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Sample records for alcohol dependent individuals

  1. Emotional Intelligence Components in Alcohol Dependent and Mentally Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Mohagheghi, Arash; Amiri, Shahrokh; Mousavi Rizi, Seyedreza; Safikhanlou, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Emotional intelligence might play an important role in the onset and persistence of different psychopathologies. This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and alcohol dependence. Methods. In this case-control study, participants included alcohol dependent individuals and mentally healthy inpatients. Each group consisted of 40 individuals (male/female: 1). The diagnosis was based on the criteria of the DSM-IV-TR using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-IV). All the participants completed Bar-On emotional intelligence test. Results. 20 males and 20 females were included in each group. Mean age of alcohol dependent participants and controls was 31.28 ± 7.82 and 34.93 ± 9.83 years in that order. The analyses showed that the alcohol dependent individuals had a significant difference compared with the control group and received lower scores in empathy, responsibility, impulse control, self-esteem, optimism, emotional consciousness, stress tolerance, autonomy, problem-solving, and total score of emotional intelligence components. Conclusion. Patients with alcohol dependence have deficits in components of emotional intelligence. Identifying and targeted training of the individuals with lower scores in components of emotional intelligence may be effective in prevention of alcohol dependence. PMID:25893214

  2. Naltrexone ameliorates functional network abnormalities in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Morris, Laurel S; Baek, Kwangyeol; Tait, Roger; Elliott, Rebecca; Ersche, Karen D; Flechais, Remy; McGonigle, John; Murphy, Anna; Nestor, Liam J; Orban, Csaba; Passetti, Filippo; Paterson, Louise M; Rabiner, Ilan; Reed, Laurence; Smith, Dana; Suckling, John; Taylor, Eleanor M; Bullmore, Edward T; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Deakin, Bill; Nutt, David J; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W; Voon, Valerie

    2017-02-28

    Naltrexone, an opioid receptor antagonist, is commonly used as a relapse prevention medication in alcohol and opiate addiction, but its efficacy and the mechanisms underpinning its clinical usefulness are not well characterized. In the current study, we examined the effects of 50-mg naltrexone compared with placebo on neural network changes associated with substance dependence in 21 alcohol and 36 poly-drug-dependent individuals compared with 36 healthy volunteers. Graph theoretic and network-based statistical analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data revealed that alcohol-dependent subjects had reduced functional connectivity of a dispersed network compared with both poly-drug-dependent and healthy subjects. Higher local efficiency was observed in both patient groups, indicating clustered and segregated network topology and information processing. Naltrexone normalized heightened local efficiency of the neural network in alcohol-dependent individuals, to the same levels as healthy volunteers. Naltrexone failed to have an effect on the local efficiency in abstinent poly-substance-dependent individuals. Across groups, local efficiency was associated with substance, but no alcohol exposure implicating local efficiency as a potential premorbid risk factor in alcohol use disorders that can be ameliorated by naltrexone. These findings suggest one possible mechanism for the clinical effects of naltrexone, namely, the amelioration of disrupted network topology.

  3. Alcohol-Dependent Individuals Discount Sex at Higher Rates than Controls

    PubMed Central

    Jarmolowicz, David P.; Bickel, Warren K.; Gatchalian, Kirstin M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on delay discounting has expanded our understanding of substance dependence in many ways. Recently, orderly discounting of sexual rewards has been demonstrated in both substance-dependent individuals, and healthy controls. Less clear, however, is if rates of sexual discounting are higher than controls in alcohol-dependent-individuals. Methods 20 Alcohol-dependent individuals and 21 healthy control participants completed two delay-discounting tasks. One task involved monetary rewards, whereas the other involved the discounting of sexual rewards (i.e., number of sex acts). Results Alcohol dependent individuals discounted sexual rewards at significantly higher rates than did controls. There was a trend towards, but not a similarly significant relation for the discounting of monetary rewards. Conclusions Rates of sexual discounting are elevated in alcohol dependent individuals. If this relation is replicated in other at risk populations, the rapid devaluation of sexual rewards may be a behavioral marker of impulsive sexual choices. PMID:23312341

  4. Structural brain differences in alcohol-dependent individuals with and without comorbid substance dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mon, Anderson; Durazzo, Timothy C.; Abe, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Pennington, David; Schmidt, Thomas; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 50% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) also use other substances. Therefore, brain structural abnormalities observed in alcohol dependent individuals may not be entirely related to alcohol consumption. This MRI study assessed differences in brain regional tissue volumes between short-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals without (ALC) and with current substance use dependence (polysubstance users, PSU). Methods Nineteen, one-month-abstinent PSU and 40 ALC as well as 27 light-drinkers (LD) were studied on a 1.5 Tesla MR system. Whole brain T1-weighted images were segmented automatically into regional gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes. MANOVA assessed group differences of intracranial volume-normalized tissue volumes of the frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes as well as regional subcortical GM volumes. The volumetric measures were correlated with neurocognitive measures to assess their functional relevance. Results Despite similar lifetime drinking and smoking histories, PSU had significantly larger normalized WM volumes than ALC in all lobes. PSU also had larger frontal and parietal WM volumes than LD, but smaller temporal GM volumes as well as smaller lenticular and thalamic nuclei than LD. By contrast, ALC had smaller frontal, parietal, and temporal GM, thalamic GM and cerebellar volumes than LD. ALC also had more sulcal CSF volumes than both PSU and LD. Conclusion One-month-abstinent ALC and PSU exhibited different patterns of gross brain structural abnormalities. The larger lobar WM volumes in PSU in the absence of widespread GM volume loss contrast with widespread GM atrophy in ALC. These structural differences between ALC and PSU may demand different treatment approaches to mitigate specific functionally relevant brain abnormalities. PMID:25263262

  5. Factors associated with resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sreekumar, Sreeja; Subhalakshmi, T. P.; Varghese, P. Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Mental health and resilience of family members of individuals with alcohol dependence affect their ability to cope with stress, maintain emotional well-being, and to positively adapt to their difficult life circumstances. This study attempted to study resilience among wives of men with alcohol dependence syndrome. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence and their wives attending the Department of Psychiatry, MOSC Medical College, Kolenchery, Kerala, over a 1-year period were recruited. The wives were assessed using the Resilience Scale for Adults and the Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale, whereas their spouses were evaluated using severity of alcohol dependence questionnaire and a proforma to collect sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Women with good resilience were compared to those with low scores using a case–control framework to evaluate factors associated with resilience. Multivariable analysis to adjust for common confounders was done using multiple linear regression. Results: Eighty patients and their spouses were recruited and evaluated. Resilience was inversely related to the severity of alcohol dependence, years of drinking in dependence pattern, history of domestic violence, and severity of depression in wives. Involvement in support groups was protective. Conclusion: Assessment of resilience in wives of individuals with alcohol dependence and identification and management of those with poor resilience should go hand in hand with their husband's treatment program. PMID:28066009

  6. Impaired decision-making under risk in individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Bechara, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel; Kornreich, Charles; Verbanck, Paul; Noël, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with poor decision-making under ambiguity, that is, when decisions are to be made in the absence of known probabilities of reward and loss. However, little is known regarding decisions made by individuals with alcohol dependence in the context of known probabilities (decision under risk). In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of these distinct aspects of decision making to alcohol dependence. Methods Thirty recently detoxified and sober asymptomatic alcohol-dependent individuals, and thirty healthy control participants were tested for decision-making under ambiguity (using the Iowa Gambling Task), and decision-making under-risk (using the Cups Task and Coin Flipping Task). We also tested their capacities for working memory storage (Digit-span Forward), and dual-tasking (Operation-span Task). Results Compared to healthy control participants, alcohol-dependent individuals made disadvantageous decisions on the Iowa Gambling Task, reflecting poor decisions under ambiguity. They also made more risky choices on the Cups and Coin Flipping Tasks reflecting poor decision-making under risk. In addition, alcohol-dependent participants showed some working memory impairments, as measured by the dual tasking, and the degree of this impairment correlated with high-risk decision-making, thus suggesting a relationship between processes sub-serving working memory and risky decisions. Conclusion These results suggest that alcohol dependent individuals are impaired in their ability to decide optimally in multiple facets of uncertainty (i.e., both risk and ambiguity), and that at least some aspects of these deficits are linked to poor working memory processes. PMID:24948198

  7. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population.

  8. Normal Performance on a Simulated Gambling Task in Treatment-Naïve Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fein, George; McGillivray, Shannon; Finn, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Background Research suggests that substance abusers make more disadvantageous decisions on the simulated gambling task (SGT); such decisions are associated with deviance proneness and antisocial symptoms. This study examines decision-making on the SGT in young adults with alcohol dependence that are treatment-naïve (TxN). Methods 116 subjects (58 controls, 58 TxNs) were tested on the SGT, where participants choose cards from 4 different decks that vary in terms of the magnitude of the immediate gain (large/small) and the magnitude of long-term loss (larger/smaller). Participants also were assessed on measures of externalizing symptoms, personality traits reflecting social deviance, neuropsychological function, and the density of the family history of alcoholism. Results TxNs did not differ from controls on measures of SGT decision-making. SGT performance was not associated with externalizing symptoms, social deviance proneness, or a familial density of alcoholism. Although, TxNs had higher levels of externalizing symptoms, social deviance and familial density of alcoholism compared with controls, these variables were only modestly elevated compared with previous samples of long-term abstinent alcohol dependent individuals who showed decision-making deficits on the SGT. Conclusions The results suggest that our sample of young adult TxN adults with alcohol dependence do not have global deficits in decision-making as measured by the SGT, and that their poor decisions regarding their alcohol consumption are more specific to drinking. PMID:16737453

  9. Gender-Specific Associations Between Trauma Cognitions, Alcohol Cravings and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Individuals with Comorbid PTSD and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Yasinski, Carly; Williams, Monnica; Foa, Edna B.

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined gender-specific associations between trauma cognitions, alcohol cravings and alcohol-related consequences in individuals with dually diagnosed PTSD and alcohol dependence (AD). Participants (N = 167) had entered a treatment study for concurrent PTSD and AD; baseline information was collected from participants about PTSD-related cognitions in three areas: negative cognitions about self, negative cognitions about the world, and self-blame; and two aspects of AD, alcohol cravings and consequences of AD. Gender differences were examined while controlling for PTSD severity. The results indicate that negative cognitions about the self are significantly related to alcohol cravings in men but not women, and that interpersonal consequences of AD are significantly related to self-blame in women but not in men. These findings suggest that for individuals with comorbid PTSD and AD, psychotherapeutic interventions that focus on reducing trauma-related cognitions are likely to reduce alcohol cravings in men and relational problems in women. PMID:21480680

  10. Cingulate cortex functional connectivity predicts future relapse in alcohol dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Zakiniaeiz, Yasmin; Scheinost, Dustin; Seo, Dongju; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a chronic relapsing illness. Alcohol and stress cues have consistently been shown to increase craving and relapse risk in recovering alcohol dependent (AUD) patients. However, differences in functional connectivity in response to these cues have not been studied using data-driven approaches. Here, voxel-wise connectivity is used in a whole-brain investigation of functional connectivity differences associated with alcohol and stress cues and to examine whether these differences are related to subsequent relapse. In Study 1, 45, 4- to 8-week abstinent, recovering AUD patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during individualized imagery of alcohol, stress, and neutral cues. Relapse measures were collected prospectively for 90 days post-discharge from inpatient treatment. AUD patients showed blunted anterior (ACC), mid (MCC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), voxel-wise connectivity responses to stress compared to neutral cues and blunted PCC response to alcohol compared to neutral cues. Using Cox proportional hazard regression, weaker connectivity in ACC and MCC during neutral exposure was associated with longer time to relapse (better recovery outcome). Similarly, greater connectivity in PCC during alcohol-cue compared to stress cue was associated with longer time to relapse. In Study 2, a sub-group of 30 AUD patients were demographically-matched to 30 healthy control (HC) participants for group comparisons. AUD compared to HC participants showed reduced cingulate connectivity during alcohol and stress cues. Using novel data-driven approaches, the cingulate cortex emerged as a key region in the disruption of functional connectivity during alcohol and stress-cue processing in AUD patients and as a marker of subsequent alcohol relapse.

  11. Improving personality/character traits in individuals with alcohol dependence: the influence of mindfulness-oriented meditation.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Matiz, Alessio; Fabbro, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The study of personality is critical to enhance current knowledge of the psychological characteristics of alcohol dependence. Recent evidence shows that mindfulness-oriented meditation positively influences healthy individuals' character. Here, it was assessed whether 8-week mindfulness-oriented meditation promotes similar changes in a group of alcohol-dependent individuals. A control group with alcohol dependence was also tested. Mindfulness-oriented meditation participants showed an increase in the character scores of the temperament and character inventory together with reduced risks of relapse. These longitudinal data highlight the importance of assessing personality in alcohol-dependent individuals and support the utility of therapeutic interventions for alcohol dependence aimed at enhancing individuals' character.

  12. Internet Addictive Individuals Share Impulsivity and Executive Dysfunction with Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenhe; Zhu, Hongmei; Li, Cui; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder (IAD) should belong to a kind of behavioral addiction. Previous studies indicated that there are many similarities in the neurobiology of behavior and substance addictions. Up to date, although individuals with IAD have difficulty in suppressing their excessive online behaviors in real life, little is known about the patho-physiological and cognitive mechanisms responsible for IAD. Neuropsychological test studies have contributed significantly to our understanding of the effect of IAD on the cognitive function. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent individuals. Participants include 22 Internet addictive individuals, 22 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), and 22 normal controls (NC). All participants were measured with BIS-11, go/no-go task, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Digit span task under the same experimental condition. Results showed that Barratt impulsiveness scale 11 scores, false alarm rate, the total response errors, perseverative errors, failure to maintain set of IAD and AD group were significantly higher than that of NC group, and hit rate, percentage of conceptual level responses, the number of categories completed, forwards scores, and backwards scores of IAD and AD group were significantly lower than that of NC group, however, no differences in above variables between IAD group and AD group were observed. These results revealed that the existence of impulsivity, deficiencies in executive function and working memory in an IAD and an AD sample, namely, Internet addictive individuals share impulsivity and executive dysfunction with alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:25202248

  13. Neurocognitive deficits, craving, and abstinence among alcohol-dependent individuals following detoxification.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Bradshaw, John L; Lubman, Dan I; Sheppard, Dianne

    2014-02-01

    Alcohol dependence, a chronic relapsing disorder, is characterized by an impaired ability to regulate compulsive urges to consume alcohol. Very few empirical studies have examined the presence of these executive deficits, how they relate to craving, and the enduring nature of these deficits during abstinence. As such, the current study aimed to characterize these cognitive deficits within a sample of 24 alcohol-dependent participants post-detoxification and 23 non-alcohol-dependent participants. Participants were administered the Sustained Attention to Response Task to measure response inhibition and sustained attention and the Random Number Generation Task to examine executive deficits. Correlations between cognitive performance and clinical measures of alcohol dependence were examined. As predicted, the alcohol-dependent group exhibited poorer performance across the domains of response inhibition, executive function, and attentional control. Cognitive performance was related to clinical measures of craving and years of alcohol consumption, whereas the duration of abstinence was not associated with improved cognitive performance. These findings highlight the need for therapeutic strategies to target these enduring neurocognitive deficits in improving the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  14. Alcohol Consumption, Craving, and Craving Control Efforts Assessed Daily in the Context of Readiness to Change Among Individuals with Alcohol Dependence and PTSD.

    PubMed

    Browne, Kendall C; Wray, Tyler B; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Krenek, Marketa; Simpson, Tracy L

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive association between alcohol craving and alcohol use and has identified craving as a central component of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Despite potential clinical implications, few studies have examined the relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and common psychiatric comorbidities or explored possible moderators of the craving-alcohol use relationship. The current study used daily monitoring data to: 1) replicate previous findings detecting a positive relationship between craving and alcohol use in individuals with AUD and co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 2) extend these findings by examining the influence of initial change motivation on the craving-use relationship and within-day associations among craving, efforts to control craving, and alcohol consumption. Participants were 84 individuals with alcohol dependence and PTSD enrolled in an intervention study. Generalized estimating equations using pre-treatment baseline daily data revealed significant main effects for craving, craving control, and motivation to change alcohol use. Daily craving was positively related to alcohol use. Greater change motivation and craving control (i.e., efforts to resist craving, avoidance of thoughts and feelings related to craving) were negatively related to alcohol use. A significant interaction was detected between baseline change motivation and daily craving indicating that the association between craving and alcohol use was significantly stronger for those with low baseline change motivation. A significant interaction was also detected between craving control and daily craving, suggesting that participants were more likely to consume alcohol when experiencing high levels of craving if they reported low levels of craving control. Findings bolster the idea that efforts to prevent or ameliorate craving are critical to treatment success for individuals with AUD and PTSD who are seeking to

  15. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  16. Mental state decoding and mental state reasoning in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Thoma, Patrizia; Winter, Natalia; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2013-02-28

    Impaired social cognition has been associated with interpersonal problems and with the development of and relapse into alcohol abuse. In the present study, self-reported trait empathy, decoding of complex mental states and cognitive and affective mental state reasoning were assessed in alcohol-dependent participants, and the association with executive function and psychopathological characteristics was investigated. Twenty recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients and 20 matched healthy controls were assessed with an abbreviated German version of the interpersonal reactivity index, the revised reading the mind in the eyes test, the faux pas story test, the trail making test and the letter-number-sequencing test. Patients were impaired relative to controls with regard to mental state decoding on the eyes test and showed reduced faux pas detection and impaired mental state reasoning reflected by lower faux pas understanding and faux pas empathy scores. There were no group differences regarding self-reported trait empathy. Performance on the sociocognitive measures was related to executive functioning and the severity of depressive symptoms. Although self-report measures might not always reliably detect impairments of social cognition, behavioural measures suggest pronounced impairments of mental state decoding and mental state reasoning in association with alcohol dependence. Findings ought to be incorporated into current treatment strategies.

  17. Varenicline effects on drinking, craving and neural reward processing among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals

    PubMed Central

    Schacht, Joseph P.; Anton, Raymond F.; Randall, Patrick K.; Li, Xingbao; Henderson, Scott; Myrick, Hugh

    2014-01-01

    Rationale The α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist varenicline has been reported to reduce drinking among both heavy-drinking smokers and primary alcoholics, and this effect may be related to varenicline-mediated reduction of alcohol craving. Among smokers, varenicline has been reported to modulate cigarette cue-elicited brain activation in several reward-related areas. Objectives This pilot study tested varenicline’s effects on drinking, alcohol craving, and alcohol cue-elicited activation of reward-related brain areas among non-treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent individuals. Methods Thirty-five such individuals (mean age = 30, 57% male, 76% heavy drinking days in the past month, 15 smokers) were randomized to either varenicline (titrated to 2 mg) or placebo for 14 days, and were administered an alcohol cue reactivity fMRI task on day 14. A priori regions of interest (ROIs) were bilateral and medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), right ventral striatum (VS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Results Despite good medication adherence, varenicline did not reduce heavy drinking days or other drinking parameters. It did, however, increase self-reported control over alcohol-related thoughts and reduced cue-elicited activation bilaterally in the OFC, but not in other brain areas. Conclusions These data indicate that varenicline reduces alcohol craving and some of the neural substrates of alcohol cue reactivity. However, varenicline effects on drinking mediated by cue-elicited brain activation and craving might be best observed among treatment-seekers motivated to reduce their alcohol consumption. PMID:24647921

  18. Women with Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized Trial of Couple versus Individual plus Couple Therapy

    PubMed Central

    McCrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K.

    2016-01-01

    Couple therapy for women with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) yields positive drinking outcomes, but many women prefer individual to conjoint treatment. The present study compared conjoint cognitive behavioral therapy for women with AUDs to a blend of individual and conjoint therapy. Participants were 59 women with AUDs (95% Caucasian, mean age = 46 years) and their male partners randomly assigned to 12 sessions of Alcohol Behavioral Couple Therapy (ABCT) or to a blend of five individual CBT sessions and seven sessions of ABCT (Blended-ABCT). Drinking and relationship satisfaction were assessed during and for one year post-treatment. Treatment conditions did not differ significantly on number of treatment sessions attended, percent of drinking days (PDD), or heavy drinking days (PDH), during or in the 12 months following treatment. However, effect size estimates suggested a small to moderate effect of Blended-ABCT over ABCT in number of treatment sessions attended, d=−.41, and first- and second-half within treatment PDD, d=−.41, d=−.28, and PDH, d=−.46, d=−.38. Moderator analyses found that women lower in baseline sociotropy had lower PDH across treatment weeks 1–8 in Blended-ABCT than ABCT and that women lower in self-efficacy had lower PDH during follow-up in Blended-ABCT than ABCT. The two treatment groups did not differ significantly in within-treatment or post-treatment relationship satisfaction. Results suggest that blending individual and conjoint treatment yields similar or slightly better outcomes than ABCT, is responsive to women’s expressed desire for individual sessions as part of their treatment, and decreases the challenges of scheduling conjoint sessions. PMID:27214168

  19. Pooled association genome scanning for alcohol dependence using 104,268 SNPs: Validation and use to identify alcoholism vulnerability loci in unrelated individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Catherine; Drgon, Tomas; Liu, Qing-Rong; Walther, Donna; Edenberg, Howard; Rice, John; Foroud, Tatiana; Uhl, George R

    2013-01-01

    Association genome scanning can identify markers for the allelic variants that contribute to vulnerability to complex disorders, including alcohol dependence. To improve the power and feasibility of this approach, we report validation of “100k” microarray-based allelic frequency assessments in pooled DNA samples. We then use this approach with unrelated alcohol dependent vs control individuals sampled from pedigrees collected by the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Allele frequency differences between alcohol-dependent and control individuals are assessed in quadruplicate at 104,268 autosomal SNPs in pooled samples. One hundred eighty eight SNPs provide 1) the largest allele frequency differences between dependent vs control individuals, 2) t values ≥ 3 for these differences and 3) clustering, so that 51 relatively small chromosomal regions contain at least three SNPs that satisfy criteria 1 and 2 above (Monte Carlo p=0.00034). These positive SNP clusters nominate interesting genes whose products are implicated in cellular signaling, gene regulation, development, “cell adhesion” and Mendelian disorders. The results converge with linkage and association results for alcohol and other addictive phenotypes. The data support polygenic contributions to vulnerability to alcohol dependence These SNPs provide new tools to aid the understanding, prevention and treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:16894614

  20. Persistent insomnia, abstinence, and moderate drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J; Krentzman, Amy; Robinson, Elizabeth A R

    2011-01-01

    Insomnia is common, persistent, and increases the risk for relapse in alcohol-dependent (AD) patients. Abstinence has long been considered the best strategy for allowing sleep to normalize, although how many and which patients respond to abstinence is unknown. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and correlates of both baseline and persistent insomnia in AD patients. The course of sleep problems in response to abstinence, moderate drinking, or relapse following treatment was also examined. A naturalistic longitudinal outcomes study interviewed 267 patients (69% male; mean age of 44 years) with DSM-IV alcohol dependence at baseline and 6 months later (84% follow-up rate) . The Sleep Problems Questionnaire, Time-Line Follow-Back Interview, and Brief Symptom Inventory measured insomnia, drinking, and psychiatric symptoms, respectively. Simple correlations, logistic regression, and repeated measures analysis of variance were used to analyze the data. At baseline, 47% of patients were classified with insomnia, which was independently predicted by female gender and psychiatric severity. Both abstinence and moderate drinking outcomes significantly predicted a reduction of insomnia symptoms after controlling for gender and psychiatric severity. Among patients with baseline insomnia, however, insomnia persisted in over 60% of cases, which was predicted by baseline insomnia severity. Moreover, insomnia persisted in one-quarter of patients despite abstinence. Treatment aimed at preventing relapse to heavy drinking provides good first-line therapy for insomnia in AD patients, but some may require insomnia-specific evaluation and treatment in addition to substance-focused treatment and psychiatric care. 

  1. Interactive Effects of Chronic Cigarette Smoking and Age on Brain Volumes in Controls and Alcohol Dependent Individuals in Early Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Durazzo, Timothy C.; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol use disorders (AUD) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly comorbid condition in AUD, and its influence on age-related brain atrophy has not been evaluated. We performed 1.5T quantitative MRI in non-smoking controls (nsCON; n=54), smoking light drinking controls (sCON, n=34), and 1-week-abstinent, treatment-seeking non-smoking alcohol dependent individuals (nsALC, n=35) and smoking ALC (sALC, n=43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS),. nsCON and sALC showed greater age-related volume losses than nsALC in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. nsALC and sALC demonstrated smaller volumes than nsCON in most cortical ROIs. sCON had smaller volumes than nsCON in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. nsALC and sALC had smaller volumes than sCON in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between nsALC and sALC were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in sCON and sALC. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD. PMID:22943795

  2. Executive control deficits in substance-dependent individuals: a comparison of alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine and of men and women.

    PubMed

    van der Plas, Ellen A A; Crone, Eveline A; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2009-08-01

    Substance dependence is associated with executive function deficits, but the nature of these executive defects and the effect that different drugs and sex have on these defects have not been fully clarified. Therefore, we compared the performance of alcohol- (n = 33; 18 women), cocaine- (n = 27; 14 women), and methamphetamine-dependent individuals (n = 38; 25 women) with sex-matched healthy comparisons (n = 36; 17 women) on complex decision making as measured with the Iowa Gambling Task, working memory, cognitive flexibility, and response inhibition. Cocaine- and methamphetamine-dependent individuals were impaired on complex decision making, working memory, and cognitive flexibility, but not on response inhibition. The deficits in working memory and cognitive flexibility were milder than the decision-making deficits and did not change as a function of memory load or task switching. Interestingly, decision making was significantly more impaired in women addicted to cocaine or methamphetamine than in men addicted to these drugs. Together, these findings suggest that drug of choice and sex have different effects on executive functioning, which, if replicated, may help tailor intervention.

  3. Difficult Behaviors in the Emergency Department: A Cohort Study of Housed, Homeless and Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    Background This study contrasted annual rates of difficult behaviours in emergency departments among cohorts of individuals who were homeless and low-income housed and examined predictors of these events. Methods Interviews in 1999 with men who were chronically homeless with drinking problems (CHDP) (n = 50), men from the general homeless population (GH) (n = 61), and men residing in low-income housing (LIH) (n = 58) were linked to catchment area emergency department records (n = 2817) from 1994 to 1999. Interview and hospital data were linked to measures of difficult behaviours. Results Among the CHDP group, annual rates of visits with difficult behaviours were 5.46; this was 13.4 (95% CI 10.3–16.5) and 14.3 (95% CI 11.2–17.3) times higher than the GH and LIH groups. Difficult behaviour incidents included physical violence, verbal abuse, uncooperativeness, drug seeking, difficult histories and security involvement. Difficult behaviours made up 57.54% (95% CI 55.43–59.65%), 24% (95% CI 19–29%), and 20% (95% CI 16–24%) of CHDP, GH and LIH visits. Among GH and LIH groups, 87% to 95% were never involved in verbal abuse or violence. Intoxication increased all difficult behaviours while decreasing drug seeking and leaving without being seen. Verbal abuse and violence were less likely among those housed, with odds ratios of 0.24 (0.08, 0.72) and 0.32 (0.15, 0.69), respectively. Conclusions Violence and difficult behaviours are much higher among chronically homeless men with drinking problems than general homeless and low-income housed populations. They are concentrated among subgroups of individuals. Intoxication is the strongest predictor of difficult behaviour incidents. PMID:25919015

  4. Associations between recent heavy drinking and dorsal anterior cingulate N-acetylaspartate and glutamate concentrations in non-treatment seeking individuals with alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Prisciandaro, James J.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Prescot, Andrew P.; Renshaw, Perry F.; Brown, Truman R.; Anton, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) studies have consistently found abnormal brain concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamate in individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) relative to light drinkers. However, most such studies have focused on individuals in treatment for severe alcohol dependence and few studies have investigated associations between neurochemical concentrations and recent alcohol consumption. The present study focused on associations between recent drinking and prefrontal neurometabolite concentrations in non-severe, non-treatment seeking individuals with AUD. Methods Nineteen treatment naïve alcohol-dependent individuals aged 21–40 completed a 1H-MRS scan. Single-voxel 1H-MRS spectra were acquired in dorsal anterior cingulate (dACC) using a Two-dimensional J-resolved Point Resolved Spectroscopy (2D J-PRESS) sequence. Associations between recent heavy drinking, assessed using the Timeline FollowBack, and dACC metabolite concentrations were estimated via regression controlling for within-voxel tissue composition. Results Participants provided a negative breathalyzer reading and reported between 1 and 5 days (M = 2.45, SD = 1.23) since their last drink. Number of heavy drinking days in the 14 days preceding the scan (M = 4.84, SD = 3.32) was significantly inversely associated with both glutamate/water (β = −0.63, t(17) = −3.37, p = 0.004) and NAA/water concentrations (β = −0.59, t(17) = −2.98, p = 0.008). Conclusions The present study extends the literature by demonstrating inverse associations between recent heavy drinking and dACC glutamate and NAA concentrations in a sample of non-severe, non-treatment seeking individuals with AD. These findings may support the hypothesis that amount of recent alcohol consumption may account for differences in neuronal metabolism, even in non-severe, non-treatment seeking alcoholics. PMID:26853538

  5. Alcohol use dependence in fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Arellano, María J; Lozano, Reymundo; Tassone, Flora; Hagerman, Randi J; Saldarriaga, Wilmar

    2016-08-01

    Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) have been reported in a limited number of individuals with cognitive impairment but rarely in those with fragile X syndrome (FXS). However, in Colombia, culturally, alcohol consumption is very common. Here, we report eight cases of patients with FXS who have frequent alcohol consumption in Ricaurte, Colombia. Some of these patients have also used tobacco and illegal substances, including cocaine, which use has not been previously reported in those with FXS. Alcohol and substance use dependence is associated with exacerbation of their behavioral problems, such as increased impulsivity and aggression, as well as of medical problems such as an increased frequency of seizures.

  6. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Couples Therapy versus Individually-Based Treatment for Women with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Murphy, Marie M.; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Method: Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without SUD. Participants were mostly White and in their forties. Women were randomized to equally intensive treatments consisting of either BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT or IBT only. Primary outcomes included: Timeline Followback Interview percentage days abstinent (PDA) and Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measure of substance-related problems. Secondary outcomes included: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Happiness Scale (RHS), and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales measure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and quarterly for 1-yr follow-up. Results: Compared to IBT only, BCT plus IBT had significantly better primary outcomes of higher PDA and fewer substance-related problems during the 1-yr follow-up period. Compared to IBT only, BCT had significantly higher male RHS during the 1-yr follow-up. Women with lower pretreatment DAS had significantly higher DAS following BCT versus IBT, and there was an increasing advantage for BCT on female DAS over the follow-up. IPV was significantly reduced from pretreatment to follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that BCT for women with AUD was more efficacious than IBT in reducing substance use and substance-related problems and improving partner relationships. PMID:25045910

  7. Use of hair cortisol analysis to detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinze, Kareen; Steudte, Susann; Foley, Paul; Tietze, Antje; Dettenborn, Lucia

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of cortisol levels in human hair has recently been suggested to provide a retrospective index of cumulative cortisol exposure over periods of up to 6 months. The current study examined the utility of hair cortisol analysis to retrospectively detect hypercortisolism during active drinking phases in alcoholics in acute withdrawal (n=23), the normalisation of cortisol output in abstinent alcoholics (n=25) and cortisol levels in age- and gender-matched controls (n=20). Scalp-near 3-cm hair segments were sampled and analysed for cortisol content. Results showed three to fourfold higher cortisol levels in hair samples of alcoholics in acute withdrawal than in those of abstinent alcoholics (p<.001) or controls (p<.001), with no differences between the latter two groups. The current hair cortisol findings closely mirror results of previous research using well-established measures of systemic cortisol secretion and thus provide further validation of this novel method.

  8. Alcohol Consumption Indices of Genetic Risk for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Julia D.; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Todd, Richard D.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Hansell, Narelle K.; Whitfield, John B.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous research has reported a significant genetic correlation between heaviness of alcohol consumption and alcohol dependence (AD), but this association might be driven by the influence of AD on consumption rather than the reverse. We test the genetic overlap between AD symptoms and a heaviness of consumption measure among individuals who do not have AD. A high genetic correlation between these measures would suggest that a continuous measure of consumption may have a useful role in the discovery of genes contributing to dependence risk. Methods Factor analysis of 5 alcohol use measures was used to create a measure of heaviness of alcohol consumption. Quantitative genetic analyses of interview data from the 1989 Australian Twin Panel (n=6257 individuals; M=29.9 years) assessed the genetic overlap between heaviness of consumption, DSM-IV AD symptoms, DSM-IV AD symptom clustering, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse. Results Genetic influences accounted for 30–51% of the variance in the alcohol measures and genetic correlations were 0.90 or higher for all measures, with the correlation between consumption and dependence symptoms among non-dependent individuals estimated at 0.97 (95% CI: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Heaviness of consumption and AD symptoms have a high degree of genetic overlap even among non-dependent individuals in the general population, implying that genetic influences on dependence risk in the general population are acting to a considerable degree through heaviness of use, and that quantitative measures of consumption will likely have a useful role in the identification of genes contributing to AD. PMID:19576574

  9. The relationships of sociodemographic factors, medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities to neurocognition in short-term abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Rothlind, Johannes C; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2008-09-01

    Co-morbidities that commonly accompany those afflicted with an alcohol use disorder (AUD) may promote variability in the pattern and magnitude of neurocognitive abnormalities demonstrated. The goal of this study was to investigate the influence of several common co-morbid medical conditions (primarily hypertension and hepatitis C), psychiatric (primarily unipolar mood and anxiety disorders), and substance use (primarily psychostimulant and cannabis) disorders, and chronic cigarette smoking on the neurocognitive functioning in short-term abstinent, treatment-seeking individuals with AUD. Seventy-five alcohol-dependent participants (ALC; 51+/-9 years of age; three females) completed comprehensive neurocognitive testing after approximately 1 month of abstinence. Multivariate multiple linear regression evaluated the relationships among neurocognitive variables and medical conditions, psychiatric, and substance-use disorders, controlling for sociodemographic factors. Sixty-four percent of ALC had at least one medical, psychiatric, or substance-abuse co-morbidity (excluding smoking). Smoking status (smoker or nonsmoker) and age were significant independent predictors of cognitive efficiency, general intelligence, postural stability, processing speed, and visuospatial memory after age-normed adjustment and control for estimated pre-morbid verbal intelligence, education, alcohol consumption, and medical, psychiatric, and substance-misuse co-morbidities. Results indicated that chronic smoking accounted for a significant portion of the variance in the neurocognitive performance of this middle-aged AUD cohort. The age-related findings for ALC suggest that alcohol dependence, per se, was associated with diminished neurocognitive functioning with increasing age. The study of participants who demonstrate common co-morbidities observed in AUD is necessary to fully understand how AUD, as a clinical syndrome, affects neurocognition, brain neurobiology, and their changes with

  10. Identifying at risk individuals for drug and alcohol dependence: teaching the competency to students in classroom and clinical settings.

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Mitchell, Ann M; Puskar, Kathryn R; Hagle, Holly; Talcott, Kimberly; Fioravanti, Marie; Droppa, Mandy; Luongo, Peter F; Lindsay, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and other drug use affect patient healthcare outcomes. This article describes a classroom-to-clinical approach teaching nursing students to utilize motivational interviewing techniques to support patient behavior change. Through the lens of a universal prevention method, nursing students learned about reward circuit activation leading to risky substance use and the difference between addiction and at-risk use. Specific assessment tools and motivational interviewing techniques were presented in the classroom. Students then applied their knowledge in simulation laboratories and clinical rotations.

  11. [Alcohol dependence, temper and personality].

    PubMed

    Lejoyeux, Michel

    2004-12-01

    This review focuses on classical and recent research work in the field of alcohol dependence. Data from psychopathological studies trying to determine a "pre-addictive" personality are exposed. More recent studies assess personality disorders and dimensions of temperament associated to alcohol dependence. Sensation seeking, antisocial personality and novelty seeking appear as the main psychological parameters involved in dependence. Sensation seeking is a dimension of personality often associated to behavioral dependence. Sensation seeking is assessed with a five-component scale including general factor, thrill and adventure seeking, experience-seeking, disinhibition, and boredom susceptibility. Patients presenting alcohol dependence have a higher level of sensation seeking. Neurophysiological and genetic studies try to correlate these personality features to biological parameters. Preliminary results of these works are presented and discussed.

  12. Pharmacotherapeutic Treatment of Alcohol Dependence: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Erin; Goodwin, Lloyd R., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy medications can reduce the likelihood of relapse, decrease craving intensity and severity of withdrawal symptoms, and bolster the likelihood of achieving and maintaining recovery goals for many individuals seeking recovery from alcohol dependence. An overview of the benefits and concerns of integrating pharmacotherapeutic…

  13. Prazosin for Treatment With PTSD And Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    There is a high rate of comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of PTSD among individuals with...AD are at least twice as high as those in the general population. In addition, alcohol dependence is the most common comorbid condition in men with...sleep disturbance in combat veterans with PTSD and alcohol dependence . The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of prazosis (16mg

  14. Acamprosate: a new tool in the battle against alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Tara M; Myrick, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    Acamprosate, a medication that has been used in Europe for years, is the newest drug to be approved by the US Federal Drug Administration for the treatment of alcohol dependence. It has been shown to assist in the maintenance of abstinence in recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals. The following review delineates the proposed mechanism of action and pharmacokinetics of the drug. Findings of clinical trials are outlined and topics such as cost effectiveness, comparison with other medications used for the treatment of alcohol dependences as well as combination pharmacotherapy are discussed. In combination with psychosocial treatment, acamprosate is a promising tool for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients after alcohol withdrawal. This review also illustrates the continued need to search for more effective treatments, as the overall effectiveness of our currently available pharmacotherapies remains limited in the long-term maintenance of recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:19412493

  15. Preclinical and clinical pharmacology of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Tambour, Sophie; Quertemont, Etienne

    2007-02-01

    In recent years, advances in neuroscience led to the development of new medications to treat alcohol dependence and especially to prevent alcohol relapse after detoxification. Whereas the earliest medications against alcohol dependence were fortuitously discovered, recently developed drugs are increasingly based on alcohol's neurobiological mechanisms of action. This review discusses the most recent developments in alcohol pharmacotherapy and emphasizes the neurobiological basis of anti-alcohol medications. There are currently three approved drugs for the treatment of alcohol dependence with quite different mechanisms of action. Disulfiram is an inhibitor of the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase and acts as an alcohol-deterrent drug. Naltrexone, an opiate antagonist, reduces alcohol craving and relapse in heavy drinking, probably via a modulation of the mesolimbic dopamine activity. Finally, acamprosate helps maintaining alcohol abstinence, probably through a normalization of the chronic alcohol-induced hyperglutamatergic state. In addition to these approved medications, many other drugs have been suggested for preventing alcohol consumption on the basis of preclinical studies. Some of these drugs remain promising, whereas others have produced disappointing results in preliminary clinical studies. These new drugs in the field of alcohol pharmacotherapy are also discussed, together with their mechanisms of action.

  16. Neurobiology of alcohol dependence: focus on motivational mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Koob, George F

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain's stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol's effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies.

  17. Interactive effects of chronic cigarette smoking and age on brain volumes in controls and alcohol-dependent individuals in early abstinence.

    PubMed

    Durazzo, Timothy C; Mon, Anderson; Pennington, David; Abé, Christoph; Gazdzinski, Stefan; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol-use disorders (AUDs) have been shown to interact with normal age-related volume loss to exacerbate brain atrophy with increasing age. However, chronic cigarette smoking, a highly co-morbid condition in AUD and its influence on age-related brain atrophy have not been evaluated. We performed 1.5 T quantitative magnetic resonance imaging in non-smoking controls [non-smoking light drinking controls (nsCONs); n = 54], smoking light drinking controls (sCONs, n = 34), and one-week abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent (ALC) non-smokers (nsALCs, n = 35) and smokers (sALCs, n = 43), to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of alcohol dependence and chronic smoking on regional cortical and subcortical brain volumes, emphasizing the brain reward/executive oversight system (BREOS). The nsCONs and sALCs showed greater age-related volume losses than the nsALCs in the dorsal prefrontal cortex (DPFC), total cortical BREOS, superior parietal lobule and putamen. The nsALCs and sALCs demonstrated smaller volumes than the nsCONs in most cortical region of interests (ROIs). The sCONs had smaller volumes than the nsCONs in the DPFC, insula, inferior parietal lobule, temporal pole/parahippocampal region and all global cortical measures. The nsALCs and sALCs had smaller volumes than the sCONs in the DPFC, superior temporal gyrus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, precuneus and all global cortical measures. Volume differences between the nsALCs and sALCs were observed only in the putamen. Alcohol consumption measures were not related to volumes in any ROI for ALC; smoking severity measures were related to corpus callosum volume in the sCONs and sALCs. The findings indicate that consideration of smoking status is necessary for a better understanding of the factors contributing to regional brain atrophy in AUD.

  18. Intravenous Ghrelin Administration Increases Alcohol Craving in Alcohol-Dependent Heavy Drinkers: a Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Zywiak, William H.; Fricchione, Samuel R.; Edwards, Steven M.; de la Monte, Suzanne M.; Swift, Robert M.; Kenna, George A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to identify novel pharmacological targets to treat alcoholism. Animal and human studies suggest a role of ghrelin in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and craving. Here, we were the first to test the hypothesis that intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin acutely increases alcohol craving. Methods This was a double-blind placebo-controlled human laboratory proof-of-concept study. Non-treatment seeking alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals were randomized to receive intravenous ghrelin 1mcg/kg, 3 mcg/kg or 0 mcg/kg (placebo), followed by a cuereactivity procedure, during which participants were exposed to neutral (juice) and alcohol cues. The primary outcome variable was the increase in alcohol craving (also called “urge”) for alcohol, assessed by the Alcohol Visual Analogue Scale. Results Out of 103 screenings, 45 individuals received the study drug. Repeated measures of ANCOVA revealed a group effect across ghrelin doses in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05). A dose-specific examination revealed a significant effect of ghrelin 3 mcg/kg vs. placebo in increasing alcohol craving (p < .05) with a large effect size (d = .94). By contrast, no significant ghrelin effect was found in increasing either urge to drink juice or food craving (p: n.s.). No significant differences in side effects were found (p: n.s.). Conclusions Intravenous administration of exogenous ghrelin increased alcohol craving in alcohol-dependent heavy drinking individuals. Although the small sample requires confirmatory studies, these findings provide preliminary evidence that ghrelin may play a role in the neurobiology of alcohol craving, thus demonstrating a novel pharmacological target for treatment. PMID:24775991

  19. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  20. Nicotine Dependence and Alcohol Problems from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Dierker, Lisa; Selya, Arielle; Rose, Jennifer; Hedeker, Donald; Mermelstein, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the highly replicated relationship between symptoms associated with both alcohol and nicotine, little is known about this association across time and exposure to both drinking and smoking. In the present study, we evaluate if problems associated with alcohol use are related to emerging nicotine dependence symptoms and whether this relationship varies from adolescence to young adulthood, after accounting for both alcohol and nicotine exposure. Methods The sample was drawn from the Social and Emotional Contexts of Adolescent Smoking Patterns Study which measured smoking, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and alcohol related problems over 6 assessment waves spanning 6 years. Analyses were based on repeated assessment of 864 participants reporting some smoking and drinking 30 days prior to individual assessment waves. Mixed-effects regression models were estimated to examine potential time, smoking and/or alcohol varying effects in the association between alcohol problems and nicotine dependence. Findings Inter-individual differences in mean levels of alcohol problems and within subject changes in alcohol problems from adolescence to young adulthood were each significantly associated with nicotine dependence symptoms over and above levels of smoking and drinking behaviour. This association was consistent across both time and increasing levels of smoking and drinking. Conclusions Alcohol related problems are a consistent risk factor for nicotine dependence over and above measures of drinking and smoking and this association can be demonstrated from the earliest experiences with smoking in adolescents, through the establishment of more regular smoking patterns across the transition to young adulthood. These findings add to accumulating evidence suggesting that smoking and drinking may be related through a mechanism that cannot be wholly accounted for by exposure to either substance. PMID:27610424

  1. Brain pathways to recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth R; Koob, George F; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T; Chandler, L Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry J; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra D; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N; Harris, R Adron; Grant, Kathleen A; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Sullivan, Edith V

    2015-08-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on "Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence" held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed.

  2. Thinking after Drinking: Impaired Hippocampal-Dependent Cognition in Human Alcoholics and Animal Models of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder currently affects approximately 18 million Americans, with at least half of these individuals having significant cognitive impairments subsequent to their chronic alcohol use. This is most widely apparent as frontal cortex-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where executive function and decision-making are severely compromised, as well as hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, where contextual and temporal reasoning are negatively impacted. This review discusses the relevant clinical literature to support the theory that cognitive recovery in tasks dependent on the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus is temporally different across extended periods of abstinence from alcohol. Additional studies from preclinical models are discussed to support clinical findings. Finally, the unique cellular composition of the hippocampus and cognitive impairment dependent on the hippocampus is highlighted in the context of alcohol dependence. PMID:27746746

  3. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces - that could play a role in the increased permeability - and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits. PMID:26727422

  4. A dysbiotic subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Leclercq, Sophie; Stärkel, Peter; Delzenne, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The vast majority of studies that assessed the importance of biological factors for the development of psychiatric disorders focused on processes occurring at the brain level. Alcohol-dependence is a very frequent psychiatric disorder where psycho-pharmacological interventions are only of moderate efficacy. Our laboratory has recently described that a subpopulation of alcohol-dependent subjects, that accounted for approximately 40% of individuals tested, presented with an increased intestinal permeability, with a dysbiosis, with alterations in the metabolomic content of faeces--that could play a role in the increased permeability--and finally with a more severe profile of alcohol-dependence than the other non-dysbiotic subpopulation. In this addendum, we discuss the implications of our observations for the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence where we try to discriminate which addiction dimensions are likely related to the gut microbiota alterations and whether these alterations are the cause or the consequence of drinking habits.

  5. Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth; Koob, George F.; Sinha, Rajita; Thakkar, Mahesh; Matochik, John; Crews, Fulton T.; Chandler, L. Judson; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Becker, Howard C.; Lovinger, David; Everitt, Barry; Egli, Mark; Mandyam, Chitra; Fein, George; Potenza, Marc N.; Harris, R. Adron; Grant, Kathleen A.; Roberto, Marisa; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights the research presentations at the satellite symposium on “Brain Pathways to Recovery from Alcohol Dependence” held at the 2013 Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting. The purpose of this symposium was to provide an up to date overview of research efforts focusing on understanding brain mechanisms that contribute to recovery from alcohol dependence. A panel of scientists from the alcohol and addiction research field presented their insights and perspectives on brain mechanisms that may underlie both recovery and lack of recovery from alcohol dependence. The four sessions of the symposium encompassed multilevel studies exploring mechanisms underlying relapse and craving associated with sustained alcohol abstinence, cognitive function deficit and recovery, and translational studies on preventing relapse and promoting recovery. Gaps in our knowledge and research opportunities were also discussed. PMID:26074423

  6. Prefrontal Cortical Thickness Deficit in Detoxified Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sujin; Kang, Ilhyang; Lee, Boung Chul; Jeon, Yujin; Cho, Han Byul; Yoon, Sujung; Lim, Soo Mee; Kim, Jungyoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program. Significantly thinner cortical thickness in patients with alcohol dependence than healthy comparison subjects was noted in the left superior frontal cortical region, correcting for multiple comparisons and adjusting with age and hemispheric average cortical thickness. There was a significant association between thickness in the cluster of the left superior frontal cortex and the duration of alcohol use. The prefrontal cortical region may particularly be vulnerable to chronic alcohol exposure. It is also possible that the pre-existing deficit in this region may have rendered individuals more susceptible to alcohol dependence. PMID:28035184

  7. The effects of US state income inequality and alcohol policies on symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Claire; Liu, Xinhua; Diez Roux, Ana V; Link, Bruce G; Hasin, Deborah

    2004-02-01

    Mental health is likely to be influenced by contextual variables that emerge only at the level of the group. We studied the effect of two such group-level variables, within-state income inequality and alcohol tax policy, on symptoms of current depression and alcohol dependence in a US national sample, controlling for state-level and individual characteristics. A cross-sectional US national probability sample provided the individual-level data. State income data were obtained from the 1990 US census. The Gini coefficient (raw and adjusted) indicated income inequality. Outcome measures included current symptoms of depression and alcohol dependence. Controlling for individual-level variables and state median income, the odds of depressive symptoms was not positively associated with state income inequality. Controlling for individual-level variables, state median income and alcohol distribution method, a weak negative association between Gini and alcohol dependence was observed in women, but this association disappeared after additional adjustment for beer tax. No association was observed in men. Higher state beer tax was significantly associated with lower prevalence of alcohol dependence symptoms for both men and women. The results suggest that state income inequality does not increase the experience of alcohol dependence or depression symptoms. However, evidence was found for a protective effect of increased beer taxation against alcohol dependence symptoms, suggesting the need to further consider the impact of alcohol policies on alcohol use disorders.

  8. Abstract and concrete repetitive thinking modes in alcohol-dependence.

    PubMed

    Grynberg, Delphine; de Timary, Philippe; Philippot, Pierre; D'Hondt, Fabien; Briane, Yasmine; Devynck, Faustine; Douilliez, Céline; Billieux, Joël; Heeren, Alexandre; Maurage, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Emotional and interpersonal deficits play a crucial role in alcohol-related disorders as they predict alcohol consumption and relapse. Recent models of emotion regulation in psychopathology postulate that these deficits are centrally related to increased abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, combined with reduced concrete/experiential repetitive thinking. As this assumption has not been tested in addictions, this study aimed at investigating repetitive thinking modes in a large sample of alcohol-dependent individuals. One hundred recently detoxified alcohol-dependent individuals (29 females; mean age = 49.51-years-old) recruited during the 3rd week of their treatment in a detoxification center were compared to 100 healthy controls (29 females; mean age = 48.51-years-old) recruited in the experimenters' social network, matched at the group level for age, gender, and educational level. All participants completed the Mini Cambridge Exeter Repetitive Thought Scale measuring abstract/analytic and concrete/experiential repetitive thinking modes as well as complementary psychopathological measures (Beck Depression Inventory and State/Trait Anxiety Inventory). Alcohol-dependent individuals have similar levels of concrete repetitive thinking as controls but report significantly higher levels of abstract repetitive thinking (p < 0.001; d = 1.28). This effect remains significant after controlling for depression and anxiety. Relative to healthy controls, alcohol-dependent patients report more frequent use of abstract/analytic repetitive thinking, with preserved concrete/experiential thinking. Despite the cross-sectional nature of the study, the frequent use of abstract repetitive thinking thus appears to constitute a main feature of alcohol-dependence.

  9. Alcohol dependence and driving: knowledge of DVLA regulations

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Andrew; Watts, Maggie; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rice, Peter; Dewhurst, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Methods The UK’s Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority (DVLA) requires individuals to report if they have a medical condition such as alcohol dependence. General Medical Council guidance indicates that medical practitioners should ensure patients are aware of their impairment and requirement to notify the DVLA. Results In a survey of 246 people with known alcohol dependence, none were aware of advice on driving given by medical practitioners and none had self-reported. In addition, 362 doctors, either attending a college symposium or visiting a college website, were asked about their knowledge of DVLA regulations regarding alcohol dependence: 73% of those attending the symposium and 63% of those visiting the website answered incorrectly. In Scotland, over 20 000 people have alcohol dependence (over 1 million people with alcohol abuse), yet only 2548 people with alcohol problems self-reported to the DVLA in 2011. Clinical implications If the DVLA regulations were implemented, it could make an enormous difference to the behaviours of the driving public. PMID:26191423

  10. Efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Janiri, Luigi

    2007-01-01

    Dopaminergic agonists and antagonists have both been examined for the treatment of substance abuse with contrasting results. To the best of our knowledge dopamine receptor partial agonists have not been investigated in alcohol use disorders. Thirteen detoxified alcohol-dependent subjects were treated with flexible doses of aripiprazole for 16 weeks. Six patients maintained an alcohol free condition for all the study period. All the subjects experienced a reduction of craving in both OCDS (p < .05) and VAS (p < .05), and a decrease of the SCL-90 General Severity Index (GSI) (p < .05). The data of this pilot clinical study, suggest a possible role for this drug in the treatment of individuals with alcohol problems.

  11. DISABILITY ASSOCIATED WITH ALCOHOL ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Samokhvalov, Andriy V.; Popova, Svetlana; Room, Robin; Ramonas, Milita; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Alcohol use disorders (AUD), i.e., alcohol dependence and abuse are major contributors to burden of disease. A large part of this burden is due to disability. However, there is still controversy about the best disability weighting for alcohol use disorders. The objective of this study was to provide an overview of alcohol-related disabilities. METHODS Systematic literature review and expert interviews. RESULTS There is heterogeneity in experts’ descriptions of disabilities related to AUD. The major core attributes of disability related to AUD are changes of emotional state, social relationships, memory and thinking. The most important supplementary attributes are anxiety, impairments of speech and hearing. CONCLUSIONS This review identified the main patterns of disability associated with alcohol use disorders. However, there was considerable variability, and data on less prominent patterns were fragmented. Further and systematic research is required for increasing the knowledge on disability related to alcohol use disorders and for application of interventions for reducing the associated burden. OBJECTIVE To provide an overview of disabilities associated with AUD. PMID:20662803

  12. Correlates of Baclofen Effectiveness in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Lekhansh; Shukla, Tulika; Bokka, Spandana; Kandasamy, Arun; Benegal, Vivek; Murthy, Pratima; Chand, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a global concern. Baclofen has shown promise as an anti-craving agent but its efficiency remains to be settled. We reviewed 549 male cases diagnosed with alcohol dependence who received Acamprosate (201) or Baclofen (348). ‘Time to first drink’ was compared between two groups and multiple regression analysis was done in baclofen group to identify correlates of effectiveness. There was a significant difference in outcome measure between Baclofen (M = 4.44, SD = 3.75) and Acamprosate group (M = 3.73, SD = 2.19); t (547) = 2.45, P = 0.01. Initial regression analysis with six predictor variables (average daily alcohol units, current age, age at onset of dependence, family history, duration of dependence and dose of baclofen in mg/day) showed significant correlation of outcome variable with only two predictor variables — dose of baclofen and average daily intake. Using the hierarchical method it was found that ‘dose of baclofen’ and ‘average alcohol intake’ explain a significant amount of variance in ‘time to first drink’. [F (1, 345) = 182.8, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.52, R2adjusted = 0.51]. This information can be used to select patients in long term longitudinal studies and may explain variable results seen in clinical trials of baclofen done earlier. PMID:26664095

  13. Dissociative disorders among alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Sar, Vedat; Karadag, Figen; Tamar Gurol, Defne; Karagoz, Mustafa

    2007-08-30

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of dissociative disorders among inpatients with alcohol dependency. The Dissociative Experiences Scale was used to screen 111 alcohol-dependent patients consecutively admitted to the inpatient unit of a dependency treatment center. Subgroups of 29 patients who scored 30.0 or above and 25 patients who scored below 10.0 were then evaluated with the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders. The interviewers were blind to the Dissociative Experiences Scale scores. Of the 54 patients evaluated, 10 (9.0% of the original 111) patients had a dissociative disorder. A considerable number of the remaining patients reported a high level of dissociative experiences. Among the dissociative disorder group, nine patients had dissociative disorder not otherwise specified and one patient had depersonalization disorder. Female gender, younger age, history of suicide attempt, childhood emotional and sexual abuse, and neglect were more frequent in the dissociative disorder group than among non-dissociative patients. The dissociative disorder group also had somatization disorder, borderline personality disorder, and lifetime major depression more frequently. For 9 of the 10 dissociative patients, dissociative symptoms started before the onset of alcohol use. Although the probability of having a comorbid dissociative disorder was not higher among alcohol-dependent inpatients than among the general psychiatric inpatients, the dissociative subgroup had distinct features. Many patients without a dissociative disorder diagnosis (predominantly men) provided hints of subtle dissociative psychopathology. Implications of comorbid dissociative disorders and dissociative experiences on prevention and treatment of alcohol dependency and the importance of gender-specific characteristics in this relationship require further study.

