that intermediate phenotypes, sometimes referred to as endophenotypes. may be closer to the genetic variation than is the more complex alcohol dependence phenotype. This chapter will review the evidence that the brain is highly plastic, exhibiting major postnatal changes, especially during adolescence, in neural circuits that appear to influence addiction susceptibility. This chapter will suggest that heritable aspects of brain structure and function that are seen developmentally may be an important endophenotypic characteristic associated with familial risk for developing alcohol dependence. Finally, a review of studies showing associations between brain structural and functional characteristics and specific genes will be offered. PMID:20813240

  17. Further Analyses of Genetic Association Between GRM8 and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Long, Elizabeth C.; Aliev, Fazil; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Edenberg, Howard J.; Nurnberger, John; Hesselbrock, Victor; Porjesz, Bernice; Dick, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The gene GRM8, a metabotropic glutamate receptor, has emerged as a gene of interest for its possible role in the development of alcohol dependence, with evidence of association with an electrophysiological endophenotype and level of response to alcohol as well as suggestive evidence of association with alcohol dependence. Method: The present study further investigated the association between GRM8 and alcohol dependence symptom counts among young adults using a new sample of individuals collected as part of the prospective sample (ages 18–26 years; N = 842) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Results: Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European Americans using the Nyholt corrected p value of .007: rs886003 (β = -.212, p = .0002) and rs17862325 (β = -.234, p < .0001), but not in African Americans, likely because of the lower power to detect association in this group. Conclusions: These results further implicate the role of glutamate receptor genes such as GRM8 in the development of alcohol dependence. PMID:25978827

  18. Cognitive control moderates the association between emotional instability and alcohol dependence symptoms.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Brittany L; Dvorak, Robert D; Kuvaas, Nicholas J; Williams, Thomas J; Spaeth, Destini T

    2015-06-01

    Previous research has linked emotional instability with problematic alcohol use. This may be a function of increased "hot" information processing (which is relatively automatic in nature and highly influenced by emotional states) for individuals with more emotional instability. According to dual-process models, cognitive control may attenuate the impact of emotional instability by preventing an overreliance on hot information processing. It was hypothesized that emotional instability would be positively associated with alcohol-related consequences, but that cognitive control would moderate this association. Participants were undergraduate students (n = 80) who endorsed drinking at moderate levels. Participants completed laboratory assessments of emotional instability, alcohol use and its consequences, and cognitive control. An observed variable path model examined the association between emotional instability and alcohol problems. Consistent with hypotheses, emotional instability was positively associated with alcohol consequences, and this relationship was moderated by cognitive control, at least for dependence symptoms. At low levels of cognitive control, there was a positive association between emotional instability and dependence symptoms (β = 0.514, p < .001), however, this association was attenuated and no longer significant at high levels of cognitive control (β = 0.095, p = .302). Emotional instability may promote alcohol dependence via an overreliance on hot information processing. Consistent with dual-process theory, this relationship is diminished among individuals with more cognitive control. Interventions focusing on increasing cognitive control may be effective in reducing alcohol pathology associated with emotional instability. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  20. From genetic studies to precision medicine in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Fan; Sun, Yankun; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Genetic factors contribute to more than 50% of the variation in the vulnerability to alcohol dependence (AD). Although significant advances have been made in medications for AD, these medications do not work for all people. Precise tailoring of medicinal strategies for individual alcoholic patients is needed to achieve optimal outcomes. This review updates the most promising information on genetic variants in AD, which may be useful for improving diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring strategies. We describe genetic candidates of various neurotransmitter and enzyme systems. In addition to biological and allelic associations with AD, genetic effects on AD-related phenotypes and treatment responses have also been described. Gene-gene and gene-environment interactions have been considered. Potential applications of genomewide and epigenetic approaches for identifying genetic biomarkers of AD have been discussed. Overall, the application of genetic findings in precision medicine for AD will likely involve an integrated approach that distinguishes effect sizes of specific genetic predictors with regard to sex, pharmacotherapy, ethnicity, and AD-related aspects and considers gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Our work may pave the way toward more precise treatment for AD that could ultimately improve clinical management and interventions. PMID:26580132

  1. Alcohol-Specific Coping Styles of Adult Children of Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders and Associations with Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Drapkin, Michelle L; Eddie, David; Buffington, Angela J; McCrady, Barbara S

    2015-07-01

    Parental alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been conceptualized as a chronic stressor that can lead to deleterious long-term outcomes in children of individuals with AUDs. Yet, while many individuals are detrimentally affected by their parents' problematic alcohol use, and go on to manifest psychological problems, others do not. How individuals cope with the stress of having a parent with an AUD is believed to be an important moderator of this differential outcome. This study assessed whether individuals' alcohol-specific coping styles predicted alcohol use, positive or negative life events, and depression, using a sample of 465 college students, of whom 20% were adult children of individuals with alcohol use disorders, colloquially known as adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), and a battery of well-validated, self-report measures. Participant ACOAs reported less 'engaged' and 'total' alcohol-specific coping strategies and more 'withdrawal' alcohol-specific coping strategies than their non adult children of alcoholics (NACOAs) counterparts. Across participants, women reported more 'engaged', 'tolerant/inactive', and 'total' coping than men. Although ACOAs reported significantly more negative life events, which predicted more passive coping styles, they did not differ significantly from NACOAs on measures of problematic alcohol use or depression, supporting theories of resilience in ACOAs regardless of their alcohol-specific coping styles. For NACOAs, 'tolerant' coping predicted greater depression and alcohol-related problems; 'engaged' coping predicted fewer alcohol problems. Results suggest that ACOAs cope differently with problematic alcohol use among relatives and friends compared with NACOAs and are more likely to experience negative life events. Additionally, alcohol-related coping strategies have more predictive utility in NACOAs than ACOAs. PMID:25802055

  2. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; Fernandez, F.; Salas, R.; de Erausquin, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcoholism can lead to damage of the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and it can be lethal, costing hundreds of billions to the health care system. Despite the existence of cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, and spiritually integrated treatment to treat it, alcohol dependence has a high relapse rate and poor prognosis, albeit with high interindividual variability. In this review, we discuss the use of two neuromodulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), and their advantages and disadvantages compared to first-line pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. We also discuss rTMS and DBS targets for alcohol dependence treatment, considering experimental animal and human evidence, with careful consideration of methodological issues preventing the identification of feasible targets for neuromodulation treatments, as well as inter-individual variability factors influencing alcoholism prognosis. Lastly, we anticipate future research aiming to tailor the treatment to each individual patient by combining neurofunctional, neuroanatomical and neurodisruptive techniques optimizing the outcome. PMID:25598743

  3. Genetic variability in tryptophan hydroxylase 2 gene in alcohol dependence and alcohol-related psychopathological symptoms.

    PubMed

    Plemenitaš, Anja; Kores Plesničar, Blanka; Kastelic, Matej; Porcelli, Stefano; Serretti, Alessandro; Dolžan, Vita

    2015-09-14

    Heritability plays an important role in the development and expression of alcohol dependence. The present genetic association study explored the role of TPH2 polymorphisms and their haplotypes to investigate its role in alcohol dependence and comorbid psychopathological symptoms. The sample included 101 subjects currently diagnosed as alcohol abusers, 100 abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects and 97 healthy controls. Subjects were genotyped for TPH2 rs4570625, rs1843809, rs7305115, rs4290270. TPH2 genotypes were not associated with alcohol dependence, but GGAA haplotype was less common (p=0.038) and GTAA and GGGT were more common (p=0.011 and p=0.021, respectively), in currently dependent patients compared to controls. Exploratory analysis of genotypes in currently dependent patients showed that rs1843809 was associated with depressive and aggressive traits (p=0.045 and p=0.001, respectively), rs4290270 with depressive and anxiety traits (p=0.040 and p=0.025, respectively) and rs4570625 with aggressive traits (p=0.011). In abstinent subjects rs1843809 genotype was associated with traits of social anxiety (p=0.003). Only association between rs1843809 and the BDHI score (p=0.001) and associations between GTAA haplotype and Zung Anxiety Scale and BDHI score (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively), in currently dependent patients remained significant after applying the Bonferroni's correction. Our findings support a potential role of TPH2 in alcohol dependence. TPH2 genetic variability may be also associated with anxiety and aggression traits in alcohol dependent subjects. PMID:26232682

  4. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  5. [Alcohol dependence mediated by monoamine neurotransmitters in the central nervous system].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Huafeng; Lai, Jianghua

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing brain disease with the characteristics of drinking alcohol out of control, has become a serious social problem. Monoamine neurotransmitters, mainly including dopamine and 5-hydroxytryp¬tamine, play important roles in the occurrence, development and neural dysfunction of alcohol dependence syndrome. In this review, the roles of key factors of the monoamine system (dopamine receptor genes, 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, transporter genes, tyrosine hydroxylase gene, tryptophanhydroxylase gene and monoamine oxidase gene) in alcohol dependence were discussed, and strategies for further studies of molecular mechanisms were proposed based on gene knockout mice models generated in our laboratory. Then, combining with studies on tyrosine hydroxylase activator CaMKII in our lab, therapeutic targets were discussed. Besides, epigenetic strategies for prevention and treatment of alcohol dependence syndrome were proposed. Furthermore, manipulating methylation levels in gene regulatory regions and alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs might also have clinical implications. Finally, based on new findings on genetic polymorphism, it is of great potential to carry out individual prevention and treatment for patients suffering from alcohol dependence.

  6. Sub-populations of alcohol-dependent patients: differences in psychological functioning between high- and low-frequency alcohol consumers.

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, A J; Koechling, U M; Voltaire-Carlsson, A; Borg, S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the processes underlying relapse to drinking using objective biological validation of self-reported recent alcohol consumption, using the ratio of 5-hydroxytryptophol to 5-hydroxyindol-3-ylacetic acid (5-HTOL/5-HIAA), a new biological marker to detect single episodes of drinking, in a sample of 38 male alcohol-dependent patients (DSM-III-R) who were assessed prospectively in terms of their clinical symptomatology over a 6-month treatment period. Results showed that nearly all patients obtained positive 5-HTOL/5-HIAA samples during the course of treatment. However, upon closer inspection, results revealed a bimodal distribution for alcohol intake with high and low frequency of consumption episodes. Results showed that high frequency consumers obtained higher ratings of clinical symptoms as measured by the Comprehensive Psychopathological Rating Scale (CPRS) and by the St Göran's Semi-structured Interview (SGSI) compared to low frequency alcohol consumers on symptoms of inner tension, lack of initiative, risk of relapse (as rated by therapists and as rated by patients themselves), dysphoria, negative craving for alcohol, and positive craving for alcohol. The present results provided evidence for the existence of two sub-populations of alcoholics, those who have frequent lapses and those who have low frequency of sporadic lapses. Further, these two sub-populations were shown to differ with respect to overall psychological functioning, and craving for alcohol. In conclusion, the present findings have important treatment implications in that reliable identification of patients' consumption patterns using biological markers would allow for the design of individually tailored treatment needs. PMID:8879293

  7. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  8. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient’s and the doctor’s perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient’s active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:25187751

  9. Nalmefene: a new approach to the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Paille, François; Martini, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of alcohol consumption is not yet a widely accepted treatment objective for alcohol-dependent patients, as abstinence is often considered to be the only possible objective in this situation. However, various studies have demonstrated the value of proposing these two options to such patients. Firstly, reduction of alcohol consumption very significantly reduces the risk of alcohol-related damage, and also modifies the patient's and the doctor's perception of the disease, resulting in improved access to care and better patient adherence with the proposed treatment objective and consequently better clinical results. Recent studies have shown that some medicinal products can help patients reduce their alcohol consumption. One such product, nalmefene, has been granted European marketing authorization and is now being released onto the market in various countries. The ESENSE 1 and 2 studies in alcohol-dependent patients showed that, in combination with BRENDA, a psychosocial intervention focusing on reinforcement of motivation and treatment adherence, nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days and mean daily total alcohol consumption versus placebo. This reduction was more marked in the marketing authorization target population, ie, patients with a high or very high drinking risk level according to World Health Organization criteria. Another original feature of this molecule is that it can be used as needed if the patient perceives a risk of drinking, which is a more flexible approach and more likely to ensure the patient's active involvement in the treatment of his/her disease. This molecule opens up interesting and original therapeutic prospects in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  10. Discovering genes involved in alcohol dependence and other alcohol responses: role of animal models.

    PubMed

    Buck, Kari J; Milner, Lauren C; Denmark, Deaunne L; Grant, Seth G N; Kozell, Laura B

    2012-01-01

    The genetic determinants of alcoholism still are largely unknown, hindering effective treatment and prevention. Systematic approaches to gene discovery are critical if novel genes and mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence are to be identified. Although no animal model can duplicate all aspects of alcoholism in humans, robust animal models for specific alcohol-related traits, including physiological alcohol dependence and associated withdrawal, have been invaluable resources. Using a variety of genetic animal models, the identification of regions of chromosomal DNA that contain a gene or genes which affect a complex phenotype (i.e., quantitative trait loci [QTLs]) has allowed unbiased searches for candidate genes. Several QTLs with large effects on alcohol withdrawal severity in mice have been detected, and fine mapping of these QTLs has placed them in small intervals on mouse chromosomes 1 and 4 (which correspond to certain regions on human chromosomes 1 and 9). Subsequent work led to the identification of underlying quantitative trait genes (QTGs) (e.g., Mpdz) and high-quality QTG candidates (e.g., Kcnj9 and genes involved in mitochondrial respiration and oxidative stress) and their plausible mechanisms of action. Human association studies provide supporting evidence that these QTLs and QTGs may be directly relevant to alcohol risk factors in clinical populations.

  11. Field Dependency, n Power and Locus of Control Variables in Alcohol Aversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Query, William T.

    1983-01-01

    Compared individual differences and treatment effectiveness in male volunteer alcoholics (N=47) in a 10-day electroconditioning aversion program. Follow-up showed combination therapy was more successful. Internals and hard liquor drinkers tended to be abstinent as predicted. Field dependency was a more unstable variable for outcome. (Author/JAC)

  12. [Personality variables, psychopathological alterations and personality disorders in alcohol-dependent patients according to Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  13. Oxidoreductive homeostasis in alcohol-dependent male patients and the risk of alcohol drinking relapse in a 6-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Budzyński, Jacek; Ziółkowski, Marcin; Kłopocka, Maria; Czarnecki, Damian

    2016-02-01

    Disturbances in the central signaling of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to energy intake are recognized as taking part in appetitive and consummative phases of eating disorders. This study aimed to verify the hypothesis that blood oxidoreductive balance can also affect demand for energy substances, such as alcoholic beverages in alcohol-dependent individuals, as well as the severity of their alcohol dependence and risk of drinking relapse. The following values were determined in the blood of 54 alcohol-dependent male patients after alcohol withdrawal, again after 4 weeks and after 6 months: the aldehyde products of lipid peroxidation (malonyl dialdehyde [MDA] and 4-hydroxynonenal [4-HNE]), nitric oxide (NO) metabolites, total antioxidant status (TAS), the blood activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSHpx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GSHred), blood glucose, and lipids. Alcoholics who relapsed during 6 months of observation (n = 31, 57%) compared with patients who maintained alcohol abstinence for 6 months (n = 23, 43%) differed only in relation to initial and final NO metabolite serum concentrations. The risk of alcohol drinking relapse was lower in patients with an above-median initial blood concentration of NO metabolites and TAS. The oxidative stress parameters correlated with alcohol-dependence severity markers. No significant correlations between the studied antioxidant balance parameters and markers of nutritional status, including blood glucose and lipids, were found. Although the results of our study have some limitations and require further investigation, they suggest the role of oxidoreductive balance in the pathomechanisms of alcohol dependence and drinking relapse. In addition, due to a lack of association found between blood oxidative stress parameters and BMI, blood glucose, and lipid concentrations, they show the presence of disturbances in systemic ROS signaling in response to energy availability in alcoholics after

  14. Nicotinic receptor modulation to treat alcohol and drug dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug dependence are serious public health problems worldwide. The prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in the United States and other parts of the world is significant. Given the limitations in the efficacy of current pharmacotherapies to treat these disorders, research in developing alternative pharmacotherapies continues. Preclinical and clinical evidence thus far has indicated that brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are important pharmacological targets for the development of medications to treat alcohol and drug dependence. The nAChRs are a super family of ligand gated ion channels, and are expressed throughout the brain with twelve neuronal nAChR subunits (α2–α10 and β2–β4) identified. Here, we review preclinical and clinical evidence involving a number of nAChR ligands that target different nAChR subtypes in alcohol and nicotine addiction. The important ligands include cytisine, lobeline, mecamylamine, varenicline, sazetidine A and others that target α4β2* nAChR subtypes as small molecule modulators of the brain nicotinic cholinergic system are also discussed. Taken together, both preclinical and clinical data exist that support nAChR–based ligands as promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of alcohol and drug dependence. PMID:25642160

  15. [Degrees of alcoholic dependency in patient's self evaluation].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, L; Debski, L

    The study involved a group of 33 males with diagnosed alcohol abuse. A degree of the disease was determined according to Standard Anamnesis Sheet and Auxilliary Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (Woronowicz's Questionnaire). The patient's results were compared with their wives' results in order to determine trustworthiness. The goal of this study was to determine the factors influencing patient's critical assessment of their disease. The results reveal a relationship between patient's assessment and clinical manifestations of their dependence tend to underestimate the degree of their disease. PMID:8146056

  16. Central pontine myelinolysis in a case of alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Kaushik; Fernandes, Austin B.; Goyal, Sunil; Shanker, Sunitha

    2015-01-01

    Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome includes Central Pontine Myelinolysis and Extrapontine Myelinolysis. This condition has been described in cases of chronic Alcohol Dependence Syndrome and in rapid correction of hyponatremia. Though we frequently see patients with Alcohol Dependence Syndrome presenting with complicated withdrawal, Central Pontine Myelinolysis remains largely undetected and under-reported in literature. We present here a case of protracted Delirium Tremens where MRI brain revealed Central Pontine Myelinolysis. Subsequently cognitive assessment revealed significant dysfunction and brain SPECT showed hypo-perfusion of the frontal lobes. Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome should be suspected in protracted Delirium Tremens. PMID:27212829

  17. Salivary alcohol dehydrogenase in non-smoking and smoking alcohol-dependent persons.

    PubMed

    Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Jelski, Wojciech; Zalewska, Anna; Szulc, Agata; Szmitkowski, Maciej; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2014-09-01

    Increasing attention to the importance of saliva testing is not surprising because smoking and alcohol drinking act synergistically on oral tissues, and their metabolite levels, e.g., acetaldehyde, are much higher in saliva than in blood. The activity of salivary alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) comes from oral microbiota, mucosa, and salivary glands. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of ADH in the oral health pathology of smoking (AS) and non-smoking (ANS) alcohol-dependent males. The results indicated that the AS group had a more significant and longer duration (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence) decrease in ADH activity and output than the ANS group (until the 15th day of alcohol abstinence) compared to controls (social drinkers; C). The decreased salivary flow (SF) in alcoholics was observed longer in the ANS group (until the 30th day of alcohol abstinence), whereas in the AS group SF normalized at the 15th day, probably due to the irritating effect of tobacco smoke on the oral mucosa. Because saliva was centrifuged to remove cells and debris (including microbial cells), the detected salivary ADH activity was derived from salivary glands and/or oral mucosa. A more profound and longer decrease in ADH activity/output in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics was likely due to the damaged salivary glands and/or oral mucosa, caused by the synergistic effect of alcohol drinking and smoking. The lower values of salivary ADH in smoking than non-smoking alcoholics might also be partly due to the reversed/inhibited ADH reaction by high levels of accumulated acetaldehyde.

  18. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  19. History of sexual abuse and suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, A; Klimkiewicz, A; Krasowska, A; Kopera, M; Sławińska-Ceran, A; Brower, K J; Wojnar, M

    2014-09-01

    History of child abuse is considered one of the important risk factors of suicide attempt in general population. At the same time it has been shown that suicide attempts appear significantly more frequently in alcoholics than in healthy individuals. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between history of childhood sexual abuse and suicide attempts in a sample of Polish alcohol dependent patients. A sample of 364 alcohol-dependent subjects was recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland. Information was obtained about demographics, family history of psychiatric problems, history of suicide attempts, sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adulthood and severity of alcohol problems. When analyzed by gender, 7.4% of male and 39.2% of female patients had a lifetime history of sexual abuse; 31.9% of the study group reported at least one suicide attempt during their lifetime. Patients who reported suicide attempts were significantly younger (p=0.0008), had greater severity of alcohol dependence (p=0.0002), lower social support (p=0.003), and worse economic status (p=0.002). Moreover, there was a significant association between history of suicide attempts and family history of psychiatric problems (p=0.00025), suicide attempts in the family (p=0.0073), childhood history of sexual abuse (p=0.009) as well as childhood history of physical abuse (p=0.002). When entered into linear regression analysis with other dependent variables history of childhood sexual abuse remained a significant predictor of suicide attempt (OR=2.52; p=0.035). Lifetime experience of sexual abuse is a significant and independent risk factor of suicide attempts in alcohol-dependent individuals. PMID:24997776

  20. Sleep abnormalities during abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Aetiology and management.

    PubMed

    Landolt, H P; Gillin, J C

    2001-01-01

    Virtually every type of sleep problem occurs in alcohol-dependent patients. Typically, these individuals take a longer time to fall asleep and show decreased sleep efficiency, shorter sleep duration and reduced amounts of slow wave sleep when compared with healthy controls. Their sleep patterns are fragmented, and the typical time course of electroencephalogram (EEG) delta wave activity is severely disrupted. The amount of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep may be reduced or increased. Sleep changes can persist during months or years of abstinence, and recent studies indicate that certain alterations in sleep architecture, as well as subjective sleep complaints, predict relapse to alcoholism. The mechanisms of action of short and long term alcohol administration on sleep are incompletely understood. They may arise from an interaction with gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT), adenosine or other neurotransmitter systems. While only a few pharmacological and nonpharmacological strategies to improve or normalise disturbed sleep in individuals who have recovered from alcoholism have been studied, the use of benzodiazepines, other hypnosedatives or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is not recommended. Therapies include sleep hygiene, bright light therapy, meditation, relaxation methods, and other nonpharmacological approaches. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between sleep, sleep abnormalities and alcoholism, and to establish new approaches to improve sleep in alcohol-dependent patients and to prevent withdrawal reactions that affect sleep during abstinence.

  1. [Impulsivity and compulsivity in cocaine dependent individuals].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Serrano, María José; Cesar Peraleslópez, José; Moreno-López, Laura; Santos-Ruiz, Ana; Pérez-García, Miguel; Verdejogarcía, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A recent theoretical approach describes addiction as a dynamic behavioural change process on the impulsivity-compulsivity axis. However, on the basis of current evidence, it is still difficult to establish a selective association between the course of addiction and individual transition along this axis. The aim of this study is to categorize each of the individuals in a sample of cocaine-dependent patients (CDI) as mainly impulsive or mainly compulsive, on the basis of their performance in neuropsychological inhibition and perseveration tests, and to test the association between the assigned category and their scores in trait impulsivity, and severity of cocaine addiction (measured by means of self-report assessment tools). A total of 42 CDI and 65 healthy control individuals (HCI) were assessed using the UPPS-P Scale (to explore trait impulsivity), the Stroop and Go/No Go (to assess response inhibition), and Revised-Strategy Application and Probabilistic Reversal tests (to assess response perseveration). Forty-five per cent of the CDIs were classified as compulsive, and this subgroup scored significantly higher than the impulsive group on the UPPS-P dimensions of lack of perseverance and lack of premeditation. A substantial proportion of CDIs can be classified as compulsive. No differences between compulsive and impulsive CDIs were found with regard to severity of exposure to cocaine; however, patients classified as compulsive by means of neuropsychological tasks are less perseverative in the pursuit of long-term objectives and more prone to make under-meditated decisions, as shown by trait impulsivity assessment questionnaires. PMID:22648313

  2. Pharmacoprophylaxis of alcohol dependence: Review and update Part I: Pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhateja, Gaurav; Basu, Debasish

    2007-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major problem in India. The pharmacological armamentarium for relapse prevention of alcohol has widened with the addition of new drugs. In this article, we review the pharmacology and efficacy of the four most important such drugs: disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate and topiramate. The first part of this two-part review series concerns the comparative pharmacology and the second part concerns the efficacy studies. Overall, all four of these drugs have modest but clinically significant usefulness as pharmacoprophylactic agents for relapse prevention or minimization of alcohol dependence. Combinations might be helpful, especially for naltrexone and acamprosate. The issue of supervision and compliance remains important, especially for such drugs as disulfiram and naltrexone. Topiramate is a promising new agent and requires further study. Disulfiram, while very effective in compliant patients, presents challenges in terms of patient selection and side effects. For patients with hepatic impairment, acamprosate is a good choice. PMID:20640061

  3. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol.

  4. Characteristics of heart rate variability in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent chronic alcohol users.

    PubMed

    Karpyak, Victor M; Romanowicz, Magdalena; Schmidt, John E; Lewis, Kriste A; Bostwick, John M

    2014-01-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is an objective and sensitive measure of integrated physiological functioning reflective of heart rhythm responsivity to internal and external demands. Reduced HRV is associated with vulnerability to stress and deterioration of medical and/or psychiatric conditions, while increased HRV is associated with a favorable treatment response and recovery from various medical and/or psychiatric conditions. Our previous review found that acute alcohol consumption caused decreased parasympathetic and increased sympathetic HRV effects in both nonalcoholic and chronic alcohol users. This review investigates the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on HRV in alcohol-dependent subjects and nondependent users. MEDLINE, Scopus, and PubMed were searched for human experimental and clinical trials that measured the effects of chronic alcohol use on HRV. Only publications that included a description of their study designs and clearly stated methodologies for data collections, and outcome measures were reviewed. We have reviewed a total of 24 articles. In nondependent users, low dose (approximating the recommended daily amount of 1 standard drink in women and 2 in men) use is associated with increased HRV parameters compared to those who drink less frequently or abstain altogether. A further increase in consumption is associated with decreased HRV compared to both abstainers and more moderate drinkers. HRV changes during withdrawal generally follow the same negative direction but are more complex and less understood. In dependent subjects, an improvement in HRV was seen following abstinence but remained reduced compared to nonalcoholic controls. This review demonstrates that HRV changes associated with chronic use follow a J-shaped curve. It supports recommendations that limit daily alcohol intake to no more than 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women. Future studies should investigate HRV as a biomarker of alcoholism development and treatment response as

  5. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR Polymorphism and Proximal and Distal Environments in Alcohol Dependence during Emerging and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The manifestation of alcohol dependence at different developmental stages may be associated with different genetic and environmental factors. Taking a developmental approach, the current study characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek involvement, and delayed adult role transition) on alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. Prospective data were obtained from a cohort of 234 Caucasian individuals (56% female) followed up at ages 18 through 34. A longitudinal hierarchical factor model was estimated to model a trait-like persistent alcohol dependence factor throughout emerging and young adulthood and two residual state-like alcohol dependence factors limited to emerging adulthood and young adulthood, respectively. To account for those alcohol dependence factors, three two-way interaction effects between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and the three developmentally specific environment factors were modeled. Carriers of the DRD4 long allele showed greater susceptibility to environmental effects; they showed more persistent alcohol dependence symptoms as childhood adversity increased and more alcohol dependence symptoms limited to emerging adulthood as college/Greek involvement increased. Alcohol dependence among non-carriers of the long allele, however, did not differ as a function of those environments. Although replication is necessary, these findings highlight the importance of repeated phenotypic assessments across development and modeling both distal and proximal environments and their interaction with genetic susceptibility at specific developmental stages. PMID:21381802

  6. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    perceived higher social support than soldiers and lesser qualified individuals. Conclusion Abstinent group perceived better social support than relapsed group and soldiers in upper socio-occupational status and less alcohol related problems perceived more social support than soldiers with lower socioeconomic status and more alcohol related problems. Psychosocial therapy must be incorporated in management of Alcohol dependence syndrome. PMID:26676246

  7. Predicting the future relapse of alcohol-dependent patients from structural and functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sambu; Mohr, Johannes; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.

  8. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  9. Loss in connectivity among regions of the brain reward system in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kuceyeski, Amy; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Durazzo, Timothy C; Raj, Ashish

    2013-12-01

    A recently developed measure of structural brain connectivity disruption, the loss in connectivity (LoCo), is adapted for studies in alcohol dependence. LoCo uses independent tractography information from young healthy controls to project the location of white matter (WM) microstructure abnormalities in alcohol-dependent versus nondependent individuals onto connected gray matter (GM) regions. LoCo scores are computed from WM abnormality masks derived at two levels: (1) groupwise differences of alcohol-dependent individuals (ALC) versus light-drinking (LD) controls and (2) differences of each ALC individual versus the LD control group. LoCo scores based on groupwise WM differences show that GM regions belonging to the extended brain reward system (BRS) network have significantly higher LoCo (i.e., disconnectivity) than those not in this network (t = 2.18, P = 0.016). LoCo scores based on individuals' WM differences are also higher in BRS versus non-BRS (t = 5.26, P = 3.92 × 10(-6) ) of ALC. These results suggest that WM alterations in alcohol dependence, although subtle and spatially heterogeneous across the population, are nonetheless preferentially localized to the BRS. LoCo is shown to provide a more sensitive estimate of GM involvement than conventional volumetric GM measures by better differentiating between brains of ALC and LD controls (rates of 89.3% vs. 69.6%). However, just as volumetric measures, LoCo is not significantly correlated with standard metrics of drinking severity. LoCo is a sensitive WM measure of regional cortical disconnectivity that uniquely characterizes anatomical network disruptions in alcohol dependence.

