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  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 24099 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol; Alcoholism - deciding to quit ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol and health. www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol- ...

  3. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  4. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... to alcohol use Get into trouble with the law, family members, friends, school, or dates because of alcohol THE EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL Alcoholic drinks have different amounts of alcohol in them. Beer is about 5% alcohol, although some beers can ...

  5. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks.

    PubMed

    Goschorska, Marta; Gutowska, Izabela; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Rać, Monika Ewa; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.

  6. The association of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with body mass index: a cross-sectional, population-based study among Chinese adult male twins.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chunxiao; Gao, Wenjing; Cao, Weihua; Lv, Jun; Yu, Canqing; Wang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Bin; Pang, Zengchang; Cong, Liming; Dong, Zhong; Wu, Fan; Wang, Hua; Wu, Xianping; Jiang, Guohong; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Binyou; Li, Liming

    2016-04-11

    Obesity is a multifactorial abnormality which has an underlying genetic control but requires environmental influences to trigger. Numerous epidemiological studies have examined the roles of physical inactivity and dietary factors in obesity development. Interactions between obesity-related genes and these lifestyles have also been confirmed. However, less attention has been paid to these complex relationship between cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity. The purpose of this study was to assess whether cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were associated with body mass index (BMI), and whether these lifestyle factors modified the genetic variance of BMI. Subjects were twins recruited through the Chinese National Twin Registry, aged 18 to 79 years, and the sample comprised 6121 complete male twin pairs. Information on height, weight, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking status were assessed with self-report questionnaires. The associations of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking with BMI were evaluated by linear regression models. Further, structure equation models were conducted to estimate whether cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking status modified the degree of genetic variance of BMI. After adjustment for a variety of socio-demographic and lifestyle factors, former smokers had higher BMI (β = 0.475; 95 % CI, 0.196 to 0.754) whereas moderate to heavy smokers had lower BMI (β = -0.115; 95 % CI, -0.223 to -0.007) when compared with nonsmokers. BMI decreased with increased cigarette pack-years (β = -0.008; 95 % CI, -0.013 to -0.003). These effects still existed substantially in within-MZ twin pair analyses. By contrast, current alcohol drinking had no significant influence on BMI when additionally controlled for shared factors in within-pair analyses. Genetic modification by alcohol drinking was statistically significant for BMI (β = -0.137; 95 % CI, -0.215 to -0.058), with the intake of alcohol decreasing the additive

  7. Protective Behavioral Strategies, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Motives in a Model of College Student Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Linden, Ashley N.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Milletich, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    An extensive body of research asserts alcohol expectancies, or beliefs regarding the effects of alcohol, as an important influence on drinking. However, the extent to which expectancies are related to drinking motives and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) has yet to be examined. Existing alcohol mediational models suggest associations between expectancies and drinking motives as well as positive drinking motives and PBS use. Thus, it is possible that drinking motives and PBS use act as intervening factors in the relationship between expectancies and alcohol outcomes. Consequently, the present cross-sectional study aimed to test the indirect effect of expectancies (i.e., social facilitation) on alcohol outcomes through drinking motives and PBS use. Participants were 520 (358 female) college student drinkers with a mean age of 20.80 (SD = 4.61) years old. Students completed measures of expectancies, drinking motives, PBS use, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems. Results from structural equation modeling indicated that drinking motives and PBS mediated the relationship between social expectancies and alcohol use. In particular, expectancies were associated with greater positive drinking motives, drinking motives were associated with less PBS use, and PBS was associated with less alcohol use and fewer alcohol-related problems. Given the key role of PBS in explaining drinking outcomes in our model, active efforts to incorporate PBS in alcohol interventions may be particularly beneficial for college students. Further, our findings support the consideration of PBS use as a part of the motivational model of alcohol use in future work. PMID:25134035

  8. Alcohol Impairment and Social Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Marsha E.

    Cognitive abilities of social drinkers are generally thought to be affected by alcohol only during acute intoxication, but several studies suggest that sober-state performance may be affected by the quantity of alcohol consumed per drinking episode. Although the findings regarding sober-state mental deficits in social drinkers are inconclusive,…

  9. Surrogate alcohol drinking in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Pärna, Kersti; Leon, David A

    2011-08-01

    Surrogate, nonbeverage alcohols, provide a cheap and concentrated source of ethanol for drinking that has been associated with premature mortality. The aim of this study was to provide the first estimate of the prevalence of surrogate alcohol consumption in a national population sample of Estonia. The Estonian Health Interview Survey conducted in 2006 to 2007 was a nationally representative sample of the population aged 15 to 84 years (N = 6,370). The age-standardized percentage prevalences of ever having drunk surrogates were estimated. The association of age, ethnicity, and education with the prevalence of surrogate drinking was estimated using logistic regression. Of all respondents who reported drinking at least once in their lifetime (N = 5,423), 65% had consumed alcohol during the previous 4 weeks. In this group (N = 3,525), the age-standardized prevalence rate of surrogate drinking was 1.4% (2.3% men, 0.3% women). Among men, surrogate drinking was rare under the age of 35 years (0.3%). Ethnicity and education were both related to surrogate drinking: relative to Estonian men, non-Estonians (mainly Russians) had an odds ratio (OR) for surrogate drinking (adjusted for age and education) of 2.58 (95% CI 1.41, 4.72), while relative to those with higher education those with secondary education had an OR (adjusted for age and ethnicity) of 2.28 (0.78, 6.67) and those with basic education an OR of 3.91 (1.29, 11.84). Surrogate alcohols are drunk in Estonia, particularly among men. This behavior shows pronounced variation in prevalence by ethnicity and education. Reducing consumption of these substances needs to be part of any strategy to reduce the burden of alcohol-related problems in Estonia today. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  10. Implicit Alcohol Associations, Especially Drinking Identity, Predict Drinking Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Teachman, Bethany A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Norris, Jeanette; Kaysen, Debra; Gasser, Melissa L.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There is considerable excitement about implicit alcohol associations (IAAs) as predictors of college student hazardous drinking; however, few studies have investigated IAAs prospectively, included multiple assessments, or controlled for previous drinking. Doing so is essential to show their utility as a predictor and, ultimately, target for screening or intervention. Therefore, three IAAs (drinking identity, alcohol approach, alcohol excitement) were evaluated as prospective predictors of drinking in first- and second-year US undergraduates. Method A sample of 506 undergraduates completed eight online assessments of IAAs, explicit measures of the IAA constructs, and hazardous drinking (consumption, problems, and risk of alcohol use disorders) every three months over a 21-month period. Retention rates, ordered by follow-up points were 90%, 76%, 76%, 77%, 72%, 67%, and 66%, respectively. Fifty percent of participants were non-drinkers at baseline; 21% were above clinical cutoffs for hazardous drinking. Results Drinking identity and alcohol excitement associations predicted future alcohol consumption and problems after controlling for previous drinking and explicit measures; drinking identity also predicted future risk of alcohol use disorder. Relative to the other IAAs, drinking identity predicted alcohol consumption for the longest duration (i.e., 21 months). Alcohol approach associations rarely predicted variance in drinking. Conclusions IAAs vary in their utility as prospective predictors of college student hazardous drinking. Drinking identity and, to a lesser extent, alcohol excitement emerged as robust prospective predictors of hazardous drinking. Intervention and screening efforts could likely benefit from targeting those associations. PMID:27505215

  11. Alcoholism and alcohol drinking habits predicted from alcohol dehydrogenase genes.

    PubMed

    Tolstrup, Janne Schurmann; Nordestgaard, Børge Grønne; Rasmussen, Søren; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Grønbaek, Morten

    2008-06-01

    Alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism are partly genetically determined. Alcohol is degraded primarily by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) wherein genetic variation that affects the rate of alcohol degradation is found in ADH1B and ADH1C. It is biologically plausible that these variations may be associated with alcohol drinking habits and alcoholism. By genotyping 9080 white men and women from the general population, we found that men and women with ADH1B slow vs fast alcohol degradation drank more alcohol and had a higher risk of everyday drinking, heavy drinking, excessive drinking and of alcoholism. For example, the weekly alcohol intake was 9.8 drinks (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-11) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to 7.5 drinks (95% CI: 6.4-8.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype, and the odds ratio (OR) for heavy drinking was 3.1 (95% CI: 1.7-5.7) among men with the ADH1B.1/1 genotype compared to men with the ADH1B.1/2 genotype. Furthermore, individuals with ADH1C slow vs fast alcohol degradation had a higher risk of heavy and excessive drinking. For example, the OR for heavy drinking was 1.4 (95% CI: 1.1-1.8) among men with the ADH1C.1/2 genotype and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.0-1.9) among men with the ADH1B.2/2 genotype, compared with men with the ADH1C.1/1 genotype. Results for ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes among men and women were similar. Finally, because slow ADH1B alcohol degradation is found in more than 90% of the white population compared to less than 10% of East Asians, the population attributable risk of heavy drinking and alcoholism by ADH1B.1/1 genotype was 67 and 62% among the white population compared with 9 and 24% among the East Asian population.

  12. The loss of metabolic control on alcohol drinking in heavy drinking alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    de Timary, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D; Duchemin, Julie; Neyrinck, Audrey M; Gihousse, Dominique; Laterre, Pierre-François; Badaoui, Abdenor; Leclercq, Sophie; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Stärkel, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most physiological studies interested in alcohol-dependence examined ethanol as a pharmacological agent rather than a nutrient. We conducted two studies, which assessed the metabolic and endocrine factors involved in the regulation of alcohol and nutrient intake in alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. We also examined the potential role of a disruption in energy balance in alcohol-dependence. In Study-1, quantitative dietetic interviews of eating and drinking habits were conducted with 97 AD subjects. The population was split around a median alcohol intake value of 12.5 kcal/kg/day. The results showed that the "low alcohol" drinking AD subjects had high Body Mass Index (BMI) and Fat Mass (FM) and alcohol intake was compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. "High alcohol" drinking AD subjects, on the other hand, had low BMI and FM and the total caloric intakes were largely above norms. In Study-2, 24 AD inpatients were submitted to dietetic interviews, calorimetry and blood samplings for the measurement of biomarkers of the regulation of metabolism and satiety, on day 2, 5 and 16 of abstinence. These patients were compared with 20 controls matched for age and gender. We observed in AD patients an increase in cortisol, leptin and PYY plasma levels and a decrease in ghrelin, which might explain the observed decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. However, alcoholic and non-alcoholic intakes correlated positively with basal metabolism and negatively with leptin and leptin/BMI. For individuals consuming below 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol intake is compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic nutrient intakes, probably due to changes in metabolic and satiety factors. For individuals consuming above 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol accelerates metabolism and decreases fat mass and leptin levels, and the total caloric intake largely exceeds norms. A dual model for regulation of energy intake in AD subjects is proposed.

  13. Alcohol Intoxication by Binge Drinking Impairs Neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Loheswaran, Genane; Barr, Mera S; Rajji, Tarek K; Blumberger, Daniel M; Le Foll, Bernard; Daskalakis, Zafiris J

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking, resulting in acute alcohol intoxication, is considered an initial step in developing alcohol use disorders (AUDs). It has been suggested that alcohol intoxication may act on mechanisms of neuroplasticity to produce brain changes that contribute to the pathophysiology of AUDs. However, the effect of binge drinking on neuroplasticity has not been evaluated in humans. The current study was aimed at evaluating the effect of a binge drinking episode on LTP-like neuroplasticity. In a within-subject randomized, cross-over design, fifteen otherwise healthy binge drinkers were administered paired associative stimulation (PAS) following consumption of alcohol or a placebo beverage. PAS is an experimental paradigm that allows for the induction of associative long-term potentiation (LTP)-like neuroplasticity. Subjects were administered alcohol at a dose of 1.5 g/l of body water, producing a peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 26.1 mM (0.120% BAC). PAS induced neuroplasticity was measured at Post 0 (immediately following PAS), Post 15 (15 minutes following PAS), Post 30 (30 minutes following PAS), Post 60 (60 minutes following PAS) and Post Day 1 (the next day following PAS). The binge drinking episode inhibited LTP-like neuroplasticity, which was significantly different from placebo at 30 and 60 min following the PAS administration. Examination of longitudinal effects revealed no differences between beverages on LTP-like neuroplasticity the following day. Findings suggest that binge drinking impairs neuroplasticity and while these effects are no longer evident the day after a single binge session, repetitive binging may produce long lasting changes in neuroplasticity that contribute to the development of AUDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exposure to alcohol advertising and teen drinking.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2011-02-01

    Assessing the association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol use in German adolescents, controlling for general ad exposure. Cross-sectional survey of 3415 sixth to eighth graders (mean 12.5 years) from 29 schools in three German states (June 2008). Exposure to 9 alcohol and 8 non-alcohol advertisements was measured with masked ad images; students indicated contact frequency and brand recall. Main outcomes were ever drinking, current drinking, binge drinking, alcohol use intentions and outcome expectancies. There was a bivariate association between both exposures (alcohol and non-alcohol ads) and all alcohol use measures. After adjustment for confounding, only alcohol ad exposure retained a significant association with outcomes. Multi-level logistic regressions revealed that compared with quartile one alcohol ad exposure, the adjusted odds ratios for quartile four were 2.4 (95% confidence interval 1.7-3.4) for trying drinking, 2.7 (1.8-3.9) for current drinking and 2.3 (1.6-3.5) for ever binge drinking. There was also an independent association between alcohol ad exposure and alcohol-related attitudes among never drinkers. This study demonstrates a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising and multiple youth drinking outcomes, showing that the association is content-specific, not just a function of general ad exposure. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Risks of alcoholic energy drinks for youth.

    PubMed

    Weldy, David L

    2010-01-01

    Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.

  16. Drinking Motives, Alcohol Expectancies, Self-Efficacy, and Drinking Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Wiers, Reinout; Lemmers, Lex; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2005-01-01

    The current study focused on the associations between drinking motives, alcohol expectancies, self-efficacy, and drinking behavior in a representative sample of 553 Dutch adolescents and adults. Data were gathered by means of self-report questionnaires and a 14-days drinking diary. A model was postulated in which negative expectancies and…

  17. The Loss of Metabolic Control on Alcohol Drinking in Heavy Drinking Alcohol-Dependent Subjects

    PubMed Central

    de Timary, Philippe; Cani, Patrice D.; Duchemin, Julie; Neyrinck, Audrey M.; Gihousse, Dominique; Laterre, Pierre-François; Badaoui, Abdenor; Leclercq, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Background Most physiological studies interested in alcohol-dependence examined ethanol as a pharmacological agent rather than a nutrient. We conducted two studies, which assessed the metabolic and endocrine factors involved in the regulation of alcohol and nutrient intake in alcohol-dependent (AD) subjects. We also examined the potential role of a disruption in energy balance in alcohol-dependence. Methods and Results In Study-1, quantitative dietetic interviews of eating and drinking habits were conducted with 97 AD subjects. The population was split around a median alcohol intake value of 12.5 kcal/kg/day. The results showed that the “low alcohol” drinking AD subjects had high Body Mass Index (BMI) and Fat Mass (FM) and alcohol intake was compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. “High alcohol” drinking AD subjects, on the other hand, had low BMI and FM and the total caloric intakes were largely above norms. In Study-2, 24 AD inpatients were submitted to dietetic interviews, calorimetry and blood samplings for the measurement of biomarkers of the regulation of metabolism and satiety, on day 2, 5 and 16 of abstinence. These patients were compared with 20 controls matched for age and gender. We observed in AD patients an increase in cortisol, leptin and PYY plasma levels and a decrease in ghrelin, which might explain the observed decrease in non-alcoholic intakes. However, alcoholic and non-alcoholic intakes correlated positively with basal metabolism and negatively with leptin and leptin/BMI. Conclusion For individuals consuming below12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol intake is compensated for by a decrease in non-alcoholic nutrient intakes, probably due to changes in metabolic and satiety factors. For individuals consuming above 12.5 kcal/kg/day of alcohol, alcohol accelerates metabolism and decreases fat mass and leptin levels, and the total caloric intake largely exceeds norms. A dual model for regulation of energy intake in AD subjects

  18. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  19. Predictors of Early Alcohol Drinking Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnn

    2007-01-01

    Early alcohol drinking onset (ADO) has been implicated as a cause of adult alcohol disorder inviting interventions that target the causes of ADO. This study explores the precursors of early ADO using variables measured before drinking onset, reaching back to the mothers of the respondents. The sample consists of children of the women respondents…