  14. Personality traits and psychiatric comorbidities in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Donadon, M.F.; Osório, F.L.

    2015-01-01

    Non-adaptive personality traits may constitute risk factors for development of psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety. We aim to evaluate associations and the predictive value of personality traits among alcohol-dependent individuals, with or without psychiatric comorbidities. The convenience sample comprised two groups of males over 18 years of age: one with subjects who had an alcohol dependence diagnosis (AG, n=110), and a control group without abuse and/or alcohol dependence diagnosis (CG, n=110). The groups were assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview DSM-IV (SCID-IV). AG participants were recruited among outpatients from the university hospital, whereas CG participants were recruited from a primary healthcare program. Data collection was done individually with self-assessment instruments. Parametric statistics were performed, and a significance level of P=0.05 was adopted. A positive correlation was observed between openness and the length of time that alcohol has been consumed, as were significant and negative correlations between conscientiousness and both the length of time alcohol has been consumed and the number of doses. For alcoholics, extraversion emerged as a protective factor against depression development (P=0.008) and tobacco abuse (P=0.007), whereas openness worked as a protective factor against anxiety (P=0.02). The findings point to specific deficits presented by alcoholics in relation to personality traits with or without psychiatric comorbidities and to the understanding that therapeutic approaches should favor procedures and/or preventive measures that allow more refined awareness about the disorder. PMID:26628399

  15. GABA receptors, alcohol dependence and criminal behavior.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Claudio; Tucci, Marianna; Sartore, Daniela; Cavarzeran, Fabiano; Di Pietra, Laura; Barzon, Luisa; Palù, Giorgio; Ferrara, Santo D

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the connection between alcohol dependence and criminal behavior by an integrated genetic-environmental approach. The research, structured as a case-control study, examined 186 alcohol-dependent males; group 1 (N = 47 convicted subjects) was compared with group 2 (N = 139 no previous criminal records). Genetic results were innovative, highlighting differences in genotype distribution (p = 0.0067) in group 1 for single-nucleotide polymorphism rs 3780428, located in the intronic region of subunit 2 of the GABA B receptor gene (GABBR2). Some environmental factors (e.g., grade repetition) were associated with criminal behavior; others (e.g., attendance at Alcoholics Anonymous) were inversely related to convictions. The concomitant presence of the genetic and environmental factors found to be associated with the condition of alcohol-dependent inmate showed a 4-fold increase in the risk of antisocial behavior. The results need to be replicated on a larger population to develop new preventive and therapeutic proposals.

  16. Chronological relationship between antisocial personality disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Bahlmann, M; Preuss, U W; Soyka, M

    2002-11-01

    Personality disorders, and particularly antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), frequently co-occur with alcohol dependence. ASPD is considered to be an important cofactor in the pathogenesis and clinical course of alcohol dependence. The chronological relationship between the onset of symptoms of ASPD and alcohol-dependence characteristics has not yet been studied in great detail and the role of ASPD in classification schemes of alcohol dependence as suggested by Cloninger and Schuckit has yet to be determined. We studied 55 alcohol-dependent patients to assess the prevalence and age at manifestation of ASPD, conduct disorder characteristics as well as alcohol dependence by employing the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R. Results indicate that the onset of ASPD characteristics precede that of alcohol dependence by some 4 years. This finding suggests that in patients with ASPD, alcohol dependence might be a secondary syndrome as suggested by previous research.

  17. Genome-wide search for genes affecting the risk for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Reich, T; Edenberg, H J; Goate, A; Williams, J T; Rice, J P; Van Eerdewegh, P; Foroud, T; Hesselbrock, V; Schuckit, M A; Bucholz, K; Porjesz, B; Li, T K; Conneally, P M; Nurnberger, J I; Tischfield, J A; Crowe, R R; Cloninger, C R; Wu, W; Shears, S; Carr, K; Crose, C; Willig, C; Begleiter, H

    1998-05-08

    Alcohol dependence is a leading cause of morbidity and premature death. Several lines of evidence suggest a substantial genetic component to the risk for alcoholism: sibs of alcoholic probands have a 3-8 fold increased risk of also developing alcoholism, and twin heritability estimates of 50-60% are reported by contemporary studies of twins. We report on the results of a six-center collaborative study to identify susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence. A genome-wide screen examined 291 markers in 987 individuals from 105 families. Two-point and multipoint nonparametric linkage analyses were performed to detect susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence. Multipoint methods provided the strongest suggestions of linkage with susceptibility loci for alcohol dependence on chromosomes 1 and 7, and more modest evidence for a locus on chromosome 2. In addition, there was suggestive evidence for a protective locus on chromosome 4 near the alcohol dehydrogenase genes, for which protective effects have been reported in Asian populations.

  18. Incubation of alcohol craving during abstinence in patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Wu, Ping; Xin, Xue; Fan, Yun-Li; Wang, Gui-Bin; Wang, Fan; Ma, Meng-Ying; Xue, Ming-Ming; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Yang, Fu-De; Bao, Yan-Ping; Shi, Jie; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Lu, Lin

    2015-05-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced nicotine and methamphetamine craving during abstinence were recently reported in human drug-dependent individuals. In the present study, we sought to determine whether this 'incubation of craving' phenomenon also occurs in alcoholics. Four groups of 80 inpatient adult male alcoholics were assessed in a single session (between-group design) for cue-induced alcohol craving at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days of abstinence. Another group that included 19 patients was repeatedly tested for cue-induced alcohol craving at the same abstinence days as above. Other psychological and physiological measures were assessed at the four abstinence timepoints. Cue-induced alcohol craving measured with visual analogue scales was the highest at 60 days of abstinence both between and within groups. However, heart rate, blood pressure and skin conductance responses did not differ between abstinent groups. These results provide evidence of the incubation of alcohol craving in humans, extending previous reports with smokers and methamphetamine addicts.

  19. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients with PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Prazosin for Treatment of Patients with PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...of Patients with PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-2-0075 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...comorbidity with alcohol dependence (AD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The rates of TSD among individuals with AD are at least twice

  20. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  1. Socio-Emotional Factors in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Tikka, Deyashini Lahiri; Ram, Daya; Dubey, Indu; Tikka, Sai Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alcohol-dependent patients are traditionally believed to have insecure attachment styles, higher anger expression, and lower self-esteem. There is a need to study them together. Aim: To understand the relationships amongst various of the socio-emotional factors. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with Alcohol dependence syndrome and 40 matched healthy controls (General Health Questionnaire-12 score <3) were compared on attachment styles (on Relationship Scale Questionnaire), anger domains (on State Trait Anger Expression Inventory), and self-esteem (on Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale). Statistics and Analysis: Comparison using independent samples t test and chi square test; correlation using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Patients had significantly higher anger expression, ‘anger in’ and ‘anger out,’ and lower self-esteem than healthy controls. Severity of alcohol dependence had significant correlation with ‘anger out,’ and self-esteem had significant negative correlation with anger expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that the socio-emotional factors studied are developmentally linked to each other. PMID:24860216

  2. Rare ADH Variant Constellations are Specific for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lingjun; Zhang, Heping; Malison, Robert T.; Li, Chiang-Shan R.; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Fei; Lu, Lingeng; Lu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoping; Krystal, John H.; Zhang, Fengyu; Deng, Hong-Wen; Luo, Xingguang

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Some of the well-known functional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene variants (e.g. ADH1B*2, ADH1B*3 and ADH1C*2) that significantly affect the risk of alcohol dependence are rare variants in most populations. In the present study, we comprehensively examined the associations between rare ADH variants [minor allele frequency (MAF) <0.05] and alcohol dependence, with several other neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders as reference. Methods: A total of 49,358 subjects in 22 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric and neurological disorders were analyzed, including 3 cohorts with alcohol dependence. The entire ADH gene cluster (ADH7–ADH1C–ADH1B–ADH1A–ADH6–ADH4–ADH5 at Chr4) was imputed in all samples using the same reference panels that included whole-genome sequencing data. We stringently cleaned the phenotype and genotype data to obtain a total of 870 single nucleotide polymorphisms with 0< MAF <0.05 for association analysis. Results: We found that a rare variant constellation across the entire ADH gene cluster was significantly associated with alcohol dependence in European-Americans (Fp1: simulated global P = 0.045), European-Australians (Fp5: global P = 0.027; collapsing: P = 0.038) and African-Americans (Fp5: global P = 0.050; collapsing: P = 0.038), but not with any other neuropsychiatric disease. Association signals in this region came principally from ADH6, ADH7, ADH1B and ADH1C. In particular, a rare ADH6 variant constellation showed a replicable association with alcohol dependence across these three independent cohorts. No individual rare variants were statistically significantly associated with any disease examined after group- and region-wide correction for multiple comparisons. Conclusion: We conclude that rare ADH variants are specific for alcohol dependence. The ADH gene cluster may harbor a causal variant(s) for alcohol dependence. PMID:23019235

  3. [Creation of a scale for evaluating attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency].

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Tazuko; Morita, Noriaki; Nakatani, Youji

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale to evaluate characteristics of how alcohol-dependent people perceive the attitudes of their partners toward alcohol dependency. Based on previous research, we created the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale, from the perspective of the alcohol dependent individual. Using the new scale, 71 alcohol-dependent people (52 men, 19 women) were surveyed after obtaining their consent, and the reliability and validity of the scale were tested. The results identified 3 factors, "indifference", "acceptance" and "hypersensitivity", and factorial validity was verified. Relatively high reliability was obtained on each sub-scale (alpha = .60-.82). Furthermore, correlations were obtained with the alcohol-dependency "Denial and Awareness Scale (for alcohol-dependent people)" and with the 13-item "Usefulness of heterosexual love relations for recovery from alcohol dependency" questionnaire, which includes content on "beneficial" or "obstructive" to recovery, and with the satisfaction and the importance of relations. This demonstrates that the "Attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency" scale has reliability and criterion-related validity. The scale facilitates evaluation of types of attitudes of partners toward alcohol dependency, and may thus be useful as one tool for investigating the influence of partners in heterosexual love relationships for recovery, and for providing advice.

  4. In silico Models of Alcohol Dependence and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kovatchev, Boris; Breton, Marc; Johnson, Bankole

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we view alcohol dependence and the response to treatment as a recurrent bio-behavioral process developing in time and propose formal models of this process combining behavior and biology in silico. The behavioral components of alcohol dependence and treatment are formally described by a stochastic process of human behavior, which serves as an event generator challenging the metabolic system. The biological component is driven by the biochemistry of alcohol intoxication described by deterministic models of ethanol pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics to enable simulation of drinking addiction in humans. Derived from the known physiology of ethanol and the literature of both ethanol intoxication and ethanol absorption, the different models are distilled into a minimal model (as simple as the complexity of the data allows) that can represent any specific patient. We use these modeling and simulation techniques to explain responses to placebo and ondansetron treatment observed in clinical studies. Specifically, the response to placebo was explained by a reduction of the probability of environmental reinforcement, while the effect of ondansetron was explained by a gradual decline in the degree of ethanol-induced neuromodulation. Further, we use in silico experiments to study critical transitions in blood alcohol levels after specific average number of drinks per day, and propose the existence of two critical thresholds in the human – one at 5 and another at 11 drinks/day – at which the system shifts from stable to critical and to super critical state indicating a state of alcohol addiction. The advantages of such a model-based investigation are that (1) the process of instigation of alcohol dependence and its treatment can be deconstructed into meaningful steps, which allow for individualized treatment tailoring, and (2) physiology and behavior can be quantified in different (animal or human) studies and then the results can be integrated in silico

  5. Alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence and related harms in Spain, and the effect of treatment-based interventions on alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Rehm, Maximilien X; Shield, Kevin D; Gmel, Gerrit; Gual, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in Spain has traditionally followed the Mediterranean drinking pattern, featuring daily drinking with meals, beer as the preferred beverage, and comparatively little drinking to intoxication. Alcohol dependence (AD), one of the most detrimental disorders caused by alcohol, was prevalent in 0.2% of women and 1.2% of men, corresponding to 31,200 women and 186,000 men in Spain with AD in 2005 in the age group of 15 to 64 year. These prevalence estimates of alcohol dependence are likely underestimated due to limitations in the World Mental Health Survey which cannot be fully corrected for; however, the estimates of AD for Spain represent the most accurate and up to date estimates available. Alcohol creates a significant health burden in Spain with 11.3 premature deaths in women per 100,000 aged 15 to 64 years, and 40.9 premature deaths in men per 100,000 in the same age group were due to alcohol consumption (data for 2004). This amounts to 8.4% of all female deaths and 12.3% of all the male deaths in this age group being attributable to alcohol consumption. A large percentage of these harms were due to heavy alcohol consumption and AD. AD is undertreated in Spain, with less than 10% of all people with AD treated. For those who are treated, psychotherapy is the most utilized form of treatment to avoid relapse. If 40% of AD patients in Spain were treated with pharmacological treatment (the most effective treatment method), 2.2% of female and 6.2% of male deaths due to AD would be prevented within one year. Thus by increasing treatment rates is an important means of reducing the alcohol-attributable mortality and health burden in Spain.

  6. Acamprosate: A prototypic neuromodulator in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent substance dependence disorders in the world. Advances in research in the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence have identified specific neurotransmitter targets for the development of pharmacological treatments. Acamprosate, marketed under the brand name Campral, is an orally administered drug available by prescription in the U.S. and throughout much of the world for treating alcohol dependence. Its safety and efficacy have been demonstrated in numerous clinical trials worldwide. Here we provide an overview of acamprosate in the context of the neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol dependence. We propose that unlike previously available pharmacotherapies, acamprosate represents a prototype of a neuromodulatory approach in the treatment of alcohol dependence. A neuromodulatory approach seeks to restore the disrupted changes in neurobiology resulting from chronic alcohol intake. It is our opinion that a neuromodulatory approach will provide a heuristic framework for developing more effective pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. PMID:20201812

  7. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  8. Gene-based and pathway-based genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    ZUO, Lingjun; ZHANG, Clarence K.; SAYWARD, Frederick G.; CHEUNG, Kei-Hoi; WANG, Kesheng; KRYSTAL, John H.; ZHAO, Hongyu; LUO, Xingguang

    2015-01-01

    Background The organization of risk genes within signaling pathways may provide clues about the converging neurobiological effects of risk genes for alcohol dependence. Aim Identify risk genes and risk gene pathways for alcohol dependence. Methods We conducted a pathway-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) of alcohol dependence using a gene-set-rich analytic approach. Approximately one million genetic markers were tested in the discovery sample which included 1409 European-American (EA) alcohol dependent individuals and 1518 EA healthy comparison subjects. An additional 681 African-American (AA) cases and 508 AA healthy subjects served as the replication sample. Results We identified several genome-wide replicable risk genes and risk pathways that were significantly associated with alcohol dependence. After applying the Bonferroni correction for multiple testing, the ‘cellextracellular matrix interactions’ pathway (p<2.0E-4 in EAs) and the PXN gene (which encodes paxillin) (p=3.9E-7 in EAs) within this pathway were the most promising risk factors for alcohol dependence. There were also two nominally replicable pathways enriched in alcohol dependence-related genes in both EAs (0.015≤p≤0.035) and AAs (0.025≤p≤0.050): the ‘Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters’ pathway and the ‘other glycan degradation’ pathway. Conclusion These findings provide new evidence highlighting several genes and biological signaling processes that may be related to the risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26120261

  9. Revictimization of Violence Suffered by Those Diagnosed with Alcohol Dependence in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Quintana, M. I.; Bressan, R. A.; Mello, M. F.; Andreoli, S. B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To verify the association between violence and alcohol dependence syndrome in sample populations. Method. Population-wide survey with multistage probabilistic sample. 3,744 individuals of both genders, aged from 15 to 75 years, were interviewed from the cities of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 2.1). Results. In both cities, alcohol dependence was associated with the male gender, having suffered violence related to criminality, and having suffered familial violence. In both cities, urban violence, in more than 50% of cases, and familial violence, in more than 90% of cases, preceded alcohol dependence. The reoccurrence of traumatic events occurred in more than half of individuals dependent on alcohol. In São Paulo, having been diagnosed with PTSD is associated with violence revictimization (P = 0.014; Odds = 3.33). Conclusion. Alcohol dependence syndrome is complexly related to urban and familial violence in the general population. Violence frequently precedes alcoholism, but this relationship is dependent on residence and traumatic events. This vicious cycle contributes to perpetuating the high rates of alcoholism and violence in the cities. Politicians ordering the reduction of violence in the large metropolises can, potentially, reduce alcoholism and contribute to the break of this cycle. PMID:26000304

  10. Dihydrocodeine/Agonists for Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Albrecht; Müller, Markus; Frietsch, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol addiction too often remains insufficiently treated. It shows the same profile as severe chronic diseases, but no comparable, effective basic treatment has been established up to now. Especially patients with repeated relapses, despite all therapeutic approaches, and patients who are not able to attain an essential abstinence to alcohol, need a basic medication. It seems necessary to acknowledge that parts of them need any agonistic substance, for years, possibly lifelong. For >14 years, we have prescribed such substances with own addictive character for these patients. Methods: We present a documented best possible practice, no designed study. Since 1997, we prescribed Dihydrocodeine (DHC) to 102 heavily alcohol addicted patients, later, also Buprenorphine, Clomethiazole (>6 weeks), Baclofen, and in one case Amphetamine, each on individual indication. This paper focuses on the data with DHC, especially. The Clomethiazole-data has been submitted to a German journal. The number of treatments with the other substances is still low. Results: The 102 patients with the DHC treatment had 1367 medically assisted detoxifications and specialized therapies before! The 4 years-retention rate was 26.4%, including 2.8% successfully terminated treatments. In our 12-steps scale on clinical impression, we noticed a significant improvement from mean 3.7 to 8.4 after 2 years. The demand for medically assisted detoxifications in the 2 years remaining patients was reduced by 65.5%. Mean GGT improved from 206.6 U/l at baseline to 66.8 U/l after 2 years. Experiences with the other substances are similar but different in details. Conclusion: Similar to the Italian studies with GHB and Baclofen, we present a new approach, not only with new substances, but also with a new setting and much more trusting attitude. We observe a huge improvement, reaching an almost optimal, stable, long term status in around 1/4 of the patients already. Many further

  11. Alcohol-adapted Anger Management Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Innovative Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial for an innovative alcohol-adapted anger management treatment (AM) for outpatient alcohol dependent individuals scoring moderate or above on anger is described. AM treatment outcomes were compared to those of an empirically-supported intervention, Alcoholics Anonymous Facilitation treatment (AAF). Clients in AM, relative to clients in AAF, were hypothesized to have greater improvement in anger and anger-related cognitions and lesser AA involvement during the six-month follow-up. Anger-related variables were hypothesized to be stronger predictors of improved alcohol outcomes in the AM treatment condition and AA involvement was hypothesized to be a stronger predictor of alcohol outcomes in the AAF treatment group. Seventy-six alcohol dependent men and women were randomly assigned to treatment condition and followed for six months after treatment end. Both AM and AAF treatments were followed by significant reductions in heavy drinking days, alcohol consequences, anger, and maladaptive anger-related thoughts and increases in abstinence and self-confidence regarding not drinking to anger-related triggers. Treatment with AAF was associated with greater AA involvement relative to treatment with AM. Changes in anger and AA involvement were predictive of posttreatment alcohol outcomes for both treatments. Change in trait anger was a stronger predictor of posttreatment alcohol consequences for AM than for AAF clients; during-treatment AA meeting attendance was a stronger predictor of posttreatment heavy drinking and alcohol consequences for AAF than for AM clients. Anger-related constructs and drinking triggers should be foci in treatment of alcohol dependence for anger-involved clients. PMID:26387049

  12. Management of Alcohol Dependence in Patients with Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Mirijello, Antonio; Leggio, Lorenzo; Ferrulli, Anna; Landolfi, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence represents a chronic and relapsing disease affecting nearly 10% of the general population both in the United States and in Europe, with a widespread burden of morbidity and mortality. Alcohol dependence represents the most common cause of liver damage in the Western Countries. Although alcoholic liver disease is associated primarily with heavy drinking, continued alcohol consumption, even in low doses after the onset of liver disease, increases the risk of severe consequences, including mortality. Consequently the ideal treatment of patients affected by alcohol dependence and alcoholic liver disease should aim at achieving long-term total alcohol abstinence and preventing relapse. The aim of the present review is to provide an update on the management of alcohol dependence in patients with alcoholic liver disease. Increasing evidences suggests the usefulness of psychosocial interventions and medications combined in order to reduce alcohol intake, promote abstinence and prevent relapse in alcohol dependent patients. Disulfiram, naltrexone and acamprosate have been approved for this indication; gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is approved in Italy and Austria. However, these drugs have not been tested in patients with advanced liver disease. Amongst other emerging pharmacotherapies for alcoholism, topiramate, ondansetron, and baclofen seem the most promising ones. Both topiramate and ondansetron hold a safe profile in alcoholic patients; however, none of them has been tested in alcoholic patients with advanced liver disease. To date, baclofen represents the only anti-craving medication formally tested in a randomized clinical trial in alcoholic patients affected by liver cirrhosis, although additional confirmatory studies are warranted. PMID:23456576

  13. Individual Differences in Subjective Alcohol Responses and Alcohol-Related Disinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Patrick D.; Fromme, Kim

    2016-01-01

    There are important individual differences in acute subjective responses to alcohol, which have often been assessed using self-report measures. There is also evidence of meaningful between-persons variation in alcohol’s disinhibiting effects on behavior, such that some individuals become more impaired on tasks of inhibition than do others after an intoxicating dose. The degree to which subjective alcohol responses correspond with these disinhibition effects is not yet clear. In this study, we tested associations among indices of subjective alcohol responses and their correspondence with sensitivity to alcohol-related disinhibition. We recruited recent-binge-drinking emerging adults (N = 82) for a group-administered, placebo-controlled, within-subject, counterbalanced alcohol challenge in a simulated bar laboratory. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two factor model with several cross-loadings explained associations among the subjective measures well, replicating a differentiation between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective responses. Controlling sex and placebo performance, participants who reported greater subjective stimulant-like effects—but not sedative-like effects—experienced more alcohol-related disinhibition, as measured by Cued Go/No-Go Task inhibitory failures. This association was small-to-moderate in magnitude. The results of this study highlight the distinction between stimulant-like and sedative-like subjective alcohol effects. They suggest, additionally, that there may be modest commonalities between alcohol’s acute impacts on subjective stimulation and objective disinhibition. PMID:26867000

  14. Alcohol, the individual and society: what history teaches us.

    PubMed

    Room, R

    1997-03-01

    Drinkers derive both pleasure and pain from drinking, but harm may come also to others. Through religious or secular rules, societies have sought to limit these "externalities" of drinking. Societal reactions have primarily focused on social harms from drinking; policy attention to casualties and chronic health effects is fairly recent. Drinking behaviour varies greatly according to the cultural framing of alcohol; societal policies tend to vary accordingly. Ecological constraints and social norms on preparation and use meant that alcohol was often available only sporadically in tribal and village societies. Alcohol production has been increasingly industrialized and marketing increasingly globalized in the modern era. Now, free trade agreements and the doctrine of consumer sovereignty increasingly limit the scope of national alcohol control policies. On the other hand, modern society demands exacting standards of attention and care incompatible with intoxication, for instance when driving a car or minding children. Managing the conflict between these and alcohol's ready availability is seen as a wholly individual rather than a societal responsibility. Those who fail the task are defined as alcoholics, and modern states have increasingly provided treatment for them. While there is a renewed public health concern about the externalities of drinking, substantial availability reductions have historically often required the mobilization of strong popular movements of remoralization.

  15. Cladistic association analysis of Y chromosome effects on alcohol dependence and related personality traits.

    PubMed

    Kittles, R A; Long, J C; Bergen, A W; Eggert, M; Virkkunen, M; Linnoila, M; Goldman, D

    1999-03-30

    Association between Y chromosome haplotype variation and alcohol dependence and related personality traits was investigated in a large sample of psychiatrically diagnosed Finnish males. Haplotypes were constructed for 359 individuals using alleles at eight loci (seven microsatellite loci and a nucleotide substitution in the DYZ3 alphoid satellite locus). A cladogram linking the 102 observed haplotype configurations was constructed by using parsimony with a single-step mutation model. Then, a series of contingency tables nested according to the cladogram hierarchy were used to test for association between Y haplotype and alcohol dependence. Finally, using only alcohol-dependent subjects, we tested for association between Y haplotype and personality variables postulated to define subtypes of alcoholism-antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. Significant association with alcohol dependence was observed at three Y haplotype clades, with significance levels of P = 0.002, P = 0.020, and P = 0.010. Within alcohol-dependent subjects, no relationship was revealed between Y haplotype and antisocial personality disorder, novelty seeking, harm avoidance, or reward dependence. These results demonstrate, by using a fully objective association design, that differences among Y chromosomes contribute to variation in vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, they do not demonstrate an association between Y haplotype and the personality variables thought to underlie the subtypes of alcoholism.

  16. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Smith, Andrew H; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Hall, Lynsey S; Fernandez-Pujals, Ana M; MacIntyre, Donald J; Smith, Blair H; Hocking, Lynne J; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A; Porteous, David J; Deary, Ian J; McIntosh, Andrew M

    2016-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is frequently co-morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale-Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population-based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = -0.027; Yale-Penn: P = 0.001, β = -0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = -0.036; Yale-Penn: P = 0.00005, β = -0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10(-7) , β = -0.054; Yale-Penn: P = 0.000012, β = -0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders.

  17. Direct and indirect symptom severity indicators of alcohol dependence and the personality concept of the biosocial model.

    PubMed

    Andó, Bálint; Rózsa, Sándor; Kurgyis, Eszter; Szkaliczki, Andrea; Demeter, Ildikó; Szikszay, Petronella; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Janka, Zoltán; Álmos, Péter Z

    2014-03-01

    Temperament and character factors are strongly related to the developmental, clinical, and treatment aspects of alcohol dependence. This study had the aim of revealing the underlying personality structure and individual differences in the symptoms of alcohol dependence measured by multiple severity indicators. Patients with alcohol dependence exhibited higher levels of novelty seeking and harm avoidance, and lower levels of persistence, self-directedness, and cooperativeness. Especially novelty seeking was connected with more severe alcohol dependence. These characteristics could be useful targets of interventions and Temperament and Character Inventory is therefore a useful measurement to identify patients with more severe alcohol-related problems.

  18. Pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence: target symptoms and target mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Heilig, Markus; Egli, Mark

    2006-09-01

    Alcoholism is a major public health problem and resembles, in many ways, other chronic relapsing medical conditions. At least 2 separate dimensions of its symptomatology offer targetable pathophysiological mechanisms. Systems that mediate positive reinforcement by alcohol are likely important targets in early stages of the disease, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. In contrast, long term neuroadaptive changes caused by chronic alcohol use primarily appear to affect systems mediating negative affective states, and gain importance following a prolonged history of dependence. Feasibility of pharmacological treatment in alcoholism has been demonstrated by a first wave of drugs which consists of 3 currently approved medications, the aldehyde dehydrogenase blocker disulfiram, the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) and the functional glutamate antagonist acamprosate (ACM). The treatment toolkit is likely to be expanded in the near future. This will improve overall efficacy and allow individualized treatment, ultimately taking in account the patient's genetic makeup. In a second wave, early human efficacy data are available for the 5HT3 antagonist ondansetron, the GABA-B agonist baclofen and the anticonvulsant topiramate. The third wave is comprised of compounds predicted to be effective based on a battery of animal models. Using such models, a short list of additional targets has accumulated sufficient preclinical validation to merit clinical development. These include the cannabinoid CB1 receptor, receptors modulating glutamatergic transmission (mGluR2, 3 and 5), and receptors for stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin releasing factor (CRF), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and nociceptin. Once novel treatments are developed, the field faces a major challenge to assure their delivery to patients.

  19. Relationship between Alcohol Dependence, Escape Drinking, and Early Neural Attention to Alcohol-Related Cuess

    PubMed Central

    Dickter, Cheryl L.; Forestell, Catherine A.; Hammett, Patrick J.; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previous work has indicated that implicit attentional biases to alcohol-related cues are indicative of susceptibility to alcohol dependence and escape drinking, or drinking to avoid dysphoric mood or emotions. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine whether alcohol dependence and escape drinking were associated with early neural attentional biases to alcohol cues. Methods EEG data were recorded from 54 college students who reported that they regularly drank alcohol, while they viewed alcohol and control pictures that contained human content (active) or no human content (inactive). Results Those who were alcohol dependent showed more neural attentional bias to the active alcohol-related stimuli than to the matched control stimuli early in processing, as indicated by N1 amplitude. Escape drinkers showed greater neural attention to the active alcohol cues than non-escape drinkers, as measured by larger N2 amplitudes. Conclusions While alcohol dependence is associated with enhanced automatic attentional biases early in processing, escape drinking is associated with more controlled attentional biases to active alcohol cues during a relatively later stage in processing. These findings reveal important information about the time-course of attentional processing in problem drinkers and have important implications for addiction models and treatment. PMID:24292342

  20. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake.

  1. [Treatment of alcohol dependence: rational and arguable approaches].

    PubMed

    Sivolap, Iu P

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of alcohol dependence consist of alcohol detoxification with withdrawal alleviation and relapse prevention or maintenance therapy. Drugs of choice for alcohol withdrawal cure are benzodiazepines and anticonvulsants are an alternative for them. Relapse prevention and alcohol abuse alleviation are carried out using disulfiram, acamprosate, naltrexone and nalmefene. Moreover, therapeutic possibilities of memantine, gabapentine, pregabalin, baclofen, modafinil, ondansetron D-cycloserine and aripiprazole are studying nowadays. Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors including fluvoxamine for alcohol patients is of great importance due to frequent comorbidity of alcoholism, depression and anxiety. There are some doubtful methods of alcoholism treatment accepted in Russian addictive medicine such as clearance detoxification and use of antipsychotics for craving elimination.

  2. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... You are Not Alone Like any other chronic disease, addiction to alcohol and other drugs affects people of all ages regardless of income, educational background, country of origin, ethnicity, sexuality, and/or community where they live. ...

  3. Puberty, hormones, and sex differences in alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Witt, Ellen D

    2007-01-01

    Sex differences in patterns of drinking and rates of alcohol abuse and dependence begin to emerge during the transition from late puberty to young adulthood. Increases in pubertal hormones, including gonadal and stress hormones, are a prominent developmental feature of adolescence and could contribute to the progression of sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns during puberty. This paper reviews experimental and correlational studies of gonadal and stress-related hormone changes and their effects on alcohol drinking and other associated actions of alcohol. Mechanisms are suggested by which reproductive hormones and stress-related hormones may modulate neural circuits within the brain reward system to produce sex differences in alcohol drinking patterns and vulnerability to alcohol abuse and dependence which become apparent during the late pubertal period.

  4. Does Sexual Self-Concept Ambiguity Moderate Relations Among Perceived Peer Norms for Alcohol Use, Alcohol-Dependence Symptomatology, and HIV Risk-Taking Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Talley, Amelia E; Brown, Jennifer L; Stevens, Angela K; Littlefield, Andrew K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The current study examines the relation between peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement and alcohol-dependence symptomatology and whether this relation differs as a function of sexual self-concept ambiguity (SSA). This study also examines the associations among peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and lifetime HIV risk-taking behavior and how these relations are influenced by SSA. Method: Women between ages 18 and 30 years (N = 351; M = 20.96, SD = 2.92) completed an online survey assessing sexual self-concept, peer descriptive norms, alcohol-dependence symptomatology, and HIV risk-taking behaviors. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypotheses of interest. Results: There was a significant latent variable interaction between SSA and descriptive norms for peer alcohol use. There was a stronger positive relationship between peer descriptive norms for alcohol and alcohol-dependence symptomatology when SSA was higher compared with when SSA was lower. Both latent variables exhibited positive simple associations with alcohol-dependence symptoms. Peer descriptive norms for alcohol involvement directly and indirectly influenced HIV risk-taking behaviors, and the indirect influence was conditional based on SSA. Conclusions: The current findings illustrate complex, nuanced associations between perceived norms, identity-related self-concepts, and risky health behaviors from various domains. Future intervention efforts may be warranted to address both problem alcohol use and HIV-risk engagement among individuals with greater sexual self-concept ambiguity. PMID:25343661

  5. Sweet preference, sugar addiction and the familial history of alcohol dependence: shared neural pathways and genes.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2010-06-01

    Contemporary research has shown that a high number of alcohol-dependent and other drug-dependent individuals have a sweet preference, specifically for foods with a high sucrose concentration. Moreover, both human and animal studies have demonstrated that in some brains the consumption of sugar-rich foods or drinks primes the release of euphoric endorphins and dopamine within the nucleus accumbens, in a manner similar to some drugs of abuse. The neurobiological pathways of drug and "sugar addiction" involve similar neural receptors, neurotransmitters, and hedonic regions in the brain. Craving, tolerance, withdrawal and sensitization have been documented in both human and animal studies. In addition, there appears to be cross sensitization between sugar addiction and narcotic dependence in some individuals. It has also been observed that the biological children of alcoholic parents, particularly alcoholic fathers, are at greater risk to have a strong sweet preference, and this may manifest in some with an eating disorder. In the last two decades research has noted that specific genes may underlie the sweet preference in alcohol- and drug-dependent individuals, as well as in biological children of paternal alcoholics. There also appears to be some common genetic markers between alcohol dependence, bulimia, and obesity, such as the A1 allele gene and the dopamine 2 receptor gene.

  6. COMT Val158Met modulates the effect of childhood adverse experiences on the risk of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schellekens, Arnt F A; Franke, Barbara; Ellenbroek, Bart; Cools, Alexander; de Jong, Cor A J; Buitelaar, Jan K; Verkes, Robbert-Jan

    2013-03-01

    Genetic factors and childhood adverse experiences contribute to the vulnerability to alcohol dependence. However, empirical data on the interplay between specific genes and adverse experiences are few. The COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes have been suggested to affect both stress sensitivity and the risk for alcohol dependence. This study tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in COMT Val158Met and DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A interacts with childhood adverse experiences to predict alcohol dependence. Male abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (n = 110) and age-matched healthy male controls (n = 99) were genotyped for the COMT Val158Met and the DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotypes. Childhood adverse events were measured using three self-report questionnaires. Alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Statistical analysis involved logistic regression analysis and analysis of variance. Alcohol-dependent patients reported increased childhood adversity. The interaction between childhood adversity and the COMT Val158Met genotype added significantly to the prediction model. This gene-environment interaction was confirmed in the analysis of the secondary outcome measures, i.e. alcohol dependence severity, age of onset and duration of alcohol dependence. The DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A genotype was not related to alcohol dependence, nor did it interact with childhood adversity in predicting alcohol dependence. This study provides evidence for a gene-environment interaction in alcohol dependence, in which an individual's sensitivity to childhood adverse experience is moderated by the COMT genotype. Exposed carriers of a low-activity Met allele have a higher risk to develop severe alcohol dependence than individuals homozygous for the Val allele.

  7. Alcohol and nutrient intake: mechanisms of reinforcement and dependence.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael J

    2011-07-25

    Alcohol is not only a drug of abuse but is also a food. This combination has a significant impact on the development and consequences of alcohol abuse and dependence. Understanding the neurobiological and behavioral processes that mediate them is perhaps best approached from the perspective of ingestive behavior. Research from the Hoebel laboratory has provided innovation and leadership in understanding that feeding neuropeptides plays a significant role in alcohol intake. The research reviewed here shows that galanin and other feeding peptides increase intake and also motivate abuse and the development of dependence. In addition, the consequences of long term alcohol abuse and dependence alter nutritional systems and drinking behavior. A major challenge is understanding the role of alcohol's dual properties and feeding neuropeptide in the motivation to drink.

  8. Loss of brain graph network efficiency in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Stufflebeam, Steven M; Veltman, Dick J; Van den Brink, Wim; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Douw, Linda

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) is characterized by corticostriatal impairments in individual brain areas such as the striatum. As yet however, complex brain network topology in AD and its association with disease progression are unknown. We applied graph theory to resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) to examine weighted global efficiency and local (clustering coefficient, degree and eigenvector centrality) network topology and the functional role of the striatum in 24 AD patients compared with 20 matched healthy controls (HCs), and their association with dependence characteristics. Graph analyses were performed based on Pearson's correlations between RS-fMRI time series, while correcting for age, gender and head motion. We found no significant group differences between AD patients and HCs in network topology. Notably, within the patient group, but not in HCs, the whole-brain network showed reduced average cluster coefficient with more severe alcohol use, whereas longer AD duration within the patient group was associated with a global decrease in efficiency, degree and clustering coefficient. Additionally, within four a-priori chosen bilateral striatal nodes, alcohol use severity was associated with lower clustering coefficient in the left caudate. Longer AD duration was associated with reduced clustering coefficient in caudate and putamen, and reduced degree in bilateral caudate, but with increased eigenvector centrality in left posterior putamen. Especially changes in global network topology and clustering coefficient in anterior striatum remained strikingly robust after exploratory variations in network weight. Our results show adverse effects of AD on overall network integration and possibly on striatal efficiency, putatively contributing to the increasing behavioral impairments seen in chronically addicted patients.

  9. Hopelessness in Alcohol- and Heroin-Dependent Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Aaron T.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Beck Hopelessness Scale to alcoholic (N=20) and heroin-addicted (N=20) women. Results indicated that although both groups expressed comparable levels of overall hopelessness, alcoholic women anticipated more success and better lives in the next 10 years than did the heroin-dependent women. (LLL)

  10. [Is "the resistance to negative reinforcement" a feature of alcohol dependence syndrome?].

    PubMed

    Kato, Shin

    2006-10-01

    In 1979, "Alcoholism Diagnosis Committee, the Ministry of Health and Welfare" established the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence syndrome, which included "the resistance to negative reinforcement". The author raises a question about this criterion which indicates the condition that "an individual continues to drink despite alcohol-related physical diseases, rejection by his/her family or economic poverty and drinking-related criminal problem." The author defines this condition not as "resistance to negative reinforcement" but as "resistance to punishment." Furthermore, the author can not find the data supporting that "the resistance to negative reinforcement" in the correct sense exists in the individuals with alcohol dependence syndrome. In a theoretical sense, an opposite idea seems to exist. There is an observed fact that can be regarded as a phenomenon that explains the involvement of "negative reinforcement" in enhancement of psychological dependence as in the case of the secondary development of psychological dependence. Consequently, the author would have to say that defining "the resistance to negative reinforcement" as one of common features of alcohol dependence syndrome or one of diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence syndrome is inappropriate.

  11. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  12. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  13. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  14. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  15. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  16. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  17. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  18. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  19. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  20. 46 CFR 122.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... PASSENGERS OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.210 Alcohol or drug use by individuals... alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The owner, agent, master,...

  1. 46 CFR 4.05-12 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... § 4.05-12 Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties. (a) For each marine... evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b) The marine...

  2. Temporal dynamics and determinants of whole brain tissue volume changes during recovery from alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gazdzinski, Stefan; Durazzo, Timothy C; Meyerhoff, Dieter J

    2005-06-01

    Brain shrinkage and its partial reversibility with abstinence is a common neuroimaging finding in alcohol dependent individuals. We used an automated three-dimensional whole brain magnetic resonance imaging method (boundary shift integral) in 23 alcohol dependent individuals to measure the temporal dynamics of cerebral tissue and spinal fluid volume changes over a 12-month interval and to examine the major determinants of brain tissue change rates during abstinence and non-abstinence. We found more rapid brain tissue gain during the first month of sobriety than in the following months. The most rapid volume recovery was observed in abstinent individuals with the greatest baseline brain shrinkage and drinking severity. The rapid reversal of brain volume gains in non-abstinent individuals and tissue volume changes are modulated by duration of abstinence and non-abstinence periods, as well as recency of non-abstinence. Age, family history density of alcoholism, relapse severity, and duration or age of onset of heavy drinking were not major determinants of brain shrinkage and brain volume recovery rates. Treatment providers may use this tangible information to reinforce the biomedical benefits of sobriety. Previous quantitative measurements of brain volumes in alcohol dependent individuals performed after several weeks of abstinence likely underestimated the full extent of chronic alcohol-associated brain shrinkage.

  3. Effects of Depression on Treatment Motivation in Male Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    CENGİSİZ, Cengiz; DEVECİ, Artuner; YAPICI, Aslıhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Treatment motivation in alcohol dependents is usually viewed as a strong predictor of seeking treatment and treatment success. The conditions affecting motivation in alcohol dependence, however, has not been clarified. In this study, it is aimed to determine the effects of depression on treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Methods The present study included 34 male alcohol dependents presenting to outpatient clinics in Manisa Hospital of Mental Disorders and Hospital of Celal Bayar University. The patients underwent evaluation using the socio-demographic and clinical information form, DSM-IV SCID-I Clinical Version, Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (TMQ), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Results A significant relationship was found between the total score of TMQ and HDRS (p=.039). Conclusion We believe that the present study, in which we examined the relationship between treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence and depression, would provide a significant contribution to literature. It is also important to investigate other factors that may affect treatment motivation in male alcohol dependence. Studies with larger samples are needed on this topic.

  4. Cognitive Impairments in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Florent; Maheut-Bosser, Anne; Paille, François

    2014-01-01

    Chronic excessive alcohol consumption induces cognitive impairments mainly affecting executive functions, episodic memory, and visuospatial capacities related to multiple brain lesions. These cognitive impairments not only determine everyday management of these patients, but also impact on the efficacy of management and may compromise the abstinence prognosis. Maintenance of lasting abstinence is associated with cognitive recovery in these patients, but some impairments may persist and interfere with the good conduct and the efficacy of management. It therefore appears essential to clearly define neuropsychological management designed to identify and evaluate the type and severity of alcohol-related cognitive impairments. It is also essential to develop cognitive remediation therapy so that the patient can fully benefit from the management proposed in addiction medicine units. PMID:25076914

  5. Automatic Avoidance Tendencies for Alcohol Cues Predict Drinking After Detoxification Treatment in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:27935726

  6. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Deep Brain Stimulation in the treatment of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Alba-Ferrara, L.; Fernandez, F.; Salas, R.; de Erausquin, G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major social, economic, and public health problem. Alcoholism can lead to damage of the gastrointestinal, nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems and it can be lethal, costing hundreds of billions to the health care system. Despite the existence of cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychosocial interventions, and spiritually integrated treatment to treat it, alcohol dependence has a high relapse rate and poor prognosis, albeit with high interindividual variability. In this review, we discuss the use of two neuromodulation techniques, namely repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and deep brain stimulation (DBS), and their advantages and disadvantages compared to first-line pharmacological treatment for alcohol dependence. We also discuss rTMS and DBS targets for alcohol dependence treatment, considering experimental animal and human evidence, with careful consideration of methodological issues preventing the identification of feasible targets for neuromodulation treatments, as well as inter-individual variability factors influencing alcoholism prognosis. Lastly, we anticipate future research aiming to tailor the treatment to each individual patient by combining neurofunctional, neuroanatomical and neurodisruptive techniques optimizing the outcome. PMID:25598743

  7. Alcohol dependence and free-choice drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol dependence continues to be an important health concern and animal models are critical to furthering our understanding of this complex disease. A hallmark feature of alcoholism is a significant increase in alcohol drinking over time. While several different animal models of excessive alcohol (ethanol) drinking exist for mice and rats, a growing number of laboratories are using a model that combines chronic ethanol exposure procedures with voluntary ethanol drinking with mice as experimental subjects. Primarily, these studies use a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure pattern to render mice dependent and a 2-h limited access procedure to evaluate drinking behavior. Compared to non-dependent mice that also drink ethanol, the ethanol-dependent mice demonstrate significant increases in voluntary ethanol drinking. The increased drinking significantly elevates blood and brain ethanol concentrations compared to the non-dependent control mice. Studies report that the increased drinking by dependent mice is driven by neuroadaptations in glutamatergic and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in different brain regions known to be involved in alcohol-related behaviors. The dysregulation of these systems parallels findings in human alcoholics and treatments that demonstrate efficacy in alcoholics can also reduce drinking in this model. Moreover, preclinical findings have informed the development of human clinical trials, further highlighting the translational potential of the model. As a result of these features, the CIE exposure and free-choice drinking model is becoming more widely used and promises to provide more insight into mechanisms of excessive drinking that may be important for developing treatments for human alcoholics. The salient features and possible future considerations for CIE exposure and free-choice drinking in mice are discussed.

  8. The Effects of Levetiracetam on Alcohol Consumption in Alcohol-Dependent Subjects: An Open Label Study

    PubMed Central

    Sarid-Segal, Ofra; Piechniczek-Buczek, Joanna; Knapp, Clifford; Afshar, Maryam; Devine, Eric; Sickles, Laurie; Uwodukunda, Emma; Richambault, Courtney; Koplow, Jillian; Ciraulo, Domenic

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this open-label pilot study was to assess the efficacy and safety of the novel anticonvulsant agent, levetiracetam, for the treatment of alcohol dependence. A maximal dose of 2000 mg was administered daily for 10 weeks to alcohol dependent subjects (n = 20). Mean reported ethanol intake declined significantly from 5.3 to 1.7 standard drinks per day. Levetiracetam was well tolerated by most subjects. PMID:18584574

  9. Polygenic risk for alcohol dependence associates with alcohol consumption, cognitive function and social deprivation in a population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andrew H.; Gelernter, Joel; Kranzler, Henry R.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Hall, Lynsey S.; Fernandez‐Pujals, Ana M.; MacIntyre, Donald J.; Smith, Blair H.; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Thomson, Pippa A.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; McIntosh, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Alcohol dependence is frequently co‐morbid with cognitive impairment. The relationship between these traits is complex as cognitive dysfunction may arise as a consequence of heavy drinking or exist prior to the onset of dependence. In the present study, we tested the genetic overlap between cognitive abilities and alcohol dependence using polygenic risk scores (PGRS). We created two independent PGRS derived from two recent genome‐wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (SAGE GWAS: n = 2750; Yale‐Penn GWAS: n = 2377) in a population‐based cohort, Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study (GS:SFHS) (n = 9863). Data on alcohol consumption and four tests of cognitive function [Mill Hill Vocabulary (MHV), digit symbol coding, phonemic verbal fluency (VF) and logical memory] were available. PGRS for alcohol dependence were negatively associated with two measures of cognitive function: MHV (SAGE: P = 0.009, β = −0.027; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.001, β = −0.034) and VF (SAGE: P = 0.0008, β = −0.036; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.00005, β = −0.044). VF remained robustly associated after adjustment for education and social deprivation; however, the association with MHV was substantially attenuated. Shared genetic variants may account for some of the phenotypic association between cognitive ability and alcohol dependence. A significant negative association between PGRS and social deprivation was found (SAGE: P = 5.2 × 10−7, β = −0.054; Yale‐Penn: P = 0.000012, β = −0.047). Individuals living in socially deprived regions were found to carry more alcohol dependence risk alleles which may contribute to the increased prevalence of problem drinking in regions of deprivation. Future work to identify genes which affect both cognitive impairment and alcohol dependence will help elucidate biological processes common to both disorders. PMID:25865819

  10. Clinical experience of baclofen in alcohol dependence: A chart review

    PubMed Central

    Rozatkar, Abhijit R.; Kapoor, Abhishek; Sidana, Ajeet; Chavan, Bir Singh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Craving is recognized as a formidable barrier in the management of patients with alcohol dependence. Among pharmacological agents that have been used in experimental studies for reduction in craving, baclofen appears to have a significant advantage over other agents. Methodology: The study is retrospective chart review of patients (n = 113) who have been treated with baclofen for alcohol dependence in a tertiary hospital of North India. Baseline assessments included sociodemography, motivation, quantity-frequency of alcohol use, and other alcohol-related clinical parameters. Weekly assessments, for a period of 4 weeks, were extracted from records which included dose of baclofen, craving intensity, and alcohol consumption. Results: The study sample was predominantly male, mean age of 41.49 (±9.75) years, most having a family history of substance use (70.97%), and many reporting binge use pattern in last year (49.46%). Baseline assessment revealed 48.7% of the sample was in precontemplation phase for alcohol use and 70% reported severe and persistent craving. This persistent craving was reported by only 15% of the sample by the end of 4 weeks treatment with baclofen (20–40 mg/day). Thirty-four percent of patients reported continued problematic use of alcohol by the end of 4 weeks. Conclusion: Our clinical experience suggests that baclofen reduces craving and alcohol consumption including in those with poor motivation. The drug causes few side effects and does not add to the intoxication effect of alcohol. Considering that baclofen is safe in those with liver cirrhosis and reduces withdrawal symptoms due to alcohol, a controlled trial comparing it with standard treatment is required. PMID:28163402

  11. Study on dermatoses and their prevalence in groups of confirmed alcoholic individuals in comparison to a non-alcoholic group of individuals*

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Maria Cecilia Teixeira de Carvalho; Vilela, Maria Aparecida Constantino; de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto B. Mendes

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The direct relationship between alcoholism and dermatoses has been evaluated in recent researches. However, there are few objective surveys that demonstrate and prove a direct relationship between alcohol and a specific dermatosis. OBJECTIVES to verify the prevalence of dermatoses in alcoholics, analize the dermatological changes found in these patients and their evolution during alcoholic abstinence. Also, to compare the results obtained with a non-alcoholic control group and with the data found in medical literature. METHODS: the dermatologic conditions of 278 alcoholic patients (250 men, 28 women) were studied over a period of 4 years, and compared to those of a control group of 271 non-alcoholic individuals (249 men, 22 women), members of the Military Police Force. The individuals in both groups were between 20 and 60 years old. RESULTS Pellagra, nummular eczema, purpura pigmentosa chronica (also known as pigmented purpuric dermatosis) and psoriasis were more frequent in the group of alcoholics and, apparently, occurred in parallel with alcoholism that seems to play a role in the evolution of these dermatoses. The dermatopathies were more frequent before the age of forty, regardless of factors such as profession, race or gender. CONCLUSION the association of dermatoses and alcoholism was extremely significant according to the statistical data. Alcoholism can be considered a risk factor for pellagra, psoriasis, nummular eczema and purpura pigmentosa chronica dermatoses, which can, as well, be considered alcoholism indicators. PMID:23793198

  12. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  13. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  14. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  15. 46 CFR 185.210 - Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in casualties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in... whether there is any evidence of alcohol or drug use by individuals directly involved in the casualty. (b... evidence of drug or alcohol use, or evidence of intoxication, has been obtained; and (2) Specifies...

  16. Prefrontal correlates of approach preferences for alcohol stimuli in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Ernst, Lena H; Plichta, Michael M; Dresler, Thomas; Zesewitz, Anna K; Tupak, Sara V; Haeussinger, Florian B; Fischer, Matthias; Polak, Thomas; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Ehlis, Ann-Christine

    2014-05-01

    An approach bias for alcohol stimuli (i.e. faster approach than avoidance reactions) might facilitate relapses in alcohol dependence. Neurobiological models suggest hypersensitivity in the reward system [inter alia nucleus accumbens and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)] to cause pathologically enhanced approach impulses towards alcohol stimuli. At the same time, in alcohol dependence, these structures are only insufficiently controlled by a hypoactive dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study investigated the cortical aspects of this model with functional near-infrared spectroscopy in 21 alcohol-dependent in-patients and 21 healthy controls (HC; comparable in age, gender and education) during performance of the Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT) for the first time. Complementing previous findings, in reaction times (RTs), patients showed stronger approach preferences for alcohol than non-alcohol stimuli. For non-alcohol stimuli, patients even displayed avoidance preferences. The reversed pattern was found in HC. Group differences in activity of the OFC were identical to those in RTs, revealing patients to assign higher subjective value to approaching alcohol stimuli. In both groups, regulatory activity in the right DLPFC was stronger during avoiding than approaching alcohol pictures. Probable awareness of the behavioural hypotheses due to explicit task instructions and patients' deficient prefrontal function might account for this equally aligned pattern. Results are discussed with regard to recent findings revealing a reduced behavioural approach bias and risk for relapse by applying a retraining version of the AAT. Functional measurements might serve as a method for monitoring the corresponding neurobiological changes and-possibly-predicting the success of such a training.

  17. Proof-of-concept human laboratory study for protracted abstinence in alcohol dependence: effects of gabapentin.

    PubMed

    Mason, Barbara J; Light, John M; Williams, Lauren D; Drobes, David J

    2009-01-01

    There is a need for safe medications that can effectively support recovery by treating symptoms of protracted abstinence that may precipitate relapse in alcoholics, e.g. craving and disturbances in sleep and mood. This proof-of-concept study reports on the effectiveness of gabapentin 1200 mg for attenuating these symptoms in a non-treatment-seeking sample of cue-reactive, alcohol-dependent individuals. Subjects were 33 paid volunteers with current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV alcohol dependence and a strength of craving rating 1 SD or greater for alcohol than water cues. Subjects were randomly assigned to gabapentin or placebo for 1 week and then participated in a within-subjects trial where each was exposed to standardized sets of pleasant, neutral and unpleasant visual stimuli followed by alcohol or water cues. Gabapentin was associated with significantly greater reductions than placebo on several measures of subjective craving for alcohol as well as for affectively evoked craving. Gabapentin was also associated with significant improvement on several measures of sleep quality. Side effects were minimal, and gabapentin effects were not found to resemble any major classes of abused drugs. Results suggest that gabapentin may be effective for treating the protracted abstinence phase in alcohol dependence and that a randomized clinical trial would be an appropriate next step. The study also suggests the value of cue-reactivity studies as proof-of-concept screens for potential antirelapse drugs.