  10. Neuropeptide Y Opposes Alcohol Effects on GABA Release in Amygdala and Blocks the Transition to Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Misra, Kaushik; Herman, Melissa A.; Cruz, Maureen T.; Koob, George F.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Background During the transition to alcohol and drug addiction, neuromodulator systems in the extended amygdala are recruited to mediate aspects of withdrawal and relapse via convergence on inhibitory GABA neurons in central amygdala (CeA). Methods This study investigated the role of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in excessive alcohol drinking by making rats dependent on alcohol via alcohol vapor inhalation. This study also utilized intracellular and whole-cell recording techniques to determine the effects of NPY on GABAergic inhibitory transmission in CeA, synaptic mechanisms involved in these NPY effects, and NPY interactions with alcohol in the CeA of alcohol-naïve and alcohol-dependent rats. Results Chronic NPY treatment blocked excessive operant alcohol-reinforced responding associated with alcohol dependence, as well as gradual increases in alcohol responding by intermittently tested non-dependent controls. NPY decreased baseline GABAergic transmission and reversed alcohol-induced enhancement of inhibitory transmission in CeA by suppressing GABA release via actions at presynaptic Y2 receptors. Conclusions These results highlight NPY modulation of GABAergic signaling in central amygdala as a promising pharmacotheraputic target for the treatment of alcoholism. GABA neurons in the CeA likely constitute a major point of convergence for neuromodulator systems recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence. PMID:21459365

  11. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  12. Real-time assessment of alcohol drinking and drug use in opioid-dependent polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kenzie L; Jobes, Michelle L; Phillips, Karran A; Epstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    We investigated relationships between drinking, other drug use, and drug craving, using ecological momentary assessment (EMA), in a sample of polydrug users who were not heavy drinkers. In a prospective longitudinal cohort study, 114 heroin and cocaine users on methadone-maintenance treatment carried handheld electronic diaries during waking hours and were screened for drug and alcohol use for up to 25 weeks. Individuals who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence were excluded. Participants responded to 2-5 random prompts per day to report on their moods, cravings, and activities and initiated entries when they used or acutely craved heroin or cocaine. Drinking alcohol was assessed in both types of entries. Breath alcohol was measured three times weekly. Participants reported drinking alcohol in 1.6% of random-prompt entries, 3.7% of event-contingent entries when craving cocaine and/or heroin, and 11.6% of event-contingent entries when using cocaine and/or heroin. Alcohol drinking was also associated with higher craving ratings and prestudy alcohol use. More drinking was detected by ambulatory self-report than by in-clinic breath testing. Even though we had screened out heavy drinkers from our sample of polydrug users, drinking was associated with heroin and cocaine craving and actual use. PMID:27579810

  13. Baclofen for the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Possible Role of Comorbid Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Morley, K.C.; Baillie, A.; Leung, S.; Addolorato, G.; Leggio, L.; Haber, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To conduct a double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Methods: Out of 69 participants consecutively screened, 42 alcohol-dependent patients were randomized to receive placebo, baclofen 30 mg/day or baclofen 60 mg/day for 12 weeks. All subjects were offered BRENDA, a structured psychosocial therapy for alcohol dependence that seeks to improve motivation for change, enhance strategies to prevent relapse and encourage compliance with treatment. Results: Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that alcohol consumption (heavy drinking days, drinks per drinking day) significantly reduced across all three groups during the treatment period. There were no statistically significant advantages to treatment on time to first heavy drinking day (relapse) (P = 0.08), nor time to first drink (lapse) (P = 0.18). A post hoc analysis stratifying according to whether there had been a comorbid anxiety disorder, revealed a beneficial effect of baclofen 30 mg/day versus placebo on time to lapse and relapse (P < 0.05). There was also a beneficial effect for baclofen 60 mg/day relative to placebo on time to relapse in this comorbid group (P < 0.05). Both doses of baclofen were well tolerated. There were no serious adverse events. Conclusions: In spite of the small sample for a 3-arm clinical trial, this study suggests a specific role of baclofen in alcohol-dependent individuals with comorbid anxiety. Replication in larger, fully-powered studies is required. PMID:25246489

  14. Sexual Dysfunction in Patients with Alcohol and Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Pendharkar, Shreyas; Kandappan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    There are limited numbers of studies which have evaluated the sexual dysfunction (SD) in patients with alcohol and opioids dependence. This article reviews the existing literature. Electronic searches were carried out using the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect to locate the relevant literature. Subjects addicted to heroin or on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) or buprenorphine maintenance treatment (BMT) show higher rates of SD in comparison to the general population. SD rates have ranged 34-85% for heroin addicts, 14-81% for MMT, 36-83% for BMT, and 90% for naltrexone maintenance. The rates of SD in alcohol-dependent population have ranged 40-95.2%, with rates being consistently much higher in alcohol-dependent population than in the healthy controls or social drinkers. The common SDs reported have been erectile dysfunction followed by premature ejaculation, retarded ejaculation and decreased sexual desire among men, and dyspareunia and vaginal dryness among women. This review suggests that long-term use of alcohol and opioids are associated with SD in almost all domains of sexual functioning. There is a need to increase the awareness of clinicians about this association as many times SD in patients with substance abuse lead to poor treatment compliance and relapse. Further, there is a need to carry out more number of studies to understand the relationship in a better way. PMID:25336765

  15. The association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts in adults treated for alcohol dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Bohnert, Amy S.B.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Ilgen, Mark A.; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation is elevated for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Sleep problems are associated with suicide risk and alcohol use, and sleep problems may be associated with suicide risk in those with alcohol use disorders. For the present study, we hypothesized that self-reported sleep problems are associated with suicidal thoughts in a sample of adults seeking treatment for alcohol dependence in Poland. Methods The sample included 304 patients in addiction treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland who met criteria for alcohol dependence. Measures included demographic characteristics, frequency of alcohol use, psychiatric symptoms, suicidal ideation and two measures of insomnia, which differed by time frame: the Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS, past 1 month) and the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire (SDQ-7, past 6 months). Multivariable logistic regression models tested the association between insomnia and suicidal thoughts. Results In models that controlled for age, gender, and days of recent drinking, both measures of sleep problems were associated with suicidal ideation: AOR= 2.01 (95% CI: 1.50-2.70) [AIS] and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.29-2.31) [SDQ-7]. The association of sleep problems, as measured by the AIS, with suicide remained significant after adjusting for psychiatric symptoms, although the estimated effect size was smaller (AOR= 1.47; 95% CI: 1.05-2.06). Conclusions Among Polish adults with alcohol dependence, insomnia severity was associated with suicidal ideation. This finding highlights the need to assess for sleep problems, in addition to suicidal thoughts, in alcohol treatment settings and to further examine the potential consequences of poor sleep in this population. PMID:21996494

  16. Disease recognition is related to specific autobiographical memory deficits in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Poncin, Marie; Neumann, Aurore; Luminet, Olivier; Vande Weghe, Noémie; Philippot, Pierre; de Timary, Philippe

    2015-12-15

    The particularly high treatment gap in alcohol-dependence suggests the existence of important barriers to treatment decision and in particular difficulties in problem recognition. This study tested the relation between problem recognition and self-related memories. Forty-one recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (AD) were compared to twenty alcoholic subjects that were abstinent for 6 months or more (recruited among alcoholics-anonymous (AA)), and to twenty controls on autobiographical memories elicited by pictures depicting or not alcohol using the autobiographical memory test. Autonoetic consciousness was measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. We tested whether memories performances were related with data obtained on the readiness to change questionnaire (RCQ) or with consciousness of the severity of drinking. AD subjects provided less specific memories than control and AA subjects, and fewer Remember responses than controls. The deficits in AD subjects were not specific for memories elicited by pictures depicting alcohol, suggesting a global deficit. Autobiographical memories specificity was negatively correlated to scores of consciousness of the severity of drinking but not to RCQ. Our results support potential recovery of autobiographical memory with abstinence. AD's deficits in autobiographical memory were related to capacities to recognize the severity and therefore may be a barrier to treatment decision. PMID:26365688

  17. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  18. Models of Alcohol and Other Drug Treatment for Consideration When Working with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Individuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthmann, Debra

    This paper discusses several models for treating chemical dependency in individuals who are deaf or hard of hearing. It begins by describing the 12-step model, a comprehensive, multi-disciplinary approach to the treatment of addiction which is abstinence oriented and based on the principles of Alcoholics Anonymous. This model includes group…

  19. [Cognitive impairments in alcohol dependence: From screening to treatment improvements].

    PubMed

    Cabé, N; Laniepce, A; Ritz, L; Lannuzel, C; Boudehent, C; Vabret, F; Eustache, F; Beaunieux, H; Pitel, A-L

    2016-02-01

    Alcohol-related cognitive impairments are largely underestimated in clinical practice, even though they could limit the benefit of alcohol treatment and hamper the patient's ability to remain abstinent or to respect his/her therapeutic contract. These neuropsychological deficits can impact the management of patients well before the development of the well-known Korsakoff's syndrome. Indeed, even in the absence of ostensible neurological complications, excessive and chronic alcohol consumption results in damage of brain structure and function. The frontocerebellar circuit and the circuit of Papez, respectively involved in motor and executive abilities and episodic memory, are mainly affected. Those brain dysfunctions are associated with neuropsychological deficits, including deficits of executive functions, episodic memory, social cognition, as well as visuospatial and motor abilities. Such cognitive disorders can interfere with the motivation process to abandon maladjusted drinking behavior in favor of a healthier lifestyle (such as abstinence or controlled alcohol consumption). They can also limit the patient's capacity to fully benefit from treatment (notably psychoeducation and cognitive-behavioural treatments) currently widely proposed in French Addiction departments. In addition, they may contribute to relapse which is multi-determinated. A neuropsychological assessment appears therefore crucial to take relevant clinical decisions. However, very few addiction departments have the human and financial resources to conduct an extensive neuropsychological examination of all patients with alcohol dependence. Some brief screening tools can be used, notably the MOntreal Cognitive Assessment and the Brief Evaluation of Alcohol-Related Neuropsychological Impairments, which has been especially designed to assess cognitive and motor deficits in alcoholism. These tools can be used by non-psychologist clinicians to detect alcohol-related cognitive deficits, which require

  20. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  1. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  2. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. PMID:25608962

  3. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. 185.210 Section 185.210 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 185.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals...

  4. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  5. Prevalence of alcohol and drug dependence in rural and slum population of Chandigarh: A community survey

    PubMed Central

    Chavan, B. S.; Arun, Priti; Bhargava, Rachna; Singh, Gurvinder Pal

    2007-01-01

    The present epidemiological survey was conducted by the department of psychiatry, Govt. Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh to estimate the pattern of alcohol and other substance dependence in rural and slum dwellers population of Chandigarh. In this survey 6.88% individuals of the total population surveyed (2992) fulfilled dependence criteria of ICD-10. Alcohol was the primary substance of dependence for majority of urban slum substance users and rural areas users. Age at first drug use was 20.89 ± 5.31 years (mean ± S.D) among rural population and 19.75 ± 5.4 years (mean ± SD) in urban slums. Majority of them reported having health related complications (85.71%) followed by family problems (77.31%) due to drug dependence. This survey reflects the need to intensify efforts at the community level to reach the unreached. PMID:20640064

  6. Development of an acceptance-based coping intervention for alcohol dependence relapse prevention.

    PubMed

    Vieten, Cassandra; Astin, John A; Buscemi, Raymond; Galloway, Gantt P

    2010-04-01

    Both psychological and neurobiological findings lend support to the long-standing clinical observation that negative affect is involved in the development and maintenance of alcohol dependence, and difficulty coping with negative affect is a common precipitant of relapse after treatment. Although many current approaches to relapse prevention emphasize change-based strategies for managing negative cognitions and affect, acceptance-based strategies for preventing relapse to alcohol use are intended to provide methods for coping with distress that are fundamentally different from, though in theory complementary to, approaches that emphasize control and change. This paper describes the development of Acceptance-Based Coping for Relapse Prevention (ABCRP), a new intervention for alcohol-dependent individuals who are within 6 months of having quit drinking. Results of preliminary testing indicate that the intervention is feasible with this population; and a small uncontrolled pilot study (N = 23) showed significant (P < .01) improvements in self-reported negative affect, emotional reactivity, perceived stress, positive affect, psychological well-being, and mindfulness level, as well as a trend (P = .06) toward reduction in craving severity between pre- and postintervention assessments. The authors conclude that this acceptance-based intervention seems feasible and holds promise for improving affect and reducing relapse in alcohol-dependent individuals, warranting further research.

  7. Alcohol-dependence syndrome: Postural challenge on heart rate variability

    PubMed Central

    Sucharita, S.; Pradeep, Johnson; Vincent, Anoop; Vaz, M.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac autonomic involvement in Alcohol-Dependence Syndrome (ADS) patients has been demonstrated using conventional autonomic tests. Resting heart rate variability (HRV) without normalization has also been reported. Aims: To evaluate cardiac autonomic changes with postural challenge using HRV in ADS and controls while controlling for confounding factors. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study involving 27 male subjects with ADS and age-matched healthy controls. Materials and Methods: Clinical assessments included Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire. Spectral measures of HRV while lying and with active standing were assessed. Results: There was an attenuated response in delta high-frequency (P=0.06) and delta low-frequency (P=0.04) power to standing in ADS subjects compared with controls. Conclusion: Patients with ADS appear to have attenuated cardiac vagal and sympathetic responses to standing. HRV with postural challenge may help earlier recognition of autonomic dysfunction in ADS. PMID:23226850

  8. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence in Young Women*

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Mccutcheon, Vivia V.; Pommer, Nicole E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study is to characterize the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in women, distinguishing PTSD-specific influences on AD from the contribution of co-occurring psychiatric conditions and from the influences of trauma more generally. Method: Trauma histories and DSM-IV lifetime diagnoses, including PTSD and AD, were obtained via telephone interview from 3,768 female twins. Based on PTSD status and trauma history, participants were categorized as no trauma (43.7%), trauma without PTSD (52.6%), or trauma with PTSD (3.7%). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted using trauma/PTSD status to predict AD, first adjusting only for ethnicity and parental problem drinking, then including conduct disorder, major depressive disorder, regular smoking, and cannabis abuse. Results: Before accounting for psychiatric covariates, elevated rates of AD were evident in both trauma-exposed groups, but those with PTSD were at significantly greater risk for AD than those without PTSD. This distinction was no longer statistically significant when psychiatric covariates were included in the model, but both trauma-exposed groups continued to show elevated odds of developing AD compared with the no trauma group. Conclusions: The elevated rates of AD in women who have experienced trauma are not accounted for in full by psychiatric conditions that commonly co-occur with AD and trauma exposure. The greater likelihood of developing AD in the subset of trauma-exposed individuals who develop PTSD may reflect higher levels of distress and/ or higher rates of psychopathology associated with traumas that lead to PTSD rather than PTSD-specific influences. PMID:20946737

  10. Treatment in hospital for alcohol-dependent patients decreases attentional bias

    PubMed Central

    Flaudias, Valentin; Brousse, Georges; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Planche, François; Brun, Julien; Llorca, Pierre-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives: Previous studies in alcohol-dependent patients have shown an attentional bias (AB) under related substance cues, which can lead to relapse. This AB can be evaluated by the alcohol Stroop test (AST). The AST is a modified Stroop task in which participants have to name the color of an alcohol-related word or a neutral word. AB is the response-time difference between these two types of words. The goal of the current study was to examine modification of AB during specialized hospitalization for alcohol dependence, with the suppression of a training bias that could be present in within-subject design. Methods: Individuals with alcohol-dependence disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition) and admitted for withdrawal in the addiction unit of the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand (test group, n = 42) and persons with no alcohol or psychiatric disorder (control group, n = 16), recruited among colleagues and friends of the staff, performed the AST. A subgroup of the test group performed the AST in admission (admission group, n = 19), and another subgroup undertook the test immediately before discharge (discharge group, n = 23). Results: Results showed an AB only for patients seen at admission (F[1,55] = 3.283, P = 0.075). Moreover, we observed that the AB in the admission group (mean = 34 ms, standard deviation [SD] = 70.06) was greater than the AB in the control group (mean = 23 ms, SD = 93.42), itself greater than the AB in the discharge group (mean = −12 ms, SD = 93.55) (t[55] = −1.71; P = 0.09). Conclusion: Although the results are preliminary, the present study provides evidence for changes in the AB during alcohol-addiction treatment and for the value of these methods to diminish AB during detoxification. PMID:23785237

  11. PER3 Polymorphism and Insomnia Severity in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Armitage, Roseanne; Burmeister, Margit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia is common, persistent, and associated with relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Although the underlying mechanisms are mostly unstudied, AD patients have impaired circadian rhythms and sleep drive, which may be genetically influenced. A polymorphism in the PER3 gene (PER34/4, PER34/5, PER35/5) has previously been associated with circadian preference and sleep homeostasis, and the PER34/4genotype has been characterized by evening preference and decreased sleep drive. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of this polymorphism on insomnia severity in AD patients. We hypothesized that the PER3 polymorphism would be an independent predictor of insomnia severity with greatest severity observed in those with the PER34/4genotype. Design: Cross-sectional association of patient characteristics, genotype, and insomnia severity. Significant (P < 0.05) bivariate correlates were further analyzed by hierarchical, forced entry multiple linear regression. Setting: Alcohol treatment programs in Warsaw, Poland. Patients: Diagnosed with alcohol dependence (n = 285), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. Measurements and Results: Drinking frequency, mental and physical health status, childhood abuse, and PER3 genotype were independent predictors of insomnia severity, as measured by a 7-item subscale of the Sleep Disorders Questionnaire, explaining 28.9% of the variance. Addition of the genotype in the final step significantly increased the amount of variance explained by 1.1% (P = 0.027). Those with the PER34/4genotype had the greatest severity of insomnia symptoms. Conclusions: PER3 genotype contributed unique variance in predicting insomnia severity in AD patients. These results are consistent with genetically influenced impairment in sleep regulation mechanisms in AD patients with insomnia. Citation: Brower KJ; Wojnar M; Sliwerska E; Armitage R; Burmeister M. PER3 polymorphism and

  12. Empirically defined subtypes of alcohol dependence in an Irish family sample.

    PubMed

    Sintov, Nicole D; Kendler, Kenneth S; Young-Wolff, Kelly C; Walsh, Dermot; Patterson, Diana G; Prescott, Carol A

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is clinically and etiologically heterogeneous. The goal of this study was to explore AD subtypes among a sample of 1221 participants in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for AD. Variables used to identify the subtypes included major depressive disorder, antisocial personality disorder, illicit drug dependence (cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine, opioids, and hallucinogens), nicotine dependence, the personality traits of neuroticism and novelty seeking, and early alcohol use. Using latent class analysis, a 3-class solution was identified as the most parsimonious description of the data. Individuals in a Mild class were least likely to have comorbid psychopathology, whereas a severe class had highest probabilities of all comorbid psychopathology. The third class was characterized by high probabilities of major depression and higher neuroticism scores, but lower likelihood of other comorbid disorders than seen in the severe class. Overall, sibling pair resemblance for class was stronger within than between classes, and was greatest for siblings within the severe class, suggesting a stronger familial etiology for this class. These findings are consistent with the affective regulation and behavioral disinhibition subtypes of alcoholism, and are in line with prior work suggesting familial influences on subtype etiology.

  13. Prospective Developmental Subtypes of Alcohol Dependence from Age 18 to 32 Years: Implications for Nosology, Etiology, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Slutske, Wendy S.; Harrington, HonaLee; Jackson, Kristina M.; Belsky, Daniel W.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify child and adult correlates that differentiate (a) individuals with persistent alcohol dependence from individuals with developmentally-limited alcohol dependence and (b) individuals with adult-onset alcohol dependence from individuals who never diagnose. Participants are 1,037 members of the Dunedin longitudinal study, a birth cohort followed prospectively from birth until age 32. Past-year DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses were ascertained with structured diagnostic interviews at ages 18, 21, 26, and 32. Individuals were classified as developmentally-limited, persistent, or adult-onset subtypes based on their time-ordered pattern of diagnoses. The persistent subtype generally exhibited the worst scores on all correlates, including family psychiatric history, adolescent and adult externalizing and internalizing problems, adolescent and adult substance use, adult quality of life, and coping strategies. The prospective predictors that distinguished them from the developmentally-limited subtype involved family liability, adolescent negative affectivity, daily alcohol use, and frequent marijuana use. Furthermore, young people who developed the persistent subtype of alcohol dependence were distinguished from the developmentally-limited subtype by an inability to reduce drinking and by continued use despite problems, already by age 18. The adult-onset group members were virtually indistinguishable from ordinary cohort members as children or adolescents, but, in adulthood, adult-onset cases were distinguished by problems with depression, substance use, stress, and strategies for coping with stress. Information about age-of-onset and developmental course is fundamental for identifying subtypes of alcohol dependence. Subtype-specific etiologies point to targeted prevention and intervention efforts based on characteristics of each subtype. PMID:23880392

  14. Examination of genetic variation in GABRA2 with conduct disorder and alcohol abuse and dependence in a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Melroy, Whitney E.; Stephens, Sarah H.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Kamens, Helen M.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Corley, Robin P.; Stallings, Michael C.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Krauter, Kenneth S.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hewitt, John K.; Ehringer, Marissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown associations between SNPs in GABRA2 and adolescent conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol dependence in adulthood, but not adolescent alcohol dependence. The present study was intended as a replication and extension of this work, focusing on adolescent CD, adolescent alcohol abuse and dependence (AAD), and adult AAD. Family based association tests were run using Hispanics and non-Hispanic European American subjects from two independent longitudinal samples. Although the analysis provided nominal support for an association with rs9291283 and AAD in adulthood and CD in adolescence, the current study failed to replicate previous associations between two well replicated GABRA2 NPs and CD and alcohol dependence. Overall, these results emphasize the utility of including an independent replication sample in the study design, so that the results from an individual sample can be weighted in the context of its reproducibility. PMID:24687270

  15. A multi-site dose ranging study of nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Pettinati, Helen; Zweben, Allen; Kranzler, Henry R; Johnson, Bankole; Bohn, Michael J; McCaul, Mary E; Anthenelli, Robert; Salloum, Ihsan; Galloway, Gantt; Garbutt, James; Swift, Robert; Gastfriend, David; Kallio, Antero; Karhuvaara, Sakari

    2004-08-01

    The opiate antagonist nalmefene has been shown in 2 single-site studies to reduce alcohol consumption and relapse drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. This safety and preliminary multisite efficacy study evaluated 3 doses of nalmefene (5, 20, or 40 mg) in a double-blind comparison to placebo over a 12-week treatment period in 270 recently abstinent outpatient alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants concomitantly received 4 sessions of a motivational enhancement therapy (with a medication compliance component) delivered from trained counselors. Although more subjects in the active medication groups terminated the study early secondary to adverse events, the rates did not differ significantly from that of placebo. The 20-mg/d group experienced more insomnia, dizziness, and confusion, while the 5-mg group also had more dizziness and the 40-mg group had more nausea than the placebo group. Most of these symptoms were mild and improved over time. Although all subjects had a reduction in heavy drinking days, craving, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and carbohydrate-deficient transferrin concentrations over the course of the study, there was no difference between the active medication and placebo groups on these measures. The time to first heavy drinking day was also not significantly different between the placebo and the active treatment groups. This relatively small multisite trial showed that nalmefene was reasonably well tolerated in recently abstinent alcoholics. However, possibly because of variation among the sites or the comparatively small sample size, there was no evidence of superior efficacy outcomes with nalmefene treatment.

  16. Recent Research on Impulsivity in Individuals With Drug Use and Mental Health Disorders: Implications for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Robert D.; Moeller, Frederick G.; Swann, Alan C.; Clark, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and dependence, and many of its accompanying psychological problems, are associated with heightened levels of impulsivity that both accelerate the development of clinically significant illness and complicate clinical outcome. This article reviews recent developments in our understanding of impulsivity as they relate to brain circuitry that might underlie these comorbid factors, focusing upon the clinical features of substance use (and dependence), bipolar disorder, and pathological gambling. Individuals who are affected by these disorders exhibit problems in several domains of impulsive behavior including deficient response or “motor” control, and the tolerance of prolonged delays prior to larger rewards at the expense of smaller rewards (“delay-discounting”). These populations, like alcoholic dependents, also exhibit impairments in risky decision-making that may reflect dysfunction of monoamine and catecholamine pathways. However, several areas of uncertainty exist including the specificity of impairments across disorders and the relationship between impulse control problems and altered evaluation of reward outcomes underlying observed impairments in action selection. PMID:20528825

  17. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  18. Vitamin-Dependent Methionine Metabolism and Alcoholic Liver Disease1

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2011-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that ethanol-induced alterations in hepatic methionine metabolism play a central role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Because malnutrition is a universal clinical finding in this disease and hepatic methionine metabolism is dependent upon dietary folate and vitamins B-6 and B-12, ALD can be considered an induced nutritional disorder that is conditioned by alcohol abuse. The present review describes the etiologies of these 3 vitamin deficiencies in ALD and how they interact with chronic ethanol exposure to alter hepatic methionine metabolism. Subsequent sections focus on molecular mechanisms for the interactions of aberrant methionine metabolism with ethanol in the pathogenesis of ALD, in particular the role of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in regulating the epigenetic expressions of genes relevant to pathways of liver injury. The review will conclude with descriptions of studies on the efficacy of SAM in the treatment of ALD and with discussion of potentially fruitful future avenues of research. PMID:22332083

  19. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  20. A History of Alcohol Dependence Augments HIV-associated Neurocognitive Deficits in Persons Aged 60 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults, and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. Methods We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder. Results Significant interactions of age and alcohol dependence history were found for global neurocognitive function, which was driven by the domains of executive function, processing speed, and semantic memory. Follow-up analyses indicated adverse effects of alcohol use history on neurocognitive measures that were evident only in HIV+ individuals 60 years and older. Conclusions While mounting evidence in younger cohorts indicates adverse synergistic HIV/alcohol effects on neurocognitive function, our novel preliminary findings in this elderly HIV+ cohort demonstrated the importance of even a relatively distant alcohol use history on the expression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that may not become apparent until much later in life. PMID:25201556

  1. Sex differences in alcohol consumption and alterations in nucleus accumbens endocannabinoid mRNA in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Henricks, Angela M; Berger, Anthony L; Lugo, Janelle M; Baxter-Potter, Lydia N; Bieniasz, Kennedy V; Craft, Rebecca M; McLaughlin, Ryan J

    2016-10-29

    Chronic intermittent alcohol (CIA) exposure produces altered motivational states characterized by anxiety and escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal. The endocannabinoid (ECB) system contributes to these symptoms, and sex differences in alcohol dependence, as well as bidirectional interactions between ECBs and gonadal hormones have been documented. Thus, we evaluated sex differences in alcohol consumption, anxiety-like behavior, and ECB mRNA expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of alcohol-dependent rats during acute withdrawal. Male rats exposed to six weeks of CIA showed escalated alcohol consumption during acute withdrawal and reductions in NAc N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine phospholipase D (NAPEPLD), DAG lipase alpha (DAGLα), and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) mRNA. Intact alcohol-dependent female rats also escalated their consumption, but notably, this effect was also present in non-dependent females. No differences in NAc ECB mRNA were observed between CIA- and air-exposed females during acute withdrawal. However, when these data were analyzed according to estrous stage, significant differences in NAPEPLD and MAGL mRNA expression emerged in the NAc of air-exposed control rats, which were absent in alcohol-dependent females. We subsequently measured alcohol consumption and NAc ECB mRNA in ovariectomized (OVX) females with or without estradiol (E2) replacement during withdrawal. Neither E2 nor CIA altered alcohol consumption in OVX females. However, E2 reduced both DAGLα and MAGL mRNA, suggesting that E2 may influence the biosynthesis and degradation of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the NAc. Collectively, these studies indicate sexual dimorphism in alcohol consumption in non-dependent rats and suggest that E2-mediated alterations in NAc ECB mRNA expression during withdrawal may be a mechanism by which sex differences in alcohol dependence emerge. PMID:27578612

  2. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  3. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  4. Startle Response to Unpredictable Threat in Comorbid Panic Disorder and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gorka, Stephanie M.; Nelson, Brady D.; Shankman, Stewart A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although the adverse consequences of comorbid panic disorder (PD) and alcohol dependence (AD) are well-established, relatively little is known about the mechanisms underlying their co-occurrence. Several researchers have postulated that alcohol's ability to dampen response to unpredictable threat may be an important motivational factor in comorbid PD and AD. To date, no research has examined these processes using a clinical sample and it is unclear whether individuals with PD and AD evidence different reactivity to unpredictable threat relative to individuals with PD-only. Methods The aim of the current study was to examine differences in aversive responding during predictable and unpredictable threat-of-shock in three groups of individuals with: 1) current PD and remitted AD (PD and AD), 2) current PD but no lifetime diagnosis of AD (PD-only), and 3) no lifetime diagnoses of PD or AD (controls). Aversive responding was assessed using a well-established electromyography (EMG) startle paradigm. Results Results indicated that PD and AD individuals evidenced greater startle potentiation during unpredictable (but not predictable) threat relative to controls and PD-only individuals (who did not differ). Conclusions These findings suggest that heightened reactivity to unpredictable threat may be an important process in PD and AD comorbidity and a possible key motivational factor underlying engagement in alcohol use. PMID:23465734

  5. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Okan Ufuk; Yavuz, Kaasim Fatih; Ulusoy, Sevinc; Sahin, Oktay; Kurt, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods: According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance dependence (SD), and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group) were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30) were used to evaluate the participants. Results: Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group (P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group). Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005). Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group). There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440). Conclusions: Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy. PMID:26495260

  6. Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate

    PubMed Central

    Karpyak, V M; Biernacka, J M; Geske, J R; Jenkins, G D; Cunningham, J M; Rüegg, J; Kononenko, O; Leontovich, A A; Abulseoud, O A; Hall-Flavin, D K; Loukianova, L L; Schneekloth, T D; Skime, M K; Frank, J; Nöthen, M M; Rietschel, M; Kiefer, F; Mann, K F; Weinshilboum, R M; Frye, M A; Choi, D S

    2014-01-01

    Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P=4.6 × 10−5). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P=0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P=0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow. PMID:25290263

  7. A randomised controlled trial of extended brief intervention for alcohol dependent patients in an acute hospital setting (ADPAC)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence affects approximately 3% of the English population, and accounts for significant medical and psychiatric morbidity. Only 5.6% of alcohol-dependent individuals ever access specialist treatment and only a small percentage ever seek treatment. As people who are alcohol dependent are more likely to have experienced health problems leading to frequent attendance at acute hospitals it would seem both sensible and practical to ensure that this setting is utilised as a major access point for treatment, and to test the effectiveness of these treatments. Methods/Design This is a randomised controlled trial with a primary hypothesis that extended brief interventions (EBI) delivered to alcohol-dependent patients in a hospital setting by an Alcohol Specialist Nurse (ASN) will be effective when compared to usual care in reducing overall alcohol consumption and improving on the standard measures of alcohol dependence. Consecutive patients will be screened for alcohol misuse in the Emergency Department (ED) of a district general hospital. On identification of an alcohol-related problem, following informed written consent, we aim to randomize 130 patients per group. The ASN will discharge to usual clinical care all control group patients, and plan a programme of EBI for treatment group patients. Follow-up interview will be undertaken by a researcher blinded to the intervention at 12 and 24 weeks. The primary outcome measure is level of alcohol dependence as determined by the Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) score. Secondary outcome measures include; Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score, quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption, health-related quality of life measures, service utilisation, and patient experience. The trial will also allow an assessment of the cost-effectiveness of EBI in an acute hospital setting. In addition, patient experience will be assessed using qualitative methods. Discussion This paper

  8. Determination of the effects of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) 1B and ADH1C polymorphisms on alcohol dependence in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ekin Ozgur; Kocak, Aytaç; Senol, Ender; Celik, Handan Ak; Coskunol, Hakan; Berdeli, Afig; Aydin, Hikmet Hakan

    2012-03-01

    Alcoholism is a complex genetically influenced disorder which refers to alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence. There are controversial results on the role of gene polymorphisms in alcohol dependence in the literature. Differences in population groups and selective inclusion criteria for alcohol dependence may affect results. In this study, we investigated the role of ADH1B Arg48His (rs1229984) and, ADH1C Ile350Val (rs698) gene polymorphisms in Turkish population. 100 healthy volunteers and 75 patients who were admitted to Ege University Alcohol Dependence Unit enrolled in the study. We found significant increase both in ADH1B (Arg48His) polymorphism Arg allele and Arg/Arg genotype frequency in patients. No profound connection between alcohol dependence and ADH1C Ile350Val gene polymorphism was detected. Alcohol dependence is an important health problem that depends on many genetic and environmental factors but we think that it is possible to interpret genetic risk for developing early diagnostic methods and treatment strategies by comprehensive linkage and association studies.