  20. Quantification of alcohol drinking patterns in mice.

    PubMed

    Eisenhardt, Manuela; Leixner, Sarah; Spanagel, Rainer; Bilbao, Ainhoa

    2015-11-01

    The use of mice in alcohol research provides an excellent model system for a better understanding of the genetics and neurobiology of alcohol addiction. Almost 60 years ago, alcohol researchers began to test strains of mice for alcohol preference and intake. In particular, various voluntary alcohol drinking paradigms in the home cage were developed. In mouse models of voluntary oral alcohol consumption, animals have concurrent access to water and either one or several concentrated alcohol solutions in their home cages. Although these models have high face validity, many experimental conditions require a more precise monitoring of alcohol consumption in mice in order to capture the role of specific strains or genes, or any other manipulation on alcohol drinking behavior. Therefore, we have developed a fully automated, highly precise monitoring system for alcohol drinking in mice in the home cage. This system is now commercially available. We show that this drinkometer system allows for detecting differences in drinking behavior (i) in transgenic mice, (ii) following alcohol deprivation, and (iii) following stress applications that are usually not detected by classical home-cage drinking paradigms. In conclusion, our drinkometer system allows disturbance-free and high resolution monitoring of alcohol drinking behavior. In particular, micro-drinking and circadian drinking patterns can be monitored in genetically modified and inbred strains of mice after environmental and pharmacological manipulation, and therefore this system represents an improvement in measuring behavioral features that are of relevance for the development of alcohol use disorders. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Alcohol industry sponsorship and hazardous drinking among sportspeople.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Kypri, Kypros

    2008-12-01

    To examine the nature and extent of alcohol industry sponsorship of sportspeople, and its association with drinking. A purposive sample of participants (n = 1279) from various sporting codes were asked whether they personally, their team, or club received free and/or discounted alcohol or funding from an alcohol industry body (e.g. pub, brewery, wholesaler); how much they received; and whether they felt they should drink their sponsor's product and/or at the sponsor's premises. Drinking behaviour was assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) questionnaire. Alcohol industry sponsorship was reported by 47.8% of the sample. Of those sponsored, 47% reported receiving free and/or discounted alcohol products. In multivariate models, those receiving sponsorship at the individual, team and club level had AUDIT scores that were, on average, 2.4 points higher [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-4.09] than those who received no sponsorship. Receiving free and/or discounted alcohol (beta(adj) = 0.95, 95% CI: 0.01-1.88) and feeling that they should go to the sponsor's pub/club to drink (beta(adj) = 1.91, 95% CI: 0.85-2.98) were also associated with higher AUDIT scores. Provision of free or discounted alcoholic beverages was associated more strongly with AUDIT scores (beta(adj) = 1.56; 95% CI: 0.62-2.51) than other forms of sponsorship from the alcohol industry (e.g. provision of uniforms). Alcohol industry sponsorship of sportspeople, and in particular the provision of free or discounted alcoholic beverages, is associated with hazardous drinking after adjustment for a range of potential confounders. Sports administration bodies should consider the health and ethical risks of accepting alcohol industry sponsorship.

  2. Covariates of Craving in Actively Drinking Alcoholics

    PubMed Central

    Chakravorty, Subhajit; Kuna, Samuel T.; Zaharakis, Nikola; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kampman, Kyle M.; Oslin, David

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to assess the relationship of alcohol craving with biopsychosocial and addiction factors that are clinically pertinent to alcoholism treatment. Alcohol craving was assessed in 315 treatment-seeking, alcohol dependent subjects using the PACS questionnaire. Standard validated questionnaires were used to evaluate a variety of biological, addiction, psychological, psychiatric, and social factors. Individual covariates of craving included age, race, problematic consequences of drinking, heavy drinking, motivation for change, mood disturbance, sleep problems, and social supports. In a multivariate analysis (R2 = .34), alcohol craving was positively associated with mood disturbance, heavy drinking, readiness for change, and negatively associated with age. The results from this study suggest that alcohol craving is a complex phenomenon influenced by multiple factors. PMID:20716308

  3. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... How many "drinks" are in a bottle of wine? A typical 25-ounce (750 ml) bottle of table wine holds about 5 "standard" drinks, each containing about 5 ounces. This serving size of wine contains about the same amount of alcohol as ...

  4. Monitoring drinking behaviour and motivation to drink over successive doses of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail Katherine; Hobbs, Malcolm; Klipp, Laura; Bell, Steven; Edwards, Kendra; Oʼhara, Pat; Drummond, Colin

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare alcohol urge, drinking behaviour and mood across two beverage conditions (alcohol/soft drink), over multiple drinks. Forty-five (22 men) participants completed two conditions (alcohol/soft-drink). Baseline alcohol urge and mood was measured before an initial drink consumed (0.2 g/kg alcohol or lemonade). Four drinking phases, which provided alcohol and lemonade, followed. Alcohol urge, mood and liking/enjoyment of beverages were measured. Participants' typical drinking habits were recorded, allowing comparisons across drinking factors. Alcohol urge was greater in the alcohol condition (P<0.03), which positively correlated with liking and drinking enjoyment of the alcohol beverage (P<0.04). Binge drinking and weekly alcohol consumption positively related to alcohol urge during the first half of the alcohol condition (P<0.02). Feeling stimulated was positively related to alcohol urge (P<0.01). Sip latency was quickest for alcohol in the alcohol condition (P<0.001) and did not increase over time as in the soft-drink condition (P<0.001). This study presents a paradigm in which alcohol motivation can be assessed within more typical drinking occasion parameters. Urge related to alcohol's positive reinforcing effects. As more alcohol was consumed, a disassociation of liking and wanting alcohol occurred, indicating that different processes may underlie behaviour during different periods of a drinking occasion.

  5. College Students' Knowledge of Alcohol and Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of students at 60 universities involved in the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information "University 50 + 12 Project" appear to confirm the opinion that factual information held by students concerning alcohol and drinking is limited. The total sample population answered only a little more than one-half of the knowledge questions…

  6. Preclinical studies of alcohol binge drinking

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, John C.; Harris, R. Adron; Koob, George F.

    2011-01-01

    Binge drinking is prevalent and has serious biomedical consequences. In children, adolescents, and young adults, it is a prominent risk factor for later development of alcohol-use disorders. Many preclinical models have been employed to study the genetic risks for and biomedical consequences of alcohol drinking. However, these models historically did not result in blood-alcohol concentrations (BACs) exceding 80 mg%; this relatively modest level is the threshold that currently defines a binge session, according to the NIAAA and CDC. Nevertheless, in alcohol-dependent rodents, binge drinking has been well documented. Key neurobiological substrates localized to brain reward and stress systems have been identified. Studies of newer models of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed here. In these models, rodents, non-human primates, and flies will drink enough to reach high BACs. They often display observable signs of intoxication. The neurobiological consequences of these episodes of binge drinking without dependence are reviewed, preliminary evidence for roles for GABA, glutamate, opioid peptides, and corticotropin releasing factor are discussed, as is the need for more work to identify the antecedents and consequences of binge drinking in both animal models and humans. PMID:21272009

  7. Sigma-1 Receptor Mediates Acquisition of Alcohol Drinking and Seeking behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R.; Rice, Kenner C.; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T.; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists block excessive drinking in both genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1Rs in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction. PMID:25848705

  8. Sigma-1 receptor mediates acquisition of alcohol drinking and seeking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Blasio, Angelo; Valenza, Marta; Iyer, Malliga R; Rice, Kenner C; Steardo, Luca; Hayashi, T; Cottone, Pietro; Sabino, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) has been proposed as a novel therapeutic target for drug and alcohol addiction. We have shown previously that Sig-1R agonists facilitate the reinforcing effects of ethanol and induce binge-like drinking, while Sig-1R antagonists on the other hand block excessive drinking in genetic and environmental models of alcoholism, without affecting intake in outbred non-dependent rats. Even though significant progress has been made in understanding the function of Sig-1R in alcohol reinforcement, its role in the early and late stage of alcohol addiction remains unclear. Administration of the selective Sig-1R antagonist BD-1063 dramatically reduced the acquisition of alcohol drinking behavior as well as the preference for alcohol in genetically selected TSRI Sardinian alcohol preferring (Scr:sP) rats; the treatment had instead no effect on total fluid intake, food intake or body weight gain, proving selectivity of action. Furthermore, BD-1063 dose-dependently decreased alcohol-seeking behavior in rats trained under a second-order schedule of reinforcement, in which responding is maintained by contingent presentation of a conditioned reinforcer. Finally, an innate elevation in Sig-1R protein levels was found in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring Scr:sP rats, compared to outbred Wistar rats, alteration which was normalized by chronic, voluntary alcohol drinking. Taken together these findings demonstrate that Sig-1R blockade reduces the propensity to both acquire alcohol drinking and to seek alcohol, and point to the nucleus accumbens as a potential key region for the effects observed. Our data suggest that Sig-1R antagonists may have therapeutic potential in multiple stages of alcohol addiction.

  9. Alcohol Use: If You Drink, Keep It Moderate

    MedlinePlus

    ... occurring-disorders/older-adults. Accessed July 14, 2016. Alcohol's effects on the body. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse ... Alcoholism. https://www.niaaa.nih.gov/alcohol-health/alcohols-effects-body. Accessed July 14, 2016. Klatsky AL. Alcohol ...

  10. Inflexible and indifferent alcohol drinking in male mice.

    PubMed

    Lesscher, Heidi M B; van Kerkhof, Linda W M; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J

    2010-07-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by compulsive alcohol intake, but this critical feature of alcoholism is seldom captured in preclinical studies. Here, we evaluated whether alcohol-preferring C57BL/6J mice develop compulsive alcohol drinking patterns, using adulteration of the alcohol solution with quinine, in a limited access choice paradigm. We assessed 2 independent aspects of compulsive drinking: (i) inflexible alcohol intake by testing whether mice would drink bitter alcohol solutions if this was their only source of alcohol and (ii) indifferent drinking by comparing intake of aversive and nonaversive alcohol solutions. Male C57BL/6J mice consumed alcohol for 2 or 8 consecutive weeks. The alcohol solution was then adulterated with graded quinine concentrations, and the effect on alcohol intake was determined. C57BL/6J mice rapidly developed compulsive alcohol drinking patterns. Adulteration of the alcohol solution with an aversive quinine concentration failed to reduce intake, indicative of inflexible drinking behavior, after only 2 weeks of alcohol experience, although quinine adulteration did suppress the acquisition of alcohol drinking in naïve mice. After 8 weeks of alcohol consumption, the mice also became indifferent to quinine. They consumed an aversive, quinine-containing alcohol solution, despite the simultaneous availability of an unadulterated alcohol solution. Prolonged alcohol ingestion did not alter the sensitivity to the bitter taste of quinine itself. These findings demonstrate the staged occurrence in mice of 2 distinct behavioral characteristics of alcoholism, i.e., inflexible and indifferent alcohol drinking.

  11. Drinking for wages: alcohol use among cantineras.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esquer, Maria Eugenia

    2003-03-01

    This study reports on patterns of alcohol use among cantineras: recently immigrated Latina women who make a living drinking in working class Latino bars (cantinas). Women working in 10 cantinas in a Latino neighborhood participated in a semistructured interview that included questions about their personal background and current working conditions. Twenty-one participants were interviewed at their home or place of work. Drinking is a duty required of women who work in cantinas, and the conditions in which alcohol is consumed varies by the type of job they perform. Cantineras establish drinking habits and routines to maximize profits and maintain their jobs, while adopting coping strategies to minimize adverse health consequences. The drinking behavior of cantineras presents a paradox. To make a living, they need to become efficient drinkers who profit from their behavior. At the same time, they need to recognize and set limits to their drinking. The norms of cantineras distinguish drinking as duty from drinking for recreation, and they recognize problem drinking. The heavy health burden imposed by obligatory drinking at work is the result of limited job opportunities and the marginality experienced by Latina immigrants who must find ways to cope with the pressures they endure as poor women.

  12. The Neurometabolic Fingerprint of Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-01-01

    ‘Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence. PMID:25418809

  13. The neurometabolic fingerprint of excessive alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Meinhardt, Marcus W; Sévin, Daniel C; Klee, Manuela L; Dieter, Sandra; Sauer, Uwe; Sommer, Wolfgang H

    2015-03-13

    'Omics' techniques are widely used to identify novel mechanisms underlying brain function and pathology. Here we applied a novel metabolomics approach to further ascertain the role of frontostriatal brain regions for the expression of addiction-like behaviors in rat models of alcoholism. Rats were made alcohol dependent via chronic intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Following a 3-week abstinence period, rats had continuous access to alcohol in a two-bottle, free-choice paradigm for 7 weeks. Nontargeted flow injection time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to assess global metabolic profiles of two cortical (prelimbic and infralimbic) and two striatal (accumbens core and shell) brain regions. Alcohol consumption produces pronounced global effects on neurometabolomic profiles leading to a clear separation of metabolic phenotypes between treatment groups, particularly. Further comparisons of regional tissue levels of various metabolites, most notably dopamine and Met-enkephalin, allow the extrapolation of alcohol consumption history. Finally, a high-drinking metabolic fingerprint was identified indicating a distinct alteration of central energy metabolism in the accumbens shell of excessively drinking rats that could indicate a so far unrecognized pathophysiological mechanism in alcohol addiction. In conclusion, global metabolic profiling from distinct brain regions by mass spectrometry identifies profiles reflective of an animal's drinking history and provides a versatile tool to further investigate pathophysiological mechanisms in alcohol dependence.

  14. Problematic Drinking Among Postgraduate Students: Binge Drinking, Prepartying, and Mixing Alcohol With Energy Drinks.

    PubMed

    Rutledge, Patricia C; Bestrashniy, Jessica R B M; Nelson, Toben F

    2016-07-02

    Although problematic alcohol use has been studied extensively in undergraduate students, little is known about problematic drinking among postgraduate students. This study examined binge drinking, prepartying, and mixing alcohol with energy drinks to determine: (1) the extent to which postgraduate students engage in these drinking behaviors, (2) how postgraduate students differ from undergraduate students in these behaviors, and (3) the demographic risk factors for these behaviors in postgraduate (and undergraduate) students. This study utilized data from n = 695 students (n = 298 postgraduate; n = 397 undergraduate) who participated in the Healthy Minds Study at a large, public university in the Midwestern US. Past-two-week binge drinking, past-year and past-30-day prepartying, and past-30-day mixing alcohol with energy drinks were reported by 26.2%, 28.6%, 14.9%, and 8.1% of postgraduate students, respectively. Multivariate analyses indicated that postgraduate status was a significant negative predictor of binge drinking and prepartying, and that status interacted with age in predicting prepartying such that the effect of age on prepartying was negative for postgraduate students and nonsignificant for undergraduates. Age was a significant negative predictor of mixing alcohol with energy drinks for all students. This study makes a unique contribution to the literature by providing information on problematic drinking in postgraduate students. Although there was evidence of "maturing out," a substantial number of postgraduate students were found to engage in binge drinking and prepartying, and a not insubstantial number of them were found to mix alcohol with energy drinks.