  18. Linkage Scan of Alcohol Dependence in the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study

    PubMed Central

    Gizer, Ian R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.; Vietan, Cassandra; Seaton-Smith, Kimberly L.; Feiler, Heidi S.; Lee, James V.; Segall, Samantha K.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2010-01-01

    Ample data suggest alcohol dependence represents a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder. In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for alcohol dependence was conducted in a community sample of 565 probands and 1080 first-degree relatives recruited through the UCSF Family Alcoholism Study. The Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) was used to derive DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnoses. Although no loci achieved genome-wide significance (i.e., LOD score > 3.0), several linkage peaks of interest (i.e., LOD score > 1.0) were identified. When the strict DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis requiring the temporal clustering of symptoms served as the phenotype, linkage peaks were identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22, 2q37.3, 8q24.3, and 18p11.21–p11.2. When the temporal clustering of symptoms was not required, linkage peaks were again identified on chromosomes 1p36.31–p36.22 and 8q24.3 as well as novel loci on chromosomes 1p22.3, 2p24.3–p24.1, 9p24.1–p23, and 22q12.3–q13.1. Follow-up analyses were conducted by performing linkage analysis for the 12 alcohol dependence symptoms assessed by the SSAGA across the support intervals for the observed linkage peaks. These analyses demonstrated that different collections of symptoms often assessing distinct aspects of alcohol dependence (e.g., uncontrollable drinking and withdrawal vs. tolerance and drinking despite health problems) contributed to each linkage peak and often yielded LOD scores exceeding that reported for the alcohol dependence diagnosis. Such findings provide insight into how specific genomic regions may influence distinct aspects of alcohol dependence. PMID:20817416

  19. KCNJ6 is associated with adult alcohol dependence and involved in gene × early life stress interactions in adolescent alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Toni-Kim; Laucht, Manfred; Ridinger, Monika; Wodarz, Norbert; Rietschel, Marcella; Maier, Wolfgang; Lathrop, Mark; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Desrivieres, Sylvane; Schumann, Gunter

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol abuse and dependence have proven to be complex genetic traits that are influenced by environmental factors. Primate and human studies have shown that early life stress increases the propensity for alcohol abuse in later life. The reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated by dopaminergic signaling; however, there is little evidence to indicate how stress alters alcohol reinforcement. KCNJ6 (the gene encoding G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2 (GIRK2)) is a brain expressed potassium channel with inhibitory effects on dopaminergic tone. The properties of GIRK2 have been shown to be enhanced by the stress peptide corticotrophin-releasing hormone. Therefore, we sought to examine the role of KCNJ6 polymorphisms in adult alcohol dependence and stress-related alcohol abuse in adolescents. We selected 11 SNPs in the promoter region of KCNJ6, which were genotyped in 1152 adult alcohol dependents and 1203 controls. One SNP, rs2836016, was found to be associated with alcohol dependence (p=0.01, false discovery rate). We then assessed rs2836016 in an adolescent sample of 261 subjects, which were characterized for early life stress and adolescent hazardous drinking, defined using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), to examine gene-environment interactions. In the adolescent sample, the risk genotype of rs2836016 was significantly associated with increased AUDIT scores, but only in those individuals exposed to high levels of psychosocial stress in early life (p=0.01). Our findings show that KCNJ6 is associated with alcohol dependence and may moderate the effect of early psychosocial stress on risky alcohol drinking in adolescents. We have identified a candidate gene for future studies investigating a possible functional link between the response to stress and alcohol reinforcement.

  20. Anterior Cingulate Glutamate Is Reduced by Acamprosate Treatment in Patients With Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Frye, Mark A; Hinton, David J; Karpyak, Victor M; Biernacka, Joanna M; Gunderson, Lee J; Feeder, Scott E; Choi, Doo-Sup; Port, John D

    2016-12-01

    Although the precise drug mechanism of action of acamprosate remains unclear, its antidipsotropic effect is mediated in part through glutamatergic neurotransmission. We evaluated the effect of 4 weeks of acamprosate treatment in a cohort of 13 subjects with alcohol dependence (confirmed by a structured interview, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision) on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy glutamate levels in the midline anterior cingulate cortex (MACC). We compared levels of metabolites with a group of 16 healthy controls. The Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale was used to assess craving intensity. At baseline, before treatment, the mean cerebrospinal fluid-corrected MACC glutamate (Glu) level was significantly elevated in subjects with alcohol dependence compared with controls (P = 0.004). Four weeks of acamprosate treatment reduced glutamate levels (P = 0.025), an effect that was not observed in subjects who did not take acamprosate. At baseline, there was a significant positive correlation between cravings, measured by the Pennsylvania Alcohol Craving Scale, and MACC (Glu) levels (P = 0.019). Overall, these data would suggest a normalizing effect of acamprosate on a hyperglutamatergic state observed in recently withdrawn patients with alcohol dependence and a positive association between MACC glutamate levels and craving intensity in early abstinence. Further research is needed to evaluate the use of these findings for clinical practice, including monitoring of craving intensity and individualized selection of treatment with antidipsotropic medications in subjects with alcohol dependence.

  1. Risk of alcohol dependence: prevalence, related problems and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Martins-Oliveira, Juliana Gabrielle; Jorge, Kelly Oliva; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E; Vale, Míriam Pimenta; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the possible alcohol dependence and related problems among adolescents and determined possible associations with socioeconomic factors and gender. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 936 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years enrolled at public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data related to alcohol consumption and associated problems were collected using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT). The Social Vulnerability Index (SVI), mother's schooling and type of school were used to assess socioeconomic factors. Statistical analysis involved the chi-square test (p < 0.05) and Poisson regression. The prevalence of possible dependence was 16.4%, 52.1% reported concern of a family member regarding the adolescent's alcohol consumption. Female adolescents were less likely to exhibit possible dependence in comparison to males. Participants with living in a low vulnerability area were more likely to consume alcohol in comparison to those living in underprivileged areas. The results of the present study demonstrate that possible dependence was significantly associated with the male gender and low social vulnerability.

  2. Trajectories of alcohol and drug use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood: the effects of familial alcoholism and personality.

    PubMed

    Chassin, Laurie; Fora, David B; King, Kevin M

    2004-11-01

    This study describes trajectories of substance use and dependence from adolescence to adulthood. Identified consumption groups include heavy drinking/heavy drug use, moderate drinking/experimental drug use, and light drinking/rare drug use. Dependence groups include alcohol only, drug only, and comorbid groups. The heavy drinking/heavy drug use group was at risk for alcohol and drug dependence and persistent dependence and showed more familial alcoholism, negative emotionality, and low constraint. The moderate drinking/experimental drug use group was at risk for alcohol dependence but not comorbid or persistent dependence and showed less negative emotionality and higher constraint. Familial alcoholism raised risk for alcohol and drug use and dependence in part because children from alcoholic families were more impulsive and lower in agreeableness.

  3. Baclofen for alcohol dependence: Relationships between baclofen and alcohol dosing and the occurrence of major sedation.

    PubMed

    Rolland, Benjamin; Labreuche, Julien; Duhamel, Alain; Deheul, Sylvie; Gautier, Sophie; Auffret, Marine; Pignon, Baptiste; Valin, Thomas; Bordet, Régis; Cottencin, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    High-dose baclofen, i.e., 300 mg/d or more, has recently emerged as a strategy for treating alcohol dependence. The impact that the co-exposure of large amounts of alcohol and baclofen has on sedation is unclear. In a prospective cohort of 253 subjects with alcohol dependence, we collected daily alcohol and baclofen doses across the first year of baclofen treatment and the monthly maximum subjective sedation experienced by each patient (0-10 visual analog scale). For each patient-month, we determined the average weekly alcohol consumption (AWAC; standard-drinks/week) and the maximum daily dose of baclofen (DDB; mg/d). The occurrence of an episode of major sedation (EMS) during a patient-month was defined as a sedation score ≥7. The relationship between the EMS occurrence and the concurrent AWAC and DDB was investigated using a generalized estimating equation model. In total, 1528 patient-months were compiled (70 with an EMS). Univariate analyses demonstrated that the rate of patient-month to EMS increased gradually with AWAC (p<0.001), from 0.9% for AWAC=0 to 9.4% for AWAC >35. There was also a significant gradual risk for EMS associated with DDB (<0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a significant interaction between DDB and AWAC on EMS risk (p=0.047). Each 20mg/d increase in DDB was associated with an OR of EMS in AWAC >35 of 1.22 (95%CI, 1.08-1.38) versus 1.11 (95%CI, 0.96-1.29) in AWAC=1-35, and 0.95 (95%CI, 0.76-1.19) in AWAC=0. The level of sedation observed in patients using baclofen for alcohol dependence appears to directly depend on the immediate doses of both the baclofen and the alcohol.

  4. Interaction between the DRD4 VNTR Polymorphism and Proximal and Distal Environments in Alcohol Dependence during Emerging and Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Park, Aesoon; Sher, Kenneth J.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Heath, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    The manifestation of alcohol dependence at different developmental stages may be associated with different genetic and environmental factors. Taking a developmental approach, the current study characterized interaction between the dopamine receptor 4 variable number tandem repeat (DRD4 VNTR) polymorphism and developmentally specific environmental factors (childhood adversity, college/Greek involvement, and delayed adult role transition) on alcohol dependence during emerging and young adulthood. Prospective data were obtained from a cohort of 234 Caucasian individuals (56% female) followed up at ages 18 through 34. A longitudinal hierarchical factor model was estimated to model a trait-like persistent alcohol dependence factor throughout emerging and young adulthood and two residual state-like alcohol dependence factors limited to emerging adulthood and young adulthood, respectively. To account for those alcohol dependence factors, three two-way interaction effects between the DRD4 VNTR polymorphism and the three developmentally specific environment factors were modeled. Carriers of the DRD4 long allele showed greater susceptibility to environmental effects; they showed more persistent alcohol dependence symptoms as childhood adversity increased and more alcohol dependence symptoms limited to emerging adulthood as college/Greek involvement increased. Alcohol dependence among non-carriers of the long allele, however, did not differ as a function of those environments. Although replication is necessary, these findings highlight the importance of repeated phenotypic assessments across development and modeling both distal and proximal environments and their interaction with genetic susceptibility at specific developmental stages. PMID:21381802

  5. Insomnia in Alcohol Dependent Subjects is Associated with Greater Psychosocial Problem Severity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Ninad S.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Kranzler, Henry R.; Grandner, Michael A.; Debbarma, Swarnalata; Chakravorty, Subhajit

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although psychosocial problems are commonly associated with both alcohol misuse and insomnia, very little is known about the combined effects of insomnia and current alcohol dependence on the severity of psychosocial problems. The present study evaluates whether the co-occurrence of insomnia and alcohol dependence is associated with greater psychosocial problem severity. Methods Alcohol dependent individuals (N=123) were evaluated prior to participation in a placebo-controlled medication trial. The Short Index of Problems (SIP), Addiction Severity Index (ASI), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), and Time Line Follow Back (TLFB), were used to assess psychosocial, employment, and legal problems; insomnia symptoms; and alcohol consumption, respectively. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the relations between insomnia and psychosocial problems. Results Subjects’ mean age was 44 years (SD=10.3), 83% were male, and their SIP sub-scale scores approximated the median for normative data. A quarter of subjects reported no insomnia; 29% reported mild insomnia; and 45% reported moderate-severe insomnia. The insomnia groups did not differ on alcohol consumption measures. The ISI total score was associated with the SIP total scale score (β=0.23, p=0.008). Subjects with moderate-severe insomnia had significantly higher scores on the SIP total score, and on the social and impulse control sub-scales, and more ASI employment problems and conflicts with their spouses than others on the ASI. Conclusion In treatment-seeking alcohol dependent subjects, insomnia may increase alcohol-related adverse psychosocial consequences. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify the relations between insomnia and psychosocial problems in these subjects. PMID:26151580

  6. A Randomized Trial of Individual and Couple Behavioral Alcohol Treatment for Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mccrady, Barbara S.; Epstein, Elizabeth E.; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Although alcohol use disorders (AUDs) adversely affect women, research on efficacious treatments for women is limited. In this randomized efficacy trial of 102 heterosexual women with AUDs, the authors compared alcohol behavioral couple therapy (ABCT) and alcohol behavioral individual therapy (ABIT) on percentage of days abstinent (PDA) and…

  7. Immunological parameters in patients suffering from alcohol-dependence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leksowski, W; Kawalaski, H; Czuba, Z; Krol, W; Gorczyca, P; Dworniczak, S; Rajca, M; Shani, J

    2000-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major cause of abnormal liver development and activity. In addition to enzymatic malfunction, alcohol and its metabolites induce changes in the levels of some liver antigens, resulting in immunological disturbance. The purpose of the present study is to correlate the severity of liver function impairment with the length of alcohol abuse, in order to be able to use such tests as indicative of the severity of Alcohol Dependence Syndrome. Thirty-one alcohol abusers were allocated to three groups on the basis of the levels of their liver enzymes, and were tested for a variety of immunological parameters and skin reactions. The data indicate that even though not all immunological values measured differed significantly from the control values, in those that did (granulocytes, lymphocytes, CD4/CD8 ratio, C3, IgG, IgM and some skin positive reactions), the biggest difference was between the healthy volunteers and the group with the longest abuse period. It is suggested that changes in selected immunological parameters in alcohol abusers may indicate the severity of their liver dysfunction.

  8. Social Support and Treatment Outcome in Alcohol Dependence Syndrome in Armed Forces

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Vinay Singh; Azad, Sudip

    2015-01-01

    perceived higher social support than soldiers and lesser qualified individuals. Conclusion Abstinent group perceived better social support than relapsed group and soldiers in upper socio-occupational status and less alcohol related problems perceived more social support than soldiers with lower socioeconomic status and more alcohol related problems. Psychosocial therapy must be incorporated in management of Alcohol dependence syndrome. PMID:26676246

  9. Predicting the future relapse of alcohol-dependent patients from structural and functional brain images.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sambu; Mohr, Johannes; Beck, Anne; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Heinz, Andreas; Obermayer, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    In alcohol dependence, individual prediction of treatment outcome based on neuroimaging endophenotypes can help to tailor individual therapeutic offers to patients depending on their relapse risk. We built a prediction model for prospective relapse of alcohol-dependent patients that combines structural and functional brain images derived from an experiment in which 46 subjects were exposed to alcohol-related cues. The patient group had been subdivided post hoc regarding relapse behavior defined as a consumption of more than 60 g alcohol for male or more than 40 g alcohol for female patients on one occasion during the 3-month assessment period (16 abstainers and 30 relapsers). Naïve Bayes, support vector machines and learning vector quantization were used to infer prediction models for relapse based on the mean and maximum values of gray matter volume and brain responses on alcohol-related cues within a priori defined regions of interest. Model performance was estimated by leave-one-out cross-validation. Learning vector quantization yielded the model with the highest balanced accuracy (79.4 percent, p < 0.0001; 90 percent sensitivity, 68.8 percent specificity). The most informative individual predictors were functional brain activation features in the right and left ventral tegmental areas and the right ventral striatum, as well as gray matter volume features in left orbitofrontal cortex and right medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, the best pure clinical model reached only chance-level accuracy (61.3 percent). Our results indicate that an individual prediction of future relapse from imaging measurement outperforms prediction from clinical measurements. The approach may help to target specific interventions at different risk groups.

  10. Ectopic hippocampal neurogenesis in adolescent male rats following alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    McClain, Justin A; Morris, Stephanie A; Marshall, S Alexander; Nixon, Kimberly

    2014-07-01

    The adolescent hippocampus is highly vulnerable to alcohol-induced damage, which could contribute to their increased susceptibility to alcohol use disorder. Altered adult hippocampal neurogenesis represents one potential mechanism by which alcohol (ethanol) affects hippocampal function. Based on the vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to alcohol-induced damage, and prior reports of long-term alcohol-induced effects on adult neurogenesis, we predicted adverse effects on adult neurogenesis in the adolescent brain following abstinence from alcohol dependence. Thus, we examined neurogenesis in adolescent male rats during abstinence following a 4-day binge model of alcohol dependence. Bromodeoxyuridine and Ki67 immunohistochemistry revealed a 2.2-fold increase in subgranular zone cell proliferation after 7 days of abstinence. Increased proliferation was followed by a 75% increase in doublecortin expression and a 56% increase in surviving bromodeoxyuridine-labeled cells 14 and 35 days post-ethanol exposure, respectively. The majority of newborn cells in ethanol and control groups co-localized with NeuN, indicating a neuronal phenotype and therefore a 1.6-fold increase in hippocampal neurogenesis during abstinence. Although these results mirror the magnitude of reactive neurogenesis described in adult rat studies, ectopic bromodeoxyuridine and doublecortin positive cells were detected in the molecular layer and hilus of adolescent rats displaying severe withdrawal symptoms, an effect that has not been described in adults. The presence of ectopic neuroblasts suggests that a potential defect exists in the functional incorporation of new neurons into the existing hippocampal circuitry for a subset of rats. Age-related differences in functional incorporation could contribute to the increased vulnerability of the adolescent hippocampus to ethanol.

  11. Alcohol Dependence, Co-occurring Conditions and Attributable Burden

    PubMed Central

    Odlaug, B.L.; Gual, A.; DeCourcy, J.; Perry, R.; Pike, J.; Heron, L.; Rehm, J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Alcohol dependence is associated with high rates of co-occurring disorders which impact health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and add to the cost-of-illness. This study investigated the burden of alcohol dependence and associated co-occurring conditions on health and productivity. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in eight European countries. Physicians (Psychiatrists and General Practitioners) completed patient record forms, which included assessment of co-occurring conditions, and patients completed matching self-completion forms. Drinking risk level (DRL) was calculated and the relationship between DRL, co-occurring conditions, work productivity, hospitalisations and rehabilitation stays was explored. Results Data were collected for 2979 alcohol-dependent patients (mean age 48.8 ± 13.6 years; 70% male). In total, 77% of patients suffered from moderate-to-severe co-occurring psychiatric and/or somatic conditions. High DRL was significantly associated with depression, greater work productivity losses, increased hospitalisations and rehabilitation stays. Co-occurring conditions were significantly associated with poorer HRQoL and decreased work productivity, with a statistical trend towards an increased frequency of rehabilitation stays. Conclusions Alcohol-dependent patients manifest high rates of co-occurring psychiatric and somatic conditions, which are associated with impaired work productivity and HRQoL. The continued burden of illness observed in these already-diagnosed patients suggests an unmet need in both primary and secondary care. PMID:26246514

  12. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  13. Supplier-dependent differences in intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Shima; Segerström, Lova; Roman, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a worldwide public health problem and a polygenetic disorder displaying substantial individual variation. This work aimed to study individual differences in behavior and its association to voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone in a seamless heterogenic group of animals. Thus, by this approach the aim was to more accurately recapitulate the existing heterogeneity within the human population. Male Wistar rats from three different suppliers (Harlan Laboratories B.V., RccHan™:WI; Taconic Farms A/S, HanTac:WH; and Charles River GmbH, Crl:WI) were used to create a heterogenic group for studies of individual differences in behavior, associations to intermittent voluntary alcohol intake and subsequent response to naltrexone. The rats were tested in the open field prior to the Y-maze and then given voluntary intermittent access to alcohol or water in the home cage for 6 weeks, where after, naltrexone in three different doses or saline was administered in a Latin square design over 4 weeks and alcohol intake and preference was measured. However, supplier-dependent differences and concomitant skew subgroup formations, primarily in open field behavior and intermittent alcohol intake, resulted in a shifted focus to instead study voluntary alcohol intake and preference, and the ensuing response to naltrexone in Wistar rats from three different suppliers. The results showed that outbred Wistar rats are diverse with regard to voluntary alcohol intake and preference in a supplier-dependent manner; higher in RccHan™:WI relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI. The results also revealed supplier-dependent differences in the effect of naltrexone that were dose- and time-dependent; evident differences in high-drinking RccHan™:WI rats relative to HanTac:WH and Crl:WI rats. Overall these findings render RccHan™:WI rats more suitable for studies of individual differences in voluntary alcohol intake and response to naltrexone and

  14. Efficacy of a combination of flumazenil and gabapentin in the treatment of alcohol dependence: relationship to alcohol withdrawal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Anton, Raymond F; Myrick, Hugh; Baros, Alicia M; Latham, Patricia K; Randall, Patrick K; Wright, Tara M; Stewart, Scott H; Waid, Randy; Malcolm, Robert

    2009-08-01

    Improved treatment of alcohol dependence is a high priority, including defining subtypes that might respond differently. We evaluated a medication combination of intravenous flumazenil (FMZ) and oral gabapentin (GBP) in alcoholics who did and did not exhibit pretreatment alcohol withdrawal (AW) symptoms. Sixty alcohol-dependent individuals (44 with low AW and 16 with high AW) were randomized to receive FMZ (2 mg of incremental bolus for 20 minutes for 2 consecutive days) and GBP (up to 1200 mg nightly for 39 days) or their inactive placebos. Alcohol withdrawal was measured for the first 2 days, and drinking, sleep parameters, and adverse events were monitored during weekly evaluations, along with behavioral counseling sessions. Percent days abstinent (PDA) during treatment and time to first heavy drinking (TFHD) day were primary outcome variables. There was an interaction between the pretreatment AW status and the medication group on PDA (P = 0.0006) and TFHD (P = 0.06). Those in the high AW group had more PDA and more TFHD if treated with active medications, whereas those in the low AW group had more PDA and more TFHD if treated with placebo. This interaction remained for those totally abstinent (P = 0.03) and was confirmed by percent carbohydrate-deficient transferrin values. In addition, the pattern of response remained up to 8 weeks after treatment. In addition, in those with high AW, greater improvement in AW symptoms was observed in the active medication group compared with the placebo group. These results suggest a differential response to FMZ/GBP treatment, depending on pretreatment AW status that should be taken into account during future treatment trials.

  15. Glutamatergic plasticity and alcohol dependence-induced alterations in reward, affect and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Burnett, Elizabeth J; Chandler, L Judson; Trantham-Davidson, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol dependence is characterized by a reduction in reward threshold, development of a negative affective state, and significant cognitive impairments. Dependence-induced glutamatergic neuroadaptations in the neurocircuitry mediating reward, affect and cognitive function are thought to underlie the neural mechanism for these alterations. These changes serve to promote increased craving for alcohol and facilitate the development of maladaptive behaviors that promote relapse to alcohol drinking during periods of abstinence. Objective To review the extant literature on the effects of chronic alcohol exposure on glutamatergic neurotransmission and its impact on reward, affect and cognition. Results Evidence from a diverse set of studies demonstrates significant enhancement of glutamatergic activity following chronic alcohol exposure and up-regulation of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptor expression and function is a commonly observed phenomenon that likely reflects activity-dependent adaptive homeostatic plasticity. However, changes in NMDA receptors and additional glutamatergic neuroadaptations are often circuit and cell-type specific. Discussion Dependence-induced alterations in glutamate signaling contribute to many of the symptoms experienced in addicted individuals and can persist well into abstinence. This suggests they play an important role in the development of behaviors that increase the probability for relapse. As our understanding of the complexity of the neurocircuitry involved in the addictive process has advanced, it has become increasingly clear that investigations of cell-type and circuit-specific effects are required to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the glutamatergic adaptations and their functional consequences in alcohol addiction. Conclusion While pharmacological treatments for alcohol dependence and relapse targeting the glutamatergic system have shown great promise in preclinical models, more research is needed to uncover

  16. Negative Symptoms are Associated with Less Alcohol Use, Craving, and “High” in Alcohol Dependent Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Batki, Steven L.; Leontieva, Luba; Dimmock, Jacqueline A.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) frequently co-occur with and exacerbate schizophrenia, yet the specific relationships between schizophrenia symptoms and alcohol use remain unclear. Methods PANSS scores were correlated with measures of alcohol and other substance use in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and AUDs entering a trial of monitored naltrexone treatment. Data were analyzed from the first 80 participants; 55% had schizophrenia and 45% had schizoaffective disorder. All had AUDs; 95% had alcohol dependence and 5% alcohol abuse; 34% also had cannabis abuse/dependence and 31% cocaine abuse/dependence. Results PANSS Negative scores were inversely correlated with Addiction Severity Index alcohol composite score, alcohol craving, quality of alcohol “high” (euphoria), and with frequency of cannabis use. An exploratory analysis indicated that the negative symptoms that may most strongly correlate with less alcohol use, craving or euphoria were passive/apathetic social withdrawal, blunted affect, difficulty in abstract thinking, and stereotyped thinking. Higher PANSS Composite scores, indicating the predominance of positive over negative PANSS symptoms, correlated with more alcohol craving and cannabis use. Higher PANSS General scores were associated with more alcohol craving. Conclusions These findings extend previous reports of the association of negative schizophrenia symptoms with less alcohol and substance use to patients with AUDs and indicate that this relationship also includes less alcohol craving and less alcohol euphoria. The findings may also provide some initial evidence that specific negative symptoms may be key to these relationships. PMID:18701256

  17. Person- and People-Centered Integrated Health Care for Alcohol Dependence - Whether It Is Real in the Present Moment.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Mirjana; Antunovic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome violations that are related to alcohol use, etc.). It is well known that the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g., acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death) create a great burden for the economic development of society. Persons who have been diagnosed with alcoholism and currently drinking have a less chance to achieve a life insurance cover. On the contrary, recovering alcoholic with a significant abstinent period can get a good life insurance quote. The abstinence of a year or 2 is usually enough for a person to get an average price of life insurance. Furthermore, new consequent relapses could also be considered as potential aggravating factor to accomplish this kind of financial benefits. So far, the research (and interventions) focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans, and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level. The models of the treatment should be designed according to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate not only the reduction of alcohol intake but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual) needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol dependence and health status and also include the needs of the

  18. Person- and People-Centered Integrated Health Care for Alcohol Dependence – Whether It Is Real in the Present Moment

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, Mirjana; Antunovic, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol continues to occupy a leading position in Europe as a popular substance of abuse. According to WHO sources together with cigarette smoking and obesity, alcohol is a major cause of preventable diseases. Harmful use of alcohol is one of the main factors contributing to premature deaths and disability and has a major impact on public health. The consequences of alcohol use on human health are enormous. Additionally, alcohol use can have harmful effects that do not directly affect person who consumes alcohol (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome violations that are related to alcohol use, etc.). It is well known that the harmful effects and consequences of alcohol use (e.g., acute and chronic illness, injuries in fights, at the workplace, in traffic, violent behavior, and death) create a great burden for the economic development of society. Persons who have been diagnosed with alcoholism and currently drinking have a less chance to achieve a life insurance cover. On the contrary, recovering alcoholic with a significant abstinent period can get a good life insurance quote. The abstinence of a year or 2 is usually enough for a person to get an average price of life insurance. Furthermore, new consequent relapses could also be considered as potential aggravating factor to accomplish this kind of financial benefits. So far, the research (and interventions) focused on the effects on the population level, such as the increase in taxes, advertising bans, and the implementation of laws that prevent the use of alcohol in traffic. However, it seems that the problem may be viewed at the individual level. The models of the treatment should be designed according to the needs of the individual. These models should incorporate not only the reduction of alcohol intake but also the path to abstinence. The plan should take into account the different (individual) needs for treatment, with regard to the degree of alcohol dependence and health status and also include the needs of the

  19. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  20. The role of topiramate and other anticonvulsants in the treatment of alcohol dependence: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is a major health problem worldwide. Various pharmacological agents have been used in the management of alcohol dependence. This review looks at the role of topiramate and other anticonvulsants in the management of alcohol dependence. Topiramate is the most widely used anticonvulsant in the treatment of alcohol dependence. The literature on topiramate is reviewed and critically analyzed, along with its proposed mechanism of action in alcohol dependence. A review of data available on other anticonvulsants like carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine, sodium valproate, gabapentin and levetiracetam are presented and their potential in the treatment of alcohol dependence is considered, together with future research directions.

  1. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model

    PubMed Central

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Roberts, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be. PMID:24290310

  2. Operant alcohol self-administration in dependent rats: focus on the vapor model.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Roberts, Amanda J

    2014-05-01

    Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol (ethanol), loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during withdrawal. Animal models are critical in promoting our knowledge of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying alcohol dependence. Here, we review the studies involving operant alcohol self-administration in rat models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal with the focus on the alcohol vapor model. In 1996, the first articles were published reporting that rats made dependent on alcohol by exposure to alcohol vapors displayed increased operant alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal compared with nondependent rats (i.e., not exposed to alcohol vapors). Since then, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that this model reliably produces physical and motivational symptoms of alcohol dependence. The functional roles of various systems implicated in stress and reward, including opioids, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), glucocorticoids, neuropeptide Y (NPY), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), norepinephrine, and cannabinoids, have been investigated in the context of alcohol dependence. The combination of models of alcohol withdrawal and dependence with operant self-administration constitutes an excellent tool to investigate the neurobiology of alcoholism. In fact, this work has helped lay the groundwork for several ongoing clinical trials for alcohol dependence. Advantages and limitations of this model are discussed, with an emphasis on what future directions of great importance could be.

  3. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care.

  4. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  5. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gail Yvonne; Hoffmann, Norman G

    2006-01-01

    Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK) prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US). The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation), a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV) interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities. PMID:17092339

  6. Use of Pharmacotherapies in the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorders and Opioid Dependence in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Kresina, Thomas F.; Campopiano, Melinda; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley

    2015-01-01

    Substance-related and addictive disorders are chronic relapsing conditions that substantially impact public health. Effective treatments for these disorders require addressing substance use/dependence comprehensively as well as other associated comorbidities. Comprehensive addressing of substance use in a medical setting involves screening for substance use, addressing substance use directly with the patient, and formulating an appropriate intervention. For alcohol dependence and opioid dependence, pharmacotherapies are available that are safe and effective when utilized in a comprehensive treatment paradigm, such as medication assisted treatment. In primary care, substance use disorders involving alcohol, illicit opioids, and prescription opioid abuse are common among patients who seek primary care services. Primary care providers report low levels of preparedness and confidence in identifying substance-related and addictive disorders and providing appropriate care and treatment. However, new models of service delivery in primary care for individuals with substance-related and addictive disorders are being developed to promote screening, care and treatment, and relapse prevention. The education and training of primary care providers utilizing approved medications for the treatment of alcohol use disorders and opioid dependence in a primary care setting would have important public health impact and reduce the burden of alcohol abuse and opioid dependence. PMID:25629034

  7. Typologies of alcohol dependence. From Jellinek to genetics and beyond.

    PubMed

    Leggio, Lorenzo; Kenna, George A; Fenton, Miriam; Bonenfant, Erica; Swift, Robert M

    2009-03-01

    The goal of typology research is to identify subtypes of alcohol dependent (AD) patients sharing fundamental characteristics and try to match each subtype, with the most precise treatment strategy. This review provides a comprehensive history of the literature on alcohol dependent subtypes starting from the earliest attempt made by Jellinek. The binary models identified most closely with Cloninger and Babor as well as the successively more complex classifications are discussed. Typology classification potentially useful in guiding the treatment of AD patients, especially in the case of the serotonergic medications. Contrasting data suggests that other factors could influence the response to a medication and/or that more complex typologies should be identified. In summary, typology models may assist in the ascertainment criteria for clinical trials performed in behavioral and pharmacotherapeutic interventions. Greater emphasis, however, must be made to more clearly delineate this field of research, while moving toward more standardized typologies.

  8. Sodium oxybate: a review of its use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-01-01

    A liquid formulation of sodium oxybate (Alcover(®)), the sodium salt of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), is approved in Italy and Austria for use in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence. This article reviews the efficacy and tolerability of sodium oxybate in alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence, as well as summarizing its pharmacological properties. Results of randomized controlled trials indicate that sodium oxybate was at least as effective as diazepam and clomethiazole in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome, rapidly alleviating symptoms, and was at least as effective as naltrexone or disulfiram in the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated. The risk of sodium oxybate abuse is generally low when it is administered to alcohol-dependent patients at its approved dosage, under the supervision of a designated family member and with continuous strict medical surveillance. However, certain patient groups, such as patients with alcohol dependence and borderline personality disorder or who are in remission from heroin or cocaine addiction, may not be suitable candidates for sodium oxybate therapy because of an increased risk of abuse. In conclusion, sodium oxybate is a useful option for the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and for the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol dependence.

  9. BRAIN MORPHOLOGY AT ENTRY INTO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE IS RELATED TO RELAPSE PROPENSITY

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, VA; Durazzo, TC; Gazdzinski, S; Mon, A; Studholme, C; Meyerhoff, DJ

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined whether any differences in brain volumes at entry into alcohol dependence treatment differentiate subsequent Abstainers from Relapsers. Methods Individuals in alcohol dependence treatment (N=75) underwent magnetic resonance imaging approximately 6 ± 4 days after their last alcoholic drink, and 40 age-matched non-smoking light drinkers were studied as controls. At follow-up 7.8 ± 2.6 months later, 23 alcoholics (31%) had abstained from drinking and 52 (69%) had relapsed. Deformation morphometry compared Relapsers, Abstainers, and light drinkers. Results Compared to light drinkers, future Abstainers had smaller brain tissue volumes in the left amygdala, hippocampal head, and entorhinal cortex, and bilaterally in the thalamus and adjacent subcortical white matter (WM), and had larger volume in the left lateral orbitofrontal region. Compared to light drinkers, future Relapsers had smaller brain tissue volumes in the right middle temporal, occipital, and superior frontal WM. Compared to future Abstainers, future Relapsers had smaller tissue volumes primarily in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and surrounding WM. Results were virtually unaffected after controlling for common comorbidities. Conclusion At entry into alcohol dependence treatment, the brain structure of future Relapsers differs from that of future Abstainers. Future Relapsers have smaller brain volumes in regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward system that are critically involved in impulse control, emotional regulation, craving, and evaluation and anticipation of stimulus salience and hedonics. Structural abnormalities of this circuitry may confer greater risk for resumption of hazardous drinking after treatment and may contribute to the definition of a neurobiological relapse risk profile in alcohol dependence. PMID:21601177

  10. The development and initial validation of the identification of alcohol dependence in women scale.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Carol; Maranda, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop the Identification of Alcohol Dependence in Women (IADW) Scale, which is a 51-question instrument, designed to discriminate between alcohol and non-alcohol dependent women. Questions focus on physical, psychological, family and home life, and use of alcohol. Initial testing of the IADW Scale provides preliminary evidence that it is reliable, has content validity, and is capable of correctly classifying group membership with accuracy. Eighty-six percent of the cases in the alcohol dependent group and 98% of the non-alcohol dependent group were correctly classified using direct and stepwise methods of discriminant analysis.

  11. Griffith Edwards' work on the life course of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Marshall, E Jane

    2015-07-01

    In 1976 Edwards & Gross proposed the concept of the alcohol dependence syndrome, based on the clinical observation that heavy drinkers manifested an inter-related clustering of signs and symptoms. That this modest 'provisional description' turned out to be so significant and influential is perhaps unsurprising when the context in which it was made is appreciated. Griffith Edwards and his colleagues at the Maudsley Hospital had undergone a rigorous 3-year training in clinical psychiatry, during which they had been taught to think critically and were grounded in the art of clinical observation. As he assessed patients for various alcohol research studies he realized that there was a clustering of certain elements. Thus clinical observation and an appreciation of the patient's drinking history contributed to the genesis of the concept. This paper reflects on the integration of his rigorous training at the Maudsley, his enquiring mind and encyclopaedic knowledge of the historical and research literature which enabled him to formulate a testable hypothesis about the alcohol dependence syndrome.

  12. A History of Alcohol Dependence Augments HIV-associated Neurocognitive Deficits in Persons Aged 60 and Older

    PubMed Central

    Gongvatana, Assawin; Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Letendre, Scott L.; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is common among people living with HIV. Given the growing prevalence of older HIV+ adults, and observations indicating higher risk for neurocognitive impairment in older adults with either HIV infection or alcoholism, an increased understanding of their combined impact in the context of this increasingly aged population is crucial. Methods We conducted comprehensive neurocognitive assessment in 112 older HIV+ individuals aged 50 to 69 years. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the interaction between age and the presence of lifetime alcohol dependence on neurocognitive measures, controlling for years of education, hepatitis C serostatus, and lifetime non-alcohol substance use disorder. Results Significant interactions of age and alcohol dependence history were found for global neurocognitive function, which was driven by the domains of executive function, processing speed, and semantic memory. Follow-up analyses indicated adverse effects of alcohol use history on neurocognitive measures that were evident only in HIV+ individuals 60 years and older. Conclusions While mounting evidence in younger cohorts indicates adverse synergistic HIV/alcohol effects on neurocognitive function, our novel preliminary findings in this elderly HIV+ cohort demonstrated the importance of even a relatively distant alcohol use history on the expression of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders that may not become apparent until much later in life. PMID:25201556

  13. Individual privacy in an information dependent society

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, B.P.

    1994-12-31

    The extraordinary technologies and capabilities of the Information Age have vastly improved communication, while allowing executives to have ultra-current information about their companies, subsidiaries, staff, clients, and practically any individual in the world. These advances, however, have stripped the individual of his privacy. Although invasions of privacy do not require a computer, computers have made it much easier to gather and select informatin, which means that it is also much easier to invade privacy. The increased value of information to policy makers leads them to covet information, even when acquiring it invades someone`s pricacy; not only do managers of private companies gather personal data, almost every citizen has files about him in Federal agencies and administrations.

  14. Alcohol consumption among Chilean adolescents: Examining individual, peer, parenting and environmental factors

    PubMed Central

    Sanhueza, Guillermo E.; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined whether adolescents from Santiago, Chile who had never drunk alcohol differed from those who had drunk alcohol but who had never experienced an alcohol-related problem, as well as from those who had drunk and who had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem on a number of variables from four domains - individual, peers, parenting, and environmental. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Community based sample. Participants 909 adolescents from Santiago, Chile. Measurements Data were analyzed with multinomial logistic regression to compare adolescents who had never drunk alcohol (non-drinkers) with i) those that had drunk but who had experienced no alcohol-related problems (non-problematic drinkers) and ii) those who had drunk alcohol and had experienced at least one alcohol-related problem (problematic drinkers). The analyses included individual, peer, parenting, and environmental factors while controlling for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Findings Compared to non-drinkers, both non-problematic and problematic drinkers were older, reported having more friends who drank alcohol, greater exposure to alcohol ads, lower levels of parental monitoring, and more risk-taking behaviors. In addition, problematic drinkers placed less importance on religious faith to make daily life decisions and had higher perceptions of neighborhood crime than non-drinkers. Conclusions Prevention programs aimed at decreasing problematic drinking could benefit from drawing upon adolescents’ spiritual sources of strength, reinforcing parental tools to monitor their adolescents, and improving environmental and neighborhood conditions. PMID:24465290

  15. Are childhood externalizing disorders the harbinger of early-onset alcohol dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Abhishek; Malhotra, Savita; Basu, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The subtyping of alcohol dependence (AD) into early-onset (EO) and late-onset (LO) subgroups has been shown to have clinical and biological validity. As externalizing disorders (EDs) predate AD, the link of ED with age of onset of alcohol dependence needs to be investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of EDs such as disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with age at onset of AD in a sample of male subjects. Methods: One hundred consecutive male subjects with AD presenting to the De-Addiction Services and an equal number of biologically unrelated non-substance-dependent control subjects were included in the study. The AD subjects were divided into EO (age of onset of AD ≤25 yr; n = 21) and LO (age of onset of AD >25 yr; n = 79). Subjects were examined for evidence of DBD and ADHD in childhood, and current ADHD using structured instruments such as Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetic of Alcoholism-IV (SSAGA-IV) and Kiddie – SADS – Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL). The odds ratio of association of EDs with EO and LO AD was calculated by comparing these subgroups with the biologically unrelated control group. Later, both the subgroups of alcohol dependence were compared for the presence of EDs. Results: All EDs (DBDs/childhood or adult ADHD) were more common in AD individuals as compared to the controls. However, when AD subgroups were compared with controls, the association of DBDs and ADHD reached a significant level only in the EO subgroup. A comparison of EO and LO AD showed that more EO individuals had history of both childhood disruptive disorder and ADHD compared to LO subgroup. Adult ADHD was also over-represented in EO subgroup. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed more EDs in alcohol dependent individuals compared to controls. Further, the association observed between EDs and EO alcohol dependence points towards a developmental

  16. [Impulsivity and decision making in alcohol-addicted individuals].

    PubMed

    Kałwa, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Decision making processes are the research problem, that has been increasingly undertaken. Alcohol addiction is a disease associated with unfavorable decision making, in spite of its negative consequences. Impulsivity plays an important role in alcoholics' decision making. It can be understood in terms of behavioral and/or cognitive flexibility disorders, that manifest in cognitive function disorders, making it difficult or even impossible to quickly and adequately assess the situation and to adjust behavior according to its requirements.. Neurobiological and genetic research indicate the existing relationship between impulsivity and certain genetic predisposition. In alcohol addicts, impulsivity can be understood also in terms of specific personality traits, e.g. novelty seeking according to the theory of Cloninger. Although the concept of impulsivity itself has been the main topic of many studies, not many of them concern also decision making processes. In studies concerning alcoholics' decision making, the relationship between this processes and behavioral impulsivity defined in many different ways, has been noticed. Some of these works define unfavorable decision making processes itself as a feature of impulsivity. Based on the results of theoretical works and research studies, it seems that it would be worth to define more precisely the concept of impulsivity, in order to determine its effect on decision making. The assessment of whether - and to what extent - the two variables (impulsivity and decision making) can be considered as separate should also be taken into account.

  17. Metacognitive and Meta-Emotional Styles in Patients With Alcohol and the Other Substance Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ipek, Okan Ufuk; Yavuz, Kaasim Fatih; Ulusoy, Sevinc; Sahin, Oktay; Kurt, Erhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Both alcohol and other substances are utilized for emotional and cognitive regulation. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to compare metacognitive styles and distress intolerance in patients with alcohol and other substance dependence. Patients and Methods: According to DSM-IV TR criteria, 45 patients with alcohol dependence (AD), 44 patients with substance dependence (SD), and 43 volunteers without AD or SD (control group) were enrolled. Socio-demographic information form, Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and metacognitive questionaire-30 (MCQ-30) were used to evaluate the participants. Results: Patients with AD had significantly lower “tolerance” subscale and total DTS scores than those with SD and control group (P = 0.008 for SD sample and P = 0.004 for control group). Patients with SD had significantly higher scores in “appraisal” subscale DTS than control group (P = 0.005). Patients of both AD and SD groups had significantly higher scores in “positive beliefs” subscale of MCQ-30 than control group (P = 0.012 for AD group and P = 0. 001 for SD group). There was no significant difference between AD and SD groups in any MCQ-30 subscale and total scores (P = 0.440). Conclusions: Metacognitive regulation strategies are more considerable prediction than emotional regulation strategies in SD group than in AD group. Individuals with AD use alcohol as a means of both cognitive and emotional regulation strategy. PMID:26495260

  18. Predictive Models of Alcohol Use Based on Attitudes and Individual Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo Rodríguez, José A. García; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Soler, M. Carmen Quiles; Del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Pertusa, Mónica Gázquez; Campos, Juan Carlos Marzo; Inglés, Cándido J.

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people' attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The…

  19. Cue Reactivity Is Associated with Duration and Severity of Alcohol Dependence: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; van den Brink, Wim; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction With the progression of substance dependence, drug cue-related brain activation is thought to shift from motivational towards habit pathways. However, a direct association between cue-induced brain activation and dependence duration has not yet been shown. We therefore examined the relationship between alcohol cue-reactivity in the brain, cue-induced subjective craving and alcohol dependence duration and severity. Since alcohol dependence is highly comorbid with depression/anxiety, which may modulate brain responses to alcohol cues, we also examined the relation between comorbid depression/anxiety and cue-reactivity. Methods We compared 30 alcohol dependent patients with 15 healthy controls and 15 depression/anxiety patients during a visual alcohol cue-reactivity task using functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenated level-dependent responses and subjective craving as outcomes. Within the alcohol dependent group we correlated cue-reactivity with alcohol dependence severity and duration, with cue-induced craving and with depression/anxiety levels. Results Alcohol dependent patients showed greater cue-reactivity in motivational brain pathways and stronger subjective craving than depression/anxiety patients and healthy controls. Depression/anxiety was not associated with cue-reactivity, but depression severity in alcohol dependent patients was positively associated with craving. Within alcohol dependence, longer duration of alcohol dependence was associated with stronger cue-related activation of the posterior putamen, a structure involved in habits, whereas higher alcohol dependence severity was associated with lower cue-reactivity in the anterior putamen, an area implicated in goal-directed behavior preceding habit formation. Conclusion Cue-reactivity in alcohol dependence is not modulated by comorbid depression or anxiety. More importantly, the current data confirm the hypothesis of a ventral to dorsal striatal shift of learning processes

  20. High-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence (BACLAD study): a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian A; Geisel, Olga; Pelz, Patricia; Higl, Verena; Krüger, Josephine; Stickel, Anna; Beck, Anne; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Hellweg, Rainer; Heinz, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Previous randomized, placebo-controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of the selective γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-B receptor agonist baclofen in the treatment of alcohol dependence have reported divergent results, possibly related to the low to medium dosages of baclofen used in these studies (30-80mg/d). Based on preclinical observations of a dose-dependent effect and positive case reports in alcohol-dependent patients, the present RCT aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of individually titrated high-dose baclofen for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Out of 93 alcohol-dependent patients initially screened, 56 were randomly assigned to a double-blind treatment with individually titrated baclofen or placebo using dosages of 30-270mg/d. The multiple primary outcome measures were (1) total abstinence and (2) cumulative abstinence duration during a 12-week high-dose phase. More patients of the baclofen group maintained total abstinence during the high-dose phase than those receiving placebo (15/22, 68.2% vs. 5/21, 23.8%, p=0.014). Cumulative abstinence duration was significantly higher in patients given baclofen compared to patients of the placebo group (mean 67.8 (SD 30) vs. 51.8 (SD 29.6) days, p=0.047). No drug-related serious adverse events were observed during the trial. Individually titrated high-dose baclofen effectively supported alcohol-dependent patients in maintaining alcohol abstinence and showed a high tolerability, even in the event of relapse. These results provide further evidence for the potential of baclofen, thereby possibly extending the current pharmacological treatment options in alcohol dependence.

  1. High-dose naltrexone therapy for cocaine-alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Green, Charles E; Herin, David V; Stotts, Angela L; Moeller, F Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study compared the effects of high-dose (100 mg/d) naltrexone versus placebo in a sample of 87 randomized subjects with both cocaine and alcohol dependence. Medication conditions were crossed with two behavioral therapy platforms that examined whether adding contingency management (CM) that targeted cocaine abstinence would enhance naltrexone effects compared to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) without CM. Primary outcome measures for cocaine (urine screens) and alcohol use (timeline followback) were collected thrice-weekly during 12 weeks of treatment. Retention in treatment and medication compliance rates were low. Rates of cocaine use and drinks per day did not differ between treatment groups; however naltrexone did reduce frequency of heavy drinking days, as did CBT without CM. Notably, adding CM to CBT did not enhance treatment outcomes. These weak findings suggest that pharmacological and behavioral interventions that have shown efficacy in the treatment of a single drug dependence disorder may not provide the coverage needed when targeting dual drug dependence.

  2. Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.

    PubMed

    Franck, Johan; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2013-08-01

    The efficacy of medications for alcohol dependence remains modest, and there are no strong clinical predictors of treatment response. Approved medications include acamprosate (an N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA) modulator), disulfiram (an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and naltrexone (an opioid antagonist) while nalmefene (an opioid antagonist) is currently under review for approval in Europe. Clinical trials suggest that baclofen (a GABA-B agonist) and topiramate (an anticonvulsant) may be promising candidates, while several other drug candidates are currently evaluated at early clinical stages.

  3. Predictive models of alcohol use based on attitudes and individual values.

    PubMed

    García del Castillo Rodríguez, José A; López-Sánchez, Carmen; Quiles Soler, M Carmen; García del Castillo-López, Alvaro; Gázquez Pertusa, Mónica; Marzo Campos, Juan Carlos; Inglés, Candido J

    2013-01-01

    Two predictive models are developed in this article: the first is designed to predict people's attitudes to alcoholic drinks, while the second sets out to predict the use of alcohol in relation to selected individual values. University students (N = 1,500) were recruited through stratified sampling based on sex and academic discipline. The questionnaire used obtained information on participants' alcohol use, attitudes and personal values. The results show that the attitudes model correctly classifies 76.3% of cases. Likewise, the model for level of alcohol use correctly classifies 82% of cases. According to our results, we can conclude that there are a series of individual values that influence drinking and attitudes to alcohol use, which therefore provides us with a potentially powerful instrument for developing preventive intervention programs.

  4. Associations Between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Emotion Dysregulation, and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms Among Inner City Females

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Brittany; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine how emotion dysregulation (ED) might help explain the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms in females. Method Participants included 260 women from primary, diabetes, and gynecological clinics of an urban public hospital. This is a primarily African American sample (96.9%), including individuals reporting exposure to at least 1 traumatic event. We examined the associations and predictability patterns between severity of PTSD symptoms, ED, and AD symptoms. Results Using linear regression analyses, PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms and ED were significant predictors of AD symptoms. When looking at specific dimensions of ED, one's inability to engage in goal‐directed behavior under strong emotional influences showed a full indirect effect on the relationship between PTSD avoidance and numbing symptoms and AD symptoms. Conclusion Our findings suggest that having poor emotion regulation skills may help explain why females with PTSD become dependent on alcohol. PMID:27467499

  5. Below and beyond the recognition of emotional facial expressions in alcohol dependence: from basic perception to social cognition.

    PubMed

    D'Hondt, Fabien; Campanella, Salvatore; Kornreich, Charles; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Studies that have carried out experimental evaluation of emotional skills in alcohol-dependence have, up to now, been mainly focused on the exploration of emotional facial expressions (EFE) decoding. In the present paper, we provide some complements to the recent systematic literature review published by Donadon and de Lima Osório on this crucial topic. We also suggest research avenues that must be, in our opinion, considered in the coming years. More precisely, we propose, first, that a battery integrating a set of emotional tasks relating to different processes should be developed to better systemize EFE decoding measures in alcohol-dependence. Second, we propose to go below EFE recognition deficits and to seek for the roots of those alterations, particularly by investigating the putative role played by early visual processing and vision-emotion interactions in the emotional impairment observed in alcohol-dependence. Third, we insist on the need to go beyond EFE recognition deficits by suggesting that they only constitute a part of wider emotional deficits in alcohol-dependence. Importantly, since the efficient decoding of emotions is a crucial ability for the development and maintenance of satisfactory interpersonal relationships, we suggest that disruption of this ability in alcohol-dependent individuals may have adverse consequences for their social integration. One way to achieve this research agenda would be to develop the field of affective and social neuroscience of alcohol-dependence, which could ultimately lead to major advances at both theoretical and therapeutic levels.

  6. Alcohol Drinking Pattern: A Comparison between HIV-Infected Patients and Individuals from the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Maria Leticia R.; Barcellos, Nemora T.; Alencastro, Paulo R.; Wolff, Fernando H.; Moreira, Leila B.; Gus, Miguel; Brandão, Ajacio B. M.; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is highly prevalent in the general population and among HIV-infected population. This study aimed to compare the pattern of alcohol consumption and to describe characteristics associated with heavy alcohol consumption in individuals from the general population with patients infected with HIV. Methods Participants for this analysis came from a population-based cross-sectional study and from a consecutive sampling of patients infected with HIV. Participants aged 18 years or older were interviewed using similar questionnaires with questions pertaining to socio-demographic characteristics, alcohol consumption, smoking, physical activity, and HIV-related characteristics, among others. Blood pressure and anthropometric measures were measured using standardized procedures. Results Weekly alcohol consumption was more prevalent among individuals from the general population than HIV-infected patients: 57.0 vs. 31.1%, P<0.001. The prevalence of heavy episodic drinking was higher in the population sample as well: 46.1 vs. 17.0%, P<0.001. In the general population, heavy alcohol consumption was more prevalent in men. Cigarette smoking was independently associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV infected (Prevalence Ratio; PR = 5.9; 95%CI 2.6–13.9; P<0,001) and general population (PR = 2.6; 95%CI 1.9–3.0; P<0.001). Years at school were inversely associated with heavy alcohol consumption among HIV-infected patients and directly associated among participants from the general population, even after controlling for sex, age, skin color, and smoking. Conclusions Heavy alcohol consumption is more prevalent in the general population than among HIV-infected patients. Individuals aware about their disease may reduce the amount of alcoholic beverages consumption comparatively to healthy individuals from the general population. PMID:27362541

  7. Intervention for individuals with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: treatment approaches and case management.

    PubMed

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some individuals with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) do not meet the full criteria for FAS, but instead are diagnosed with partial FAS, alcohol related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND), or alcohol related birth defects (ARBD). The entire continuum of effects from PAE is increasingly being referred to under the umbrella term of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). An extensive body of research has documented major cognitive, behavioral, adaptive, social, and emotional impairments among individuals with FASDs. Although FAS was identified in the U.S. over 35 years ago, the development, evaluation, and dissemination of evidence-based interventions for individuals with FASDs have lagged behind significantly. Encouragingly, however, in recent years there has been a marked increase in efforts to design and test interventions to remediate the impairments associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. This article will review treatment needs and considerations for individuals with FASDs and their families, current empirically tested treatment approaches, case management issues, and suggestions for future directions in research on the treatment of FASDs.

  8. A new definition of early age at onset in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Le Strat, Yann; Grant, Bridget F.; Ramoz, Nicolas; Gorwood, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Objective The accurate cut-off of an early onset of alcohol dependence is unknown. The objectives of this analysis are (1) to confirm that ages at onset variability in alcohol dependence is best described as a two sub-groups entity, (2) to define the most appropriate cut-off, and (3) to test the relevancy of such distinction. Method Data were drawn the Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). This study focused on the 4,782 adults with lifetime alcohol dependence. Results The best-fit model distinguished two subgroups of age at onset of alcohol dependence, with a cut-off point at 22 years. Subjects with an earlier onset of alcohol dependence (≤22 years old) reported higher lifetime rates of specific phobia, antisocial behaviors and nearly all addictive disorders. Conclusions The early onset of alcohol dependence is best defined as beginning before the age of 22 years. PMID:20018459

  9. Alcohol-Dependent Liver Cell Necrosis in vitro: A New Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Francis A. X.; Zucker, Amy H.; Farber, John L.; Rubin, Emanuel

    1981-04-01

    In alcoholic liver injury, necrosis is involved in the progression from benign fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. However, there is no practical model of alcohol-dependent liver cell necrosis. The calcium-dependent killing of cultured rat hepatocytes by two different membrane-active hepatotoxins, galactosamine and phalloidin, is potentiated by ethyl alcohol. This indicates that some general physical effect of alcohol on cellular membranes renders cells susceptible to otherwise nonlethal injuries. The in vitro model described in this report may thus be used to search for a general mechanism underlying alcohol-related tissue injury.