  9. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  10. Differences between abstinent and non-abstinent individuals in recovery from alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina; Witbrodt, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Objective Non-abstinent goals can improve quality of life (QOL) among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD). However, prior studies have defined “recovery” based on DSM criteria, and thus may have excluded individuals using non-abstinent techniques that do not involve reduced drinking. Furthermore, no prior study has considered length of time in recovery when comparing QOL between abstinent and non-abstinent individuals. The current aims are to identify correlates of non-abstinent recovery and examine differences in QOL between abstainers and non-abstainers accounting for length of time in recovery. Sample A large (N=5,380) national sample of individuals who self-describe as “in recovery” from alcohol problems recruited in the context of the What Is Recovery? (WIR) study. Method Multivariable stepwise regressions estimating the probability of non-abstinent recovery and average quality of life. Results Younger age (OR = 0.72), no prior treatment (OR = 0.63) or AA (OR = 0.32), fewer dependence symptoms (OR = 0.17) and less time in recovery all significantly (P < 0.05) related to non-abstinent recovery. Abstainers reported significantly (P < 0.05) higher QOL than non-abstainers (B = 0.39 for abstinence vs. non-abstinence), and abstinence was one of the strongest correlates of QOL, even beyond sociodemographics variables like education. Conclusions Non-abstainers are younger with less time in recovery and less problem severity but worse QOL than abstainers. Clinically, individuals considering non-abstinent goals should be aware that abstinence may be best for optimal QOL in the long run. Furthermore, time in recovery should be accounted for when examining correlates of recovery. PMID:25117850

  11. The contribution of executive functions deficits to impaired episodic memory in individuals with alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Noël, Xavier; Van der Linden, Martial; Brevers, Damien; Campanella, Salvatore; Hanak, Catherine; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul

    2012-06-30

    Individuals with alcoholism commonly exhibit impaired performance on episodic memory tasks. However, the contribution of their impaired executive functioning to poor episodic memory remains to be clarified. Thirty-six recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcoholic men and 36 matched non-alcoholic participants were tested for processing speed, prepotent response inhibition, mental flexibility, coordination of dual-task and a verbal episodic memory task. Compared with non-alcoholic individuals, the alcoholic patients showed impaired executive functions combined with below normal performance on both free and delayed recall. In contrast, processing speed, cued recall and recognition were preserved. Regression analyses revealed that 47% of alcoholics' episodic memory's free recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility and that 49% of their delayed recall performance was predicted by mental flexibility, manipulation of dual-task and prepotent response inhibition. Regarding participants' executive predictors of episodic memory performance, the slopes of β coefficients were significantly different between the two groups, with alcoholics requiring more their executive system than non-alcoholics. Once detoxified, alcoholic patients showed episodic memory deficits mainly characterized by impaired effortful (executive) processes. Compared with controls, patients used effortful learning strategies, which are nonetheless less efficient. PMID:22377577

  12. Neurophysiological endophenotypes, CNS disinhibition, and risk for alcohol dependence and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Porjesz, Bernice; Rangaswamy, Madhavi

    2007-01-01

    Biological endophenotypes are more proximal to gene function than psychiatric diagnosis, providing a powerful strategy in searching for genes in psychiatric disorders. These intermediate phenotypes identify both affected and unaffected members of an affected family, including offspring at risk, providing a more direct connection with underlying biological vulnerability. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) has employed heritable neurophysiological features (i.e., brain oscillations) as endophenotypes, making it possible to identify susceptibility genes that may be difficult to detect with diagnosis alone. We found significant linkage and association between brain oscillations and genes involved with inhibitory neural networks (e.g., GABRA2, CHRM2), including frontal networks that are deficient in individuals with alcohol dependence, impulsivity, and related disinhibitory disorders. We reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium for the beta frequency of the EEG and GABRA2, a GABAA receptor gene on chromosome 4, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. More recently, we found significant linkage and association with GABRA2 and interhemispheric theta coherence. We also reported significant linkage and linkage disequilibrium between the theta and delta event-related oscillations underlying P3 to target stimuli and CHRM2, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor gene on chromosome 7, which we found is also associated with diagnosis of alcohol dependence and related disorders. Thus, the identification of genes important for the expression of the endophenotypes (brain oscillations) helps when identifying genes that increase the susceptibility for risk of alcohol dependence and related disorders. These findings underscore the utility of quantitative neurophysiological endophenotypes in the study of the genetics of complex disorders. We will present our recent genetic findings related to

  13. Association of gene polymorphisms encoding dopaminergic system components and platelet MAO-B activity with alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nedic Erjavec, Gordana; Nenadic Sviglin, Korona; Nikolac Perkovic, Matea; Muck-Seler, Dorotea; Jovanovic, Tanja; Pivac, Nela

    2014-10-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association of alcohol dependence and alcohol dependence-related phenotypes with platelet monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) activity, Val108/158Met of catechol-o-methyltransferase (COMT), variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the third exon of dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) gene, VNTR in the 3'-untranslated region of dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, -1021C/T of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) and MAO-B intron 13 polymorphisms. The study included 1270 Caucasian men and women of Croatian origin: 690 patients with alcohol dependence and 580 healthy controls. Patients with alcohol dependence were subdivided according to the presence or absence of withdrawal symptoms, aggressive behavior, severity of alcohol dependence, delirium tremens, comorbid depression, suicidal behavior, lifetime suicide attempt and early/late onset of alcohol abuse. The results, corrected for multiple testing, revealed increased platelet MAO-B activity in patients with alcohol dependence, subdivided into those with or without alcohol-related liver diseases, compared to control subjects (P<0.001). In addition, we found an increased frequency of the COMT Met/Met genotype among suicidal (P=0.002) and patients who attempted suicide (P<0.001) and an increased frequency of COMT Val/Val genotype in patients with an early onset of alcohol dependence (P=0.004). This study provides data from a sample of ethnically homogeneous unrelated Caucasian subjects for future meta-analyses and suggests that the increased platelet MAO-B activity might be used as independent peripheral indicator of alcohol dependence, while COMT Val108/158Met polymorphism is associated with increased suicidality and early onset of alcohol dependence. PMID:25035107

  14. Predictive models of alcohol use based on attitudes and individual values.

    PubMed

    García del Castillo Rodríguez, José A; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Quiles Soler, M Carmen; García del Castillo-López, Alvaro; Gázquez Pertusa, Mónica; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Inglés, Candido J

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people's attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The questionnaire used obtained information on participants' alcohol use, attitudes and personal values. The results show that the attitudes model correctly classifies 76.3% of cases. Likewise, the model for level of alcohol use correctly classifies 82% of cases. According to our results, we can conclude that there are a series of individual values that influence drinking and attitudes to alcohol use, which therefore provides us with a potentially powerful instrument for developing preventive intervention programs.

  15. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of topiramate for the treatment of comorbid cocaine and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Spratt, Kelly; Wierzbicki, Michael R.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Topiramate increases GABAergic activity and antagonizes the AMPA/kainate subtype of glutamate receptors. Through these mechanisms of action, topiramate may reduce alcohol and cocaine reward and may reduce alcohol and cocaine craving. Topiramate has been shown to reduce drinking in persons with alcohol dependence, and reduce relapse in stimulant-dependent patients. The current trial was intended to test the ability of topiramate to promote cocaine and alcohol abstinence among patients addicted to both drugs. METHODS The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 13-week trial involving 170 cocaine and alcohol dependent subjects. After achieving a period of cocaine and alcohol abstinence, subjects were randomized to topiramate, 300 mg daily, or identical placebo capsules. In addition, subjects received weekly individual psychotherapy. Primary outcome measures included self-reported alcohol and cocaine use, and thrice weekly urine drug screens. Secondary outcome measures included cocaine and alcohol craving, Addiction Severity Index results, cocaine withdrawal symptoms, and clinical global improvement ratings. RESULTS Topiramate was not better than placebo in reducing cocaine use on the a priori primary outcome measure, or in reducing alcohol use. Topiramate was not better than placebo in reducing cocaine craving. Topiramate-treated subjects, compared to placebo-treated subjects, were more likely to be retained in treatment and more likely to be abstinent from cocaine during the last three weeks of the trial. Subjects who entered treatment with more severe cocaine withdrawal symptoms responded better to topiramate. DISCUSSION Topiramate plus cognitive behavioral therapy may reduce cocaine use for some patients with comorbid cocaine and alcohol dependence. PMID:23810644

  16. A longitudinal mediational study on the stability of alexithymia among alcohol-dependent outpatients in cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Thorberg, Fred Arne; Young, Ross McD; Sullivan, Karen A; Lyvers, Michael; Hurst, Cameron P; Connor, Jason P; Tyssen, Reidar; London, Edythe D; Noble, Ernest P; Feeney, Gerald F X

    2016-02-01

    Alexithymia is characterized by difficulty identifying feelings, difficulty describing feelings, and an externally oriented thinking style. Alexithymia has been described as a trait-like risk factor for the development of alcohol use disorders. Few studies have investigated the absolute (whether mean scores change over time) and relative (extent to which relative differences among individuals remain the same over time) stability of alexithymia among men and women with alcohol dependence, or have considered potential underlying mechanisms. Social learning processes contribute to and maintain alcohol problems. The reinforcement of alcohol expectancies is one plausible mechanism that links the difficulties in emotional processing associated with alexithymia and alcohol use. The present study investigated the stability of alexithymia as well as alcohol expectancy as a mediator of alexithymia. Three hundred fifty-five alcohol-dependent patients were enrolled in a cognitive behavioral treatment program. Ninety-two alcohol-dependent patients completed assessments at baseline and at 3-month follow-up. Results indicated that total Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20; Bagby, Parker, & Taylor, 1994) mean score, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings decreased significantly over time with a larger decrease in alexithymia mean scores for females. Externally oriented thinking mean scores did not change. The TAS-20 and its subfactors demonstrated significant correlations, from baseline to follow-up, which were stronger for males than for females. Regression analyses showed that the total TAS-20 mean scores, difficulty identifying feelings, and difficulty describing feelings were partially mediated through assertion alcohol expectancies. In conclusion, this suggests that alexithymia has relative stability and is a trait-like factor among alcohol-dependent treatment seekers. PMID:26795394

  17. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  18. Medicaid coverage of medications to treat alcohol and opioid dependence.

    PubMed

    Mark, Tami L; Lubran, Robert; McCance-Katz, Elinore F; Chalk, Mady; Richardson, John

    2015-08-01

    Substance use disorders affect 12% of Medicaid beneficiaries. The prescription drug epidemic and growing need for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence have refocused states' attention on their provision of substance use disorder treatment services, including medications. This study characterized how Medicaid programs cover these treatment medications. Data were from 2013 Medicaid pharmacy documents, 2011 and 2012 Medicaid state drug utilization records, and a 2013 American Society of Addiction Medicine survey. Results showed that only 13 state Medicaid programs included all medications approved for alcohol and opioid dependence on their preferred drug lists. The most commonly excluded were extended-release naltrexone (19 programs), acamprosate (19 programs), and methadone (20 programs). For combined buprenorphine-naloxone, 48 Medicaid programs required prior authorization, and 11 programs used 1- to 3-year lifetime treatment limits. Given the chronic nature of substance use disorders and the overwhelming evidence supporting ongoing coverage for many of these medications, states may want to reexamine substance use disorder benefits. PMID:25921475

  19. Cognitive functions in abstinent alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Kopera, Maciej; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk; Glass, Jennifer; Nowosad, Izabela; Gmaj, Bartłomiej; Szelenberger, Waldemar

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning of abstaining alcohol-dependent (AD) male patients and healthy controls as well as to investigate whether their cognitive performance varied by abstinence length. Forty-two maintaining abstinent (AD) patients and 34 healthy controls were examined. Tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) were used to assess cognitive functions. Differences in cognitive performance were found between AD patients and healthy controls. Nonverbal tasks in cognitive domains such as attention, visual memory and working memory were impaired in AD patients who presented deficits in visual episodic memory, had slower reaction time and reduced working memory span. Patients who were abstinent for less than one year made more errors in both attentional set shifting and working memory tests than healthy controls and patients with longer durations of abstinence. Impairments identified in multiple cognitive domains in abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects suggest functional deficits in extensive brain networks connecting interrelated brain structures. Attentional control and spatial working memory were less impaired in those AD patients who maintained abstinence for at least one year.

  20. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  1. Investigating biases of attention and memory for alcohol-related and negative words in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression after day-clinic treatment.

    PubMed

    Fridrici, Christina; Driessen, Martin; Wingenfeld, Katja; Kremer, Georg; Kissler, Johanna; Beblo, Thomas

    2014-08-30

    This study aimed to investigate attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents with and without major depression compared to healthy controls. We assumed that both groups of alcohol-dependents would show attentional and memory biases for alcohol-related words. For the alcohol-dependents with depression, we additionally expected both types of biases for negative words. Alcohol-dependents without co-morbidity (Alc) and alcohol-dependents with major depression (D-Alc) as well as control participants with a moderate consumption of alcohol (Con) completed an alcohol Stroop task and a directed forgetting paradigm using word stimuli from three categories: neutral, negative, and alcohol-related. Stroop effects showed that not only alcohol-dependents but also control participants were more distracted by alcohol-related than by negative words. In the directed forgetting procedure, all participants showed a significant effect for each word-category, including alcohol-related and negative words. The D-Alc-group memorized more alcohol-related than negative to-be-remembered words. The results do not corroborate the hypothesis of more pronounced attentional and memory biases in alcohol-dependents. However, in alcohol-dependents with depression a memory bias for alcohol-related material was found, suggesting that this group may be more pre-occupied with alcohol than patients without such co-morbidity.

  2. EFFECT OF NALTREXONE AND ONDANSETRON ON ALCOHOL CUE-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF THE VENTRAL STRIATUM IN ALCOHOL-DEPENDENT PEOPLE

    PubMed Central

    Myrick, Hugh; Anton, Raymond F.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Randall, Patrick K.; Voronin, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Context Medication treatment of alcoholism is presently not particularly robust. Neuroimaging techniques might predict which medications could be useful in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Objective To explore the effect of naltrexone, ondansetron, or the combination of these medications on cue-induced craving and ventral striatum activation. Design, Setting, Participants Functional brain imaging (Phillips 1.5T scanner) was conducted during alcohol cue presentation in 90 non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent (by DSM-IV criteria) and 17 social drinking (less than 14 drinks per week) paid volunteers recruited through advertisements at an academic center. Interventions A taste of alcohol and a series of alcohol related pictures, neutral beverage pictures and visual control images were provided to volunteers after seven days of double blind randomly assigned daily dosing with 50mg naltrexone (n=23), 0.50mg ondansetron (n=23), the combination of the two medications (n=20), or matching placebos (n=24). Main Outcome Measures Difference in brain blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance when viewing alcohol pictures versus neutral beverage pictures with a particular focus on ventral striatum activity comparison across medication groups. Self-ratings of alcohol craving. Results The combination treatment decreased craving for alcohol. Naltrexone with (p=0.02) or without (p=0.049) ondansetron decreased alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum. Ondansetron by itself was similar to naltrexone and the combination in the overall analysis but intermediate in a regions specific analysis. Conclusions Consistent with animal data suggesting that both naltrexone and ondansetron reduce alcohol-stimulated dopamine output in the ventral striatum, the current study found evidence that these medications, alone or in combination, could decrease alcohol cue-induced activation of the ventral striatum, consistent with their putative treatment efficacy. PMID

  3. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  4. Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens.

    PubMed

    Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2007-10-01

    Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug use. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to manual-guided group behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation) and assessed across 12 weeks of treatment. Despite denying drug use at baseline, thirty-two clients (43%) tested positive for illicit drug use (cocaine and marijuana) during the 12 weeks of treatment. The study specifically addressed whether there were differences between clients using alcohol only versus individuals using both alcohol + drugs in terms of 1) baseline characteristics; 2) treatment compliance (e.g., attendance and substance use during treatment; and 3) treatment outcomes (alcohol, drug use, anger management, and aggression at the completion of treatment). The results showed that there were comparatively few differences between the alcohol versus the alcohol + drug using groups at baseline. Regarding treatment compliance and retention, alcohol + drug using participants attended significantly fewer sessions, had significantly fewer percent days abstinence from alcohol use, significantly more total days of positive breathalyzer results. Regarding treatment outcomes across anger management and aggression scores, the alcohol + drug using participants had significantly more impairments in anger management styles from pre- to post-treatment. However, there were no differences between the groups across verbal or physical aggression. Both groups improved in their verbal aggression from pre- to post-treatment. The findings suggest that alcohol dependent men who continue to use illicit drugs may require additional interventions to effectively

  5. The metabolic syndrome in patients with alcohol dependency: Current research and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Kahl, Kai G; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    The relationship between alcohol dependency and disorders such as liver disease and cancer has been thoroughly researched. However, the effects of alcohol on cardiometabolic health remain controversial. Several reports found low to moderate alcohol consumption to be associated with a lower risk for cardiometabolic disorders. In contrast, excessive alcohol consumption has been related to an increased risk. Most of these studies were performed in non-clinical populations, therefore limiting the explanatory power to non-dependent patients. Only a few studies examined cardiovascular disorders and cardiovascular risk factors, in particular the metabolic syndrome (MetS), in alcohol dependent patients. We here present a narrative review of studies performed so far on the MetS in alcohol dependency, and provide current hypotheses on the association of alcohol dependency, appetite regulation and the development of the MetS.

  6. Memantine reduces alcohol drinking but not relapse in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Alaux-Cantin, Stéphanie; Buttolo, Romain; Houchi, Hakim; Jeanblanc, Jérôme; Naassila, Mickaël

    2015-09-01

    Alcoholism is a chronic relapsing disorder with consequences on health and that requires more effective treatments. Among alternative therapies, the therapeutic potential of the non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist memantine has been suggested. Despite promising results, its efficiency in the treatment of alcoholism remains controversial. Currently, there is no pre-clinical data regarding its effects on the motivation for ethanol in post-dependent (PD) animals exposed to intermittent ethanol vapor, a validated model of alcoholism. Thus, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of acute injections of memantine (0, 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) on operant ethanol self-administration in non-dependent (ND) and PD rats tested either during acute withdrawal or relapse after protracted abstinence. Our results showed that memantine (25 mg/kg) abolished ethanol self-administration in ND rats and reduced by half the one of PD rats during acute withdrawal. While this effect was observed only 6 hours after treatment in ND rats, it was long lasting in PD rats (at least 30 hours after injection). Furthermore, our results indicated that memantine did not modify the breaking point for ethanol. This suggests that memantine probably act by potentiating the pharmacological effect of ethanol but not by reducing motivation for ethanol. Finally, memantine was also ineffective in reducing relapse after protracted abstinence. Altogether, our pre-clinical results highlighted a potential therapeutic use of memantine that may be used as a replacement therapy drug but not as relapse-preventing drug.

  7. Polysubstance and Alcohol Dependence: Unique Abnormalities of Magnetic Resonance-Derived Brain Metabolite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Abé, Christoph; Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pennington, David L.; Schmidt, Thomas P.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Although comorbid substance misuse is common in alcohol dependence, and polysubstance abusers (PSU) represent the largest group of individuals seeking treatment for drug abuse today, we know little about potential brain abnormalities in this population. Brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of mono-substance use disorders (e.g., alcohol or cocaine) reveal abnormal levels of cortical metabolites (reflecting neuronal integrity, cell membrane turnover/synthesis, cellular bioenergetics, gliosis) and altered concentrations of glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The concurrent misuse of several substances may have unique and different effects on brain biology and function compared to any mono-substance misuse. METHODS High field brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla and neurocognitive testing were performed at one month of abstinence in 40 alcohol dependent individuals (ALC), 28 alcohol dependent PSU and 16 drug-free controls. Absolute metabolite concentrations were calculated in anterior cingulate (ACC), parieto-occipital (POC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). RESULTS Compared to ALC, PSU demonstrated significant metabolic abnormalities in the DLPFC and strong trends to lower GABA in the ACC. Metabolite levels in ALC and light drinking controls were statistically equivalent. Within PSU, lower DLPFC GABA levels related to greater cocaine consumption. Several cortical metabolite concentrations were associated with cognitive performance. CONCLUSIONS While metabolite concentrations in ALC at one month of abstinence were largely normal, PSU showed persistent and functionally significant metabolic abnormalities, primarily in the DLPFC. Our results point to specific metabolic deficits as biomarkers in polysubstance misuse and as targets for pharmacological and behavioral PSU-specific treatment. PMID:23122599

  8. Women's alcohol dependence and abuse: the relation to social network and leisure time.

    PubMed

    Thundal, K L; Granbom, S; Allebeck, P

    1999-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the occurrence of alcohol dependence and abuse in relation to variables reflecting social network and leisure time, social class, education, occupation and family conditions. The study was based on the second wave of interviews performed within the longitudinal study of Women and Alcohol in Göteborg. In this present study we analysed 416 face-to-face interviews performed in 1995 96. Women with only one or no friends for support had higher rates of alcohol dependence and abuse than did women with more friends. Women with high rates of alcohol dependence or abuse did not take part in cultural events as much as women with low rates of alcohol dependence and abuse. Women with homemaking skills and gardening as leisure time interests had lower prevalences of alcohol dependence and abuse. In general, women with diagnoses of alcohol dependence and abuse in this population-based sample were not alone and without a social network. However, their pattern of activity differed slightly from those without such diagnoses. The association between women with alcohol dependence and abuse and leisure time activities is probably circular: a poor social network and low participation in social activities increase the risk of alcohol dependence and abuse, and alcohol dependence and abuse lead to low participation in social activities.

  9. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  10. Metabolite Levels in the Brain Reward Pathway Discriminate Those Who Remain Abstinent From Those Who Resume Hazardous Alcohol Consumption After Treatment for Alcohol Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Pathak, Varsha; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study compared baseline metabolite levels in components of the brain reward system among individuals who remained abstinent and those who resumed hazardous alcohol consumption after treatment for alcohol dependence. Method: Fifty-one treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals (abstinent for approximately 7 days [SD = 3]) and 26 light-drinking nonsmoking controls completed 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging, yielding regional concentrations of N-acetylaspartate, choline-containing compounds, creatine-containing compounds, and myoinositol. Metabolite levels were obtained in the following component of the brain reward system: dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, superior corona radiata, and cerebellar vermis. Alcohol-dependent participants were followed over a 12-month period after baseline study (i.e., at 7 days of abstinence [SD = 3]) and were classified as abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n = 18) and resumers (any alcohol consumption; n = 33) at follow-up. Baseline metabolite levels in abstainers and resumers and light-drinking nonsmoking controls were compared in the above regions of interest. Results: Resumers demonstrated significantly lower baseline N-acetylaspartate concentrations than light-drinking nonsmoking controls and abstainers in all regions of interest. Resumers also exhibited lower creatine-containing-compound concentrations than abstainers in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, superior corona radiata, and cerebellar vermis. Abstainers did not differ from light-drinking nonsmoking controls on baseline metabolite concentrations in any region of interest. Conclusions: The significantly decreased N-acetylaspartate and creatine-containing-compound concentrations in resumers suggest compromised neuronal integrity and abnormalities in cellular bioenergetics in major neocortical components and white-matter interconnectivity of the brain reward pathway. The lack of metabolite

  11. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, Stuart; Lind, Penelope A.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Richter, Melinda M.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.; Whitfield, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex disorder with environmental and genetic origins. The role of two genetic variants in ALDH2 and ADH1B in AD risk has been extensively investigated. This study tested for associations between nine polymorphisms in ALDH2 and 41 in the seven ADH genes, and alcohol-related flushing, alcohol use and dependence symptom scores in 4597 Australian twins. The vast majority (4296) had consumed alcohol in the previous year, with 547 meeting DSM-IIIR criteria for AD. There were study-wide significant associations (P < 2.3 × 10−4) between ADH1B-Arg48His (rs1229984) and flushing and consumption, but only nominally significant associations (P < 0.01) with dependence. Individuals carrying the rs1229984 G-allele (48Arg) reported a lower prevalence of flushing after alcohol (P = 8.2 × 10−7), consumed alcohol on more occasions (P = 2.7 × 10−6), had a higher maximum number of alcoholic drinks in a single day (P = 2.7 × 10−6) and a higher overall alcohol consumption (P = 8.9 × 10−8) in the previous year than those with the less common A-allele (48His). After controlling for rs1229984, an independent association was observed between rs1042026 (ADH1B) and alcohol intake (P = 4.7 × 10−5) and suggestive associations (P < 0.001) between alcohol consumption phenotypes and rs1693482 (ADH1C), rs1230165 (ADH5) and rs3762894 (ADH4). ALDH2 variation was not associated with flushing or alcohol consumption, but was weakly associated with AD measures. These results bridge the gap between DNA sequence variation and alcohol-related behavior, confirming that the ADH1B-Arg48His polymorphism affects both alcohol-related flushing in Europeans and alcohol intake. The absence of study-wide significant effects on AD results from the low P-value required when testing multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes. PMID:18996923

  12. Estimates of US children exposed to alcohol abuse and dependence in the family.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, B F

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to provide direct estimates of the number of US children younger than 18 years who are exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. METHODS: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. RESULTS: Approximately 1 in 4 children younger than 18 years in the United States is exposed to alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence in the family. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for approaches that integrate systems of services to enhance the lives of these children. PMID:10630147

  13. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  14. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part I. Epidemiology of dual diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    The paper is a review of the literature on the comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. A condition when alcohol dependence is accompanied by another mental disorder is much more common than it is commonly believed. It is estimated that more than one third of people diagnosed with mental disorders, abuses or is dependent on psychoactive substances, especially alcohol; among alcohol-dependent patients 37% suffer from other mental disorders. Alcohol dependence is associated with increased risk of mood disorders - more than three times higher, depression - almost four times higher, bipolar disorder - more than six times higher, anxiety disorders in general - more than twice, generalized anxiety disorder - more than four times higher, panic disorders - almost double, posttraumatic stress disorder - more than twice. Underestimating of comorbidity is an important problem during treatment of such population of patients. Social skills training can improve a stress management and decrease alcohol and drug use among dual diagnosed patients.

  15. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community.

    PubMed

    Walt, Lisa C; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A

    2013-06-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed.

  16. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals and 32 controls performed an ultimatum game (UG), in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR). Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed in order to examine whether—emotional and behavioral—reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD. PMID:26217293

  17. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  18. A genome wide association study of alcohol dependence symptom counts in extended pedigrees identifies C15orf53

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jen-Chyong; Foroud, Tatiana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Le, Nhung XH; Bertelsen, Sarah; Budde, John P; Harari, Oscar; Koller, Daniel L; Wetherill, Leah; Agrawal, Arpana; Almasy, Laura; Brooks, Andrew I; Bucholz, Kathleen; Dick, Danielle; Hesselbrock, Victor; Johnson, Eric O; Kang, Sun; Kapoor, Manav; Kramer, John; Kuperman, Samuel; Madden, Pamela AF; Manz, Niklas; Martin, Nicholas G; McClintick, Jeanette N; Montgomery, Grant W; Nurnberger, John I; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Rice, John; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A; Whitfield, John B; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Heath, Andrew C; Edenberg, Howard J; Bierut, Laura J; Goate, Alison M

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have identified genes associated with alcohol use disorders, but the variation in each of these genes explains only a small portion of the genetic vulnerability. The goal of the present study was to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in extended families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to identify novel genes affecting risk for alcohol dependence. To maximize the power of the extended family design we used a quantitative endophenotype, measured in all individuals: number of alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed (symptom count). Secondary analyses were performed to determine if the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with symptom count were also associated with the dichotomous phenotype, DSM-IV alcohol dependence. This family-based GWAS identified SNPs in C15orf53 that are strongly associated with DSM-IV alcohol (p=4.5×10−8, inflation corrected p=9.4×10−7). Results with DSM-IV alcohol dependence in the regions of interest support our findings with symptom count, though the associations were less significant. Attempted replications of the most promising association results were conducted in two independent samples: non-overlapping subjects from the Study of Addiction: Genes and Environment (SAGE) and the Australian twin-family study of alcohol use disorders (OZALC). Nominal association of C15orf53 with symptom count was observed in SAGE. The variant that showed strongest association with symptom count, rs12912251 and its highly correlated variants (D′=1, r2≥ 0.95), has previously been associated with risk for bipolar disorder. PMID:23089632

  19. Novel Approaches to Individual Alcohol Interventions for Heavy Drinking College Students and Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    DeMartini, Kelly S.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O'Malley, Stephanie S.

    2015-01-01

    Efficacious alcohol interventions for college students and young adults have been developed but produce small effects of limited duration. This paper provides a review and critique of novel (e.g., a significant deviation from a traditional, brief, and motivational intervention) interventions published between 2009 and 2014 to reduce alcohol use in this population and covers intervention format/components and efficacy on alcohol outcomes. We reviewed 12 randomized controlled trials of novel, individual-level alcohol interventions that reported alcohol outcomes. Four domains of novel interventions are discussed: content (e.g., pharmaco-therapy and automatic action tendency retraining), setting (e.g., health centers and ED), modality (e.g., mobile technology), and treatment integration. Findings were mixed for intervention efficacy to reduce amount and frequency of alcohol consumption. Few studies assessed impact on alcohol-related problems. Despite the prevalence of efficacious interventions, there is still an urgent need for novel treatment approaches and delivery mechanisms for this difficult-to-treat population. PMID:26258001

  20. General Practitioners Recognizing Alcohol Dependence: A Large Cross-Sectional Study in 6 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Jürgen; Allamani, Allaman; Vedova, Roberto Della; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Landsmane, Inga; Manthey, Jakob; Moreno-España, José; Pieper, Lars; Probst, Charlotte; Snikere, Sigita; Struzzo, Pierluigi; Voller, Fabio; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Gual, Antoni; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Although alcohol dependence causes marked mortality and disease burden in Europe, the treatment rate is low. Primary care could play a key role in reducing alcohol-attributable harm by screening, brief interventions, and initiating or referral to treatment. This study investigates identification of alcohol dependence in European primary care settings. METHODS Assessments from 13,003 general practitioners, and 9,098 interviews (8,476 joint number of interviewed patients with a physician’s assessment) were collected in 6 European countries. Alcohol dependence, comorbidities, and health service utilization were assessed by the general practitioner and independently using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) and other structured interviews. Weighted regression analyses were used to compare the impact of influencing variables on both types of diagnoses. RESULTS The rate of patients being identified as alcohol dependent by the CIDI or a general practitioner was about equally high, but there was not a lot of overlap between cases identified. Alcohol-dependent patients identified by a physician were older, had higher rates of physicial comorbidity (liver disease, hypertension), and were socially more marginalized, whereas average consumption of alcohol and mental comorbidity were equally high in both groups. CONCLUSION General practitioners were able to identify alcohol dependence, but the cases they identified differed from cases identified using the CIDI. The role of the CIDI as the reference standard should be reexamined, as older alcohol-dependent patients with severe comorbidities seemed to be missed in this assessment. PMID:25583889

  1. Individual differences in risk-related behaviors and voluntary alcohol intake in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Sharif, Mana; Agren, Greta; Roman, Erika

    2014-06-01

    Some personality traits and comorbid psychiatric diseases are linked to a propensity for excessive alcohol drinking. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between individual differences in risk-related behaviors, voluntary alcohol intake and preference. Outbred male Wistar rats were tested in a novel open field, followed by assessment of behavioral profiles using the multivariate concentric square field (MCSF) test. Animals were classified into high risk taking and low risk taking on the basis of open-field behavior and into high risk-assessing (HRA) and low risk-assessing (LRA) on the basis of the MCSF profile. Finally, voluntary alcohol intake was investigated using intermittent access to 20% ethanol and water for 5 weeks. Only minor differences in voluntary alcohol intake were found between high risk taking and low risk taking. Differences between HRA and LRA rats were more evident, with higher intake and increased intake over time in HRA relative to LRA rats. Thus, individual differences in risk-assessment behavior showed greater differences in voluntary alcohol intake than risk taking. The findings may relate to human constructs of decision-making and risk taking associated with a predisposition to rewarding and addictive behaviors. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between risk-related behaviors, including risk-assessment behavior, and liability for excessive alcohol intake.

  2. Pharmacological aversion treatment of alcohol dependence. I. Production and prediction of conditioned alcohol aversion.

    PubMed

    Howard, M O

    2001-08-01

    Eighty-two hospitalized alcoholics receiving pharmacological aversion therapy (PAT) over a 10-day treatment interval completed cognitive, behavioral, and psychophysiological measures evaluating conditioned aversion to alcohol. Pre-post assessments provided convergent support for the efficacy of PAT vis-à-vis production of conditioned aversion to alcohol. Positive alcohol-related outcome expectancies were significantly reduced, whereas confidence that drinking could be avoided in various high-risk situations for consumption was increased following PAT. Behavioral and cardiac rate assessments revealed significant changes following PAT that were specific to alcoholic beverages and potentially reflective of conditioned alcohol aversion. Patients with more extensive pretreatment experiences with alcohol-associated nausea and greater involvement in antisocial conduct appeared to be less susceptible to the PAT conditioning protocol.