  15. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L

    2017-03-01

    The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) has been associated with higher rates of binge drinking and impaired driving when compared with alcohol alone. However, it remains unclear why the risks of use of AmED are heightened compared with alcohol alone even when the doses of alcohol consumed are similar. Therefore, the purpose of this laboratory study was to investigate if the rate of self-paced beverage consumption was faster for a dose of AmED versus alcohol alone using a double-blind, within-subjects, placebo-controlled study design. Participants (n = 16) of equal gender who were social drinkers attended 4 separate test sessions that involved consumption of alcohol (1.97 ml/kg vodka) and energy drinks, alone and in combination. On each test day, the dose assigned was divided into 10 cups. Participants were informed that they would have a 2-h period to consume the 10 drinks. After the self-paced drinking period, participants completed a cued go/no-go reaction time (RT) task and subjective ratings of stimulation and sedation. The results indicated that participants consumed the AmED dose significantly faster (by ∼16 min) than the alcohol dose. For the performance task, participants' mean RTs were slower in the alcohol conditions and faster in the energy-drink conditions. In conclusion, alcohol consumers should be made aware that rapid drinking might occur for AmED beverages, thus heightening alcohol-related safety risks. The fast rate of drinking may be related to the generalized speeding of responses after energy-drink consumption. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. THE α2-ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AGONIST, CLONIDINE, REDUCES ALCOHOL DRINKING IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING (P) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D.; Alexander, Laura; Malone, Julia; Federoff, David; Froehlich, Janice C.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol-drinking behavior in both rodents and humans. We have investigated this possibility by administering clonidine to alcohol-drinking rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). Clonidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist which, at low doses, inhibits noradrenergic signaling by decreasing norepinephrine release from presynaptic noradrenergic neurons. Adult male P rats were given 24-h access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 h daily. Rats received intraperitoneal (IP) injections with clonidine (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 µg/kg body weight [BW], 10–11 rats/treatment group) once/day at 30 min prior to onset of the daily 2-h alcohol access period for 2 consecutive days. Clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 µg/kg BW, significantly reduced alcohol intake on both days of treatment (p < 0.001). Two weeks later, rats were treated with clonidine for 5 consecutive days and clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 µg/kg BW, reduced alcohol intake on all 5 treatment days (p < 0.001). Clonidine did not alter water consumption during the daily 2-h free-choice between alcohol and water. In a separate group of male P rats, clonidine (40 µg/kg BW) suppressed intake of a saccharin solution (0.04 g/L). These results are consistent with and complement our previous findings that the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, decreases voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but suggests that effects of clonidine may not be specific for alcohol. The results suggest that although activation of the noradrenergic system plays an important role in mediating voluntary alcohol drinking, care is needed in selecting which drugs to use to suppress central noradrenergic signaling in order to maximize the selectivity of the drugs for treating alcohol-use disorders. PMID:25085719

  17. Energy drinks and alcohol-related risk among young adults.

    PubMed

    Caviness, Celeste M; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2017-06-16

    Energy drink consumption, with or without concurrent alcohol use, is common among young adults. This study sought to clarify risk for negative alcohol outcomes related to the timing of energy drink use. The authors interviewed a community sample of 481 young adults, aged 18-25, who drank alcohol in the last month. Past-30-day energy drink use was operationalized as no-use, use without concurrent alcohol, and concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol ("within a couple of hours"). Negative alcohol outcomes included past-30-day binge drinking, past-30-day alcohol use disorder, and drinking-related consequences. Just over half (50.5%) reported no use of energy drinks,18.3% reported using energy drinks without concurrent alcohol use, and 31.2% reported concurrent use of energy drinks and alcohol. Relative to those who reported concurrent use of energy drinks with alcohol, and controlling for background characteristics and frequency of alcohol consumption, those who didn't use energy drinks and those who used without concurrent alcohol use had significantly lower binge drinking, negative consequences, and rates of alcohol use disorder (P < .05 for all outcomes). There were no significant differences between the no-use and energy drink without concurrent alcohol groups on any alcohol-related measure (P > .10 for all outcomes). Concurrent energy drink and alcohol use is associated with increased risk for negative alcohol consequences in young adults. Clinicians providing care to young adults could consider asking patients about concurrent energy drink and alcohol use as a way to begin a conversation about risky alcohol consumption while addressing 2 substances commonly used by this population.

  18. [Alcohol drinking patterns and sleep quality of Japanese civil servants].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, Shiori; Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether alcohol drinking patterns were associated with sleep quality. A cross-sectional survey was carried out by self-administered questionnaire in 2008 among 2,118 employees aged 18 to 65 years working in local government in Toyama. After excluding those without relevant data for this study, 661 men and 618 women represented the study population. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate whether alcohol drinking patterns (as measured by the frequency, the amount of alcohol per day and the timing of alcohol drinking) were associated with poor sleep quality (as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), after adjustment for potential confounding factors: age, family structure, work characteristics (as measured by the job-demand-control-support model, shift work and occupational class), chronic disease, body mass index, smoking status and physical activity. In comparison with men who did not drink, the adjusted odds ratio for poor sleep quality was 0.52 (95%confidence interval: 0.32-0.85) for those who drank alcohol once a week or more, 0.32 (0.13-0.84) for those who drank 1-3 glasses daily, 0.30 (0.13-0.70) for those who drank 7-14 glasses per week, 0.37 (0.17-0.77) for those who drank only at meals. In women, the drinking patterns were not significantly associated with sleep quality. The results of this study suggest that some alcohol drinking patterns may affect sleep quality among men who do not use sleeping medicine.

  19. Effects of forced alcohol drinking on alcohol-water choice in three pairs of rat lines selectively bred for differences in alcohol preference.

    PubMed

    Timberlake, William; Leffel, Joseph K; Chester, Julia A; Froehlich, Janice C

    2009-03-01

    Three pairs of Indiana University rat lines (inbred alcohol-preferring and nonpreferring rat lines [P/NPs], high- and low-alcohol-drinking rat lines [HAD/LAD1s and HAD/LAD2s]) were bred in the School of Medicine colony to drink high versus low daily amounts of a 10% vol/vol alcohol test solution (>5.0 g/kg body weight vs. <1.5 g/kg body weight), and a high versus low proportion of alcohol to water (>2:1 vs. <0.5:1) by the end of a 3-week alcohol-water choice condition. This choice phase was always preceded by four days of a forcing procedure with alcohol as the only fluid. The present study examined the contribution of the forcing procedure to the alcohol intake of animals in each pair of lines by comparing daily alcohol intake of rats housed in experimental chambers in a forced group (4 days with only alcohol solution to drink followed by 22 choice days) versus a choice group (both alcohol and water available all 26 days). As expected, under the initial alcohol exposure, high-drinking line rats drank more alcohol than low-drinking line rats, and all forced groups drank more alcohol than choice groups. At the start of the choice phase, all low-drinking line forced groups immediately dropped their alcohol intake to the level of their choice groups. In contrast, all high-drinking line forced groups maintained a high level of alcohol intake under choice, whereas all high-drinking line choice groups slowly increased average alcohol intake across the 22-day choice phase, ending near the average intake of their forced groups. However, a small subset of each high-drinking line choice animals failed to increase alcohol intake until subsequently forced with alcohol for 4 days and tested again in choice. These results indicate that the alcohol-forcing procedure used in deriving these lines resulted in the selection of more than one pathway to a high-drinking phenotype. In addition, high-drinking line animals appeared more sensitive to the differences between laboratory- and

  20. Allergic and asthmatic reactions to alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    Vally, Hassan; Thompson, Philip J

    2003-03-01

    Alcoholic drinks are capable of triggering a wide range of allergic and allergic-like responses, including rhinitis, itching, facial swelling, headache, cough and asthma. Limited epidemiological data suggests that many individuals are affected and that sensitivities occur to a variety of drinks, including wine, beer and spirits. In surveys of asthmatics, over 40% reported the triggering of allergic or allergic-like symptoms following alcoholic drink consumption and 30 - 35% reported worsening of their asthma. Sensitivity to ethanol itself can play a role in triggering adverse responses, particularly in Asians, which is due mainly to a reduced capacity to metabolize acetaldehyde. In Caucasians, specific non-alcohol components are the main cause of sensitivities to alcoholic drinks. Allergic sensitivities to specific components of beer, spirits and distilled liquors have been described. Wine is clearly the most commonly reported trigger for adverse responses. Sensitivities to wine appear to be due mainly to pharmacological intolerances to specific components, such as biogenic amines and the sulphite additives. Histamine in wine has been associated with the triggering of a wide spectrum of adverse symptoms, including sneezing, rhinitis, itching, flushing, headache and asthma. The sulphite additives in wine have been associated with triggering asthmatic responses. Clinical studies have confirmed sensitivities to the sulphites in wine in limited numbers of individuals, but the extent to which the sulphites contribute to wine sensitivity overall is not clear. The aetiology of wine-induced asthmatic responses may be complex and may involve several co-factors.

  1. Heavy Alcohol Drinking Associated Akathisia and Management with Quetiapine XR in Alcohol Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy drinking contributes to involuntary body movements such as akathisia. Quetiapine has been shown to alleviate symptoms of akathisia; however, its efficacy in the alcohol dependent population is not well established. Thus, we aimed to identify efficacy of Quetiapine in treating akathisia in very heavy drinking alcohol dependent patients. 108 male and female heavy alcohol consuming study participants received 13 weeks of Quetiapine XR. Drinking history (Timeline Followback, TLFB), depression (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS), and movement (Barnes Akathisia Scale, BARS) measures were collected at baseline (0 W), week 6 (6 W), and week 12 (12 W). The role of drinking, symptoms of depression, and efficacy of Quetiapine for treating akathisia were assessed. In patients with no symptoms of depression (low MADRS), Quetiapine treatment decreased symptoms of akathisia. Patients with clinically significant depression (high MADRS) reported a significant increase in akathisia measures at 6 W which eventually decreased at 12 W to below baseline levels. The increase in akathisia at 6 W corresponded with a significant increase in the patients' total drinks and heavy drinking pattern. Treatment with Quetiapine progressively lowered the occurrence of akathisia in alcohol dependent patients who do not show symptoms of depression. Quetiapine treatment lowered akathisia over time in heavy drinkers who had clinically significant symptoms of depression. PMID:27847671

  2. Consumption of energy drinks, alcohol, and alcohol-mixed energy drinks among Italian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Flotta, Domenico; Micò, Rocco; Nobile, Carmelo G A; Pileggi, Claudia; Bianco, Aida; Pavia, Maria

    2014-06-01

    It has been argued that the excessive consumption of energy drinks (EDs) may have serious health consequences, and that may serve as an indicator for substance use and other risky behaviors. The present paper offers a perspective on this topic that remains underexplored on the population of adolescents. Data were collected via self-administered anonymous questionnaires from 870 adolescents aged 15 to 19 years who were recruited from a random sample of public secondary schools in the geographic area of the Calabria Region, in the South of Italy. A total of 616 participants completed the survey for a response rate of 70.8%. Nearly 68% of respondents had drunk at least a whole can of ED during their life, and about 55% reported consuming EDs during the 30 days before the survey. Only 13% of interviewed adolescents were aware that drinking EDs is the same as drinking coffee, whereas a sizable percentage believed that drinking EDs is the same as drinking carbonated beverages or rehydrating sport drinks. Forty-six percent of adolescents had drunk alcohol-mixed energy drinks (AmEDs) during their life, and 63% of lifetime users admitted drinking AmEDs during the 30 days before the survey. Overall, 210 (63.3%) had drunk alcohol alone not mixed with EDs during their life, and more than half (56.3%) reported having consumed it at least once during the 30 days before the survey. Multivariate analysis showed that the factors independently associated with the consumption of AmEDs were the increasing number of sexual partners, being a current smoker, being male, riding with a driver who had been drinking alcohol, and having used marijuana. Comprehensive educational programs among youths focusing on potential health effects of EDs, alcohol, and the combination of the two, designed to empower the ability to manage these drinking habits, are strongly advisable. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. My Student Body: A High-Risk Drinking Prevention Web Site for College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiauzzi, Emil; Green, Traci Craig; Lord, Sarah; Thum, Christina; Goldstein, Marion

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the efficacy of an interactive Web site, MyStudentBody.com: Alcohol (MSB:Alcohol) that offers a brief, tailored intervention to help heavy drinking college students reduce their alcohol use. They conducted a randomized, controlled clinical trial to compare the intervention with an alcohol education Web site at baseline,…

  4. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. A literature search was performed using the keywords "energy drink and Red Bull(®)" and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality.

  5. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: misconceptions, myths, and facts

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Aufricht, Christoph; Alford, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Background Whilst energy drinks improve performance and feelings of alertness, recent articles suggest that energy drink consumption combined with alcohol may reduce perception of alcohol intoxication, or lead to increased alcohol or drug use. This review discusses the available scientific evidence on the effects of mixing energy drinks with alcohol. Methods A literature search was performed using the keywords “energy drink and Red Bull®” and consulting Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, and Embase. Results There is little evidence that energy drinks antagonize the behavioral effects of alcohol, and there is no consistent evidence that energy drinks alter the perceived level of intoxication of people who mix energy drinks with alcohol. No clinically relevant cardiovascular or other adverse effects have been reported for healthy subjects combining energy drinks with alcohol, although there are no long-term investigations currently available. Finally, whilst several surveys have shown associations, there is no direct evidence that coadministration of energy drinks increases alcohol consumption, or initiates drug and alcohol dependence or abuse. Conclusion Although some reports suggest that energy drinks lead to reduced awareness of intoxication and increased alcohol consumption, a review of the available literature shows that these views are not supported by direct or reliable scientific evidence. A personality with higher levels of risk-taking behavior may be the primary reason for increased alcohol and drug abuse per se. The coconsumption of energy drinks being one of the many expressions of that type of lifestyle and personality. PMID:22399863

  6. Alcohol drinking and blood pressure among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jerez, S J; Coviello, A

    1998-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate alcohol consumption among adolescents from Tucuman, Argentina, and to determine its possible relationship with increased levels of blood pressure. Three hundred fifty-six students aged 13-18 included in the study were asked to answer questionnaires anonymously. Two blood pressures measures were then taken. Differences between both sexes were found in quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption. Enjoyment was determined to be the main reason for drinking. There was an association between frequency and alcohol-related problems, and smoking habits. There were also differences in blood pressure among males and females. A weak, but significant, relationship between quantity/frequency index and diastolic blood pressure was found. A greater prevalence of hypertension in male heavy drinkers was noted as well. Because this addiction implies multiple social problems and it also accounts for a hypertension risk factor, the importance of aiming at developing prevention strategies for alcohol abuse among adolescents is stressed.

  7. The Impact of Alcohol-Specific Rules, Parental Norms about Early Drinking and Parental Alcohol Use on Adolescents' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Vorst, Haske; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Meeus, Wim; Dekovic, Maja

    2006-01-01

    Background: The present study explores the role of having rules about alcohol, parental norms about early alcohol use, and parental alcohol use in the development of adolescents' drinking behavior. It is assumed that parental norms and alcohol use affect the rules parents have about alcohol, which in turn prevents alcohol use by adolescent…

  8. Effects of stress on alcohol drinking: a review of animal studies

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Marcelo F.; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale While stress is often proposed to play a significant role in influencing alcohol consumption, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex and poorly understood. Over several decades, stress effects on alcohol drinking have been studied using a variety of animal models and experimental procedures, yet this large body of literature has generally produced equivocal results. Objectives This paper reviews results from animal studies in which alcohol consumption is evaluated under conditions of acute/sub-chronic stress exposure or models of chronic stress exposure. Evidence also is presented indicating that chronic intermittent alcohol exposure serves as a stressor that consequently influences drinking. Results The effects of various acute/sub-chronic stress procedures on alcohol consumption have generally been mixed, but most study outcomes suggest either no effect or decreased alcohol consumption. In contrast, most studies indicate that chronic stress, especially when administered early in development, results in elevated drinking later in adulthood. Chronic alcohol exposure constitutes a potent stressor itself, and models of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure reliably produce escalation of voluntary alcohol consumption. Conclusions A complex and dynamic interplay among a wide array of genetic, biological, and environmental factors govern stress responses, regulation of alcohol drinking, and the circumstances in which stress modulates alcohol consumption. Suggestions for future directions and new approaches are presented that may aid in developing more sensitive and valid animal models that not only better mimic the clinical situation, but also provide greater understanding of mechanisms that underlie the complexity of stress effects on alcohol drinking. PMID:21850445

  9. Can Energy Drinks Increase the Desire for More Alcohol?1234

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. PMID:25593148

  10. Can energy drinks increase the desire for more alcohol?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A

    2015-01-01

    Energy drinks, the fastest growing segment in the beverage market, have become popular mixers with alcohol. The emerging research examining the use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) indicates that the combination of caffeine-containing energy drinks with alcohol may be riskier than the use of alcohol alone. The public health concerns arising from AmED use are documented in different research domains. Epidemiologic studies reveal that the consumption of AmEDs is frequent among young and underage drinkers, demographic groups that are more likely to experience the harms and hazards associated with alcohol use. In addition, for all consumers, elevated rates of binge drinking and risk of alcohol dependence have been associated with AmED use when compared to alcohol alone. Results from laboratory studies help explain why AmED use is associated with excessive intake of alcohol. When an energy drink (or caffeine) is combined with alcohol, the desire (or urge) to drink more alcohol is more pronounced in both humans and animals than with the same dose of alcohol alone. The experience of drinking alcohol appears to be more rewarding when combined with energy drinks. Given that caffeine in other foods and beverages increases preference for those products, further research on AmEDs may elucidate the underlying mechanisms that contribute to alcohol dependence. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  12. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  13. Alcohol drinking, mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes, and alcohol metabolic genotypes in drunk drivers.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Sartore, Daniela; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo

    2012-02-01

    Regular and irregular abuse of alcohol are global health priorities associated with diseases at multiple sites, including cancer. Mechanisms of diseases induced by alcohol are closely related to its metabolism. Among conventional markers of alcohol abuse, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of erythrocytes is prognostic of alcohol-related cancer and its predictivity increases when combined with functional polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B [rs1229984] and ADH1C [rs698]) and the mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2 [rs671]). Whether these genetic variants can influence abuse in alcohol drinking and MCV has never been examined in drunk-driving traffic offenders. We examined 149 drunk drivers, diagnosed as alcohol abusers according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth edition Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls), all Caucasian males. Alcohol intake was assessed according to self-reported drink-units/d and MCV unadjusted and adjusted for age, smoking, and body mass index. Multivariable models were used to compute MCV adjusted means. Genotype analyses were performed by PCR on DNA from blood. The adjusted MCV mean was higher in drunk-driving abusers than in controls (92 vs. 91fL; P<.0001) and increased with the number of drink-units/d in both abusers and controls (P-trend=.0316 and .0089) already at intermediate quantities (0-1 vs. 2-4 drink-units/d: P=.054 and .024). Carriers of the common ADH1B*1/*1 (rs1229984) genotype were more likely to be drunk-driving abusers (P=.008), reported higher drink-units/d (P=.0126), and had larger MCV (P=.035). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with MCV. ADH1B*1/*1 polymorphism is significantly associated with being a drunk-driving abuser, higher alcohol drinking, and MCV enlargement. This suggests that drunk drivers with augmented MCV modulated by the alcohol metabolic ADH1B*1/*1 genotype may be at

  14. Nursing Students' Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Behavior over Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engs, Ruth C.; Hanson, David J.