  10. Individual susceptibility to Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome and alcoholism-induced cognitive deficit: impaired thiamine utilization found in alcoholics and alcohol abusers.

    PubMed

    Heap, Laura C; Pratt, Oliver E; Ward, Roberta J; Waller, Seta; Thomson, Allan D; Shaw, G Ken; Peters, Timothy J

    2002-12-01

    To investigate mechanisms predisposing to alcoholic brain damage, thiamine (vitamin B1 ), riboflavin (vitamin B2 ) and pyridoxine (vitamin B6 ) status was compared in persistent alcohol misusers (PAM) admitted for detoxification without evidence of significant brain damage, in alcoholics known to have severe chronic brain damage (BDAM), and in age, gender and ethnicity matched controls. Thus, activities of thiamine-dependent transketolase (ETK), riboflavin-dependent glutathione reductase, and pyridoxine-dependent aspartate amino transferase were assayed, together with the enzyme activities following addition of the appropriate co-factor. Twenty per cent of the PAM group had an abnormally low ETK activity and an abnormally high activation ratio, while 45% were abnormal in either one or both parameters. An additional 10% of the PAM group had an abnormally high activation ratio but normal ETK activity, as did 30% of the BDAM group. These subgroups of alcohol misusers may have increased requirements for thiamine secondary to an abnormality of the transketolase protein that may predispose such patients to alcoholic brain damage. There was no evidence of riboflavin or pyridoxine deficiency in either of the patient groups. We conclude that thiamine deficiency was commonly present in the alcoholic patients, and that a subgroup of patients may be predisposed to more severe brain damage as a consequence of abnormalities in the transketolase protein.

  11. Assertive Community Treatment For People With Alcohol Dependence: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilburt, Helen; Burns, Tom; Copello, Alex; Crawford, Michael; Day, Ed; Deluca, Paolo; Godfrey, Christine; Parrott, Steve; Rose, Abigail; Sinclair, Julia; Coulton, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of assertive community treatment (ACT) in adults with alcohol dependence. Methods Single blind, individually randomized, pilot RCT of 12 months of ACT plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone in adults (age 18+ years) with alcohol dependence and a history of previous unsuccessful alcohol treatment attending specialist community alcohol treatment services. ACT aimed to actively engage participants for 12 months with assertive, regular, minimum weekly contact. ACT was combined with TAU. TAU comprised access to the full range of services provided by the community teams. Primary outcome is mean drinks per drinking day and percent days abstinent at 12 months follow up. Analysis of covariance was conducted using 80% confidence intervals, appropriate in the context of a pilot trial. Results A total of 94 participants were randomized, 45 in ACT and 49 in TAU. Follow-up was achieved with 98 and 88%, respectively at 12 months. Those in ACT had better treatment engagement, and were more often seen in their homes or local community than TAU participants. At 12 months the ACT group had more problems related to drinking and lower quality of life than TAU but no differences in drinking measures. The ACT group had a higher percentage of days abstinent but lower quality of life at 6 months. The ACT group had less unplanned healthcare use than TAU. Conclusions An trial of ACT was feasible to implement in an alcohol dependent treatment population. Trial registration ISRCTN22775534 PMID:27940571

  12. The Cumulative Effects of Acute Alcohol Consumption, Individual Differences and Situational Perceptions on Sexual Decision Making*

    PubMed Central

    ABBEY, ANTONIA; SAENZ, CHRISTOPHER; BUCK, PHILIP O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Past alcohol administration research has produced mixed findings regarding the role of acute alcohol consumption on sexual decision making. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a more complex theoretical model that places alcohol's acute effects in context, through the inclusion of background measures as well as affective and cognitive responses to the specific situation. Method College students (90 men, 90 women) completed a survey that included measures of individual difference characteristics and past experiences; approximately 1 month later, they participated in an alcohol administration study. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three drink conditions (sober, placebo, alcohol), after which they read a story about a couple that wanted to have sex, but had no condoms available. Results In hierarchical multiple regression analyses, acute alcohol consumption significantly predicted participants’ perceived likelihood that they would have sex without a condom in such a situation; an earlier step included gender, impulsivity, self-reported alcohol expectancies, frequency of heavy drinking, lifetime number of sexual partners and frequency of condom use. There was no significant effect associated with the expectancy that one had consumed alcohol. Neither was there a significant interaction between drink condition and self-reported alcohol expectancies. Conclusions Through the inclusion of measures of individual differences and responses to the specific situation, this study provides a more nuanced understanding of the factors that affect college students’ sexual decision making, compared with laboratory studies that examine the effects of acute alcohol consumption in isolation. Alcohol consumption explained a significant yet relatively small amount of variance. Researchers need to consider the broader context to understand how intoxication influences sexual decision making. PMID:15830907

  13. Deficits in Emotion-Regulation Skills Predict Alcohol Use during and after Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berking, Matthias; Margraf, Matthias; Ebert, David; Wupperman, Peggilee; Hofmann, Stefan G.; Junghanns, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Objective: As emotion regulation is widely considered to be a primary motive in the misuse of alcohol, our aim in the study was to investigate whether deficits in adaptive emotion-regulation skills maintain alcohol dependence (AD). Method: A prospective study investigated whether emotion-regulation skills were associated with AD and whether these…

  14. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Buck, Cara L; Malavar, Jordan C; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2014-09-01

    Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol's stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning.

  15. Alcoholics anonymous involvement and positive alcohol-related outcomes: cause, consequence, or just a correlate? A prospective 2-year study of 2,319 alcohol-dependent men.

    PubMed

    McKellar, John; Stewart, Eric; Humphreys, Keith

    2003-04-01

    A positive corelation between Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) involvement and better alcohol-related outcomes has been identified in research studies, but whether this correlation reflects a causal relationship remains a subject of meaningful debate. The present study evaluated the question of whether AA affiliation appears causally related to positive alcohol-related outcomes in a sample of 2,319 male alcohol-dependent patients. An initial structural equation model indicated that 1-year posttreatment levels of AA affiliation predicted lower alcohol-related problems at 2-year follow-up, whereas level of alcohol-related problems at 1-year did not predict AA affiliation at 2-year follow-up. Additional models found that these effects were not attributable to motivation or psychopathology. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that AA participation has a positive effect on alcohol-related outcomes.

  16. The Effectiveness of Brief Intervention among Injured Patients with Alcohol Dependence: Who Benefits from Brief Interventions?

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Background Research investigating the differential effectiveness of Brief Motivational Interventions (BMI) among alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients in the medical setting is limited. Clinical guidelines suggest that BMI is most appropriate for patients with less severe alcohol problems. As a result, most studies evaluating the effectiveness of BMI have excluded patients with an indication of alcohol dependence. Methods A randomized controlled trial of brief intervention in the trauma care setting comparing BMI to treatment as usual plus assessment (TAU+) was conducted. Alcohol dependence status was determined for 1336 patients using DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The differential effectiveness of BMI among alcohol dependent and non-dependent patients was determined with regard to volume per week, maximum amount consumed, percent days abstinent, alcohol problems at six and 12 month follow up. In addition, the effect of BMI on dependence status at six and 12 months was determined. Results There was a consistent interaction between BMI and alcohol dependence status, which indicated significantly higher reductions in volume per week at six and twelve month follow up (β=−.56, p=.03, β=−.63, p=.02, respectively), maximum amount at six months (β=−.31, p=.04), and significant decreases in percent days abstinent at twelve months (β=.11, p=.007) and alcohol problems at twelve months (β=−2.7, p12=.04) among patients with alcohol dependence receiving BMI. In addition, patients with alcohol dependence at baseline that received BMI were .59 (95% CI=.39–.91) times less likely to meet criteria for alcohol dependence at six months. Conclusions These findings suggest that BMI is more beneficial among patients with alcohol dependence who screen positive for an alcohol related injury. PMID:20493644

  17. Subpopulations of Older Foster Youths With Differential Risk of Diagnosis for Alcohol Abuse or Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Thomas E.; Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Distinctive combinations of factors are likely to be associated with serious alcohol problems among adolescents about to emancipate from the foster care system and face the difficult transition to independent adulthood. This study identifies particular subpopulations of older foster youths that differ markedly in the probability of a lifetime diagnosis for alcohol abuse or dependence. Method: Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to a large, representative sample (N = 732) of individuals, 17 years of age or older, placed in the child welfare system for more than 1 year. CART evaluated two exploratory sets of variables for optimal splits into groups distinguished from each other on the criterion of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Results: Each classification tree yielded four terminal groups with different rates of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Notable groups in the first tree included one characterized by high levels of both delinquency and violence exposure (53% diagnosed) and another that featured lower delinquency but an independent-living placement (21% diagnosed). Notable groups in the second tree included African American adolescents (only 8% diagnosed), White adolescents not close to caregivers (40% diagnosed), and White adolescents closer to caregivers but with a history of psychological abuse (36% diagnosed). Conclusions: Analyses incorporating variables that could be comorbid with or symptomatic of alcohol problems, such as delinquency, yielded classifications potentially useful for assessment and service planning. Analyses without such variables identified other factors, such as quality of caregiving relationships and maltreatment, associated with serious alcohol problems, suggesting opportunities for prevention or intervention. PMID:20946738

  18. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Cara L.; Malavar, Jordan C.; George, Olivier; Koob, George F.; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.

    2014-01-01

    Rats emit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol’s stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50 kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50 kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50 kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50 kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50 kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. PMID:24914463

  19. Meta-analysis of depression and substance use among individuals with alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Pinquart, Martin; Gamble, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationships of depression with alcohol and drug use and impairment were examined. Additional analyses were conducted to examine moderators of these associations. Empirical reports on adults with alcohol abuse or dependence published in English in peer-reviewed journals since 1986 that contained data on depression and substance use variable(s) were obtained using a systematic search. The search yielded 74 studies including 58 reports from clinical venues, 10 that were community-based, and 6 with subjects from both settings. As hypothesized, the analyses showed that depression is associated with concurrent alcohol use and impairment and drug use and impairment. Effect sizes were small. Depression was also related to future alcohol use and impairment, an earlier age of onset of an AUD, and higher treatment participation. Age moderated the association between depression and alcohol use and impairment such that the association was stronger in older samples. PMID:19150207

  20. Problematic alcohol use among individuals with HIV: relations with everyday memory functioning and HIV symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Adrienne J; Fogler, Kethera A; Newcomb, Michael E; Trafton, Jodie A; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2014-07-01

    Problematic alcohol use has been shown to negatively impact cognitive functions germane to achieving optimal HIV health outcomes. The present study, a secondary data analysis, examined the impact of problematic alcohol use on aspects of everyday memory functioning in a sample of 172 HIV-infected individuals (22 % female; Mage = 48.37 years, SD = 8.64; 39 % Black/non-Hispanic). Additionally, we tested whether self-reported memory functioning explained the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. Results indicated that problematic patterns of alcohol use were associated with lower total memory functioning, retrieval (e.g., recall-difficulty) and memory for activity (e.g., what you did yesterday) and greater HIV symptom severity. Memory functioning mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and HIV symptom severity. However, the direction of this relation was unclear as HIV symptom severity also mediated the relation between problematic alcohol use and memory functioning. Findings highlight the importance of integrated care for HIV and alcohol use disorders and suggest that routine alcohol and cognitive screenings may bolster health outcomes among this vulnerable population.

  1. Neuroimaging Insights into the Role of Cortical GABA Systems and the Influence of Nicotine on the Recovery from Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cosgrove, Kelly P.; Esterlis, Irina; Mason, Graeme F.; Bois, Frederic; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Krystal, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews evidence suggesting that nicotine and tobacco smoke profoundly modulate the effects of alcohol on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neuronal function, specifically at the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor (GABAA-BZR). The focus of this paper is on recent neuroimaging evidence in preclinical models as well as clinical experiments. First, we review findings implicating the role of alcohol at the GABAA-BZR and discuss the changes in GABAA-BZR availability during acute and prolonged alcohol withdrawal. Second, we discuss preclinical evidence that suggests nicotine affects GABA neuronal function indirectly by a primary action at neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. Third, we show how this evidence converges in studies that examine GABA levels and GABAA-BZRs in alcohol-dependent smokers and nonsmokers, suggesting that tobacco smoking attenuates the chemical changes that occur during alcohol withdrawal. Based on a comprehensive review of literature, we hypothesize that tobacco smoking minimizes the changes in GABA levels that typically occur during the acute cycles of drinking in alcohol-dependent individuals. Thus, during alcohol withdrawal, the continued tobacco smoking decreases the severity of the withdrawal-related changes in GABA chemistry. PMID:21276806

  2. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: Effects on neuropsychological performance

    PubMed Central

    ROTHLIND, JOHANNES C.; GREENFIELD, TANYA M.; BRUCE, ANNE V.; MEYERHOFF, DIETER J.; FLENNIKEN, DEREK L.; LINDGREN, JOSELYN A.; WEINER, MICHAEL W.

    2008-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV− controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV− light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV− heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV− light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease. PMID:15686610

  3. Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with HIV infection: effects on neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Rothlind, Johannes C; Greenfield, Tanya M; Bruce, Anne V; Meyerhoff, Dieter J; Flenniken, Derek L; Lindgren, Joselyn A; Weiner, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Higher rates of alcohol use have been reported in HIV+ individuals compared to the general population. Both heavy alcohol use and HIV infection are associated with increased risk of neuropsychological (NP) impairment. We examined effects of heavy active alcohol use and HIV on NP functioning in a large sample of community-residing HIV+ individuals and HIV- controls. The four main study groups included 72 HIV- light/non-drinkers, 70 HIV- heavy drinkers (>100 drinks per month), 70 HIV+ light/non-drinkers, and 56 HIV+ heavy drinkers. The heavy drinking group was further subdivided to assess effects of the heaviest levels of active alcohol use (>6 drinks per day) on NP functioning. A comprehensive NP battery was administered. Multivariate analysis of covariance was employed to examine the effect of HIV and alcohol on NP functioning after adjusting for group differences in age and estimated premorbid verbal intellectual functioning. The analyses identified main effects of heavy drinking and HIV on NP function, with greatest effects involving the contrast of HIV+ heavy drinkers and the HIV- light drinkers. Synergistic effects of heaviest current drinking and HIV infection were identified in analyses of motor and visuomotor speed. Supplementary analyses also revealed better NP function in the HIV+ group with antiretroviral treatment (ART) and lower level of viral burden, a finding that was consistent across levels of alcohol consumption. Finally, heavy alcohol use and executive functioning difficulties were associated with lower levels of self-reported medication adherence in the HIV+ group. The findings suggest that active heavy alcohol use and HIV infection have additive adverse effects on NP function, that they may show synergistic effects in circumstances of very heavy active alcohol use, and that heavy drinking and executive functioning may mediate health-related behaviors in HIV disease.

  4. How Imaging Glutamate, GABA, and Dopamine Can Inform the Clinical Treatment of Alcohol Dependence and Withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Hillmer, Ansel T.; Mason, Graeme F.; Fucito, Lisa M.; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Cosgrove, Kelly P.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have dramatically advanced our understanding of the neurochemical basis of alcohol dependence, a major public health issue. In this paper we review the research generated from neurochemical-specific imaging modalities including magnetic resonance spectrometry (MRS), positron emission tomography (PET), and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in studies of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. We focus on studies interrogating γ-aminobutryic acid (GABA), glutamate, and dopamine, as these are prominent neurotransmitter systems implicated in alcohol dependence. Highlighted findings include diminished dopaminergic functioning and modulation of the GABA system by tobacco smoking during alcohol withdrawal. Then, we consider how these findings impact the clinical treatment of alcohol dependence and discuss directions for future experiments to address existing gaps in the literature, e.g., sex differences and smoking comorbidity. These and other considerations provide opportunities to build upon the current neurochemistry imaging literature of alcohol dependence and withdrawal, which may usher in improved therapeutic and relapse prevention strategies. PMID:26510169

  5. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    PubMed Central

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2014-01-01

    Developing countries’ industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll’s COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and women (N = 186). Regression analyses indicated that both gender and COR loss predicted alcohol abuse and dependence. Additionally, results suggested that gender moderated the relationship between COR loss and alcohol dependence; such that higher COR loss scores predicted higher alcohol dependence for men, but COR loss scores did not predict alcohol dependence for women. Thus, we suggest that gender differences in substance abuse may be due less to actual differences in resource loss, but rather to gender differences in the response to resource loss. Limitations and opportunities for future research are discussed. PMID:24489525

  6. Permanent impairment of birth and survival of cortical and hippocampal proliferating cells following excessive drinking during alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Heather N.; Chan, Stephanie H.; Crawford, Elena F.; Lee, Youn Kyung; Funk, Cindy K.; Koob, George F.; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2009-01-01

    Experimenter-delivered alcohol decreases adult hippocampal neurogenesis, and hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. The present study used clinically relevant rodent models of nondependent limited access alcohol self-administration and excessive drinking during alcohol dependence (alcohol self-administration followed by intermittent exposure to alcohol vapors over several weeks) to compare alcohol-induced effects on cortical gliogenesis and hippocampal neurogenesis. Alcohol dependence, but not nondependent drinking, reduced proliferation and survival in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Apoptosis was reduced in both alcohol groups within the mPFC, which may reflect an initiation of a reparative environment following alcohol exposure as decreased proliferation was abolished after prolonged dependence. Reduced proliferation, differentiation, and neurogenesis was observed in the hippocampus of both alcohol groups, and prolonged dependence worsened the effects. Increased hippocampal apoptosis and neuronal degeneration following alcohol exposure suggests a loss in neuronal turnover and indicates that the hippocampal neurogenic niche is highly vulnerable to alcohol. PMID:19501165

  7. On the relationship between emotional state and abnormal unfairness sensitivity in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Brevers, Damien; Noël, Xavier; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Kornreich, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Recent empirical findings suggest that alcohol dependence is characterized by heightened sensitivity to unfairness during social transactions. The present study went a step further and aimed to ascertain whether this abnormal level of sensitivity to unfairness is underlined by an increased emotional reactivity. Twenty-six recently abstinent alcohol-dependent (AD) individuals and 32 controls performed an ultimatum game (UG), in which participants had to respond to take-it-or-leave-it offers, ranging from fair to unfair and made by a fictive proposer. Emotional state was recorded during UG offers presentation and was indexed by the amplitude of skin conductance response (SCR). Results showed that AD decided to reject unfair offers more frequently than their controls, confirming previous data. The proportion of rejected unfair UG offers was correlated with SCR, in the AD but not in the control group. This finding suggests that deciding to accept or reject unfair UG offers is influenced by arousal-affective activity in AD, but not in controls. Heightened emotional reactivity may have driven AD to punish the proposer rather than acting as a rational economic agent. An implication of present findings is that AD might have difficult to cope with unfair situations triggered by social interactions. Future studies are needed in order to examine whether—emotional and behavioral—reactivity to unfairness during the UG could impact alcohol consumption and relapse in AD. PMID:26217293

  8. Quantifying alcohol-related emergency admissions in a UK tertiary referral hospital: a cross-sectional study of chronic alcohol dependency and acute alcohol intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Vardy, J; Keliher, T; Fisher, J; Ritchie, F; Bell, C; Chekroud, M; Clarey, F; Blackwood, L; Barry, L; Paton, E; Clark, A; Connelly, R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Alcohol is responsible for a proportion of emergency admissions to hospital, with acute alcohol intoxication and chronic alcohol dependency (CAD) implicated. This study aims to quantify the proportion of hospital admissions through our emergency department (ED) which were thought by the admitting doctor to be (largely or partially) a result of alcohol consumption. Setting ED of a UK tertiary referral hospital. Participants All ED admissions occurring over 14 weeks from 1 September to 8 December 2012. Data obtained for 5497 of 5746 admissions (95.67%). Primary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions related to alcohol as defined by the admitting ED clinician. Secondary outcome measures Proportion of emergency admissions due to alcohol diagnosed with acute alcohol intoxication or CAD according to ICD-10 criteria. Results 1152 (21.0%, 95% CI 19.9% to 22.0%) of emergency admissions were thought to be due to alcohol. 74.6% of patients admitted due to alcohol had CAD, and significantly greater than the 26.4% with ‘Severe’ or ‘Very Severe’ acute alcohol intoxication (p<0.001). Admissions due to alcohol differed to admissions not due to alcohol being on average younger (45 vs 56 years, p<0.001) more often male (73.4% vs 45.1% males, p<0.001) and more likely to have a diagnosis synonymous with alcohol or related to recreational drug use, pancreatitis, deliberate self-harm, head injury, gastritis, suicidal ideation, upper gastrointestinal bleeds or seizures (p<0.001). An increase in admissions due to alcohol on Saturdays reflects a surge in admissions with acute alcohol intoxication above the weekly average (p=0.003). Conclusions Alcohol was thought to be implicated in 21% of emergency admissions in this cohort. CAD is responsible for a significantly greater proportion of admissions due to alcohol than acute intoxication. Interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related admissions must incorporate measures to tackle CAD. PMID:27324707

  9. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  10. An investigation of intra-individual variability in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD).

    PubMed

    Ali, Sheliza; Kerns, Kimberly A; Mulligan, Bryce P; Olson, Heather Carmichael; Astley, Susan J

    2017-03-16

    Intra-individual variability (IIV) is defined as systematic within-person variation in performance either across test sessions (e.g., test/retest performance on the same task) or in one session (e.g., variations in performance on multiple trials of a single task). Higher levels of IIV have been noted as a characteristic of neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder​ (ADHD), but IIV is yet to be investigated in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD is a term used to describe a range of conditions resulting from prenatal exposure to alcohol. As part of a comprehensive neuropsychological battery, four study groups (1. fetal alcohol syndrome/partial fetal alcohol syndrome; 2. static encephalopathy/alcohol exposed; 3. neurobehavioral disorder/alcohol exposed as diagnosed using the University of Washington FASD 4-Digit Code; 4. typically-developing (TD) age-matched children with no prenatal alcohol exposure) were administered measures of motor response and inhibitory control, attention, and adaptive behavior. The results indicate increased levels of IIV in those with FASD compared to the TD controls. It was found that IIV uniquely contributes to predicting adaptive behavior above and beyond attention, while attention partially mediates the relationship between IIV and adaptive behavior. This is the first study to the authors' knowledge to show the presence of increased IIV in children with FASD. It additionally provides evidence that IIV measures some inherent variability in performance independent of poor attention in children with FASD.

  11. Targeting Dynorphin/Kappa Opioid Receptor Systems to Treat Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Brendan M.; Valdez, Glenn R.; McLaughlin, Jay P.; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2012-01-01

    This review represents the focus of a symposium that was presented at the “Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies” conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3–6, 2011 and organized / chaired by Dr. Brendan M. Walker. The primary goal of the symposium was to evaluate and disseminate contemporary findings regarding the emerging role of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligands dynorphins (DYNs) in the regulation of escalated alcohol consumption, negative affect and cognitive dysfunction associated with alcohol dependence, as well as DYN / KOR mediation of the effects of chronic stress on alcohol reward and seeking behaviors. Dr. Glenn Valdez described a role for KORs in the anxiogenic effects of alcohol withdrawal. Dr. Jay McLaughlin focused on the role of KORs in repeated stress-induced potentiation of alcohol reward and increased alcohol consumption. Dr. Brendan Walker presented data characterizing the effects of KOR antagonism within the extended amygdala on withdrawal-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration in dependent animals. Dr. Georgy Bakalkin concluded with data indicative of altered DYNs and KORs in the prefrontal cortex of alcohol dependent humans that could underlie diminished cognitive performance. Collectively, the data presented within this symposium identified the multifaceted contribution of KORs to the characteristics of acute and chronic alcohol-induced behavioral dysregulation and provided a foundation for the development of pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat certain aspects of alcohol use disorders. PMID:22459870

  12. Targeting dynorphin/kappa opioid receptor systems to treat alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brendan M; Valdez, Glenn R; McLaughlin, Jay P; Bakalkin, Georgy

    2012-06-01

    This review represents the focus of a symposium that was presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3-6, 2011 and organized/chaired by Dr. Brendan M. Walker. The primary goal of the symposium was to evaluate and disseminate contemporary findings regarding the emerging role of kappa-opioid receptors (KORs) and their endogenous ligands dynorphins (DYNs) in the regulation of escalated alcohol consumption, negative affect and cognitive dysfunction associated with alcohol dependence, as well as DYN/KOR mediation of the effects of chronic stress on alcohol reward and seeking behaviors. Dr. Glenn Valdez described a role for KORs in the anxiogenic effects of alcohol withdrawal. Dr. Jay McLaughlin focused on the role of KORs in repeated stress-induced potentiation of alcohol reward and increased alcohol consumption. Dr. Brendan Walker presented data characterizing the effects of KOR antagonism within the extended amygdala on withdrawal-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration in dependent animals. Dr. Georgy Bakalkin concluded with data indicative of altered DYNs and KORs in the prefrontal cortex of alcohol dependent humans that could underlie diminished cognitive performance. Collectively, the data presented within this symposium identified the multifaceted contribution of KORs to the characteristics of acute and chronic alcohol-induced behavioral dysregulation and provided a foundation for the development of pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat certain aspects of alcohol use disorders.

  13. Oral health of substance-dependent individuals: impact of specific substances.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Meredith M; Cheng, Debbie M; Kressin, Nancy R; Jones, Judith; Samet, Jeffrey H; Winter, Michael; Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Little is known about how different types of substances affect oral health. Our objective was to examine the respective effects of alcohol, stimulants, opioids, and marijuana on oral health in substance-dependent persons. Using self-reported data from 563 substance-dependent individuals, we found that most reported unsatisfactory oral health, with their most recent dental visit more than 1 year ago. In multivariable logistic regressions, none of the substance types were significantly associated with oral health status. However, opioid use was significantly related to a worse overall oral health rating compared to 1 year ago. These findings highlight the poor oral health of individuals with substance dependence and the need to address declining oral health among opioid users. General health and specialty addiction care providers should be aware of oral health problems among these patients. In addition, engagement into addiction and medical care may be facilitated by addressing oral health concerns.

  14. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability (as described in §...

  16. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  17. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  18. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  19. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 416.936... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

  20. A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Disability and Its Correlates among Treatment Seeking Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh; Singh, Shalini; Modak, Tamonud; Sarkar, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alcohol use is a major risk factor for global disease burden, and excessive use leads to disability in the individual. This study aimed to assess the disability and its correlates among individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUDs). In addition, it assessed the quality of life measures in this population group. Methodology: A cross-sectional study on a sample (N = 62) from among treatment seekers for alcohol dependence. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria were used to assess disorder severity. The WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS) 2.0 and World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF were used to assess disability and quality of life, respectively. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, and linear regression analysis were used for comparative assessments. The level of statistical significance was kept at P < 0.05 for all the tests. Results: DSM-5 diagnosis of the individuals suggested a high severity of substance use disorder as an average of 8.8 (±1.8) criteria were fulfilled. WHODAS 2.0 revealed maximum disability in the domains of “participation in the society,” “household and work-related activities” and “cognitive functioning.” The quality of life measures indicate poor physical health, reduced work capacity, and cognitive dysfunction. A negative correlation was seen between the social dimensions of disability (getting along) and quality of life measures of psychological health (P = 0.026) and social relationships (P = 0.046), work domain of disability schedule and physical health score on quality of life evaluation (P = 0.001). Older age had greater impairment in the work domain (P = 0.040), and unemployment was associated with higher disability (P = 0.001). Unemployment and duration of alcohol use were the independent predictors of greater disability. Conclusions: Disability assessment using WHODAS 2.0 shows significant impairment in individuals with AUDs that is

  1. Variables involved in the cue modulation of the startle reflex in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Gabriel; Borrell, José; Jiménez, Mónica; Jurado, Rosa; Grüsser, Sabine M; Heinz, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Cue modulation of the startle reflex is a paradigm that has been used to understand the emotional mechanisms involved in alcohol dependence. Attenuation of the startle reflex has been demonstrated when alcohol-dependent subjects are exposed to alcohol-related stimuli. However, the role of clinical variables on the magnitude of this response is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between a number of clinical variables-severity of alcoholism, family history of alcoholism (FHA+), personality traits related to the sensitivity to reward-and the startle reflex response when subjects with alcohol dependence were viewing alcohol-related cues. After detoxification, 98 participants completed self-report instruments and had eye blink electromyograms measured to acoustic startle probes [100-millisecond burst of white noise at 95 dB(A)] while viewing alcohol-related pictures, and standardised appetitive, aversive and neutral control scenes. Ninety-eight healthy controls were also assessed with the same instruments. There were significant differences on alcohol-startle magnitude between patients and controls. Comparisons by gender showed that women perceived alcohol cues and appetitive cues more appetitive than men. Male and female patients showed more appetitive responses to alcohol cues when compared with their respective controls. Our patients showed an appetitive effect of alcohol cues that was positively related to severity of alcohol dependence, sensitivity to reward and a FHA+. The data confirmed that the pattern of the modulation of the acoustic startle reflex reveals appetitive effects of the alcohol cues and extended it to a variety of clinical variables.

  2. Meta-Analyses of ALDH2 and ADH1B with Alcohol Dependence in Asians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luczak, Susan E.; Glatt, Stephen J.; Wall, Tamara J.

    2006-01-01

    Meta-analyses were conducted to determine the magnitude of relationships between polymorphisms in 2 genes, ALDH2 and ADH1B, with alcohol dependence in Asians. For each gene, possession of 1 variant [asterisk]2 allele was protective against alcohol dependence, and possession of a 2nd [asterisk]2 allele did not offer significant additional…

  3. The Development of a Broad Spectrum Treatment for Patients with Alcohol Dependence in Early Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Longabaugh, Richard; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of alcohol dependence among Americans approach 14% (Read, Kahler, & Stevenson, 2001). Alcohol dependence was once considered among the most recalcitrant of problem behaviors, with only 20% to 30% attaining sustained abstinence (Hunt Barnett & Branch 1971). Although current definitions of treatment success now consider…

  4. Learning Disabilities in Alcohol-Dependent Adults: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Sharyn S.; Jasinski, Donald R.

    1990-01-01

    The study found that 40 percent of 25 adult alcoholics were found to have had special education, remedial services, or repeated grade failure concurrent with a familial history of alcoholism and current discrepancies indicative of learning disabilities. Results suggest that childhood learning disorders may be related to the development of…

  5. The risk for persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence: the role of childhood maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Jennifer C.; Stohl, Malka; Wall, Melanie M.; Keyes, Katherine M.; Goodwin, Renee D.; Skodol, Andrew E.; Krueger, Robert F.; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Alcohol and nicotine dependence are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality, especially when cases are persistent. The risk for alcohol and nicotine dependence is increased by childhood maltreatment. However, the influence of childhood maltreatment on dependence course is unknown, and is evaluated in the current study. Design Physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical and emotional neglect, were evaluated as predictors of persistent alcohol and nicotine dependence over three years of follow-up, with and without control for other childhood adversities. Setting National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants NESARC participants completing baseline and follow-up who met criteria at baseline for past-year alcohol dependence (n=1,172) and nicotine dependence (n=4,017). Measurements Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS) measures of alcohol/nicotine dependence, childhood maltreatment, and other adverse childhood experiences (e.g., parental divorce). Findings Controlling for demographics only, physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, and physical neglect, predicted three-year persistence of alcohol dependence (adjusted odds ratios [AORs]: 1.50–2.99, 95% CIs 1.04–4.68) and nicotine dependence (AORs: 1.37–1.74, 95% CIs 1.13–2.11). With other childhood adversities also controlled, maltreatment types remained predictive for alcohol persistence (AORs: 1.53–3.02, 95% CIs 1.07–4.71) and nicotine persistence (AORs: 1.35–1.72, 95% CIs 1.11–2.09). Further, a greater number of maltreatment types incrementally influenced persistence risk (AORs: 1.19–1.36, 95% CIs 1.11–1.56). Conclusions A history of childhood maltreatment predicts persistent adult alcohol and nicotine dependence. This association, robust to control for other childhood adversities, suggests that maltreatment (rather than a generally difficult childhood) affects the course of

  6. Supporting Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders:a Summary of Effective Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggie, Jennifer; Xu, Tingting

    2013-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a lifelong condition that significantly affects the individual's learning, development, behavior, family, and quality of life. Diagnosing children with this condition and providing effective supports is challenging for professionals because little intervention research has been performed with the…

  7. Cognitive Biases in Individuals with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability and Alcohol Use-Related Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Duijvenbode, Neomi; Didden, Robert; Voogd, Hubert; Korzilius, Hubert P. L. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of the present pilot study was to examine cognitive biases in individuals with mild to borderline ID and alcohol use-related problems. Participants (N = 57) performed the approach avoidance task, picture rating task and visual dot probe task, which was combined with eye-tracking methodology. They were admitted to a forensic setting…

  8. Individual versus Significant Other-Enhanced Brief Motivational Intervention for Alcohol in Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Apodaca, Timothy R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Magill, Molly; Gogineni, Aruna; Mello, Michael J.; Biffl, Walter L.; Cioffi, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Effects of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for heavy drinkers identified by alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits are mixed. The successes of including significant others (SOs) in behavioral treatment suggest that involving SOs in ED-delivered BMI might prove beneficial. This study investigated the relative efficacy of an SO-enhanced Motivational Intervention (SOMI) compared to an Individual Motivational Intervention (IMI) to address heavy drinking in emergency care settings. Method ED (n = 317) or trauma unit (n = 89) patients were randomly assigned to receive either an IMI or an SOMI and were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months for alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and perceived alcohol-specific SO support. Results GEE analyses showed consistent reductions over time for both alcohol consumption and consequences. At one-year follow up, the average reduction in total drinks consumed per week was greater for patients in the SOMI condition than the IMI condition. In SOMI, 9.4% more patients moved to within the national guidelines for weekly drinking than did IMI patients. Frequency of heavy drinking and negative alcohol consequences showed no differential effects of intervention. Conclusions Emergence of a modest treatment effect at 12 months suggests that SO involvement in the SOMI condition may have led to more sustained positive influence on patient drinking than in the IMI condition. Implications and limitations regarding SO involvement in brief treatment are discussed. PMID:25111430

  9. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M

    2014-10-21

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut-brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence.

  10. Intestinal permeability, gut-bacterial dysbiosis, and behavioral markers of alcohol-dependence severity

    PubMed Central

    Leclercq, Sophie; Matamoros, Sébastien; Cani, Patrice D.; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Jamar, François; Stärkel, Peter; Windey, Karen; Tremaroli, Valentina; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Verbeke, Kristin; de Timary, Philippe; Delzenne, Nathalie M.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence has traditionally been considered a brain disorder. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiota has recently been shown to be present in psychiatric disorders, which suggests the possibility of gut-to-brain interactions in the development of alcohol dependence. The aim of the present study was to explore whether changes in gut permeability are linked to gut-microbiota composition and activity in alcohol-dependent subjects. We also investigated whether gut dysfunction is associated with the psychological symptoms of alcohol dependence. Finally, we tested the reversibility of the biological and behavioral parameters after a short-term detoxification program. We found that some, but not all, alcohol-dependent subjects developed gut leakiness, which was associated with higher scores of depression, anxiety, and alcohol craving after 3 wk of abstinence, which may be important psychological factors of relapse. Moreover, subjects with increased gut permeability also had altered composition and activity of the gut microbiota. These results suggest the existence of a gut–brain axis in alcohol dependence, which implicates the gut microbiota as an actor in the gut barrier and in behavioral disorders. Thus, the gut microbiota seems to be a previously unidentified target in the management of alcohol dependence. PMID:25288760

  11. Quantifying alcohol consumption: Self-report, transdermal assessment, and prediction of dependence symptoms☆

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Wills, Thomas A.; Emery, Noah N.; Marks, Russell M.

    2015-01-01

    Research on alcohol use depends heavily on the validity of self-reported drinking. The present paper presents data from 647 days of self-monitoring with a transdermal alcohol sensor by 60 young adults. We utilized a bio chemical measure, transdermal alcohol assessment with the WrisTAS, to examine the convergent validity of three approaches to collecting daily self-report drinking data: experience sampling, daily morning reports of the previous night, and 1-week timeline follow-back (TLFB) assessments. We tested associations between three pharmacokinetic indices (peak concentration, area under the curve (AUC), and time to reach peak concentration) derived from the transdermal alcohol signal and within- and between-person variation in alcohol dependence symptoms. The WrisTAS data corroborated 85.74% of self-reported drinking days based on the experience sampling data. The TLFB assessment and combined experience sampling and morning reports agreed on 87.27% of drinking days. Drinks per drinking day did not vary as a function of wearing or not wearing the sensor; this indicates that participants provided consistent reports of their drinking regardless of biochemical verification. In respect to self-reported alcohol dependence symptoms, the AUC of the WrisTAS alcohol signal was associated with dependence symptoms at both the within- and between-person level. Furthermore, alcohol dependence symptoms at baseline predicted drinking episodes characterized in biochemical data by both higher peak alcohol concentration and faster time to reach peak concentration. The results support the validity of self-report alcohol data, provide empirical data useful for optimal design of daily process sampling, and provide an initial demon stration of the use of transdermal alcohol assessment to characterize drinking dynamics associated with risk for alcohol dependence. PMID:26160523

  12. Neuropeptide Modulation of Central Amygdala Neuroplasticity is a Key Mediator of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Roberto, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and withdrawal syndrome in the absence of drug. The central amygdala (CeA) and neighboring regions (extended amygdala) mediate alcohol-related behaviors and chronic alcohol-induced plasticity. Acute alcohol suppresses excitatory (glutamatergic) transmission whereas chronic alcohol enhances glutamatergic transmission in CeA. Acute alcohol facilitates inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission in CeA, and chronic alcohol increases GABAergic transmission. Electrophysiology techniques are used to explore the effects of neuropeptides/neuromodulators (CRF, NPY, nociceptin, dynorphin, endocannabinoids, galanin) on inhibitory transmission in CeA. In general, pro-anxiety peptides increase, and anti-anxiety peptides decrease CeA GABAergic transmission. These neuropeptides facilitate or block the action of acute alcohol in CeA, and chronic alcohol produces plasticity in neuropeptide systems, possibly reflecting recruitment of negative reinforcement mechanisms during the transition to alcohol dependence. A disinhibition model of CeA output is discussed in the context of alcohol dependence- and anxiety-related behaviors. PMID:22101113

  13. Neuropeptide modulation of central amygdala neuroplasticity is a key mediator of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Roberto, Marisa

    2012-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders are characterized by compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking, loss of control in limiting intake, and withdrawal syndrome in the absence of drug. The central amygdala (CeA) and neighboring regions (extended amygdala) mediate alcohol-related behaviors and chronic alcohol-induced plasticity. Acute alcohol suppresses excitatory (glutamatergic) transmission whereas chronic alcohol enhances glutamatergic transmission in CeA. Acute alcohol facilitates inhibitory (GABAergic) transmission in CeA, and chronic alcohol increases GABAergic transmission. Electrophysiology techniques are used to explore the effects of neuropeptides/neuromodulators (CRF, NPY, nociceptin, dynorphin, endocannabinoids, galanin) on inhibitory transmission in CeA. In general, pro-anxiety peptides increase, and anti-anxiety peptides decrease CeA GABAergic transmission. These neuropeptides facilitate or block the action of acute alcohol in CeA, and chronic alcohol produces plasticity in neuropeptide systems, possibly reflecting recruitment of negative reinforcement mechanisms during the transition to alcohol dependence. A disinhibition model of CeA output is discussed in the context of alcohol dependence- and anxiety-related behaviors.

  14. A Study on MTHFR C677T Gene Polymorphism and Alcohol Dependence among Meiteis of Manipur, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Huidrom Suraj; Salam, Kabita; Saraswathy, Kallur Nava

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is reported to be associated with increase in plasma homocysteine levels which is further influenced by the polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. The present study aims to understand the extent of the MTHFR C677T polymorphism in alcohol dependent (AD) cases of Meiteis of Manipur, a Mendelian population of India. MTHFR C677T polymorphism was screened in 313 controls and 139 alcohol dependent (AD) cases who all met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence. Both AD cases and controls were unrelated up to 1st cousin. Among the control group, different drinking patterns like abstainer/nondrinkers (NDs), occasional drinkers (ODs), and moderate drinkers (MDs) are included. Both the groups were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0.05). Genotypic and allelic frequency distribution of MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not differ significantly between AD cases and controls (P > 0.05). However, individuals carrying mutant (T) allele show more than 1-fold increased risk for AD though not significant (OR = 1.43; 95% CI 0.41-5.01, P > 0.05). In conclusion, MTHFR C677T polymorphism is not found to be risk marker for AD in present studied population. However, higher prevalence of the mutant T allele may exacerbate deleterious health risk in future especially among alcohol drinkers.

  15. DOUBLE-BLIND, RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL OF BENFOTIAMINE FOR SEVERE ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Manzardo, Ann M.; He, Jianghua; Poje, Albert; Penick, Elizabeth C.; Campbell, Jan; Butler, Merlin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence is associated with severe nutritional and vitamin deficiency. Vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency erodes neurological pathways that may influence the ability to drink in moderation. The present study examines tolerability of supplementation using the high-potency thiamine analogue, benfotiamine (BF), and BF’s effects on alcohol consumption in severely affected, self-identified, alcohol dependent subjects. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 120 non-treatment seeking, actively drinking, alcohol dependent men and women volunteers (mean age=47 years) from the Kansas City area who met DSM-IV-TR criteria current alcohol dependence. Subjects were randomized to receive 600 mg benfotiamine or placebo (PL) once daily by mouth for 24 weeks with 6 follow-up assessments scheduled at 4 week intervals. Side effects and daily alcohol consumption were recorded. Results Seventy (58%) subjects completed 24 weeks of study (N=21 women; N=49 men) with overall completion rates of 55% (N=33) for PL and 63% (N=37) for BF groups. No significant adverse events were noted and alcohol consumption decreased significantly for both treatment groups. Alcohol consumption decreased from baseline levels for 9 of 10 BF treated women after 1 month of treatment compared with 2 of 11 on PL. Reductions in total alcohol consumption over 6 months were significantly greater for BF treated women (BF: N=10, −611±380 Std Dev; PL: N=11, −159±562 Std Dev, p-value=0.02). Conclusions BF supplementation of actively drinking alcohol dependent men and women was well-tolerated and may discourage alcohol consumption among women. The results do support expanded studies of BF treatment in alcoholism. PMID:23992649

  16. Alcohol-Related Antigay Aggression: Theoretical Considerations for Individual-and Societal-Level Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parrott, Dominic J.; Miller, Cameron A.

    2008-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article 1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol-related antigay aggression, 2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and 3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses. PMID:19938923

  17. Alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression: theoretical considerations for individual- and societal-level interventions.

    PubMed

    Parrott, Dominic J; Miller, Cameron A

    2009-01-01

    A substantial literature has identified risk factors for intoxicated aggression and the mechanisms by which these effects are exerted. This theoretical and empirical foundation is a valuable resource for the development of treatment inventions. In contrast, a comparable literature is not available to guide development of clinical interventions for intoxicated antigay aggression. To address this gap in the literature, the present article (1) identifies risk factors and mechanisms pertinent to alcohol consumption-related antigay aggression, (2) advances predictions regarding how alcohol will increase antigay aggression, and (3) reviews societal- and individual-level considerations for intervention based upon these hypotheses.

  18. Genome-wide polygenic scores for age at onset of alcohol dependence and association with alcohol-related measures

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, M; Chou, Y-L; Edenberg, H J; Foroud, T; Martin, N G; Madden, P A F; Wang, J C; Bertelsen, S; Wetherill, L; Brooks, A; Chan, G; Hesselbrock, V; Kuperman, S; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G; Tischfield, J; Whitfield, J B; Bierut, L J; Heath, A C; Bucholz, K K; Goate, A M; Agrawal, A

    2016-01-01

    Age at onset of alcohol dependence (AO-AD) is a defining feature of multiple drinking typologies. AO-AD is heritable and likely shares genetic liability with other aspects of alcohol consumption. We examine whether polygenic variation in AO-AD, based on a genome-wide association study (GWAS), was associated with AO-AD and other aspects of alcohol consumption in two independent samples. Genetic risk scores (GRS) were created based on AO-AD GWAS results from a discovery sample of 1788 regular drinkers from extended pedigrees from the Collaborative Study of the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). GRS were used to predict AO-AD, AD and Alcohol dependence symptom count (AD-SX), age at onset of intoxication (AO-I), as well as maxdrinks in regular drinking participants from two independent samples—the Study of Addictions: Genes and Environment (SAGE; n=2336) and an Australian sample (OZ-ALC; n=5816). GRS for AO-AD from COGA explained a modest but significant proportion of the variance in all alcohol-related phenotypes in SAGE. Despite including effect sizes associated with large numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; >110 000), GRS explained, at most, 0.7% of the variance in these alcohol measures in this independent sample. In OZ-ALC, significant but even more modest associations were noted with variance estimates ranging from 0.03 to 0.16%. In conclusion, there is modest evidence that genetic variation in AO-AD is associated with liability to other aspects of alcohol involvement. PMID:27003187

  19. Executive functions among individuals with methamphetamine or alcohol as drugs of choice: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Bechara, Antoine; Martin, Eileen M

    2007-02-01

    Substance dependent individuals (SDIs) are frequently, but not invariably, impaired on tasks of executive functions. In this study, we examine patterns of executive performance among subjects with different self-reported "drug of choice" (defined as substance used>80% of the time prior to abstinence). Subjects were 33 abstinent SDIs receiving inpatient treatment and 19 non-SDI normal controls (NC) well-matched on age, sex, ethnicity, and VIQ, who were assessed using the Iowa Gambling Task (GT) and a delayed non-match to sample task (DNM): measures of decision making and working memory, respectively. Seventeen SDIs identified alcohol (AL group) and 16 SDIs identified methamphetamine (METH group) as their drug of choice. Overall, the METH group performed more poorly than the NC and AL groups on both tasks, with the largest differences observed in working memory. The AL group was not significantly impaired overall compared to NCs on either task, but showed subtle abnormalities of GT performance similar to the METH group. These preliminary findings suggest that self-reported drug of choice on admission to treatment may be associated with different patterns of executive performance during early recovery.

  20. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Dieter J. Meyerhoff, Dr.rer.nat., UCSF Rationale and Content: Civilian and military personnel with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently...observed in both Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and is associated with worse treatment outcome. Impairment in...CA 94121 Purpose: Cognitive dysfunction is commonly observed among individuals with Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

  1. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  2. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  3. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  4. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  5. 10 CFR 26.67 - Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals who have applied for authorization. 26.67 Section 26.67 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Granting and Maintaining Authorization § 26.67 Random drug and alcohol testing of individuals...

  6. In vino silentium? Individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors in reporting violence to the police.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Iain R

    2011-01-01

    This study identifies the individual, situational, and alcohol-related factors associated with reporting violent victimization to the police. Factors positively associated with reporting included older age and incident severity (the assailant's use of a weapon, incurring injury that required attendance at an emergency department). Factors negatively associated with reporting included higher educational qualifications, assault in the nighttime economy (NTE), and drinking more than two alcoholic drinks immediately prior to victimization. It is possible that drinkers engage in "moratorium" on reporting violence in the NTE. Recognizing and reducing the acceptability of violence in the NTE may help reduce incidence of alcohol-related violence. Organizations that use police records of violence to inform practice and policy should account for uneven distributions in reporting behavior when analyzing trends in violence.

  7. Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Michael V; Dale, Caroline E; Zuccolo, Luisa; Silverwood, Richard J; Guo, Yiran; Ye, Zheng; Prieto-Merino, David; Dehghan, Abbas; Trompet, Stella; Wong, Andrew; Cavadino, Alana; Drogan, Dagmar; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Yesupriya, Ajay; Leusink, Maarten; Sundstrom, Johan; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Pikhart, Hynek; Swerdlow, Daniel I; Panayiotou, Andrie G; Borinskaya, Svetlana A; Finan, Chris; Shah, Sonia; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Shah, Tina; Engmann, Jorgen; Folkersen, Lasse; Eriksson, Per; Ricceri, Fulvio; Melander, Olle; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Gamble, Dale M; Rayaprolu, Sruti; Ross, Owen A; McLachlan, Stela; Vikhireva, Olga; Sluijs, Ivonne; Scott, Robert A; Adamkova, Vera; Flicker, Leon; van Bockxmeer, Frank M; Power, Christine; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meade, Tom; Marmot, Michael G; Ferro, Jose M; Paulos-Pinheiro, Sofia; Humphries, Steve E; Talmud, Philippa J; Leach, Irene Mateo; Verweij, Niek; Linneberg, Allan; Skaaby, Tea; Doevendans, Pieter A; Cramer, Maarten J; van der Harst, Pim; Klungel, Olaf H; Dowling, Nicole F; Dominiczak, Anna F; Kumari, Meena; Nicolaides, Andrew N; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Ebrahim, Shah; Gaunt, Tom R; Price, Jackie F; Lannfelt, Lars; Peasey, Anne; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Voevoda, Mikhail I; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H; Norman, Paul E; Hankey, Graeme J; Bergmann, Manuela M; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Cooper, Jackie; Palmen, Jutta; Spiering, Wilko; de Jong, Pim A; Kuh, Diana; Hardy, Rebecca; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Ikram, M Arfan; Ford, Ian; Hyppönen, Elina; Almeida, Osvaldo P; Wareham, Nicholas J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Hamsten, Anders; Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S; Rimm, Eric; Beulens, Joline W J; Verschuren, W M Monique; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H; Morris, Richard; Vicente, Astrid M; Watkins, Hugh; Farrall, Martin; Jukema, J Wouter; Meschia, James; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sharp, Stephen J; Fornage, Myriam; Kooperberg, Charles; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Dai, James Y; Lanktree, Matthew B; Siscovick, David S; Jorgenson, Eric; Spring, Bonnie; Coresh, Josef; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Schreiner, Pamela J; Ellison, R Curtis; Tsai, Michael Y; Patel, Sanjay R; Redline, Susan; Johnson, Andrew D; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Hakonarson, Hakon; Rotter, Jerome I; Boerwinkle, Eric; de Bakker, Paul I W; Kivimaki, Mika; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Sattar, Naveed; Lawlor, Debbie A; Whittaker, John; Davey Smith, George; Mukamal, Kenneth; Psaty, Bruce M; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie A; Hamidovic, Ajna; Hingorani, Aroon D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bobak, Martin; Leon, David A; Langenberg, Claudia; Palmer, Tom M; Reiner, Alex P; Keating, Brendan J; Dudbridge, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Objective To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease. Design Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis of 56 epidemiological studies. Participants 261 991 individuals of European descent, including 20 259 coronary heart disease cases and 10 164 stroke events. Data were available on ADH1B rs1229984 variant, alcohol phenotypes, and cardiovascular biomarkers. Main outcome measures Odds ratio for coronary heart disease and stroke associated with the ADH1B variant in all individuals and by categories of alcohol consumption. Results Carriers of the A-allele of ADH1B rs1229984 consumed 17.2% fewer units of alcohol per week (95% confidence interval 15.6% to 18.9%), had a lower prevalence of binge drinking (odds ratio 0.78 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.84)), and had higher abstention (odds ratio 1.27 (1.21 to 1.34)) than non-carriers. Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower systolic blood pressure (−0.88 (−1.19 to −0.56) mm Hg), interleukin-6 levels (−5.2% (−7.8 to −2.4%)), waist circumference (−0.3 (−0.6 to −0.1) cm), and body mass index (−0.17 (−0.24 to −0.10) kg/m2). Rs1229984 A-allele carriers had lower odds of coronary heart disease (odds ratio 0.90 (0.84 to 0.96)). The protective association of the ADH1B rs1229984 A-allele variant remained the same across all categories of alcohol consumption (P=0.83 for heterogeneity). Although no association of rs1229984 was identified with the combined subtypes of stroke, carriers of the A-allele had lower odds of ischaemic stroke (odds ratio 0.83 (0.72 to 0.95)). Conclusions Individuals with a genetic variant associated with non-drinking and lower alcohol consumption had a more favourable cardiovascular profile and a reduced risk of coronary heart disease than those without the genetic variant. This suggests that reduction of alcohol consumption, even for light to moderate drinkers, is beneficial for

  8. Low Digit Ratio 2D∶4D in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Bernd; Kraus, Thomas; Sperling, Wolfgang; Bayerlein, Kristina; Biermann, Teresa; Stoessel, Christina

    2011-01-01

    The ratio of the lengths of the second and fourth finger (2D∶4D) has been described as reflecting the degree of prenatal androgen exposure in humans. 2D∶4D is smaller for males than females and is associated with traits such as left-handedness, physical aggression, attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and a genetic polymorphism of the androgen receptor. All of these traits are known to be correlated to the vulnerability for alcohol dependency. We therefore hypothesized low 2D∶4D in patients with alcohol dependency. In the present study on 131 patients suffering from alcohol dependency and 185 healthy volunteers, we found that alcohol dependent patients had smaller 2D∶4D ratios compared to controls with preserved sexual dimorphism but with reduced right-left differences. The detection of alcohol dependency based on 2D∶4D ratios was most accurate using the right hand of males (ROC-analysis: AUC 0.725, sensitivity 0.667, specificity 0.723). These findings provide novel insights into the role of prenatal androgen exposure in the development of alcohol dependency and for the use of 2D∶4D as a possible trait marker in identifying patients with alcohol dependency. PMID:21547078

  9. Sleep Disturbances and Pain among Individuals with Prescription Opioid Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hartwell, Emily E.; Pfeifer, James G.; McCauley, Jenna L.; Maria, Megan Moran-Santa; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Poor sleep quality has been observed in individuals with substance use disorders and is often a trigger for relapse. To date, little research has investigated sleep quality among individuals with prescription opioid (PO) dependence. The present study aimed to address this gap in the literature by examining subjective and objective sleep disturbances among PO dependent individuals. METHODS Subjects were 68 non-treatment seeking individuals (33 PO dependent, 35 healthy controls). Subjective sleep was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Subjects were admitted for an overnight inpatient hospital stay during which objective sleep data was collected using an actigraphy device. Self-report pain was measured with the Brief Pain Inventory. RESULTS Significant group differences in subjective sleep quality were revealed in the PSQI (p<0.01) and ISI (p<0.01). Poor sleep quality (i.e., PSQI total score > 5) was identified in 80.6% of the PO group, as compared to 8.8% of the control group (p<.001). Significant group differences in sleep quality were identified in five of six actigraphy variables: total time asleep, sleep efficiency, latency of onset of sleep, total time awake and time mobile. Furthermore, significant associations between pain severity and sleep quality were observed. CONCLUSIONS Results indicate high rates of sleep impairment and poor sleep quality among PO dependent individuals. Pain severity was significantly correlated with sleep quality. Although preliminary, the findings highlight the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbances, as well as pain, among patients with PO dependence. PMID:24999989

  10. Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the extended amygdala is recruited during the transition to alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2012-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the extended amygdala, a conceptual macrostructure in the basal forebrain important for regulation of negative affective states. NPY has been attributed a central role in anxiety-like behavior, fear, nociception, and reward in rodents. Deletion of the NPY gene in mice produces a high-anxiety high-alcohol-drinking phenotype. NPY infused into the brains of rats selectively bred to consume high quantities of alcohol suppresses alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that is mediated by central amygdala (CeA). Likewise, alcohol-preferring rats exhibit basal NPY deficits in CeA. NPY infused into the brains of alcohol-dependent rats blocks excessive alcohol drinking by those animals, an effect that also has been localized to the CeA. NPY in CeA may rescue dependence-induced increases in anxiety and alcohol drinking via inhibition of downstream effector regions that receive GABAergic inputs from CeA. It is hypothesized here that NPY modulates anxiety-like behavior via Y2R regulation of NPY release, whereas NPY modulation of alcohol-drinking behavior in alcohol-dependent animals occurs via Y2R regulation of GABA release.