  3. Topography, Power and Current Source Density of Theta Oscillations during Reward Processing as Markers for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B.; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Roopesh, Bangalore N.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task which involved outcomes of either loss or gain of an amount (10¢ or 50¢) that was bet. Event-related theta band (3.0–7.0 Hz) power following each outcome stimulus was computed using the S-transform method. Theta power at the time window of the outcome-related negativity (ORN) and positivity (ORP) (200–500 ms) was compared across groups and outcome conditions. Additionally, behavioral data of impulsivity and task performance were analyzed. The alcoholic group showed significantly decreased theta power during reward processing compared to controls. Current Source Density (CSD) maps of alcoholics revealed weaker and diffuse source activity for all conditions and weaker bilateral prefrontal sources during the Loss 50 condition as compared to controls who manifested stronger and focused midline sources. Further, alcoholics exhibited increased impulsivity and risk-taking on the behavioral measures. A strong association between reduced anterior theta power and impulsive task-performance was observed. It is suggested that decreased power and weaker and diffuse CSD in alcoholics may be due to dysfunctional neural reward circuitry. The relationship among alcoholism, theta oscillations, reward processing and impulsivity could offer clues to understand brain circuitries that mediate reward processing and inhibitory control. PMID:21520344

  4. Topography, power, and current source density of θ oscillations during reward processing as markers for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kamarajan, Chella; Rangaswamy, Madhavi; Manz, Niklas; Chorlian, David B; Pandey, Ashwini K; Roopesh, Bangalore N; Porjesz, Bernice

    2012-05-01

    Recent studies have linked alcoholism with a dysfunctional neural reward system. Although several electrophysiological studies have explored reward processing in healthy individuals, such studies in alcohol-dependent individuals are quite rare. The present study examines theta oscillations during reward processing in abstinent alcoholics. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded in 38 abstinent alcoholics and 38 healthy controls as they performed a single outcome gambling task, which involved outcomes of either loss or gain of an amount (10 or 50¢) that was bet. Event-related theta band (3.0-7.0 Hz) power following each outcome stimulus was computed using the S-transform method. Theta power at the time window of the outcome-related negativity (ORN) and positivity (ORP) (200-500 ms) was compared across groups and outcome conditions. Additionally, behavioral data of impulsivity and task performance were analyzed. The alcoholic group showed significantly decreased theta power during reward processing compared to controls. Current source density (CSD) maps of alcoholics revealed weaker and diffuse source activity for all conditions and weaker bilateral prefrontal sources during the Loss 50 condition when compared with controls who manifested stronger and focused midline sources. Furthermore, alcoholics exhibited increased impulsivity and risk-taking on the behavioral measures. A strong association between reduced anterior theta power and impulsive task-performance was observed. It is suggested that decreased power and weaker and diffuse CSD in alcoholics may be due to dysfunctional neural reward circuitry. The relationship among alcoholism, theta oscillations, reward processing, and impulsivity could offer clues to understand brain circuitries that mediate reward processing and inhibitory control.

  5. Acute effects of nicotine on alcohol cue-reactivity in nondependent and dependent smokers.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Daniel S; Peloquin, Marcel P; Ferdinand, Justin C; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-02-01

    Evidence from alcohol self-administration studies suggests that nicotine replacement therapy may influence subjective and behavioral responses to alcohol. However, its effect on alcohol cue-reactivity is unknown. The present study examined the impact of acutely administered nicotine on subjective responses to alcohol-focused pictorial stimuli. In a mixed within/between-subjects design, nondependent smokers (n = 51) and dependent smokers (n = 45) who socially drink were assigned to either a nicotine (4 mg) or placebo lozenge condition following overnight tobacco abstinence. Following lozenge absorption, participants viewed neutral images followed by alcohol-focused pictures. Craving measures for alcohol and tobacco were completed at baseline, following lozenge absorption, following neutral cues, and following alcohol cues. The presentation of alcohol cues increased alcohol-related craving relative to neutral cues, especially among men, but the administration of nicotine did not influence the magnitude of these effects. Nicotine lozenges were found to decrease intentions to smoke and withdrawal-related craving in dependent but not in nondependent smokers. Finally, the presentation of alcohol cues was found to increase intentions to smoke relative to neutral cues across participants regardless of lozenge condition. Findings suggest that although the presentation of alcohol cues can increase alcohol- and tobacco-related cravings in smokers, such effects do not appear to be affected by acute nicotine administration. PMID:25643027

  6. Borderline Personality Symptoms in Short-Term and Long-Term Abstinent Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Nip, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Background Comorbidity of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) and Substance and Alcohol Use Disorders (SUDs and AUDs is very high. The literature suggests a negative synergy between BPD and SUDs, which may impact an individual’s ability to achieve and maintain remission of either disorder in the face of the other. Methods We examined lifetime and current (past year) BPD symptom counts in three gender- and age-comparable groups: short-term abstinent alcoholics (STA, 6–15 weeks abstinent), long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTA, more than 18 months abstinent), and non-substance-abusing controls (NSAC). Abstinent individuals were recruited primarily from mutual-help recovery networks and about half had comorbid drug dependence. BPD symptoms were obtained using the SCID-II, followed up with questions regarding currency, but did not require that BPD symptoms represent persistent or pervasive behavior such as would meet criteria for BPD diagnosis. Thus our study dealt only with BPD symptoms, not BPD diagnoses. Results Alcoholics had more lifetime and current symptoms for most all BPD criteria than NSAC. In general, STA and LTA did not differ in BPD symptoms, except for a group-by-gender effect for both lifetime and current anger-associated symptoms and for lifetime abandonment-avoidance symptoms. For these cases, there were much higher symptom counts for STA women vs. men, with comparable symptom counts for LTA women vs. men. Conclusions Our results suggest for the most part that BPD symptoms do not prevent the maintenance of recovery in AUD and SUD individuals who have established at least six weeks abstinence within the mutual-help recovery network – in fact the presence of BPD symptoms is the norm. However, we did find difficulty in establishing longer-term abstinence in women with anger-associated symptoms and abandonment avoidance symptoms. PMID:22309234

  7. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-06-16

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case-control analysis (N = 908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N = 3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N = 81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N = 22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P = 0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P = 0.033). The 168 Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD.

  8. The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor as a potential treatment target in alcohol use disorder: evidence from human genetic association studies and a mouse model of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suchankova, P; Yan, J; Schwandt, M L; Stangl, B L; Caparelli, E C; Momenan, R; Jerlhag, E; Engel, J A; Hodgkinson, C A; Egli, M; Lopez, M F; Becker, H C; Goldman, D; Heilig, M; Ramchandani, V A; Leggio, L

    2015-01-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) regulates appetite and food intake. GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation also attenuates the reinforcing properties of alcohol in rodents. The present translational study is based on four human genetic association studies and one preclinical study providing data that support the hypothesis that GLP-1R may have a role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Case–control analysis (N=908) was performed on a sample of individuals enrolled in the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) intramural research program. The Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) sample (N=3803) was used for confirmation purposes. Post hoc analyses were carried out on data from a human laboratory study of intravenous alcohol self-administration (IV-ASA; N=81) in social drinkers and from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in alcohol-dependent individuals (N=22) subjected to a Monetary Incentive Delay task. In the preclinical study, a GLP-1R agonist was evaluated in a mouse model of alcohol dependence to demonstrate the role of GLP-1R for alcohol consumption. The previously reported functional allele 168Ser (rs6923761) was nominally associated with AUD (P=0.004) in the NIAAA sample, which was partially replicated in males of the SAGE sample (P=0.033). The 168Ser/Ser genotype was further associated with increased alcohol administration and breath alcohol measures in the IV-ASA experiment and with higher BOLD response in the right globus pallidus when receiving notification of outcome for high monetary reward. Finally, GLP-1R agonism significantly reduced alcohol consumption in a mouse model of alcohol dependence. These convergent findings suggest that the GLP-1R may be an attractive target for personalized pharmacotherapy treatment of AUD. PMID:26080318

  9. Allelic variants of ADH, ALDH and the five factor model of personality in alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salujha, S. K.; Chaudhury, S.; Menon, P. K.; Srivastava, K.; Gupta, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The etiology of alcohol dependence is a complex interplay of biopsychosocial factors. The genes for alcohol-metabolizing enzymes: Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH2 and ADH3) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) exhibit functional polymorphisms. Vulnerability of alcohol dependence may also be in part due to heritable personality traits. Aim: To determine whether any association exists between polymorphisms of ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 and alcohol dependence syndrome in a group of Asian Indians. In addition, the personality of these patients was assessed to identify traits predisposing to alcoholism. Materials and Methods: In this study, 100 consecutive males with alcohol dependence syndrome attending the psychiatric outpatient department of a tertiary care service hospital and an equal number of matched healthy controls were included with their consent. Blood samples of all the study cases and controls were collected and genotyped for the ADH2, ADH3 and ALDH2 loci. Personality was evaluated using the neuroticism, extraversion, openness (NEO) personality inventory and sensation seeking scale. Results: Allele frequencies of ADH2*2 (0.50), ADH3*1 (0.67) and ALSH2*2 (0.09) were significantly low in the alcohol dependent subjects. Personality traits of NEO personality inventory and sensation seeking were significantly higher when compared to controls. Conclusions: The functional polymorphisms of genes coding for alcohol metabolizing enzymes and personality traits of NEO and sensation seeking may affect the propensity to develop dependence. PMID:25535445

  10. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  11. Alcohol and Masculinity: A Review and Reformulaton of the Sex Role, Dependency, and Power Theories of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemle, Russell

    This review examines three theories of alcohol abuse by American males: (1) the sex role theory which states that men drink heavily because American culture accepts and encourages that activity in males; (2) the dependency theory, which interprets drinking as a means by which men secretly gratify their dependency needs while manifesting an…

  12. Boarding and Public Schools: Navajo Educational Attainment, Conduct Disorder, and Alcohol Dependency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Eric; Kunitz, Stephen J.; Gabriel, K. Ruben; McCright, Aaron; Levy, Jerrold E.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with over 1,000 Navajos aged 21-67 in 1992-95 found that alcohol dependency was less common among high school graduates than dropouts but was also disproportionately low among older men with no schooling. Despite abusive conditions that prevailed in some Indian boarding schools, alcohol dependency rates did not differ by type of school…

  13. The Role of Therapeutic Alliance in Treatment for People with Mild to Moderate Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Deirdre F.; Adamson, Simon J.; Deering, Daryle E. A.

    2012-01-01

    In an exploratory study of Therapeutic Alliance (TA) in brief outpatient treatment for alcohol dependence the relationship was investigated between TA and treatment outcome (measured at 6 weeks and 6 months) for 69 alcohol dependent clients participating in a randomised control trial between Motivational Enhancement Therapy and Non Directive…

  14. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  15. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: Impact of specific substances

    PubMed Central

    D’Amore, Meredith M.; Cheng, Debbie M.; Kressin, Nancy R.; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H.; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W.; Saitz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns. PMID:21474269

  16. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  17. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  18. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  19. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  20. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  1. The Influence of Drinking Pattern, at Individual and Aggregate Levels, on Alcohol-Related Negative Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, M.; Kuntsche, S.; Graham, K.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine the extent drinking patterns (at the individual and country level) are associated with alcohol-related consequences over and above the total alcohol the person consumes. Methods Hierarchical linear models were estimated based on general population surveys conducted in 18 countries participating in the GENACIS project. Results In general, the positive association between drinking pattern scores and alcohol-related consequences was found at both the individual and country levels, independent of volume of drinking. In addition, a significant interaction effect indicated that the more detrimental the country's drinking pattern, the less steep the association between the volume of drinking and its consequences. Conclusion Drinking patterns have an independent impact on consequences over and above the relationship between volume and consequences. PMID:20357455

  2. Positive Selection on Loci Associated with Drug and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Sadler, Brooke; Haller, Gabe; Edenberg, Howard; Tischfield, Jay; Brooks, Andy; Kramer, John; Schuckit, Marc; Nurnberger, John; Goate, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Much of the evolution of human behavior remains a mystery, including how certain disadvantageous behaviors are so prevalent. Nicotine addiction is one such phenotype. Several loci have been implicated in nicotine related phenotypes including the nicotinic receptor gene clusters (CHRNs) on chromosomes 8 and 15. Here we use 1000 Genomes sequence data from 3 populations (Africans, Asians and Europeans) to examine whether natural selection has occurred at these loci. We used Tajima’s D and the integrated haplotype score (iHS) to test for evidence of natural selection. Our results provide evidence for strong selection in the nicotinic receptor gene cluster on chromosome 8, previously found to be significantly associated with both nicotine and cocaine dependence, as well as evidence selection acting on the region containing the CHRNA5 nicotinic receptor gene on chromosome 15, that is genome wide significant for risk for nicotine dependence. To examine the possibility that this selection is related to memory and learning, we utilized genetic data from the Collaborative Studies on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) to test variants within these regions with three tests of memory and learning, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Block Design, WAIS Digit Symbol and WAIS Information tests. Of the 17 SNPs genotyped in COGA in this region, we find one significantly associated with WAIS digit symbol test results. This test captures aspects of reaction time and memory, suggesting that a phenotype relating to memory and learning may have been the driving force behind selection at these loci. This study could begin to explain why these seemingly deleterious SNPs are present at their current frequencies. PMID:26270548

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  4. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  5. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  6. Chlorpropamide-alcohol flushing is not useful for individual genetic counseling of diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, M; Kühnau, J; Rüdiger, H W

    1980-09-01

    The presence or absence of chlorpropamide-alcohol flushing (CPAF) was not correlated with the classification of diabetes. Five out of twelve patients with juvenile-onset diabetes (JOD) flushed and three out of four patients with maturity-onset diabetes in young people (MODY) did not flush. Consequently, CPAF cannot be used for individual genetic counseling in diabetes mellitus. PMID:7438499

  7. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  8. Prevalence of Alcohol Dependence Among US Adult Drinkers, 2009–2011

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Marissa B.; Hedden, Sarra L.; Brewer, Robert D.; Gfroerer, Joseph C.; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption is responsible for 88,000 deaths annually and cost the United States $223.5 billion in 2006. It is often assumed that most excessive drinkers are alcohol dependent. However, few studies have examined the prevalence of alcohol dependence among excessive drinkers. The objective of this study was to update prior estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among US adult drinkers. Methods Data were analyzed from the 138,100 adults who responded to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health in 2009, 2010, or 2011. Drinking patterns (ie, past-year drinking, excessive drinking, and binge drinking) were assessed by sociodemographic characteristics and alcohol dependence (assessed through self-reported survey responses and defined as meeting ≥3 of 7 criteria for dependence in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition). Results Excessive drinking, binge drinking, and alcohol dependence were most common among men and those aged 18 to 24. Binge drinking was most common among those with annual family incomes of $75,000 or more, whereas alcohol dependence was most common among those with annual family incomes of less than $25,000. The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 10.2% among excessive drinkers, 10.5% among binge drinkers, and 1.3% among non-binge drinkers. A positive relationship was found between alcohol dependence and binge drinking frequency. Conclusion Most excessive drinkers (90%) did not meet the criteria for alcohol dependence. A comprehensive approach to reducing excessive drinking that emphasizes evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services could have an impact on reducing excessive drinking in addition to focusing on the implementation of addiction treatment services. PMID:25412029

  9. Comparison of direct and indirect alcohol markers with PEth in blood and urine in alcohol dependent inpatients during detoxication.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M; Skopp, G; Alt, A; Miltner, E; Jochum, Th; Daenhardt, C; Sporkert, F; Gnann, H; Weinmann, W; Thierauf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance of direct and indirect alcohol markers to evaluate alcohol consumption in clinical and forensic settings is increasingly recognized. While some markers are used to prove abstinence from ethanol, other markers are suitable for detection of alcohol misuse. Phosphatidyl ethanol (PEth) is ranked among the latter. There is only little information about the correlation between PEth and other currently used markers (ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and methanol) and about their decline during detoxification. To get more information, 18 alcohol-dependent patients in withdrawal therapy were monitored for these parameters in blood and urine for up to 19 days. There was no correlation between the different markers. PEth showed a rapid decrease at the beginning of the intervention, a slow decline after the first few days, and could still be detected after 19 days of abstinence from ethanol. PMID:23274938

  10. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  11. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  12. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening.

  13. Association of Smoking with Mu- Opioid Receptor Availability Before and During Naltrexone Blockade in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Elise M.; Wand, Gary S.; Kuwabara, Hiroto; Xu, Xiaoqiang; Frost, J.James; Wong, Dean F.; McCaul, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Persons with a history of alcohol dependence are more likely to use tobacco and to meet criteria for nicotine dependence compared to social drinkers or nondrinkers. The high levels of comorbidity of nicotine and alcohol use and dependence are thought to be related to interactions between nicotinic, opioid and dopamine receptors in mesolimbic regions. The current study examined whether individual differences in regional mu-opioid receptor (MOR) availability were associated with tobacco use, nicotine dependence, and level of nicotine craving in 25 alcohol dependent (AD) subjects. AD subjects completed an inpatient protocol, which included medically supervised alcohol withdrawal, monitored alcohol abstinence, transdermal nicotine maintenance (21 mg/day), and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging using the MOR agonist [11C]-carfentanil (CFN) before (basal scan) and during treatment with 50 mg/day naltrexone (naltrexone scan). Subjects who had higher scores on the Fagerström Nicotine Dependence Test had significantly lower basal scan binding potential (BPND) across mesolimbic regions including the amygdala, cingulate, globus pallidus, thalamus and insula. Likewise, the number of cigarettes per day was negatively associated with basal scan BPND in mesolimbic regions Higher nicotine craving was significantly associated with lower BPND in amygdala, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus and ventral striatum. Although blunted during naltrexone treatment, the negative association was maintained for nicotine dependence and cigarettes per day, but not for nicotine craving. These findings suggest that intensity of cigarette smoking and severity of nicotine dependence symptoms are systematically related to reduced BPND across multiple brain regions in AD subjects. PMID:23252742

  14. Using a factor mixture modeling approach in alcohol dependence in a general population sample.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Aggen, Steven H; Prescott, Carol A; Kendler, Kenneth S; Neale, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is a complex and heterogeneous disorder. The identification of more homogeneous subgroups of individuals with drinking problems and the refinement of the diagnostic criteria are inter-related research goals. They have the potential to improve our knowledge of etiology and treatment effects, and to assist in the identification of risk factors or specific genetic factors. Mixture modeling has advantages over traditional modeling that focuses on either the dimensional or categorical latent structure. The mixture modeling combines both latent class and latent trait models, but has not been widely applied in substance use research. The goal of the present study is to assess whether the AD criteria in the population could be better characterized by a continuous dimension, a few discrete subgroups, or a combination of the two. More than seven thousand participants were recruited from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry, and were interviewed to obtain DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, version IV) symptoms and diagnosis of AD. We applied factor analysis, latent class analysis, and factor mixture models for symptom items based on the DSM-IV criteria. Our results showed that a mixture model with 1 factor and 3 classes for both genders fit well. The 3 classes were a non-problem drinking group and severe and moderate drinking problem groups. By contrast, models constrained to conform to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria were rejected by model fitting indices providing empirical evidence for heterogeneity in the AD diagnosis. Classification analysis showed different characteristics across subgroups, including alcohol-caused behavioral problems, comorbid disorders, age at onset for alcohol-related milestones, and personality. Clinically, the expanded classification of AD may aid in identifying suitable treatments, interventions and additional sources of comorbidity based on these more homogenous subgroups of alcohol use

  15. Nalmefene: a review of its use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2013-09-01

    The opioid system modulator nalmefene (Selincro®) is approved in the EU for as-needed use to reduce alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent adults with a high drinking risk level. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of as-needed oral nalmefene in the treatment of alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational trials (ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2), as-needed nalmefene significantly reduced the number of heavy drinking days (in both trials) and total alcohol consumption (in ESENSE 1) at month 6. In the randomized, double-blind, multinational SENSE trial, as-needed nalmefene significantly improved both of these endpoints at month 13, but not at month 6. As-needed nalmefene had a greater beneficial effect in the target population (i.e. alcohol-dependent patients with at least a high drinking risk level at screening and randomization), with post hoc analyses revealing significant reductions in both the number of heavy drinking days and total alcohol consumption at month 6 (in ESENSE 1 and ESENSE 2) and at month 13 (in SENSE). Oral nalmefene was generally well tolerated in patients with alcohol dependence, with the most commonly occurring adverse events including nausea, insomnia and dizziness. In conclusion, as-needed nalmefene provides an important new option for use in the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  16. Characterization of individuals seeking treatment for caffeine dependence.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Laura M; Evatt, Daniel P; Richards, Brian D; Griffiths, Roland R

    2012-12-01

    Previous investigations have identified individuals who meet criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) substance dependence as applied to caffeine, but there is little research on treatments for caffeine dependence. This study aimed to thoroughly characterize individuals who are seeking treatment for problematic caffeine use. Ninety-four individuals who identified as being psychologically or physically dependent on caffeine, or who had tried unsuccessfully to modify caffeine consumption participated in a face-to-face diagnostic clinical interview. They also completed measures concerning caffeine use and quitting history, reasons for seeking treatment, and standardized self-report measures of psychological functioning. Caffeine treatment seekers (mean age 41 years, 55% women) consumed an average of 548 mg caffeine per day. The primary source of caffeine was coffee for 50% of the sample and soft drinks for 37%. Eighty-eight percent reported prior serious attempts to modify caffeine use (mean 2.7 prior attempts), and 43% reported being advised by a medical professional to reduce or eliminate caffeine. Ninety-three percent met criteria for caffeine dependence when generic DSM-IV-TR substance dependence criteria were applied to caffeine use. The most commonly endorsed criteria were withdrawal (96%), persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control use (89%), and use despite knowledge of physical or psychological problems caused by caffeine (87%). The most common reasons for wanting to modify caffeine use were health-related (59%) and not wanting to be dependent on caffeine (35%). This investigation reveals that there are individuals with problematic caffeine use who are seeking treatment and suggests that there is a need for effective caffeine dependence treatments. PMID:22369218

  17. Identifying Individual Excellence: The Dependable Strengths Articulation Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boivin-Brown, Allen; Haldane, Jean; Forster, Jerald

    This paper was written to describe the essential tasks of a process known as Dependable Strengths Articulation (DSA) and how career development practitioners can acquire the skills to use the process. DSA, when combined with practices known as Job Magnet, helps participants identify their individual excellence and then use this knowledge to…

  18. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  19. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  20. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  1. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  2. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  3. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the extended amygdala is recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the extended amygdala, a conceptual macrostructure in the basal forebrain important for regulation of negative affective states. NPY has been attributed a central role in anxiety-like behavior, fear, nociception, and reward in rodents. Deletion of the NPY gene in mice produces a high-anxiety high-alcohol-drinking phenotype. NPY infused into the brains of rats selectively bred to consume high quantities of alcohol suppresses alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that is mediated by central amygdala (CeA). Likewise, alcohol-preferring rats exhibit basal NPY deficits in CeA. NPY infused into the brains of alcohol-dependent rats blocks excessive alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that also has been localized to the CeA. NPY in CeA may rescue dependence-induced increases in anxiety and alcohol drinking via inhibition of downstream effector regions that receive GABAergic inputs from CeA. It is hypothesized here that NPY modulates anxiety-like behavior via Y2R regulation of NPY release, whereas NPY modulation of alcohol-drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent animals occurs via Y2R regulation of GABA release.

  4. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  5. Disrupted Regulation of Social Exclusion in Alcohol-Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Maurage, Pierre; Joassin, Frédéric; Philippot, Pierre; Heeren, Alexandre; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Mahau, Pierre; Delperdange, Christel; Corneille, Olivier; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol-dependence is associated with cognitive and biological alterations, and also with interpersonal impairments. Although overwhelming in clinical settings and involved in relapse, these social impairments have received little attention from researchers. Particularly, brain alterations related to social exclusion have not been explored in alcohol-dependence. Our primary purpose was to determine the neural correlates of social exclusion feelings in this population. In all, 44 participants (22 abstinent alcohol-dependent patients and 22 paired controls) played a virtual game (‘cyberball') during fMRI recording. They were first included by other players, then excluded, and finally re-included. Brain areas involved in social exclusion were identified and the functional connectivity between these areas was explored using psycho-physiological interactions (PPI). Results showed that while both groups presented dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) activations during social exclusion, alcohol-dependent participants exhibited increased insula and reduced frontal activations (in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) as compared with controls. Alcohol-dependence was also associated with persistent dACC and parahippocampal gyrus activations in re-inclusion. PPI analyses showed reduced frontocingulate connectivity during social exclusion in alcohol-dependence. Alcohol-dependence is thus linked with increased activation in areas eliciting social exclusion feelings (dACC–insula), and with impaired ability to inhibit these feelings (indexed by reduced frontal activations). Altered frontal regulation thus appears implied in the interpersonal alterations observed in alcohol-dependence, which seem reinforced by impaired frontocingulate connectivity. This first exploration of the neural correlates of interpersonal problems in alcohol-dependence could initiate the development of a social neuroscience of addictive states. PMID:22510722

  6. Sleep Disturbances and Pain among Individuals with Prescription Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Emily E.; Pfeifer, James G.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor sleep quality has been observed in individuals with substance use disorders and is often a trigger for relapse. To date, little research has investigated sleep quality among individuals with prescription opioid (PO) dependence. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining subjective and objective sleep disturbances among PO dependent individuals. METHODS Subjects were 68 non-treatment seeking individuals (33 PO dependent, 35 healthy controls). Subjective sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Subjects were admitted for an overnight inpatient hospital stay during which objective sleep data was collected using an actigraphy device. Self-report pain was measured with the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS Significant group differences in subjective sleep quality were revealed in the PSQI (p<0.01) and ISI (p<0.01). Poor sleep quality (i.e., PSQI total score > 5) was identified in 80.6% of the PO group, as compared to 8.8% of the control group (p<.001). Significant group differences in sleep quality were identified in five of six actigraphy variables: total time asleep, sleep efficiency, latency of onset of sleep, total time awake and time mobile. Furthermore, significant associations between pain severity and sleep quality were observed. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate high rates of sleep impairment and poor sleep quality among PO dependent individuals. Pain severity was significantly correlated with sleep quality. Although preliminary, the findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbances, as well as pain, among patients with PO dependence. PMID:24999989

  7. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  8. Dependency conflict, marital threat, and alcohol consumption in a middle-aged sample.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, J C; Wheeler, D S

    1992-09-01

    The hypothesis that dependency conflict is associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption when dependency needs are threatened or thwarted was tested with a sample of 672 middle-aged, married adults with college-age children. The subjects' current level of alcohol consumption was predicted based on the present level of threat to the marital relationship (assessed by reports from several family members) and on indices of dependency need and inhibition of dependent behavior estimated from sibship size, sibship density, and sibling position. A multiple regression analysis yielded a significant two-way interaction (p less than .05) between marital threat and subject sex, and a significant three-way interaction of dependency need, inhibition of dependent behavior, and marital threat. High marital threat was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption in men and slightly lower levels of alcohol consumption in women. Additionally, when dependency need was high, alcohol consumption was generally low, except when both inhibition of dependent behavior and marital threat were high. However, when dependency need was low, the highest alcohol consumption score occurred when marital threat was low and inhibition was high.

  9. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  10. An Update on CRF Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol Use Disorders and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Macedo, Giovana Camila; Domingues, Liz Paola; Favoretto, Cristiane Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF-binding protein, and urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides.

  11. Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jie; Gao, Ming; Taylor, Devin H

    2014-03-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are important targets for alcohol reward and dependence. Alcoholism is a serious public health problem and has been identified as the third major cause of preventable mortality in the world. Worldwide, about 2 billion people consume alcohol, with 76.3 million having diagnosable alcohol use disorders. Alcohol is currently responsible for the death of 4% of adults worldwide (about 2.5 million deaths each year), and this number will be significantly increased by 2020 unless effective action is taken. Alcohol is the most commonly abused substance by humans. Ethanol (EtOH) is the intoxicating agent in alcoholic drinks that can lead to abuse and dependence. Although it has been extensively studied, the mechanisms of alcohol reward and dependence are still poorly understood. The major reason is that, unlike other addictive drugs (eg, morphine, cocaine or nicotine) that have specific molecular targets, EtOH affects much wider neuronal functions. These functions include phospholipid membranes, various ion channels and receptors, synaptic and network functions, and intracellular signaling molecules. The major targets in the brain that mediate EtOH's effects remain unclear. This knowledge gap results in a therapeutic barrier in the treatment of alcoholism. Interestingly, alcohol and nicotine are often co-abused, which suggests that neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the molecular targets for nicotine, may also contribute to alcohol's abusive properties. Here, we briefly summarize recent lines of evidence showing how EtOH modulates nAChRs in the mesolimbic pathway, which provides a perspective that nAChRs are important targets mediating alcohol abuse.

  12. The Use of Gestalt Interventions in the Treatment of the Resistant Alcohol-Dependent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews ethical and practical dilemmas associated with clients who have hidden alcohol dependencies, and proposes an approach rooted in Gestalt counseling theory which confronts these issues and is compatible with a current emerging alcohol-treatment model. Suggests specific activities for addressing client resistance to revealing a hidden alcohol…

  13. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  14. Pathways to Care of Alcohol -Dependent Patients: An Exploratory Study From a Tertiary Care Substance Use Disorder Treatment Center

    PubMed Central

    Pal Singh Balhara, Yatan; Prakash, Sathya; Gupta, Rishab

    2016-01-01

    Background No study from India has examined pathways to care in alcohol using population systematically. Objectives The present study aimed to understand the pathways to care among alcohol-dependent individuals seeking help at a tertiary care center. Patients and Methods It was a cross-sectional, observational study. A total of 58 subjects diagnosed with alcohol- dependence syndrome as per DSM-IV-TR were included in the study. Pathways to care were assessed using the world health organization encounter form. Results For 56.9% of the subjects, first point of contact was with a tertiary care addiction psychiatrist. Traditional healers were consulted by about 5.2% of the patients seeking help for the first time. The mean duration of main problems due to alcohol use was 5.82 ± 4.95 years. The first contact tended to be at place nearer to the patient’s residence while further contacts tended to be farther away. Family, friends and neighbours together constituted the single largest group suggesting patients to seek care. Conclusions There is a long time lag between the onset of alcohol use related problems and the first help seeking attempt. Of those who do decide to seek help, the proportion of those obtaining specialist help is higher than commonly believed. PMID:27803893

  15. Eye color: A potential indicator of alcohol dependence risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Sulovari, Arvis; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel; Li, Dawei

    2015-07-01

    In archival samples of European-ancestry subjects, light-eyed individuals have been found to consume more alcohol than dark-eyed individuals. No published population-based studies have directly tested the association between alcohol dependence (AD) and eye color. We hypothesized that light-eyed individuals have a higher prevalence of AD than dark-eyed individuals. A mixture model was used to select a homogeneous sample of 1,263 European-Americans and control for population stratification. After quality control, we conducted an association study using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and genetic ancestry). We found evidence of association between AD and blue eye color (P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 1.83 (1.31-2.57)), supporting light eye color as a risk factor relative to brown eye color. Network-based analyses revealed a statistically significant (P = 0.02) number of genetic interactions between eye color genes and AD-associated genes. We found evidence of linkage disequilibrium between an AD-associated GABA receptor gene cluster, GABRB3/GABRG3, and eye color genes, OCA2/HERC2, as well as between AD-associated GRM5 and pigmentation-associated TYR. Our population-phenotype, network, and linkage disequilibrium analyses support association between blue eye color and AD. Although we controlled for stratification we cannot exclude underlying occult stratification as a contributor to this observation. Although replication is needed, our findings suggest that eye pigmentation information may be useful in research on AD. Further characterization of this association may unravel new AD etiological factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The ADH gene cluster SNP rs1789891 and temperamental dimensions in patients with alcohol dependence and affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Dragan, Wojciech Ł; Grzywacz, Anna; Samochowiec, Jerzy

    2015-08-01

    This study had three objectives: (1) to assess the relationship between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891 in the alcohol dehydrogenase gene cluster and alcohol dependence and affective disorders; (2) to assess the differences in the Regulative Theory of Temperament (RTT) traits between an alcohol dependent group, an affective disorders group, and a healthy group; and (3) to assess the relationship between rs1789891 and temperament traits in a healthy group, taking into account the interaction of genotype and sex. The SNP rs1789891 was genotyped in a group of 194 alcohol dependent men, aged 21 to 71 years; 137 patients with affective disorders, including 51 males and 86 females, aged 19 to 85 years; and a group of 207 healthy individuals, including 89 males and 118 females, aged 18 to 71 years. Temperament traits (briskness, perseveration, sensory sensitivity, emotional reactivity, endurance, and activity) were assessed in all groups using the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour-Temperament Inventory. The comparative analysis of genotypic frequencies showed no significant differences between patients with alcoholism or affective disorders and those in the control group. Alcohol dependent men and the affective disorder group were characterised by higher levels of emotional reactivity (p-value 1.4e-5 and 9.84e-7, respectively) and lower levels of briskness, sensory sensitivity, endurance, and activity (p-value from 3.76e-8 to 0.012) when compared to the healthy group. The rs1789891 polymorphism was associated with briskness (p = 0.02), sensory sensitivity (p = 0.036), and activity (p = 0.049). None of the results were statistically significant after Bonferroni correction.