    The knowledge of alcohol and drinking behavior of collegiate nursing students was studied in 1982-1983 and 1984-1985. The questionnaire included demographic items, questions regarding the consumption of alcohol, 36 items tapping knowledge of alcohol, and 17 items concerning possible consequences of drinking. The 1982 sample consisted of 291…

  15. Alcohol Alert. No. 58. Changing the Culture of Campus Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kington, Raynard

    2002-01-01

    Drinking on college campuses is more pervasive and destructive than many people realize. The extent of the problem was recently highlighted by an extensive 3-year investigation by the Task Force on College Drinking, commissioned by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). The Task Force reports that alcohol consumption is…

  16. The role of alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy beliefs in university student drinking.

    PubMed

    Young, R McD; Connor, J P; Ricciardelli, L A; Saunders, J B

    2006-01-01

    University student alcohol misuse is a considerable problem. Alcohol expectancy research has contributed significantly to our understanding of problem drinking in young adults. Most of this research has investigated positive expectancy alone. The current study utilized two measures of alcohol expectancy, the alcohol expectancy questionnaire (AEQ) and the drinking expectancy profile [consisting of the drinking expectancy questionnaire (DEQ) and the drinking refusal self-efficacy questionnaire] to predict severity of alcohol dependence, frequency of drinking, and the quantity of alcohol consumed per occasion. Measures of drinking behaviour and alcohol expectancy were completed by 174 undergraduate university students. Positive alcohol expectancy factors accounted for significant variance in all three drinking indices, with the DEQ adding additional variance to AEQ scores on frequency and severity of alcohol dependence indices. Negative expectancy did not add incremental variance to the prediction of drinking behaviour in this sample. Drinking refusal self-efficacy and dependence beliefs added additional variance over positive and negative expectancies in the prediction of all three drinking parameters. Positive expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy were strongly related to university student drinking. The incorporation of expectancy as a means of informing prevention approaches in tertiary education shows promise.

  17. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective of this study is to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method Participants were 1226 alcohol dependent individuals enrolled in a large, multi-site trial of Combined Behavioral Intervention (CBI), acamprosate, and naltrexone. Drinking goal was coded as follows: (a) controlled drinking, (b) conditional abstinence, and (c) complete abstinence. Results Analysis revealed a main effect of drinking goal on percent days abstinent (p < .0001), days to relapse to heavy drinking (p < 0.0001), and global clinical outcome (p < .001). These results were such that a goal of complete abstinence was associated with the best outcomes, followed by conditional abstinence; controlled drinking was associated with the poorest outcomes. Conversely, a main effect of drinking goal was observed on drinks per drinking day (p < .01), such that controlled drinking was associated with fewer drinks per drinking day whereas complete abstinence was associated with the highest drinks per drinking day. CBI performed better than medical management alone for participants whose drinking goal was not complete abstinence. Conclusion These results suggest that drinking goal represents a highly predictive clinical variable and should be an integral part of the clinical assessment of patients with alcohol dependence. Assessment of patients' drinking goals may also help match patients to interventions best suited to address their goals and clinical needs. PMID:23231573

  18. Safer-drinking Strategies Used by Chronically Homeless Individuals with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Grazioli, Véronique S.; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80–90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population. PMID:25690515

  19. Safer-drinking strategies used by chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Grazioli, Véronique S; Hicks, Jennifer; Kaese, Greta; Lenert, James; Collins, Susan E

    2015-07-01

    Chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence experience severe alcohol-related consequences. It is therefore important to identify factors that might be associated with reduced alcohol-related harm, such as the use of safer-drinking strategies. Whereas effectiveness of safer-drinking strategies has been well-documented among young adults, no studies have explored this topic among more severely affected populations, such as chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence. The aims of this study were thus to qualitatively and quantitatively document safer-drinking strategies used in this population. Participants (N=31) were currently or formerly chronically homeless individuals with alcohol dependence participating in a pilot study of extended-release naltrexone and harm-reduction counseling. At weeks 0 and 8, research staff provided a list of safer-drinking strategies for participants to endorse. Implementation of endorsed safer-drinking strategies was recorded at the next appointment. At both time points, strategies to buffer the effects of alcohol on the body (e.g., eating prior to and during drinking) were most highly endorsed, followed by changing the manner in which one drinks (e.g., spacing drinks), and reducing alcohol consumption. Quantitative analyses indicated that all participants endorsed safer-drinking strategies, and nearly all strategies were implemented (80-90% at weeks 0 and 8, respectively). These preliminary findings indicate that chronically homeless people with alcohol dependence use strategies to reduce harm associated with their drinking. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to test whether interventions that teach safer-drinking strategies may reduce overall alcohol-related harm in this population.

  20. The effect of energy drinks on the urge to drink alcohol in young adults.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice

    2014-08-01

    Recently, Marczinski and colleagues (2013) showed that energy drinks combined with alcohol augment a person's desire to drink more alcohol relative to drinking alcohol alone. The current study replicates the findings of Marczinski and colleagues (2013) using a robust measure of alcohol craving. Seventy-five participants aged 18 to 30 years were assigned to an alcohol only or alcohol+energy drink condition in a double-blind randomized pre- versus posttest experiment. Participants received a cocktail containing either 60 ml of vodka and a Red Bull(®) Silver Edition energy drink (alcohol+energy drink condition) or 60 ml of vodka with a soda water vehicle (alcohol-only condition); both cocktails contained 200 ml of fruit drink. The primary outcome measure was the Alcohol Urge Questionnaire taken at pretest and at 20 minutes (posttest). Other measures taken at posttest were the Biphasic Alcohol Effects Questionnaire, the Drug Effects Questionnaire, and breath alcohol concentration (BAC). The alcohol+energy drink condition showed a greater pre- versus posttest increase in urge to drink alcohol compared with the alcohol-only condition (B = 3.24, p = 0.021, d = 0.44). Participants in the alcohol+energy drink condition had significantly higher ratings on liking the cocktail and wanting to drink more of the cocktail, and lower BACs, than the alcohol-only condition. When examined at specific BACs, the effect of the energy drink on the pre- to posttest increase in urge to drink was largest and only significant at BACs of 0.04-0.05 (cf. < 0.04 g/dl).There were no significant differences in stimulation, sedation, feeling the effects of the cocktail, or feeling high. Combining energy drinks with alcohol increased the urge to drink alcohol relative to drinking alcohol alone. More research is needed to understand what factors mediate this effect and whether it increases subsequent alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Thinking and Drinking: Alcohol-Related Cognitions across Stages of Adolescent Alcohol Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Bekman, Nicole M.; Anderson, Kristen G.; Trim, Ryan S.; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R.; Myers, Mark G.; Brown, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and non-drinking and motives for non-drinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives, (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Methods Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1648 high school students. Results Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer non-drinking motives than lighter drinkers or non-drinkers, however non-drinking expectancies only differed between non- and rare- drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while non-drinking expectancies and non-drinking motives differentiated binge drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reduce drinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Conclusion Drinking and non-drinking expectancies, and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:21534645

  2. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol's aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking.

  3. The α2-adrenergic receptor agonist, clonidine, reduces alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Alexander, Laura; Malone, Julia; Federoff, David; Froehlich, Janice C

    2014-09-01

    Evidence suggests that noradrenergic signaling may play a role in mediating alcohol-drinking behavior in both rodents and humans. We have investigated this possibility by administering clonidine to alcohol-drinking rats selectively bred for alcohol preference (P line). Clonidine is an α2-adrenergic receptor agonist which, at low doses, inhibits noradrenergic signaling by decreasing norepinephrine release from presynaptic noradrenergic neurons. Adult male P rats were given 24 h access to food and water and scheduled access to a 15% (v/v) alcohol solution for 2 h daily. Rats received intra-peritoneal (IP) injections with clonidine (0, 10, 20, 40, or 80 μg/kg body weight [BW], 10-11 rats/treatment group) once/day at 30 min prior to onset of the daily 2 h alcohol access period for 2 consecutive days. Clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 μg/kg BW, significantly reduced alcohol intake on both days of treatment (p<0.001). Two weeks later, rats were treated with clonidine for 5 consecutive days and clonidine, in doses of 40 or 80 μg/kg BW, reduced alcohol intake on all 5 treatment days (p < 0.001). Clonidine did not alter water consumption during the daily 2 h free-choice between alcohol and water. In a separate group of male P rats, clonidine (40 μg/kg BW) suppressed intake of a saccharin solution (0.04 g/L). These results are consistent with and complement our previous findings that the α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, prazosin, decreases voluntary alcohol drinking in alcohol-preferring rats, but suggests that effects of clonidine may not be specific for alcohol. The results suggest that although activation of the noradrenergic system plays an important role in mediating voluntary alcohol drinking, care is needed in selecting which drugs to use to suppress central noradrenergic signaling in order to maximize the selectivity of the drugs for treating alcohol-use disorders. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Relationships Between Local Enforcement, Alcohol Availability, Drinking Norms, and Adolescent Alcohol Use in 50 California Cities

    PubMed Central

    Paschall, Mallie J.; Grube, Joel W.; Thomas, Sue; Cannon, Carol; Treffers, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated relationships between local alcohol policies, enforcement, alcohol outlet density, adult alcohol use, and underage drinking in 50 California cities. Method: Eight local alcohol policies (e.g., conditional use permit, social host ordinance, window/billboard advertising) were rated for each city based on their comprehensiveness. Local alcohol enforcement was based on grants received from the California Alcoholic Beverage Control agency for enforcement of underage drinking laws. Outlet density was based on the number of on- and off-premise outlets per roadway mile. Level of adult alcohol use was ascertained from a survey of 8,553 adults and underage drinking (frequency of past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking) from surveys of 1,312 adolescents in 2009 and 2010. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to examine the effects of policies, enforcement, and other community-level variables on adolescent drinking, controlling for youth demographic characteristics. Mediating effects of adolescents' perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, perceived enforcement, and perceived acceptability of alcohol use also were examined. Results: None of the eight local alcohol-policy ratings were associated with adolescent drinking. Funding for underage drinking enforcement activities was inversely related to frequency of past-year alcohol use, whereas outlet density and adult drinking were positively related to both past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking. These relationships were attenuated when controlling for perceived ease of obtaining alcohol, enforcement, and acceptability of alcohol use, providing evidence for mediation. Conclusions: Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking appear to be influenced by enforcement of underage drinking laws, alcohol outlet density, and adult alcohol use. These community-level influences may be at least partially mediated through adolescents' perceptions of alcohol availability, acceptability of alcohol use

  5. Alcohol-specific parenting as a mechanism of parental drinking and alcohol use disorder risk on adolescent alcohol use onset.

    PubMed

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents' own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent-child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking.

  6. Alcohol-Specific Parenting as a Mechanism of Parental Drinking and Alcohol Use Disorder Risk on Adolescent Alcohol Use Onset

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Elizabeth D.; Chassin, Laurie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of the current study was to examine three dimensions of alcohol-specific parenting (anti-alcohol parenting strategies, parental legitimacy in regulating adolescent drinking, and parental disclosure of negative alcohol experiences) as mechanisms in the prospective relations between parental drinking and alcohol use disorder (recovered, current, and never diagnosed) and adolescent alcohol use initiation. Method: Participants were from an ongoing longitudinal study of the intergenerational transmission of alcoholism. Structural equation modeling was used to test a maternal model (n = 268 adolescents and their mothers) and a paternal model (n = 204 adolescents and their fathers) of alcohol-specific parenting. Results: Results indicated that higher levels of drinking among mothers and current alcohol use disorder among fathers were related to more frequent parental disclosure of personal negative experiences with alcohol. Maternal disclosure of negative alcohol experiences mediated the effect of maternal drinking on adolescent onset of alcohol use such that more disclosure predicted a greater likelihood of adolescent drinking initiation at follow-up over and above general parenting. In addition, currently alcoholic mothers were perceived as having less legitimate authority to regulate adolescent drinking, and low levels of legitimacy among fathers was predictive of drinking onset among adolescents. Conclusions: Alcohol-specific parenting is a distinct and influential predictor of adolescent alcohol use initiation that is partially shaped by parents’ own drinking experiences. Moreover, parental conversations about their own personal experiences with alcohol may not represent a form of parent–child communication about drinking that deters adolescent drinking. PMID:23948527

  7. Large drinks are no mistake: Glass size, but not shape, affects alcoholic beverage drink pours

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Patterson, Deidre; Koenen, Mary Albert; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction and Aims Drink alcohol content has been shown to be variable and is an important determinant of alcohol intake. This study evaluates claims regarding the effects of glass size and glass shape on the amount of alcohol in on-premise drinks. Design and Methods Wine and spirits drinks were purchased and measured in 80 on-premise establishments in 10 Northern California Counties. Drink alcohol content was measured as the liquid volume of the drink multiplied by the percentage alcohol by volume of given brands or from analysis of mixed drink and wine samples. Results Larger glass size was associated with larger on-premise pours of straight shots and mixed drinks served in the relatively large pint glass and variable “other” glass type were found to contain more alcohol than drinks served in a short wide glass. No significant differences were found for other drink types. Drinks poured in short wide glasses were not found to contain more alcohol than drinks poured in tall thin glasses. Bars with mostly black patrons were found to serve spirits drinks with more alcohol than bars with other patron types. Discussion and Conclusions Glass shape does not affect actual drink pours in the US but glass size does in some cases. Drinkers should measure wine and spirits pours at home to achieve standard drink amounts and consumer education programs should foster awareness of the relatively high drink alcohol content of on-premise wine and mixed spirits drinks. More research is needed to evaluate potential differences in drink pours by patron race and ethnicity. PMID:19594789

  8. Alcohol gains access to appetitive learning through adolescent heavy drinking

    PubMed Central

    DiLeo, Alyssa; Wright, Kristina M.; Mangone, Elizabeth; McDannald, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescent heavy alcohol drinking increases the risk for alcohol use disorders in adulthood, yet mechanisms conferring increased risk are not well understood. We propose that adolescent alcohol drinking shapes alcohol’s aversive or appetitive properties in adulthood. Alcohol normally drives aversive learning and alcohol-predictive cues are avoided. We hypothesize that through adolescent heavy drinking alcohol gains access to appetitive learning. A primary consequence is that alcohol-predictive cues become valued and sought out. To test this hypothesis, we gave genetically heterogeneous, male Long Evans rats voluntary, chronic intermittent access to water or alcohol throughout adolescence and then identified moderate and heavy alcohol drinkers. After a short abstinence period, we assessed the aversive or appetitive properties of alcohol using flavor learning procedures. We compared alcohol to the known appetitive properties of sugar. Flavor learning in adult rats who were alcohol-naïve or adolescent moderate alcohol drinkers revealed alcohol to be aversive and sugar to be appetitive. The same flavor learning procedures revealed both alcohol and sugar to be appetitive in adult rats who were adolescent heavy drinkers. The results demonstrate that alcohol gains access to neurobehavioral circuits for appetitive learning through adolescent heavy alcohol drinking. PMID:26052793

  9. Alcohol-Branded Merchandise Ownership and Drinking.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sandra C

    2016-05-01

    Alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM) has a longer shelf-life than other forms of alcohol marketing and the potential to become integrated into children's self-identities. This review sought to explore the current literature on children's exposure to, and the impact of, ABM. PsycInfo, Proquest, Science Direct, and ABI-Inform databases were searched from the earliest available date to May 2015. Additional studies were identified by a manual review of the reference lists of retrieved articles and contacting the corresponding author of each included study. Articles that reported on child or adolescent ownership of ABM and/or the relationship between ABM ownership and drinking were included. Data on key measures were tabulated; where data of interest were not reported, requests for further information were sent to the articles' authors. Nine cross-sectional and 4 longitudinal studies were identified. ABM ownership ranged from 11% to 59% and was higher among older children and males. Seven cross-sectional studies reported associations between ABM ownership and drinking-related behaviors. All 4 longitudinal studies reported a significant relationship between ownership at baseline and drinking initiation at follow-up. The small number of available studies, with different measures of ABM ownership and of associations/effects. The few studies exploring ABM ownership are consistent in showing high rates of ownership and associations between ownership and current and future drinking. There is a need for further research into specific aspects of ABM ownership. However, there is also a need for policy interventions to reduce children's access to and ownership of ABM. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Estimated blood alcohol concentrations for child and adolescent drinking and their implications for screening instruments.