  11. Individual and Community Level Risk-Factors for Alcohol Use Disorder among Conflict-Affected Persons in Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Chikovani, Ivdity; Makhashvili, Nino; Patel, Vikram; McKee, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia. Methods A cross-sectional survey of 3600 randomly selected internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs. Two alcohol use disorder outcomes were measured: (i) having at least hazardous alcohol use (AUDIT score ≥8); (ii) episodic heavy drinking (consuming >60 grams of pure alcohol per drinking session at least once a week). Individual level demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also recorded, including mental disorders. Community level alcohol environment characteristics relating to alcohol availability, marketing and pricing were recorded in the respondents' communities and a factor analysis conducted to produce a summary alcohol environment factor score. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between individual and community level factors with the alcohol use disorder outcomes (among men only). Results Of the total sample, 71% of men and 16% of women were current drinkers. Of the current drinkers (N = 1386), 28% of men and 1% of women were classified as having at least hazardous alcohol use; and 12% of men and 2% of women as episodic heavy drinkers. Individual characteristics significantly associated with both outcomes were age and experiencing a serious injury, while cumulative trauma events and depression were also associated with having at least hazardous alcohol use. For the community level analysis, a one unit increase in the alcohol environment factor was associated with a 1.27 fold increase in episodic heavy drinking among men (no significant association with hazardous alcohol use). Conclusion The findings suggest potential synergies for treatment responses for alcohol use disorder and depression among conflict-affected populations in

  12. Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Symptoms Among Hospital Employees Exposed to a SARS Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ping; Liu, Xinhua; Fang, Yunyun; Fan, Bin; Fuller, Cordelia J.; Guan, Zhiqiang; Yao, Zhongling; Kong, Junhui; Lu, Jin; Litvak, Iva J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms among hospital employees exposed to a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak, and the relationship between types of exposure to the SARS outbreak and subsequent alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Methods: A survey was conducted among 549 randomly selected hospital employees in Beijing, China, concerning the psychological impact of the 2003 SARS outbreak. Subjects were assessed on sociodemographic factors and types of exposure to the outbreak, and on symptoms of post-traumatic stress (PTS), alcohol abuse/dependence and depression. Results: Current alcohol abuse/dependence symptom counts 3 years after the outbreak were positively associated with having been quarantined, or worked in high-risk locations such as SARS wards, during the outbreak. However, having had family members or friends contract, SARS was not related to alcohol abuse/dependence symptom count. Symptoms of PTS and of depression, and having used drinking as a coping method, were also significantly associated with increased alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. The relationship between outbreak exposure and alcohol abuse/dependence symptom count remained significant even when sociodemographic and other factors were controlled for. When the intrusion, avoidance and hyperarousal PTS symptom clusters were entered into the model, hyperarousal was found to be significantly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence symptoms. Conclusions: Exposure to an outbreak of a severe infectious disease can, like other disaster exposures, lead not only to PTSD but also to other psychiatric conditions, such as alcohol abuse/dependence. The findings will help policy makers and health professionals to better prepare for potential outbreaks of diseases such as SARS or avian flu. PMID:18790829

  13. Family-based association analysis of alcohol dependence criteria and severity

    PubMed Central

    Wetherill, Leah; Kapoor, Manav; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen; Koller, Daniel; Bertelsen, Sarah E.; Le, Nhung; Wang, Jen-Chyong; Almasy, Laura; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Nurnberger, John I.; Schuckit, Marc; Tischfield, Jay A.; Xuei, Xiaoling; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.; Foroud, Tatiana

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high heritability of alcohol dependence (AD), the genes found to be associated with it account for only a small proportion of its total variability. The goal of this study was to identify and analyze phenotypes based on homogeneous classes of individuals to increase the power to detect genetic risk factors contributing to the risk of AD. Methods The 7 individual DSM-IV criteria for AD were analyzed using latent class analysis (LCA) to identify classes defined by the pattern of endorsement of the criteria. A genome-wide association study was performed in 118 extended European American families (n = 2,322 individuals) densely affected with AD to identify genes associated with AD, with each of the seven DSM-IV criteria, and with the probability of belonging to two of three latent classes. Results Heritability for DSM-IV AD was 61%, and ranged from 17-60% for the other phenotypes. A SNP in the olfactory receptor OR51L1 was significantly associated (7.3 × 10−8) with the DSM-IV criterion of persistent desire to, or inability to, cut down on drinking. LCA revealed a three-class model: the “low risk” class (50%) rarely endorsed any criteria, and none met criteria for AD; the “moderate risk” class (33) endorsed primarily 4 DSM-IV criteria, and 48% met criteria for AD; the “high risk” class (17%) manifested high endorsement probabilities for most criteria and nearly all (99%) met criteria for AD One single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a sodium leak channel NALCN demonstrated genome-wide significance with the high risk class (p=4.1 × 10−8). Analyses in an independent sample did not replicate these associations. Conclusion We explored the genetic contribution to several phenotypes derived from the DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria. The strongest evidence of association was with SNPs in NALCN and OR51L1. PMID:24015780

  14. Intra-cerebral and intra-nasal melanocortin-4 receptor antagonist blocks withdrawal hyperalgesia in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Roltsch Hellard, Emily A; Impastato, Renata A; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-24

    Humans diagnosed with alcohol use disorder are more sensitive to painful stimuli during withdrawal, which suggests that excessive alcohol drinking worsens pain outcomes. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit increases in nociceptive sensitivity during withdrawal. Data from animal models suggest that brain melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4Rs) mediate alcohol drinking and nociception. Here we tested: (1) the effect of alcohol dependence on thermal nociception in rats, and (2) the ability of acute alcohol and (3) MC4R antagonists to reverse hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats. Rats were trained to self-administer operant alcohol and were tested for baseline thermal nociception. Half of the rats were made dependent on alcohol, then all rats were cannulated in the lateral ventricle. We tested the effects of acute alcohol drinking, acute fixed-dose alcohol, intra-ventricular agouti-related protein (endogenous MC4R antagonist), intra-ventricular HS014 (synthetic MC4R antagonist) and intra-nasal HS014 on hyperalgesia during withdrawal in alcohol-dependent rats, relative to non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibit thermal hyperalgesia that is abolished by alcohol drinking, bolus alcohol and intra-ventricular and intra-nasal MC4R antagonists. These manipulations did not affect thermal nociception in non-dependent drinkers and alcohol-naïve controls, suggesting that alcohol dependence produces neuroadaptations in brain MC4R systems. These results suggest that brain MC4R systems may be an effective therapeutic target for reducing nociception in the alcohol-dependent organism.

  15. An Update on CRF Mechanisms Underlying Alcohol Use Disorders and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Quadros, Isabel Marian Hartmann; Macedo, Giovana Camila; Domingues, Liz Paola; Favoretto, Cristiane Aparecida

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly used and abused substance worldwide. The emergence of alcohol use disorders, and alcohol dependence in particular, is accompanied by functional changes in brain reward and stress systems, which contribute to escalated alcohol drinking and seeking. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems have been critically implied in the transition toward problematic alcohol drinking and alcohol dependence. This review will discuss how dysregulation of CRF function contributes to the vulnerability for escalated alcohol drinking and other consequences of alcohol consumption, based on preclinical evidence. CRF signaling, mostly via CRF1 receptors, seems to be particularly important in conditions of excessive alcohol taking and seeking, including during early and protracted withdrawal, relapse, as well as during withdrawal-induced anxiety and escalated aggression promoted by alcohol. Modulation of CRF1 function seems to exert a less prominent role over low to moderate alcohol intake, or to species-typical behaviors. While CRF mechanisms in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis have some contribution to the neurobiology of alcohol abuse and dependence, a pivotal role for extra-hypothalamic CRF pathways, particularly in the extended amygdala, is well characterized. More recent studies further suggest a direct modulation of brain reward function by CRF signaling in the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, and the prefrontal cortex, among other structures. This review will further discuss a putative role for other components of the CRF system that contribute for the overall balance of CRF function in reward and stress pathways, including CRF2 receptors, CRF-binding protein, and urocortins, a family of CRF-related peptides. PMID:27818644

  16. Dose Specific Effects of Olanzapine in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Littlewood, Rae A.; Claus, Eric D.; Arenella, Pamela; Bogenschutz, Michael; Karoly, Hollis; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale It is well-established that the rewarding effects of alcohol are modulated by the mesolimbic dopaminergic system. Olanzapine, a D2 dopamine antagonist, has been shown to reduce alcohol craving and consumption. Objective To clarify whether olanzapine has clinical utility in the treatment of alcohol dependence, a 12-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted. Methods One-hundred twenty-nine treatment-seeking alcohol dependent adults were randomly assigned to 12-weeks of olanzapine (5mg vs. 2.5mg) or placebo. Outcomes examined were average drinks per drinking day (DDD), proportion of drinking days to total days in treatment (PDD), alcohol craving, and impaired control over alcohol use. Mixed models were used to examine medication effects during the course of treatment on specified outcomes. Results All of the analyses indicated a main effect for time, such that there were reductions in alcohol use and craving and an increase in control over alcohol use across treatment conditions. Dose-response analyses indicated that, in comparison to placebo, participants in the 5mg group experienced reduced craving for alcohol and participants in the 2.5mg group decreased in PDD and increased in their control over alcohol use. Better control over alcohol use remained significant 6 months post-treatment for the 2.5mg group. Subjective experiences of the medication suggest that 2.5mg and 5mg were equally well-tolerated. Conclusions Results provide some support for the notion that dosage is an important consideration in relation to effectiveness; however, the cost-benefit balance does not support the clinical utility of olanzapine in treating alcohol dependence. PMID:25304864

  17. Use of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) to determine the prevalence of alcohol misuse among HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Surah, S; Kieran, J; O'Dea, S; Shiel, C; Raffee, S; Mulcahy, F; Keenan, E; Lyons, F

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to evaluate alcohol misuse among an inner city adult HIV clinic population with AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test). A cross-sectional HIV outpatient clinic analysis between 28 February 2011 and 11 March 2011 was carried out. AUDIT, demographic and clinical data were collected. Univariate analysis was performed to look for the associations between variables. Backward stepwise multivariate analyses were performed on significant variables from the univariate analysis to assess for predictors of alcohol dependence. In total, 111 patients were included (60% uptake of clinic attendees); 66% were men and 26% were hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected. The median AUDIT score was 5 (within normal range). Thirty-four 'AUDIT positive' cases were identified: five (4.5%) indicated consumption of hazardous levels of alcohol; 21 (19%) indicated harmful levels of alcohol; and eight (7%) were likely alcohol dependent. Younger age (<40 years old) was significantly associated with AUDIT positivity (P = 0.006). On multivariate analysis younger age (P = 0.045, odds ratio 13.8) and lower level of education (P = 0.006, odds ratio 6.7) were predictive of scores indicative of alcohol dependence (AUDIT ≥20). In conclusion, younger age and lower educational levels were associated with scores consistent with alcohol dependence. AUDIT was well tolerated and easy to administer in this outpatient HIV clinic population.

  18. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  19. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age 12 and Older Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs Alcohol / 17,876 Marijuana / 4,476 Pain Relievers / 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / ... Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use and Health

  20. The Use of Gestalt Interventions in the Treatment of the Resistant Alcohol-Dependent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramey, Luellen

    1998-01-01

    Reviews ethical and practical dilemmas associated with clients who have hidden alcohol dependencies, and proposes an approach rooted in Gestalt counseling theory which confronts these issues and is compatible with a current emerging alcohol-treatment model. Suggests specific activities for addressing client resistance to revealing a hidden alcohol…

  1. Assessment of lexical semantic judgment abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bagga, D; Singh, N; Modi, S; Kumar, P; Bhattacharya, D; Garg, M L; Khushu, S

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological studies have shown that alcohol dependence is associated with neurocognitive deficits in tasks requiring memory, perceptual motor skills, abstraction and problem solving, whereas language skills are relatively spared in alcoholics despite structural abnormalities in the language-related brain regions. To investigate the preserved mechanisms of language processing in alcohol-dependents, functional brain imaging was undertaken in healthy controls (n=18) and alcohol-dependents (n=16) while completing a lexical semantic judgment task in a 3 T MR scanner. Behavioural data indicated that alcohol-dependents took more time than controls for performing the task but there was no significant difference in their response accuracy. fMRI data analysis revealed that while performing the task, the alcoholics showed enhanced activations in left supramarginal gyrus, precuneus bilaterally, left angular gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus as compared to control subjects. The extensive activations observed in alcoholics as compared to controls suggest that alcoholics recruit additional brain areas to meet the behavioural demands for equivalent task performance. The results are consistent with previous fMRI studies suggesting compensatory mechanisms for the execution of task for showing an equivalent performance or decreased neural efficiency of relevant brain networks. However, on direct comparison of the two groups, the results did not survive correction for multiple comparisons; therefore, the present findings need further exploration.

  2. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  3. Linkage scan for quantitative traits identifies new regions of interest for substance dependence in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) sample.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arpana; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Dunn, Gerald; Bertelsen, Sarah; Dick, Danielle M; Saccone, Scott F; Saccone, Nancy L; Grucza, Richard A; Wang, Jen C; Cloninger, C Robert; Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana; Hesselbrock, Victor; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Kuperman, Samuel; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2008-01-11

    Dependence on alcohol and illicit drugs frequently co-occur. Results from a number of twin studies suggest that heritable influences on alcohol dependence and drug dependence may substantially overlap. Using large, genetically informative pedigrees from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA), we performed quantitative linkage analyses using a panel of 1717 SNPs. Genome-wide linkage analyses were conducted for quantitative measures of DSM-IV alcohol dependence criteria, cannabis dependence criteria and dependence criteria across any illicit drug (including cannabis) individually and in combination as an average score across alcohol and illicit drug dependence criteria. For alcohol dependence, LOD scores exceeding 2.0 were noted on chromosome 1 (2.0 at 213 cM), 2 (3.4 at 234 cM) and 10 (3.7 at 60 cM). For cannabis dependence, a maximum LOD of 1.9 was noted at 95 cM on chromosome 14. For any illicit drug dependence, LODs of 2.0 and 2.4 were observed on chromosome 10 (116 cM) and 13 (64 cM) respectively. Finally, the combined alcohol and/or drug dependence symptoms yielded LODs >2.0 on chromosome 2 (3.2, 234 cM), 10 (2.4 and 2.6 at 60 cM and 116 cM) and 13 (2.1 at 64 cM). These regions may harbor genes that contribute to the biological basis of alcohol and drug dependence.

  4. Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer effects in the nucleus accumbens relate to relapse in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Garbusow, Maria; Schad, Daniel J; Sebold, Miriam; Friedel, Eva; Bernhardt, Nadine; Koch, Stefan P; Steinacher, Bruno; Kathmann, Norbert; Geurts, Dirk E M; Sommer, Christian; Müller, Dirk K; Nebe, Stephan; Paul, Sören; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Walter, Henrik; Smolka, Michael N; Sterzer, Philipp; Rapp, Michael A; Huys, Quentin J M; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-05-01

    In detoxified alcohol-dependent patients, alcohol-related stimuli can promote relapse. However, to date, the mechanisms by which contextual stimuli promote relapse have not been elucidated in detail. One hypothesis is that such contextual stimuli directly stimulate the motivation to drink via associated brain regions like the ventral striatum and thus promote alcohol seeking, intake and relapse. Pavlovian-to-Instrumental-Transfer (PIT) may be one of those behavioral phenomena contributing to relapse, capturing how Pavlovian conditioned (contextual) cues determine instrumental behavior (e.g. alcohol seeking and intake). We used a PIT paradigm during functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the effects of classically conditioned Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental choices in n = 31 detoxified patients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and n = 24 healthy controls matched for age and gender. Patients were followed up over a period of 3 months. We observed that (1) there was a significant behavioral PIT effect for all participants, which was significantly more pronounced in alcohol-dependent patients; (2) PIT was significantly associated with blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in subsequent relapsers only; and (3) PIT-related NAcc activation was associated with, and predictive of, critical outcomes (amount of alcohol intake and relapse during a 3 months follow-up period) in alcohol-dependent patients. These observations show for the first time that PIT-related BOLD signals, as a measure of the influence of Pavlovian cues on instrumental behavior, predict alcohol intake and relapse in alcohol dependence.

  5. Intra-individual and inter-individual variation in breath alcohol pharmacokinetics: the effect of short-term variation.

    PubMed

    Sadler, David W; Parker, James

    2014-07-01

    Ten male and 8 female students underwent serial breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measurements on a CAMIC Datamaster on two consecutive occasions, early evening and again the following morning. Subjects were fasted for 6 h before receiving alcohol as white wine (12.5% by volume) at doses of 38-45 g for males and 26-37 g for females, consumed over 10 min. Specific individual doses were calculated individually from height and weight (according to the Forrest Method) to give target C0 breath alcohol concentrations of 35 μg/100 ml breath in males and 31 μg/100 ml breath in females. BrAC versus time curves were constructed for each subject and the values of peak BrAC (Cmax), BrAC extrapolated at zero time (C0), time taken to reach peak (Tmax) and rate of elimination (ß) were recorded directly from the curves. Values of C0 taken from the BrAC-time curves varied widely, from 21 to 47 μg/100 ml on visit 1 and from 22 to 45 μg/100 ml on visit 2. Widmark Factors calculated from these C0 values averaged 0.74 (range, 0.59-1.06) in males and 0.73 (range, 0.58-1.05) in females. Elimination rate was higher in the morning than evening in both males (7.4 versus 5.7 μg/100 ml/h) and females (6.9 versus 5.8 μg/100 ml/h). Elimination rates in males and females were not significantly different. Total body water, measured by electronic scales, averaged 58.7% (range, 56.6-63%) in males and 48.3% (range, 40.9-57.6%) in females. Widmark Factors calculated by various established mathematical methods were 0.73-0.77 in males and 0.61-0.64 in females.

  6. Eye color: A potential indicator of alcohol dependence risk in European Americans.

    PubMed

    Sulovari, Arvis; Kranzler, Henry R; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel; Li, Dawei

    2015-07-01

    In archival samples of European-ancestry subjects, light-eyed individuals have been found to consume more alcohol than dark-eyed individuals. No published population-based studies have directly tested the association between alcohol dependence (AD) and eye color. We hypothesized that light-eyed individuals have a higher prevalence of AD than dark-eyed individuals. A mixture model was used to select a homogeneous sample of 1,263 European-Americans and control for population stratification. After quality control, we conducted an association study using logistic regression, adjusting for confounders (age, sex, and genetic ancestry). We found evidence of association between AD and blue eye color (P = 0.0005 and odds ratio = 1.83 (1.31-2.57)), supporting light eye color as a risk factor relative to brown eye color. Network-based analyses revealed a statistically significant (P = 0.02) number of genetic interactions between eye color genes and AD-associated genes. We found evidence of linkage disequilibrium between an AD-associated GABA receptor gene cluster, GABRB3/GABRG3, and eye color genes, OCA2/HERC2, as well as between AD-associated GRM5 and pigmentation-associated TYR. Our population-phenotype, network, and linkage disequilibrium analyses support association between blue eye color and AD. Although we controlled for stratification we cannot exclude underlying occult stratification as a contributor to this observation. Although replication is needed, our findings suggest that eye pigmentation information may be useful in research on AD. Further characterization of this association may unravel new AD etiological factors. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Double-blind clinical trial of sertraline treatment for alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Pettinati, H M; Volpicelli, J R; Luck, G; Kranzler, H R; Rukstalis, M R; Cnaan, A

    2001-04-01

    Clinical studies that have evaluated serotonergic medications to reduce alcohol consumption have yielded conflicting results. These studies primarily treated patients with alcohol dependence, excluding those with a current depressive disorder, in an effort to differentiate any medication effects directly on drinking from those on mood. Yet despite the exclusion of current depression, a group of alcohol-dependent patients who are not depressed can be highly heterogeneous. For example, this subgroup can include those with a lifetime depressive disorder. If these patients were more sensitive to serotonergic medications than patients without a lifetime depressive disorder, medication effects in a subgroup of patients who were not depressed could be obscured. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of sertraline for treating alcohol dependence in patient groups that were differentiated by the presence or absence of lifetime depression. This study examined the effectiveness of sertraline (200 mg/day) or placebo for 14 weeks in 100 alcohol-dependent subjects with (N = 53) or without (N = 47) a lifetime diagnosis of comorbid depression. Sertraline treatment seemed to provide an advantage in reducing drinking in alcohol-dependent patients without lifetime depression, illustrated best with a measure of drinking frequency during treatment. However, sertraline was no better than placebo in patients with a diagnosis of lifetime comorbid depression, and current depression did not change the results. Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be useful in alcohol-dependent patients who are not depressed. Subtyping those with alcohol dependence on the basis of the absence versus the presence of a lifetime depressive disorder may help to resolve conflicting findings in the literature on the treatment of alcohol dependence with serotonergic medications.

  8. Safety and tolerability of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in the treatment of alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Beghè, F; Carpanini, M T

    2000-04-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has been in clinical use in Italy since 1991 for treatment of alcohol dependence. Results of phase III and phase IV studies have shown that the drug is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of alcohol withdrawal syndrome and in reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol craving. Pharmacosurveillance indicates that abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid is a limited phenomenon in clinical settings when the drug is dispensed under strict medical surveillance and entrusted to a referring familiar member of the patient.

  9. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E; Meier, Madeline H; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... that's how many accidents occur. continue What Is Alcoholism? What can be confusing about alcohol is that ... develop a problem with it. Sometimes, that's called alcoholism (say: al-kuh-HOL - ism) or being an ...

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  12. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Juan L; Cunningham, Christopher L; Finn, Deborah A; Young, Emily A; Helpenstell, Lily K; Schuette, Lindsey M; Fidler, Tara L; Kosten, Therese A; Ryabinin, Andrey E

    2015-10-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increase alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects of ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies.

  13. Differential effects of ghrelin antagonists on alcohol drinking and reinforcement in mouse and rat models of alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Juan L.; Cunningham, Christopher L.; Finn, Deborah A.; Young, Emily A.; Helpenstell, Lily K.; Schuette, Lindsey M.; Fidler, Tara L.; Kosten, Therese A.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.

    2015-01-01

    An effort has been mounted to understand the mechanisms of alcohol dependence in a way that may allow for greater efficacy in treatment. It has long been suggested that drugs of abuse seize fundamental reward pathways and disrupt homeostasis to produce compulsive drug seeking behaviors. Ghrelin, an endogenous hormone that affects hunger state and release of growth hormone, has been shown to increased alcohol intake following administration, while antagonists decrease intake. Using rodent models of dependence, the current study examined the effects of two ghrelin receptor antagonists, [DLys3]-GHRP-6 (DLys) and JMV2959, on dependence-induced alcohol self-administration. In two experiments adult male C57BL/6J mice and Wistar rats were made dependent via intermittent ethanol vapor exposure. In another experiment, adult male C57BL/6J mice were made dependent using the intragastric alcohol consumption (IGAC) procedure. Ghrelin receptor antagonists were given prior to voluntary ethanol drinking. Ghrelin antagonists reduced ethanol intake, preference, and operant self-administration of ethanol and sucrose across these models, but did not decrease food consumption in mice. In experiments 1 and 2, voluntary drinking was reduced by ghrelin receptor antagonists, however this reduction did not persist across days. Despite the transient effects to ghrelin antagonists, the drugs had renewed effectiveness following a break in administration as seen in experiment 1. The results show the ghrelin system as a potential target for studies of alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to determine the central mechanisms of these drugs and their influence on addiction in order to design effective pharmacotherapies. PMID:26051399

  14. Crystal structure of quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes. A versatile dehydrogenase oxidizing alcohols and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Rozeboom, Henriëtte J; Yu, Shukun; Mikkelsen, Rene; Nikolaev, Igor; Mulder, Harm J; Dijkstra, Bauke W

    2015-12-01

    The quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH, E.C. 1.1.5.2) from the Gram-negative bacterium Pseudogluconobacter saccharoketogenes IFO 14464 oxidizes primary alcohols (e.g. ethanol, butanol), secondary alcohols (monosaccharides), as well as aldehydes, polysaccharides, and cyclodextrins. The recombinant protein, expressed in Pichia pastoris, was crystallized, and three-dimensional (3D) structures of the native form, with PQQ and a Ca(2+) ion, and of the enzyme in complex with a Zn(2+) ion and a bound substrate mimic were determined at 1.72 Å and 1.84 Å resolution, respectively. PQQ-ADH displays an eight-bladed β-propeller fold, characteristic of Type I quinone-dependent methanol dehydrogenases. However, three of the four ligands of the Ca(2+) ion differ from those of related dehydrogenases and they come from different parts of the polypeptide chain. These differences result in a more open, easily accessible active site, which explains why PQQ-ADH can oxidize a broad range of substrates. The bound substrate mimic suggests Asp333 as the catalytic base. Remarkably, no vicinal disulfide bridge is present near the PQQ, which in other PQQ-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases has been proposed to be necessary for electron transfer. Instead an associated cytochrome c can approach the PQQ for direct electron transfer.

  15. Validation of differential GDAP1 DNA methylation in alcohol dependence and its potential function as a biomarker for disease severity and therapy outcome.

    PubMed

    Brückmann, Christof; Di Santo, Adriana; Karle, Kathrin Nora; Batra, Anil; Nieratschker, Vanessa

    2016-06-02

    Alcohol dependence is a severe disorder contributing substantially to the global burden of disease. Despite the detrimental consequences of chronic alcohol abuse and dependence, effective prevention strategies as well as treatment options are largely missing to date. Accumulating evidence suggests that gene-environment interactions, including epigenetic mechanisms, play a role in the etiology of alcohol dependence. A recent epigenome-wide study reported widespread alterations of DNA methylation patterns in alcohol dependent patients compared to control individuals. In the present study, we validate and replicate one of the top findings from this previous investigation in an independent cohort: the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients. To our knowledge, this is the first independent replication of an epigenome-wide finding in alcohol dependence. Furthermore, the AUDIT as well as the GSI score were negatively associated with GDAP1 methylation and we found a trend toward a negative association between GDAP1 methylation and the years of alcohol dependency, pointing toward a potential role of GDAP1 hypomethylation as biomarker for disease severity. In addition, we show that the hypomethylation of GDAP1 in patients reverses during a short-term alcohol treatment program, suggesting that GDAP1 DNA methylation could also serve as a potential biomarker for treatment outcome. Our data add to the growing body of knowledge on epigenetic effects in alcohol dependence and support GDAP1 as a novel candidate gene implicated in this disorder. As the role of GDAP1 in alcohol dependence is unknown, this novel candidate gene should be followed up in future studies.

  16. Genetic and environmental contributions to the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and alcohol dependence in adulthood: A large population-based twin study.

    PubMed

    Capusan, Andrea J; Bendtsen, Preben; Marteinsdottir, Ina; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Larsson, Henrik

    2015-09-01

    Previous research indicates that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with alcohol dependence; however, the extent to which shared genetic risk factors underpin this association remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the relative importance of genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental factors for the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence in adults. Almost 18,000 adult twins aged 20-45 years, from more than 12,000 twin pairs (5,420 complete pairs), from the population-representative Swedish Twin Registry, were included. Self-ratings were used to assess symptoms of ADHD and alcohol dependence. Twin analysis was used to determine the role of additive genetic (A), shared (C), and nonshared environmental (E) factors. As a result, we found a significant association between ADHD and alcohol dependence (odds ratio 3.58; 95% confidence interval, 2.85-4.49). Twin analysis suggested that shared genetic risk factors explained 64% of the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence. Nonshared environmental factors accounted for the remaining 36%, whereas the contribution of shared environmental factors was minimal. We found no support for statistically significant sex differences in the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence. In conclusion the overlap between ADHD and alcohol dependence in adulthood was largely explained by shared genetic risk factors. This is an important step toward understanding the underlying nature of the risk of alcohol dependence in patients with ADHD and suggests that individuals with ADHD and their family members are important targets for alcohol prevention and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Dissociating Motivational From Physiological Withdrawal in Alcohol Dependence: Role of Central Amygdala κ-Opioid Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kissler, Jessica L; Walker, Brendan M

    2016-01-01

    Chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure leads to increased dynorphin (DYN) A-like peptide expression and heightened kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) signaling in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and these neuroadaptive responses differentiate alcohol-dependent from non-dependent phenotypes. Important for therapeutic development efforts is understanding the nature of the stimulus that drives dependence-like phenotypes such as escalated alcohol self-administration. Accordingly, the present study examined the impact of intra-CeA KOR antagonism on escalated operant alcohol self-administration and physiological withdrawal symptoms during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence in rats previously exposed to chronic intermittent alcohol vapor. Following operant training, rats were implanted with intra-CeA guide cannula and exposed to long-term intermittent alcohol vapor exposure that resulted in escalated alcohol self-administration and elevated physiological withdrawal signs during acute withdrawal. Animals received intra-CeA infusions of the KOR antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI; 0, 2, 4, or 6 μg) prior to operant alcohol self-administration sessions and physiological withdrawal assessment during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. The results indicated that site-specific KOR antagonism in the CeA ameliorated escalated alcohol self-administration during both acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence test sessions, whereas KOR antagonism had no effect on physiological withdrawal scores at either time point. These results dissociate escalated alcohol self-administration from physiological withdrawal symptoms in relation to KOR signaling in the CeA and help clarify the nature of the stimulus that drives escalated alcohol self-administration during acute withdrawal and protracted abstinence. PMID:26105136

  18. Extinction of drug cue reactivity in methamphetamine-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Price, Kimber L; Saladin, Michael E; Baker, Nathaniel L; Tolliver, Bryan K; DeSantis, Stacia M; McRae-Clark, Aimee L; Brady, Kathleen T

    2010-09-01

    Conditioned responses to drug-related environmental cues (such as craving) play a critical role in relapse to drug use. Animal models demonstrate that repeated exposure to drug-associated cues in the absence of drug administration leads to the extinction of conditioned responses, but the few existing clinical trials focused on extinction of conditioned responses to drug-related cues in drug-dependent individuals show equivocal results. The current study examined drug-related cue reactivity and response extinction in a laboratory setting in methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Methamphetamine cue-elicited craving was extinguished during two sessions of repeated (3) within-session exposures to multi-modal (picture, video, and in-vivo) cues, with no evidence of spontaneous recovery between sessions. A trend was noted for a greater attenuation of response in participants with longer (4-7 day) inter-session intervals. These results indicate that extinction of drug cue conditioned responding occurs in methamphetamine-dependent individuals, offering promise for the development of extinction- based treatment strategies.

  19. Pain Management Perceptions among Prescription Opioid Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Jenna L.; Mercer, Mary Ashley; Barth, Kelly S.; Brady, Kathleen T.; Back, Sudie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly two-thirds of prescription opioid dependent individuals report chronic pain conditions as both an initial and current motivation for prescription opioid use. However, to date, limited information exists regarding perceptions of the adequacy of pain management and pain management behaviors among prescription opioid dependent individuals with a history of treatment for chronic pain. Methods The current study examined perceptions of the medical management of chronic pain among community-recruited individuals (N=39) who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for current prescription opioid dependence and reported a history of treatment for chronic pain. Prescription opioid dependence, symptoms of depression, and pain management perceptions were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, Beck Depression Inventory, and the Pain Management Questionnaire, respectively. Results Reports of insufficient pain management were common (46.2%), as was utilization of emergency room services for pain management (56.4%). Nearly half reported a physician as their initial source (46.2%) and pain management as their primary initial reason for prescription opioid use (53.8%), whereas 35.9% reported pain relief as their primary reason for current prescription opioid use. Symptoms of depression were common (51.3%), as was comorbid abuse of other substances and history of treatment for substance abuse. Conclusions Results highlight the complicated clinical presentation and prevalent perception of the under-treatment of pain among this population. Findings underscore the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to managing the complex presentation of chronic pain patients with comorbid prescription opioid dependence. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25034899

  20. Project-Based Housing First for Chronically Homeless Individuals With Alcohol Problems: Within-Subjects Analyses of 2-Year Alcohol Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Malone, Daniel K.; Clifasefi, Seema L.; Ginzler, Joshua A.; Garner, Michelle D.; Burlingham, Bonnie; Lonczak, Heather S.; Dana, Elizabeth A.; Kirouac, Megan; Tanzer, Kenneth; Hobson, William G.; Marlatt, G. Alan; Larimer, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Two-year alcohol use trajectories were documented among residents in a project-based Housing First program. Project-based Housing First provides immediate, low-barrier, nonabstinence-based, permanent supportive housing to chronically homeless individuals within a single housing project. The study aim was to address concerns that nonabstinence-based housing may enable alcohol use. Methods. A 2-year, within-subjects analysis was conducted among 95 chronically homeless individuals with alcohol problems who were allocated to project-based Housing First. Alcohol variables were assessed through self-report. Data on intervention exposure were extracted from agency records. Results. Multilevel growth models indicated significant within-subjects decreases across alcohol use outcomes over the study period. Intervention exposure, represented by months spent in housing, consistently predicted additional decreases in alcohol use outcomes. Conclusions. Findings did not support the enabling hypothesis. Although the project-based Housing First program did not require abstinence or treatment attendance, participants decreased their alcohol use and alcohol-related problems as a function of time and intervention exposure. PMID:22390516

  1. Excitability of jcBNST neurons is reduced in alcohol-dependent animals during protracted alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Szücs, Attila; Berton, Fulvia; Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Francesconi, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol dependence and withdrawal has been shown to cause neuroadaptive changes at multiple levels of the nervous system. At the neuron level, adaptations of synaptic connections have been extensively studied in a number of brain areas and accumulating evidence also shows the importance of alcohol dependence-related changes in the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons. At the same time, it is still largely unknown how such neural adaptations impact the firing and integrative properties of neurons. To address these problems, here, we analyze physiological properties of neurons in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (jcBNST) in animals with a history of alcohol dependence. As a comprehensive approach, first we measure passive and active membrane properties of neurons using conventional current clamp protocols and then analyze their firing responses under the action of simulated synaptic bombardment via dynamic clamp. We find that most physiological properties as measured by DC current injection are barely affected during protracted withdrawal. However, neuronal excitability as measured from firing responses under simulated synaptic inputs with the dynamic clamp is markedly reduced in all 3 types of jcBNST neurons. These results support the importance of studying the effects of alcohol and drugs of abuse on the firing properties of neurons with dynamic clamp protocols designed to bring the neurons into a high conductance state. Since the jcBNST integrates excitatory inputs from the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and cortical inputs from the infralimbic and the insular cortices and in turn is believed to contribute to the inhibitory input to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) the reduced excitability of the jcBNST during protracted withdrawal in alcohol-dependent animals will likely affect ability of the jcBNST to shape the activity and output of the CeA.

  2. Opioid antagonists for pharmacological treatment of alcohol dependence - a critical review.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Rösner, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    Alcohol dependence is a widespread psychiatric disorder. While relapse prevention therapy in alcoholism was exclusively dominated by social and psychological treatments for many years, in the last decades the benefits of pharmacological agents for the rehabilitation treatment in alcoholism have become increasingly evident. Naltrexone, an opiate receptor antagonist, blocks the pleasant and reinforcing effects of alcohol by preventing the stimulation of opioid receptors and the reduction of dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Clinical evidence about the effectiveness of the substance is not always consistent, but meta-analyses confirm naltrexone's effect on the risk of heavy drinking. Evidence about the abstinence-maintaining effects of the substance comes from a relatively small database and needs further investigation. The evaluation of differential effects of naltrexone depending on biological or psychological profiles, which could further enhance the effectiveness of treatments for alcohol dependence, remains a challenge. Nalmefene, another opioid antagonist, as well as naltrexone depot, a sustained release formulation of naltrexone, are further promising strategies for the treatment of alcohol dependence. The review at hand gives on overview of the current evidence on opioid antagonists for the treatment of alcohol dependence regarding the possible mechanism of action, the substances' safety profiles and their effectiveness. The corresponding evidence is critically reviewed taking into consideration the influence of the study design on the magnitude and consistency of effect sizes as well the impact of patient characteristics on the response to the treatment with opioid antagonists. Future studies on the role of different subtypes of alcoholics according to their genetic or psychological profile to explain or even predict the effects of opioid antagonists in the treatment of alcohol dependence are needed.

  3. Prazosin for Treatment of Patients with PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    08-2-0075 TITLE: Prazosin for Treatment of Patients With PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ismene...page. Subject terms on next page. 6 Prazosin for Treatment of Patients With PTSD and Comorbid Alcohol Dependence Ismene Petrakis Yale University New...PTSD. There is evidence of common neurobiological mechanisms that underlie both AD and PTSD. Prazosin is an alpha-! adrenergic •ceptor antagonist

  4. The moral emotions, alcohol dependence, and HIV risk behavior in an incarcerated sample.

    PubMed

    Stuewig, Jeffrey; Tangney, June Price; Mashek, Debra; Forkner, Peter; Dearing, Ronda

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the relationship of shame, guilt, and symptoms of alcohol dependence to pre-incarceration HIV risk behaviors in an ongoing study in a metropolitan jail. Between 2002 and 2004 an ethnically diverse sample of 368 male inmates (mean age = 31, SD = 9.7), were interviewed on a variety of constructs including shame- and guilt-proneness (TOSCA-SD; Hanson and Tangney, 1996), alcohol dependence (TCU-CRTF; Simpson and Knight, 1998), and HIV risk behavior (TCU-ARA; Simpson, 1997). Symptoms of alcohol dependence were associated with elevated levels of HIV risk behavior (risky needle use and unprotected sex) prior to incarceration. Guilt-proneness was negatively related to risky sexual behavior. In addition, there was an interaction between shame and symptoms of alcohol dependence. Specifically, among those who were low on alcohol dependence, shame-proneness was negatively related to risky sexual behavior. The study's limitations are noted and findings are discussed in the context of the importance of considering moral emotions and alcohol dependence when designing programs to reduce HIV risk.

  5. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... de los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A What's in this article? ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  6. Temperament and character model of personality profile of alcohol- and drug-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Yancar, Cenk; Erkiran, Murat

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the differences in dimensions of temperament and character in Turkish alcohol- and drug-dependent inpatients, and to examine which dimensions would predict drug dependency. The subjects consisted of 111 alcohol-dependent and 93 drug-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Subjects were tested using Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Among the temperament dimensions, novelty seeking score was higher and reward dependency score was lower in drug-dependent patients than in alcohol-dependent patients. Among the character dimensions, self-directedness and cooperativeness scores were lower in drug-dependent patients. Low age and novelty seeking predicted drug dependency in forward logistic regression model. Subscales that predicted drug dependency other than young age were lower scores on compassion vs revengefulness (C4) and helpfulness (C3), and higher score on spiritual acceptance vs rational materialism (ST3). As in previous studies, which indicate an association between personality and substance choice, in the present study, TCI was shown to be an efficient tool in discriminating alcohol and drug dependents; thus, it seems to be important to consider TCI dimensions in planning the treatment of substance dependency.

  7. The tridimensional personality model: influencing variables in a sample of detoxified alcohol dependents. European Fluvoxamine in Alcoholism Study Group.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Willinger, U; Fischer, G; Schönbeck, G; Aschauer, H N

    1996-01-01

    C.R. Cloninger proposed a biosocial model for personality, linking personality traits to patterns of responses to various external stimuli, including alcohol. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was administered in a multicenter study to detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (N = 521). The objectives of the study were to evaluate (1) the expression of the three personality dimensions, novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence (RD), of the TPQ in this sample, and (2) the influence of different variables on these personality dimensions. The following variables were selected for a multiple and a stepwise regression analysis: sex, family history for major psychiatric disorders, marital status, occupation, age at study enrollment, age of onset of alcoholism, serum cholesterol level, intake of neuroleptics or benzodiazepines for detoxification, and severity of depression and anxiety. In comparison to Austrian normative data, both sexes of detoxified alcohol addicts scored higher in HA. The variables examined explain 23% of the variance of NS and 35% of HA. Only one variable, namely age of onset, is significantly influencing NS (19% explained variance). HA is significantly influenced by three variables: anxiety state, anxiety trait, and sex (32% explained variance). RD is not influenced by any of the variables examined.

  8. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire as a predictor of relapse in detoxified alcohol dependents. The European Fluvoxamine in Alcoholism Study Group.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Füreder, T; Willinger, U; Fischer, G; Schönbeck, G; Aschauer, H N

    1999-03-01

    Personality traits have been found as strong predictors for treatment response in different psychiatric disorders. We administered the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, which measures the three personality dimensions: novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence, as introduced by Cloninger in a multicenter study (11 centers in the United Kingdom, Eire, Switzerland, and Austria) with detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (n = 521). The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible predictive value of these three dimensions on relapse over 1 -year follow up. A logistic regression analysis showed that novelty seeking is a strong predictor for relapse in detoxified male alcoholics (p = 0.0007; p values adjusted for treatment), but not in females. In both sexes, HA and reward dependence were of no predictive value. However, we found a trend for significance of HA for predicting "early" relapse (4 weeks) in females (p = 0.074). Our results show that Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire personality traits have direct clinical applications for prediction of relapse in detoxified alcohol dependents and indicate the necessity of additional therapeutic treatment in risk groups.

  9. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. 404.1536... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  13. Task-Dependent Individual Differences in Prefrontal Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Bharat B.; Eldreth, Dana A.; Motes, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging have permitted testing of hypotheses regarding the neural bases of individual differences, but this burgeoning literature has been characterized by inconsistent results. To test the hypothesis that differences in task demands could contribute to between-study variability in brain-behavior relationships, we had participants perform 2 tasks that varied in the extent of cognitive involvement. We examined connectivity between brain regions during a low-demand vigilance task and a higher-demand digit–symbol visual search task using Granger causality analysis (GCA). Our results showed 1) Significant differences in numbers of frontoparietal connections between low- and high-demand tasks 2) that GCA can detect activity changes that correspond with task-demand changes, and 3) faster participants showed more vigilance-related activity than slower participants, but less visual-search activity. These results suggest that relatively low-demand cognitive performance depends on spontaneous bidirectionally fluctuating network activity, whereas high-demand performance depends on a limited, unidirectional network. The nature of brain-behavior relationships may vary depending on the extent of cognitive demand. High-demand network activity may reflect the extent to which individuals require top-down executive guidance of behavior for successful task performance. Low-demand network activity may reflect task- and performance monitoring that minimizes executive requirements for guidance of behavior. PMID:20064942

  14. Children of men with alcohol dependence: Psychopathology, neurodevelopment and family environment

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Vijaya; Prasad, Suveera; Appaya, M. Prakash

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children of people with alcohol dependence (COAs) are at high risk for behavioral and cognitive problems. Aim: Aim of this study was to compare the nature and extent of these problems in children of men with and without alcohol dependence. Materials and Methods: 32 children (17 in study group and 15 controls) were evaluated for psychopathology, neurodevelopment, cognitive functioning and family environment. Tools used were: Socio-demographic data sheet, Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC), Child Behavior Checklist, Trail Making Test, Neurodevelopment Scale and the Family Environment Scale. Results: Children of men with alcohol dependence had higher externalizing than internalizing scores. Children of alcohol-dependent fathers had higher scores on the neurodevelopment scale and lower scores on the performance scale of the MISIC than the children in control group. These children also made more errors on the Trail Making Test. The family environment of COAs was characterized by lack of independence for its members, greater perceived control and lack of adequate cultural and intellectual activities. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that children of men with alcohol dependence have difficulties with frontal lobe functions and neurodevelopmental tasks. There are also difficulties in the family, which are related to alcohol consumption by the father. PMID:21267372

  15. Evidence of common and specific genetic effects: association of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) gene with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jen C; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Stock, Heather; Budde, John; Allen, Rebecca; Bertelsen, Sarah; Kwon, Jennifer M; Wu, William; Dick, Danielle M; Rice, John; Jones, Kevin; Nurnberger, John I; Tischfield, Jay; Porjesz, Bernice; Edenberg, Howard J; Hesselbrock, Victor; Crowe, Ray; Schuckit, Mark; Begleiter, Henri; Reich, Theodore; Goate, Alison M; Bierut, Laura J

    2004-09-01

    Several correlated phenotypes, alcohol dependence, major depressive syndrome, and an endophenotype of electrophysiological measurements, event-related oscillations (EROs), have demonstrated linkage on the long arm of chromosome 7. Recently, we reported both linkage and association between polymorphisms in the gene encoding the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 (CHRM2) and EROs. In this study, we evaluated whether genetic variation in the CHRM2 gene is also a risk factor for the correlated clinical characteristics of alcoholism and depression. The CHRM2 gene contains a single coding exon and a large 5' untranslated region encoded by multiple exons that can be alternatively spliced. Families were recruited through an alcohol dependent proband, and multiplex pedigrees were selected for genetic analyses. We examined 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the CHRM2 gene in these families. Using the UNPHASED pedigree disequilibrium test (PDTPHASE), three SNPs (one in intron 4 and two in intron 5) showed highly significant association with alcoholism (P=0.004-0.007). Two SNPs (both in intron 4) were significantly associated with major depressive syndrome (P=0.004 and 0.017). Haplotype analyses revealed that the most common haplotype (>40% frequency), T-T-T (rs1824024-rs2061174-rs324650), was under-transmitted to affected individuals with alcohol dependence and major depressive syndrome. Different complementary haplotypes were over-transmitted in alcohol dependent and depressed individuals. These findings provide strong evidence that variants within or close to the CHRM2 locus influence risk for two common psychiatric disorders.

  16. The Ratio of 2nd to 4th Digit Length in Korean Alcohol-dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Changwoo; Bae, Hwallip; Lee, Yu-Sang; Won, Sung-Doo; Kim, Dai Jin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The ratio of 2nd to 4th digit length (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic trait. Men have a relatively shorter second digit than fourth digit. This ratio is thought to be influenced by higher prenatal testosterone level or greater sensitivity to androgen. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between alcohol dependence and 2D:4D in a Korean sample and whether 2D:4D can be a biologic marker in alcohol dependence. Methods In this study, we recruited 87 male patients with alcohol dependence from the alcohol center of one psychiatric hospital and 52 healthy male volunteers who were all employees in the same hospital as controls. We captured images of the right and left hands of patients and controls using a scanner and extracted data with a graphics program. We measured the 2D:4D of each hand and compared the alcohol dependence group with the control group. We analyzed these ratios using an independent-samples t-test. Results The mean 2D:4D of patients was 0.934 (right hand) and 0.942 (left hand), while the mean 2D:4D of controls was 0.956 (right hand) and 0.958 (left hand). Values for both hands were significantly lower for patients than controls (p<0.001, right hand; p=0.004, left hand). Conclusion Patients who are alcohol dependent have a significantly lower 2D:4D than controls, similar to the results of previous studies, which suggest that a higher prenatal testosterone level in the gonadal period is related to alcoholism. Furthermore, 2D:4D is a possible predictive marker of alcohol dependence. PMID:27121425

  17. Alterations in Brain Structure and Functional Connectivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possible Association with Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Ma, Mengying; Ma, Yi; Dong, Yuru; Niu, Yajuan; Jiang, Yin; Wang, Hong; Wang, Zhiyan; Wu, Liuzhen; Sun, Hongqiang; Cui, Cailian

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have documented that heightened impulsivity likely contributes to the development and maintenance of alcohol use disorders. However, there is still a lack of studies that comprehensively detected the brain changes associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol addicts. This study was designed to investigate the alterations in brain structure and functional connectivity associated with abnormal impulsivity in alcohol dependent patients. Methods Brain structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging data as well as impulsive behavior data were collected from 20 alcohol dependent patients and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls respectively. Voxel-based morphometry was used to investigate the differences of grey matter volume, and tract-based spatial statistics was used to detect abnormal white matter regions between alcohol dependent patients and healthy controls. The alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in alcohol dependent patients were examined using selected brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Results Compared with healthy controls, alcohol dependent patients had significantly reduced gray matter volume in the mesocorticolimbic system including the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the medial prefrontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex and the putamen, decreased fractional anisotropy in the regions connecting the damaged grey matter areas driven by higher radial diffusivity value in the same areas and decreased resting-state functional connectivity within the reward network. Moreover, the gray matter volume of the left medial prefrontal cortex exhibited negative correlations with various impulse indices. Conclusions These findings suggest that chronic alcohol dependence could cause a complex neural changes linked to abnormal impulsivity. PMID:27575491

  18. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  19. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  20. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse... requirements of the “Confidentiality of Alcohol and Drug Abuse Patient Records” (42 CFR part 2) and...

  1. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  2. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  3. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohol and drug... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  4. Suicide Risk Associated with Experience of Violence and Impulsivity in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Khemiri, Lotfi; Jokinen, Jussi; Runeson, Bo; Jayaram-Lindström, Nitya

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence (AD) and aggression-impulsivity are both associated with increased suicide risk. There is a need to evaluate clinical tools in order to improve suicide risk assessment of AD patients. The present study consisted of 95 individuals with a diagnosis of AD, consecutively admitted for addiction treatment, compared with 95 healthy controls. Suicidal risk was assessed together with exposure of violence and impulsivity. AD patients reported significantly higher rates of exposure to violence in childhood, as measured by the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scale (KIVS), compared to HC. Within the AD group, individuals with history of suicidal ideation and suicidal behavior reported higher levels of violence experience compared to AD individuals without such history. AD patients with previous suicidal ideation scored higher on self-reported impulsivity as assessed by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS). Our main finding was that experience of trauma and expression of violent behavior, coupled with increased impulsivity are associated with an elevated suicide risk in AD patients. Future longitudinal studies assessing these traits are needed to evaluate their potential role in identifying AD patients at risk of future suicide. PMID:26784730

  5. Early age alcohol use and later alcohol problems in adolescents: individual and peer mediators in a bi-national study.

    PubMed

    Mason, W Alex; Toumbourou, John W; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Catalano, Richard F; Patton, George C

    2011-12-01

    This paper examines whether there is cross-national similarity in the longitudinal relationship between early age alcohol use and adolescent alcohol problems. Potential mechanisms underlying this relationship also are examined, testing adolescent alcohol use, low self-regulation, and peer deviance as possible mediators. Students (N = 1,945) participating in the International Youth Development Study, a longitudinal panel survey study, responded to questions on alcohol use and influencing factors, and were followed annually over a 3-year period from 2002 to 2004 (98% retention rate). State-representative, community student samples were recruited in grade 7 in Washington State, United States (US, n = 961, 78% of those eligible; Mage = 13.09, SD = .44) and Victoria, Australia (n = 984, 76% of those eligible; Mage = 12.93, SD = .41). Analyses were conducted using multiple-group structural equation modeling. In both states, early age alcohol use (age 13) had a small but statistically significant association with subsequent alcohol problems (age 15). Overall, there was little evidence for mediation of early alcohol effects. Low self-regulation prospectively predicted peer deviance, alcohol use, and alcohol problems in both states. Peer deviance was more positively related to alcohol use and low self-regulation among students in Victoria compared to students in Washington State. The small but persistent association of early age alcohol use with alcohol problems across both samples is consistent with efforts to delay alcohol initiation to help prevent problematic alcohol use. Self-regulation was an important influence, supporting the need to further investigate the developmental contribution of neurobehavioral disinhibition.

  6. Emotional intelligence, risk perception in abstinent cocaine dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Romero-Ayuso, Dulce; Mayoral-Gontán, Yolanda; Triviño-Juárez, José-Matías

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine is now responsible for the second-highest number of cessation intervention requests. In this study we analyze the different skills of emotional intelligence in cocaine- dependent patients maintaining abstinence. The Mayer- Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) were administered to 50 subjects (25 individuals with no history of drug use and 25 individuals in treatment at the Addictive Behaviors Unit in a state of withdrawal at the time of evaluation). The results showed differences between these groups in overall emotional intelligence quotient, strategic emotional intelligence, understanding emotions and emotional management. Cocaine-addicted participants showed difficulties in analyzing complex emotions and regulating their emotional response, aspects that can interfere with interactions in daily life.

  7. The Reasons for Heavy Drinking Questionnaire: Factor Structure and Validity in Alcohol-Dependent Adults Involved in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Zachary W.; Schacht, Joseph P.; Randall, Patrick; Anton, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: People consume alcohol at problematic levels for many reasons. These different motivational pathways may have different biological underpinnings. Valid, brief measures that discriminate individuals’ reasons for drinking could facilitate inquiry into whether varied drinking motivations account for differential response to pharmacotherapies for alcohol use disorders. The current study evaluated the factor structure and predictive validity of a brief measure of alcohol use motivations developed for use in randomized clinical trials, the Reasons for Heavy Drinking Questionnaire (RHDQ). Method: The RHDQ was administered before treatment to 265 participants (70% male) with alcohol dependence according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, in three pharmacotherapy randomized clinical trials. Principal components analysis was used in half the sample to determine the RHDQ factor structure. This structure was verified with confirmatory factor analysis in the second half of the sample. The factors derived from this analysis were evaluated with respect to alcohol dependence severity indices. Results: A two-factor solution was identified. Factors were interpreted as Reinforcement and Normalizing. Reinforcement scores were weakly to moderately associated with severity, whereas normalizing scores were moderately to strongly associated with severity. In all cases in which significant associations between RHDQ scores and severity indices were observed, the relationship was significantly stronger for normalizing than for reinforcing. Conclusions: The RHDQ is a promising brief assessment of motivations for heavy alcohol use, particularly in the context of randomized clinical trials. Additional research should address factor structure stability in non–treatment-seeking individuals and the RHDQ’s utility in detecting and accounting for changes in drinking behavior, including in response to intervention. PMID:26997195

  8. The roles of familial alcoholism and adolescent family harmony in young adults' substance dependence disorders: mediated and moderated relations.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; King, Kevin M; Chassin, Laurie

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the prospective relations among family history density of alcoholism (FHD), adolescent family harmony, and young adults' alcohol and drug dependence. Family harmony was rated by mothers and fathers in adolescence, and young adults' substance dependence diagnoses were obtained through structured interviews. Higher FHD predicted lower adolescent family harmony, which in turn increased young adults' odds of being diagnosed with drug dependence (with and without alcohol dependence) compared to no diagnoses or to alcohol dependence only. Family harmony also interacted with FHD such that the protective effect of family harmony on young adults' drug dependence with or without alcohol dependence decreased as FHD rose, and was nonsignificant at high levels of FHD. The findings suggest the importance of distinguishing among alcohol and drug dependence disorders and examining their differential etiological pathways, and also suggest that the protective effects of harmonious family environments on substance dependence may be limited at high levels of FHD.