  17. Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Surah, S; Kieran, J; O'Dea, S; Shiel, C; Raffee, S; Mulcahy, F; Keenan, E; Lyons, F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate alcohol misuse among an inner city adult HIV clinic population with AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A cross-sectional HIV outpatient clinic analysis between 28 February 2011 and 11 March 2011 was carried out. AUDIT, demographic and clinical data were collected. Univariate analysis was performed to look for the associations between variables. Backward stepwise multivariate analyses were performed on significant variables from the univariate analysis to assess for predictors of alcohol dependence. In total, 111 patients were included (60% uptake of clinic attendees); 66% were men and 26% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected. The median AUDIT score was 5 (within normal range). Thirty-four 'AUDIT positive' cases were identified: five (4.5%) indicated consumption of hazardous levels of alcohol; 21 (19%) indicated harmful levels of alcohol; and eight (7%) were likely alcohol dependent. Younger age (<40 years old) was significantly associated with AUDIT positivity (P = 0.006). On multivariate analysis younger age (P = 0.045, odds ratio 13.8) and lower level of education (P = 0.006, odds ratio 6.7) were predictive of scores indicative of alcohol dependence (AUDIT ≥20). In conclusion, younger age and lower educational levels were associated with scores consistent with alcohol dependence. AUDIT was well tolerated and easy to administer in this outpatient HIV clinic population.

  18. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  1. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  2. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  3. Repeated seizures in an elderly patient with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Terao, Takeshi; Araki, Yasuo; Hatano, Koji

    2013-11-22

    A 69-year-old man with alcohol dependence and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) suffered from repeated tonic-clonic seizures. The seizures typically occurred several hours after his last alcohol intake at home (early withdrawal seizure) and 22 days after his last intake of alcohol (14 days after the last dose of diazepam substituting for alcohol: late withdrawal seizure) on the ward. Psychiatrists in charge of this patient found it difficult to attribute his seizures to alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) because of the atypical onset. The patient responded to diazepam resumption and valproate combination. This case highlights the need to always consider AWS as a possible cause of seizures and to gradually decrease diazepam as a substitute for alcohol. Moreover, in this patient, MCI may have induced vulnerability in the brain for AWS and the patients' older age might have decreased liver function leading to delayed onset of the seizures after diazepam withdrawal.

  4. Observing nurses has improved my alcohol dependency care.

    PubMed

    Jaques, Ellise

    2016-09-21

    My first placement in my first year of nursing training was on a gastrointestinal/hepatology ward. Alongside my mentor, I was caring for a patient who had been withdrawing from alcohol since admission to hospital the previous evening. PMID:27654556

  5. The association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and drug use.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R; Weisner, C

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines the association between DSM-III-R alcohol dependence, psychological distress and the frequency of drug use in a sample of 219 men and 162 women consecutively admitted to nine alcohol treatment programs in a Northern California county. Results show that psychological distress is higher among men who are more severely dependent on alcohol and among those who have lower education; women who are less alcohol dependent and women who are younger have higher scores in psychological distress than other women. With regard to drug use, about 65% of the men and 64% of the women report using a drug other than alcohol at least once a week during the 12 months prior to admission into treatment. Among both men and women, the drugs most frequently used are crack/cocaine, marijuana and methamphetamine. Among men, regression analysis shows that drug use is associated with being younger. Among women results show that the predictors of drug use are being younger, being unemployed, having a higher income, being a heavier drinker and having fewer symptoms of alcohol dependence. These results show a complex pattern of association across alcohol dependence, drug use and psychological distress. Knowledge of this pattern is necessary for tailoring effective clinical interventions to clients with different kinds of comorbidity.

  6. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  7. Relationship Between Emotional Processing, Drinking Severity and Relapse in Adults Treated for Alcohol Dependence in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Kopera, Maciej; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Suszek, Hubert; Glass, Jennifer M.; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Wnorowska, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Growing data reveals deficits in perception, understanding and regulation of emotions in alcohol dependence (AD). The study objective was to explore the relationships between emotional processing, drinking history and relapse in a clinical sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods: A group of 80 inpatients entering an alcohol treatment program in Warsaw, Poland was recruited and assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. Baseline information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms, personality and severity of alcohol problems was obtained. The Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence (EI) Test and Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS) were utilized for emotional processing assessment. Follow-up information contained data on drinking alcohol during the last month. Results: At baseline assessment, the duration of alcohol drinking was associated with lower ability to utilize emotions. Patients reporting more difficulties with describing feelings drank more during their last episode of heavy drinking, and had a longer duration of intensive alcohol use. A longer duration of the last episode of heavy drinking was associated with more problems identifying and regulating emotions. Poor utilization of emotions and high severity of depressive symptoms contributed to higher rates of drinking at follow-up. Conclusions: These results underline the importance of systematic identification of discrete emotional problems and dynamics related to AD. This knowledge has implications for treatment. Psychotherapeutic interventions to improve emotional skills could be utilized in treatment of alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25543129

  8. Thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and Addiction-Stroop predict affect-modulated cue-reactivity among alcohol dependent adults.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Carter, Kristin; Ropes, Katie; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Abstinent alcohol dependent individuals commonly employ thought suppression to cope with stress and intrusive cognitions about alcohol. This strategy may inadvertently bias attention towards alcohol-related stimuli while depleting neurocognitive resources needed to regulate urges, manifested as decreased heart rate variability (HRV) responsivity to alcohol cues. The present study tested the hypothesis that trait and state thought suppression, impaired regulation of urges, and alcohol attentional bias as measured by the Addiction-Stroop would have significant effects on the HRV responsivity of 58 adults in residential treatment for alcohol dependence (mean age=39.6 ± 9.4, 81% female) who participated in an affect-modulated cue-reactivity protocol. Regression analyses controlling for age, level of pre-treatment alcohol consumption, and baseline HRV indicated that higher levels of trait thought suppression, impaired regulation of alcohol urges, and attentional fixation on alcohol cues were associated with lower HRV responsivity during stress-primed alcohol cue-exposure. Moreover, there was a significant state × trait suppression interaction on HRV cue-responsivity, such that alcohol dependent persons reporting high levels of state and trait suppression exhibited less HRV during cue-exposure than persons reporting low levels of state and trait suppression. Results suggest that chronic thought suppression taxes regulatory resources reflected in reduced HRV responsivity, an effect that is particularly evident when high trait suppressors engage in intensive suppression of drinking-related thoughts under conditions of stress. Treatment approaches that offer effective alternatives to the maladaptive strategy of suppressing alcohol urges may be crucial for relapse prevention.

  9. Alcohol-Induced Changes in Opioid Peptide Levels in Adolescent Rats Are Dependent on Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Palm, Sara; Nylander, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Background Endogenous opioids are implicated in the mechanism of action of alcohol and alcohol affects opioids in a number of brain areas, although little is known about alcohol's effects on opioids in the adolescent brain. One concern, in particular when studying young animals, is that alcohol intake models often are based on single housing that may result in alcohol effects confounded by the lack of social interactions. The aim of this study was to investigate short- and long-term alcohol effects on opioids and the influence of housing conditions on these effects. Methods In the first part, opioid peptide levels were measured after one 24-hour session of single housing and 2-hour voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent and adult rats. In the second part, a model with a cage divider inserted during 2-hour drinking sessions was tested and the effects on opioids were examined after 6 weeks of adolescent voluntary intake in single-and pair-housed rats, respectively. Results The effects of single housing were age specific and affected Met-enkephalin-Arg6Phe7 (MEAP) in particular. In adolescent rats, it was difficult to distinguish between effects induced by alcohol and single housing, whereas alcohol-specific effects were seen in dynorphin B (DYNB), beta-endorphin (BEND), and MEAP levels in adults. Voluntary drinking affected several brain areas and the majority of alcohol-induced effects were not dependent on housing. However, alcohol effects on DYNB and BEND in the amygdala were dependent on housing. Housing alone affected MEAP in the cingulate cortex. Conclusions Age-specific housing- and alcohol-induced effects on opioids were found. In addition, prolonged voluntary alcohol intake under different housing conditions produced several alcohol-induced effects independent of housing. However, housing-dependent effects were found in areas implicated in stress, emotionality, and alcohol use disorder. Housing condition and age may therefore affect the reasons and

  10. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala κ-Opioid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6 μg) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence.

  11. Childhood ADHD and Conduct Disorder as Independent Predictors of Male Alcohol Dependence at Age 40*

    PubMed Central

    Knop, Joachim; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Nickel, Elizabeth J.; Mortensen, Erik L.; Sullivan, Margaret A.; Murtaza, Syed; Jensen, Per; Manzardo, Ann M.; Gabrielli, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The Danish Longitudinal Study on Alcoholism was designed to identify antecedent predictors of adult male alcoholism. The influence of premorbid behaviors consistent with childhood conduct disorder (CD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the development of alcohol misuse was examined. Method: Subjects were selected from a Danish birth cohort (9,125), which included 223 sons of alcoholic fathers (high risk) and 106 matched sons of nonalcoholic fathers (low risk). These subjects have been studied systematically over the past 40 years. They were evaluated in their teens (n = 238), later as adults at age 30 (n = 241), and more recently at age 40 (n = 202). At 19-year/20-year follow-ups, an ADHD scale was derived from teacher ratings and a CD scale was derived from a social worker interview. At 30-year and 40-year follow-ups, a psychiatrist used structured interviews and criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition, Revised, to quantify lifetime alcoholism severity and to diagnose alcohol-use disorder. Of the original subjects, 110 had complete data for the two childhood measures and the adult alcoholism outcomes. Results: In this smaller subsample, paternal risk did not predict adult alcohol dependence. Subjects who were above a median split on both the ADHD and the CD scales were more than six times more likely to develop alcohol dependence than subjects who scored below the median on both. Although the two childhood measures were correlated, a multiple regression showed that each independently predicted a measure of lifetime alcoholism severity. Conclusions: ADHD comorbid with CD was the strongest predictor of later alcohol dependence. PMID:19261228

  12. [Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other psychiatric disorders. Part II. Pathogenesis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Jakub; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Kieres-Salomoński, Ilona; Wojnar, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with other mental disorders is very common, being important cause of diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. There is a lack of systemic solutions in mental health care dedicated to the patients with dual diagnosis. The literature on the topic of treatment of patients with dual diagnosis is limited. While comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mental disorders is prevalent, there is rising interest among researchers on that issue. In this paper we present current hypotheses on pathogenesis of dual diagnosis as well as recommendations for its treatment. The role of disturbances in functioning of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pathogenesis of co-occurrence of alcohol dependence with anxiety and affective disorders is presented. Researchers studying dual diagnosis underline the fact that simultaneous treatment of alcohol dependence and co-occurring psychiatric disorders increases the chance to improve patients` functioning. Inappropriate treatment without complete management of all existing problems may make full recovery impossible.

  13. Self-mutilation among male patients with alcohol dependency: the role of dissociation.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of self-mutilative behavior with dissociative experiences among men who are alcohol dependent. Participants were 176 inpatients consecutively admitted to an alcohol dependency treatment center. Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Symptom Checklist-Revised, and Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test were conducted to all participants. A sizable proportion of patients (29.0%) reported self-mutilation (SM). Childhood abuse, younger age, early onset of alcoholism, and dissociative taxon membership predicted SM. The overall severity of clinical condition and the frequency of suicide attempts among those who reported SM were higher than those of the remaining patients. The Dissociative Experiences Scale-Taxon item "auditory verbal hallucinations" and the Symptom Checklist-Revised dimension "hostility" were predictors of SM. There is a complex relationship between dissociation, alcohol use, and SM. Increased awareness among clinicians on this relationship may increase the effectiveness of treatment interventions.

  14. Validation of differential GDAP1 DNA methylation in alcohol dependence and its potential function as a biomarker for disease severity and therapy outcome.

    PubMed

    Brückmann, Christof; Di Santo, Adriana; Karle, Kathrin Nora; Batra, Anil; Nieratschker, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol dependence is a severe disorder contributing substantially to the global burden of disease. Despite the detrimental consequences of chronic alcohol abuse and dependence, effective prevention strategies as well as treatment options are largely missing to date. Accumulating evidence suggests that gene-environment interactions, including epigenetic mechanisms, play a role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. A recent epigenome-wide study reported widespread alterations of DNA methylation patterns in alcohol dependent patients compared to control individuals. In the present study, we validate and replicate one of the top findings from this previous investigation in an independent cohort: the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients. To our knowledge, this is the first independent replication of an epigenome-wide finding in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, the AUDIT as well as the GSI score were negatively associated with GDAP1 methylation and we found a trend toward a negative association between GDAP1 methylation and the years of alcohol dependency, pointing toward a potential role of GDAP1 hypomethylation as biomarker for disease severity. In addition, we show that the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients reverses during a short-term alcohol treatment program, suggesting that GDAP1 DNA methylation could also serve as a potential biomarker for treatment outcome. Our data add to the growing body of knowledge on epigenetic effects in alcohol dependence and support GDAP1 as a novel candidate gene implicated in this disorder. As the role of GDAP1 in alcohol dependence is unknown, this novel candidate gene should be followed up in future studies.

  15. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies.

  16. Alcohol dependence, family history, and D2 dopamine receptor function as neuroendocrinologically assessed with apomorphine.

    PubMed

    Wiesbeck, G A; Mauerer, C; Thome, J; Jakob, F; Boening, J

    1995-11-01

    Fifteen alcohol dependent men with an alcohol dependent first degree relative (i.e. family history positive or FHP), 15 well matched alcohol dependent men without a family history for alcohol dependence (i.e. family history negative or FHN), and 15 healthy controls (CONTR) participated in this study. The three groups were compared according to their postsynaptic D2 dopamine receptor function as assessed by growth hormone release after stimulation with the dopamine receptor agonist apomorphine. Statistical evaluation was done by planned comparisons within a one-way ANOVA. Alcohol dependent subjects significantly differed from CONTRs as long as family history was not taken into account (t(42) = 2.38; P = 0.022*). When differentiating according to family history, both FHPs and FHNs maintained a blunted growth hormone response. However, the difference between FHNs and CONTRs, though present, dropped out of statistical significance (t(42) = 1.65; P = 0.105); at the same time, the difference between FHPs and CONTRs became slightly stronger (t(42) = 2.47; p = 0.017*). In conclusion, our data give neuroendocrinological support to the assumption that a reduced D2 dopamine receptor function in alcohol dependent men is not only a state marker of residual heavy drinking but also a genetically determined trait marker.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  18. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  19. [Alcohol consumption in men punished for intimate partner violence: individual and contextual factors].

    PubMed

    Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Lila, Marisol; Oliver, Amparo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with violence against women. The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between alcohol and other relevant variables in the intervention with men convicted of intimate partner violence, both at the individual and contextual spheres. Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem, Assumption of responsibility, Intimate support perception, Social rejection perception, Accumulation of stressful life events, Income perception and Social support in community are assessed in a sample of 291 participants in an intervention program for men condemned for intimate partner violence. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations and ANOVAs. Statistically significant differences were obtained among Risk consumers and Not risk consumers in Clinical symptomatology, Drug abuse, Impulsivity, Self-esteem and Attribution of blame to personal context as individual variables and Intimate support perception, Social rejection and Accumulation of stressful life events as contextual variables. Results of previous work are confirmed and the importance of considering social factors in the participants' environment when considering decreasing alcohol consumption and intimate partner violence is demonstrated. New tools for enhancing interventions in rehabilitation programs with men convicted for violence against women is provided.

  20. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Methods Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Results Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. Conclusions These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity. PMID:27575491

  1. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  2. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  3. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  8. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide. PMID:26784730

  9. A Comparative Study of Self-Regulation in Substance Dependent and Non-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshani, Nour Mohammad; Hossienbor, Mohsen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several factors influence the beginning and maintenance of substance use. The purpose of this study was to examine as well as to compare ‘self-regulation’ in both substance dependent and non-substance dependent individuals. Method: In a cross-sectional study 228 (118 substance dependent and 110 with no history of using substance) participants aged 16-55 were recruited. All of the participants were asked to complete the Self-Regulation Inventory (SRI-25) and a demographic characteristics data checklist. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean and standard deviation) and the t-test. Results: The results showed significant differences between substance dependent and non- substance dependent groups in all the scales of the self-regulation inventory including positive actions, controllability, expression of feelings and needs, assertiveness, and well-being seeking (p<0.01). Conclusion: Self-regulation and self-control skills in drug dependent individuals are lower than those without substance dependence individuals. It is concluded that substance use may related to a deficiency in self-control and regulation of feelings. Therefore, for prevention and treatment of substance dependence disorder, it is necessary to work out and exploit strategies that include the improvement of self-regulation. PMID:24171872

  10. Systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of alcohol use disorders in individuals infected with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Alexis; Brissette, Suzanne; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) is critical in individuals suffering from hepatitis C infection (HCV). Aside from psychosocial interventions, pharmacological treatment is effective for decreasing alcohol consumption and promoting abstinence. However, unique factors belonging to HCV-infected individuals, such as baseline hepatic vulnerability and possible ongoing hepatitis C treatment, complicate AUD drug therapy. The goal of this review is to systematically identify, summarize, and evaluate the existing evidence on the pharmacological management of AUD in HCV-infected individuals. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for English- and French-language articles published from 1993 to December 2013. The search criteria focused on clinical trials and observational studies assessing the efficacy and/or safety of pharmacological management of AUD in patients infected with HCV. Of 421 identified studies, three were included for analysis. Two were observational studies assessing the safety of disulfiram. One was a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of baclofen. There is paucity of data regarding the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of AUD in HCV-infected individuals, with studies being small series and showing significant heterogeneity. No strong recommendations can be made based on the current studies as to which pharmacological option should be preferred in this sub-population. PMID:25928362

  11. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  12. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life. PMID:27099213

  13. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  14. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans. PMID:26695588

  15. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  16. ADH and ALDH polymorphisms and alcohol dependence in Mexican and Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Liang, Tiebing; Gizer, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethanol is primarily metabolized in the liver by 2 rate-limiting reactions: conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and subsequent conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). ADH and ALDH exist in multiple isozymes that differ in their kinetic properties. Notably, polymorphisms within the genes that encode for these isozymes vary in their allele frequencies between ethnic groups, and thus, they have been considered as candidate genes that may differentially influence risk for the development of alcohol dependence across ethnic groups. Objectives and Methods Associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1B, ADH1C, and ALDH2, were compared in a community sample of Native Americans living on reservations (n=791) and Mexican Americans (n=391) living within the same county. Results Two Mexican Americans and no Native Americans possessed one ALDH2*2 allele. Presence of at least one ADH1B*2 allele was found in 7% of the Native Americans and 13% of the Mexican Americans, but was only associated with protection against alcohol dependence in the Mexican Americans. Presence of at least one ADH1B*3 allele was found in 4% if the Native Americans and 2% of the Mexican Americans, but was associated with protection against alcohol dependence only in the Native Americans. No associations between alcohol dependence and polymorphisms in ADH1C were found. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Polymorphisms in ADH1B are protective against alcoholism in these two populations; however, these findings do not explain the high prevalence of alcoholism in these populations. PMID:22931071

  17. Prevalence and Correlates of Alcohol Dependence Disorder among TB and HIV Infected Patients in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Rebecca; Chishinga, Nathaniel; Kinyanda, Eugene; Patel, Vikram; Ayles, Helen; Weiss, Helen A.; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol dependence disorders in persons receiving treatment for HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) at 16 Primary Health Care centres (PHC) across Zambia. Methods 649 adult patients receiving treatment for HIV and/or TB at PHCs in Zambia (363 males, 286 females) were recruited between 1st December 2009 and 31st January 2010. Data on socio-demographic variables, clinical disease features (TB and HIV), and psychopathological status were collected. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used to diagnose alcohol dependence disorder. Correlates of alcohol dependence were analyzed for men only, due to low prevalence in women. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using general estimating equations to allow for within-PHC clustering. Results The prevalence of alcohol dependence was 27.2% (95%CI: 17.7-39.5%) for men and 3.9% (95%CI: 1.4-0.1%) for women. Factors associated with alcohol dependence disorder in men included being single, divorced or widowed compared with married (adjusted OR = 1.47, 95%CI: 1.00-2.14) and being unemployed (adjusted OR=1.30, 95%CI: 1.01-1.67). The highest prevalence of alcohol dependence was among HIV-test unknown TB patients (34.7%), and lowest was among HIV positive patients on treatment but without TB (14.1%), although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.38). Conclusions Male TB/HIV patients in this population have high prevalence of alcohol dependence disorder, and prevalence differs by HIV/TB status. Further work is needed to explore interventions to reduce harmful drinking in this population. PMID:24069309

  18. Prevalence and Correlates of Insomnia in a Polish Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhabenko, Nataliya; Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Insomnia is an important symptom in alcohol-dependent patients because it may persist despite abstinence and predispose to relapse to drinking. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and clinical correlates of insomnia in a sample of 302 alcohol-dependent patients admitted to treatment programs in Poland. Methods Participants were mostly men (73.8%) with a mean (SD) age of 43.5 (9.7) years. Insomnia in the past 1 month was assessed using a total score of 6 or higher on the Athens Insomnia Scale. Results Insomnia affected 62.9% of patients, and delayed sleep induction was the most common subtype. Insomnia was associated in bivariate analyses with less education, inadequate finances, problem drinking at an earlier age of onset, drinking frequency and quantity, drinking-related consequences, severity of alcohol and nicotine dependence, psychiatric and physical severity, and a childhood history of sexual or physical abuse (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that mental and physical health status, severity of alcohol dependence, number of drinking days in the past 3 months, and childhood abuse were independent predictors of insomnia, explaining approximately 30 to 40% of the variance. Conclusions More than 60% of alcohol-dependent patients in a Polish sample screened positive for insomnia using a validated scale, a rate similar to those assessed with other scales in other countries. The study also showed that insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients is associated with poor physical health and childhood abuse, similar to the general population. The multifactorial nature of insomnia in alcohol-dependent patients has treatment implications. PMID:22471339

  19. Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), the forerunner of alcohol dependence: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2014-10-01

    There are common genetic, neurobiological and psycho-social substrates for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and substance dependence. ODD can be regarded as the mildest and earliest form of disruptive behavioral disorder and also represents the threshold of vulnerability for substance dependence. But it is a less researched area. The aim of this research was to study any possible association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. Data are presented from a non probability sample of 100 adult alcohol dependent subjects and equal number of biologically unrelated control subjects. Assessment was conducted by the instrument Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism for both the assessment of ODD and alcohol dependence. The results of this study demonstrated significant association between childhood ODD and adult alcohol dependence. The association remained significant even after the exclusion of the possible confounding effects of the presence of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Our study should encourage further research in this area and is expected to open up an opportunity for preventive research.

  20. Experiences of everyday life in men with alcohol dependency--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Thurang, Anna Maria; Palmstierna, Tom; Tops, Anita Bengtsson

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning of living with alcohol dependency (AD) as a man. Studies point out a high prevalence of AD in men and the reasons for, and consequences of, that are complex. However, today there is a lack of knowledge about men's lived experiences of having AD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 alcohol dependent men and analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. In the comprehensive understanding, findings from the naïve understanding and the structural analysis were interpreted with help from both gender and caring theoretical perspectives. "A Fallible Man" and "A Man with Powerfulness" were disclosed as two main gender formations influencing senses of well-being. A Fallible Man involved varying experiences of restrictions, being in control, and meaninglessness. Being in control promoted a sense of well-being. A Man with Powerfulness involved energetic activity, and the development and maintaining of interests as well as risk-taking. Being powerful diminished feelings of meaninglessness, cravings, and social alienation. The results show, among other things, that the men live an incompatible life and, because of that, need support and guidance to find a more meaningful life. This can be accomplished if caregivers allow men to be in focus and involved in planning their own care. To avoid limiting the men while they are in treatment, the health care professionals also need to focus on the men's everyday life. This focus involves acknowledging the men's individual experiences of what enriches and limits their everyday lives.

  1. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Musselman, Samuel C.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function. PMID:24795442

  2. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  3. The Influence of Gene–Environment Interactions on the Development of Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug dependence are common psychiatric disorders with a heritability of about 50%; therefore genetic and environmental influences are equally important. Early-life stress is a predictor of adolescent problem drinking/drug use and alcohol/drug dependence in adulthood, but moderating factors governing the availability of alcohol/drug are important. The risk–resilience balance for addiction may be due in part to the interaction between genetic variation and environment stressors (G×E); this has been confirmed by twin studies of inferred genetic risk. Measured genotype studies to detect G×E effects have used a range of alcohol consumption and diagnostic phenotypes and stressors ranging from early-life to adulthood past year life events. In this article, the current state of the field is critically reviewed and suggestions are put forth for future research. PMID:22367454

  4. Diameter Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Individual SnTe Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, N.; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-03-01

    Tin telluride (SnTe), a newly discovered topological crystalline insulator, has recently been suggested to be a promising thermoelectric material. In this work, we report on a systematic study of the thermoelectric properties of individual single-crystalline SnTe nanowires with different diameters. Measurements of thermopower, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While the electrical conductivity does not show a strong diameter dependence, we found that the thermopower increases by a factor of two when the nanowire diameter is decreased from 913 nm to 218 nm. The thermal conductivity of the measured NWs is lower than that of the bulk SnTe, which may be attributed to the enhanced phonon - surface boundary scattering and phonon-defect scattering. We further calculated the temperature dependent figure of merit ZT for each individual nanowire. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science by Los Alamos National Laboratory (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Sandia National Laboratories (Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000). We acknowledge support by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  5. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  6. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders. PMID:27107672

  7. Cue reactivity and its relation to craving and relapse in alcohol dependence: a combined laboratory and field study.

    PubMed

    Witteman, Jurriaan; Post, Hans; Tarvainen, Mika; de Bruijn, Avalon; Perna, Elizabeth De Sousa Fernandes; Ramaekers, Johannes G; Wiers, Reinout W

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the nature of physiological cue reactivity and craving in response to alcohol cues among alcohol-dependent patients (N = 80) who were enrolled in detoxification treatment. Further, the predictive value with regard to future drinking of both the magnitude of the physiological and craving response to alcohol cues while in treatment and the degree of alcohol-cue exposure in patients' natural environment was assessed. Physiological reactivity and craving in response to experimental exposure to alcohol and soft drink advertisements were measured during detoxification treatment using heart rate variability and subjective rating of craving. Following discharge, patients monitored exposure to alcohol advertisements for five consecutive weeks with a diary and were followed up with an assessment of relapse at 5 weeks and 3 months post-discharge. The results indicated that the presence of alcohol cues such as the portrayal of the drug and drinking behaviour induced physiological cue reactivity and craving. Additionally, cue reactivity and craving were positively correlated, and cue reactivity was larger for patients with shorter histories of alcohol dependence. Further, patients reported a substantial daily exposure to alcohol cues. The magnitude of cue reactivity and the craving response to alcohol cues at baseline and degree of exposure to alcohol cues in patients' natural environment did not predict relapse. It is concluded that the presence of alcohol cues such as portrayal of alcoholic beverages and drinking behaviour induces cue reactivity and craving in alcohol dependence through a conditioned appetitive response.

  8. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society. PMID:27569012

  9. Research opportunities for medications to treat alcohol dependence: addressing stakeholders' needs.

    PubMed

    Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade, significant advances have been made in the development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Four medications have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating alcohol dependence-naltrexone, injectable naltrexone, acamprosate, and disulfiram-and several others show promise. The fact remains, however, that because of the heterogeneity of alcohol dependence, these medications will not work for all people, in all circumstances. Moreover, clinicians are not routinely prescribing these medications for alcohol treatment. This commentary poses a number of issues that must be addressed in order to advance the alcohol research field and to make medications a mainstream treatment for problematic drinking. These issues are framed from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved, including clinicians, patients, regulatory agencies, the pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payers. Addressing these issues will not only help to improve treatment but, as further described, will also open up many new research opportunities for alcohol investigators in the coming decade.

  10. Clinical relevance of as-needed treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Reimer, Jens; Nutt, David J; Bladström, Anna; Torup, Lars; François, Clément; Chick, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Nalmefene is the first drug approved for reduction of alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical relevance of treatment with nalmefene in alcohol-dependent patients with a high drinking risk level from two randomised placebo-controlled 6-month studies (NCT00811720 and NCT00812461). Response criteria were based on alcohol consumption, Clinical Global Impression, and Short Form Health Survey mental component summary scores at month 6, analysed using logistic regression. The proportion of responders was higher in the nalmefene group than in the placebo group with odds ratios significantly in favour of nalmefene for all responder criteria; numbers-needed-to-treat ranged from 6 to 10. Significant differences from placebo in clinician-rated and patient-reported outcomes, and liver enzymes further supported the clinical relevance of the treatment effect. In conclusion, this study supports the clinical relevance of nalmefene treatment in patients with alcohol dependence. Nalmefene may help to reduce the alcohol-related burden and the large treatment gap, with currently less than 10% of alcohol-dependent patients in Europe receiving treatment.

  11. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society.

  12. Contextual and individual demographic determinants of alcohol consumption and smoking: a comparative study in southwestern China and southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Le, Cai; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan; Apakupakul, Nualta

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between contextual and individual demographic characteristics and alcohol consumption and smoking in southwestern China and southern Thailand. In 2000, a cross-sectional study was carried out in southern Thailand on 703 subjects > or = 45 years old, and in 2005 in southwestern China on 6,006 subjects. Each participant was interviewed by trained interviewers using a standard questionnaire. Information regarding demographic characteristics, alcohol drinking and smoking was obtained. Multilevel logistic regression was used to model variation in the prevalence of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking. The findings in both countries indicate that age was negatively associated with the probability of consuming alcohol and males were more likely to consume alcohol and tobacco than females. Chinese communities with a lower level of education were more likely to smoke. Thai individuals with a higher educational level were less likely to smoke. Yi ethnicity was associated with a higher probability of drinking both at the contextual level and at the individual level in China. Non-Muslims were more likely to consume alcohol in Thailand. Future contextual and individual level interventions regarding alcohol drinking and smoking are needed in China, and further studies with larger sample sizes are needed in Thailand before conclusions can be drawn.

  13. Dissociated Accumbens and Hippocampal Structural Abnormalities across Obesity and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Elijah; Chien, Yee; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: Processing of food and drug rewards involves specific neurocircuitry, and emerging evidence implicates subcortical abnormalities, particularly the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus. We specifically hypothesized that these 2 established regions in addiction neurocircuitry are associated with distinctive in vivo structural abnormalities in obesity and alcohol dependence. Methods: To specifically investigate anatomically discrete volumetric changes associated with overconsumption of different rewards, we acquired T1 MRI data from 118 subjects in 3 groups comprising obesity (n=42), alcohol dependence (n=32), and healthy volunteer controls (n=44). To exploit novel methods of automated hippocampal subfield segmentation, we used Freesurfer software to generate volumetric data in subject groups for the hippocampal subiculum and its major striatal efferent target, the nucleus accumbens. Hypothesis-led, selective group difference comparisons were analyzed. Results: We found markedly greater accumbens volumes (P=.002) and relatively preserved hippocampal subfield volumes in obesity. Conversely, in alcohol dependence, we found preserved accumbens volumes but atrophy of specific ventral hippocampal subfields, the subiculum and presubiculum. Smaller global subcortical gray-matter volume was found in the alcohol dependence group only. Conclusions: Reward neurocircuitry including the accumbens and ventral hippocampus may show key structural abnormalities in disorders involving processing of both food and drug rewards, although the foci of disruption may vary as a function of reward modality. Structural differences may subserve altered reward and motivational processes in obesity and alcohol dependence and represent a potential biomarker for therapeutic targeting in key public health disorders. PMID:27207916

  14. Alcohol binge drinking during adolescence or dependence during adulthood reduces prefrontal myelin in male rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Wanette M; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Whitcomb, Brian W; Richardson, Heather N

    2014-10-29

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism.

  15. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits.

  16. TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels: neurobiological markers of alcohol consumption in alcohol-dependent patients?