    PubMed

    Donovan, John E

    2009-06-01

    Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) in children after consumption of different numbers of standard drinks of alcohol have not been estimated previously. The goal was to determine the number of drinks at each age that led to a BAC of > or =80 mg/dL, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism criterion for binge drinking. The updated Widmark equation to estimate BAC was modified to take account of the differing body composition (total body water) and accelerated rates of ethanol elimination of children. The modified formula was used with 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to estimate BACs for >4700 children and adolescents from 9 through 17 years of age, for intake levels of 1 to 5 standard drinks. The estimated BACs for children after consumption of just 3 standard drinks within a 2-hour period were between 80 and 139 mg/dL for boys 9 to 13 years of age and for girls 9 to 17 years of age, indicating substantial potential alcohol impairment. With 5 drinks within 2 hours (the level used to define binge drinking among college students), children 9 to 13 years of age were estimated to have BACs 2 to 3 times the adult legal limit for intoxication of 80 mg/dL. Binge drinking should be defined as > or =3 drinks for 9- to 13-year-old children, as > or =4 drinks for boys and > or =3 drinks for girls 14 or 15 years of age, and as > or =5 drinks for boys and > or =3 drinks for girls 16 or 17 years of age.

  11. Mixing an Energy Drink with an Alcoholic Beverage Increases Motivation for More Alcohol in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.; Henges, Amy L.; Ramsey, Meagan A.; Young, Chelsea R.

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate if the consumption of AmED would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Methods Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended one session where they were randomly assigned to receive one of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink (AmED), or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire-for-Drug questionnaire. Results The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of “desire” for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmED compared to alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. Conclusions An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. PMID:22724427

  12. The relationship between coping strategies, alcohol expectancies, drinking motives and drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope; Lyvers, Michael; Carlopio, Cassandra; Raber, Annette

    2011-05-01

    Numerous models have been proposed in an attempt to explain both alcohol use and alcohol abuse. Many of these models propose that drinking behaviour is the result of a complex interplay of cognitive and behavioural variables including coping strategies, alcohol expectancies and motives for drinking. However few studies have explored how these elements may work together to predict drinking. The current study proposed a mediational model of alcohol use in which coping strategies are related to alcohol expectancies, which in turn are related to drinking motives. Drinking motives were then viewed as proximal predictors of drinking behaviour. There were 454 participants (55.78% female) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing the above constructs. Approximately half the participants completed the questionnaires online, while the others completed the paper and pencil versions of the same measures. Findings generally supported the hypothesised model. The relationship between avoidant coping and drinking behaviour was mediated by alcohol expectancies of increased confidence and tension reduction, which in turn were related to drinking motives. As expected, drinking motives were positively related to drinking behaviour. Negative expectancies were also directly related to drinking behaviour. The results are discussed in light of cognitive models of drinking, and implications for prevention and early intervention of alcohol-use problems. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Can disulfiram use precipitate urges to drink alcohol?

    PubMed

    Nirenberg, T D; Sobell, L C; Ersner-Hershfield, S; Cellucci, A J

    1983-01-01

    Although pharmacological data suggest that patients taking disulfiram should have a reduced desire to drink alcohol, voluntary compliance with disulfiram treatment is quite poor. As a possible explanation for why so many patients discontinue taking disulfiram and return to excessive drinking, it was hypothesized that daily disulfiram administration might serve as a cognitive stimulus precipitating urges to drink alcohol and/or inadvertently exposing patients to additional drinking-related cues. If this is the case, then patients taking disulfiram should report more thoughts about or urges to drink alcohol. In an exploratory, uncontrolled clinical study, alcohol abusers who were taking disulfiram tended to self-record more cravings for alcohol over a two week period than did abstinent patients who were not taking disulfiram. Controlled research is needed to investigate whether disulfiram use may serve as a cue antecedent to relapse to drinking.

  14. Parenting style, religiosity, peer alcohol use, and adolescent heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, John P; Bahr, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the associations of parenting style, religiosity, and peer alcohol use with alcohol use and heavy drinking. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate direct and indirect associations among 5,419 adolescents ages 12-14 years from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth 1997. Adolescents whose parents were authoritative were less likely to drink heavily than adolescents who experienced neglectful or indulgent parenting styles. Religiosity was negatively associated with heavy drinking after other relevant variables were controlled for. Authoritative parenting appears to have both direct and indirect negative associations with the risk of heavy drinking among adolescents. Authoritative parenting, where monitoring and support are above average, and religiosity might help deter adolescents from heavy drinking, even when adolescents experience peer environments where alcohol use is common. Authoritarian parenting, although it was not associated with heavy drinking, was positively associated with alcohol use and peer alcohol use, thus placing adolescents at some risk.

  15. Socioeconomic disadvantage and indicators of risky alcohol-drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Paljärvi, Tapio; Suominen, Sakari; Car, Josip; Koskenvuo, Markku

    2013-01-01

    The purpose was to establish how the association between socioeconomic disadvantage and risky drinking depends on the indicator of risky alcohol-drinking patterns. Alcohol-drinking Finnish men (n = 9316) and women (n = 11,888) aged 20-54 years at baseline participated in the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) postal survey in 1998. Socioeconomic disadvantage was measured by low educational level, history of previous unemployment among those currently employed, current unemployment, being on disability pension and history of experiencing financial hardships. Indicators of risky drinking were hazardous weekly intake (≥24 and ≥16 Finnish standard drinks for men and women, respectively), frequency of intoxications/drunkenness, hangovers and alcohol-induced pass-outs. The study participants were also followed up for 7 years for alcohol-specific hospitalizations and deaths. Socioeconomic gradient in risky drinking was observed across all indicators of risky drinking, but the gradient was relatively larger in patterns of risky drinking representing high-intensity drinking occasions such as alcohol-induced hangovers and pass-outs. No marked gender differences were observed. These results highlight the need to take into account the multidimensionality of risky alcohol-drinking patterns as a contributing factor in the socioeconomic gradient in alcohol use.

  16. Alcohol consumption and body weight.

    PubMed

    French, Michael T; Norton, Edward C; Fang, Hai; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2010-07-01

    The number of Americans who are overweight or obese has reached epidemic proportions. Elevated weight is associated with health problems and increased medical expenditures. This paper analyzes Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions to investigate the role of alcohol consumption in weight gain. Alcohol is not only an addictive substance but also a high-calorie beverage that can interfere with metabolic function and cognitive processes. Because men and women differ in the type and amount of alcohol they consume, in the biological effects they experience as a result of alcohol consumption, and in the consequences they face as a result of obesity, we expect our results to differ by gender. We use first-difference models of body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption (frequency and intensity) to control for time-invariant unobservable factors that may influence changes in both alcohol use and weight status. Increasing frequency and intensity of alcohol use is associated with statistically significant yet quantitatively small weight gain for men but not for women. Moreover, the first-difference results are much smaller in magnitude and sometimes different in sign compared with the benchmark pooled cross-sectional estimates.

  17. Effects of energy drink ingestion on alcohol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Sionaldo Eduardo; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Pompéia, Sabine; de Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Well-known reports suggest that the use of energy drinks might reduce the intensity of the depressant effects of alcohol. However, there is little scientific evidence to support this hypothesis. The present study aimed at evaluating the effects of the simultaneous ingestion of an alcohol (vodka(37.5%v/v)) and an energy drink (Red Bull-3.57 mL/kg), compared with those presented after the ingestion of an alcohol or an energy drink alone. Twenty-six young healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to 2 groups that received 0.6 or 1.0 g/kg alcohol, respectively. They all completed 3 experimental sessions in random order, 7 days apart: alcohol alone, energy drink alone, or alcohol plus energy drink. We evaluated the volunteers' breath alcohol concentration, subjective sensations of intoxication, objective effects on their motor coordination, and visual reaction time. When compared with the ingestion of alcohol alone, the ingestion of alcohol plus energy drink significantly reduced subjects' perception of headache, weakness, dry mouth, and impairment of motor coordination. However, the ingestion of the energy drink did not significantly reduce the deficits caused by alcohol on objective motor coordination and visual reaction time. The ingestion of the energy drink did not alter the breath alcohol concentration in either group. Even though the subjective perceptions of some symptoms of alcohol intoxication were less intense after the combined ingestion of the alcohol plus energy drink, these effects were not detected in objective measures of motor coordination and visual reaction time, as well as on the breath alcohol concentration.

  18. What Is Alcohol? And Why Do People Drink? Pamphlet Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgram, Gail Gleason

    Alcoholic beverages have been used throughout American history but their use has always been controversial. Ethyl alcohol is one of the few alcohols man is able to drink, although it is never full strength. The fermentation process is used to manufacture alcoholic beverages. Wines are made from a variety of fruits. Beer is made from yeast and a…

  19. Energy drinks mixed with alcohol: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks, the risks associated with such mixtures, and the objective laboratory data examining how the effects of their consumption differ from consuming alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks is riskier than consuming alcohol alone and constitutes a public health concern. Consumption of these mixed beverages is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers, and compared with alcohol alone, their use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks leads to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to consuming alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted in this review. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  20. Evaluating implicit drinking identity as a mediator of drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W; Gasser, Melissa L; Teachman, Bethany A

    2015-04-01

    Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluating Implicit Drinking Identity as a Mediator of Drinking Motives and Alcohol Consumption and Craving

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Neighbors, Clayton; Wiers, Reinout W.; Gasser, Melissa L.; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Implicit drinking identity (i.e., cognitive associations between the self and drinking) is a reliable predictor of drinking. However, whether implicit drinking identity might mediate the relationship between other robust predictors of drinking and drinking outcomes is unknown. We hypothesized that implicit drinking would mediate the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consumption and craving. Method We assessed drinking motives at Time 1, implicit drinking identity at Time 2 (on average, 11 days later) and self-reported alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3 (on average, 6 days later) in a sample of 194 US undergraduates (54% women) who reported at least one heavy drinking episode (4 drinks for women, 5 for men) in the past month. Participants completed self-report measures of drinking motives, daily alcohol consumption, and current craving. Results Implicit drinking identity uniquely mediated the relationship between social motives and alcohol consumption. It did not, however, mediate the relationship between motives and craving. Time 2 implicit drinking identity was positively associated with greater alcohol consumption and craving at Time 3, even after controlling for drinking motives. Subsequent analyses indicated significant indirect effects between social, enhancement, and coping motives (but not conformity) and consumption and craving when each motive was evaluated individually. Conclusions Implicit drinking identity continues to have promise as a predictor of drinking outcomes and as a target for interventions. Future experimental and prospective studies will be critical to establish the circumstances under which implicit drinking identity is strengthened and/or activated and the resulting effects on hazardous drinking. PMID:25544353

  2. The contextual role of alcohol outlet density in college drinking.

    PubMed

    Scribner, Richard; Mason, Karen; Theall, Katherine; Simonsen, Neal; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; DeJong, William

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between the physical availability of off-campus alcohol and drinking outcomes among college students. A multilevel analysis of students (N = 17,051) nested within college campuses (N = 32) was conducted. Four problem-drinking-related outcomes (i.e., average number of drinks when partying, frequency of drunkenness in past 2 weeks, 30-day frequency of drinking, and greatest number of drinks in one sitting) along with individual level covariates of drinking were introduced at the student level. The physical availability of alcohol was assessed as the number of on-premise and off-premise alcohol outlets within 3 miles of campus per 1,000 students enrolled. Higher densities of on-premise alcohol outlets were strongly related to drinking outcomes even after controlling for individual predictors of college drinking. The association indicated that the campus means for the average number of drinks when partying and the number of drinking occasions in the past 30 days were, respectively, 1.13 drinks and 1.32 occasions greater when the outlet density was 2 SDs higher. Off-campus, on-premise outlet density is strongly associated with college-drinking outcomes. Given the limited number of modifiable factors that affect college drinking, on-premise outlet density represents a potential modifiable means of addressing the problem.

  3. Visual Attention to Alcohol Cues and Responsible Drinking Statements Within Alcohol Advertisements and Public Health Campaigns: Relationships With Drinking Intentions and Alcohol Consumption in the Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Both alcohol advertising and public health campaigns increase alcohol consumption in the short term, and this may be attributable to attentional capture by alcohol-related cues in both types of media. The present studies investigated the association between (a) visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements in alcohol advertising and public health campaigns, and (b) next-week drinking intentions (Study 1) and drinking behavior in the lab (Study 2). In Study 1, 90 male participants viewed 1 of 3 TV alcohol adverts (conventional advert; advert that emphasized responsible drinking; or public health campaign; between-subjects manipulation) while their visual attention to alcohol cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before reporting their drinking intentions. Study 2 used a within-subjects design in which 62 participants (27% male) viewed alcohol and soda advertisements while their attention to alcohol/soda cues and responsible drinking statements was recorded, before completing a bogus taste test with different alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks. In both studies, alcohol cues attracted more attention than responsible drinking statements, except when viewing a public health TV campaign. Attention to responsible drinking statements was not associated with intentions to drink alcohol over the next week (Study 1) or alcohol consumption in the lab (Study 2). However, attention to alcohol portrayal cues within alcohol advertisements was associated with ad lib alcohol consumption in Study 2, although attention to other types of alcohol cues (brand logos, glassware, and packaging) was not associated. Future studies should investigate how responsible drinking statements might be improved to attract more attention. PMID:28493753

  4. The Influence of Alcohol Advertising on Students' Drinking Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Peggy J.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the perceived influence of alcohol advertising in a daily campus newspaper on the drinking behaviors of students. Findings indicated that college students do perceive that their drinking patterns are influenced by alcohol promotions in the campus newspaper and, furthermore, that self-identified binge drinkers were influenced significantly…

  5. A comprehensive review of the effects of mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol.

    PubMed

    McKetin, Rebecca; Coen, Alice; Kaye, Sharlene

    2015-06-01

    In response to concern about whether mixing caffeinated energy drinks with alcohol (AED) increases alcohol consumption and related harm, and the role of industry in this debate, we conducted a comprehensive review of the research evidence on the effects of AED and documented industry involvement in this research. A systematic review of 6 databases. Studies must have examined the effect of consuming alcohol with energy drinks (ED) or caffeine on alcohol-related outcomes. 62 studies were identified; 29 were experiments, 9 had industry ties (8 with Red Bull GmbH). Young adults who consumed AED drank more alcohol and experienced more alcohol-related harm than other drinkers. There was insufficient evidence to conclude that AED led to increased alcohol consumption or altered the nature of alcohol-related harm. However, AED consumers reported that AED increased stimulation and alertness, offset fatigue from drinking, and facilitated drinking. Experimental research also found that combining ED or caffeine with alcohol increased stimulation and alertness, offset alcohol-related fatigue and increased the desire to keep drinking. It did not change BAC, perceived intoxication, perceived impairment and it did not reverse alcohol-induced impairment on simple psychomotor tasks. Combining ED/caffeine with alcohol reduced alcohol-induced impairment on some but not all aspects of complex tasks. Although few in number, studies with industry ties presented contrary evidence. A growing body of evidence suggests that AED may facilitate drinking and related harms via its effects on intoxication but a causal link needs to be confirmed. The influence of industry involvement in this area of research needs to be monitored. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking restraint versus alcohol expectancies: which is the better indicator of alcohol problems?