  9. Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder with alcohol dependence among US adults: Results from National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Xu, Yang; Brady, Kathleen; Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Okuda, Mayumi; Wang, Shuai

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the high rates of comorbidity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) in clinical and epidemiological samples, little is known about the prevalence, clinical presentation, course, risk factors and patterns of treatment-seeking of co-occurring PTSD-AD among the general population. Methods The sample included respondents of the Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Weighted means, frequencies and odds ratios (ORs) of sociodemographic correlates, prevalence of psychiatric disorders and rates of treatment-seeking were computed. Results: In the general population, the lifetime prevalence of PTSD only, AD only and PTSD-AD was 4.83%, 13.66% and 1.59%, respectively. Individuals with comorbid PTSD-AD were more likely than those with PTSD or AD only to have suffered childhood adversities and had higher rates of Axis I and II disorders and suicide attempts. They also met more PTSD diagnostic criteria, had earlier onset of PTSD and were more likely to use drugs and alcohol to relieve their PTSD symptoms than those with PTSD only; they also met more AD diagnostic criteria than those with AD only and had greater disability. Individuals with PTSD-AD had higher rates of treatment seeking for AD than those with AD only, but similar rates than those with PTSD only. Conclusion PTSD-AD is associated with high levels of severity across a broad range of domains even compared with individuals with PTSD or AD only, yet treatment-seeking rates are very low. There is a need to improve treatment access and outcomes for individuals with PTSD-AD. PMID:23702490

  10. Associations of prodynorphin sequence variation with alcohol dependence and related traits are phenotype-specific and sex-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Winham, Stacey J.; Preuss, Ulrich W.; Geske, Jennifer R.; Zill, Peter; Heit, John A.; Bakalkin, Georgy; Biernacka, Joanna M.; Karpyak, Victor M.

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that prodynorphin (PDYN) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2281285 are associated with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states, and recent studies suggest that PDYN gene effects on substance dependence risk may be sex-related. We examined sex-dependent associations of PDYN variation with alcohol dependence and related phenotypes, including negative craving, time until relapse after treatment and the length of sobriety episodes before seeking treatment, in discovery and validation cohorts of European ancestry. We found a significant haplotype-by-sex interaction (p  =  0.03), suggesting association with alcohol dependence in males (p = 1E-4) but not females. The rs2281285 G allele increased risk for alcohol dependence in males in the discovery cohort (OR = 1.49, p = 0.002), with a similar trend in the validation cohort (OR = 1.35, p = 0.086). However, rs2281285 showed a trend towards association with increased negative craving in females in both the discovery (beta = 10.16, p = 0.045) and validation samples (OR = 7.11, p = 0.066). In the discovery cohort, rs2281285 was associated with time until relapse after treatment in females (HR = 1.72, p = 0.037); in the validation cohort, it was associated with increased length of sobriety episodes before treatment in males (beta = 13.49, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of PDYN variants in alcohol dependence are phenotype-specific. PMID:26502829

  11. Dose-dependent effects of alcohol administration on behavioral profiles in the MCSF test.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Oskar; Roman, Erika

    2016-02-01

    The acute effects of alcohol administration are age-, dose-, time- and task-dependent. Although generally considered to be a sedative drug, alcohol has both stimulatory and depressant effects on behavior, depending on dose and time. Alcohol-induced motor activating effects are consistently shown in mice but rarely demonstrated in adult, outbred rats using conventional behavioral tests. The aim of the present experiment was to study acute alcohol-induced effects on behavioral profiles in a more complex environment using the novel multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test, designed for assessing different behaviors in the same trial including locomotor activity. Adult male Wistar rats (Sca:WI) were administered one intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of alcohol (0.0 g/kg, 0.5 g/kg, 1.0 g/kg, or 1.5 g/kg) 5 min prior to the 30-min MCSF test. The two highest doses induced marked motor-suppressing effects. A significant interaction between group and time was found in general activity when comparing rats exposed to alcohol at 0.0 g/kg and 0.5 g/kg. In contrast to the 0.0 g/kg dose that increased the activity over time, animals administered the low dose (0.5 g/kg) demonstrated an initial high activity followed by a decline over time. No indications for acute alcohol-induced anxiolytic-like effects were found. The multivariate setting in the MCSF test appears to be sensitive for detecting motor-activating effects of low doses of alcohol as well as reduced locomotion at doses lower than in other behavioral tasks. The detection of subtle changes in behavior across time and dose is important for understanding alcohol-induced effects. This approach may be useful in evaluating alcohol doses that correspond to different degrees of intoxication in humans.

  12. [Assessment of changes in physiological status of alcohol-dependent patients in the course of 10-day detoxication treatment].

    PubMed

    Slósarska, M; Wójcik, M; Habrat, B

    1994-01-01

    Heart rate, respiratory rate, postural muscle tone and tapping in 14 alcohol dependent patients (type II ac. Cloninger) during 10 days of detoxification were investigated. Despite subjective mood increased, no longer observed were tachycardia and clinical symptoms of alcohol withdrawal; increased muscle tonus and faster respiration rhythm were observed. The observed physiological changes in alcohol dependent patients after 10 days of abstinence suggest that continuation of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy after detoxification in acute alcohol withdrawal is recommended.

  13. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; ...

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a promising thermoelectric material. In this work, we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single-crystalline SnTe nanowires with different diameters ranging from ~ 218 to ~ 913 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While the electrical conductivity does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of two when the nanowire diameter is decreased from ~ 913 nm to ~more » 218 nm. The thermal conductivity of the measured NWs is lower than that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon - surface boundary scattering and phonon-defect scattering. Lastly, temperature dependent figure of merit ZT was determined for individual nanowires and the achieved maximum value at room temperature is about three times higher than that in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.« less

  14. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, Nan; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J. A.; Wang, Jian; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a promising thermoelectric material. In this work, we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single-crystalline SnTe nanowires with different diameters ranging from ~ 218 to ~ 913 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While the electrical conductivity does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of two when the nanowire diameter is decreased from ~ 913 nm to ~ 218 nm. The thermal conductivity of the measured NWs is lower than that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon - surface boundary scattering and phonon-defect scattering. Lastly, temperature dependent figure of merit ZT was determined for individual nanowires and the achieved maximum value at room temperature is about three times higher than that in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.

  15. Diameter Dependent Thermoelectric Properties of Individual SnTe Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J.; Sinitsyn, N.; Htoon, H.; Li, N.; Swartzentruber, B.; Hollingsworth, J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, S. X.

    2015-03-01

    Tin telluride (SnTe), a newly discovered topological crystalline insulator, has recently been suggested to be a promising thermoelectric material. In this work, we report on a systematic study of the thermoelectric properties of individual single-crystalline SnTe nanowires with different diameters. Measurements of thermopower, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While the electrical conductivity does not show a strong diameter dependence, we found that the thermopower increases by a factor of two when the nanowire diameter is decreased from 913 nm to 218 nm. The thermal conductivity of the measured NWs is lower than that of the bulk SnTe, which may be attributed to the enhanced phonon - surface boundary scattering and phonon-defect scattering. We further calculated the temperature dependent figure of merit ZT for each individual nanowire. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science by Los Alamos National Laboratory (Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396) and Sandia National Laboratories (Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000). We acknowledge support by the Los Alamos LDRD program.

  16. Experiences of everyday life in men with alcohol dependency--a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Thurang, Anna Maria; Palmstierna, Tom; Tops, Anita Bengtsson

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to describe and understand the meaning of living with alcohol dependency (AD) as a man. Studies point out a high prevalence of AD in men and the reasons for, and consequences of, that are complex. However, today there is a lack of knowledge about men's lived experiences of having AD. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 alcohol dependent men and analyzed using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. In the comprehensive understanding, findings from the naïve understanding and the structural analysis were interpreted with help from both gender and caring theoretical perspectives. "A Fallible Man" and "A Man with Powerfulness" were disclosed as two main gender formations influencing senses of well-being. A Fallible Man involved varying experiences of restrictions, being in control, and meaninglessness. Being in control promoted a sense of well-being. A Man with Powerfulness involved energetic activity, and the development and maintaining of interests as well as risk-taking. Being powerful diminished feelings of meaninglessness, cravings, and social alienation. The results show, among other things, that the men live an incompatible life and, because of that, need support and guidance to find a more meaningful life. This can be accomplished if caregivers allow men to be in focus and involved in planning their own care. To avoid limiting the men while they are in treatment, the health care professionals also need to focus on the men's everyday life. This focus involves acknowledging the men's individual experiences of what enriches and limits their everyday lives.

  17. Life stress in adolescence predicts early adult reward-related brain function and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Casement, Melynda D; Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Musselman, Samuel C; Forbes, Erika E

    2015-03-01

    Stressful life events increase vulnerability to problematic alcohol use, and they may do this by disrupting reward-related neural circuitry. This is particularly relevant for adolescents because alcohol use rises sharply after mid-adolescence and alcohol abuse peaks at age 20. Adolescents also report more stressors compared with children, and neural reward circuitry may be especially vulnerable to stressors during adolescence because of prefrontal cortex remodeling. Using a large sample of male participants in a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 157), we evaluated whether cumulative stressful life events between the ages of 15 and 18 were associated with reward-related brain function and problematic alcohol use at age 20 years. Higher cumulative stressful life events during adolescence were associated with decreased response in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during monetary reward anticipation and following the receipt of monetary rewards. Stress-related decreases in mPFC response during reward anticipation and following rewarding outcomes were associated with the severity of alcohol dependence. Furthermore, mPFC response mediated the association between stressful life events and later symptoms of alcohol dependence. These data are consistent with neurobiological models of addiction that propose that stressors during adolescence increase risk for problematic alcohol use by disrupting reward circuit function.

  18. Antisocial tendencies in alcohol-dependent men and their relation to harman, salsolinol and dopamine.

    PubMed

    Podschus, J; Dufeu, P; Schmidt, L G; Sallstrom-Baum, S; Rommelspacher, H

    1997-01-01

    Plasma dopamine, β-carbolines (norharman, harman) and isoquinolines ((R)- and (S)-salsolinol) were examined for their relationship to antisocial tendencies in 138 drinking men with an alcohol dependence syndrome according to ICD-10 criteria. Antisociality was assessed according to the following criteria: delinquency, involvement in fist-fights and homelessness. The personality structure was documented by the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire of Cloninger. An early age of onset of alcohol dependence and a high degree of 'novelty seeking' were associated with antisocial tendencies. Of the β-carbolines and isoquinolines, harman and (S)-salsolinol were significantly decreased among antisocial alcoholics. Norharman, (R)-salsolinol and dopamine were not associated with antisocial personality. The contribution of endogenous alkaloids to the biological characterization of antisocial tendencies in alcoholics is described.

  19. Neurocognitive Characteristics of Individuals with Schizophrenia and Cocaine Dependence: Comparison of Currently Dependent and Remitted Groups

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Jason; Bennett, Melanie E.; Bellack, Alan S.

    2009-01-01

    Several investigations of cognitive functioning in indivduals with schizophrenia and co-occurring cocaine use have yielded mixed results when compared to samples with schizophrenia only. However, no studies have specifically compared remitted and current cocaine dependence in schizophrenia. Such an analyis could help clarify the degree and type of cognitive impairment associated with cocaine dependence in schizophrenia. Two samples of individuals with schizophrenia – those with current cocaine dependence (SZ-D; n = 72) and those with cocaine dependence in remission (SZ-R; n = 48) were compared on a brief neuropsychological test battery. Parallel current dependent and remitted samples with affective disorder (AD-D; n = 65 and AD-R; n = 55) were also included in the analyses. Results yielded few neuropsychological differences between remitted and current dependent states across the SZ and AD groups. These findings suggest that cognitive impairment may be relatively static in these populations. PMID:19684503

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... parents and other adults use alcohol socially — having beer or wine with dinner, for example — alcohol seems ... besides just hanging out in someone's basement drinking beer all night. Plan a trip to the movies, ...

  1. Serum levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in alcohol-dependent patients receiving high-dose baclofen.

    PubMed

    Geisel, Olga; Hellweg, Rainer; Müller, Christian A

    2016-06-30

    The neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of addictive and other psychiatric disorders. Also, interactions of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic compounds and BDNF have been reported. The objective of this study was to investigate serum levels of BDNF over time in alcohol-dependent patients receiving individually titrated high-dose treatment (30-270mg/d) with the GABA-B receptor agonist baclofen or placebo for up to 20 weeks. Serum levels of BDNF were measured in patients of the baclofen/placebo group at baseline (t0), 2 weeks after reaching individual high-dose of baclofen/placebo treatment (t1) and after termination of study medication (t2) in comparison to carefully matched healthy controls. No significant differences in serum levels of BDNF between the baclofen and the placebo group or healthy controls were found at t0, t1, or at t2. Based on these findings, it seems unlikely that baclofen exerts a direct effect on serum levels of BDNF in alcohol-dependent patients. Future studies are needed to further explore the mechanism of action of baclofen and its possible relationship to BDNF in alcohol use disorders.

  2. Recruitment of a Neuronal Ensemble in the Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Is Required for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Crawford, Elena; Kim, Sarah; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Hope, Bruce T.; Brennan, Molly; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstinence from alcohol is associated with the recruitment of neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. However, whether the recruitment of this neuronal ensemble in the CeA is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking or if it represents a consequence of excessive drinking remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence is required for excessive alcohol drinking in nondependent rats that binge drink alcohol and in alcohol-dependent rats. We found that inactivation of the CeA neuronal ensemble during abstinence significantly decreased alcohol drinking in both groups. In nondependent rats, the decrease in alcohol intake was transient and returned to normal the day after the injection. In dependent rats, inactivation of the neuronal ensemble with Daun02 produced a long-term decrease in alcohol drinking. Moreover, we observed a significant reduction of somatic withdrawal signs in dependent animals that were injected with Daun02 in the CeA. These results indicate that the recruitment of a neuronal ensemble in the CeA during abstinence from alcohol is causally related to excessive alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats, whereas a similar neuronal ensemble only partially contributed to alcohol-binge-like drinking in nondependent rats. These results identify a critical neurobiological mechanism that may be required for the transition to alcohol dependence, suggesting that focusing on the neuronal ensemble in the CeA may lead to a better understanding of the etiology of alcohol use disorders and improve medication development. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alcohol dependence recruits neurons in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Here, we found that inactivation of a specific dependence-induced neuronal ensemble in the CeA reversed excessive alcohol drinking and somatic signs of alcohol dependence in rats. These

  3. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  4. [Geographic Altitude of Residence and Alcohol Dependence in a Peruvian Population].

    PubMed

    Quiñones-Laveriano, Dante Manuel; Espinoza-Chiong, César; Scarsi-Mejia, Ottavia; Rojas-Camayo, José; Mejia, Christian Richard

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between alcohol dependence and altitude of residence in 11 villages in two high altitude areas of Peru. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed using a survey conducted by physicians in primary health care in 11 villages until 2013, that were divided into low altitude (≤2500m asl (above sea level)), and high altitude (>2500m asl) areas. The CAGE test for alcoholism (cut point, ≥2) was applied to those who responded positively when asked if they consumed alcohol. Statistical associations were obtained with generalised linear models Of the 737 participants, 51% were women and the median age was 36 years [interquartile range, 25-50], 334 (45%) lived at low altitude, and 113 (15%) had alcohol dependence. The highest frequency of alcoholism was positively associated with being a village considered extremely poor (Likelihood Ratio (LP)=2.42; 95%CI, 1.40-4.19), while being female (LP=0.44; 95%CI, 0.23-0.89) and residing at high altitude (LP=0.15; 95%CI, 0.07-0.31) were negatively associated. These were adjusted for nine socio-occupational and pathological variables. According to these data, there is a higher frequency of alcohol dependence in being, male, extremely poor, and residing at low altitude. These results should be taken into account by professionals who work in primary care and those involved in mental health care, because of their implications in society.

  5. µ-Opioid Receptor Gene (OPRM1) Polymorphism A118G: Lack of Association in Finnish Populations with Alcohol Dependence or Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Lahti, Jari; Alho, Hannu; Kovanen, Leena; Aalto, Mauri; Partonen, Timo; Silander, Kaisa; Sinclair, David; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Koskinen, Seppo; Saarikoski, Sirkku T.

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The molecular epidemiological studies on the association of the opioid receptor µ-1 (OPRM1) polymorphism A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) and alcohol use disorders have given conflicting results. The aim of this study was to test the possible association of A118G polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption in three large cohort-based study samples. Methods: The association between the OPRM1 A118G (Asn40Asp, rs1799971) polymorphism and alcohol use disorders and alcohol consumption was analyzed using three different population-based samples: (a) a Finnish cohort study, Health 2000, with 503 participants having a DSM-IV diagnosis for alcohol dependence and/or alcohol abuse and 506 age- and sex-matched controls; (b) a Finnish cohort study, FINRISK (n = 2360) and (c) the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (n = 1384). The latter two populations lacked diagnosis-based phenotypes, but included detailed information on alcohol consumption. Results: We found no statistically significant differences in genotypic or allelic distribution between controls and subjects with alcohol dependence or abuse diagnoses. Likewise no significant effects were observed between the A118G genotype and alcohol consumption. Conclusion: These results suggest that A118G (Asn40Asp) polymorphism may not have a major effect on the development of alcohol use disorders at least in the Finnish population. PMID:23729673

  6. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits.

  7. Alcohol Binge Drinking during Adolescence or Dependence during Adulthood Reduces Prefrontal Myelin in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Wanette M.; Bengston, Lynn; Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Whitcomb, Brian W.

    2014-01-01

    Teen binge drinking is associated with low frontal white matter integrity and increased risk of alcoholism in adulthood. This neuropathology may result from alcohol exposure or reflect a pre-existing condition in people prone to addiction. Here we used rodent models with documented clinical relevance to adolescent binge drinking and alcoholism in humans to test whether alcohol damages myelinated axons of the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 1, outbred male Wistar rats self-administered sweetened alcohol or sweetened water intermittently for 2 weeks during early adolescence. In adulthood, drinking behavior was tested under nondependent conditions or after dependence induced by 1 month of alcohol vapor intoxication/withdrawal cycles, and prefrontal myelin was examined 1 month into abstinence. Adolescent binge drinking or adult dependence induction reduced the size of the anterior branches of the corpus callosum, i.e., forceps minor (CCFM), and this neuropathology correlated with higher relapse-like drinking in adulthood. Degraded myelin basic protein in the gray matter medial to the CCFM of binge rats indicated myelin was damaged on axons in the mPFC. In follow-up studies we found that binge drinking reduced myelin density in the mPFC in adolescent rats (Experiment 2) and heavier drinking predicted worse performance on the T-maze working memory task in adulthood (Experiment 3). These findings establish a causal role of voluntary alcohol on myelin and give insight into specific prefrontal axons that are both sensitive to alcohol and could contribute to the behavioral and cognitive impairments associated with early onset drinking and alcoholism. PMID:25355229

  8. β‐Arrestin 2 dependence of δ opioid receptor agonists is correlated with alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, T; Sansuk, K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose δ Opioid receptor agonists are being developed as potential treatments for depression and alcohol use disorders. This is particularly interesting as depression is frequently co‐morbid with alcohol use disorders. Yet we have previously shown that δ receptor agonists range widely in their ability to modulate alcohol intake; certain δ receptor agonists actually increase alcohol consumption in mice. We propose that variations in β‐arrestin 2 recruitment contribute to the differential behavioural profile of δ receptor agonists. Experimental Approach We used three diarylmethylpiperazine‐based non‐peptidic δ receptor selective agonists (SNC80, SNC162 and ARM390) and three structurally diverse δ receptor agonists (TAN‐67, KNT127 and NIH11082). We tested these agonists in cAMP and β‐arrestin 2 recruitment assays and a behavioural assay of alcohol intake in male C57BL/6 mice. We used β‐arrestin 2 knockout mice and a model of depression‐like behaviour to further study the role of β‐arrestin 2 in δ receptor pharmacology. Key Results All six tested δ receptor agonists were full agonists in the cAMP assay but displayed distinct β‐arrestin 2 recruitment efficacy. The efficacy of δ receptor agonists to recruit β‐arrestin 2 positively correlated with their ability to increase alcohol intake (P < 0.01). The effects of the very efficacious recruiter SNC80 on alcohol intake, alcohol place preference and depression‐like behaviour were β‐arrestin 2‐dependent. Conclusions and Implications Our finding that δ receptor agonists that strongly recruit β‐arrestin 2 can increase alcohol intake carries important ramifications for drug development of δ receptor agonists for treatment of alcohol use disorders and depressive disorders. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society PMID:26507558

  9. A Controlled Trial of Topiramate Treatment for Alcohol Dependence in Veterans with PTSD

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Disorder 3.30% Cannabis Abuse or Dependence 6.70% Cocaine Abuse or Dependence 16.70% Sedative Abuse or Dependence 6.70% Opiate Abuse or Dependence 3.30...of Cannabis Use in the Past 90 Days [n = 9] 45 (9–90, 78) No. of Days of Cocaine Use in the Past 90 Days [n = 3] 37.0 (45.9) No. of Days of Opiate Use...Dependence Yes No Lifetime alcohol dependence Yes No ______ Cannabis Abuse Yes No Cannabis Dependence Yes No Cocaine Abuse

  10. Cue-Elicited Affect and Craving: Advancement of the Conceptualization of Craving in Co-Occurring Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I.; Berenz, Erin C.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Stasiewicz, Paul R.; Coffey, Scott F.

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults…

  11. Similar withdrawal severity in adolescents and adults in a rat model of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Morris, S A; Kelso, M L; Liput, D J; Marshall, S A; Nixon, K

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol use during adolescence leads to increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adulthood. Converging evidence suggests that this period of enhanced vulnerability for developing an AUD may be due to the adolescent's unique sensitivity and response to alcohol. Adolescent rats have been shown to be less sensitive to alcohol intoxication and withdrawal susceptibility; however, age differences in ethanol pharmacokinetics may underlie these effects. Therefore, this study investigated alcohol intoxication behavior and withdrawal severity using a modified Majchrowicz model of alcohol dependence that has been shown to result in similar blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) despite age differences. Adolescent (postnatal day, PND, 35) and adult rats (PND 70+) received ethanol according to this 4-day binge paradigm and were observed for withdrawal behavior for 17h. As expected, adolescents showed decreased sensitivity to alcohol-induced CNS depression as evidenced by significantly lower intoxication scores. Thus, adolescents received significantly more ethanol each day (12.3+/-0.1g/kg/day) than adults (9.2+/-0.2g/kg/day). Despite greater ethanol dosing in adolescent rats, both adolescent and adult groups had comparable peak BECs (344.5+/-10.2 and 338.5+/-7.8mg/dL, respectively). Strikingly, withdrawal severity was similar quantitatively and qualitatively between adolescent and adult rats. Further, this is the first time that withdrawal behavior has been reported for adolescent rats using this model of alcohol dependence. A second experiment confirmed the similarity in BECs at various time points across the binge. These results demonstrate that after consideration of ethanol pharmacokinetics between adults and adolescents by using a model that produces similar BECs, withdrawal severity is nearly identical. This study, in combination with previous reports on ethanol withdrawal in adolescents and adults, suggests only a BEC-dependent effect of ethanol on

  12. Markers of apoptosis induction and proliferation in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Whittom, Angela; Villarreal, Ashley; Soni, Madhav; Owusu-Duku, Beverly; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A.; Miguel-Hidalgo, Jose J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Alcohol-dependent (ALC) subjects exhibit glial and neuronal pathology in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, in many patients, neurophysiological disturbances are not associated with catastrophic cell depletion despite prolonged alcohol abuse. It is still unclear how some relevant markers of a cell’s propensity to degenerate or proliferate are changed in the PFC of ALC subjects without major neurological disorders. Methods Levels of pro-apoptotic caspase 8 (C8), X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP), direct IAP binding protein with low pI (DIABLO), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and density of cells immunoreactive (-IR) for proliferation marker Ki-67 were measured postmortem in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) of 29 subjects with alcohol dependence and 23 non-psychiatric comparison subjects. Results ALC subjects had significantly higher levels of the 14kDa C8 fragment (C8-14), an indicator of C8 activation. However, there was no change in the levels of DIABLO, XIAP or in the DIABLO/XIAP ratio. PCNA protein level and density of Ki-67-IR cells were not significantly changed in alcoholics, although PCNA levels were increased in older ALC subjects as compared to controls. Conclusions Significant increase of a C8 activation indicator was found in alcoholism, but without significant changes in XIAP level, DIABLO/XIAP ratio, or Ki-67 labeling. These results would help to explain the absence of catastrophic cell loss in the PFC of many alcohol dependent subjects, while still being consistent with an alcoholism-related vulnerability to slow decline in glial cells and neurons in the OFC of alcoholics. PMID:25421516

  13. Reduced connexin 43 immunolabeling in the orbitofrontal cortex in alcohol dependence and depression.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A

    2014-08-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders.

  14. Reduced Connexin 43 Immunolabeling in the Orbitofrontal Cortex in Alcohol Dependence and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier; Wilson, Barbara A.; Hussain, Syed; Meshram, Ashish; Rajkowska, Grazyna; Stockmeier, Craig A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced density of glial cells and low levels of some astrocyte proteins have been described in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in depression and alcoholism, two disorders often comorbid. These regressive changes may also involve the communication between astrocytes via gap junctions and hemichannels, which play important regulatory roles in neurotransmission. We determined levels and morphological immunostaining parameters of connexin 43 (Cx43), the main protein subunit of astrocyte gap junctions/hemichannels, in the OFC of subjects with depression, alcoholism or comorbid depression/alcoholism as compared to non-psychiatric subjects. Postmortem brain samples from 23 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 16 with alcohol dependence, 13 with comorbid MDD and alcohol dependence, and 20 psychiatrically-normal comparison subjects were processed for western blots to determine Cx43 levels. Area fraction of Cx43 immunoreactivity, and density and average size of immunoreactive puncta were measured in histological sections. There was a significant, larger than 60 percent decrease in Cx43 level in the three psychiatric groups as compared to controls. Area fraction of immunoreactivity and immunoreactive punctum size were reduced in all psychiatric groups, but Cx43-immunoreactive puncta density was reduced only in alcohol-dependent subjects. Among psychiatric subjects, no difference in Cx43 levels or immunostaining was found between suicides and non-suicides. The present data suggest that dysfunction of the OFC is accompanied by reduction in the levels of gap junction protein Cx43 in depression and alcoholism, and reduction in density of Cx43 immunoreactive puncta only in alcoholism, pointing to altered gap junction or hemichannel-based communication in the pathophysiology of those disorders. PMID:24774648

  15. Association between adolescent tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug use and individual and environmental resilience protective factors

    PubMed Central

    Hodder, Rebecca Kate; Freund, Megan; Bowman, Jenny; Gillham, Karen; Dray, Julia; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research suggests that individual and environmental resilience protective factors may be associated with adolescent substance use; however, the associations between a broad range of such factors and use of various types of substances have not been examined. The study aimed to determine the association between a comprehensive range of adolescent individual and environmental resilience protective factors and measures of tobacco, alcohol and illicit substance use. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 32 Australian secondary schools. Participants Grade 7–10 students (aged 11–17 years). Measures Data regarding 14 student individual and environmental resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, other illicit drug use) were obtained via an online self-report survey. Adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses examined the association between all student resilience protective factors and seven substance use measures. Results Inverse univariate associations were found for 94 of 98 relationships examined (n=10 092). Multivariate analyses found: consistent inverse associations between 2 of 14 protective factors and all substance use measures (‘goals and aspirations’, ‘prosocial peers’); inverse associations between 4 protective factors with multiple substance use measures (‘home support’ (5 of 7), ‘school support’ (3 of 7), ‘self-awareness’ (2 of 7), ‘community meaningful participation’ (2 of 7)); positive associations between 2 resilience protective factors with multiple measures of substance use (‘community support’ (3 of 7), ‘peer caring relationships’ (5 of 7)) and 6 protective factors not to be associated with any substance use measure. Conclusions Despite individual relationships between the majority of resilience protective factors and substance use types, the protective benefit of such factors for adolescent substance use was limited to only a small number of

  16. Individual Differences in the Attribution of Incentive Salience to a Pavlovian Alcohol Cue

    PubMed Central

    Villaruel, Franz R.; Chaudhri, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Individual differences exist in the attribution of incentive salience to conditioned stimuli associated with food. Here, we investigated whether individual differences also manifested with a Pavlovian alcohol conditioned stimulus (CS). We compiled data from five experiments that used a Pavlovian autoshaping paradigm and tests of conditioned reinforcement. In all experiments, male, Long-Evans rats with unrestricted access to food and water were acclimated to 15% ethanol. Next, rats received Pavlovian autoshaping training, in which a 10 s presentation of a retractable lever served as the CS and 0.2 mL of 15% ethanol served as the unconditioned stimulus (US). Finally, rats underwent conditioned reinforcement tests in which nose-pokes to an active aperture led to brief presentations of the lever-CS, but nose-pokes to an inactive aperture had no consequence. Rats were categorized as sign-trackers, goal-trackers and intermediates based on a response bias score that reflected their tendencies to sign-track or goal-track at different times during training. We found that distinct groups of rats either consistently interacted with the lever-CS (“sign-trackers”) or routinely approached the port during the lever-CS (“goal-trackers”) across a majority of the training sessions. However, some individuals (“shifted sign-trackers”) with an early tendency to goal-track later shifted to comparable asymptotic levels of sign-tracking as the group identified as sign-trackers. The lever-CS functioned as a conditioned reinforcer for sign-trackers and shifted sign-trackers, but not for goal-trackers. These results provide evidence of robust individual differences in the extent to which a Pavlovian alcohol cue gains incentive salience and functions as a conditioned reinforcer. PMID:28082877

  17. Epileptiform Activity in Alcohol Dependent Patients and Possibilities of Its Indirect Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Bob, Petr; Jasova, Denisa; Bizik, Gustav; Raboch, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    Background Alcohol dependence during withdrawal and also in abstinent period in many cases is related to reduced inhibitory functions and kindling that may appear in the form of psychosensory symptoms similar to temporal lobe epilepsy frequently in conditions of normal EEG and without seizures. Because temporal lobe epileptic activity tend to spread between hemispheres, it is possible to suppose that measures reflecting interhemispheric information transfer such as electrodermal activity (EDA) might be related to the psychosensory symptoms. Methods and Findings We have performed measurement of bilateral EDA, psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) and alcohol craving (ACQ) in 34 alcohol dependent patients and 32 healthy controls. The results in alcohol dependent patients show that during rest conditions the psychosensory symptoms (LSCL-33) are related to EDA transinformation (PTI) between left and right EDA records (Spearman r = 0.44, p<0.01). Conclusions The result may present potentially useful clinical finding suggesting a possibility to indirectly assess epileptiform changes in alcohol dependent patients. PMID:21541318

  18. Moderators of Varenicline Treatment Effects in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial for Alcohol Dependence: an Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Falk, Daniel E.; Castle, I-Jen P.; Ryan, Megan; Fertig, Joanne; Litten, Raye Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore if varenicline (Chantix®) showed more efficacy in treating certain subgroups of patients. In a recent multi-site trial, varenicline was shown to be effective in reducing drinking in alcohol dependent patients, both smokers and nonsmokers. Given the heterogeneity among alcohol dependent patients, secondary analyses were conducted to determine if certain subgroups responded more favorably than others to treatment with varenicline. Methods Data were drawn from a Phase 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multi-site 13-week trial of varenicline in alcohol dependent patients (Litten et al., 2013). Seventeen moderator variables were selected for exploratory testing on the basis of theoretical and scientific interest. Results Of the 17 moderator variables assessed, four were statistically significant, including cigarettes per day reduction, treatment drinking goal, years drinking regularly, and age of patient. Two other variables—the type of adverse events experienced by patients and the severity of alcohol-related consequences—appeared to moderate the varenicline treatment effect at borderline statistical significance. Individuals who reduced the number of cigarettes per day experienced a significant effect from varenicline in reducing drinking, whereas those who did not change or who increased their number of cigarettes observed no beneficial effect. Reviewing the moderators related to severity, varenicline appeared to have greater efficacy than placebo among less severely-dependent patients. Conclusions Varenicline appears to be more efficacious in certain subgroups, particularly in those who reduced their smoking and in the “less severe” patient. Additional studies are warranted to confirm the results of these exploratory analyses. PMID:26083958

  19. Diameter dependent thermoelectric properties of individual SnTe nanowires

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, E. Z.; Li, Z.; Martinez, J. A.; ...

    2015-01-15

    The lead-free compound tin telluride (SnTe) has recently been suggested to be a potentially promising thermoelectric material because of its similar electronic band structure as the well-known lead telluride. Here we report on the first thermoelectric study of individual single crystalline SnTe nanowires (NWs) with different diameters ranging from ~200 to ~1000 nm. Measurements of thermopower S, electrical conductivity σ, and thermal conductivity κ were carried out on the same nanowires over a temperature range of 25 - 300 K. While σ does not show a strong diameter dependence, the thermopower increases by a factor of 2 when the nanowiremore » diameter is decreased from 1000 nm to 200 nm. The thermal conductivities of the measured NWs are only about half of that of the bulk SnTe, which may arise from the enhanced phonon-grain boundary and phonon-defect scatterings. Temperature dependent figure-of-merit ZT was determined and the maximum value at room temperature is ~3 times higher than what was obtained in bulk samples of comparable carrier density.« less

  20. The Cannabinoid Receptor 2 Protects Against Alcoholic Liver Disease Via a Macrophage Autophagy-Dependent Pathway.

    PubMed

    Denaës, Timothé; Lodder, Jasper; Chobert, Marie-Noële; Ruiz, Isaac; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Lotersztajn, Sophie; Teixeira-Clerc, Fatima

    2016-06-27

    Kupffer cells, the resident macrophages of the liver, play a major role in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease. We have previously demonstrated that CB2 receptor protects against alcoholic liver disease by inhibiting alcohol-induced inflammation and steatosis via the regulation of Kupffer cell activation. Here, we explored the mechanism underlying these effects and hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory properties of CB2 receptor in Kupffer cells rely on activation of autophagy. For this purpose, mice invalidated for CB2 receptor (CB2(Mye-/-) mice) or for the autophagy gene ATG5 (ATG5(Mye-/-) mice) in the myeloid lineage, and their littermate wild-type mice were subjected to chronic-plus-binge ethanol feeding. CB2(Mye-/-) mice showed exacerbated alcohol-induced pro-inflammatory gene expression and steatosis. Studies in cultured macrophages demonstrated that CB2 receptor activation by JWH-133 stimulated autophagy via a heme oxygenase-1 dependent pathway. Moreover, JWH-133 reduced the induction of inflammatory genes by lipopolysaccharide in wild-type macrophages, but not in ATG5-deficient cells. The CB2 agonist also protected from alcohol-induced liver inflammation and steatosis in wild-type mice, but not in ATG5(Mye-/-) mice demonstrating that macrophage autophagy mediates the anti-inflammatory and anti-steatogenic effects of CB2 receptor. Altogether these results demonstrate that CB2 receptor activation in macrophages protects from alcohol-induced steatosis by inhibiting hepatic inflammation through an autophagy-dependent pathway.

  1. Strain Dependence of Photoluminescense of Individual Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nikolaev, Pavel N.; Leeuw, Tonya K.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, Bruce; Arepalli, Sivaram

    2007-01-01

    We have investigated strain dependence of photoluminescense (PL) spectra of single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Nanotubes were sparsely dispersed in a thin PMMA film applied to acrylic bar, and strained in both compression and extension by bending this bar in either direction in a homebuilt four-point bending rig. The average surface strain was measured with high accuracy by a resistive strain gage applied on top of the film. The near infrared imaging and spectroscopy were performed on the inverted microscope equipped with high numerical aperture reflective objective lens and InGaAs CCD cameras. PL was excited with a diode laser at either 658, 730 or 785 nm, linearly polarized in the direction of the strain. We were able to measure (n,m) types and orientation of individual nanotubes with respect to strain direction and strain dependence of their PL maxima. It was found that PL peak shifts with respect to the values measured in SDS micelles are a sum of three components. First, a small environmental shift due to difference in the dielectric constant of the surrounding media, that is constant and independent of the nanotube type. Second, shift due to isotropic compression of the film during drying. Third, shifts produced by the uniaxial loading of the film in the experiment. Second and third shifts follow expression based on the first-order expansion of the TB hamiltonian. Their magnitude is proportional to the nanotube chiral angle and strain, and direction is determined by the nanotube quantum number. PL strain dependence measured for a number of various nanotube types allows to estimate TB carbon-carbon transfer integral.

  2. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S.-Mexico border and non-border Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Caetano Vaeth, Patrice A.; Mills, Britain A.; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper examines the prevalence, the symptom profile, and the drinking and sociodemographic predictors of current (past 12 month) DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans living along the U.S.-Mexico border and those living in metropolitan areas away from the border. METHODS Respondents in the non-border areas (primarily Houston and Los Angeles) constitute a multistage probability sample (N=1,288) of these areas, interviewed as part of the 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS). Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constitute a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on the border. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents’ homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. RESULTS Although bivariate analyses revealed no overall differences between border and non-border locations, (negative) age trends were more pronounced on the border for male abuse and for dependence among both genders. Among females aged 18–29, border residence was linked to significantly higher rates of dependence. In multivariable analyses, the prevalence of male abuse declined more rapidly with age on the border than off the border. Other unique predictors of male abuse were Jewish/other religion and weekly volume of alcohol consumption. Being married or out of the workforce, attaining a higher education, no religious preference, and weekly volume uniquely predicted female dependence. Age and weekly volume uniquely predicted male dependence. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of alcohol use disorders among Mexican Americans on and off the U.S.-Mexico border largely mirrors previously documented patterns of alcohol consumption in these areas. For young Mexican-American women in particular, border residence is linked to heightened vulnerability to alcohol dependence. PMID:23278433

  3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Awareness Month April is Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge Learn more College Drinking Learn More Alcohol Dependence Get the facts Alcohol Awareness Month Biosensor Challenge College Drinking Alcohol Dependence Latest News New & ...

  4. Individual and district-level predictors of alcohol use: cross sectional findings from a rural mental health survey in Australia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use is a significant problem in rural and remote Australia. The factors contributing to patterns of alcohol use have not been adequately explained, yet the geographic variation in rates suggests a potential contribution of district-level factors, such as socio-economic disadvantage, rates of population change, environmental adversity, and remoteness from services/population centres. This paper aims to investigate individual-level and district-level predictors of alcohol use in a sample of rural adults. Methods Using baseline survey data (N = 1,981) from the population-based Australian Rural Mental Health Study of community dwelling residents randomly selected from the Australia electoral roll, hierarchal logistic regression models were fitted for three outcomes: 1) at-risk alcohol use, indicated by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores ≥8; 2) high alcohol consumption (> 40 drinks per month); and 3) lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Predictor variables included demographic factors, pre-dispositional factors, recent difficulties and support, mental health, rural exposure and district-level contextual factors. Results Gender, age, marital status, and personality made the largest contribution to at-risk alcohol use. Five or more adverse life events in the past 12 months were also independently associated with at-risk alcohol use (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 3.3, 99%CI 1.2, 8.9). When these individual-level factors were controlled for, at-risk alcohol use was associated with having spent a lower proportion of time living in a rural district (AOR 1.7, 99%CI 1.3, 2.9). Higher alcohol consumption per month was associated with higher district-level socio-economic ranking, indicating less disadvantage (AOR 1.2, 99%CI 1.02, 1.4). Rural exposure and district-level contextual factors were not significantly associated with lifetime consequences of alcohol use. Conclusions Although recent attention has been directed towards the

  5. Val158Met COMT polymorphism and risk of aggression in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Soyka, Michael; Zill, Peter; Koller, Gabi; Samochowiec, Agnieszka; Grzywacz, Anna; Preuss, Ulrich W

    2015-01-01

    Aggression, violence and antisocial behavior are common in alcoholism, but their biological basis is poorly understood. Several studies and recent meta-analyses indicate that in schizophrenia the catecholamine-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype may be associated with aggression, most often in methionine allele carriers. We tested this hypothesis in a sample of treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent in-patients (293 German patients and 499 controls, and additional 190 Polish patients as replication sample). As expected, patients with a history of violent or non-violent crime were more often male, had an earlier onset of alcoholism and more withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens, and were more likely to have a history of suicide attempts. COMT genotype was not associated with a history of violent or non-violent crime. More studies are needed on the neurobiological basis of aggression and violence in alcoholism.

  6. Cue-elicited affect and craving: advancement of the conceptualization of craving in co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Nosen, Elizabeth; Nillni, Yael I; Berenz, Erin C; Schumacher, Julie A; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2012-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence (AD) and negatively affects treatment outcomes. Trauma-related negative affect enhances substance craving in laboratory cue-reactivity studies of AD individuals, but the role of positive affect has not been established. In this study, 108 AD treatment-seeking adults with current PTSD and AD were presented with four counterbalanced trials consisting of an audio cue (personalized trauma or neutral script) followed by a beverage cue (alcohol or water). Results revealed alcohol cues increased positive and negative affect, and positive affective responses explained significant incremental variance in self-reported craving and salivation, but only when cues were accompanied by neutral not trauma imagery. Ambivalent (high negative and positive) responses were associated with strongest craving. Findings advance the conceptualization of craving in individuals with PTSD-AD and highlight the importance of independently assessing positive and negative affective responses to cues in individuals with co-occurring PTSD-AD.

  7. Relationships between the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia and dependency in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Otmani, O; Lecercle, C; Jouvent, R

    2000-09-25

    Several authors have shown that alexithymia, emotional and perceptual dependency characterize patients suffering from substance abuse. The aim of the study is to test the hypothesis that the emotional and cognitive components of alexithymia are associated with dependency in alcoholics. Three groups were investigated: 60 inpatients meeting the DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence, 57 healthy subjects, 144 university students. All subjects completed the following rating scales: The 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Embedded Figures Test (EFT). Partial correlations, using the BDI score as constant, were calculated. In normal subjects, the 'Emotion' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale of the IDI and the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 did not correlate with the EFT score. In alcoholics, the 'Cognitive' subscale of the TAS-20 correlated with the 'Lack of social self-confidence' subscale, with the EFT score and with the 'Affirmation of autonomy' subscale. A particular cognitive style characterized by externally oriented thinking, affirmation of autonomy as denial of emotional dependency and field dependence could characterize alcoholics.

  8. H2 haplotype at chromosome 17q21.31 protects against childhood sexual abuse-associated risk for alcohol consumption and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Elliot C.; Agrawal, Arpana; Pergadia, Michele L.; Wang, Jen C.; Whitfield, John B.; Saccone, F. Scott; Kern, Jason; Grant, Julia D.; Schrage, Andrew J.; Rice, John P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Heath, Andrew C.; Goate, Alison M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Madden, Pamela A.F.

    2011-01-01

    Animal research supports a central role for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) in actions of ethanol on brain function. An examination of alcohol consumption in adolescents reported a significant genotype × environment (G × E) interaction involving rs1876831, a CRHR1 polymorphism, and negative events. CRHR1 and at least 4 other genes are located at 17q21.31 in an extremely large block of high linkage disequilibrium resulting from a local chromosomal inversion; the minor allele of rs1876831 is contained within the H2 haplotype. Here we examine whether G × E interactions involving this haplotype and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are associated with risk for alcohol consumption and dependence in Australian participants (N=1128 respondents from 476 families) of the Nicotine Addiction Genetics project. Telephone interviews provided data on DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis and CSA and enabled calculation of lifetime alcohol consumption factor score (ACFS) from 4 indices of alcohol consumption. Individuals reporting a history of CSA had significantly higher ACFS and increased risk for alcohol dependence. A significant G × E interaction was found for ACFS involving the H2 haplotype and CSA (p<0.017). A similar G × E interaction was associated with protective effects against alcohol dependence risk (odds ratio 0.42; 95%CI 0.20 – 0.89). For each outcome, no significant CSA-associated risk was observed in H2 haplotype carriers. These findings support conducting further investigation of the H2 haplotype to determine the gene(s) responsible. Our results also suggest that severe early trauma may prove to be an important clinical covariate in the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:19878140

  9. [Suicidal and personality characteristics of women married to men with alcohol dependence and suicidal activity].

    PubMed

    Merinov, A V; Shustov, D I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of the suicidal activity in men with alcohol dependence on suicidal indexes, personal-codependency and psychological specifics of their wives has been studied. It has been found that women married to suicidal men with alcohol dependence significantly more frequently demonstrate suicidal activity (a phenomenon of suicidal matrimonial comorbidity) compared to wives of "non-suicidal" men. They also reveal non-suicidal behavioral patterns more frequently and prosuicidal predictors are quite common in them. This contingent of women has high suicidal potential that needs special attention during the therapeutic work.

  10. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or...

  11. The activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Zaniewska, Agnieszka; Borzym-Kluczyk, Malgorzata; Szajda, Slawomir D; Romatowski, Jacek; Gil, Andrzej; Knas, Malgorzata; Dobryniewski, Jacek; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the lysosomal exoglycosidases: alpha-mannosidase (MAN), alpha-fucosidase (FUC), and beta-glucuronidase (GLUCUR) in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented and not supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E. Serum was collected from eight social drinkers and 16 alcohol-dependent men after a drinking period. The activity of exoglycosidases and the concentration of protein in serum were determined. The increase in specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR was significant in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with the specific activity in serum of social drinkers. In serum of alcohol-dependent men treated with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, specific activity of MAN and GLUCUR fluctuated in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Specific activity of FUC in serum of alcohol-dependent men both not supplemented and supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E showed a tendency to increase, in comparison with social drinkers. Specific activity of FUC had a tendency to decrease in serum of alcohol-dependent men supplemented with borage oil enriched with vitamin E, in comparison with alcohol-dependent men not supplemented. Thus, supplementation of alcohol-dependent men after a long-lasting drinking period with borage oil and vitamin E did not change the rate of catabolism of the oligosaccharide chains of glycoconjugates, as evaluated by serum activity of exoglycosidases.

  12. Does retigabine affect the development of alcohol dependence?--A pharmaco-EEG study.

    PubMed

    Zwierzyńska, Ewa; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Pietrzak, Bogusława

    2016-01-12

    New antiepileptic drugs have been investigated for their potential role in the treatment of alcohol dependence. One of these drugs is retigabine and this study examines the effect of retigabine co-administered with ethanol on the development of alcohol dependence and the course of acute withdrawal syndrome. A pharmaco-EEG method was used to examine this impact in selected brain structures of rabbits (midbrain reticular formation, hippocampus and frontal cortex). Retigabine was administered p.o. at a dose of 5mg/kg/day with ethanol ad libitum for 6 weeks and then alone for 2 weeks during an abstinence period. Changes in bioelectric activity, which demonstrated the inhibitory effect of alcohol on the brain structures, were already visible after 2 weeks of ethanol administration. In the abstinence period, changes were of a different nature and significant neuronal hyperactivity was observed, particularly in the midbrain reticular formation and the hippocampus. This findings reveal that retigabine decreased ethanol-induced changes during both alcohol administration and abstinence periods. In particular, the modulatory effect of retigabine on the hippocampus may be a significant element of its mechanism of action in alcohol dependence therapy.

  13. Alexithymia and personality dimensions in relation to depression and anxiety in male alcohol-dependent inpatients.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Evren, Bilge; Dalbudak, Ercan

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of alexithymia and temperament and character model of personality with depression and anxiety symptoms in detoxified male alcohol-dependent inpatients. Method. The subjects consisted of 176 male alcohol-dependent inpatients according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Patients were investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, State and Trait Anxiety Inventory, Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Results. MAST score and scores of all three factors of the TAS-20 significantly predicted depression scale and anxiety scales. Difficulty in identifying feelings and difficulty in describing feelings factors were particularly effective, relative to the externally orientated thinking factor of the TAS-20 for prediction depression and anxiety. The TCI dimensions emerged as distinct and conceptually meaningful predictors for the depression scale and anxiety scales. Conclusion. Depression and anxiety symptoms among detoxified male alcohol dependents are associated with alexithymia, a broad range of personality dimensions and higher severity of alcohol-related problems, which make these related factors highly relevant for clinical practice.

  14. SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling regulates alcohol response behaviors in Caenorhabditis elegans and is associated with alcohol dependence in humans.

    PubMed

    Mathies, Laura D; Blackwell, GinaMari G; Austin, Makeda K; Edwards, Alexis C; Riley, Brien P; Davies, Andrew G; Bettinger, Jill C

    2015-03-10

    Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.

  15. Neuropeptide YY(2)R blockade in the central amygdala reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking in alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Kallupi, Marsida; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Carmichael, Casey Y; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2014-09-01

    Electrophysiological data suggest a dual role of Y2 receptors (Y2 Rs) as autoreceptors regulating neuropeptide Y release and heteroceptors regulating gamma-aminobutyric acid release in the central amygdala (CeA). Here, we report that neither systemic (JNJ-31020028) nor intra-CeA (BIIE0246) Y2 R antagonism altered operant alcohol responding by alcohol-dependent or non-dependent rats. Conversely, BIIE0246 in the CeA reduced anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-dependent and alcohol-naïve rats. The finding that Y2 R antagonism reduces anxiety-like behavior but not alcohol drinking suggests that these two effects may occur via different functions of the Y2 R (e.g. autoreceptor versus heteroceptor function).

  16. Main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in relation to alcohol dependence among urban male firefighters.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Daniel J; Vujanovic, Anka A; Schuhmann, Bailee B; Smith, Lia J; Tran, Jana

    2017-05-01

    Depression, posttraumatic stress, and alcohol use are highly prevalent among firefighters. However, no study has evaluated the interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to alcohol use among firefighters. The current study examined main and interactive effects of depression and posttraumatic stress in terms of alcohol dependence symptoms, positive alcohol dependence screen, and drinks per occasion. Participants included 2707 male urban firefighters. There was a main effect of posttraumatic stress in relation to all alcohol-related outcomes and a main effect of depression only for alcohol dependence symptoms. There was a significant interaction of depression and posttraumatic stress with regard to symptoms of alcohol dependence, positive screen for alcohol dependence, and number of drinks per occasion. Interactions were evident above main effects and covariates (age, presence of a spouse/partner, tenure in the fire department, history of active duty in the U.S. armed forces, and racial/ethnic minority status). Overall, heightened depression was positively associated with alcohol-related outcomes for those with lower but not higher levels of posttraumatic stress in all models. Posttraumatic stress and depression may pose unique interactive risks for alcohol dependence in urban male firefighters. Implications for clinical intervention in firefighters are discussed.

  17. Association of GABAA receptor α2 subunit gene (GABRA2) with alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Strac, Dubravka Svob; Erjavec, Gordana Nedic; Perkovic, Matea Nikolac; Sviglin, Korona Nenadic; Borovecki, Fran; Pivac, Nela

    2015-12-03

    Alcohol dependence is a common chronic disorder precipitated by the complex interaction between biological, genetic and environmental risk factors. Recent studies have demonstrated that polymorphisms of the gene encoding the GABAA receptor α2 subunit (GABRA2) are associated with alcohol dependence in different populations of European ancestry. As aggression often occurs in the context of alcohol dependence, the aim of this study was to examine the allelic and haplotypic association of GABRA2 gene with alcohol dependence and related aggressive behavior in subjects of Eastern European (Croatian) origin. Genotyping of the 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the GABRA2 gene (rs567926, rs279858 and rs9291283) was performed in patients with alcohol dependence (N=654) and healthy control subjects (N=574). Alcohol-dependent participants were additionally subdivided according to the presence/absence of aggressive behavior and type of alcohol dependence according to the Cloninger's classification. The association of rs279858 with alcohol dependence yielded nominal significance level. Haplotype analysis revealed a high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD) for rs567926 and rs279858, but not for rs9291283 polymorphism in the GABRA2 gene. In patients with alcohol dependence, the A-C (rs567926 and rs279858) haplotype carriers were more likely to demonstrate aggressive behavior. The same haplotype (present only in 1.6% of all subjects) was significantly more often present in patients with a combination of early onset alcohol abuse and aggression, corresponding to the Cloninger's type II alcoholism subgroup. These findings support the involvement of GABRA2 gene in alcohol dependence-related aggressive behavior.