    PubMed

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Käser, Marius; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Rhein, Mathias; Lenz, Bernd; Kornhuber, Johannes; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in 30 male alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them with the levels obtained from 18 healthy male controls. IL-6 (day 1: T = 2,593, p = 0.013; day 7: T = 2,315, p = 0.037; day 14: T = 1,650, p = 0.112) serum levels were significantly increased at the beginning of alcohol withdrawal. TNF-α (T = 3,202, p = 0.03) serum levels were significantly elevated in the patients' group during the whole period of withdrawal. IL-6 serum levels decreased significantly during withdrawal (F = 16.507, p < 0.001), whereas TNF-α levels did not change significantly (day 1-14). IL-6 serum levels were directly associated with alcohol consumption (r = 0.392, p = 0.047) on day 1. Moreover, the IL-6 serum levels were associated with alcohol craving (PACS total score day 1: r = -0.417, p = 0.022, the score of the obsessive subscale of the OCDS on day 14 [r = -0.549, p = 0.022]), depression (r = -0.507, p = 0.005), and trait anxiety (r = -0.674, p < 0.001) on day 1. We found an association with the duration of active drinking following the last period of abstinence and the TNF-α serum levels (day 1:r = 0.354, p = 0.009; day 7: r = 0.323, p = 0.022; day 14: r = 0.303, p = 0.034) as well as an association with the severity of alcohol dependence measured by the SESA scale (r = 0.454, p = 0.015). Moreover, we found a significant association between the BDNF serum levels and the TNF-α serum levels (r = -0.426, p = 0.021). Our results support an association between alterations in TNF-α and IL-6 serum levels and alcohol consumption. PMID:25262503

  17. Association of ADH and ALDH Genes With Alcohol Dependence in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence (IASPSAD) Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Po-Hsiu; Kalsi, Gursharan; Prescott, Carol A.; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Goldman, David; van den Oord, Edwin J.; Alexander, Jeffry; Jiang, Cizhong; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Patterson, Diana G.; Walsh, Dermot; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Riley, Brien P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The genes coding for ethanol metabolism enzymes [alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)] have been widely studied for their influence on the risk to develop alcohol dependence (AD). However, the relation between polymorphisms of these metabolism genes and AD in Caucasian subjects has not been clearly established. The present study examined evidence for the association of alcohol metabolism genes with AD in the Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of alcohol dependence. Methods: We conducted a case–control association study with 575 independent subjects who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, AD diagnosis and 530 controls. A total of 77 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the seven ADH (ADH1-7) and two ALDH genes (ALDH1A1 and ALDH2) were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate protocols. Several statistical procedures were implemented to control for false discoveries. Results: All markers with minor allele frequency greater than 0.01 were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium. Numerous SNPs in ADH genes showed association with AD, including one marker in the coding region of ADH1C (rs1693482 in exon6, Ile271Gln). Haplotypic association was observed in the ADH5 and ADH1C genes, and in a long haplotype block formed by the ADH1A and ADH1B loci. We detected two significant interactions between pairs of markers in intron 6 of ADH6 and intron 12 of ALDH2 (p = 5 × 10−5), and 5′ of both ADH4 and ADH1A (p = 2 × 10−4). Conclusion: We found evidence for the association of several ADH genes with AD in a sample of Western European origin. The significant interaction effects between markers in ADH and ALDH genes suggest possible epistatic roles between alcohol metabolic enzymes in the risk for AD. PMID:18331377

  18. Suicidal Behavior and Haplotypes of the Dopamine Receptor Gene (DRD2) and ANKK1 Gene Polymorphisms in Patients with Alcohol Dependence – Preliminary Report

    PubMed Central

    Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Małecka, Iwona; Suchanecka, Aleksandra; Grzywacz, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is a significant public health issue and a major cause of death throughout the world. According to WHO it accounts for almost 2% of deaths worldwide. The etiology of suicidal behavior is complex but the results of many studies suggest that genetic determinants are of significant importance. In our study,- we have analyzed selected SNPs polymorphisms in the DRD2 and ANKK1 genes in patients with alcohol dependence syndrome (169 Caucasian subjects) including a subgroup of individuals (n = 61) who have experienced at least one suicide attempt. The aim of the study was to verify if various haplotypes of selected genes, comprising Taq1A, Taq1B, and Taq1D single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), play any role in the development of alcohol dependence and suicidal behavior. The control group comprised 157 unrelated individuals matched for ethnicity, gender,- and age and included no individuals with mental disorders. All subjects were recruited in the North West region of Poland. The study showed that alcohol dependent subjects with a history of at least one suicidal attempt were characterized by a significantly higher frequency of the T-G-A2 haplotype when compared to individuals in whom alcohol dependence was not associated with suicidal behavior (p = 0.006). It appears that studies based on identifying correlation between SNPs is the future for research on genetic risk factors that contribute to the development of alcohol addiction and other associated disorders. To sum up, there is a necessity to perform further research to explain dependencies between the dopaminergic system, alcohol use disorders and suicidal behavior. PMID:25415204

  19. Cue-Elicited Affect and Craving: Advancement of the Conceptualization of Craving in Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I.; Berenz, Erin C.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults…

  20. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics, opiate dependence subjects, methadone maintained subjects and mixed alcohol-opiate antecedents subjects compared with normal controls.

    PubMed

    Kornreich, Charles; Foisy, Marie-Line; Philippot, Pierre; Dan, Bernard; Tecco, Juan; Noël, Xavier; Hess, Ursula; Pelc, Isidore; Verbanck, Paul

    2003-08-01

    The present study aims to explore whether an impairment in emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding is specific to alcoholism compared with opiate dependence. An EFE decoding test consisting of 16 photographs of EFE portraying happiness, anger, sadness and disgust was administered to five different groups of 30 subjects each: recently detoxified alcoholics (RA); opiate addicts under methadone maintenance treatment (OM); detoxified opiate addicts (OA); detoxified subjects with both alcohol and opiate dependence antecedents (DAO); and normal controls (NC). Repeated measures analysis of variance using a multivariate approach was conducted on EFE decoding accuracy scores with group as the between-subjects factor. Accuracy scores were significantly lower in RA and DAO than in OM and OA, which had significantly lower scores than NC. Low accuracy scores in RA and DAO confirm previous results indicating that alcoholism is associated with impaired EFE recognition. Results in OM and OA indicate that opiate dependence is also associated with an impaired EFE decoding but less than in alcoholism. Alcohol and opiate chronic consumption could both exercise a deleterious effect on EFE-decoding brain function, alcohol having the most severe impact. Alternatively, EFE-decoding problems could be present before the development of alcohol and opiate dependence, with an additional effect of chronic alcohol consumption on EFE decoding. In this context, EFE-decoding impairment could reflect a more general emotional intelligence deficit in addicted populations.

  1. Impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts in patients treated for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Czyz, Ewa; Strobbe, Stephen; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Glass, Jennifer; Brower, Kirk J.

    2009-01-01

    Background Suicidal behavior has been recognized as an increasing problem among alcohol-dependent subjects. The aim of the study was to identify correlates of impulsive and non-impulsive suicide attempts among a treated population of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence consecutively admitted for addiction treatment participated in the study. Suicidal behavior was assessed together with severity of alcohol dependence, childhood abuse, impulsivity, and family history. A stop-signal procedure was used as a behavioral measure of impulsivity. Results and conclusions Lifetime suicide attempts were reported by 43% of patients in alcohol treatment; of which 62% were impulsive. Compared to patients without a suicide attempt, those with a non-impulsive attempt were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse (OR = 7.17), a family history of suicide (OR = 4.09), and higher scores on a personality measure of impulsiveness (OR = 2.27). The only significant factor that distinguished patients with impulsive suicide attempts from patients without a suicide attempt and from patients with a non-impulsive suicide attempt was a higher level of behavioral impulsivity (OR = 1.84 – 2.42). Limitations Retrospective self-report of suicide attempts and family history. Lack of diagnostic measure. PMID:18835498

  2. Moderators of Varenicline Treatment Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial for Alcohol Dependence: an Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Daniel E.; Castle, I-Jen P.; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne; Litten, Raye Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore if varenicline (Chantix®) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multi-site trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to determine if certain subgroups responded more favorably than others to treatment with varenicline. Methods Data were drawn from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-site 13-week trial of varenicline in alcohol dependent patients (Litten et al., 2013). Seventeen moderator variables were selected for exploratory testing on the basis of theoretical and scientific interest. Results Of the 17 moderator variables assessed, four were statistically significant, including cigarettes per day reduction, treatment drinking goal, years drinking regularly, and age of patient. Two other variables—the type of adverse events experienced by patients and the severity of alcohol-related consequences—appeared to moderate the varenicline treatment effect at borderline statistical significance. Individuals who reduced the number of cigarettes per day experienced a significant effect from varenicline in reducing drinking, whereas those who did not change or who increased their number of cigarettes observed no beneficial effect. Reviewing the moderators related to severity, varenicline appeared to have greater efficacy than placebo among less severely-dependent patients. Conclusions Varenicline appears to be more efficacious in certain subgroups, particularly in those who reduced their smoking and in the “less severe” patient. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the results of these exploratory analyses. PMID:26083958

  3. IMPULSIVE SUICIDE ATTEMPTS PREDICT POST-TREATMENT RELAPSE IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENT PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Ilgen, Mark A.; Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Wnorowska, Anna; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Brower, Kirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study was designed to examine the influence of suicidality on relapse in alcohol-dependent patients. Specifically, a lifetime suicide attempt at baseline was used to predict relapse in the year after treatment. Also, the unique contribution of impulsive suicide attempts was examined. Methods A total of 154 patients with alcohol dependence, consecutively admitted to four addiction treatment facilities in Warsaw, Poland participated in the study. Of the 154 eligible patients, 118 (76.6%) completed a standardized follow-up assessment at 12 months. Results Previous suicide attempts were common in adults treated for alcohol dependence with 43% patients in the present sample reporting an attempt at some point during their lifetime. Additionally, more than 62% of those with a lifetime suicide attempt reported making an impulsive attempt. Lifetime suicide attempts were not associated with post-treatment relapse (chi-square=2.37, df=1, p=0.124). However, impulsive suicide attempts strongly predicted relapse (OR=2.81, 95%C.I. = 1.13–6.95, p=0.026) and time to relapse (OR=2.10, 95% C.I. = 1.18–3.74, p=0.012) even after adjusting for other measures of baseline psychopathology, depression, impulsivity, hopelessness and alcohol use severity. Conclusions This study is the first to document the relationship between pre-treatment impulsive suicide attempts and higher likelihood of post-treatment relapse in alcohol-dependent patents. Clinicians should routinely conduct an assessment for previous suicide attempts in patients with alcohol use disorders, and when impulsive suicidality is reported, they should recognize the increased risk for relapse and formulate their patients' treatment plans accordingly with the goals of reducing both alcoholic relapse and suicide rates. PMID:18556146

  4. Are the effects of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) treatment partly physiological in alcohol dependence?

    PubMed

    Ameisen, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the therapeutic effects of Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in alcohol dependence could be related to ethanol-mimicking action of the drug and that GHB could reduce alcohol craving, intake and withdrawal by acting as a "substitute" of the alcohol in the central nervous system. Nevertheless, alcohol being the strongest trigger of craving and intake, it is difficult to ascribe reduction of craving and intake to ethanol-mimicking activity of GHB. I have recently proposed that alcohol/substance dependence could result from a GHB-deficiency-related dysphoric syndrome in which alcohol/substances would be sought to "substitute" for insufficient GHB effect. GHB is the sole identified naturally occurring gamma-aminobutyric acid B (GABA (B)) receptor agonist. Here, I propose that exogenous GHB might in fact "substitute" for deficient endogeneous GHB and represent true substitutive treatment for GHB-deficiency. And that baclofen and GHB could both compensate for deficient effect of the physiological GABA (B) receptor agonist(s).

  5. ADDITIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND CLINICAL EVIDENCES ON THE RELEVANCE OF THE SYSTEMIC THERAPY IN ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE.

    PubMed

    Alexinschi, Ovidiu; Chirita, Roxana; Manuela, Padurariu; Ciobica, Alin; Dobrin, Romeo; Petrariu, F D; Timofte, Daniel; Chirita, Vasile

    2015-01-01

    The modern treatment for alcohol dependence is still problematic, in many cases with the costs exceeding benefits. In these conditions a new management approach was developed lately, known as the systemic therapy. In this way, the crystallization and practical transposition of this new treatment approach is represented by the Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment. These clubs are in fact a form of psycho-social intervention consisting of multi-family communities in order to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol and to change their lifestyle and behavior. Thus, in the present paper we were interested in understanding the demographics of this systemic theory and how these aspects are influencing the final results of the therapy, as well as studying/confirming how relevant is this systemic approach on the management of alcohol dependence. Our results presented in this report bring additional evidences for the superiority of the systemic, multi-family approach of alcohol-related problems, as complemented to the standard medicinal therapy. Moreover, the data collected from patients in this study might suggest that patients with a higher educational level and therefore better capacity of understanding the information, with family support, and also with a better occupational insertion, have accepted to follow The Clubs of Alcoholics in Treatment program, with a subsequently better evolution. PMID:26793858

  6. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, Nan; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Wang, Jian; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a potentially promising thermoelectric material because of its similar electronic band structure as the well-known lead telluride. Here we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single crystalline SnTe nanowires (NWs) with different diameters ranging from ~200 to ~1000 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ, and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While σ does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of 2 when the nanowire diameter is decreased from 1000 nm to 200 nm. The thermal conductivities of the measured NWs are only about half of that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon-grain boundary and phonon-defect scatterings. Temperature dependent figure-of-merit ZT was determined and the maximum value at room temperature is ~3 times higher than what was obtained in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.

  7. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, Nan; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Wang, Jian; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a potentially promising thermoelectric material because of its similar electronic band structure as the well-known lead telluride. Here we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single crystalline SnTe nanowires (NWs) with different diameters ranging from ~200 to ~1000 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ, and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While σ does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of 2 when the nanowiremore » diameter is decreased from 1000 nm to 200 nm. The thermal conductivities of the measured NWs are only about half of that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon-grain boundary and phonon-defect scatterings. Temperature dependent figure-of-merit ZT was determined and the maximum value at room temperature is ~3 times higher than what was obtained in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.« less

  8. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  9. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  10. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the... Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82...

  11. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  12. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases. PMID:19735195

  13. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  14. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  15. The outcome of patients sustaining a proximal femur fracture who suffer from alcohol dependency.

    PubMed

    Faroug, R; Amanat, S; Ockendon, M; Shah, S V; Gregory, J J

    2014-07-01

    There are many negative health consequences associated with alcohol dependency. Fractures of the proximal femur carry significant morbidity and mortality. This study examines the outcomes in patients with alcohol dependency, who sustain a fracture of the proximal femur. Twenty-eight consecutive alcohol dependent patients who suffered a fracture of the proximal femur were identified over a three year period. Data were collected on demographics, co-morbidity, surgical factors, mobility and mortality. The median age of patients was 61 years. The median weekly alcohol intake was 158 units. Thirteen patients sustained an extra-capsular fracture and 15 an intra-capsular proximal femoral fracture. Twenty-two fractures were treated with internal fixation and six with arthroplasty. The overall mortality rate was 29% at a median of 15 months post fracture. The failure rate of intra-capsular fractures fixed with cannulated screws was 56% at a median time of 43 days. All patients had a reduction in mobility compared to their pre-operative function. The reduction in mobility was greatest in patients with intra-capsular fractures treated with cannulated screw fixation. Alcohol dependent patients sustaining a fracture of the proximal femur are significantly younger than non-alcohol dependent patients sustaining the same injury. Despite the younger age at presentation the one year mortality rate of this group was high (29%). The high rate of complications with fracture fixation and high one year mortality suggest that hemiarthroplasty may be the best treatment option for intra-capsular fractures in this patient group.

  16. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Kallupi, Marsida; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Carmichael, Casey Y; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-09-01

    Electrophysiological data suggest a dual role of Y2 receptors (Y2 Rs) as autoreceptors regulating neuropeptide Y release and heteroceptors regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid release in the central amygdala (CeA). Here, we report that neither systemic (JNJ-31020028) nor intra-CeA (BIIE0246) Y2 R antagonism altered operant alcohol responding by alcohol-dependent or non-dependent rats. Conversely, BIIE0246 in the CeA reduced anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-naïve rats. The finding that Y2 R antagonism reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking suggests that these two effects may occur via different functions of the Y2 R (e.g. autoreceptor versus heteroceptor function).

  17. A Preliminary Examination of the Relationships between Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Crack/Cocaine, Heroin, and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tull, Matthew T.; Gratz, Kim L.; Aklin, Will M.; Lejuez, C.W.

    2009-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between posttraumatic stress (PTS) and substance use disorders (SUDs) have led to the suggestion that substance use among individuals experiencing PTS symptoms might serve a self-medication function. However, research is still needed to provide a more comprehensive evaluation of the unique associations between PTS symptom clusters and substances (licit and illicit) with both anxiolytic/depressant and stimulant properties. Consequently, this study examined the relationship between severity of different PTS symptom clusters and heroin, crack/cocaine, and alcohol dependence among 48 treatment-seeking SUD patients with a history of traumatic exposure. No evidence was found for a relationship between PTS symptom clusters and crack/cocaine or alcohol dependence; however, results suggested a relationship between hyperarousal and avoidance (inversely-related) symptoms and heroin dependence. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for understanding motivations underlying the substance of choice among individuals with PTS symptoms, as well as the development of treatments for co-occurring PTS and SUDs. PMID:19767174

  18. Preventive Effects of Forced Exercise against Alcohol-induced Physical Dependency and Reduction of Pain Perception Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Ghaleni, Majid Asadi; Motaghinejad, Ozra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Treatment of postabstinence syndrome of alcohol is one of the major strategies of alcoholism treatment. Exercise can be modulated major brain pathways such as a reward system and pain perception centers. The aim of this study was to evaluation the effects of forced exercise in the management of alcohol dependence and pain perception alteration which induced by alcoholism. Methods: 72 adult male rats were divided into 2 major groups: (1) 40 of them was divided into groups of positive control (alcohol dependent) negative control and alcohol dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise, diazepam (0.4 mg/kg) and forced exercise in combination with diazepam and alcohol withdrawal signs, and blood cortisols, were measured in this groups. (2) 32 rats were divided into control, alcohol dependent (without treatment), and alcohol-dependent groups under treatment by forced exercise or indometacin (5 mg/kg) and then pain perception was assessed by using writhing test, tail-flick and hot plate test. Results: Forced exercise, diazepam, and their combinations significantly attenuates withdrawal syndrome to 20 ± 2, 22 ± 1.3 and 16 ± 2 and blood cortisol level to 6.8 ± 1.3,7.9 ± 1.2 and 5.8 ± 1.1, respectively, in comparison with the positive control group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001). In alcohol dependent animal under treatment by forced exercise, pain response significantly inhibited with 37%, 57% and 38% decreases in writhing test, hot plate, and tail-flick test, respectively, in comparison with alcohol dependent (without treatment) group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggested that forced exercise can be useful as adjunct therapy in alcoholism patient and also can be effective in modulation of pain threshold reduction that was induced by alcohol dependency. PMID:25400889

  19. [Psychometric properties of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) in a sample of smokers treated for their alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Becoña, Elisardo; Nogueiras, Luis; Flórez, Gerardo; Alvarez, Sandra; Vázquez, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    The assessment of nicotine dependence with brief instruments is of great relevance for the better detection of this disorder. Here we present the results with the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) by Shiffman, Waters and Hickcox (2004) in a sample of 183 patients treated at an Alcohol Dependence Unit who were also cigarette smokers. The results indicate that the general factor which evaluates nicotine dependence (NDSS-T) has good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80). Factor analysis identifies four of the five factors proposed in the original version, those of drive, priority, continuity and stereotypy. Reliability of the scales derived ranges from very good (0.80) to moderate (0.63). The NDSS-T correlates significantly with the Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire (FTQ), with the DSM-IV criteria for nicotine dependence assessed through the SCID, and with the number of cigarettes smoked per day. The ROC curves indicate an NDSS-T score of 0.80 under the curve (0.70 for the FTND), showing that it adequately predicts nicotine dependence. This study confirms the utility of this new instrument for assessing nicotine dependence in smokers who also abuse or depend upon alcohol.

  20. Cortical Thickness, Surface Area and Volume of the Brain Reward System in Alcohol Dependence: Relationships to Relapse and Extended Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Tosun, Duygu; Buckley, Shannon; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Mon, Anderson; Fryer, Susanna L.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND At least 60% of those treated for an alcohol use disorder will relapse. Empirical study of the integrity of the brain reward system (BRS) is critical to understanding the mechanisms of relapse as this collection of circuits is implicated in the development and maintenance of all forms of addictive disorders. This study compared thickness, surface area and volume in neocortical components of the BRS among non-smoking light drinking controls (Controls), individuals who remained abstinent and those who relapsed after treatment. METHODS Seventy-five treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals (abstinent for 7 ± 3 days) and 43 Controls completed 1.5T proton magnetic resonance imaging studies. Parcellated morphological data was obtained for following bilateral components of the BRS: rostral and caudal anterior cingulate cortex, insula, medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex, rostral and caudal middle and superior frontal gyri, amygdala and hippocampus as well as for 26 other bilateral neocortical regions. Alcohol dependent participants were followed over 12-months after baseline study and were classified as Abstainers (no alcohol consumption; n=24) and Relapsers (any alcohol consumption; n=51) at follow-up. RESULTS Relapsers and Abstainers demonstrated lower cortical thickness in the vast majority of BRS regions as well as lower global thickness compared to Controls. Relapsers had lower total BRS surface area than both Controls and Abstainers, but Abstainers were not significantly different from Controls on any surface area measure. Relapsers demonstrated lower volumes than Controls in the majority of regions, while Abstainers showed lower volumes than Controls in the superior frontal gyrus, insula, amygdala and hippocampus, bilaterally. Relapsers exhibited smaller volumes than Abstainers in the right rostral middle and caudal middle frontal gyri and the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, bilaterally. In Relapsers, lower baseline volumes and surface areas in

  1. Alcohol abuse-duration dependent decrease in plasma testosterone and antioxidants in males.

    PubMed

    Maneesh, M; Dutta, Sanjiba; Chakrabarti, Amit; Vasudevan, D M

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol is a testicular toxin and it causes fertility abnormalities with low sperm count and impaired sperm motility in men. The present study was designed to investigate plasma testosterone level and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis function in alcoholic men and also effect of ethanol on systemic oxidative stress. Forty six male alcohol abusers in the age group 20-40 years were selected. Fifty five, males in the same age group served as control. Alcohol abusers had significantly low plasma testosterone with low luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone. In addition they had significantly high thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase, and low glutathione, ascorbic acid, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase. Moreover, serum testosterone level in alcoholics negatively correlated with duration of alcohol abuse, and TBARS. Duration dependent decreased serum testosterone level in alcohol abusers might be due to 1) increased oxidative stress which can damage Leydig and supporting Sertoli cells and 2) impaired HPG axis.

  2. A follow up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Guerrini, Irene; Gentili, Claudio; Nelli, Gloria; Guazzelli, Mario

    2006-01-01

    Background We carried out a three months follow-up study on the efficacy of metadoxine in a cohort of alcoholics admitted to the Alcohol misuse Long-term Treatment (ALT) Unit – University of Pisa (Italy). We analyzed the clinical data, psychometric tests and blood tests of 160 alcoholics on admission and after 3 months of treatment. We compared 58 pts treated with metadoxine (MET) with 102 pts who did not receive (NULL) any drug as an adjunct to the psycho-educational interventions provided by the ALT Unit. Results At follow-up, the patients in treatment with metadoxine showed a significant improvement in the rate of complete abstinence (44.8% vs. 21.6%; chi square: 8.45, df = 1, p < 0.0037). Furthermore, the number of drop-outs at three months of treatment was also significantly lower in the MET than in the NULL group (17% vs. 57%; chi square of 23.22, df = 1, p < 0.001). Conclusion Our findings support the use of metadoxine in the management of alcohol dependence. However, randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm and replicate them. This study raises the importance of identifying new pharmacological compounds effective on the outcome of alcoholism in order to help patients to best adhere to treatment programs and to prevent the development of mental and physical complications due to chronic and heavy use of alcohol. PMID:17176456

  3. Seeing the forest before the trees depends on individual field-dependency characteristics.

    PubMed

    Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Jobard, Gael; Mellet, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the well-known global precedence effect, characterized by a visual bias toward global information, is highly dependent on stimulus characteristics (Kimchi, 1992). Despite the extensive global-local literature, few studies have investigated how interindividual characteristics could affect the global precedence effect. In this framework, we studied the relationship between global-local visual biases and the Group Embedded Figure Test (GEFT), a standardized measure of field dependency. Data from 34 participants were consistent with the idea that an individual's bias toward the global level is linearly related to his or her degree of field dependence. Given the important role that global-local visual skills play during visuospatial tasks, these results have important implications for future research in this area.

  4. Suppression of Alcohol Dependence Using Baclofen: A 2-Year Observational Study of 100 Patients

    PubMed Central

    de Beaurepaire, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of baclofen in a large cohort of alcohol-dependent patients compliant to baclofen treatment. Methods: A hundred patients with alcohol dependence, resistant to usual treatments, were treated with escalating doses of baclofen (no superior limit). Alcohol consumption (in grams) and craving for alcohol were assessed before treatment and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Assessments were simply based on patients’ statements. The outcome measure was the consumption of alcohol, rated according to the World Health Organization criteria for risk of chronic harm. Results: While all patients were rated “at high risk” at baseline, approximately half of them were rated “at low risk” at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The sum of patients who were at “low risk” and at “moderate risk” (improved patients) was 84% at 3 months, 70% at 6 months, 63% at 1 year, and 62% at 2 years. The constancy of improvement over the 2-years was remarkable. The average maximal dose of baclofen taken was 147 mg/day. Ninety-two percentage of patients reported that they experienced the craving-suppressing effect of baclofen. Significant relationships were found between the amount in grams of alcohol taken before treatment and the maximal dose of baclofen required, and between the existence of a mental disorder and a lesser effect of baclofen. Conclusion: Baclofen produces an effortless decrease or suppression of alcohol craving when it is prescribed with no superior limit of dose. Potential limitations in the effectiveness of baclofen include the coexistence of a mental disorder, the concomitant use of other psychotropic drugs, a lack of real motivation in patients to stop drinking, and the impossibility to reach the optimal dose of baclofen because of unbearable side-effects (sometimes possibly related to too sharp a protocol of dose escalation). PMID:23316172

  5. [Psychopathological symptoms and personality traits in alcohol-dependent patients: a comparative study].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to describe the psychopathological and personality profile associated with alcohol dependence and to compare it with those of non-addictive disorders and the normal population. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent participants attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic, 120 psychiatric patients with non-addictive disorders and 103 participants from the general population chosen to match the patient samples for age, gender and socioeconomic level. All participants were assessed with different instruments related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation-Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Maladjustment Scale) and personality disorders (MCMI-II). Patients from the clinical groups presented more symptoms of anxiety and depression than the healthy participants and had more problems adjusting to everyday life, but there were no differences between the two clinical groups. Alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking than the other two groups. Histrionic, narcissistic and antisocial personality disorders were specific to the alcohol-dependent patients. The implications of this study for further research are discussed.

  6. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  7. Continuum beliefs and stigmatizing attitudes towards persons with schizophrenia, depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schomerus, Georg; Matschinger, Herbert; Angermeyer, Matthias C

    2013-10-30

    Separation is a central step in the process of stigmatizing persons with mental disorders. We examine whether belief in a continuum of symptoms from mental health to mental illness is associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. In a representative population survey in Germany (n=3642), using case-vignettes of persons suffering from schizophrenia, depression or alcohol dependence, we measured belief in a continuity of symptoms, emotional reactions and desire for social distance related to the person described in the vignette. While 42% of respondents agreed in symptom continuity for depression, this percentage was 26% for schizophrenia and 27% for alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs were associated in general with more positive emotional reactions and less desire for social distance. This relationship was strongest for schizophrenia, followed by alcohol dependence. Continuum beliefs thus seem to be associated with less stigmatizing attitudes, particularly regarding schizophrenia and alcohol dependence. Educational information on the continuous nature of most psychopathological phenomena could usefully be integrated in anti-stigma messages.

  8. Integrated Psychosocial and Opioid-Antagonist Treatment for Alcohol Dependence: A Systematic Review of Controlled Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, Michael G.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2004-01-01

    Methodological characteristics and outcomes of 14 controlled clinical investigations of integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist alcohol dependence treatment were evaluated. The 14 studies were identified through computerized bibliographic and manual literature searches. Clients receiving integrated psychosocial and opioid-antagonist…

  9. The contribution of emotional maltreatment to alcohol dependence in a treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Studies reporting a link between child maltreatment and addiction have typically focused on physical and sexual abuse. In contrast, emotional maltreatment has rarely been studied in substance-abusing samples although it is associated with a wide range of dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the specific impact of different types of maltreatment and peer victimization on alcohol dependence and to examine the potentially mediating role of psychopathology. A sample of treatment seeking adults with alcohol dependence (N=72) underwent an extensive clinical examination including both a standardized interview and self-report measures. Child maltreatment, peer victimization, severity of alcohol dependence, and general psychopathology were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that emotional maltreatment was the strongest predictor of alcohol dependence severity whereas a unique contribution of peer victimization was not found. Our findings suggest that emotional maltreatment might have a major role in the etiology of AD that seems to exceed the contribution of other abuse and victimization experiences. Thereby, the study underscores the need for considering child maltreatment experiences in the prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24561015

  10. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  11. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  12. Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jesse J.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men, but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender response to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems, or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. PMID:19034737

  13. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  14. Does psychiatric comorbidity in alcohol-dependent patients affect treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Hintz, Thomas; Jung, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Comorbidity in alcohol research refers to the presence of alcohol dependency and another major psychiatric disorder. The existence of additional disorders may have consequences for treatment planning and success. The aims of this paper are therefore: 1) to give an overview on prevalence rates in studies with representative cohorts and hospital-based samples; 2) to report results on gender differences and 3) to determine the impact of comorbidity on treatment outcome. Comorbidity was examined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) in N = 118 (61 male and 57 female) alcohol-dependent patients who were socially well integrated. Results show that 65% of the female patients but only 28% of the male patients had a lifetime history of additional psychiatric disorders. Significantly more phobic/anxiety disorders, mood disorders occur in female patients. One year after inpatient treatment, overall 39% had suffered a relapse. More detailed analysis revealed that 55% of the non-comorbid but only 28% of the comorbid women suffered a relapse, thus contradicting our initial hypothesis that comorbid patients have a poorer prognosis with regard to their alcohol dependence. Male comorbid (40.9%) and non-comorbid (35.3%) patients showed no significant differences regarding relapse rates.

  15. Use of genetic analyses to refine phenotypes related to alcohol tolerance and dependence.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, J C

    2001-02-01

    Various explanations for the dependence on alcohol are attributed to the development of tolerance to some of alcohol's effects, alterations in sensitivity to its rewarding effects, and unknown pathologic consequences of repeated exposure. All these aspects of dependence have been modeled in laboratory rodents, and these studies have consistently shown a significant influence of genetics. Genetic mapping studies have identified the genomic location of the specific genes for some of these contributing phenotypes. In addition, studies have shown that some genes in mice seem to affect both alcohol self-administration and alcohol withdrawal severity: genetic predisposition to high levels of drinking covaries with genetic predisposition to low withdrawal severity, and vice versa. Finally, the role of genetic background on which genes are expressed is important, as are the specifics of the environment in which genetically defined animals are tested. Understanding dependence will require disentangling the multiple interactions of many contributing phenotypes, and genetic analyses are proving very helpful. However, rigorous understanding of both gene-gene and gene-environment interactions will be required to interpret genetic experiments clearly.

  16. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract....