    PubMed

    Connor, J P; Young, R M; Williams, R J; Ricciardelli, L A

    2000-03-01

    The relationship between expectancies and other psychological constructs related to drinking is unclear. The current study assesses the power of drinking restraint, measured by the Temptation and Restraint Inventory (TRI), along with alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy, measured by the Drinking Expectancy Profile (DEP), as indicators of alcohol use and problem drinking. Volunteer students (N = 359), consisting of 113 men with a mean (+/-SD) age of 25.31 +/- 10.61 years and 246 women with a mean age of 23.04 +/- 8.90, completed the TRI, DEP and Alcohol Dependence Scale (ADS) as well as frequency and quantity measures of self-reported drinking. Drinking Restraint was a stronger indicator of higher scores on the ADS, accounting for 54% and 45% of the variance for men and women, respectively, with Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy being the better indicator of frequency of alcohol consumption, accounting for 20% of the variance for men and 26% for women. Both measures were represented by similar variances within the quantity of drinking measure. Drinking restraint and alcohol expectancies were seen to measure kindred but unique cognitive subsets, providing further insight into the progression of alcohol problems. Alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy may be acquired early in the development of drinking behavior, as evidenced by stronger associations with risky drinking; drinking restraint and its associated loss of control factors appear to be more specifically related to problem drinking. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy may thus have broader use in the assessment of drinking behavior.

  7. The regional geography of alcohol consumption in England: Comparing drinking frequency and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Javier Malda; Jivraj, Stephen; Ng Fat, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption frequency and volume are known to be related to health problems among drinkers. Most of the existing literature that analyses regional variation in drinking behaviour uses measures of consumption that relate only to volume, such as 'binge drinking'. This study compares the regional association of alcohol consumption using measures of drinking frequency (daily drinking) and volume (binge drinking) using a nationally representative sample of residents using the Health Survey for England, 2011-2013. Results suggest the presence of two differentiated drinking patterns with relevant policy implications. We find that people in northern regions are more likely to binge drink, whereas people in southern regions are more likely to drink on most days. Regression analysis shows that regional variation in binge drinking remains strong when taking into account individual and neighbourhood level controls. The findings provide support for regional targeting of interventions that aim to reduce the frequency as well as volume of drinking.

  8. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  9. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  10. PRAZOSIN REDUCES ALCOHOL DRINKING THROUGHOUT PROLONGED TREATMENT AND BLOCKS THE INITIATION OF DRINKING IN RATS SELECTIVELY BRED FOR HIGH ALCOHOL INTAKE

    PubMed Central

    Froehlich, Janice C; Hausauer, Brett J; Federoff, David L; Fischer, Stephen M; Rasmussen, Dennis D

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study examined whether prazosin reduces alcohol drinking over the course of prolonged treatment and whether it blocks initiation of alcohol drinking in rats with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking, i.e, alcohol-preferring (P) rats. METHODS In study one, alcohol-experienced P rats that had been drinking alcohol 2 hrs/day for several months were treated daily with prazosin (0, 0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg BW) for 7 weeks. In study two, alcohol-naïve P rats were treated daily with prazosin (0, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg BW) for two weeks prior to, or concomitantly with, initiation of alcohol access and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol availability. Prazosin treatment and alcohol access were then discontinued for 2 weeks followed by reinstatement of alcohol access without prazosin treatment for 4 weeks, followed by resumption of daily prazosin treatment (2.0 mg/kg BW) for 3 weeks. RESULTS Prazosin reduced alcohol drinking throughout 7 weeks of treatment in P rats accustomed to drinking alcohol. Following termination of prazosin treatment, alcohol drinking slowly returned to pretreatment baseline. Reduced alcohol intake was accompanied by increased water intake. In alcohol-naïve P rats, prazosin administration prior to the first opportunity to drink alcohol and throughout 3 weeks of alcohol access retarded acquisition of alcohol drinking and reduced the amount of alcohol consumed. When prazosin was administered concomitantly with the first opportunity to drink alcohol, it abolished acquisition of alcohol drinking. Discontinuation of prazosin treatment allowed expression of a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol drinking to gradually emerge. Prazosin retained the ability to reduce alcohol intake with repeated treatments. CONCLUSIONS Prazosin decreased alcohol drinking during prolonged treatment and may be useful for treating alcoholism and alcohol use disorders. Prazosin may also be useful for deterring initiation of drinking in individuals with a

  11. Drinking Motivations and Alcohol Consumption among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carman, Roderick S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between motivations for alcohol use and drinking patterns was investigated in 188 adolescent American female high school students. The hypothesis that personal psychological motivations for drinking would correlate positively with heavier rates of drinking was supported. (Author/RH)

  12. Effects of alcohol advertising exposure on drinking among youth.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Leslie B; Milici, Frances Fleming; Slater, Michael; Sun, Helen; Strizhakova, Yuliya

    2006-01-01

    To test whether alcohol advertising expenditures and the degree of exposure to alcohol advertisements affect alcohol consumption by youth. Longitudinal panel using telephone surveys. Households in 24 US media markets, April 1999 to February 2001. Individuals aged 15 to 26 years were randomly sampled within households and households within media markets. Markets were systematically selected from the top 75 media markets, representing 79% of the US population. The baseline refusal rate was 24%. Sample sizes per wave were 1872, 1173, 787, and 588. Data on alcohol advertising expenditures on television, radio, billboards, and newspapers were collected. Market alcohol advertising expenditures per capita and self-reported alcohol advertising exposure in the prior month. Self-reported number of alcoholic drinks consumed in the prior month. Youth who saw more alcohol advertisements on average drank more (each additional advertisement seen increased the number of drinks consumed by 1% [event rate ratio, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.02]). Youth in markets with greater alcohol advertising expenditures drank more (each additional dollar spent per capita raised the number of drinks consumed by 3% [event rate ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.05]). Examining only youth younger than the legal drinking age of 21 years, alcohol advertisement exposure and expenditures still related to drinking. Youth in markets with more alcohol advertisements showed increases in drinking levels into their late 20s, but drinking plateaued in the early 20s for youth in markets with fewer advertisements. Control variables included age, gender, ethnicity, high school or college enrollment, and alcohol sales. Alcohol advertising contributes to increased drinking among youth.

  13. Alcohol Dependence and Free-Choice Drinking in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol dependence continues to be an important health concern and animal models are critical to furthering our understanding of this complex disease. A hallmark feature of alcoholism is a significant increase in alcohol drinking over time. While several different animal models of excessive alcohol (ethanol) drinking exist for mice and rats, a growing number of laboratories are using a model that combines chronic ethanol exposure procedures with voluntary ethanol drinking with mice as experimental subjects. Primarily, these studies use a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure pattern to render mice dependent and a 2-h limited access procedure to evaluate drinking behavior. Compared to non-dependent mice that also drink ethanol, the ethanol-dependent mice demonstrate significant increases in voluntary ethanol drinking. The increased drinking significantly elevates blood and brain ethanol concentrations compared to the non-dependent control mice. Studies report that the increased drinking by dependent mice is driven by neuroadaptations in glutamatergic and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in different brain regions known to be involved in alcohol-related behaviors. The dysregulation of these systems parallels findings in human alcoholics and treatments that demonstrate efficacy in alcoholics can also reduce drinking in this model. Moreover, preclinical findings have informed the development of human clinical trials, further highlighting the translational potential of the model. As a result of these features, the CIE exposure and free-choice drinking model is becoming more widely used and promises to provide more insight into mechanisms of excessive drinking that may be important for developing treatments for human alcoholics. The salient features and possible future considerations for CIE exposure and free-choice drinking in mice are discussed. PMID:24530006

  14. Alcohol dependence and free-choice drinking in mice.

    PubMed

    Griffin, William C

    2014-05-01

    Alcohol dependence continues to be an important health concern and animal models are critical to furthering our understanding of this complex disease. A hallmark feature of alcoholism is a significant increase in alcohol drinking over time. While several different animal models of excessive alcohol (ethanol) drinking exist for mice and rats, a growing number of laboratories are using a model that combines chronic ethanol exposure procedures with voluntary ethanol drinking with mice as experimental subjects. Primarily, these studies use a chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure pattern to render mice dependent and a 2-h limited access procedure to evaluate drinking behavior. Compared to non-dependent mice that also drink ethanol, the ethanol-dependent mice demonstrate significant increases in voluntary ethanol drinking. The increased drinking significantly elevates blood and brain ethanol concentrations compared to the non-dependent control mice. Studies report that the increased drinking by dependent mice is driven by neuroadaptations in glutamatergic and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling in different brain regions known to be involved in alcohol-related behaviors. The dysregulation of these systems parallels findings in human alcoholics and treatments that demonstrate efficacy in alcoholics can also reduce drinking in this model. Moreover, preclinical findings have informed the development of human clinical trials, further highlighting the translational potential of the model. As a result of these features, the CIE exposure and free-choice drinking model is becoming more widely used and promises to provide more insight into mechanisms of excessive drinking that may be important for developing treatments for human alcoholics. The salient features and possible future considerations for CIE exposure and free-choice drinking in mice are discussed.

  15. Age of Alcohol Drinking Onset Precursors and the Mediation of Alcohol Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooley, David; Prause, JoAnne; Ham-Rowbottom, Kathleen A.; Emptage, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    This study explored early alcohol drinking onset (ADO), its precursors, and the mechanisms by which it leads to later alcohol disorder. Data came from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth with ADO items from 1982 and 1983 and alcohol symptoms from 1989 and 1994. Drinking began earlier for respondents who were male, younger, non-Hispanic,…

  16. Energy drink consumption and increased risk for alcohol dependence

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Kasperski, Sarah J.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Griffiths, Roland R.; O'Grady, Kevin E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Energy drinks are highly caffeinated beverages that are increasingly consumed by young adults. Prior research has established associations between energy drink use and heavier drinking and alcohol-related problems among college students. This study investigated the extent to which energy drink use might pose additional risk for alcohol dependence over and above that from known risk factors. Methods Data were collected via personal interview from 1,097 fourth-year college students sampled from one large public university as part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Alcohol dependence was measured with DSM-IV criteria. Results After adjustment for the sampling design, 51.3%wt of students were classified as “low-frequency” energy drink users (1 to 51 days in the past year) and 10.1%wt as “high-frequency” users (≥52 days). Typical caffeine consumption varied widely depending on the brand consumed. Compared to the low-frequency group, high-frequency users drank alcohol more frequently (141.6 vs. 103.1 days) and in higher quantities (6.15 vs. 4.64 drinks/typical drinking day). High-frequency users were at significantly greater risk for alcohol dependence relative to both non-users (AOR=2.40, 95% CI=1.27-4.56, p=.007) and low-frequency users (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.10, 3.14, p=.020), even after holding constant demographics, typical alcohol consumption, fraternity/sorority involvement, depressive symptoms, parental history of alcohol/drug problems, and childhood conduct problems. Low-frequency energy drink users did not differ from non-users on their risk for alcohol dependence. Conclusions Weekly or daily energy drink consumption is strongly associated with alcohol dependence. Further research is warranted to understand the possible mechanisms underlying this association. College students who frequently consume energy drinks represent an important target population for alcohol prevention. PMID:21073486

  17. Development of a Low-Alcohol Drink Similar in Sensory Properties to a Full-Alcohol Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Carolyn F.; Weller, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine different methods of preparation of a low-alcohol drink for use as a control in behavioral studies. Treatments included: untreated juice, juice with alcohol (rum), juice with rum floated on the surface and juice with ethanol floated on the surface. Untrained panelists (n=48) rated each drink for overall…

  18. Development of a Low-Alcohol Drink Similar in Sensory Properties to a Full-Alcohol Drink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Carolyn F.; Weller, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine different methods of preparation of a low-alcohol drink for use as a control in behavioral studies. Treatments included: untreated juice, juice with alcohol (rum), juice with rum floated on the surface and juice with ethanol floated on the surface. Untrained panelists (n=48) rated each drink for overall…

  19. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents for Kids for Teens Search Teens Home Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Q&A School & Jobs Drugs & Alcohol Staying Safe Recipes En Español Making a Change – ... this article? Getting the Facts What Is Alcohol? How Does It Affect the Body? Why Do Teens Drink? Why Shouldn't I ...

  20. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking.

    PubMed

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Plenty, Stephanie M; Catalano, Richard F; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Toumbourou, John W

    2013-08-01

    Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest.

  1. The impact of school alcohol policy on student drinking

    PubMed Central

    Evans-Whipp, Tracy J.; Plenty, Stephanie M.; Catalano, Richard F.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Although it is common for secondary schools to implement alcohol policies to reduce alcohol misuse, there has been little evaluation of the efficacy of these policies. The purpose of this study was to test the impact of the degree and type of alcohol policy enforcement in state representative samples of secondary students in Washington State, USA, and Victoria, Australia (n = 1848). Multivariate logistic regressions were used to examine the prospective association between student reports of school alcohol policy in Grade 8 and self-reported alcohol use in Grade 9, controlling for age, gender, state, family socio-economic status and Grade 8 alcohol use. The likelihood of students drinking on school grounds was increased when students perceived lax policy enforcement. Student perceptions of harm minimization alcohol messages, abstinence alcohol messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators predicted reduced likelihood of binge drinking. Students perceiving harm minimization messages and counselling for alcohol policy violators had a reduced likelihood of experiencing alcohol-related harms. Perceptions of harsh penalties were unrelated to drinking behaviour. These results suggest that perceived policy enforcement may lessen drinking at school 1 year later and that harm minimization messages and counselling approaches may also lessen harmful drinking behaviours as harm minimization advocates suggest. PMID:23766454

  2. Thinking and drinking: alcohol-related cognitions across stages of adolescent alcohol involvement.

    PubMed

    Bekman, Nicole M; Anderson, Kristen G; Trim, Ryan S; Metrik, Jane; Diulio, Andrea R; Myers, Mark G; Brown, Sandra A

    2011-09-01

    Alcohol-related cognitions, particularly expectancies for drinking and nondrinking and motives for nondrinking, are involved in the initiation, maintenance, and cessation of alcohol use and are hypothesized to play key roles in adolescent decision making. This study explored (a) the relationships between alcohol use expectancies, nondrinking expectancies, and nondrinking motives; (b) the roles of these cognitions across hypothesized developmental stages of adolescent alcohol use; and (c) the relationships between these cognitions and recent or intended future changes in drinking behavior in a cross-sectional sample. Surveys assessing alcohol use behaviors and attitudes were administered to 1,648 high school students. Heavier drinkers reported more positive alcohol use expectancies and fewer nondrinking motives than did lighter drinkers or nondrinkers; however, nondrinking expectancies only differed between nondrinkers and rare drinkers and all subsequent drinking classes. Alcohol use expectancies, nondrinking expectancies, and nondrinking motives differentiated students who recently initiated alcohol from those who had not, while nondrinking expectancies and nondrinking motives differentiated binge-drinking students who had made recent efforts to reduce/stop their drinking from those who had not. Intentions to initiate or reduce drinking in the coming month were also associated with these alcohol-related cognitions. Drinking and nondrinking expectancies and motives for not drinking may play critical roles in decisions to alter alcohol-use behavior during adolescence. Future exploration of temporal relationships between changes in alcohol-related cognitions and behavioral decision making will be useful in the refinement of effective prevention and intervention strategies.

  3. Are "drink responsibly" alcohol campaigns strategically ambiguous?

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandi W; Atkin, Charles K; Roznowski, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    This article applies the concept of strategic ambiguity in examining viewer responses to brewer-sponsored "responsible drinking" television advertising campaigns. Strategically ambiguous messages are designed to engender diverse interpretations between varied audience segments, and these different selective perceptions should translate into relatively uniform positive corporate images. In this study, teenage and young adult respondents were shown a series of television spots from two leading alcohol companies. As predicted, there was a high degree of diversity in meanings of message content and campaign purpose derived by viewers, particularly among less sophisticated teenagers. Moreover, evaluative ratings of messages and sponsors were generally favorable and more uniform than interpretive responses. The research demonstrates how seemingly prohealth messages can serve to subtly advance both industry sales and public relations interests.