  18. Determining Effective Methadone Doses for Individual Opioid-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Trafton, Jodie A; Minkel, Jared; Humphreys, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Background Randomized clinical trials of methadone maintenance have found that on average high daily doses are more effective for reducing heroin use, and clinical practice guidelines recommend 60 mg/d as a minimum dosage. Nevertheless, many clinicians report that some patients can be stably maintained on lower methadone dosages to optimal effect, and clinic dosing practices vary substantially. Studies of individual responses to methadone treatment may be more easily translated into clinical practice. Methods and Findings A volunteer sample of 222 opioid-dependent US veterans initiating methadone treatment was prospectively observed over the year after treatment entry. In the 168 who achieved at least 1 mo of heroin abstinence, methadone dosages on which patients maintained heroin-free urine samples ranged from 1.5 mg to 191.2 mg (median = 69 mg). Among patients who achieved heroin abstinence, higher methadone dosages were predicted by having a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder or depression, having a greater number of previous opioid detoxifications, living in a region with lower average heroin purity, attending a clinic where counselors discourage dosage reductions, and staying in treatment longer. These factors predicted 42% of the variance in dosage associated with heroin abstinence. Conclusions Effective and ineffective methadone dosages overlap substantially. Dosing guidelines should focus more heavily on appropriate processes of dosage determination rather than solely specifying recommended dosages. To optimize therapy, methadone dosages must be titrated until heroin abstinence is achieved. PMID:16448216

  19. Parental Alcohol Dependence and the Transmission of Adolescent Behavioral Disinhibition: A Study of Adoptive and Non-Adoptive Families

    PubMed Central

    King, Serena M.; Keyes, Margaret; Malone, Stephen M.; Elkins, Irene; Legrand, Lisa N.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2009-01-01

    Aim To examine the genetic and environmental influences of parental alcoholism on offspring disinhibited behavior. Design We compared the effect of parental alcoholism history on offspring in adoptive and non-adoptive families. In families with a history of parental alcohol dependence, we examined the effect of exposure to parental alcoholism symptoms during the lifetime of the adolescent. Setting Assessments occurred at the University of Minnesota from 1998-2004. Participants Adolescents adopted in infancy were systematically ascertained from records of three private Minnesota adoption agencies; non-adopted adolescents were ascertained from Minnesota birth records. Adolescents and their rearing parents participated in in-person assessments. Measurements For adolescents, measures included self- reports of delinquency, deviant peers, substance use, antisocial attitudes, and personality. For parents, we conducted DSM-IV clinical assessments of alcohol abuse and dependence. Findings A history of parental alcohol dependence was associated with higher levels of disinhibition only when adolescents were biologically related to their rearing parents. Within families with a history of parental alcoholism, exposure to parental alcohol misuse during the lifetime of the adolescent was associated with increased odds of using alcohol in adopted adolescents only. Conclusions These findings suggest that the association between a history of parental alcohol dependence and adolescent offspring behavioral disinhibition is largely attributable to genetic rather than environmental transmission. We also obtained some evidence for parental alcohol misuse as a shared environmental risk factor in adoptive families. PMID:19215604

  20. General and Specific Predictors of Nicotine and Alcohol Dependence in Early Adulthood: Genetic and Environmental Influences

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R; Keyes, Margaret A; Hicks, Brian M; Bailey, Jennifer; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William G

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study builds on previous work delineating a hierarchical model of family environmental risk in relation to a hierarchical model of externalizing disorders (EXTs) by evaluating for gene–environment interplay in these relationships. The associations between parent–child relationship quality (conflict, bonding, and management) and substance-specific adolescent family environments (parental/sibling tobacco/alcohol use) in relation to young adult EXTs (age ∼22 years nicotine, alcohol, and other drug dependence; antisocial and risky sexual behavior) were evaluated. Method: The sample included 533 adopted offspring and 323 biological offspring. Because adopted youth do not share genes with their parents, a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs would provide evidence against passive gene–environment correlation (rGE). Significant associations between parental tobacco/alcohol use in relation to offspring nicotine/alcohol dependence in the adopted offspring support common environmental influence. Significant associations detected for the biological offspring only suggest common genetic influence. Results: For both adoptive and biological offspring, there was a significant association between parent–child relationship quality and EXTs. Parental tobacco/alcohol use was unrelated to EXTs. Sibling tobacco/alcohol use was related to EXTs, but only for the biological siblings. Parental tobacco use was associated with the residual variance in nicotine dependence in adopted offspring. Conclusions: Findings replicate a long-term influence of adolescent parent–child relationship quality on adult EXTs. Findings extend previous research by providing evidence against passive rGE in this association. The association between parental tobacco use and adult nicotine dependence appears to be environmentally mediated, but caution is warranted as we found this relationship only for adopted youth. PMID:24988261

  1. Sexual dysfunctions in alcohol-dependent men: A study from north India

    PubMed Central

    Pendharkar, Shreyas; Mattoo, Surendra K.; Grover, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Sexual dysfunctions have been reported in alcohol-dependent men. Most of the studies conducted had limitation of using non-validated measures of sexual dysfunction and sampling design. This study was, therefore, conducted to determine the typology, demographic and clinical correlates of sexual dysfunction in alcohol-dependent men. Methods: One hundred and one patients with alcohol dependence (AD) attending the Drug De-addiction and Treatment Centre and 50 healthy controls were evaluated in this cross-sectional study. Participants in both the groups were assessed on Arizona Sexual experience scale (ASEX), Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). In addition, patients with AD were assessed on Severity of Alcohol Dependence Questionnaire (SADQ) for severity of AD and revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar) to ensure that no participant was in active alcohol withdrawal state. Results: Overall, 58.4 per cent of patients in the AD group had sexual dysfunction. Among the domains, the highest frequency was seen for dysfunction for arousal (57.4%), followed by problems in desire (54.4%), erection (36.6%), satisfaction with orgasm (34.6%) and ability to reach orgasm was least affected (12.87%). The patient and control groups differed significantly in overall dyadic adjustment, in the domains of dyadic satisfaction and affective expression. Interpretation & conclusions: The finding of this study showed that a significant proportion of patients with AD has sexual dysfunction. Longitudinal studies using validated assessment tools should be done to confirm these findings. PMID:28139538

  2. PET imaging of the serotonin transporter and 5HT1A receptor in alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diana; Slifstein, Mark; Gil, Roberto; Hwang, Dah-Ren; Huang, Yiyun; Perez, Audrey; Frankle, W. Gordon; Laruelle, Marc; Krystal, John; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2009-01-01

    Background Rodent models as well as studies in humans have suggested alterations in serotonin (5HT) innervation and transmission in early onset genetically determined or type II alcoholism. This study examines two indices of serotonergic transmission, 5HT transporter levels and 5-HT1A availability, in vivo, in type II alcoholism. This is the first report of combined tracers for pre and post-synaptic serotonergic transmission in the same alcoholic subjects and the first study of 5HT1A receptors in alcoholism. Method Fourteen alcohol dependent subjects were scanned (11 with both tracers, 1 with [11C]DASB only and two with [11C]WAY100635 only). Twelve healthy controls (HC) subjects were scanned with [11C]DASB and another 13 were scanned with [11C]WAY100635. Binding Potential (BPp, mL/cm3) and the specific to nonspecific partition coefficient (BPND, unitless) were derived for both tracers using 2 tissue compartment model and compared to HC across different brain regions. Relationships to severity of alcoholism were assessed. Results No significant differences were observed in regional BPp or BPND between patients and controls in any of the regions examined. No significant relationships were observed between regional 5HT transporter availability, 5-HT1A availability, and disease severity with the exception of a significant negative correlation between SERT and years of dependence in amygdala and insula. Conclusion This study did not find alterations in measures of 5-HT1A or 5HT transporter levels in patients with type II alcoholism. PMID:18962444

  3. The Role of Early Life Stress as a Predictor for Alcohol and Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Rationale Genetic and environmental influences on the development of alcohol and drug dependence are equally important. Exposure to early life stress, that is unfortunately common in the general population, has been shown to predict a wide range of psychopathology, including addiction. Objective This review will look at the characteristics of early life stress that may be specific predictors for adolescent and adult alcohol and drug dependence and will focus on studies in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Results Experiencing maltreatment and cumulative stressful life events prior to puberty and particularly in the first few years of life is associated with early onset of problem drinking in adolescence and alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. Early life stress can result in permanent neurohormonal and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis changes, morphological changes in the brain and gene expression changes in the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, all of which are implicated in the development of addiction. However, a large proportion of children who have experienced even severe early life stress do not develop psychopathology indicating that mediating factors such as gene-environment interactions and family and peer relationships are important for resilience. Conclusions There appears to be a direct pathway from chronic stress exposure in pre-pubertal children via adolescent problem drinking to alcohol and drug dependence in early adulthood. However, this route can be moderated by genetic and environmental factors. The role that gene-environment interactions play in the risk-resilience balance is being increasingly recognized. PMID:20596857

  4. Neuropsychological Impairment and Relapse Following Inpatient Detoxification in Severe Alcohol Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Fraser

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between neuropsychological impairment in severe alcohol dependence and relapse. This was assessed following inpatient detoxification over a period of three months. Participants were tested on measures of neuropsychological functioning at the end of a seven to ten day stay in an inpatient alcohol…

  5. The contribution of emotional maltreatment to alcohol dependence in a treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    Studies reporting a link between child maltreatment and addiction have typically focused on physical and sexual abuse. In contrast, emotional maltreatment has rarely been studied in substance-abusing samples although it is associated with a wide range of dysfunction. The current study aimed to determine the specific impact of different types of maltreatment and peer victimization on alcohol dependence and to examine the potentially mediating role of psychopathology. A sample of treatment seeking adults with alcohol dependence (N=72) underwent an extensive clinical examination including both a standardized interview and self-report measures. Child maltreatment, peer victimization, severity of alcohol dependence, and general psychopathology were assessed. Regression analyses revealed that emotional maltreatment was the strongest predictor of alcohol dependence severity whereas a unique contribution of peer victimization was not found. Our findings suggest that emotional maltreatment might have a major role in the etiology of AD that seems to exceed the contribution of other abuse and victimization experiences. Thereby, the study underscores the need for considering child maltreatment experiences in the prevention and treatment of AD.

  6. Efficacy of Automated Telephone Continuing Care following Outpatient Therapy for Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Gail L.; Skelly, Joan M.; Badger, Gary J.; Ferraro, Tonya A.; Helzer, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Relapse rates following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for alcohol dependence are high. Continuing care programs can prolong therapeutic effects but are underutilized. Thus there is need to explore options having greater accessibility. Methods This randomized controlled trial tested the efficacy of a novel, fully automated continuing care program, Alcohol Therapeutic Interactive Voice Response (ATIVR). ATIVR enables daily monitoring of alcohol consumption and associated variables, offers targeted feedback, and facilitates use of coping skills. Upon completing 12 weeks of group CBT for alcohol dependence, participants were randomly assigned to either four months of ATIVR (n=81) or usual care (n=77). Drinking behavior was assessed pre- and post-CBT, then at 2 weeks, 2 months, 4 months, and 12 months post-randomization. Results Drinking days per week increased over time for the control group but not the intervention group. There were no significant differences between groups on the other alcohol-related outcome measures. Comparisons on the subset of participants abstinent at the end of CBT (n=72) showed higher rates of continuous abstinence in the experimental group. Effect sizes for the other outcome variables were moderate but not significant in this subgroup. Conclusions For continuing care, ATIVR shows some promise as a tool that may help clients maintain gains achieved during outpatient treatment. However, ATIVR may not be adequate for clients who have not achieved treatment goals at the time of discharge. PMID:25452069

  7. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Addiction Severity Index in Male Alcohol Dependents

    PubMed Central

    DEMİRBAŞ, Hatice; ÖZGÜR İLHAN, İnci; DOĞAN, Yıldırım Beyatlı; CANATAN, Ayşe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Turkish translation of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in 115 male alcohol-dependent patients. Method The reliability of the instrument was assessed by measuring test-retest, interrater and internal reliabilities. In the validity analysis, the correlation coefficients between corresponding severity ratings and composite scores of each subscale and concurrent validity were assessed. Moreover, the discriminant validity and concurrent validity scores were calculated. Results The test-retest reliability of the ASI scores ranged from .79 to .91. The interrater reliability assigned by three raters was high (.74 to .99). Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency was .85 for all scales, and it varied between .64 and .77 for the subscales. The Beck Depression Inventory moderately correlated with the Psychatric status, and the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale correlated with the Alcohol and Drug Use subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The correlation coefficient was .91 for the alcohol use subscale. Conclusion The results obtained in this study suggest that the Turkish version of the ASI could be used as a reliable and valid instrument in alcohol-dependent patients.

  8. Prospective Analysis of Early Lapse to Drinking and Smoking Among Individuals in Concurrent Alcohol and Tobacco Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Laura J.; Litt, Mark D.; Cooney, Ned L.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to examine, prospectively, 1) dynamic changes in affective state, self-efficacy, and urge in the hours before initial smoking and drinking lapses among individuals in concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment, and 2) the extent to which self-efficacy, urge to use, and/or the use of one substance predicted lapse to the other substance. Ninety-six men and women recruited for a clinical trial of concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment were eligible for inclusion. Only data from those who experienced an initial lapse to drinking (n=29), or smoking (n=32) were included. Two outpatient substance abuse clinics provided concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment on a weekly basis for three months. Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) methods were employed over a 28-day monitoring period to assess antecedents to first drink and a 14-day monitoring period was examined for initial smoking lapses. Baseline and EMA measures of positive and negative affect, alcohol/smoking urge, alcohol/smoking abstinence self-efficacy, nicotine withdrawal, and quantity/frequency of alcohol and tobacco use were examined as lapse predictors. Analyses of EMA ratings controlled for the corresponding baseline measure. Smoking lapse among individuals in concurrent alcohol and tobacco treatment was foreshadowed by higher urges to smoke, lower positive mood, and lower confidence to resist smoking. Drinking lapse was preceded by lower confidence to resist smoking, but only among individuals who reported recent smoking. Concurrent alcohol and smoking treatment should focus on the enhancement of abstinence self-efficacy, positive mood, and the curbing of urges in order to offset lapse risk. PMID:22023022

  9. Age-dependent change in urine proteome of healthy individuals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrokhotov, Igor; Liudmila Pastushkova, MRS.; Larina, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey

    It was analyzed the protein composition of urine samples obtained from twenty Russian cosmonauts and thirty-eight healthy volunteers, that have been selected for the experiments simulating the physiological effects of microgravity. The special sample preparation was performed, followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry of the minor proteins was performed on a nano-HPLC Agilent 1100 system (Agilent Technologies Inc., USA) in combination with a LTQ-FT Ultra mass spectrometer (Thermo Electron, Germany). List of masses derived peptides and they fragments have used for search and identification of proteins by database IPI-human (international index of protein) using the program Mascot (MS version 2.0.04 , UK) according to the following criteria: 1 - enzyme-trypsin; 2 - peptide tol. ± 5 ppm; 3 - MS / MS tol. 0.5Da. From list of proteins obtained as a result Mascot-search it was selected only those proteins that were identified based on 2 or more peptides with the rating more than 24. Analysis of the list of proteins was performed using software developed in the laboratory of VA Ivanisenko (ICG SB RAS) Age of healthy individuals was ranged from 18 to 54 years. Depending on the age, the data were divided into three groups: those relating to the group of persons under 25 years (youth and mature age 1), 25-40 years (mature age 2) and 40-54 years (mature age 3) It was detected reliable changes in the number of proteins among groups depending of the age. It was found that the minimum number of different proteins were detected in the urine of the group of young patients (under 25 years old) , and the maximum - was observed in the group of middle-aged persons (25 to 40 years). When the proteins were compared according to their molecular mass it was revealed that in the older group (40-54 years ) there is noticeably smaller percentage of high molecular weight proteins than in groups of young and middle aged persons. Thus

  10. Gender Differences in Predictors of Treatment Attrition with High Dose Naltrexone in Cocaine and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Jesse J.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Kampman, Kyle M.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, we reported that naltrexone at 150mg/day significantly decreased cocaine and alcohol use for men, but not women with co-occurring cocaine and alcohol dependence. The present study is an exploratory investigation of predictors that explain the different gender response to naltrexone, with a particular focus on differential predictors of treatment attrition. No significant predictors were associated with treatment discontinuation in men. Women, however, were more likely to discontinue treatment when reporting severe pre-treatment psychiatric problems, or nausea while in treatment. Further research on the impact of pre-treatment and in-treatment gender differences with naltrexone is warranted. PMID:19034737

  11. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  12. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  13. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  14. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  15. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  16. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. 17.82 Section 17.82 Pensions... Agencies § 17.82 Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse disabilities. (a) Contracts for treatment services authorized under § 17.80 may be awarded in accordance...

  17. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment...

  18. Mirtazapine in Comorbid Major Depression and Alcohol Dependence: An Open-Label Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Douaihy, Antoine B.; Clark, Duncan B.; Chung, Tammy; Wood, D. Scott; Daley, Dennis

    2012-01-01

    Objective This was a first pilot study evaluating the acute phase (8-week) efficacy of the antidepressant medication mirtazapine for the treatment of depressive symptoms and drinking of subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence (MDD/AD). We hypothesized that mirtazapine would demonstrate within-group efficacy for the treatment of both depressive symptoms and drinking in these subjects. Methods We conducted a first open label study of the second generation antidepressant mirtazapine in 12 adult outpatient subjects with comorbid major depressive disorder/alcohol dependence. The pharmacological profile of that medication is unique among antidepressants, unrelated to tricyclics or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Results Mirtazapine was well tolerated in this treatment population. Self-reported depressive symptoms decreased from 31.8 to 8.3 on the Beck Depression Inventory, a 74.0% decrease (p<0.001), and drinking decreased from 33.9 to 13.3 drinks per week, a 60.8% decrease (p<0.05). None of the subjects were employed full-time at baseline, but 9 of the 12 (75%) were employed full-time at end-of-study. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest efficacy for mirtazapine for treating both the depressive symptoms and excessive alcohol use of comorbid major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence. Double-blind studies are warranted to further clarify the efficacy of mirtazapine in this population. PMID:23230395

  19. Neuropeptide Y in the central nucleus of the amygdala suppresses dependence-induced increases in alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Misra, Kaushik; Koob, George F

    2008-09-01

    The anxiolytic effects of neuropeptide Y (NPY) are mediated in part by the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), a brain region involved in the regulation of alcohol-drinking behaviors. Centrally administered NPY suppresses alcohol drinking in subpopulations of rats vulnerable to the development of high alcohol-drinking behavior. The purpose of the current study was to determine the role of NPY in the CeA on elevated alcohol drinking produced by alcohol dependence. Adult male Wistar rats were trained to respond for 10% w/v alcohol in an operant situation with the use of a supersaccharin fading procedure. Following stabilization of responding, rats were divided into two groups matched for intake and given daily access to either alcohol-containing (9.2% v/v) liquid diet or an isocaloric control diet. Following extended access to the diet and reliable separation of operant responding between dependent and non-dependent rats during 6-h withdrawal tests, all rats were implanted bilaterally with cannulae aimed at the CeA. Rats were then infused with 4 NPY doses (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 microg/0.5 microl aCSF) in a within-subjects Latin-square design during acute withdrawal and tested for operant alcohol responding 30 min later. Alcohol-dependent rats exhibited higher operant alcohol responding than non-dependent rats when infused with vehicle, but responding was similar in the two groups following infusion of all doses of NPY. These results indicate that NPY abolishes dependence-induced elevations in alcohol drinking and implicate the recruitment of limbic NPY systems in the motivational drive to consume alcohol following the transition to dependence.

  20. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... created when grains, fruits, or vegetables are fermented . Fermentation is a process that uses yeast or bacteria ... change the sugars in the food into alcohol. Fermentation is used to produce many necessary items — everything ...

  1. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  2. Disinhibitory psychopathology and delay discounting in alcohol dependence: personality and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Bobova, Lyuba; Finn, Peter R; Rickert, Martin E; Lucas, Jesolyn

    2009-02-01

    Increased discounting of delayed rewards may reflect a decision bias that contributes to excessive use of alcohol and more generally, to an impulsive, disinhibitory predisposition that is characterized by a preference for immediate over long-term rewards. The current study examined the association between delay discounting of rewards and the covariation among several types of disinhibitory problems that are often comorbid with alcohol dependence (AD). Lifetime problems with alcohol, marijuana, other drugs, childhood conduct disorder, and adult antisocial behavior were assessed in a sample of 426 young adults, 257 of whom had a lifetime diagnosis of AD. Higher delay discounting rates were associated with the covariation among all domains of disinhibitory problems and were not uniquely associated with any one domain. Higher delay discounting rates also were associated with lower intelligence, lower working memory capacity, and higher trait impulsivity. The results suggest that increased delay discounting of rewards may reflect aspects of a general vulnerability to externalizing, disinhibitory disorders.

  3. "Enzymogenesis": classical liver alcohol dehydrogenase origin from the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase line.

    PubMed Central

    Danielsson, O; Jörnvall, H

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the activity and structure of lower vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenases reveals that relationships between the classical liver and yeast enzymes need not be continuous. Both the ethanol activity of class I-type alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) and the glutathione-dependent formaldehyde activity of the class III-type enzyme [formaldehyde:NAD+ oxidoreductase (glutathione-formylating), EC 1.2.1.1] are present in liver down to at least the stage of bony fishes (cod liver: ethanol activity, 3.4 units/mg of protein in one enzyme; formaldehyde activity, 4.5 units/mg in the major form of another enzyme). Structural analysis of the latter protein reveals it to be a typical class III enzyme, with limited variation from the mammalian form and therefore with stable activity and structure throughout much of the vertebrate lineage. In contrast, the classical alcohol dehydrogenase (the class I enzyme) appears to be the emerging form, first in activity and later also in structure. The class I activity is present already in the piscine line, whereas the overall structural-type enzyme is not observed until amphibians and still more recent vertebrates. Consequently, the class I/III duplicatory origin appears to have arisen from a functional class III form, not a class I form. Therefore, ethanol dehydrogenases from organisms existing before this duplication have origins separate from those leading to the "classical" liver alcohol dehydrogenases. The latter now often occur in isozyme forms from further gene duplications and have a high rate of evolutionary change. The pattern is, however, not simple and we presently find in cod the first evidence for isozymes also within a class III alcohol dehydrogenase. Overall, the results indicate that both of these classes of vertebrate alcohol dehydrogenase are important and suggest a protective metabolic function for the whole enzyme system. Images PMID:1409630

  4. Religion/Spirituality, Risk, and the Development of Alcohol Dependence in Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Grant, Julia D.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Koenig, Laura B.; Heath, Andrew; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The contention that Religion/Spirituality (R/S) influences the development of alcohol dependence (AD) is increasingly supported, but risk factors have not been adequately examined together with protective R/S factors so as to determine the nature and relative strength of these domains at different stages in the development of alcoholism. Secondary data analysis of a sample of 4,002 young adult female twins used conditional Cox proportional hazards survival models to examine three distinct stages in the development of alcoholism: years to initiation of drinking, years from first drink to at-risk drinking, and years from at-risk drinking to AD. Risk and protective factors from models of alcoholism etiology and studies of R/S dimensionality were modeled simultaneously as predictors of each discrete stage and compared. Findings demonstrated that both risk factors and R/S variables influenced initiation of alcohol use; only R/S variables influenced subsequent progression to at-risk drinking; and risk factors primarily influenced further progression to AD. Protective factors (R/S variables being an exemplar) appeared to be critical determinants of intermediate-stage progression, thus suggesting that R/S factors and other psychosocial interventions might be particularly effective in delaying progression toward AD at this stage. In contrast, after the onset of at-risk drinking, the influence of (genetically based) risk factors appeared to accelerate AD regardless of most other influences. Thus, the timing of psychosocial interventions appears critical to their potency and impact. PMID:23528196

  5. Panic disorder in a Spanish sample of 89 patients with pure alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Seguí, J; Márquez, M; Canet, J; Cascio, A; García, L; Ortiz, M

    2001-07-01

    High rates of anxiety disorders, including panic disorder (PD), have been found in patients suffering from alcohol dependence (AD). It has been suggested that alcoholic subjects with PD represent a more severe subgroup of patients. Eighty-nine patients with 'pure' AD (without abuse of other drugs) were examined and compared for the presence of PD. Several clinical scales were administered to assess symptomatology and severity. Twenty-three patients (25.8%) met the criteria for PD. The mean age at onset for alcohol use was 18.7 versus 28.5 years for PD onset. Our finding of an earlier onset for alcoholism than for PD in a sample of Spanish patients illustrates the potential importance of transcultural factors. These patients were more likely to be women and to have first-degree relatives with PD. Overall, alcoholic patients with comorbid PD showed greater clinical severity. They were found to have more comorbidity with axis I disorders (major depression and dysthymia), greater clinical severity, and a history of more suicide attempts.

  6. Religion/spirituality, risk, and the development of alcohol dependence in female twins.

    PubMed

    Haber, Jon Randolph; Grant, Julia D; Sartor, Carolyn E; Koenig, Laura B; Heath, Andrew; Jacob, Theodore

    2013-09-01

    The contention that Religion/Spirituality (R/S) influences the development of alcohol dependence (AD) is increasingly supported, but risk factors have not been adequately examined together with protective R/S factors so as to determine the nature and relative strength of these domains at different stages in the development of alcoholism. Secondary data analysis of a sample of 4,002 young adult female twins used conditional Cox proportional hazards survival models to examine three distinct stages in the development of alcoholism: years to initiation of drinking, years from first drink to at-risk drinking, and years from at-risk drinking to AD. Risk and protective factors from models of alcoholism etiology and studies of R/S dimensionality were modeled simultaneously as predictors of each discrete stage and compared. Findings demonstrated that both risk factors and R/S variables influenced initiation of alcohol use; only R/S variables influenced subsequent progression to at-risk drinking; and risk factors primarily influenced further progression to AD. Protective factors (R/S variables being an exemplar) appeared to be critical determinants of intermediate-stage progression, thus suggesting that R/S factors and other psychosocial interventions might be particularly effective in delaying progression toward AD at this stage. In contrast, after the onset of at-risk drinking, the influence of (genetically based) risk factors appeared to accelerate AD regardless of most other influences. Thus, the timing of psychosocial interventions appears critical to their potency and impact.

  7. Translational Studies of Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Zahr, Natalie M.; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2008-01-01

    Human studies are necessary to identify and classify the brain systems predisposing individuals to develop alcohol use disorders and those modified by alcohol, while animal models of alcoholism are essential for a mechanistic understanding of how chronic voluntary alcohol consumption becomes compulsive, how brain systems become damaged, and how damage resolves. Our current knowledge of the neuroscience of alcohol dependence has evolved from the interchange of information gathered from both human alcoholics and animal models of alcoholism. Together, studies in humans and animal models have provided support for the involvement of specific brain structures over the course of alcohol addiction, including the prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, cerebellum, amygdala, hippocampus, and the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. PMID:20041042

  8. Alcohol Consumption Has a Protective Effect against Hematological Malignancies: a Population-Based Study in Sweden Including 420,489 Individuals with Alcohol Use Disorders12345

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of a few solid cancers, although studies that examined the association with hematological malignancies have shown inconsistent results. In this study, we examined the risk of hematological malignancies among individuals who had alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in Sweden. METHODS: Individuals with AUDs were identified from the nationwide Swedish Hospital Discharge Register and Outpatient Register, the Crime Register, and the Prescription Drug Register, and they were linked to the Swedish Cancer Registry to calculate standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) of hematological malignancies, using those Swedes without AUDs as a reference. In addition, we used a quasi-experimental sibling design to investigate the odds ratios among sibling pairs who were discordant with AUDs. RESULTS: A total of 420,489 individuals were identified with AUDs. After more than 15 million person-years of follow-up, a total of 1755 individuals developed hematological malignancies demonstrating a low risk, i.e., SIR = 0.60 (95% confidence interval = 0.57-0.63). People with AUDs had low risks for developing specific types of malignancies. The lowest risk (0.51) was for leukemia, followed by myeloma (0.52), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (0.65), and Hodgkin disease (0.71). The risk was lower among AUDs identified at an older age. The low risks of hematological malignancies were also noted using sibling analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that alcohol consumption has a protective effect against hematological malignancies. However, further studies are needed to identity the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of alcohol consumption against hematological malignancies. PMID:24783999

  9. Neural correlates of impulsive aggressive behavior in subjects with a history of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L; Moeller, F Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N; Schmitz, Joy M; Lane, Scott D

    2015-04-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM-IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity.

  10. Neural Correlates of Impulsive Aggressive Behavior in Subjects With a History of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Samet; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard; Gowin, Joshua L.; Zuniga, Edward; Kamdar, Zahra N.; Schmitz, Joy M.; Lane, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol-related aggression is a complex and problematic phenomenon with profound public health consequences. We examined neural correlates potentially moderating the relationship between human aggressive behavior and chronic alcohol use. Thirteen subjects meeting DSM–IV criteria for past alcohol-dependence in remission (AD) and 13 matched healthy controls (CONT) participated in an fMRI study adapted from a laboratory model of human aggressive behavior (Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm, or PSAP). Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation was measured during bouts of operationally defined aggressive behavior, during postprovocation periods, and during monetary-reinforced behavior. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses found group differences in brain regions relevant to chronic alcohol use and aggressive behavior (e.g., emotional and behavioral control). Behaviorally, AD subjects responded on both the aggressive response and monetary response options at significantly higher rates than CONT. Whole brain voxelwise random-effects analyses revealed significant group differences in response to provocation (monetary subtractions), with CONT subjects showing greater activation in frontal and prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and hippocampus. Collapsing data across all subjects, regression analyses of postprovocation brain activation on aggressive response rate revealed significant positive regression slopes in precentral gyrus and parietal cortex; and significant negative regression slopes in orbitofrontal cortex, prefrontal cortex, caudate, thalamus, and middle temporal gyrus. In these collapsed analyses, response to provocation and aggressive behavior were associated with activation in brain regions subserving inhibitory and emotional control, sensorimotor integration, and goal directed motor activity. PMID:25664566

  11. Convergent evidence from alcohol-dependent humans and rats for a hyperdopaminergic state in protracted abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Hirth, Natalie; Meinhardt, Marcus W.; Noori, Hamid R.; Salgado, Humberto; Torres-Ramirez, Oswaldo; Uhrig, Stefanie; Broccoli, Laura; Vengeliene, Valentina; Roßmanith, Martin; Perreau-Lenz, Stéphanie; Köhr, Georg; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C.

    2016-01-01

    A major hypothesis in addiction research is that alcohol induces neuroadaptations in the mesolimbic dopamine (DA) system and that these neuroadaptations represent a key neurochemical event in compulsive drug use and relapse. Whether these neuroadaptations lead to a hypo- or hyperdopaminergic state during abstinence is a long-standing, unresolved debate among addiction researchers. The answer is of critical importance for understanding the neurobiological mechanism of addictive behavior. Here we set out to study systematically the neuroadaptive changes in the DA system during the addiction cycle in alcohol-dependent patients and rats. In postmortem brain samples from human alcoholics we found a strong down-regulation of the D1 receptor- and DA transporter (DAT)-binding sites, but D2-like receptor binding was unaffected. To gain insight into the time course of these neuroadaptations, we compared the human data with that from alcohol-dependent rats at several time points during abstinence. We found a dynamic regulation of D1 and DAT during 3 wk of abstinence. After the third week the rat data mirrored our human data. This time point was characterized by elevated extracellular DA levels, lack of synaptic response to D1 stimulation, and augmented motor activity. Further functional evidence is given by a genetic rat model for hyperdopaminergia that resembles a phenocopy of alcohol-dependent rats during protracted abstinence. In summary, we provide a new dynamic model of abstinence-related changes in the striatal DA system; in this model a hyperdopaminergic state during protracted abstinence is associated with vulnerability for relapse. PMID:26903621

  12. Role of Altered Structure and Function of NMDA Receptors in Development of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, József; Kolok, Sándor; Boros, András; Dezső, Péter

    2005-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure gives rise to development of physical dependence on alcohol in consequence of changes in certain neurotransmitter functions. Accumulating evidence suggests that the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system, especially the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type of glutamate receptors is a particularly important site of ethanol’s action, since ethanol is a potent inhibitor of the NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and prolonged ethanol exposition leads to a compensatory “upregulation” of NMDAR mediated functions supposedly contributing to the occurrence of ethanol tolerance, dependence as well as the acute and delayed signs of ethanol withdrawal. Recently, expression of different types of NMDAR subunits was found altered after long-term ethanol exposure. Especially, the expression of the NR2B and certain splice variant forms of the NR1 subunits were increased in primary neuronal cultures treated intermittently with ethanol. Since NMDA ion channels with such an altered subunit composition have increased permeability for calcium ions, increased agonist sensitivity, and relatively slow closing kinetics, the abovementioned alterations may underlie the enhanced NMDAR activation observed after long-term ethanol exposure. In accordance with these changes, the inhibitory potential of NR2B subunit-selective NMDAR antagonists is also increased, demonstrating excellent potency against alcohol withdrawal-induced in vitro cytotoxicity. Although in vivo data are few with these compounds, according to the effectiveness of the classic NMDAR antagonists in attenuation, not only the physical symptoms, but also some affective and motivational components of alcohol withdrawal, novel NR2B subunit selective NMDAR antagonists may offer a preferable alternative in the pharmacotherapy of alcohol dependence. PMID:18369402

  13. Transcranial direct current stimulation of the prefrontal cortex reduces cue-reactivity in alcohol-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Wietschorke, Katharina; Lippold, Julian; Jacob, Christian; Polak, Thomas; Herrmann, Martin J

    2016-10-01

    Alcohol craving has been shown to be an important factor for relapses in alcohol-dependent patients. Furthermore, brain activity in reward-related areas in response to alcohol-related cues is positively related to the amount of post-relapse alcohol consumption. On the other hand, it has been shown that cue-exposure based extinction training (CET) leads to larger decrease of striatal and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dLPFC) cue-induced activation compared to standard clinical day-care treatment, but the effect sizes are relatively small. The question of this study was, whether it is possible to change cue-reactivity and subjective craving by applying bilateral prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We stimulated 30 detoxified alcohol-dependent patients (50 % with a sham and 50 % with left cathodal/right anodal stimulation) and presented emotional as well as alcohol-related pictures. We measured the emotional startle modulation and found significantly increased startle amplitudes in the verum stimulation condition for alcohol-related cues, indicating a more negative processing of this cues in alcohol-dependent patients after verum tDCS stimulation. Additionally we found tendencies for stronger reduction in subjective craving in verum-stimulated patients. Therefore our study underscores the positive value of DCS in reducing craving and might help to improve the understanding and therapy of alcohol dependence.

  14. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  15. Sleep Disturbances in Individuals with Alcohol-Related Disorders: A Review of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia (CBT-I) and Associated Non-Pharmacological Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Alyssa T; Wallen, Gwenyth R

    2014-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are common among alcohol-dependent individuals and are often associated with relapse. The utility of behavioral therapies for sleep disturbances, including cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I), among those with alcohol-related disorders is not well understood. This review systematically evaluates the evidence of CBT-I and related behavioral therapies applied to those with alcohol-related disorders and accompanying sleep disturbances. A search of four research databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and CINAHL Plus) yielded six studies that met selection criteria. Articles were reviewed using Cochrane’s Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) scoring system. A majority of the studies demonstrated significant improvements in sleep efficiency among behavioral therapy treatment group(s), including but not limited to CBT-I. While behavioral sleep interventions have been successful in varied populations, they may not be utilized to their full potential among those with alcohol-related disorders as evidenced by the low number of studies found. These findings suggest a need for mixed-methods research on individuals’ sleep experience to inform interventions that are acceptable to the target population. PMID:25288884

  16. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lu; Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  17. Psychological changes in alcohol-dependent patients during a residential rehabilitation program

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Ines; Ottonello, Marcella; Vittadini, Giovanni; Bertolotti, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol-dependent patients usually experience negative affects under the influence of alcohol, and these affective symptoms have been shown to decrease as a result of alcohol-withdrawal treatment. A recent cognitive–affective model suggests an interaction between drug motivation and affective symptoms. The aim of this multicenter study was to evaluate the psychological changes in subjects undergoing a residential rehabilitation program specifically designed for alcohol addiction, and to identify at discharge patients with greater affective symptoms and therefore more at risk of relapse. Materials and methods The sample included 560 subjects (mean age 46.91±10.2 years) who completed 28-day rehabilitation programs for alcohol addiction, following a tailored routine characterized by short duration and high intensity of medical and psychotherapeutic treatment. The psychological clinical profiles of anxiety, depression, psychological distress, psychological well-being, and self-perception of a positive change were assessed using the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program. The changes in the psychological variables of the questionnaire were identified and considered as outcome evaluation of the residential intervention. Moreover, differences in the psychological functioning between patients with different characteristics were investigated. Results The score measured by the Cognitive Behavioral Assessment – Outcome Evaluation showed significant improvements in all the psychological characteristics assessed, and the profile at discharge was within the normal scores. Some significant differences were found in relation to specific characteristics of the sample, such as age, sex, level of education, type of intervention, and polysubstance use. Conclusion This study shows the changes in psychological profile in subjects undergoing residential rehabilitation from alcohol and how this

  18. Effect of quality chronic disease management for alcohol and drug dependence on addiction outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Theresa W; Saitz, Richard; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Witas, Julie; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2012-12-01

    We examined the effect of the quality of primary care-based chronic disease management (CDM) for alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) dependence on addiction outcomes. We assessed quality using (1) a visit frequency based measure and (2) a self-reported assessment measuring alignment with the chronic care model. The visit frequency based measure had no significant association with addiction outcomes. The self-reported measure of care-when care was at a CDM clinic-was associated with lower drug addiction severity. The self-reported assessment of care from any healthcare source (CDM clinic or elsewhere) was associated with lower alcohol addiction severity and abstinence. These findings suggest that high quality CDM for AOD dependence may improve addiction outcomes. Quality measures based upon alignment with the chronic care model may better capture features of effective CDM care than a visit frequency measure.

  19. Donations and dependence: Individual contributor strategies in house elections.

    PubMed

    Heerwig, Jennifer A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the importance of individual contributors to financing federal candidates, past work has largely neglected this crucial financial constituency in favor of research on corporate and trade political action committees (PACs). By contrast, in this study I offer the first analysis of aggregate contributions from the population of individual contributors to House candidates. Using an original big dataset constructed from over fifteen million Federal Election Commission (FEC) disclosure records, I identify individual contributors (rather than contributions) and trace the variation in their strategies across types of House candidates. I distinguish between frequent donors, who are theorized to have more contact with members of Congress, versus infrequent donors in these elections. I find evidence that the character of aggregate donations from repeat donors is more access-oriented even while controlling for other salient candidate characteristics. Funds from infrequent donors, in contrast, appear more ideologically motivated. By also examining the percentage of funds that House candidates receive from repeat donors, I show that the fundraising coalitions of candidates may reproduce reliance on more access-oriented, repeat donors despite the influx of dollars from infrequent donors. I suggest that my findings provide a persuasive case for re-evaluating the diversity of roles individual contributors play in the campaign finance system, and for systematically analyzing variation in contributor strategies.

  20. HealthCall for the smartphone: technology enhancement of brief intervention in HIV alcohol dependent patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy drinking jeopardizes the health of patients in HIV primary care. In alcohol dependent patients in HIV primary care, a technological enhancement of brief intervention, HealthCall administered via interactive voice response (HealthCall-IVR) was effective at reducing heavy drinking. The smartphone offered a technology platform to improve HealthCall. Methods Working with input from patients, technology experts, and HIV clinic personnel, we further developed HealthCall, harnessing smartphone technological capacities (HealthCall-S). In a pilot study, we compared rates of HealthCall-S daily use and drinking outcomes in 41 alcohol dependent HIV-infected patients with the 43 alcohol dependent HIV-infected patients who used HealthCall-IVR in our previous efficacy study. Procedures, clinic, personnel, and measures were largely the same in the two studies, and the two groups of patients were demographically similar (~90% minority). Results Pilot patients used HealthCall-S a median of 85.0% of the 60 days of treatment, significantly greater than the corresponding rate (63.8%) among comparison patients using HealthCall-IVR (p < .001). Mean end-of-treatment drinks per drinking day was similar in the two groups. Patients were highly satisfied with HealthCall-S (i.e., 92% reported that they liked using HealthCall-S). Conclusions Among alcohol dependent patients in HIV primary care, HealthCall delivered via smartphone is feasible, obtains better patient engagement than HealthCall-IVR, and is associated with decreased drinking. In HIV primary care settings, HealthCall-S may offer a way to improve drinking outcomes after brief intervention by extending patient engagement with little additional demands on staff time. PMID:24533631

  1. Model-free functional connectivity and impulsivity correlates of alcohol dependence: a resting-state study.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi; Cortes, Carlos R; Mathur, Karan; Tomasi, Dardo; Momenan, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by impulsiveness toward consumption despite negative consequences. Although neuro-imaging studies have implicated some regions underlying this disorder, there is little information regarding its large-scale connectivity pattern. This study investigated the within- and between-network functional connectivity (FC) in alcohol dependence and examined its relationship with clinical impulsivity measures. Using probabilistic independent component analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data from 25 alcohol-dependent (AD) and 26 healthy control (HC) participants, we compared the within- and between-network FC between AD and HC. Then, the relationship between FC and impulsiveness as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the UPPS-P Impulsive Scale and the delay discounting task (DDT), was explored. Compared with HC, AD exhibited increased within-network FC in salience (SN), default mode (DMN), orbitofrontal cortex (OFCN), left executive control (LECN) and amygdala-striatum (ASN) networks. Increased between-network FC was found among LECN, ASN and SN. Between-network FC correlations were significantly negative between Negative-Urgency and OFCN pairs with right executive control network (RECN), anterior DMN (a-DMN) and posterior DMN (p-DMN) in AD. DDT was significantly correlated with the between-network FC among the LECN, a-DMN and SN in AD. These findings add evidence to the concept of altered within-network FC and also highlight the role of between-network FC in the pathophysiology of AD. Additionally, this study suggests differential neurobiological bases for different clinical measures of impulsivity that may be used as a systems-level biomarker for alcohol dependence severity and treatment efficacy.

  2. Differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem prefrontal cortex of individuals with alcohol use disorders: Influence on alcohol metabolism-related pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiping; Wang, Fan; Xu, Hongqin; Liu, Yawen; Liu, Jin; Zhao, Hongyu; Gelernter, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption may induce gene expression alterations in brain reward regions such as the prefrontal cortex (PFC), modulating the risk of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Transcriptome profiles of 23 AUD cases and 23 matched controls (16 pairs of males and 7 pairs of females) in postmortem PFC were generated using Illumina’s HumanHT-12 v4 Expression BeadChip. Probe-level differentially expressed genes and gene modules in AUD subjects were identified using multiple linear regression and weighted gene co-expression network analyses. The enrichment of differentially co-expressed genes in alcohol dependence-associated genes identified by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) was examined using gene set enrichment analysis. Biological pathways overrepresented by differentially co-expressed genes were uncovered using DAVID bioinformatics resources. Three AUD-associated gene modules in males [Module 1 (561 probes mapping to 505 genes): r=0.42, Pcorrelation=0.020; Module 2 (815 probes mapping to 713 genes): r=0.41, Pcorrelation=0.020; Module 3 (1,446 probes mapping to 1,305 genes): r=−0.38, Pcorrelation=0.030] and one AUD-associated gene module in females [Module 4 (683 probes mapping to 652 genes): r=0.64, Pcorrelation=0.010] were identified. Differentially expressed genes mapped by significant expression probes (Pnominal≤0.05) clustered in Modules 1 and 2 were enriched in GWAS-identified alcohol dependence-associated genes [Module 1 (134 genes): P=0.028; Module 2 (243 genes): P=0.004]. These differentially expressed genes, including ALDH2, ALDH7A1, and ALDH9A1, are involved in cellular functions such as aldehyde detoxification, mitochondrial function, and fatty acid metabolism. Our study revealed differentially co-expressed genes in postmortem PFC of AUD subjects and demonstrated that some of these differentially co-expressed genes participate in alcohol metabolism. PMID:25073604

  3. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.

  4. Markers of inflammation and mortality in a cohort of patients with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Daniel; Sanvisens, Arantza; Bolao, Ferran; Zuluaga, Paola; Rivas, Inmaculada; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Inflammation and intestinal permeability are believed to be paramount features in the development of alcohol-related liver damage. We aimed to assess the impact of 3 surrogate markers of inflammation (anemia, fibrinogen, and ferritin levels) on mid-term mortality of patients with alcohol dependence. This longitudinal study included patients with alcohol dependence admitted for hospital detoxification between 2000 and 2010. Mortality was ascertained from clinical charts and the mortality register. Associations between markers of inflammation and all-cause mortality were analyzed with mortality rates and Cox proportional hazards regression models. We also performed a subgroup analysis of mortality rates in patients with anemia, based on their mean corpuscular volume (MCV). We included 909 consecutive patients with alcohol dependence. Patients were mostly male (80.3%), had a median age of 44 years (interquartile range [IQR]: 38-50), and upon admission, their median alcohol consumption was 192 g/day (IQR: 120-265). At admission, 182 (20.5%) patients had anemia; 210 (25.9%) had fibrinogen levels >4.5 mg/dL; and 365 (49.5%) had ferritin levels >200 ng/mL. At the end of follow-up (median 3.8 years [IQR: 1.8-6.5], and a total of 3861.07 person-years), 118 patients had died (12.9% of the study population). Cox regression models showed that the presence of anemia at baseline was associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-2.52, P < 0.01); no associations were found between mortality and high fibrinogen or high ferritin levels. A subgroup of patients with anemia was analyzed and compared to a control group of patients without anemia and a normal MCV. The mortality ratios of patients with normocytic and macrocytic anemia were 3.25 (95% CI: 1.41-7.26; P < 0.01) and 3.39 (95% CI: 1.86-6.43; P < 0.01), respectively. Patients with alcohol dependence admitted for detoxification had an increased risk of death when anemia

  5. Alcohol Consumption and Risk for Dependence among Male Latino Migrant Farmworkers Compared to Latino Non-Farmworkers in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Talton, Jennifer W.; Summers, Phillip; Chen, Haiying; Laurienti, Paul J.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To describe alcohol consumption behavior of male Latino migrant farmworkers, compare their alcohol consumption behavior with that of other male Latino immigrants, and determine factors associated with risk for alcohol dependence among Latino immigrant workers. Methods Cross-sectional data were drawn from baseline interviews conducted as part of a larger community-based participatory research project examining the cognitive and neurological outcomes of pesticide exposure. A total of 235 farmworkers and 212 non-farmworkers completed interviews between May and August, 2012. Results Although 17.5% of the North Carolina Latino farmworkers report never having drunk alcohol, and a total of 34.5% report not having drunk alcohol in the previous three months, 48.5% engaged in heavy episodic drinking (HED) in the previous 3 months, and 23.8% frequently engaged in HED during this period. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers did not differ significantly in alcohol consumption behavior. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers did differ significantly in each component of the CAGE scale, with 37.9% of farmworkers and 16.0% of non-farmworkers being at risk for alcohol dependence (p<0.0001). Significant factors for being at risk for alcohol dependence were stress (Odds Ratio 1.06, 95% Confidence Interval 1.03, 1.09) and being a farmworker (Odds Ratio 3.58, 95% Confidence Interval 2.12, 6.06). Being married reduced the risk of alcohol dependence (Odds Ratio 0.45, 95% Confidence Interval 0.39, 0.87). Conclusions Latino farmworkers and non-farmworkers consume relatively large amounts of alcohol and engage in heavy episodic drinking at relatively high rates. Latino farmworkers have very high rates of risk for alcohol dependence. Policy changes and public health interventions are needed to address these concerns for a population that is vital to the agricultural economy. PMID:26842256

  6. Plasma concentrations of oleoylethanolamide and other acylethanolamides are altered in alcohol-dependent patients: effect of length of abstinence.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Marchena, Nuria; Pavon, Francisco J; Pastor, Antoni; Araos, Pedro; Pedraz, Maria; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Calado, Montserrat; Suarez, Juan; Castilla-Ortega, Estela; Orio, Laura; Boronat, Anna; Torrens, Marta; Rubio, Gabriel; de la Torre, Rafael; Rodriguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Serrano, Antonia

    2016-05-22

    Acylethanolamides are a family of endogenous lipid mediators that are involved in physiological and behavioral processes associated with addiction. Recently, oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been reported to reduce alcohol intake and relapse in rodents but the contribution of OEA and other acylethanolamides in alcohol addiction in humans is unknown. The present study is aimed to characterize the plasma acylethanolamides in alcohol dependence. Seventy-nine abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects (27 women) recruited from outpatient treatment programs and age-/sex-/body mass-matched healthy volunteers (28 women) were clinically assessed with the diagnostic interview PRISM according to the DSM-IV-TR after blood extraction for quantification of acylethanolamide concentrations in the plasma. Our results indicate that all acylethanolamides were significantly increased in alcohol-dependent patients compared with control subjects (p < 0.001). A logistic model based on these acylethanolamides was developed to distinguish alcohol-dependent patients from controls and included OEA, arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) and docosatetraenoylethanolamide (DEA), providing a high discriminatory power according to area under the curve [AUC = 0.92 (95%CI: 0.87-0.96), p < 0.001]. Additionally, we found a significant effect of the duration of alcohol abstinence on the concentrations of OEA, AEA and DEA using a regression model (p < 0.05, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively), which was confirmed by a negative correlation (rho = -0.31, -0.40 and -0.44, respectively). However, acylethanolamides were not influenced by the addiction alcohol severity, duration of problematic alcohol use or diagnosis of psychiatric comorbidity. Our results support the preclinical studies and suggest that OEA, AEA and DEA are altered in alcohol-dependence during abstinence and that might act as potential markers for predicting length of alcohol abstinence.

  7. Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

    PubMed Central

    Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T; Madsen, Ida E H; Lallukka, Tea; Ahola, Kirsi; Alfredsson, Lars; Batty, G David; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Casini, Annalisa; Clays, Els; De Bacquer, Dirk; Dragano, Nico; Erbel, Raimund; Ferrie, Jane E; Fransson, Eleonor I; Hamer, Mark; Heikkilä, Katriina; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kittel, France; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz; Lunau, Thorsten; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Schupp, Jürgen; Siegrist, Johannes; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Steptoe, Andrew; Suominen, Sakari B; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Wagner, Gert G; Westerholm, Peter J M; Westerlund, Hugo; Kivimäki, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Objective To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. Data sources A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. Review methods The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. Results Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky

  8. [Pharmacological treatment in alcohol-, drug- and benzodiazepine-dependent patients - the significance of trazodone].

    PubMed

    Funk, Sándor

    2013-06-01

    Currently detoxification of drug and alcohol dependent patients is pharmacologically unresolved, and long-term treatment following the acute phase is also not very successful including a high number of relapses. We would need medications that on the short term cease: the severe vegetative symptoms, the pain, the extremely distressing psychosyndrome characterised by restlessness, anxiety or acute depressive symptoms, and the craving. The optimal would be if there was one medication capable of simultaneously alleviating or diminishing all the above symptoms without causing dependency and preventing relapse in the long-term. Dependency is almost all cases accompanied by primary and/or secondary mood disorder or sleep disorder which should also be treated. It should be considered, however, that following withdrawal of the agent benzodiazepine dependency often develops. The serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor (SARI) trazodone is effective in the treatment of depression accompanied by sleeping disorder and it has also shown efficacy in alcohol and benzodiazepine-dependency. Its administration may improve the efficacy of detoxification and treatment of following conditions, may decrease medication load and the risk of the development of benzodiazepine dependency. In our clinical practice we frequently use this agent to treat our patients simultaneously suffering from depression and addiction problems, gaining experience comparing it to other pharmacotherapies (benzodiazepines or other antidepressants). The medication is not approved for alcohol and drug dependence, however, treatment t of comorbid conditions is not against to the official recommendations. Our aim was, in addition to reviewing the literature, to share our experience which, although cannot be considered an evidence based study, we deemed worthy of publishing. We cannot, at this point, put forward a protocol addressing all related scientific problems and problems of off-label treatment, and we could

  9. Does Individual Treatment for Alcoholic Fathers Benefit Their Children? A Longitudinal Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2006-01-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (COAs; N = 125) was examined before and at 3 follow-ups in the 15 months after their fathers entered alcoholism treatment. Before their fathers' treatment, COAs exhibited greater overall and clinical-level symptomatology than children from the demographically matched comparison sample, but they…

  10. Intervention for Individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Treatment Approaches and Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paley, Blair; O'Connor, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol in utero is considered to be the leading cause of developmental disabilities of known etiology. The most severe consequence of such exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), is characterized by a distinct constellation of characteristic facial anomalies, growth retardation, and central nervous system (CNS) dysfunction. Some…

  11. Family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence: a view from the Addiction Severity Index in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Nagisa; Haraguchi, Ayako; Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Higuchi, Susumu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Aikawa, Yuzo; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the differential influence of family dysfunction on alcohol and methamphetamine dependence in Japan using the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), a useful instrument that multilaterally measures the severity of substance dependence. The participants in this study were 321 male patients with alcohol dependence and 68 male patients with methamphetamine dependence. We conducted semi-structured interviews with each patient using the ASI, which is designed to assess problem severity in seven functional domains: Medical, Employment/Support, Alcohol use, Drug use, Legal, Family/Social relationships, and Psychiatric. In patients with alcohol dependence, bad relationships with parents, brothers and sisters, and friends in their lives were related to current severe psychiatric problems. Bad relationships with brothers and sisters and partners in their lives were related to current severe employment/support problems, and bad relationships with partners in their lives were related to current severe family/social problems. The current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of drug use and family/social problems in patients with alcohol dependence. Patients with methamphetamine dependence had difficulty developing good relationships with their father. Furthermore, the current severity of psychiatric problems was related to the current severity of medical, employment/support, and family/social problems in patients with methamphetamine dependence. The results of this study suggest that family dysfunction differentially affects alcohol and methamphetamine dependence. Additionally, family relationships may be particularly related to psychiatric problems in these patients, although the ASI was developed to independently evaluate each of seven problem areas.

  12. Severity of alcohol dependence is associated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase Pro129Thr missense variant.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Matthew E; Gowin, Joshua L; Yan, Jia; Schwandt, Melanie L; Spagnolo, Primavera A; Sun, Hui; Hodgkinson, Colin A; Goldman, David; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2017-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in reward and addiction. One of the two main endocannabinoid neurotransmitters, anandamide, is metabolized by fatty acid amide hydrolase, an enzyme with a functional genetic polymorphism (FAAH Pro129Thr, rs324420). The Thr129 allele has been linked to problem drug and alcohol use, but the association has not been widely replicated and may be stronger for clinical measures of severity rather than categorical diagnosis. In the present study, we sought to determine whether the Thr129 allele was associated with both alcohol dependence (AD) diagnosis and severity in a sample of 1434 European American and African American individuals, 952 of whom were diagnosed with lifetime AD. Participants were genotyped for FAAH rs324420, and ancestry was determined via a genome-wide panel of ancestry informative markers. Subjects participated in Structured Clinical Interviews for psychiatric disorders and 90-day Timeline Followback interviews to assess recent alcohol use. European American participants with current AD had a higher Thr129 allele frequency than non-dependent controls. In European Americans with lifetime AD, there were significantly different distributions of drinking days and binge drinking days between the two genotype groups, with Thr129 carriers reporting a median of 10 fewer abstinent days and 13 more binge drinking days than Pro129/Pro129 homozygotes. In African American participants, there were no significant differences between Thr129 allele frequency in cases and controls and no significant differences in measures of AD severity by genotype. These findings provide evidence that the Pro129Thr missense variant is associated with AD severity in European Americans.

  13. Conceptualizing withdrawal-induced escalation of alcohol self-administration as a learned, plasticity-dependent process.

    PubMed

    Walker, Brendan M

    2012-06-01

    This article represents one of five contributions focusing on the topic "Plasticity and neuroadaptive responses within the extended amygdala in response to chronic or excessive alcohol exposure" that were developed by awardees participating in the Young Investigator Award Symposium at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference in Volterra, Italy on May 3-6, 2011 that was organized/chaired by Drs. Antonio Noronha and Fulton Crews and sponsored by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. This review discusses the dependence-induced neuroadaptations in affective systems that provide a basis for negative reinforcement learning and presents evidence demonstrating that escalated alcohol consumption during withdrawal is a learned, plasticity-dependent process. The review concludes by identifying changes within extended amygdala dynorphin/kappa-opioid receptor systems that could serve as the foundation for the occurrence of negative reinforcement processes. While some evidence contained herein may be specific to alcohol dependence-related learning and plasticity, much of the information will be of relevance to any addictive disorder involving negative reinforcement mechanisms. Collectively, the information presented within this review provides a framework to assess the negative reinforcing effects of alcohol in a manner that distinguishes neuroadaptations produced by chronic alcohol exposure from the actual plasticity that is associated with negative reinforcement learning in dependent organisms.