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. Power Dependence in Individual Bargaining: The Expected Utility of Influence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawler, Edward J.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    1979-01-01

    This study uses power-dependence theory as a framework for examining whether and how parties use information on each other's dependence to estimate the utility of an influence attempt. The effect of dependence in expected utilities is investigated (by role playing) in bargaining between employer and employee for a pay raise. (MF)

  1. An empirical description of phases of maintenance following treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S A; Hoffman, A L

    1993-01-01

    This article reports two longitudinal prospective studies conducted sequentially to describe participants' maintenance of abstinence experiences up to 36 months posttreatment. Study 1 reports responses of 102 subjects who maintained alcohol abstinence following treatment and who were assessed for duration and intensity of symptoms associated with postacute withdrawal at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. A decreasing linear trend of symptoms was found as time of alcohol abstinence increased. Study 2 obtained interview and survey data from 23 successful abstainers from Study 1 at 12, 18, and 36 months posttreatment to describe coping strategies, perceptions of relapse risk, extent and duration of "aftercare," and substitute addictions as these phenomena developed and changed over time. Multiple occasions of data collection supported the description of three phases of maintenance: symptom stabilization/management accompanied by a cognitive paradigm shift, distancing self from alcohol-dependent behavior, and normalization of life processes.

  2. [Gender differences in alcohol dependence: personality variables, psychopathological profile and personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Echeburúa, Enrique; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-05-01

    In this paper, gender differences in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders of alcohol-dependent patients are described. The sample consisted of 158 alcohol-dependent patients attending a psychiatric outpatient clinic (105 men and 55 women). All participants were assessed with various assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). There were no differences in personality variables, but the women had more anxiety and depressive symptoms and also more problems to adapt to everyday life than did the men. Personality disorders were not as prevalent as in the case of men, and the most frequent among women were obsessive-compulsive, dependent and histrionic personality disorders. Implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  3. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Alcoholic Liver Disease Via a Macrophage Autophagy-Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Denaës, Timothé; Lodder, Jasper; Chobert, Marie-Noële; Ruiz, Isaac; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of the liver, play a major role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We have previously demonstrated that CB2 receptor protects against alcoholic liver disease by inhibiting alcohol-induced inflammation and steatosis via the regulation of Kupffer cell activation. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying these effects and hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of CB2 receptor in Kupffer cells rely on activation of autophagy. For this purpose, mice invalidated for CB2 receptor (CB2Mye−/− mice) or for the autophagy gene ATG5 (ATG5Mye−/− mice) in the myeloid lineage, and their littermate wild-type mice were subjected to chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. CB2Mye−/− mice showed exacerbated alcohol-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and steatosis. Studies in cultured macrophages demonstrated that CB2 receptor activation by JWH-133 stimulated autophagy via a heme oxygenase-1 dependent pathway. Moreover, JWH-133 reduced the induction of inflammatory genes by lipopolysaccharide in wild-type macrophages, but not in ATG5-deficient cells. The CB2 agonist also protected from alcohol-induced liver inflammation and steatosis in wild-type mice, but not in ATG5Mye−/− mice demonstrating that macrophage autophagy mediates the anti-inflammatory and anti-steatogenic effects of CB2 receptor. Altogether these results demonstrate that CB2 receptor activation in macrophages protects from alcohol-induced steatosis by inhibiting hepatic inflammation through an autophagy-dependent pathway. PMID:27346657

  4. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Ethanol is a renewable biofuel, and it can be produced from lignocellulosic biomass. The biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates that consist of sugar and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Yeast ferments sugar to ethanol, but furfural higher than 3 mM is inhibitory. It can take several days for yeast cells to reduce furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol before producing ethanol. Bioreduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol before fermentation may relieve yeast from furfural toxicity. We observed that Cupriavidus necator JMP134, a strict aerobe, rapidly reduced 17 mM furfural to less than 3 mM within 14 min with cell turbidity of 1.0 at 600 nm at 50°C. The rapid reduction consumed ethanol. The "furfural reductase" (FurX) was purified, and it oxidized ethanol to acetaldehyde and reduced furfural to furfuryl alcohol with NAD(+) as the cofactor. The protein was identified with mass spectrometry fingerprinting to be a hypothetical protein belonging to Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase family. The furX-inactivation mutant of C. necator JMP134 lost the ability to rapidly reduce furfural, and Escherichia coli producing recombinant FurX gained the ability. Thus, an alcohol dehydrogenase enabled bacteria to rapidly reduce furfural with ethanol as the reducing power.

  5. Nicotine Modulates Alcohol-Seeking and Relapse by Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats in a Time Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Getachew, Bruk; Oster, Scott M.; Dhaher, Ronnie; Ding, Zheng-Ming; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol is frequently co-abused with smoking. In humans, nicotine use can increase alcohol craving and consumption. The objectives of the current study were to assess the acute effects of nicotine on alcohol seeking and relapse at two different time points. Method Adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were trained in 2-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% EtOH (v/v) and water on a concurrent fixed-ratio 5 – fixed-ratio 1 (FR5-FR1) schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-hr sessions. Following 10 weeks of daily 1-hr sessions, rats underwent 7 extinction sessions, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without EtOH or water being present for 4 sessions (Pavlovian Spontaneous Recovery [PSR]). Rats were then given a week in their home cage before being returned to the operant chambers with access to EtOH and water (relapse). Nicotine (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1.0 mg/kg) was injected s.c. immediately or 4-hr prior to PSR or relapse testing. Results Injections of nicotine immediately prior to testing reduced (5–10 responses PSR; 50–60 responses relapse), whereas injections of nicotine 4-hr prior to testing increased (up to 150 responses for PSR; up to 400 responses for relapse with 1.0 mg/kg dose) responses on the EtOH lever during PSR and relapse tests. Discussion The results of this study demonstrate that acute effects of nicotine on EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors may be time-dependent, with the immediate effects being a result of nicotine possibly acting as a substitute for EtOH whereas, with a delay of 4-hr, priming effects of nicotine alterations in nicotinic receptors, and/or the effects of nicotine’s metabolites (i.e., cotinine, nornicotine) may enhance the expression of EtOH-seeking and relapse behaviors. PMID:21689122

  6. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  7. A Review of the Interactions between Alcohol and the Endocannabinoid System: Implications for Alcohol Dependence and Future Directions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Pava, Matthew J.; Woodward, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past fifty years a significant body of evidence has been compiled suggesting an interaction between the endocannabinoid (EC) system and alcohol dependence. However, much of this work has been conducted only in the past two decades following the elucidation of the molecular constituents of the EC system that began with the serendipitous discovery of the cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1). Since then, novel pharmacological and genetic tools have enabled researchers to manipulate select components of the EC system, to determine their contribution to the motivation to consume ethanol. From these preclinical studies, it is evident that CB1 contributes the motivational and reinforcing properties of ethanol, and chronic consumption of ethanol alters EC transmitter levels and CB1 expression in brain nuclei associated with addiction pathways. These results are augmented by in vitro and ex vivo studies showing that acute and chronic treatment with ethanol produces physiologically relevant alterations in the function of the EC system. This report provides a current and comprehensive review of the literature regarding the interactions between ethanol and the EC system. We begin be reviewing the studies published prior to the discovery of the EC system that compared the behavioral and physiological effects of cannabinoids with ethanol in addition to cross-tolerance between these drugs. Next, a brief overview of the molecular constituents of the EC system is provided as context for the subsequent review of more recent studies examining the interaction of ethanol with the EC system. These results are compiled into a summary providing a scheme for the known changes to the components of the EC system in different stages of alcohol dependence. Finally, future directions for research are discussed. PMID:22459871

  8. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.

    2016-01-01

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  9. Resting-state functional connectivity and presynaptic monoamine signaling in Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Dutta, Nisha; Helton, Sarah G; Schwandt, Melanie; Yan, Jia; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Cortes, Carlos R; Kerich, Mike; Hall, Samuel; Sun, Hui; Phillips, Monte; Momenan, Reza; Lohoff, Falk W

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol Dependence (AD) is a chronic relapsing disorder with high degrees of morbidity and mortality. While multiple neurotransmitter systems are involved in the complex symptomatology of AD, monoamine dysregulation and subsequent neuroadaptations have been long postulated to play an important role. Presynaptic monoamine transporters, such as the vesicular monoamine transporter 1 (VMAT1), are likely critical as they represent a key common entry point for monoamine regulation and may represent a shared pathway for susceptibility to AD. Excessive monoaminergic signaling as mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1 might affect functional brain connectivity in particular in alcoholics compared to controls. We conducted resting-state fMRI functional connectivity (FC) analysis using the independent component analysis (ICA) approach in 68 AD subjects and 72 controls. All subjects were genotyped for the Thr136Ile (rs1390938) variant in VMAT1. Functional connectivity analyses showed a significant increase of resting-state FC in 4 networks in alcoholics compared to controls (P < 0.05, corrected). The FC was significantly positively correlated with Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS). The hyperfunction allele 136Ile was associated with a significantly decreased FC in the Default Mode Network, Prefrontal Cortex Network, and Executive Control Network in alcohol dependent participants (P < 0.05, corrected), but not in controls. Our data suggest that increased FC might represent a neuroadaptive mechanism relevant to AD that is furthermore mediated by genetic variation in VMAT1. The hyperfunction allele Thr136Ile might have a protective effect that is, in particular, relevant in AD by mechanism of increased monoamine transport into presynaptic storage vesicles.

  10. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence.

    PubMed

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Noori, Hamid R; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C

    2016-03-15

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse.

  11. Parental alcoholism as a risk factor for DSM-IV-defined alcohol abuse and dependence in American women: the protective benefits of dyadic cohesion in marital communication.

    PubMed

    Jennison, K M; Johnson, K A

    2001-05-01

    Important trends in research over the past decade indicate that women are as greatly affected by familial alcoholism as are men. Although it is increasingly recognized that the adverse drinking outcomes predicted for adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are not inevitable, and only a small percentage develop alcohol dependence or grow up to be alcoholic, relatively little knowledge exists regarding moderating factors that reduce their vulnerability. This study identifies a multiple mediator latent structural model of the intergenerational transmission of risk for DSM-IV-assessed alcohol abuse and dependence among women COAs in adulthood. The effects of both parental alcoholism and family environment are estimated at three time points spanning 10 years across 5-year intervals (1984, 1989, and 1994) using data from a subsample of 4,449 women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY). Dyadic cohesion in marital communication (greater marital cohesion, harmony, and less verbal disagreement, discord, and conflict) is a proposed moderating factor that may operate in adulthood to lower the risk of female COAs developing alcohol abuse and dependence. Maximum likelihood standardized estimates of the effects of alcohol mediators measured over time indicate that direct parental effects for adverse outcomes decline when COAs are in their late 20s and early 30s. Indirect parental effects through environmental influences dramatically increase the risk of abuse and dependence among COAs at this time if they have one or more alcoholic siblings, especially an alcoholic sister. Dyadic cohesion and positive interpersonal communication patterns were found to moderate effectively the relationship that existed among parental alcoholism, environmental influences, and adverse alcohol consequences. COAs with satisfactory marital communication also evidenced higher levels of intimacy with their partners, perceived the division of housework to be fairer, shared more responsibilities

  12. Delay Discounting in Current and Former Marijuana-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Baker, Forest; Moore, Brent A.; Badger, Gary J.; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that a variety of drug dependent groups discount delayed rewards more than matched-controls. This study compared delay discounting for a hypothetical $1000 reward among dependent marijuana users, former dependent marijuana users, and matched-controls. Discounting of marijuana was also assessed in the currently marijuana-dependent group. No significant difference in discounting was detected among the groups, however currently dependent users showed a trend to discount money more than the other two groups. Within the dependent marijuana group, marijuana was discounted more than money, and discounting for money and marijuana were significantly and positively correlated. Regression analyses indicated that delay discounting was more closely associated with tobacco use than marijuana use. A variety of questionnaires were also administered, including impulsivity questionnaires. Dependent marijuana users scored as significantly more impulsive on the Impulsiveness subscale of the Eysenck Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire than controls. However, the three groups did not significantly differ on several other personality questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory Present-Fatalistic subscale was positively correlated with money and marijuana discounting, indicating that a greater sense of powerlessness over the future is related to greater delay discounting. Results suggest that current marijuana dependence may be associated with a trend toward increased delay discounting, but this effect size appears to be smaller for marijuana than for previously examined drugs. PMID:20158299

  13. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  14. Experimental and clinical usefulness of crossmodal paradigms in psychiatry: an illustration from emotional processing in alcohol-dependence

    PubMed Central

    Maurage, Pierre; Campanella, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Crossmodal processing (i.e., the construction of a unified representation stemming from distinct sensorial modalities inputs) constitutes a crucial ability in humans' everyday life. It has been extensively explored at cognitive and cerebral levels during the last decade among healthy controls. Paradoxically however, and while difficulties to perform this integrative process have been suggested in a large range of psychopathological states (e.g., schizophrenia and autism), these crossmodal paradigms have been very rarely used in the exploration of psychiatric populations. The main aim of the present paper is thus to underline the experimental and clinical usefulness of exploring crossmodal processes in psychiatry. We will illustrate this proposal by means of the recent data obtained in the crossmodal exploration of emotional alterations in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, emotional decoding impairments might have a role in the development and maintenance of alcohol-dependence, and have been extensively investigated by means of experiments using separated visual or auditory stimulations. Besides these unimodal explorations, we have recently conducted several studies using audio-visual crossmodal paradigms, which has allowed us to improve the ecological validity of the unimodal experimental designs and to offer new insights on the emotional alterations among alcohol-dependent individuals. We will show how these preliminary results can be extended to develop a coherent and ambitious research program using crossmodal designs in various psychiatric populations and sensory modalities. We will finally end the paper by underlining the various potential clinical applications and the fundamental implications that can be raised by this emerging project. PMID:23898250

  15. Conflict anticipation in alcohol dependence — A model-based fMRI study of stop signal task

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sien; Ide, Jaime S.; Zhang, Sheng; Sinha, Rajita; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Our previous work characterized altered cerebral activations during cognitive control in individuals with alcohol dependence (AD). A hallmark of cognitive control is the ability to anticipate changes and adjust behavior accordingly. Here, we employed a Bayesian model to describe trial-by-trial anticipation of the stop signal and modeled fMRI signals of conflict anticipation in a stop signal task. Our goal is to characterize the neural correlates of conflict anticipation and its relationship to response inhibition and alcohol consumption in AD. Methods Twenty-four AD and 70 age and gender matched healthy control individuals (HC) participated in the study. fMRI data were pre-processed and modeled with SPM8. We modeled fMRI signals at trial onset with individual events parametrically modulated by estimated probability of the stop signal, p(Stop), and compared regional responses to conflict anticipation between AD and HC. To address the link to response inhibition, we regressed whole-brain responses to conflict anticipation against the stop signal reaction time (SSRT). Results Compared to HC (54/70), fewer AD (11/24) showed a significant sequential effect — a correlation between p(Stop) and RT during go trials — and the magnitude of sequential effect is diminished, suggesting a deficit in proactive control. Parametric analyses showed decreased learning rate and over-estimated prior mean of the stop signal in AD. In fMRI, both HC and AD responded to p(Stop) in bilateral inferior parietal cortex and anterior pre-supplementary motor area, although the magnitude of response increased in AD. In contrast, HC but not AD showed deactivation of the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC). Furthermore, deactivation of the pgACC to increasing p(Stop) is positively correlated with the SSRT in HC but not AD. Recent alcohol consumption is correlated with increased activation of the thalamus and cerebellum in AD during conflict anticipation. Conclusions The

  16. Mindfulness training modifies cognitive, affective, and physiological mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence: results of a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Gaylord, Susan A; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2010-06-01

    Mindfulness training may disrupt the risk chain of stress-precipitated alcohol relapse. In 2008, 53 alcohol-dependent adults (mean age = 40.3) recruited from a therapeutic community located in the urban southeastern U.S. were randomized to mindfulness training or a support group. Most participants were male (79.2%), African American (60.4%), and earned less than $20,000 annually (52.8%). Self-report measures, psychophysiological cue-reactivity, and alcohol attentional bias were analyzed via repeated measures ANOVA. Thirty-seven participants completed the interventions. Mindfulness training significantly reduced stress and thought suppression, increased physiological recovery from alcohol cues, and modulated alcohol attentional bias. Hence, mindfulness training appears to target key mechanisms implicated in alcohol dependence, and therefore may hold promise as an alternative treatment for stress-precipitated relapse among vulnerable members of society.

  17. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  18. Psychological changes in alcohol-dependent patients during a residential rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Ines; Ottonello, Marcella; Vittadini, Giovanni; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive–affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse. Materials and methods The sample included 560 subjects (mean age 46.91±10.2 years) who completed 28-day rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction, following a tailored routine characterized by short duration and high intensity of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The psychological clinical profiles of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and self-perception of a positive change were assessed using the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program. The changes in the psychological variables of the questionnaire were identified and considered as outcome evaluation of the residential intervention. Moreover, differences in the psychological functioning between patients with different characteristics were investigated. Results The score measured by the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation showed significant improvements in all the psychological characteristics assessed, and the profile at discharge was within the normal scores. Some significant differences were found in relation to specific characteristics of the sample, such as age, sex, level of education, type of intervention, and polysubstance use. Conclusion This study shows the changes in psychological profile in subjects undergoing residential rehabilitation from alcohol and how this

  19. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  20. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A; Ron, Dorit

    2016-01-20

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. Significance statement: Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  1. The First Alcohol Drink Triggers mTORC1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity in Nucleus Accumbens Dopamine D1 Receptor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Beckley, Jacob T.; Laguesse, Sophie; Phamluong, Khanhky; Morisot, Nadege; Wegner, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Early binge-like alcohol drinking may promote the development of hazardous intake. However, the enduring cellular alterations following the first experience with alcohol consumption are not fully understood. We found that the first binge-drinking alcohol session produced enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission onto dopamine D1 receptor-expressing neurons (D1+ neurons) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell but not the core in mice, which required D1 receptors (D1Rs) and mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Furthermore, inhibition of mTORC1 activity during the first alcohol drinking session reduced alcohol consumption and preference of a subsequent drinking session. mTORC1 is critically involved in RNA-to-protein translation, and we found that the first alcohol session rapidly activated mTORC1 in NAc shell D1+ neurons and increased synaptic expression of the AMPAR subunit GluA1 and the scaffolding protein Homer. Finally, D1R stimulation alone was sufficient to activate mTORC1 in the NAc to promote mTORC1-dependent translation of the synaptic proteins GluA1 and Homer. Together, our results indicate that the first alcohol drinking session induces synaptic plasticity in NAc D1+ neurons via enhanced mTORC1-dependent translation of proteins involved in excitatory synaptic transmission that in turn drives the reinforcement learning associated with the first alcohol experience. Thus, the alcohol-dependent D1R/mTORC1-mediated increase in synaptic function in the NAc may reflect a neural imprint of alcohol's reinforcing properties, which could promote subsequent alcohol intake. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Consuming alcohol for the first time is a learning event that drives further drinking. Here, we identified a mechanism that may underlie the reinforcing learning associated with the initial alcohol experience. We show that the first alcohol experience induces a persistent enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission on NAc shell D1+ neurons

  2. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  3. Genome-Wide Significant Association between Alcohol Dependence and a Variant in the ADH Gene Cluster

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Josef; Cichon, Sven; Treutlein, Jens; Ridinger, Monika; Mattheisen, Manuel; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Wodarz, Norbert; Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Mössner, Rainald; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Dahmen, Norbert; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Steffens, Michael; Lucae, Susanne; Ising, Marcus; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nöthen, Markus M; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Rietschel, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is an important contributory factor to the global burden of disease. The etiology of AD involves both environmental and genetic factors, and the disorder has a heritability of around 50%. The aim of the present study was to identify susceptibility genes for AD by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sample comprised 1,333 male in-patients with severe DSM-IV AD and 2,168 controls. These included 487 patients and 1,358 controls from a previous GWAS study by our group. All individuals were of German descent. Single marker tests and a polygenic score based analysis to assess the combined contribution of multiple markers with small effects were performed. The SNP rs1789891, which is located between the ADH1B and ADH1C genes, achieved genome-wide significance (p=1.27E–8; OR=1.46). Other markers from this region were also associated with AD, and conditional analyses indicated that these made a partially independent contribution. The SNP rs1789891 is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the functional Arg272Gln variant (p=1.24E–7, OR=1.31) of the ADH1C gene, which has been reported to modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in vitro. A polygenic score based approach produced a significant result (p=9.66E–9). This is the first GWAS of AD to provide genome-wide significant support for the role of the ADH gene cluster and to suggest a polygenic component to the etiology of AD. The latter result suggests that many more AD susceptibility genes still await identification. PMID:22004471

  4. Genome-wide significant association between alcohol dependence and a variant in the ADH gene cluster.

    PubMed

    Frank, Josef; Cichon, Sven; Treutlein, Jens; Ridinger, Monika; Mattheisen, Manuel; Hoffmann, Per; Herms, Stefan; Wodarz, Norbert; Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Maier, Wolfgang; Mössner, Rainald; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Dahmen, Norbert; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Steffens, Michael; Lucae, Susanne; Ising, Marcus; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Nöthen, Markus M; Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Rietschel, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is an important contributory factor to the global burden of disease. The etiology of AD involves both environmental and genetic factors, and the disorder has a heritability of around 50%. The aim of the present study was to identify susceptibility genes for AD by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS). The sample comprised 1333 male in-patients with severe AD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, and 2168 controls. These included 487 patients and 1358 controls from a previous GWAS study by our group. All individuals were of German descent. Single-marker tests and a polygenic score-based analysis to assess the combined contribution of multiple markers with small effects were performed. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1789891, which is located between the ADH1B and ADH1C genes, achieved genome-wide significance [P = 1.27E-8, odds ratio (OR) = 1.46]. Other markers from this region were also associated with AD, and conditional analyses indicated that these made a partially independent contribution. The SNP rs1789891 is in complete linkage disequilibrium with the functional Arg272Gln variant (P = 1.24E-7, OR = 1.31) of the ADH1C gene, which has been reported to modify the rate of ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde in vitro. A polygenic score-based approach produced a significant result (P = 9.66E-9). This is the first GWAS of AD to provide genome-wide significant support for the role of the ADH gene cluster and to suggest a polygenic component to the etiology of AD. The latter result may indicate that many more AD susceptibility genes still await identification.

  5. Deficient Event-Related Theta Oscillations in Individuals at Risk for Alcoholism: A Study of Reward Processing and Impulsivity Features

    PubMed Central

    Kamarajan, Chella; Pandey, Ashwini K.; Chorlian, David B.; Manz, Niklas; Stimus, Arthur T.; Anokhin, Andrey P.; Bauer, Lance O.; Kuperman, Samuel; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Schuckit, Marc A.; Hesselbrock, Victor M.; Porjesz, Bernice

    2015-01-01

    Background Individuals at high risk to develop alcoholism often manifest neurocognitive deficits as well as increased impulsivity. Event-related oscillations (EROs) have been used to effectively measure brain (dys)function during cognitive tasks in individuals with alcoholism and related disorders and in those at risk to develop these disorders. The current study examines ERO theta power during reward processing as well as impulsivity in adolescent and young adult subjects at high risk for alcoholism. Methods EROs were recorded during a monetary gambling task (MGT) in 12–25 years old participants (N = 1821; males = 48%) from high risk alcoholic families (HR, N = 1534) and comparison low risk community families (LR, N = 287) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Impulsivity scores and prevalence of externalizing diagnoses were also compared between LR and HR groups. Results HR offspring showed lower theta power and decreased current source density (CSD) activity than LR offspring during loss and gain conditions. Younger males had higher theta power than younger females in both groups, while the older HR females showed more theta power than older HR males. Younger subjects showed higher theta power than older subjects in each comparison. Differences in topography (i.e., frontalization) between groups were also observed. Further, HR subjects across gender had higher impulsivity scores and increased prevalence of externalizing disorders compared to LR subjects. Conclusions As theta power during reward processing is found to be lower not only in alcoholics, but also in HR subjects, it is proposed that reduced reward-related theta power, in addition to impulsivity and externalizing features, may be related in a predisposition to develop alcoholism and related disorders. PMID:26580209

  6. Differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem prefrontal cortex of individuals with alcohol use disorders: Influence on alcohol metabolism-related pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Fan; Xu, Hongqin; Liu, Yawen; Liu, Jin; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption may induce gene expression alterations in brain reward regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), modulating the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Transcriptome profiles of 23 AUD cases and 23 matched controls (16 pairs of males and 7 pairs of females) in postmortem PFC were generated using Illumina’s HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Probe-level differentially expressed genes and gene modules in AUD subjects were identified using multiple linear regression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses. The enrichment of differentially co-expressed genes in alcohol dependence-associated genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) was examined using gene set enrichment analysis. Biological pathways overrepresented by differentially co-expressed genes were uncovered using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Three AUD-associated gene modules in males [Module 1 (561 probes mapping to 505 genes): r=0.42, Pcorrelation=0.020; Module 2 (815 probes mapping to 713 genes): r=0.41, Pcorrelation=0.020; Module 3 (1,446 probes mapping to 1,305 genes): r=−0.38, Pcorrelation=0.030] and one AUD-associated gene module in females [Module 4 (683 probes mapping to 652 genes): r=0.64, Pcorrelation=0.010] were identified. Differentially expressed genes mapped by significant expression probes (Pnominal≤0.05) clustered in Modules 1 and 2 were enriched in GWAS-identified alcohol dependence-associated genes [Module 1 (134 genes): P=0.028; Module 2 (243 genes): P=0.004]. These differentially expressed genes, including ALDH2, ALDH7A1, and ALDH9A1, are involved in cellular functions such as aldehyde detoxification, mitochondrial function, and fatty acid metabolism. Our study revealed differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem PFC of AUD subjects and demonstrated that some of these differentially co-expressed genes participate in alcohol metabolism. PMID:25073604

  7. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol. PMID:26280530

  8. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.

  9. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  10. Genetic variation in the CHRNA5 gene affects mRNA levels and is associated with risk for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Wang, J C; Grucza, R; Cruchaga, C; Hinrichs, A L; Bertelsen, S; Budde, J P; Fox, L; Goldstein, E; Reyes, O; Saccone, N; Saccone, S; Xuei, X; Bucholz, K; Kuperman, S; Nurnberger, J; Rice, J P; Schuckit, M; Tischfield, J; Hesselbrock, V; Porjesz, B; Edenberg, H J; Bierut, L J; Goate, A M

    2009-05-01

    Alcohol dependence frequently co-occurs with cigarette smoking, another common addictive behavior. Evidence from genetic studies demonstrates that alcohol dependence and smoking cluster in families and have shared genetic vulnerability. Recently a candidate gene study in nicotine dependent cases and nondependent smoking controls reported strong associations between a missense mutation (rs16969968) in exon 5 of the CHRNA5 gene and a variant in the 3'-UTR of the CHRNA3 gene and nicotine dependence. In this study we performed a comprehensive association analysis of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) families to investigate the role of genetic variants in risk for alcohol dependence. Using the family-based association test, we observed that a different group of polymorphisms, spanning CHRNA5-CHRNA3, demonstrate association with alcohol dependence defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edn (DSM-IV) criteria. Using logistic regression we replicated this finding in an independent case-control series from the family study of cocaine dependence. These variants show low linkage disequilibrium with the SNPs previously reported to be associated with nicotine dependence and therefore represent an independent observation. Functional studies in human brain reveal that the variants associated with alcohol dependence are also associated with altered steady-state levels of CHRNA5 mRNA.

  11. Does Individual Treatment for Alcoholic Fathers Benefit Their Children? A Longitudinal Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (COAs; N = 125) was examined before and at 3 follow-ups in the 15 months after their fathers entered alcoholism treatment. Before their fathers' treatment, COAs exhibited greater overall and clinical-level symptomatology than children from the demographically matched comparison sample, but they…

  12. Intervention for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Treatment Approaches and Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some…

  13. Self-Efficacy for Refusal Mediated by Outcome Expectancies in the Prediction of Alcohol-Dependence amongst Young Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert J.; Connor, Jason P.; Ricciardelli, Lina A.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the relative importance of outcome expectancies and self-efficacy in the production of alcohol dependence and alcohol consumption in a sample of young adult drinkers drawn from a milieu previously reported as supportive of risky drinking. Results suggest that heavy drinking women are particularly at risk of developing drinking-related…

  14. 38 CFR 17.81 - Contracts for residential treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part II) and the... CFR part 2) and the “Confidentiality of Certain Medical Records” (38 U.S.C. 7332), and will be made... treatment services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.81 Section...

  15. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  16. Circulating leptin and pain perception among tobacco-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Allen, Sharon

    2015-04-01

    Recent preclinical evidence suggests that leptin may modulate the stress response and may increase nociception. In this study, we examined for the first time the extent to which cigarette smoking is associated with leptin levels during an extended rest period and in response to noxious stimuli. Repeated blood samples were collected during a laboratory session from smokers and nonsmokers and assayed for leptin. Pain experiences, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, were collected across cold pressor and thermal heat pain tests. Both analysis of variance and correlations confirmed that smokers demonstrated dysregulations in leptin responsivity and association with pain relative to nonsmokers. The flat pattern of leptin release and the weak associations of this hormone with pain in smokers suggest a long-term effect of tobacco dependence on this regulatory hormone. In light of leptin's influence on reward pathways, further investigation of leptin's involvement in nicotine dependence is warranted. PMID:25720946

  17. Circulating Leptin and Pain Perception among Tobacco Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    al’Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Allen, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Recent preclinical evidence suggests that leptin may modulate the stress response and may increase nociception. In this study, we examined for the first time the extent to which cigarette smoking is associated with leptin levels during an extended rest period and in response to noxious stimuli. Repeated blood samples were collected during a laboratory session from smokers and nonsmokers and assayed for leptin. Pain experiences, as well as neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures, were collected across cold pressor and thermal heat pain tests. Both analysis of variance and correlations confirmed that smokers demonstrated dysregulations in leptin responsivity and association with pain relative to nonsmokers. The flat pattern of leptin release and the weak associations of this hormone with pain in smokers suggest a long-term effect of tobacco dependence on this regulatory hormone. In light of leptin’s influence on reward pathways, further investigation of leptin’s involvement in nicotine dependence is warranted. PMID:25720946

  18. [Inequalities in protection services for elderly dependent individuals].

    PubMed

    de Andrés-Pizarro, Josep

    2004-05-01

    This article analyses social welfare attention for dependence in Spain, especially with respect to old people and social services, with emphasis on social inequality. Disability affects 32.2% of older people (women 35.9%), which rises to 50% for people over 80. Faced with this growing problem, the welfare system continues to provide a timid response, which is expressed in public spending on this field that is much lower than that of the countries around us, which leads to insufficient development of long-term social and health care services (particularly non-residential services) and gives rise to situations of vulnerability and inequality for the majority of dependent persons and for those in charge of caring for them. The separation of health care and social systems and the diversity arising from our model of autonomous communities makes for profound differences with respect to rights of access, entrances, services offered, costs and sources of financing and the preparation of the professionals working in these fields. Consolidating welfare attention for dependence as a subjective, universal and guaranteed right is fundamental if we are to advance in the direction of a reduction of the kinds of inequality cited above and to avoid perpetuating a model of family health care which is based on gender discrimination.