  4. Youth Drinking in the United States: Relationships With Alcohol Policies and Adult Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G.; Nelson, Toben F.; Nguyen, Thien H.; Hadland, Scott E.; Oussayef, Nadia L.; Heeren, Timothy C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between the alcohol policy environment (ie, the combined effectiveness and implementation of multiple existing alcohol policies) and youth drinking in the United States has not been assessed. We hypothesized that stronger alcohol policy environments are inversely associated with youth drinking, and this relationship is partly explained by adult drinking. METHODS: Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores that characterized the strength of the state-level alcohol policy environments were assessed with repeated cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of representative samples of high school students in grades 9 to 12, from biennial years between 1999 and 2011. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models, a 10 percentage point increase in APS scores (representing stronger policy environments) was associated with an 8% reduction in the odds of youth drinking and a 7% reduction in the odds of youth binge drinking. After we accounted for youth-oriented alcohol policies, the subgroup of population-oriented policies was independently associated with lower odds of youth drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.92–0.97) and youth binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.94–0.99). State-level per capita consumption mediated the relationship between population-oriented alcohol policies and binge drinking among youth. CONCLUSIONS: Stronger alcohol policies, including those that do not target youth specifically, are related to a reduced likelihood of youth alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that efforts to reduce youth drinking should incorporate population-based policies to reduce excessive drinking among adults as part of a comprehensive approach to preventing alcohol-related harms. Future research should examine influence of alcohol policy subgroups and discrete policies. PMID:26034246

  5. Youth Drinking in the United States: Relationships With Alcohol Policies and Adult Drinking.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; Blanchette, Jason G; Nelson, Toben F; Nguyen, Thien H; Hadland, Scott E; Oussayef, Nadia L; Heeren, Timothy C; Naimi, Timothy S

    2015-07-01

    The relationship between the alcohol policy environment (ie, the combined effectiveness and implementation of multiple existing alcohol policies) and youth drinking in the United States has not been assessed. We hypothesized that stronger alcohol policy environments are inversely associated with youth drinking, and this relationship is partly explained by adult drinking. Alcohol Policy Scale (APS) scores that characterized the strength of the state-level alcohol policy environments were assessed with repeated cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of representative samples of high school students in grades 9 to 12, from biennial years between 1999 and 2011. In fully adjusted models, a 10 percentage point increase in APS scores (representing stronger policy environments) was associated with an 8% reduction in the odds of youth drinking and a 7% reduction in the odds of youth binge drinking. After we accounted for youth-oriented alcohol policies, the subgroup of population-oriented policies was independently associated with lower odds of youth drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.94; 95% confidence interval 0.92-0.97) and youth binge drinking (adjusted odds ratio 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.94-0.99). State-level per capita consumption mediated the relationship between population-oriented alcohol policies and binge drinking among youth. Stronger alcohol policies, including those that do not target youth specifically, are related to a reduced likelihood of youth alcohol consumption. These findings suggest that efforts to reduce youth drinking should incorporate population-based policies to reduce excessive drinking among adults as part of a comprehensive approach to preventing alcohol-related harms. Future research should examine influence of alcohol policy subgroups and discrete policies. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Adolescent drinking patterns across countries: associations with alcohol policies.

    PubMed

    Gilligan, Conor; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Early consumption of full servings of alcohol and early experience of drunkenness have been linked with alcohol-related harmful effects in adolescence, as well as adult health and social problems. On the basis of secondary analysis of county-level prevalence data, the present study explored the current pattern of drinking and drunkenness among 15- and 16-year-old adolescents in 40 European and North American countries. Data from the 2006 Health Behavior in School Children survey and the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs were used. The potential role of alcohol control and policy measures in explaining variance in drinking patterns across countries was also examined. Policy measures and data on adult consumption patterns were taken from the WHO Global Information System on Alcohol and Health, Eurostat and the indicator of alcohol control policy strength developed by Brand DA, Saisana M, Rynn LA et al. [(2007) Comparative analysis of alcohol control policies in 30 countries. PLoS Med 4:e151.]. We found that a non-significant trend existed whereby higher prices and stronger alcohol controls were associated with a lower proportion of weekly drinking but a higher proportion of drunkenness. It is important that future research explores the causal relationships between alcohol policy measures and alcohol consumption patterns to determine whether strict policies do in fact have any beneficial effect on drinking patterns, or rather, lead to rebellion and an increased prevalence of binge drinking.

  7. Parenthood, alcohol intake, and drinking contexts: occasio furem facit.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person.

  8. Parenthood, Alcohol Intake, and Drinking Contexts: Occasio Furem Facit*

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Catherine; Demers, Andrée; Nadeau, Louise; Picard, Elyse

    2011-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake varies according to the context in which the drinking act occurs. Method The data were drawn from the Canadian Addiction Survey, a national telephone survey conducted in 2004. The analytical sample included 1,079 drinking occasions nested in 498 female drinkers and 926 drinking occasions nested in 403 male drinkers between 18 and 55 years of age. A multilevel linear statistical model was used to estimate the variance related to the drinking occasion (Level 1) and to the parental role (Level 2). Results Parenthood was not associated with alcohol intake per occasion. Drinking context variables brought great explanatory power to the study of alcohol intake, but, overall, the effect of parenthood on alcohol intake did not vary according to the context in which drinking occurs. Only one interaction between the parental role and contextual characteristics was found. Conclusions Men's and women's alcohol intake within drinking contexts is more likely to be influenced by the immediate context in which drinking occurs than by their parental role. The explanation for alcohol behaviors within the general Canadian population may lie as much in the situation as in the person. PMID:21388599

  9. Drinking experience uncovers genetic influences on alcohol expectancies across adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Young-Wolff, Kelly C.; Wang, Pan; Tuvblad, Catherine; Baker, Laura A.; Raine, Adrian; Prescott, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test whether drinking onset moderates genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in the etiology of alcohol expectancies across adolescence. Design Longitudinal twin design. Setting Community sample from Los Angeles, CA, USA. Participants A total of 1292 male and female twins, aged 11–18 years, were assessed at 1 (n = 440), 2 (n = 587) or 3 (n = 265) occasions as part of the risk factors for the Antisocial Behavior Twin Study. Measurements Social behavioral (SB) alcohol expectancies were measured using an abbreviated version of the Social Behavioral subscale from the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire for adolescents (AEQ-A). Drinking onset was defined as >1 full drink of alcohol. Findings Alcohol expectancies increased over age and the increase became more rapid following onset of drinking. The importance of genetic and environmental influences on SB scores varied with age and drinking status, such that variation prior to drinking onset was attributed solely to environmental influences, whereas all post-onset variation was attributed to genetic influences. Results did not differ significantly by sex. Conclusion Only environmental factors explain beliefs about the social and behavioral consequences of alcohol use prior to drinking onset, whereas genetic factors explain an increasing proportion of the variance in these beliefs after drinking onset. PMID:25586461

  10. Energy Drinks and Alcohol: Links to Alcohol Behaviors and Consequences Across 56 Days

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Megan E.; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. Methods A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Results Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. Conclusions The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. PMID:24309196

  11. Energy drinks and alcohol: links to alcohol behaviors and consequences across 56 days.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Megan E; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2014-04-01

    To examine short-term consequences associated with consuming alcohol and energy drinks compared with consuming alcohol without energy drinks. A longitudinal measurement-burst design (14-day bursts of daily surveys in four consecutive college semesters) captured both within-person variation across occasions and between-person differences across individuals. The analytic sample of late adolescent alcohol users included 4,203 days with alcohol use across up to four semesters per person from 508 college students. Adding energy drink use to a given day with alcohol use was associated with an increase in number of alcoholic drinks, a trend toward more hours spent drinking, elevated estimated blood alcohol content (eBAC), a greater likelihood of subjective intoxication, and more negative consequences of drinking that day. After controlling for eBAC, energy drink use no longer predicted subjective intoxication but was still associated with a greater number of negative consequences. The consumption of energy drinks may lead to increases in alcohol consumption and, after controlling for eBAC, negative consequences. Use of energy drinks plus alcohol represents an emerging threat to public health. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Alcohol intake and binge drinking among Italian adolescents: The role of drinking motives.

    PubMed

    Laghi, Fiorenzo; Baumgartner, Emma; Baiocco, Roberto; Kotzalidis, Georgios D; Piacentino, Daria; Girardi, Paolo; Angeletti, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Binge drinking, a pattern associated with worse outcome, is becoming increasingly popular among youths, thus negatively impacting social life. To investigate drinking patterns and their underlying motives in Italian adolescents, the Alcohol Use Questionnaire and the Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form were administered to 332 school-age teenagers (16-19 years; 139 girls, 193 boys) from a single Roman school, recruited at their classrooms through the intermediation of their teachers. Boys scored higher than girls on all drinking and binge measures. They also scored higher on the Enhancement, Social, and Conformity Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form subscales. Binge drinking scores positively correlated with gender, alcohol consumption, and with all Drinking Motive Questionnaire Revised Short Form subscales. In the two-step hierarchical model, Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form enhancement and conformity predicted alcohol use and Drinking Motive Questionnaire-Revised Short Form coping motives significantly predicted binge drinking. Binge drinking is prevalent among Italian adolescents, who mainly drink to enhance perceived positive effects of alcohol, conform to their social groups, and face their problems. Boys binge more than girls.

  13. Paternal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Alcohol Drinking and Increases Behavioral Sensitivity to Alcohol Selectively in Male Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. “epigenetic inheritance,” is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors. PMID:24896617

  14. Paternal alcohol exposure reduces alcohol drinking and increases behavioral sensitivity to alcohol selectively in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Finegersh, Andrey; Homanics, Gregg E

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is heritable, but the genetic basis for this disease remains poorly understood. Although numerous gene variants have been associated with AUD, these variants account for only a small fraction of the total risk. The idea of inheritance of acquired characteristics, i.e. "epigenetic inheritance," is re-emerging as a proven adjunct to traditional modes of genetic inheritance. We hypothesized that alcohol drinking and neurobiological sensitivity to alcohol are influenced by ancestral alcohol exposure. To test this hypothesis, we exposed male mice to chronic vapor ethanol or control conditions, mated them to ethanol-naïve females, and tested adult offspring for ethanol drinking, ethanol-induced behaviors, gene expression, and DNA methylation. We found that ethanol-sired male offspring had reduced ethanol preference and consumption, enhanced sensitivity to the anxiolytic and motor-enhancing effects of ethanol, and increased Bdnf expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) compared to control-sired male offspring. There were no differences among ethanol- and control-sired female offspring on these assays. Ethanol exposure also decreased DNA methylation at the BdnfÆpromoter of sire's germ cells and hypomethylation was maintained in the VTA of both male and female ethanol-sired offspring. Our findings show that paternal alcohol exposure is a previously unrecognized regulator of alcohol drinking and behavioral sensitivity to alcohol in male, but not female, offspring. Paternal alcohol exposure also induces epigenetic alterations (DNA hypomethylation) and gene expression changes that persist in the VTA of offspring. These results provide new insight into the inheritance and development of alcohol drinking behaviors.

  15. Longitudinal associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks, and binge drinking behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaluw, Carmen S; Kleinjan, Marloes; Lemmers, Lex; Spijkerman, Renske; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2013-05-01

    Alcohol attitudes are often considered an important predecessor of drinking behavior, although the literature is equivocal. Lately, attention has turned to enhancing positive cognitions on alcoholic-free drinks to discourage heavy drinking. The current study was the first to longitudinally examine associations between attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks and binge drinking behavior in a cross-lagged path model in Mplus. Participants were 293 adolescents (131 boys, M(age)=16.1 years) who filled in two online questionnaires with a six-month interval. Binge drinking behavior and attitudes towards binge drinking and alcohol-free drinks were all significantly correlated at both waves. The multivariate model, however, showed that only higher levels of binge drinking at T1 were prospectively related to more positive binge drinking attitudes at T2, and not vice versa. Analyses were controlled for sex, educational level, and age. Findings discard the Theory of Planned Behavior, but rather seem consistent with the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, i.e., adolescents may adapt their cognitions to their behavior. More longitudinal research with several time points and over a longer period of time is needed to further examine the development of attitudes and drinking behavior.

  16. Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol before sex.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ronald G; Eaton, Nicholas R; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-07-01

    Drinking alcohol before sex increases the likelihood of engaging in unprotected intercourse, having multiple sexual partners and becoming infected with sexually transmitted infections. Borderline personality disorder (BPD), a complex psychiatric disorder characterised by pervasive instability in emotional regulation, self-image, interpersonal relationships and impulse control, is associated with substance use disorders and sexual risk behaviours. However, no study has examined the relationship between BPD and drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. This study examined the association between BPD and regularly drinking before sex in a nationally representative adult sample. Participants were 17 491 sexually active drinkers from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression models estimated effects of BPD diagnosis, specific borderline diagnostic criteria and BPD criterion count on the likelihood of regularly (mostly or always) drinking alcohol before sex, adjusted for controls. Borderline personality disorder diagnosis doubled the odds of regularly drinking before sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.26; confidence interval (CI) = 1.63, 3.14]. Of nine diagnostic criteria, impulsivity in areas that are self-damaging remained a significant predictor of regularly drinking before sex (AOR = 1.82; CI = 1.42, 2.35). The odds of regularly drinking before sex increased by 20% for each endorsed criterion (AOR = 1.20; CI = 1.14, 1.27) DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the relationship between BPD and regularly drinking alcohol before sex in the USA. Substance misuse treatment should assess regularly drinking before sex, particularly among patients with BPD, and BPD treatment should assess risk at the intersection of impulsivity, sexual behaviour and substance use. [Thompson Jr RG, Eaton NR, Hu M-C, Hasin DS Borderline personality disorder and regularly drinking alcohol

  17. Young people, alcohol, and designer drinks: quantitative and qualitative study.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, K.; MacKintosh, A. M.; Hastings, G.; Wheeler, C.; Watson, J.; Inglis, J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the appeal of "designer drinks" to young people. DESIGN: Qualitative and quantitative research comprising group discussions and questionnaire led interviews with young people accompanied by a self completion questionnaire. SETTINGS: Argyll and Clyde Health Board area, west Scotland. SUBJECTS: Eight groups aged 12-17 years; 824 aged 12-17 recruited by multistage cluster probability sample from the community health index. RESULTS: Young people were familiar with designer drinks, especially MD 20/20 and leading brands of strong white cider. Attitudes towards these drinks varied quite distinctly with age, clearly reflecting their attitudes towards and motivations for drinking in general. The brand imagery of designer drinks-in contrast with that of more mainstream drinks-matched many 14 and 15 year olds' perceptions and expectations of drinking. Popularity of designer drinks peaked between the ages of 13 and 16 while more conventional drinks showed a consistent increase in popularity with age. Consumption of designer drinks tended to be in less controlled circumstances and was associated with heavier alcohol intake and greater drunkenness. CONCLUSIONS: Designer drinks are a cause for concern. They appeal to young people, often more so than conventional drinks, and are particularly attractive to 14-16 year olds. Consumption of designer drinks is also associated with drinking in less controlled environments, heavier drinking, and greater drunkenness. There is a need for policy debate to assess the desirability of these drinks and the extent to which further controls on their marketing are required. PMID:9040387

  18. Relationship Between Alcohol Consumption and Prostatic Hyperplasia According to Facial Flushing After Drinking in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hak Sun; Kim, Sung Soo; Jung, Jin-Gyu; Yoon, Seok-Joon; Yang, HyunJu; Joung, Hyun Chul

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine whether facial flushing after drinking influences the relationship between alcohol consumption and prostatic hyperplasia among Korean men. Methods The subjects were 957 Korean men (180 non-drinkers, 389 with drinking-related facial flushing, 388 without facial flushing) in the 40–69 age group, who underwent prostate ultrasound at the health promotion center of Chungnam National University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Alcohol consumption and alcohol-related facial flushing were assessed through a questionnaire. In terms of the amount consumed, 14 g of alcohol was considered a standard drink. With the non-drinker group as reference, logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between weekly alcohol intake and prostatic hyperplasia in the flushing and non-flushing groups, with adjustment for confounding factors such as age, body mass index, smoking, and exercise patterns. Results Individuals aged 50–59 years who experienced drinking-related facial flushing had a significantly lower risk of prostatic hyperplasia than the non-drinker group, depending on alcohol consumption: ≤4 standard drinks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.16 to 0.86); >4 ≤8 standard drinks (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.95); >8 standard drinks (OR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.84). However, no significant relationship was observed between the number of drinks consumed and the risk of prostate hyperplasia in the non-flushing group. Conclusion The risk of prostatic hyperplasia appears to be reduced by alcohol consumption among Korean men aged 50–59 years who exhibit drinking-related facial flushing. PMID:28360985

  19. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: impact on student drinking and drinking problems.

    PubMed

    Voas, Robert B; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa

    2008-06-01

    Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. The conservative TU policy-to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors-may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still 'in progress' and the final outcome has not been evaluated.