  14. Age at regular drinking, clinical course, and heritability of alcohol dependence in the San Francisco Family Study: a gender analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gizer, Ian R.; Vieten, Cassandra; Gilder, Allison; Gilder, David A.; Stouffer, Gina M.; Lau, Philip; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2010-01-01

    We examined gender differences in age of onset, clinical course, and heritability of alcohol dependence in 2524 adults participating in the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) family study of alcoholism. Men were significantly more likely than women to have initiated regular drinking during adolescence. Onset of regular drinking was not found to be heritable but was found to be significantly associated with a shorter time to onset of alcohol dependence. A high degree of similarity in the sequence of alcohol-related life events was found between men and women, however, men experienced alcohol dependence symptoms at a younger age and women had a more rapid clinical course. Women were found to have a higher heritability estimate for alcohol dependence (h2 =0.46) than men (h2 =0.32). These findings suggest that environmental factors influencing the initiation of regular drinking rather than genetic factors associated with dependence may in part underlie some of the gender differences seen in the prevalence of alcohol dependence in this population. PMID:20163381

  15. Halfway Houses for Alcohol Dependents: From Theoretical Bases to Implications for the Organization of Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Alessandra Diehl; Laranjeira, Ronaldo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to supply a narrative review of the concepts, history, functions, methods, development and theoretical bases for the use of halfway houses for patients with mental disorders, and their correlations, for the net construction of chemical dependence model. This theme, in spite of its relevance, is still infrequently explored in the national literature. The authors report international and national uses of this model and discuss its applicability for the continuity of services for alcohol dependents. The results suggest that this area is in need of more attention and interest for future research. PMID:19061008

  16. P3 event-related potential reactivity to smoking cues: Relations with craving, tobacco dependence, and alcohol sensitivity in young adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Piasecki, Thomas M; Fleming, Kimberly A; Trela, Constantine J; Bartholow, Bruce D

    2017-02-01

    The current study tested whether the amplitude of the P3 event-related potential (ERP) elicited by smoking cues is (a) associated with the degree of self-reported craving reactivity, and (b) moderated by degree of tobacco dependence. Because alcohol and cigarettes are frequently used together, and given recent evidence indicating that individual differences in alcohol sensitivity influence reactivity to alcohol cues, we also investigated whether alcohol sensitivity moderated neural responses to smoking cues. ERPs were recorded from young adult smokers (N = 90) while they participated in an evaluative categorization oddball task involving 3 types of targets: neutral images, smoking-related images, and images of drinking straws. Participants showing larger P3 amplitudes to smoking cues and to straw cues (relative to neutral targets) reported greater increases in craving after cue exposure. Neither smoking status (daily vs. occasional use) nor psychometric measures of tobacco dependence consistently or specifically moderated P3 reactivity to smoking cues. Lower alcohol sensitivity was associated with larger P3 to smoking cues but not comparison straw cues (relative to neutral targets). This effect was further moderated by tobacco dependence, with the combination of lower sensitivity and higher dependence associated with especially pronounced P3 reactivity to smoking cues. The findings suggest the smoking-cue elicited P3 ERP component indexes an approach-oriented incentive motivational state accompanied by a subjective sense of cigarette craving. Self-reported low sensitivity to the pharmacologic effects of alcohol may represent a marker of drug cue reactivity and therefore deserves attention as a potential moderator in smoking cue exposure studies. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Ethanol up-regulates nucleus accumbens neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp): implications for alcohol-induced behavioral plasticity.

    PubMed

    Ary, Alexis W; Cozzoli, Debra K; Finn, Deborah A; Crabbe, John C; Dehoff, Marlin H; Worley, Paul F; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2012-06-01

    Neuronal activity dependent pentraxin (Narp) interacts with α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors to facilitate excitatory synapse formation by aggregating them at established synapses. Alcohol is well-characterized to influence central glutamatergic transmission, including AMPA receptor function. Herein, we examined the influence of injected and ingested alcohol upon Narp protein expression, as well as basal Narp expression in mouse lines selectively bred for high blood alcohol concentrations under limited access conditions. Alcohol up-regulated accumbens Narp levels, concomitant with increases in levels of the GluR1 AMPA receptor subunit. However, accumbens Narp or GluR1 levels did not vary as a function of selectively bred genotype. We next employed a Narp knock-out (KO) strategy to begin to understand the behavioral relevance of alcohol-induced changes in protein expression in several assays of alcohol reward. Compared to wild-type mice, Narp KO animals: fail to escalate daily intake of high alcohol concentrations under free-access conditions; shift their preference away from high alcohol concentrations with repeated alcohol experience; exhibit a conditioned place-aversion in response to the repeated pairing of 3 g/kg alcohol with a distinct environment and fail to exhibit alcohol-induced locomotor hyperactivity following repeated alcohol treatment. Narp deletion did not influence the daily intake of either food or water, nor did it alter any aspect of spontaneous or alcohol-induced motor activity, including the development of tolerance to its motor-impairing effects with repeated treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that Narp induction, and presumably subsequent aggregation of AMPA receptors, may be important for neuroplasticity within limbic subcircuits mediating or maintaining the rewarding properties of alcohol.

  18. Intangible costs of alcohol dependence from the perspective of patients and their relatives: A contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Mosquera Nogueira, Jacinto; Rodríguez-Míguez, Eva

    2016-09-29

    Alcohol dependence causes multiple problems not only for the person suffering dependence but also for others. In this study, the contingent valuation method is proposed to measure the intangible effects of alcohol dependence from the perspective of the persons directly involved: the patients and their relatives. Interviews were conducted with 145 patients and 61 relatives. Intangible effects of alcohol dependence were determined based on willingness to pay for a hypothetical treatment for dependence, with different success scenarios (100% and 50%). The mean monthly willingness to pay among the alcohol-dependent population was €129 and €168, respectively, for the treatments with 100% and 50% success. The willingness to pay of relatives was greater in both scenarios (€307 and €420, respectively), which could be explained by their greater perception of the family, labour, and health problems resulting from alcohol dependence. Regression analysis showed that patients' willingness to pay is positively related to treatment efficacy, personal income and moderate health deterioration, and negatively related to feeling discouraged and depressed. The results from this study can be applied to economic valuation studies that aim to measure the benefits of programs intended to reduce the prevalence of alcohol dependence. The intangible costs estimated can be added to the direct and indirect costs commonly used.

  19. A randomized, controlled study of treatment for alcohol dependence in patients awaiting liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Weinrieb, Robert M; Van Horn, Deborah H A; Lynch, Kevin G; Lucey, Michael R

    2011-05-01

    Alcohol is the second most common cause of cirrhosis necessitating liver transplantation in the United States, yet rates of posttransplant drinking approach 50% and no controlled clinical trials of alcoholism treatment exist in this population. Eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), or referral to local treatment sources ("treatment as usual" [TAU]). Addictive behavior, mood states, and general health were compared. Candor concerning alcohol use was encouraged by keeping drinking questionnaires in confidence, except in medical emergencies. Ninety-one subjects were studied; 46 received MET, 45 received TAU, 29 proceeded to transplantation (MET, n = 13; TAU, n = 16). A total of 69 subjects completed 24 weeks of observation, and 25 subjects were assessed at 96 weeks. No difference in study attendance was observed, but significantly more MET subjects attended 1 or more treatment sessions. Twenty-three subjects (25% of sample) drank after randomization but before transplant. Excluding an extreme outlier, MET drinkers had significantly fewer drinks per drinking days than TAU drinkers. Neither treatment plan resulted in significant variances in measures of psychosocial health. In conclusion, although MET afforded no significant benefit over TAU for mood or general health outcomes, this study provides some degree of support for MET to limit the quantity and frequency of pretransplant alcohol consumption among liver transplant candidates with alcohol dependence. However, because of the limited number of study subjects, these data must be interpreted cautiously. Further research to validate our findings or to identify better methods to identify and intervene with patients at risk of pretransplant and posttransplant drinking should continue.

  20. A genomic scan for habitual smoking in families of alcoholics: common and specific genetic factors in substance dependence.

    PubMed

    Bierut, Laura Jean; Rice, John P; Goate, Alison; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Saccone, Nancy L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Cloninger, C Robert; Begleiter, Henri; Conneally, P Michael; Crowe, Raymond R; Hesselbrock, Victor; Li, Ting-Kai; Nurnberger, John I; Porjesz, Bernice; Schuckit, Marc A; Reich, Theodore

    2004-01-01

    Smoking is a highly heritable, addictive disorder that commonly co-occurs with alcohol dependence. The purpose of this study is to perform a genomic screen for habitual smoking and comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence in families from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Subjects were assessed using the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) to evaluate alcohol dependence and habitual smoking (smoking one pack per day or more for at least 6 months). Sixty seven multi-generational families with 154 independent sibling pairs affected with habitual smoking were genotyped in a screening sample. Analyses on 79 multi-generational families with 173 independent sibling pairs were repeated in a replication sample. Sibpair analyses were performed using ASPEX. Four chromosomal regions in the screening sample had increased allele sharing among sibling pairs for habitual smoking with a LOD score greater than 1 (chromosomes 5, 9, 11, and 21). The highest LOD score was on chromosome 9 (LOD = 2.02; allele sharing 58.9%). Four chromosomal regions also had modest evidence for linkage to the comorbid phenotype habitual smoking and alcohol dependence (chromosomes 1, 2, 11, 15); and the strongest finding was on chromosome 2 (LOD = 3.30; allele sharing 69.1%). Previously identified areas (chromosomes 1 and 7) implicated in the development of alcohol dependence in this same data set did not provide evidence for linkage to habitual smoking in the screening sample. In the replication data set, there continued to be increased allele sharing near peaks identified in the screening sample on chromosomes 2 and 9, but the results were modest. An area on chromosome 7, approximately 60 cM from a location previously identified in linkage analysis with alcohol dependence, had increased allele sharing for the comorbid habitual smoking and alcohol dependence. These data provide evidence of specific genetic regions involved in the

  1. Alcohol Dependence and Its Relationship With Insomnia and Other Sleep Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Chaudhary, Ninad S; Brower, Kirk J

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-related complaints are widely prevalent in those with alcohol dependence (AD). AD is associated not only with insomnia, but also with multiple sleep-related disorders as a growing body of literature has demonstrated. This article will review the various aspects of insomnia associated with AD. In addition, the association of AD with other sleep-related disorders will be briefly reviewed. The association of AD with insomnia is bidirectional in nature. The etiopathogenesis of insomnia has demonstrated multiple associations and is an active focus of research. Treatment with cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia is showing promise as an optimal intervention. In addition, AD may be associated with circadian abnormalities, short sleep duration, obstructive sleep apnea, and sleep-related movement disorder. The burgeoning knowledge on insomnia associated with moderate-to-severe alcohol use disorder has expanded our understanding of its underlying neurobiology, clinical features, and treatment options.

  2. Cloninger's typology and treatment outcome in alcohol-dependent subjects during pharmacotherapy with naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Falk; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Angel; Klein, Oliver; Diehl, Alexander; Rubio, Gabriel

    2008-03-01

    Naltrexone is an opiate receptor antagonist mainly at the micro-receptor that is thought to reduce the positively reinforcing, pleasurable effects of alcohol and to reduce craving. An increase in time to first relapse to heavy drinking has been the most consistent finding obtained with naltrexone, although not all trials including two of the largest have been positive. Inconsistent outcome data suggest that effectiveness varies among different subgroups of patients. This paper re-evaluates recent data on the effectiveness of naltrexone in subjects differentiated according to Cloninger Type I and II. Moreover, it combines and cross-validates results of two recent European studies that found naltrexone treatment more beneficial in alcohol-dependent patients with early age at onset of drinking problems (Cloninger Type II). It is discussed whether especially these subjects should be targeted for pharmacological relapse prevention treatment with naltrexone.

  3. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  4. Dendritic remodeling of hippocampal neurons is associated with altered NMDA receptor expression in alcohol dependent rats

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Miranda C.; Kim, Airee; Mandyam, Chitra D.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged alcohol exposure has been previously shown to impair the structure and function of the hippocampus, although the underlying structural and biochemical alterations contributing to these deleterious effects are unclear. Also unclear is whether these changes persist into prolonged periods of abstinence. Previous work from our lab utilizing a clinically relevant rodent model of alcohol consumption demonstrated that alcohol dependence (induced by chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure or CIE) decreases proliferation and survival of neural stem cells in the hippocampal subgranular zone and hippocampal neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, implicating this region of the cortex as particularly sensitive to the toxic effects of prolonged ethanol exposure. For this study, we investigated seven weeks of CIE-induced morphological changes (dendritic complexity and dendritic spine density) of dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell neurons, CA3, and CA1 pyramidal neurons and the associated alterations in biochemical markers of synaptic plasticity and toxicity (NMDA receptors and PSD-95) in the hippocampus in ethanol-experienced Wistar rats 3h (CIE) and 21 days (protracted abstinence) after the last ethanol vapor exposure. CIE reduced dendritic arborization of DG neurons and this effect persisted into protracted abstinence. CIE enhanced dendritic arborization of pyramidal neurons and this effect did not persist into protracted abstinence. The architectural changes in dendrites did not correlate with alterations in dendritic spine density, however, they were associated with increases in the expression of pNR2B, total NR2B, and total NR2A immediately following CIE with expression levels returning to control levels in prolonged abstinence. Overall, these data provide the evidence that CIE produces profound changes in hippocampal structural plasticity and in molecular tools that maintain hippocampal structural plasticity, and these alterations may underlie cognitive dysfunction

  5. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test as a new way to explore complex emotions decoding in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Maurage, Pierre; Grynberg, Delphine; Noël, Xavier; Joassin, Frédéric; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Luminet, Olivier; de Timary, Philippe; Campanella, Salvatore; Philippot, Pierre

    2011-12-30

    It has been repeatedly shown that alcohol dependence is associated with emotional impairments, particularly for emotional facial expression decoding. Nevertheless, most earlier studies focused on basic emotions and did not explore more subtle affective states. In order to obtain a more accurate evaluation, and in view of earlier results showing impaired performance for this task among high-risk children of alcohol-dependent participants, the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" test was used here to explore emotional recognition in alcohol dependence. We showed that the deficit described earlier for basic negative emotions is (1) generalizable to complex and positive emotions; and (2) specific for emotional features. This strengthens the proposition of a general face recognition impairment in alcohol dependence.

  6. Does individual treatment for alcoholic fathers benefit their children? A longitudinal assessment.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Jasmina Burdzovic; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William

    2006-02-01

    Psychosocial adjustment in children of alcoholics (COAs; N=125) was examined before and at 3 follow-ups in the 15 months after their fathers entered alcoholism treatment. Before their fathers' treatment, COAs exhibited greater overall and clinical-level symptomatology than children from the demographically matched comparison sample, but they improved significantly following their fathers' treatment. Children of stably remitted fathers were similar to their demographic counterparts from the comparison sample and had fewer adjustment problems than children of relapsed fathers, even after accounting for children's baseline adjustment. Thus, COAs' adjustment improved when their fathers received treatment for alcoholism, and fathers' recovery from alcoholism was associated with clinically significant reductions in child problems.

  7. Acculturation stress, anxiety disorders, and alcohol dependence in a select population of young adult Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Gilder, David A.; Criado, Jose R.; Caetano, Raul

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Mexican Americans comprise one of the most rapidly growing populations in the U.S. and within this population the process of acculturation has been suggested to be associated with some mental health problems. This study sought to ascertain quantitative information indexing acculturation stress and its association with mental health disorders in a select community sample of Mexican Americans. Methods Demographic information, DSM-III-R diagnoses, and information on cultural identity and acculturation stress were obtained from 240 Mexican American young adults that were recruited by fliers and were residing in selected areas of San Diego. Results No associations were found between measures of cultural identification and lifetime diagnoses of drug or alcohol dependence, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders or antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder in this sample of Mexican American young adults. However, lifetime diagnoses of alcohol dependence, substance dependence, and anxiety disorders were associated with elevations in acculturation stress. Conclusion Quantitative measures of acculturation stress, but not cultural identity per se, were found to be significantly associated with substance dependence and anxiety disorders in this select population of Mexican American young adults. These data may be helpful in designing prevention and intervention programs for this high risk population. PMID:20161543

  8. The factor structure of the DSM-III-R and ICD-10 concepts of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Caetano, R

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the factor structure of the concept of alcohol dependence as proposed in two psychiatric classifications, the DSM-III-R and the ICD-10. Subjects are 219 men and 162 women who were interviewed while in treatment for alcohol-related problems in nine different treatment programs in Contra Costa county, California. Tests of hypotheses supporting a single factor and a dual factor structure of dependence were rejected by confirmatory factor analysis. Results from exploratory factor analysis show a four factor structure for the concept of dependence in DSM-III-R. For ICD-10 there is a four factor solution among men and a three factor solution among women. The item composition of these factors vary by gender and across the two classifications. However, there is good agreement between dependence as measured by DSM-III-R and ICD-10 criteria. Since work on DSM-IV is now under way, the present research aims to provide some empirical base for how future changes should be made.

  9. Cost and Cost-Effectiveness of the COMBINE Study for Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zarkin, Gary A.; Bray, Jeremy W.; Aldridge, Arnie; Mitra, Debanjali; Couper, David J.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2011-01-01

    Context The COMBINE clinical trial recently evaluated the efficacy of medications, behavioral therapies, and their combinations for the outpatient treatment of alcohol dependence. The costs and cost-effectiveness of these combinations are unknown and of interest to clinicians and policy makers. Objective To evaluate the costs and cost-effectiveness of the COMBINE interventions at the end of 16 weeks of treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants A prospective cost and cost-effectiveness study of patients in COMBINE, a randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT) involving 1383 patients with diagnoses of primary alcohol dependence across 11 US clinical sites. Interventions Nine treatment arms, with 4 arms receiving medical management with 16 weeks of naltrexone (100 mg/d) or acamprosate (3 g/d), both, and/or placebo; 4 arms receiving the same options as above but delivered with combined behavioral intervention (CBI); and 1 arm receiving CBI only. Main Outcomes Measures Incremental cost per percentage point increase in percent days abstinent (PDA), incremental cost per patient of avoiding heavy drinking, and incremental cost per patient of achieving a good clinical outcome. Results Based on the mean values of cost and effectiveness, 3 interventions are cost-effective options relative to the other interventions for all three outcomes: medical management (MM) with placebo ($409 cost per patient), MM + naltrexone ($671 cost per patient), and MM + naltrexone + acamprosate ($1003 cost per patient). Conclusions This is only the second prospective RCT-designed cost-effectiveness study that has been performed for the treatment of alcohol dependence. Focusing just on effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate is not significantly better than MM + naltrexone. However, looking at cost and effectiveness, MM + naltrexone + acamprosate may be a cost-effective choice, depending on whether the cost of the incremental increase in effectiveness is worth it to the decision maker. PMID

  10. Variant -and individual dependent nature of persistent Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anaplasma phagocytophilum is the causative agent of tick-borne fever in ruminants and human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis (HGA). The bacterium is able to survive for several months in immune-competent sheep by modifying important cellular and humoral defence mechanisms. Little is known about how different strains of A. phagocytophilum propagate in their natural hosts during persistent infection. Methods Two groups of five lambs were infected with each of two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum, i.e. 16S variant 1 which is identical to GenBank no M73220 and 16S variant 2 which is identical to GenBank no AF336220, respectively. The lambs were infected intravenously and followed by blood sampling for six months. A. phagocytophilum infection in the peripheral blood was detected by absolute quantitative real-time PCR. Results Both 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum established persistent infection for at least six months and showed cyclic bacteraemias, but variant 1 introduced more frequent periods of bacteraemia and higher number of organisms than 16S rRNA gene variant 2 in the peripheral blood. Conclusion Organisms were available from blood more or less constantly during the persistent infection and there were individual differences in cyclic activity of A. phagocytophilum in the infected animals. Two 16S rRNA gene variants of A. phagocytophilum show differences in cyclic activity during persistent infection in lambs. PMID:20398321

  11. Resting-state abnormalities in heroin-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Pandria, Niki; Kovatsi, Leda; Vivas, Ana B; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-11-21

    Drug addiction is a major health problem worldwide. Recent neuroimaging studies have shed light into the underlying mechanisms of drug addiction as well as its consequences to the human brain. The most vulnerable, to heroin addiction, brain regions have been reported to be specific prefrontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal regions, as well as, some subcortical regions. The brain regions involved are usually linked with reward, motivation/drive, memory/learning, inhibition as well as emotional control and seem to form circuits that interact with each other. So, along with neuroimaging studies, recent advances in resting-state dynamics might allow further assessments upon the multilayer complexity of addiction. In the current manuscript, we comprehensively review and discuss existing resting-state neuroimaging findings classified into three overlapping and interconnected groups: functional connectivity alterations, structural deficits and abnormal topological properties. Moreover, behavioral traits of heroin-addicted individuals as well as the limitations of the currently available studies are also reviewed. Finally, in need of a contemporary therapy a multimodal therapeutic approach is suggested using classical treatment practices along with current neurotechonologies, such as neurofeedback and goal-oriented video-games.

  12. A study of the association of (Val66Met) polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene with alcohol dependence and extreme violence in Chinese males.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Shih-Jen; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Yu, Younger W-Y; Chen, Tai-Jui; Wu, Hung-Chi; Lin, Chun-Hui; Cheng, Chih-Ya; Hong, Chen-Jee

    2005-06-24

    From studies of genetic-knockout animals, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin growth-factor family, has been implicated in both alcohol preference and aggressive behaviour. To test whether a BDNF genetic variant may be associated with alcohol-dependent and violent behaviours, we studied Val66Met polymorphism of the BDNF-gene in 110 cases of alcohol-dependence, in 134 extremely violent convicts, and in 149 individuals without psychosis or mood disorders. We also examined the association of this polymorphism with antisocial personality disorder comorbidity in the extremely violent convicts. The results showed that the genotype and allele frequencies for Val66Met polymorphism at the BDNF-gene site did not differ among the three groups. Furthermore, it was not demonstrated that this polymorphism is associated with antisocial personality disorder comorbidity in the extremely violent convicts. Based on these findings, it seems reasonable to suggest that this BDNF-gene Val66Met polymorphism is unlikely to play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to the traits of alcohol-dependence or violence proneness.

  13. A role of genomic copy number variation in the complex behavioral phenotype of alcohol dependence: a commentary.

    PubMed

    Urban, Alexander E

    2012-09-01

    In their paper "Copy number variations in 6q14.1 and 5q13.2 are associated with alcohol dependence" Lin and colleagues report on the association between alcohol dependence and 2 duplication CNVs in the genome sequence, one containing 8 genes within its boundaries and another that contains no genes. In this commentary, I point out some of the opportunities and challenges that arise from such a finding.

  14. Alcohol expectancies and inhibition conflict as moderators of the alcohol-unprotected sex relationship: Event-level findings from a daily diary study among individuals living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kiene, Susan M.; Simbayi, Leickness C.; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2015-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals’ ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol. PMID:26280530

  15. The Role of Current and Historical Alcohol Use in Hepatic Fibrosis Among HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Nina; Crane, Heidi M; Rodriguez, Carla V; Van Rompaey, Stephen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Christopoulos, Katerina; Napravnik, Sonia; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi; McCaul, Mary E; Cachay, Edward R; Mugavero, Michael J; Moore, Richard; Geng, Elvin; Eron, Joseph J; Saag, Michael S; Merrill, Joseph O; Kitahata, Mari M

    2016-12-29

    We examined risk factors for advanced hepatic fibrosis [fibrosis-4 (FIB)-4 >3.25] including both current alcohol use and a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder among HIV-infected patients. Of the 12,849 patients in our study, 2133 (17%) reported current hazardous drinking by AUDIT-C, 2321 (18%) had a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, 2376 (18%) were co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV); 596 (5%) had high FIB-4 scores >3.25 as did 364 (15%) of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. In multivariable analysis, HCV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.5), chronic hepatitis B (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.8), diabetes (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9), current CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 4.2-6.9) and HIV RNA >500 copies/mL (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) were significantly associated with advanced fibrosis. A diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) rather than report of current hazardous alcohol use was associated with high FIB-4. However, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, both current hazardous drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and current non-drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) were more likely than non-hazardous drinkers to have high FIB-4, with the latter potentially reflecting the impact of sick abstainers. These findings highlight the importance of using a longitudinal measure of alcohol exposure when evaluating the impact of alcohol on liver disease and associated outcomes.

  16. Driving While Intoxicated Among Individuals Initially Untreated for Alcohol Use Disorders: One- and Sixteen-Year Follow-Ups*

    PubMed Central

    Timko, Christine; Desai, Akash; Blonigen, Daniel M.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined associations between frequency of driving while intoxicated (DWI) at baseline and obtaining alcohol-related help at follow-up, and between obtaining help and subsequent reductions in DWI. It also examined improvements on personal functioning and life context indices as mediators between obtaining help and reduced occurrences of DWI. Method: A total of 628 individuals who were initially untreated for alcohol use problems completed a baseline inventory; follow-ups were 1, 3, and 16 years later. Results: More extended participation in outpatient treatment and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) during Year 1 was associated with a lower likelihood of DWI at the 1-year follow-up. More extended participation in AA through Year 3 was associated with a lower likelihood of DWI at the 16-year follow-up. Improvement on personal functioning and life context indices was associated with reduced risk of subsequent occurrences of DWI. Decreases in drinking-related problems, impulsivity, and drinking to reduce tension mediated associations between more AA participation and reductions in DWI at 1 year. Conclusions: Among initially untreated individuals, sustained mutual help may be associated with a reduced number of occurrences of DWI via fewer drinking consequences and improved psychological functioning and coping. Treatment providers should attend to these concomitants of DWI and consider actively referring individuals to AA to ensure ongoing AA affiliation. PMID:21388590

  17. Developmental Alcohol Exposure Impairs Activity-Dependent S-Nitrosylation of NDEL1 for Neuronal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Yu; Kim, Sun-Hong; Selvakumar, Balakrishnan; Perez, Gabriel; Ballinger, Michael D; Zhu, Xiaolei; Sabra, James; Jallow, Mariama; Yan, Priscilla; Ito, Koki; Rajendran, Shreenath; Hirotsune, Shinji; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Snyder, Solomon H; Sawa, Akira; Kamiya, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved in diverse signaling cascades that regulate neuronal development and functions via S-Nitrosylation-mediated mechanism or the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway activated by nitric oxide. Although it has been studied extensively in vitro and in invertebrate animals, effects on mammalian brain development and underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we report that genetic deletion of "Nos1" disrupts dendritic development, whereas pharmacological inhibition of the sGC/cGMP pathway does not alter dendritic growth during cerebral cortex development. Instead, nuclear distribution element-like (NDEL1), a protein that regulates dendritic development, is specifically S-nitrosylated at cysteine 203, thereby accelerating dendritic arborization. This post-translational modification is enhanced by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated neuronal activity, the main regulator of dendritic formation. Notably, we found that disruption of S-Nitrosylation of NDEL1 mediates impaired dendritic maturation caused by developmental alcohol exposure, a model of developmental brain abnormalities resulting from maternal alcohol use. These results highlight S-Nitrosylation as a key activity-dependent mechanism underlying neonatal brain maturation and suggest that reduction of S-Nitrosylation of NDEL1 acts as a pathological factor mediating neurodevelopmental abnormalities caused by maternal alcohol exposure.

  18. Frequency dependence of electron spin-lattice relaxation for semiquinones in alcohol solutions.

    PubMed

    Elajaili, Hanan B; Biller, Joshua R; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    The spin-lattice relaxation rates at 293 K for three anionic semiquinones (2,5-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, 2,6-di-t-butyl-1,4-benzosemiquinone, and 2,3,5,6-tetramethoxy-1,4-benzosemiquinone) were studied at up to 8 frequencies between 250 MHz and 34 GHz in ethanol or methanol solution containing high concentrations of OH(-). The relaxation rates are about a factor of 2 faster at lower frequencies than at 9 or 34 GHz. However, in perdeuterated alcohols the relaxation rates exhibit little frequency dependence, which demonstrates that the dominant frequency-dependent contribution to relaxation is modulation of dipolar interactions with solvent nuclei. The relaxation rates were modeled as the sum of two frequency-independent contributions (spin rotation and a local mode) and two frequency-dependent contributions (modulation of dipolar interaction with solvent nuclei and a much smaller contribution from modulation of g anisotropy). The correlation time for modulation of the interaction with solvent nuclei is longer than the tumbling correlation time of the semiquinone and is consistent with hydrogen bonding of the alcohol to the oxygen atoms of the semiquinones.

  19. Cerebral Hemodynamics With rTMS in Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Maiti, Rituparna; Nizamie, S Haque

    2016-04-08

    The authors studied cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol dependence and evaluated their changes with application of high-frequency rTMS. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, sham-controlled clinical study was conducted with patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-IV-TR). The study population comprised 25 subjects each in active rTMS, sham rTMS, and healthy control groups. At baseline, cerebral hemodynamic indices were measured with transcranial Doppler sonography. Subjects in the active rTMS group received 10 sessions of rTMS daily; the sham group was administered sham rTMS with the same parameters. Cerebral hemodynamic parameters were repeated 5 minutes after the last rTMS session. At baseline, mean velocity (MV) of both middle cerebral artery (MCA; R-MCA: p=0.003; L-MCA: p=0.002) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; R-ACA: p=0.003; L-ACA: p=.001) was significantly reduced. Pulsatility index (PI) of MCA (p<0.001) and resistance index (RI) of ACA (R-ACA: p=0.009; L-ACA: p=0.008) were increased in alcohol-dependent subjects in comparison with healthy controls. In the active rTMS group, except L-MCA PI, significant differences were observed in values of MV, PI, and RI of both MCA and ACA following rTMS intervention; such changes were not evident in the sham rTMS group. The changes in mean difference in MV of L-MCA (p=0.006) and L-ACA (p=0.015) were statistically significant in the active rTMS group, in comparison with the sham group. Significant differences were also observed between the two groups postintervention, in RI of L-MCA (p=0.001) and ACA (R-ACA: p=0.010; L-ACA: p=0.015). Alcohol dependence may result in altered cerebral hemodynamic parameters, which can be improved with high-frequency rTMS application.

  20. Development and Implementation of an Ambulatory Integrated Care Pathway for Major Depressive Disorder and Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Awan, Saima; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Aleem, Nadia; Hendershot, Christian S; Irving, Julie Anne; Kalvik, Anne; Lefebvre, Lisa; Le Foll, Bernard; Quilty, Lena; Voore, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Integrated care pathways (ICPs) provide an approach for delivering evidence-based treatment in a hospital setting. This column describes the development and pilot implementation in a clinical setting of an ICP for patients with concurrent major depressive disorder and alcohol dependence at the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (CAMH), an academic tertiary care hospital, in Toronto, Canada. The ICP methodology includes evidence reviews, knowledge translation, process reengineering, and change management. Pilot results indicate high patient satisfaction, evidence of symptom improvement, and excellent retention.

  1. Age- and Sex-Dependent Effects of Footshock Stress on Subsequent Alcohol Drinking and Acoustic Startle Behavior in Mice Selectively Bred for High-Alcohol Preference

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Julia A.; Barrenha, Gustavo D.; Hughes, Matthew L.; Keuneke, Kelly J.

    2015-01-01

    and anxiety-related behavior in adulthood. These results in mice suggest that stress exposure during adolescence may increase the risk for developing an alcohol-use and/or anxiety disorder in individuals with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol consumption. PMID:18652593

  2. Effects of endogenous and exogenous progesterone on emotional intelligence in cocaine dependent men and women who also abuse alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevic, V; Sinha, R; Morgan, PT; Sofuoglu, M; Fox, HC

    2015-01-01

    Objective As sex differences in substance dependence may impinge upon the perception and regulation of emotion, we assess Emotional Intelligence (EI) as a function of gender, menstrual cycle (MC) phase and hormonal changes in early abstinent cocaine dependent individuals who abuse alcohol (CDA). Methods Study 1: The Mayer, Salovey, and Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) was administered to 98 CDA (55M/43F) and 56 healthy (28M/28F) individuals. Performance in women was also assessed by MC phase. Study 2: The MSCEIT was administered to 18 CDA (19M/9F) who received exogenous progesterone (400mg/day) versus placebo for 7 days. (Study 2). Results Study 1: Healthy females were better than healthy males at facilitating thought and managing emotions. This gender discrepancy was not observed in the CDA group. Additionally, all women in the high compared with the low progesterone phase of their MC were better at managing their emotions. Study 2: Exogenous progesterone improved ability to facilitate thought in both males and females. Conclusions CDA women may be vulnerable to difficulties managing and regulating emotions. Gonadal hormones may contribute to this gender effect, as increases in both endogenous and exogenous progesterone improved selective aspects of EI. PMID:25363303

  3. Generalized anxiety disorder is under-recognized in clinical practice in patients with alcohol dependence in France.

    PubMed

    Charriau, Violaine; Elyakoubi, M'hammed; Millet, Bruno; Drapier, Dominique; Robin, Didier; Moirand, Romain

    2013-02-01

    Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a frequent disabling disorder that often occurs with alcohol dependence. However comorbidity between substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders is often under-diagnosed. This study tried to evaluate an under-recognition of GAD by clinicians in alcoholic inpatients. Two groups of alcohol-dependent inpatients, hospitalized in the same non-academic psychiatric hospital in France, were included. The first group (Group 1) (n = 205) was included retrospectively within all patients hospitalized for alcohol dependence from may to November 2007. A record review was performed to determine the number of GAD (and other psychiatric disorders) diagnosis which was reported on these files by the clinicians. The second group (Group 2) (n = 199) was included prospectively from May to November 2008. GAD diagnosis was screened with the Worry and Anxiety Questionnaire and then confirmed with the Mini International Neurodiagnostic Interview. The two groups were similar in terms of social and demographic variables. GAD prevalence rate was significantly higher in Group 2 (30.7% with Confidence Interval [0.242; 0.371]) than in Group 1 (2.4% with Confidence Interval [0.003; 0.045]). This study confirms our hypothesis of an under-recognition of GAD by clinicians in alcohol dependant inpatients. It also confirms the high prevalence rate of comorbidity between alcohol dependence and GAD.

  4. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-01-01

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse. PMID:27327255

  5. Paradoxical augmented relapse in alcohol-dependent rats during deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Hadar, R; Vengeliene, V; Barroeta Hlusicke, E; Canals, S; Noori, H R; Wieske, F; Rummel, J; Harnack, D; Heinz, A; Spanagel, R; Winter, C

    2016-06-21

    Case reports indicate that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens may be beneficial to alcohol-dependent patients. The lack of clinical trials and our limited knowledge of deep-brain stimulation call for translational experiments to validate these reports. To mimic the human situation, we used a chronic-continuous brain-stimulation paradigm targeting the nucleus accumbens and other brain sites in alcohol-dependent rats. To determine the network effects of deep-brain stimulation in alcohol-dependent rats, we combined electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and studied neurotransmitter levels in nucleus accumbens-stimulated versus sham-stimulated rats. Surprisingly, we report here that electrical stimulation of the nucleus accumbens led to augmented relapse behavior in alcohol-dependent rats. Our associated fMRI data revealed some activated areas, including the medial prefrontal cortex and caudate putamen. However, when we applied stimulation to these areas, relapse behavior was not affected, confirming that the nucleus accumbens is critical for generating this paradoxical effect. Neurochemical analysis of the major activated brain sites of the network revealed that the effect of stimulation may depend on accumbal dopamine levels. This was supported by the finding that brain-stimulation-treated rats exhibited augmented alcohol-induced dopamine release compared with sham-stimulated animals. Our data suggest that deep-brain stimulation in the nucleus accumbens enhances alcohol-liking probably via augmented dopamine release and can thereby promote relapse.

  6. Male, but not Female, Alcohol-Dependent African Americans Discount Delayed Gains More Steeply than Propensity-Score Matched Controls

    PubMed Central

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Grucza, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Alcohol dependence is known to be associated with steep discounting of delayed rewards, but its relation to the discounting of delayed losses and probabilistic rewards is unclear. Moreover, patterns of alcohol consumption vary considerably between communities, but previous research has not examined the relation between discounting and alcohol dependence in low-income African Americans. Objectives The goal of the present study was to determine whether low-income, alcohol-dependent African Americans differ from controls in the degree to which they discount delayed rewards, delayed losses, or probabilistic rewards. Methods African American participants, both cases and controls, were recruited from the same low-income neighborhoods, and propensity-score matching was used to further control for demographic differences. Participants performed three tasks that assessed their discounting of hypothetical monetary outcomes: delayed rewards, delayed losses, and probabilistic rewards. Results Alcohol-dependent cases discounted delayed gains, but not delayed losses or probabilistic gains, more steeply than their matched controls. The difference in discounting of delayed gains was localized to the male cases, whose discounting was steeper than either the male controls or the female cases; no gender difference was observed between male and female controls. Conclusions The present results extend findings regarding discounting by substance abusers to a previously unstudied group, low-income African Americans, and suggest that in this group at least, alcohol dependence, particularly in males, may be more a reflection of choosing immediate rewards than of ignoring their delayed negative consequences. PMID:26387518

  7. Alcohol-induced sedation and synergistic interactions between alcohol and morphine: A key mechanistic role for Toll-Like Receptors and MyD88-dependent signalling

    PubMed Central

    Corrigan, Frances; Wu, Yue; Tuke, Jonathan; Coller, Janet K.; Rice, Kenner C.; Diener, Kerrilyn R.; Hayball, John D.; Watkins, Linda R.; Somogyi, Andrew A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates induction of proinflammatory Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 signaling by morphine and, TLR4 signaling by alcohol; thus indicating a common site of drug action and a potential novel innate immune-dependent hypothesis for opioid and alcohol drug interactions. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the role of TLR2, TLR4, MyD88 (as a critical TLR-signalling participant), NF-κB, Interleukin-1β (IL-1β; as a downstream proinflammatory effector molecule) and the µ opioid receptor (MOR; as a classical site for morphine action) in acute alcohol-induced sedation (4.5 g/kg) and alcohol (2.5 g/kg) interaction with morphine (5 mg/kg) by assessing the loss of righting reflex (LORR) as a measure of sedation. Wild-type male Balb/c mice and matched genetically-deficient TLR2, TLR4, and MyD88 strains were utilized, together with pharmacological manipulation of MOR, NF-κB, TLR4 and Interleukin-1β. Alcohol induced significant LORR in wild-type mice; this was halved by MyD88 and TLR4 deficiency, and surprisingly nearly completely eliminated by TLR2 deficiency. In contrast, the interaction between morphine and alcohol was found to be MOR-, NF-κB-, TLR2- and MyD88-dependent, but did not involve TLR4 or Interleukin-1β. Morphine-alcohol interactions caused acute elevations in microglial cell counts and NF-κB-p65 positive cells in the motor cortex in concordance with wild-type and TLR2 deficient mouse behavioral data, implicating neuroimmunopharmacological signaling as a pivotal mechanism in this clinically problematic drug-drug interaction. PMID:25542736

  8. Longitudinal predictors of cannabis use and dependence in offspring from families at ultra high risk for alcohol dependence and in control families.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shirley Y; Jones, Bobby L; Steinhauer, Stuart R; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffler, Scott

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis use is common among adolescents. Identification of the factors associated with continued heavy use into young adulthood and development of cannabis abuse and dependence is of considerable importance. The role of familial risk for addiction and an associated endophenotype, P300 amplitude, has not previously been related to cannabis use and dependence. A prospective longitudinal study spanning childhood and young adulthood provided the opportunity for exploring these factors, along with genetic variation, in the cannabis use behaviors of 338 young adult offspring from high and low familial risk for alcohol dependence families (ages 19-30). P300 data were collected multiple times in childhood. The association between young adult patterns of cannabis use or cannabis abuse/dependence was tested with genetic variation in the cannabinoid gene, CNR1, the ANKK1-DRD2 gene, and childhood developmental trajectories of P300. Young adult patterns of cannabis use was characterized by three patterns: (i) no use throughout; (ii) declining use from adolescence through young adulthood; and (iii) frequent use throughout. Following the low P300 trajectory in childhood predicted cannabis abuse and dependence by young adulthood. A four SNP ANKK1-DRD2 haplotype (G-G-G-C) was found to be significantly associated with the frequency of use patterns (P = 0.0008). Although CNR1 variation overall was not significantly associated with these patterns, among individuals with cannabis abuse/dependence the presence of one or both copies of the rs806368 A > G minor allele conferred a 5.4-fold increase (P = 0.003) in the likelihood that they would be in the frequent and persistent use group rather than the declining use group.

  9. Alcohol consumption and social inequality at the individual and country levels—results from an international study

    PubMed Central

    Kuntsche, Sandra; Gmel, Gerhard; Bloomfield, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Background: International comparisons of social inequalities in alcohol use have not been extensively investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol consumption in 33 countries. Methods: Data on 101 525 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 33 countries of the GENACIS study were used. Individual SES was measured by highest attained educational level. Alcohol use measures included drinking status and monthly risky single occasion drinking (RSOD). The relationship between individuals’ education and drinking indicators was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step the individual level data and country data were combined and tested in multilevel models. As country level indicators we used the Purchasing Power Parity of the gross national income, the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: For both genders and all countries higher individual SES was positively associated with drinking status. Also higher country level SES was associated with higher proportions of drinkers. Lower SES was associated with RSOD among men. Women of higher SES in low income countries were more often RSO drinkers than women of lower SES. The opposite was true in higher income countries. Conclusion: For the most part, findings regarding SES and drinking in higher income countries were as expected. However, women of higher SES in low and middle income countries appear at higher risk of engaging in RSOD. This finding should be kept in mind when developing new policy and prevention initiatives. PMID:22562712

  10. Concurrent Treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Alcohol Dependence: Predictors and Moderators of Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Zandberg, Laurie J.; Rosenfield, David; McLean, Carmen P.; Powers, Mark B.; Asnaani, Anu; Foa, Edna B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study examined predictors and moderators of treatment response among 165 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who were randomized to 24 weeks of naltrexone (NAL), NAL and prolonged exposure (PE), pill placebo, or pill placebo and PE. All participants received supportive counseling for alcohol use. Method Six domains of predictors/moderators (23 variables) were evaluated using measures of PTSD (Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Scale Interview; PSS-I) and AD (percent days drinking from the Timeline Follow-Back Interview) collected every four weeks throughout treatment. Multi-level modeling using the Fournier approach was employed to evaluate predictors and moderators of rates of symptom improvement and post-treatment outcomes. Results Combat trauma, sexual assault trauma, and higher baseline anxiety sensitivity predicted slower improvement and poorer PTSD outcome. Combat trauma, white race, and higher baseline drinking severity predicted poorer drinking outcome. PTSD severity moderated the efficacy of PE on PTSD outcomes, such that the benefit of PE over no-PE was greater for participants with higher baseline PTSD severity. Baseline depressive severity moderated the efficacy of PE on drinking outcomes, whereby the benefit of PE over no-PE was greater for participants with higher depressive symptoms. NAL effects were most beneficial for those with the longest duration of alcohol dependence. Conclusions These results suggest that concurrent, trauma-focused treatment should be recommended for PTSD-AD patients who present with moderate or severe baseline PTSD and depressive symptoms. Future research should examine the mechanisms underlying poorer outcome among identified sub-groups of PTSD-AD patients. PMID:26460570

  11. Impulsive alcohol-related risk-behavior and emotional dysregulation among individuals with a serotonin 2B receptor stop codon

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, R; Tiihonen, J; Rautiainen, M R; Paunio, T; Bevilacqua, L; Panarsky, R; Goldman, D; Virkkunen, M

    2015-01-01

    A relatively common stop codon (Q20*) was identified in the serotonin 2B receptor gene (HTR2B) in a Finnish founder population in 2010 and it was associated with impulsivity. Here we examine the phenotype of HTR2B Q20* carriers in a setting comprising 14 heterozygous HTR2B Q20* carriers and 156 healthy controls without the HTR2B Q20*. The tridimensional personality questionnaire, Brown–Goodwin lifetime aggression scale, the Michigan alcoholism screening test and lifetime drinking history were used to measure personality traits, impulsive and aggressive behavior, both while sober and under the influence of alcohol, and alcohol consumption. Regression analyses showed that among the HTR2B Q20* carriers, temperamental traits resembled a passive-dependent personality profile, and the presence of the HTR2B Q20* predicted impulsive and aggressive behaviors particularly under the influence of alcohol. Results present examples of how one gene may contribute to personality structure and behaviors in a founder population and how personality may translate into behavior. PMID:26575222

  12. Electrophysiological Responses to Affective Stimuli in Mexican-Americans: Relationship to Alcohol Dependence and Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Criado, José R.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between the P450 component elicited by affective stimuli and: a personal history of alcohol dependence, antisocial personality disorder/conduct disorder (ASPD/CD) or affective anxiety disorders (ANYAXAF) was examined in Mexican Americans, a group with high rates of heavy drinking. Data from two hundred and twenty two young adults between the ages of 18 and 30 were used in the analyses. ERPs were collected using a task that required discrimination between faces with neutral, sad and happy facial expressions. DSM-IIIR diagnoses were obtained using a structured interview and personality traits were indexed using the Maudsley personality inventory. Men had significantly diminished P450 responses, when compared to women which were further reduced in men with ASPD/CD; whereas, a significant increase in P450 amplitudes was seen in those participants with ANYAXAF. P450 amplitudes were also significantly increased in men with high extraversion scores and in women with high neuroticism scores. No significant associations were seen between the P450 amplitude and the diagnosis of alcohol dependence. These data suggest that interpretations of P450 responses in Mexican Americans need to take into account the interactions between gender, the affective valence of the eliciting stimuli, as well as psychiatric status. PMID:17764730

  13. Concurrent Alcohol Dependence Among Methadone-Maintained Cocaine Abusers Is Associated with Greater Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Shannon A.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2011-01-01

    Concurrent alcohol dependence (AD) among polysubstance abusers has been associated with negative consequences, although it may not necessarily lead to poor treatment outcomes. One of the most efficacious treatments for cocaine abuse is contingency management (CM), but little research has explored the impact of AD on abstinence outcomes, particularly among patients in methadone maintenance. Using data from three trials of CM for cocaine use, we compared baseline characteristics and post-treatment and follow-up cocaine outcomes between methadone maintained, cocaine dependent patients (N=193) with and without concurrent AD, randomized to standard care (SC) with or without CM. Patients with and without concurrent AD had similar baseline characteristics, with the exception that AD patients reported more alcohol use. AD patients achieved longer durations of cocaine abstinence and were more likely to submit a cocaine negative sample at follow-up than non-AD patients. Patients randomized to CM achieved better outcomes than those randomized to SC, but there was no interaction between treatment condition and AD status. These findings suggest that cocaine using methadone patients with AD achieve greater cocaine abstinence than their non-AD counterparts and should not be necessarily viewed as more difficult to treat. PMID:21463068

  14. Alcohol in Head-Injured Aircrew Evaluated by the Aeromedical Consult Service, 1982-2002

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-23

    Intoxication 15 Frequency of Alcohol Use Screening 16 Alcohol Treatment Program Referrals 16 Screening Recommendations 17 HEAD IN JURIES 18 Traumatic...46 xi BASELINE ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION 47 ALCOHOL USE AT THE TIME OF INJURY 48 Frequency of Alcohol Assessment by Date of Evaluation 49 BLOOD ALCOHOL... frequency /amount survey had a sensitivity of 80%, and a specificity of 82% for identifying individuals with alcohol dependence. In the same study, the

  15. Aripiprazole in the treatment of patients with alcohol dependence: a double-blind, comparison trial vs. naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Martinotti, G; Di Nicola, M; Di Giannantonio, M; Janiri, L

    2009-03-01

    Substantial evidence suggests that both partial dopamine agents and mixed 5-HT1A/2A receptor drugs independently show significant efficacy in reducing alcohol use in both animals and humans. Aripiprazole, which acts as a dopamine/5-HT system stabilizer, approaches the optimal characteristics sought in medication to be considered for testing in the treatment of alcohol dependence. In this randomised, double-blind, confrontation trial with naltrexone, we aimed to investigate the efficacy of aripiprazole on alcohol-drinking indices. Craving and psychiatric symptom improvements were the secondary end points. Seventy-five alcohol dependent subjects were detoxified and were subsequently randomised into two groups, receiving 50 mg of naltrexone and 5-15 mg of aripiprazole, respectively. Craving (Visual Analogue Scale; Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale) and withdrawal (Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment) rating scales were applied; psychiatric symptoms were evaluated through the Symptom Check List 90-Revised. The number of subjects remained alcohol free for the entire study period (16 weeks) and the number of subjects relapsed were not significantly different in the two groups. The survival function showed that patients treated with aripiprazole remained abstinent from any alcohol amount for a longer time with respect to those treated with naltrexone. As for craving scores, patients treated with naltrexone showed a better outcome. Results from this study globally place aripiprazole at the same range of efficacy of naltrexone, one of the approved drugs used in alcohol relapse prevention. If it could be demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials that aripiprazole is efficacious in decreasing alcohol use, lessening craving, and attenuating psychopathological symptom severity, we will have gained a powerful agent for the treatment of alcohol-dependent subjects.

  16. Redox Balance in Lactobacillus reuteri DSM20016: Roles of Iron-Dependent Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Glucose/ Glycerol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, Paul David; Nieuwenhuiys, Gavin; Hatti-Kaul, Rajni

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri, a heterofermentative bacterium, metabolizes glycerol via a Pdu (propanediol-utilization) pathway involving dehydration to 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) followed by reduction to 1,3-propandiol (1,3-PDO) with concomitant generation of an oxidized cofactor, NAD+ that is utilized to maintain cofactor balance required for glucose metabolism and even for oxidation of 3-HPA by a Pdu oxidative branch to 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP). The Pdu pathway is operative inside Pdu microcompartment that encapsulates different enzymes and cofactors involved in metabolizing glycerol or 1,2-propanediol, and protects the cells from the toxic effect of the aldehyde intermediate. Since L. reuteri excretes high amounts of 3-HPA outside the microcompartment, the organism is likely to have alternative alcohol dehydrogenase(s) in the cytoplasm for transformation of the aldehyde. In this study, diversity of alcohol dehydrogenases in Lactobacillus species was investigated with a focus on L. reuteri. Nine ADH enzymes were found in L. reuteri DSM20016, out of which 3 (PduQ, ADH6 and ADH7) belong to the group of iron-dependent enzymes that are known to transform aldehydes/ketones to alcohols. L. reuteri mutants were generated in which the three ADHs were deleted individually. The lagging growth phenotype of these deletion mutants revealed that limited NAD+/NADH recycling could be restricting their growth in the absence of ADHs. Notably, it was demonstrated that PduQ is more active in generating NAD+ during glycerol metabolism within the microcompartment by resting cells, while ADH7 functions to balance NAD+/NADH by converting 3-HPA to 1,3-PDO outside the microcompartment in the growing cells. Moreover, evaluation of ADH6 deletion mutant showed strong decrease in ethanol level, supporting the role of this bifuctional alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase in ethanol production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing both internal and external recycling

  17. Extended-release naltrexone for alcohol and opioid dependence: a meta-analysis of healthcare utilization studies.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Daniel M; McCarty, Dennis; Fu, Rongwei; Wiest, Katharina; Chalk, Mady; Gastfriend, David R

    2014-08-01

    Through improved adherence, once-monthly injectable extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX) may provide an advantage over other oral agents approved for alcohol and opioid dependence treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate cost and utilization outcomes between XR-NTX and other pharmacotherapies for treatment of alcohol and opioid dependence. Published studies were identified through comprehensive search of two electronic databases. Studies were included if they compared XR-NTX to other approved medicines and reported economic and healthcare utilization outcomes in patients with opioid or alcohol dependence. We identified five observational studies comparing 1,565 patients using XR-NTX to other therapies over 6 months. Alcohol dependent XR-NTX patients had longer medication refill persistence versus acamprosate and oral naltrexone. Healthcare utilization and costs was generally lower or as low for XR-NTX-treated patients relative to other alcohol dependence agents. Opioid dependent XR-NTX patients had lower inpatient substance abuse-related utilization versus other agents and $8170 lower total cost versus methadone.

  18. Thiamine-dependent enzyme changes in the brains of alcoholics: relationship to the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, R F; Kril, J J; Harper, C G

    1993-10-01

    Chronic alcoholism results in thiamine deficiency as a consequence of poor nutrition, impaired absorption, and decreased phosphorylation to the enzyme cofactor form of the vitamin, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). Results of this study demonstrate significant reductions of TPP-dependent enzymes [pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha KGDH), and transketolase] in autopsied cerebellar vermis samples from alcoholic patients with the clinical and neuropathologically confirmed diagnosis of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS). Enzyme activities in brain samples from alcoholics without WKS were within normal limits and activities of a nonthiamine-dependent enzyme, glutamate dehydrogenase, were not significantly different from control values in brain samples from alcoholics with or without WKS. These findings provide evidence, for the first time, of a direct implication of TPP-related metabolic processes in the pathogenesis of WKS. Decreased activities of alpha KGDH could be the trigger for a sequence of metabolic events resulting in energy compromise, and ultimately neuronal death in this syndrome.

  19. Neurosteroid Binding Sites on the GABAA Receptor Complex as Novel Targets for Therapeutics to Reduce Alcohol Abuse and Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Hulin, Mary W.; Amato, Russell J.; Porter, Johnny R.; Filipeanu, Catalin M.; Winsauer, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of alcohol abuse and dependence in the US and Europe, there are only five approved pharmacotherapies for alcohol dependence. Moreover, these pharmacotherapeutic options have limited clinical utility. The purpose of this paper is to present pertinent literature suggesting that both alcohol and the neurosteroids interact at the GABAA receptor complex and that the neurosteroid sites on this receptor complex could serve as new targets for the development of novel therapeutics for alcohol abuse. This paper will also present data collected by our laboratory showing that one neurosteroid in particular, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), decreases ethanol intake in rats under a variety of conditions. In the process, we will also mention relevant studies from the literature suggesting that both particular subtypes and subunits of the GABAA receptor play an important role in mediating the interaction of neurosteroids and ethanol. PMID:22110489

  20. Association between Copy Number Variation Losses and Alcohol Dependence across African American and European American Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions

  1. Investigation of Cognitive Improvement in Alcohol-Dependent Inpatients Using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) Score

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Stéphanie; Alarcon, Régis; Rigole, Hélène; Perney, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cognitive dysfunction is a common feature in alcohol use disorders. Its persistence following alcohol detoxification may impair quality of life and increase the risk of relapse. We analyzed cognitive impairment changes using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score in a large sample of alcohol-dependent inpatients hospitalized for at least 4 weeks. Method. This was an observational longitudinal survey. Inclusion criteria were alcohol dependence (DSM-IV) and alcohol abstinence for at least one week. The MoCA test was administered on admission and at discharge. Results. 236 patients were included. The mean MoCA score significantly increased from 22.1 ± 3.7 on admission to 25.11 ± 3.12 at discharge. The corresponding effect-size of improvement was high, 1.1 [95% CI 1.0–1.2]. The degree of improvement was inversely correlated with the baseline MoCA score. The rate of high and normal, that is, >26, MoCA values increased from 15.8% on admission to 53.8% at discharge. MoCA score improvement was not correlated with the total length of abstinence prior to admission. Conclusion. The MoCA score seems to be a useful tool for measuring changes in cognitive performance in alcohol-dependent patients. A significant improvement in cognitive function was observed whatever the degree of impairment on admission and even after a long abstinence period. PMID:28044121