  19. The CC genotype in the T102C HTR2A polymorphism predicts relapse in individuals after alcohol treatment

    PubMed Central

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Matsumoto, Halina; Burmeister, Margit; Brower, Kirk J.; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin system is hypothesized to contribute to predisposition and course of alcohol dependence. However, the potential association between the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) in the type 2A serotonin receptor (HTR2A) gene and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of this genetic polymorphism as a predictor of relapse in relation to other previously identified predictors. A sample of 254 alcohol dependent subjects, were recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland and prospectively assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. At baseline, information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms and alcohol problems was obtained. The stop-signal task was performed and blood samples for genetic analysis of HTR2A T102C (rs6313) were collected. Relapse was defined as any drinking during the follow-up period. The statistical analysis showed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with increased relapse. Other significant factors were baseline depressive symptoms, number of drinking days during the 3 months prior to the baseline assessment, severity of alcohol-related problems, and a lifetime history of impulsive suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis with and without the genetic factor revealed that adding the genetic factor increased the R square value by about 4%, with the CC genotype in the T102C polymorphism being the strongest predictor of relapse (OR=2.32). The significant influence on relapse of the CC genotype, which is associated with fewer 5-HT2A receptors in the central nervous system, suggests the possibility that this genetic polymorphism could influence response to serotonergic medications. PMID:23321485

  20. The CC genotype in the T102C HTR2A polymorphism predicts relapse in individuals after alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Jakubczyk, Andrzej; Klimkiewicz, Anna; Kopera, Maciej; Krasowska, Aleksandra; Wrzosek, Małgorzata; Matsumoto, Halina; Burmeister, Margit; Brower, Kirk J; Wojnar, Marcin

    2013-04-01

    The serotonin system is hypothesized to contribute to predisposition and course of alcohol dependence. However, the potential association between the T102C polymorphism (rs6313) in the type 2A serotonin receptor (HTR2A) gene and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence has not been investigated. The aim of the study was to assess the contribution of this genetic polymorphism as a predictor of relapse in relation to other previously identified predictors. A sample of 254 alcohol dependent subjects, were recruited in alcohol treatment centers in Warsaw, Poland and prospectively assessed at baseline and follow-up after 12 months. At baseline, information about demographics, psychopathological symptoms and alcohol problems was obtained. The stop-signal task was performed and blood samples for genetic analysis of HTR2A T102C (rs6313) were collected. Relapse was defined as any drinking during the follow-up period. The statistical analysis showed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with increased relapse. Other significant factors were baseline depressive symptoms, number of drinking days during the 3 months prior to the baseline assessment, severity of alcohol-related problems, and a lifetime history of impulsive suicide attempts. Logistic regression analysis with and without the genetic factor revealed that adding the genetic factor increased the R square value by about 4%, with the CC genotype in the T102C polymorphism being the strongest predictor of relapse (OR = 2.32). The significant influence on relapse of the CC genotype, which is associated with fewer 5-HT2A receptors in the central nervous system, suggests the possibility that this genetic polymorphism could influence response to serotonergic medications.

  1. A randomized, controlled study of treatment for alcohol dependence in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Van Horn, Deborah H A; Lynch, Kevin G; Lucey, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol is the second most common cause of cirrhosis necessitating liver transplantation in the United States, yet rates of posttransplant drinking approach 50% and no controlled clinical trials of alcoholism treatment exist in this population. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or referral to local treatment sources ("treatment as usual" [TAU]). Addictive behavior, mood states, and general health were compared. Candor concerning alcohol use was encouraged by keeping drinking questionnaires in confidence, except in medical emergencies. Ninety-one subjects were studied; 46 received MET, 45 received TAU, 29 proceeded to transplantation (MET, n = 13; TAU, n = 16). A total of 69 subjects completed 24 weeks of observation, and 25 subjects were assessed at 96 weeks. No difference in study attendance was observed, but significantly more MET subjects attended 1 or more treatment sessions. Twenty-three subjects (25% of sample) drank after randomization but before transplant. Excluding an extreme outlier, MET drinkers had significantly fewer drinks per drinking days than TAU drinkers. Neither treatment plan resulted in significant variances in measures of psychosocial health. In conclusion, although MET afforded no significant benefit over TAU for mood or general health outcomes, this study provides some degree of support for MET to limit the quantity and frequency of pretransplant alcohol consumption among liver transplant candidates with alcohol dependence. However, because of the limited number of study subjects, these data must be interpreted cautiously. Further research to validate our findings or to identify better methods to identify and intervene with patients at risk of pretransplant and posttransplant drinking should continue. PMID:21506242

  2. Give them prizes, and they will come: contingency management for treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Martin, B; Cooney, J L; Kranzler, H R

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) procedure that provided opportunities to win prizes as reinforcers. At intake to outpatient treatment, 42 alcohol-dependent veterans were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment or standard treatment plus CM, in which they earned the chance to win prizes for submitting negative Breathalyzer samples and completing steps toward treatment goals. Eighty-four percent of the CM participants were retained in treatment for an 8-week period compared with 22% of the standard treatment participants (p < .001). By the end of the treatment period, 69% of those receiving CM were still abstinent, but 61% of those receiving standard treatment had used alcohol (p < .05). These results support the efficacy of this CM procedure. Participants earned an average of $200 in prizes. This CM procedure may be suitable for use in standard treatment settings because prizes can be solicited from the community. PMID:10780125

  3. Quality of life among treatment seeking methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; Glik, Deborah C; Rawson, Richard A; Lee, Stella; Iguchi, Martin Y

    2011-01-01

    As the number of men and women entering treatment for substance use disorders continues to increase across the country, it becomes vitally important to understand their quality of life (QOL) or perceived health status, in order to inform treatment efforts for improving such outcomes. To date, QOL assessments among methamphetamine (MA) dependent users are limited. This paper examines QOL health status among a sample of 838 treatment seeking MA users at admission. Using regression analysis, predictors of QOL are examined among MA users. Predictors of poor QOL among MA users at treatment admission included being female, white, high school educated or more, married, experiencing psychosocial dysfunction (lifetime trauma, suicide, social conflict), reporting a high frequency of both MA and polydrugs for 15 days or more in the past month, chronicity of MA and polydrug use, injection use, and having co-morbid medical and psychiatric impairment. Employment status was the only factor related to better health status perceptions. This study expands the scope of scholarly examination of MA-dependent users entering treatment, as there has not been a development of coherent profiles of QOL among representative samples of clinical MA-abusing populations to date. PMID:21679268

  4. Effect of functionally significant deiodinase single nucleotide polymorphisms on drinking behavior in alcohol dependence: an exploratory investigation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, MR; Schwandt, ML; Bollinger, JW; Dias, AA; Oot, EN; Goldman, D; Hodgkinson, CA; Leggio, L

    2016-01-01

    Background Abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis have been reported in alcoholism, however, there is no definitive agreement on the specific thyroid abnormalities and their underlying mechanisms in alcohol dependence (AD). The biological activity of thyroid hormones or the availability of T3 is regulated by the three deiodinase enzymes D1, D2 and D3. In the context of alcohol use, functionally significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP’s) of these deiodinase genes may play a role in HPT dysfunction. Methods The present study explored the effect of three functionally significant SNP’s (D1: rs2235544, D2: rs225014 and rs12885300) of deiodinase genes on drinking behavior and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in alcohol dependent (N=521) and control subjects (N=228). Results Rs225014 was associated with significant differences in the amount of naturalistic alcohol drinking assessed by the Timeline Follow-Back (TLFB). Alcohol-dependent subjects had significantly higher thyroid stimulating hormone levels compared to controls; however, there was no effect of genotype on TSH levels for either group. Conclusions These findings extend previous studies on thyroid dysfunction in alcoholism and provide novel, albeit preliminary, information by linking functionally significant genetic polymorphisms of the deiodinase enzymes with alcohol drinking behavior. PMID:26207529

  5. Resting state connectivity in alcohol dependent patients and the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Jochem M; van Wingen, Guido; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dependence is thought to result from an overactive neural motivation system and a deficient cognitive control system, and rebalancing these systems may mitigate excessive alcohol use. This study examines the differences in functional connectivity of the fronto-parietal cognitive control network (FPn) and the motivational network (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex) between alcohol dependent patients (ADPs) and healthy controls (HCs), and the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on these networks. This randomized controlled trial included 38 ADPs and 37 HCs, matched on age, gender and education. Participants were randomly assigned to sham or right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) stimulation with rTMS. A 3T resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scan was acquired before and after active or sham 10Hz rTMS. Group differences of within and between network connectivity and the effect of rTMS on network connectivity was assessed using independent component analysis. Results showed higher connectivity within the left FPn (p=0.012) and the left fronto-striatal motivational network (p=0.03) in ADPs versus HCs, and a further increase in connectivity within the left FPn after active stimulation in ADPs. ADPs also showed higher connectivity between the left and the right FPns (p=0.025), and this higher connectivity was related to fewer alcohol related problems (r=0.30, p=0.06). The results show higher within and between network connectivity in ADPs and a further increase in fronto-parietal connectivity after right dlPFC rTMS in ADPs, suggesting that frontal rTMS may have a beneficial influence on cognitive control and may result in lower relapse rates.

  6. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  7. Understanding PTSD comorbidity and suicidal behavior: associations among histories of alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, and suicidal ideation and attempts.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Sasha M; Bujarski, Sarah; Babson, Kimberly A; Dutton, Courtney E; Feldner, Matthew T

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are at an elevated risk for experiencing suicidal thoughts and actions. However, a relative dearth of research has examined factors that may impact this relation, such as common co-occurring disorders. Utilizing the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication data, the current study examined comparisons between comorbid PTSD and major depressive disorder (MDD) and comorbid PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD) in relation to suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. It was hypothesized that comorbid MDD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicidal ideation, while comorbid AD would be associated with an elevated likelihood of suicide attempt history. Results indicated that only PTSD-AD was significantly associated with an elevated likelihood of endorsing histories of both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. These findings suggest that AD may be a critical risk factor for acquiring the capability for suicide attempts.

  8. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of the COMBINE Study for Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zarkin, Gary A.; Bray, Jeremy W.; Aldridge, Arnie; Mitra, Debanjali; Couper, David J.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2011-01-01

    Context The COMBINE clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of medications, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The costs and cost-effectiveness of these combinations are unknown and of interest to clinicians and policy makers. Objective To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of the COMBINE interventions at the end of 16 weeks of treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of patients in COMBINE, a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) involving 1383 patients with diagnoses of primary alcohol dependence across 11 US clinical sites. Interventions Nine treatment arms, with 4 arms receiving medical management with 16 weeks of naltrexone (100 mg/d) or acamprosate (3 g/d), both, and/or placebo; 4 arms receiving the same options as above but delivered with combined behavioral intervention (CBI); and 1 arm receiving CBI only. Main Outcomes Measures Incremental cost per percentage point increase in percent days abstinent (PDA), incremental cost per patient of avoiding heavy drinking, and incremental cost per patient of achieving a good clinical outcome. Results Based on the mean values of cost and effectiveness, 3 interventions are cost-effective options relative to the other interventions for all three outcomes: medical management (MM) with placebo ($409 cost per patient), MM + naltrexone ($671 cost per patient), and MM + naltrexone + acamprosate ($1003 cost per patient). Conclusions This is only the second prospective RCT-designed cost-effectiveness study that has been performed for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Focusing just on effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate is not significantly better than MM + naltrexone. However, looking at cost and effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate may be a cost-effective choice, depending on whether the cost of the incremental increase in effectiveness is worth it to the decision maker. PMID

  9. Paroxetine reduces social anxiety in individuals with a co-occurring alcohol use disorder.

    PubMed

    Book, Sarah W; Thomas, Suzanne E; Randall, Patrick K; Randall, Carrie L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder who are seen in clinical practice commonly have additional psychiatric comorbidity, including alcohol use disorders. The first line treatment for social anxiety disorder is selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors (SSRIs), such as paroxetine. However, the efficacy of SSRIs has been determined with studies that excluded alcoholics. Forty two subjects with social anxiety and a co-occurring alcohol use disorder participated in a 16-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of paroxetine for social anxiety in patients with co-occurring alcohol problems. Paroxetine was superior to placebo in reducing social anxiety, as measured by the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale total and subscale scores and additional measures of social anxiety. This study provides the first evidence-based recommendation for the use of an SSRI to treat social anxiety in this patient population.

  10. Validation of the MINI (DSM IV) Tool for the Assessment of Alcohol Dependence among Young People in Northern Tanzania Using the Alcohol Biomarker Phosphatidylethanol (PEth).

    PubMed

    Francis, Joel M; Helander, Anders; Kapiga, Saidi H; Weiss, Helen A; Grosskurth, Heiner

    2015-11-01

    The alcohol dependence section of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview questionnaire (MINI) has not been evaluated in young Africans. We applied the MINI in a cross-sectional study of 202 alcohol users from northern-Tanzania, aged 18-24 years (103 male casual workers and 99 students), and validated it against phophatidylethanol (PEth) at a cut-off suggesting heavy chronic alcohol use (≥0.30 µmol/L). Blood was assayed for PEth (16:0/18:1-subform) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The MINI dependence criteria (≥3 positive responses) were met by 39% participants although their PEth levels were low. Contrary, many young people with high PEth levels were not classified as dependent. The sensitivity of the MINI ranged from 0% to 69% (female students and male workers, respectively) and specificity from 52% to 85% (workers and female students, respectively). The highest AUROC (0.68) occurred with a cut-off of ≥4 positive responses. A modified MINI with three affirmative responses to five questions increased specificity to 92%-97%; however, sensitivity remained low. The performance of the MINI in detecting dependence among young people from northern-Tanzania is unsatisfactory. Specificity was improved using a modified version but sensitivity remained low. An accurate tool for the diagnosis of alcohol dependence is needed for epidemiological and clinical purposes. PMID:26529004

  11. Genomic Regions Identified by Overlapping Clusters of Nominally-Positive SNPs from Genome-Wide Studies of Alcohol and Illegal Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Drgon, Tomas; Walther, Donna; Uhl, George R.

    2011-01-01

    Declaring “replication” from results of genome wide association (GWA) studies is straightforward when major gene effects provide genome-wide significance for association of the same allele of the same SNP in each of multiple independent samples. However, such unambiguous replication is unlikely when phenotypes display polygenic genetic architecture, allelic heterogeneity, locus heterogeneity and when different samples display linkage disequilibria with different fine structures. We seek chromosomal regions that are tagged by clustered SNPs that display nominally-significant association in each of several independent samples. This approach provides one “nontemplate” approach to identifying overall replication of groups of GWA results in the face of difficult genetic architectures. We apply this strategy to 1 M SNP GWA results for dependence on: a) alcohol (including many individuals with dependence on other addictive substances) and b) at least one illegal substance (including many individuals dependent on alcohol). This approach provides high confidence in rejecting the null hypothesis that chance alone accounts for the extent to which clustered, nominally-significant SNPs from samples of the same racial/ethnic background identify the same sets of chromosomal regions. It identifies several genes that are also reported in other independent alcohol-dependence GWA datasets. There is more modest confidence in: a) identification of individual chromosomal regions and genes that are not also identified by data from other independent samples, b) the more modest overlap between results from samples of different racial/ethnic backgrounds and c) the extent to which any gene not identified herein is excluded, since the power of each of these individual samples is modest. Nevertheless, the strong overlap identified among the samples with similar racial/ethnic backgrounds supports contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions that come from newer

  12. Diplotype Trend Regression Analysis of the ADH Gene Cluster and the ALDH2 Gene: Multiple Significant Associations with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xingguang; Kranzler, Henry R.; Zuo, Lingjun; Wang, Shuang; Schork, Nicholas J.; Gelernter, Joel

    2006-01-01

    The set of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes has considerable genetic and functional complexity. The relationships between some alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) genes and alcohol dependence (AD) have long been studied in many populations, but not comprehensively. In the present study, we genotyped 16 markers within the ADH gene cluster (including the ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH1C, ADH5, ADH6, and ADH7 genes), 4 markers within the ALDH2 gene, and 38 unlinked ancestry-informative markers in a case-control sample of 801 individuals. Associations between markers and disease were analyzed by a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) test, a conventional case-control comparison, a structured association analysis, and a novel diplotype trend regression (DTR) analysis. Finally, the disease alleles were fine mapped by a Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium (HWD) measure (J). All markers were found to be in HWE in controls, but some markers showed HWD in cases. Genotypes of many markers were associated with AD. DTR analysis showed that ADH5 genotypes and diplotypes of ADH1A, ADH1B, ADH7, and ALDH2 were associated with AD in European Americans and/or African Americans. The risk-influencing alleles were fine mapped from among the markers studied and were found to coincide with some well-known functional variants. We demonstrated that DTR was more powerful than many other conventional association methods. We also found that several ADH genes and the ALDH2 gene were susceptibility loci for AD, and the associations were best explained by several independent risk genes. PMID:16685648

  13. Cortical and subcortical volumes in adolescents with alcohol dependence but without substance or psychiatric comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; Greenstein, David; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Cuzen, Natalie L.; Foucheb, Jean-Paul; Ferrett, Helen; Thomas, Keven; Stein, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    Most prior studies of the effects of excessive alcohol intake on the adolescent brain examined alcohol use dependent samples with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders. In the Cape Town region, we identified a sizeable cohort of adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUD) without externalizing or other psychiatric disorders. We examined brain morphology in 64 such adolescents compared to age and gender matched healthy controls. Magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using FSL’s FIRST software for subcortical volumes, and cortical gray matter (GM) was analyzed using voxel based morphometry (VBM) and regions of interest (ROI) analysis. AUD boys had smaller thalamic and putamen volumes compared to non-drinking boys, while AUD girls had larger thalamic and putamen volumes compared to non-drinking girls. VBM revealed a large region of decreased GM density in AUDs compared to controls located in the left lateral frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, extending medially deep into the parietal lobe. Smaller GM volume in this region was also present when examined using ROI analysis. Our lack of findings in other brain regions, particularly hippocampus, suggests that reports of smaller brain volumes in adolescent AUDs in the literature are a consequence of psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidities. PMID:23916536

  14. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elajaili, Hanan B.; Biller, Joshua R.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH-. The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones.

  15. PSYCHO-EDUCATIONAL GROUP THERAPY FOR ALCOHOL AND DRUG DEPENDENCE RECOVERY

    PubMed Central

    Chandiramani, Kishore; Tripathi, B.M.

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY A brief psychosocial intervention model for alcohol and drug dependence recovery has been evolved in the form of psycho-educational group therapy. The package comprises of eight sessions conducted thrice a week over a period of about three weeks following detoxification. It aims to equip the patients with information and knowledge relevant to the needs of recovery. The program covers topics such as craving and relapse, medical complications, treatment process and recovery, family, social and job problems and structuring free time. Apart from achieving abstinence, the objectives of the program include enhancing functioning in personal, social and professional spheres by developing healthy and intimate relationships and promoting alternate activities. PMID:21743631

  16. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention. PMID:26278235

  17. Medications Development to Treat Alcohol Dependence: A Vision for the Next Decade

    PubMed Central

    Litten, Raye Z.; Egli, Mark; Heilig, Markus; Cui, Changhai; Fertig, Joanne B.; Ryan, Megan L.; Falk, Daniel E.; Moss, Howard; Huebner, Robert; Noronha, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    More than 76 million people worldwide are estimated to have diagnosable Alcohol Use Disorders (AUDs) (alcohol abuse or dependence), making these disorders a major global health problem. Pharmacotherapy offers promising means for treating AUDs, and significant progress has been made in the past 20 years. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved three of the four medications for alcoholism in the last two decades. Unfortunately, these medications do not work for everyone, prompting the need for a personalized approach to optimize clinical benefit or more efficacious medications that can treat a wider range of patients, or both. To promote global health, the potential reorganization of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) must continue to support the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism’s (NIAAA’s) vision of ensuring the development and delivery of new and more efficacious medications to treat AUDs in the coming decade. To achieve this objective, the NIAAA Medications Development Team has identified three fundamental long-range goals: 1) to make the drug development process more efficient; 2) to identify more efficacious medications, personalize treatment approaches, or both, and 3) to facilitate the implementation and adaptation of medications in real-world treatment settings. These goals will be carried out through seven key objectives. This paper describes those objectives in terms of rationale and strategy. Successful implementation of these objectives will result in the development of more efficacious and safe medications, provide a greater selection of therapy options, and ultimately lessen the impact of this devastating disorder. PMID:22458728

  18. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    and anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. These results in mice suggest that stress exposure during adolescence may increase the risk for developing an alcohol-use and/or anxiety disorder in individuals with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol consumption. PMID:18652593

  19. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-01-01

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse. PMID:27327255

  20. Chronic Care Management for Dependence on Alcohol and Other Drugs: The AHEAD Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M.; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W.; Meli, Seville M.; Allensworth-Davies, Don; Lloyd-Travaglini, Christine A.; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance People with substance dependence have health consequences, high healthcare utilization and frequent comorbidity but often receive poor quality care overall and for dependence. Chronic care management has been proposed as an approach to improve care and outcomes. Objective To determine whether chronic care management (CCM) for alcohol and other drug (AOD) dependence improves substance use outcomes compared to usual primary care. Design, Setting, and Participants The AHEAD study was a randomized trial in people with AOD dependence, not necessarily seeking treatment, at a Boston hospital-based primary care practice. Of the 655 eligible participants, 563 (86%) were randomized. Study participants were recruited from September 2006 to September 2008 from a free-standing residential detoxification unit (74%) and referrals from an urban teaching hospital and advertisements (26%). Participants were randomized to CCM (n=282) or no CCM (n=281). Intervention CCM included longitudinal care coordinated with a primary care clinician, motivational enhancement therapy, relapse prevention counseling, and on-site medical, addiction and psychiatric treatment, social work assistance and referrals (including mutual help). The no CCM group received a primary care appointment, and a list of treatment resources including a phone number to arrange counseling. Main Outcome and Measure The primary outcome was self-reported abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking. Biomarkers were secondary outcomes. We employed longitudinal analyses for data from 3, 6 and 12 months (last interview January 21, 2010). Results Of 563 participants, 95% completed 12-month follow-up. Baseline characteristics of the study participants were similar across randomization groups, but differed significantly for race and depressive symptoms. There was no significant difference in abstinence from opioids, stimulants or heavy drinking between the CCM (44%) and control (42%) groups (adjusted odds

  1. [Sexual addiction in alcohol abuse and dependence. Clinical, nosologic and psychoanalytic aspects].

    PubMed

    Roth, K

    1992-03-01

    DSM-III-R names sexual addiction for the first time as a sexual disorder. In this study a group of alcoholics was examined who described their own sexual behavior as being addictive and self-destructive. In this nearly all male patient group sexual addiction manifested itself mostly in excessive masturbation and obsessional sexual fantasies often in combination with use of pornography. Promiscuity, prostitute contacts and excessive sexual demands on a steady partner and sexually deviant behavior, were less often reported in this population. The addictive sexual behavior was said to be usually provoked by emotional distress and unresolved conflicts. More than 80% of these patients were dependent upon at least one other substance beside alcohol. Two-thirds considered their sexual addictive behavior to be their primary and earliest dependency. The nosology of this disorder seems to be unspecific, since a number of forms of neurosis and personality disorder are diagnosed. A psychodynamic interpretation of sexual addiction points to defence mechanisms against inner psychic conflicts, as seen both in addiction and sexual perversion. Aspects of differential diagnosis and classification are also discussed. PMID:1579173

  2. Rescue of infralimbic mGluR2 deficit restores control over drug-seeking behavior in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Hansson, Anita C; Perreau-Lenz, Stephanie; Bauder, Christina; Stählin, Oliver; Heilig, Markus; Harper, Clive; Drescher, Karla U; Spanagel, Rainer; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2013-01-01

    A key deficit in alcohol dependence is disrupted prefrontal function leading to excessive alcohol seeking, but the molecular events underlying the emergence of addictive responses remain unknown. Here we show by convergent transcriptome analysis that the pyramidal neurons of the infralimbic cortex are particularly vulnerable for the long-term effects of chronic intermittent ethanol intoxication. These neurons exhibit a pronounced deficit in mGluR2. Also, alcohol dependent rats do not respond to mGluR2/3 agonist treatment with reducing extracellular glutamate levels in the nucleus accumbens. Together these data imply a loss of autoreceptor feedback control. Alcohol dependent rats show escalation of ethanol seeking, which was abolished by restoring mGluR2 expression in the infralimbic cortex via viral-mediated gene transfer. Human anterior cingulate cortex from alcoholic patients shows a significant reduction in mGluR2 transcripts compared to control subjects suggesting that mGluR2 loss in the rodent and human cortico-accumbal neurocircuitry may be a major consequence of alcohol dependence and a key pathophysiological mechanism mediating increased propensity to relapse. Normalization of mGluR2 function within this brain circuit may be of therapeutic value. PMID:23407939

  3. Developmental emergence of alcohol use disorder symptoms and their potential as early indicators for progression to alcohol dependence in a high risk sample: a longitudinal study from childhood to early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Buu, Anne; Wang, Wei; Schroder, Stephanie A; Kalaida, Natalia L; Puttler, Leon I; Zucker, Robert A

    2012-11-01

    This study characterized developmental emergence of individual alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms, and evaluated their ability as early indicators of progression into alcohol dependence (AD), conditional upon gender, parental alcohol dependence, early onset of drinking, and level of delinquent behavior at onset. The two parameters of interest were (a) likelihood of specific AUD symptom appearance once drinking has begun, and (b) primacy of symptom appearance as an indicator of likelihood for eventual move into diagnosis. We analyzed prospective data from a community sample of high risk youth from childhood to early adulthood. Symptoms that were at higher probability of being experienced at drinking onset and that could serve as good indicators for the early stage of disease progression were: persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to control alcohol use (AD4), and continued use despite having persistent or recurrent interpersonal problems (AA4). Tolerance (AD1) may serve as an indicator for the intermediate stage of progression. Young people tended to be at an elevated risk for developing AD6 (activities given up), AD7 (physical/psychological problems), and AA3 (legal problems) in later years so these symptoms may be good indicators for later stages of progression. In addition to being male, an early onset drinker, or high in delinquent behavior, drinkers who experienced AA4 or AD1 as first symptoms were at higher risk for progression to AD. We also identified two high risk clusters: late onset drinkers with AA4 as first symptom, and children of alcoholics with AD1 as first symptom. PMID:21842966

  4. Impulsive alcohol-related risk-behavior and emotional dysregulation among individuals with a serotonin 2B receptor stop codon

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, R; Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M R; Paunio, T; Bevilacqua, L; Panarsky, R; Goldman, D; Virkkunen, M

    2015-01-01

    A relatively common stop codon (Q20*) was identified in the serotonin 2B receptor gene (HTR2B) in a Finnish founder population in 2010 and it was associated with impulsivity. Here we examine the phenotype of HTR2B Q20* carriers in a setting comprising 14 heterozygous HTR2B Q20* carriers and 156 healthy controls without the HTR2B Q20*. The tridimensional personality questionnaire, Brown–Goodwin lifetime aggression scale, the Michigan alcoholism screening test and lifetime drinking history were used to measure personality traits, impulsive and aggressive behavior, both while sober and under the influence of alcohol, and alcohol consumption. Regression analyses showed that among the HTR2B Q20* carriers, temperamental traits resembled a passive-dependent personality profile, and the presence of the HTR2B Q20* predicted impulsive and aggressive behaviors particularly under the influence of alcohol. Results present examples of how one gene may contribute to personality structure and behaviors in a founder population and how personality may translate into behavior. PMID:26575222

  5. Association between Val66Met Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Gene Polymorphism and Post-Treatment Relapse in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wojnar, Marcin; Brower, Kirk J.; Strobbe, Stephen; Ilgen, Mark; Matsumoto, Halina; Nowosad, Izabela; Sliwerska, Elzbieta; Burmeister, Margit

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between genetic markers of central serotonin and dopamine function, and risk for post-treatment relapse, in a sample of alcohol-dependent patients. Methods The study included 154 patients from addiction treatment programs in Poland, who met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. After assessing demographics, severity of alcohol use, suicidality, impulsivity, depression, hopelessness, and severity of alcohol use at baseline, patients were followed for approximately one year to evaluate treatment outcomes. Genetic polymorphisms in several genes (TPH2, SLC6A4, HTR1A, HTR2A, COMT, BDNF) were tested as predictors of relapse (defined as any drinking during follow-up) while controlling for baseline measures. Results Of 154 eligible patients, 123 (80%) completed follow-up and 48% (n = 59) of these individuals relapsed. Patients with the Val allele in the Val66Met BDNF polymorphism and the Met allele in the Val158Met COMT polymorphism were more likely to relapse. Only the BDNF Val/Val genotype predicted post-treatment relapse (OR = 2.62; p = 0.019), and time to relapse (OR = 2.57; p = 0.002), after adjusting for baseline measures and other significant genetic markers. When the analysis was restricted to patients with a family history of alcohol dependence (n = 73), the associations between the BDNF Val/Val genotype and relapse (OR = 5.76, p = 0.0045) and time to relapse (HR = 4.93, p = 0.001) were even stronger. Conclusions The Val66Met BDNF gene polymorphism was associated with a higher risk and earlier occurrence of relapse among patients treated for alcohol dependence. The study suggests a relationship between genetic markers and treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence. Because a large number of statistical tests were conducted for this study and the literature on genetics and relapse is so novel, the results should be considered as hypothesis generating and need to be replicated in independent studies

  6. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape Based on Individual Beliefs and Female Alcohol Consumption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Suzanne L.; Davis, Clive M.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates whether female alcohol consumption predicts perceptions of date rape based on two personality measures administered to 290 undergraduates. Results indicate that a stronger belief in token resistance to sex was related to weaker perceptions of rape. As hypothesized, participants scoring higher on sex-role stereotyping perceived fewer…

  7. Secondary School Experiences of Individuals with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder: Perspectives of Parents and Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duquette, Cheryll; Stodel, Emma; Fullarton, Stephanie; Hagglund, Karras

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine persistence in school among students with Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) from the perspectives of the students themselves and their parents. Tinto's (1975, 1997) Student Integration Model (SIM) provided the theoretical framework for this research. This model involves an interplay between (1)…

  8. The Association between Cue-Reactivity in the Precuneus and Level of Dependence on Nicotine and Alcohol*

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, Kelly E.; Ghahremani, Dara G.; London, Edythe D.; Ray, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given numerous reports implicating involvement of the precuneus in cue-reactivity paradigms, the goal of this investigation was to examine the relationship between activation of the precuneus in response to drug cues and measures of subjective craving and severity of dependence in volunteers who were comorbid for alcohol and nicotine abuse. Methods Forty research participants, who all reported heavy drinking and daily smoking, were recruited (15 women; 70% Caucasian; mean age = 31.2 years) for a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) session involving a cigarette video-cues task and an alcohol taste-cues task. Mean precuneus activation from both tasks during cue presentation was subjected to bivariate correlation analyses with indices of dependence severity and subjective craving. Results Precuneus activation in the contrast of Cigarette Cues vs. Control Cues was positively correlated with scores on the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (r=0.389, p=0.016), and activation in the Alcohol Cues vs. Control Cues contrast was positively correlated with Alcohol Dependence Scale scores (r=0.338, p=0.038). No correlations with subjective craving were observed (ps>0.05). Conclusions These findings indicate that the precuneus is involved in cue reactivity for both cigarettes and alcohol, and that this involvement is moderated by severity of drug dependence. The precuneus may be a cortical locus for neuroplastic changes related to drug dependence. PMID:24880692

  9. Patterns of alcohol dependence in Thai drinkers: a differential item functioning analysis of gender and age bias.

    PubMed

    Srisurapanont, Manit; Kittiratanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Kongsuk, Thoranin; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri

    2012-02-01

    In Caucasians, the patterns of alcohol use disorders in women and adolescents are likely to be different from those in men and adults, respectively. The authors examined these differences in a Southeast Asian sample of Thai people living in communities. A two-parameter logistic model of the IRT log-likelihood-ratio (IRTLR) test for differential item functioning (DIF) procedure was used. Participants were a subsample of 3718 current drinkers participating in the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey (n=17,140). The 1-year prevalence rates of alcohol dependence were 1.4% in women and 13.7% in men. Based on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), alcohol dependence and abuse module, all current drinkers were interviewed for a yes/no response to each of seven alcohol dependence criteria. Confirmatory factor analysis suggested a single-factor model of alcohol dependence criteria (χ2=211.51, RMSEA=0.06, SRMR=0.03 and CFI=0.96). Compared with 3174 men, 544 women had a significantly higher threshold estimate for quit/control problems and a lower threshold value for drinking despite physical/mental problems (b parameter difference of 0.25 and -0.30, respectively). Thai adolescents (n=272) and Thai adults (n=3446) had no statistically significant DIF on any criterion. The criterion of time spent drinking had significantly high discrimination estimates in women, men, adolescent and adults (a parameters of 2.50, 2.08, 2.33 and 2.16, respectively). Gender bias on alcohol dependence criteria can be found in Thai drinkers. Time spent drinking may be the most useful criterion for discriminating the severity of alcohol dependence across age and gender groups of Thai drinkers.

  10. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... Beer, wine, and liquor all contain alcohol. If you are drinking any of these, you are using alcohol. Your drinking patterns may vary, depending on who you are with ...