  20. Bringing alcohol on campus to raise money: impact on student drinking and drinking problems

    PubMed Central

    Voas, Robert B.; Johnson, Mark; Turrisi, Robert J.; Taylor, Dexter; Honts, Charles Robert; Nelsen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Aims Universities are striving to raise funds, often attracting spectators by selling alcohol at campus events. This study evaluates the effect of a policy change on student drinking at a large western university that had historically banned alcohol on campus but transitioned to permitting the sale of alcohol in some of its facilities. Methods Surveys of student drinking and perceptions of other students' drinking were conducted before, during and after the policy change at the transition university (TU) and compared to similar data from a control university (CU). Surveys of student drinking at on-campus and off-campus venues and observations of alcohol service practices were also conducted. Results The policy change at the TU was introduced cautiously, and sales to underage drinkers were relatively well controlled. Despite this, student drinking rose initially, then declined after 1 year. Perceptions of the amount of drinking by other students increased slightly, but there was no overall measurable increase in student drinking during the first 3 years of the new policy. Conclusions The conservative TU policy—to sell alcohol only at select events and to control sales to minors—may have limited the impact of on-campus alcohol sales on student consumption. Although the study results did not find a stable increase in student drinking, they do not necessarily support the liberalization of campus alcohol policy, because the transition is still ‘in progress’ and the final outcome has not been evaluated. PMID:18482416

  1. Binge drinking in undergraduates: Relationships with gender, drinking behaviors, impulsivity and the perceived effects of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Balodis, Iris M.; Potenza, Marc N.; Olmstead, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. In order to determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge-drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion that was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than previous studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared to men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for gender-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses PMID:19730367

  2. Binge drinking in undergraduates: relationships with sex, drinking behaviors, impulsivity, and the perceived effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Balodis, Iris M; Potenza, Marc N; Olmstead, Mary C

    2009-09-01

    Binge drinking on university campuses is associated with social and health-related problems. To determine the factors that may predict this behavior, we collected information on alcohol use, alcohol expectations, and impulsivity from 428 undergraduate students attending a Canadian university. The subjective effects of a binge drinking dose of alcohol were assessed in a subset of participants. In the larger sample, 72% of students reported drinking at or above binge drinking thresholds on a regular basis. Men reported alcohol consumption per drinking occasion, which was consistent with other studies, but the frequency of drinking occasions among women was higher than in earlier studies, suggesting that consumption in women may be increasing. Compared with men, women reported different expectations of alcohol, specifically related to sociability and sexuality. Self-reported impulsivity scores were related, albeit weakly, to drinking behaviors and to expectations in both the sexes. Finally, intoxicated binge drinkers reported feeling less intoxicated, liking the effects more, and wanting more alcohol than did non-binge drinkers receiving an equivalent dose of alcohol. These results have implications for sex-specific prevention strategies for binge drinking on university campuses.

  3. Mixing an energy drink with an alcoholic beverage increases motivation for more alcohol in college students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Fillmore, Mark T; Henges, Amy L; Ramsey, Meagan A; Young, Chelsea R

    2013-02-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) in social drinkers. It has been suggested that AmED beverages might lead individuals to drink greater quantities of alcohol. This experiment was designed to investigate whether the consumption of AmEDs would alter alcohol priming (i.e., increasing ratings of wanting another drink) compared with alcohol alone. Participants (n = 80) of equal gender attended 1 session where they were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 4 doses (0.91 ml/kg vodka, 1.82 ml/kg energy drink, 0.91 ml/kg vodka mixed with 1.82 ml/kg energy drink [AmED], or a placebo beverage). Alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink was assessed by self-reported ratings on the Desire for Drug questionnaire. The priming dose of alcohol increased the subjective ratings of "desire" for more alcohol, consistent with previous research that small doses of alcohol can increase the motivation to drink. Furthermore, higher desire ratings over time were observed with AmEDs compared with alcohol alone. Finally, ratings of liking the drink were similar for the alcohol and AmED conditions. An energy drink may elicit increased alcohol priming. This study provides laboratory evidence that AmED beverages may lead to greater motivation to drink versus the same amount of alcohol consumed alone. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  4. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Rodd, Zachary A.; Engleman, Eric A.; Toalston, Jamie E.; McBride, William J.

    2013-01-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today’s youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24-h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. PMID:24290311

  5. Scheduled access alcohol drinking by alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats: modeling adolescent and adult binge-like drinking.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Engleman, Eric A; Toalston, Jamie E; McBride, William J

    2014-05-01

    Binge alcohol drinking continues to be a public health concern among today's youth and young adults. Moreover, an early onset of alcohol use, which usually takes the form of binge drinking, is associated with a greater risk for developing alcohol use disorders. Given this, it is important to examine this behavior in rat models of alcohol abuse and dependence. Toward that end, the objective of this article is to review findings on binge-like drinking by selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats. As reviewed elsewhere in this special issue, the P line meets all, and the HAD line meets most, of the proposed criteria for an animal model of alcoholism. One model of binge drinking is scheduled ethanol access during the dark cycle, which has been used by our laboratory for over 20 years. Our laboratory has also adopted a protocol involving the concurrent presentation of multiple ethanol concentrations. When this protocol is combined with limited access, ethanol intake is maximized yielding blood ethanol levels (BELs) in excess, sometimes greatly in excess, of 80 mg%. By extending these procedures to include multiple scheduled ethanol access sessions during the dark cycle for 5 consecutive days/week, P and HAD rats consume in 3 or 4 h as much as, if not more than, the amount usually consumed in a 24 h period. Under certain conditions, using the multiple scheduled access procedure, BELs exceeding 200 mg% can be achieved on a daily basis. An overview of findings from studies with other selectively bred, inbred, and outbred rats places these findings in the context of the existing literature. Overall, the findings support the use of P and HAD rats as animal models to study binge-like alcohol drinking and reveal that scheduled access procedures will significantly increase ethanol intake by other rat lines and strains as well. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Drinking motives mediate the relationship between alcohol reward value and alcohol problems in military veterans.

    PubMed

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E; Williams, Joah L

    2016-12-01

    Elevated alcohol reward value (RV) has been linked to higher levels of drinking and alcohol-related consequences, and there is evidence that specific drinking motives may mediate the relationship between demand and problematic alcohol use in college students, making these variables potentially important indicators of risk for high RV and alcohol problems. The present study evaluated these relationships in a high-risk sample of military veterans. Heavy-drinking (N = 68) veterans of Operations Enduring Freedom or Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) completed the alcohol purchase task (APT) measure of alcohol demand (RV), and standard assessments of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, and drinking motives. RV was associated with overall alcohol consequences, interpersonal alcohol consequences, social responsibility consequences and impulse control consequences. Mediation analyses indicated significant mediation of the relationships between RV and a number of problem subscales by social motives, coping-anxiety motives, coping-depression motives and enhancement motives. This suggests that individuals who have a high valuation of alcohol may have increased motivation to drink in social, mood-enhancement, and coping situations, resulting in increased alcohol-related consequences. Demand and drinking motives should be examined as potential indicators of need for intervention services and as treatment targets in veterans. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Responsible drinking

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - responsible drinking; Drinking alcohol responsibly; Drinking in moderation; Alcoholism - responsible drinking ... If you drink alcohol, health care providers advise limiting how much ... drinking in moderation, or responsible drinking. Responsible ...

  8. Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, diabetes, low body mass index and the risk of self-reported symptoms of active tuberculosis: individual participant data (IPD) meta-analyses of 72,684 individuals in 14 high tuberculosis burden countries.

    PubMed

    Patra, Jayadeep; Jha, Prabhat; Rehm, Jürgen; Suraweera, Wilson

    2014-01-01

    The effects of multiple exposures on active tuberculosis (TB) are largely undetermined. We sought to establish a dose-response relationship for smoking, drinking, and body mass index (BMI) and to investigate the independent and joint effects of these and diabetes on the risk of self-reported symptoms of active TB disease. We analyzed 14 national studies in 14 high TB-burden countries using self-reports of blood in cough/phlegm and cough lasting > = 3 weeks in the last year as the measures of symptoms of active TB. The random effect estimates of the relative risks (RR) between active TB and smoking, drinking, diabetes, and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 were reported for each gender. Floating absolute risks were used to examine dyads of exposure. Adjusted for age and education, the risks of active TB were significantly associated with diabetes and BMI<18.5 kg/m2 in both sexes, with ever drinking in men and with ever smoking in women. Stronger dose-response relationships were seen in women than in men for smoking amount, smoking duration and drinking amount but BMI<18.5 kg/m2 showed a stronger dose-response relationship in men. In men, the risks from joint exposures were statistically significant for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 6.4), diabetics who smoked (RR = 3.8), and diabetics who drank alcohol (RR = 3.2). The risks from joint risk factors were generally larger in women than in men, with statistically significant risks for diabetics with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 (RR = 10.0), diabetics who smoked (RR = 5.4) and women with BMI<18.5 kg/m2 who smoked (RR = 5.0). These risk factors account for 61% of male and 34% of female estimated TB incidents in these 14 countries. Tobacco, alcohol, diabetes, and low BMI are significant individual risk factors but in combination are associated with triple or quadruple the risk of development of recent active TB. These risk factors might help to explain the wide variation in TB across countries.

  9. Desipramine enhances the ability of paliperidone to decrease alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    Chau, David T.; Khokhar, Jibran Y.; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine’s pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26343589

  10. Desipramine enhances the ability of paliperidone to decrease alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Chau, David T; Khokhar, Jibran Y; Gulick, Danielle; Dawson, Ree; Green, Alan I

    2015-10-01

    Alcohol use disorder commonly occurs in patients with schizophrenia and dramatically worsens their course. The atypical antipsychotic clozapine has been associated with reduced drinking in these patients, but its toxicity reduces its use. We have attempted to create a clozapine-like drug by combining agents that capture components of clozapine's pharmacologic action, including its weak dopamine D2 blockade and noradrenergic modulation. The current study assessed whether paliperidone, a dopamine D2 receptor and adrenergic alpha-2 receptor antagonist like clozapine, would attenuate alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring P rat and the Syrian golden hamster, and whether desipramine, a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, would potentiate the ability of paliperidone to attenuate alcohol drinking in the P rat and the Syrian golden hamster. Daily subcutaneous injections of paliperidone (5 mg/kg for the rat; 1 mg/kg for the hamster) over 20 days slightly and transiently attenuated initiation of alcohol consumption in both animals. Desipramine (3 mg/kg) or lower doses of paliperidone alone did not affect alcohol drinking. However, the combination of desipramine (3 mg/kg) and paliperidone essentially prevented initiation of alcohol drinking and acquisition of alcohol preference in the P rat (2.5 or 5 mg/kg), and almost as dramatically suppressed chronic alcohol intake and alcohol preference in the hamster (2.5 mg/kg). Taken together, the current data suggest that (1) the desipramine and paliperidone combination attenuates alcohol drinking in a synergistic manner, and (2) desipramine and paliperidone may serve as an effective new treatment for alcohol use disorder in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy Drinks Mixed with Alcohol: What are the Risks?

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Energy drinks are popular beverages that typically include high levels of caffeine and other ingredients such as taurine, or caffeine-containing herbs, such as guarana. While energy drinks are often consumed alone, they are also frequently used as mixers for alcoholic beverages. This review summarizes what is known about the scope of use of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED), the risks associated with AmED, and the objective laboratory data examining how AmED differs from alcohol alone. The weight of the evidence reveals that AmED beverages are riskier than alcohol alone and constitute a public health concern. AmED beverage consumption is frequent, especially in young and underage drinkers. AmED use is associated with elevated rates of binge drinking, impaired driving, risky sexual behavior, and risk of alcohol dependence when compared with alcohol alone. Laboratory research (human and animal) has demonstrated that AmED beverages lead to altered subjective states including decreased perceived intoxication, enhanced stimulation, and increased desire to drink/increased drinking compared to alcohol alone. Possible underlying mechanisms explaining these observations are highlighted. PMID:25293549

  12. Alcohol mixed with energy drink: Use may be a consequence of heavy drinking.

    PubMed

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; Weiler, Robert M; Barry, Adam E; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Walters, Scott T; Barnett, Tracey E; Paxton, Raheem J; Pealer, Lisa N; Cannell, Brad

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, studies have indicated that consumers of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) are more likely to drink heavily and experience more negative consequences than consumers who avoid these beverages. Although researchers have identified a number of plausible hypotheses that explain how alcohol-energy drink co-ingestion could cause greater alcohol consumption, there has been no postulation about reverse causal relations. This paper identifies several plausible hypotheses for the observed associations between AmED consumption and greater alcohol consumption, and provides initial evidence for one such hypothesis suggesting that heavy drinking may be a determinant of AmED use. Data collected from 511bar patrons were used to examine the plausibility of one of the proposed hypotheses, i.e., AmED is an artifact of heavy drinking. Associations between the consumption of an assortment of alcoholic beverage types and total alcohol consumption were examined at the event-level, to assess whether AmED is uniquely related with greater alcohol consumption. Increased alcohol consumption was associated with greater odds of consuming most alcoholic beverage types; this association was not unique to AmED. Results support the overlooked hypothesis that AmED use is an artifact of heavy drinking. Thus, AmED consumption may be a consequence or marker of heavier drinking. Much of the existing research on alcoholic beverage types is limited in its ability to implicate any specific type of drink, including AmED, as a cause of increased alcohol consumption and related harm. More rigorous study designs are needed to examine causal relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Attraction in Youth.

    PubMed

    Bos, Henny; van Beusekom, Gabriël; Sandfort, Theo

    2016-01-01

    Sexual minority youth were found to be more likely to drink alcohol during weekdays compared to heterosexual youth. Drinking during weekdays was associated with consuming alcohol as a coping strategy. Sexual minority youth also more frequently consumed alcohol to eliminate personal worries (coping) and to not be excluded by their peers (conformity). Sexual orientation-related alcohol problems should be addressed at an early stage. Such efforts are likely to be effective if insecurities and stress related to sexual orientation are addressed as well.

  14. Alcohol drinking pattern and risk of alcoholic liver cirrhosis: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Askgaard, Gro; Grønbæk, Morten; Kjær, Mette S; Tjønneland, Anne; Tolstrup, Janne S

    2015-05-01

    Alcohol is the main contributing factor of alcoholic cirrhosis, but less is known about the significance of drinking pattern. We investigated the risk of alcoholic cirrhosis among 55,917 participants (aged 50-64 years) in the Danish Cancer, Diet, and Health study (1993-2011). Baseline information on alcohol intake, drinking pattern, and confounders was obtained from a questionnaire. Follow-up information came from national registers. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for alcoholic cirrhosis in relation to drinking frequency, lifetime alcohol amount, and beverage type. We observed 257 and 85 incident cases of alcoholic cirrhosis among men and women, respectively, none among lifetime abstainers. In men, HR for alcoholic cirrhosis among daily drinkers was 3.65 (95% CI: 2.39; 5.55) compared to drinking 2-4 days/week. Alcohol amount in recent age periods (40-49 and 50-59 years) was associated with an increased risk, whereas the amount in 20-29 and 30-39 years was not. In men drinking 14-28 drinks/week, HR was 7.47 (95% CI: 1.68; 33.12), 3.12 (95% CI: 1.53; 6.39), and 1.69 (95% CI: 0.79; 3.65) in drinkers of little (<1% of weekly amount), some (1-15%), and mostly wine (50-100%), compared to drinking <14 drinks/week. In general, results were similar for women. In men, daily drinking was associated with an increased risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Recent alcohol consumption rather than earlier in life was associated with risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Compared to beer and liquor, wine might be associated with a lower risk of alcoholic cirrhosis. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Alcohol Overdose: The Dangers of Drinking Too Much

    MedlinePlus

    ... poisoning, get medical help immediately. Cold showers, hot coffee, or walking will not reverse the effects of ... the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2 moderate alcohol consumption is defined as up to 1 drink per ...

  16. Distractibility moderates the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Farris, Suzan R; Ostafin, Brian D; Palfai, Tibor P

    2010-03-01

    Research suggests that alcohol use is influenced by (a) the strength of automatic motivational responses to alcohol cues and (b) individual differences in self-control. The current study was designed to examine whether the self-control skill of inhibiting response to distracting stimuli would moderate the relation between automatic alcohol motivation and alcohol use. Eighty-seven hazardous drinkers completed baseline measures of automatic alcohol motivation and trait self-control and reported their drinking at a follow-up session 6 weeks later. Regression analyses demonstrated an interaction such that greater distractibility strengthens a positive relation between alcohol use and automatic alcohol motivation. These results contribute to a growing body of work indicating that self-control resources may help to inhibit the influence of automatic processes on alcohol behavior.

  17. Fluoxetine attenuates alcohol intake and desire to drink.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, C A; Poulos, C X; Bremner, K E; Lanctot, K L

    1994-09-01

    Several serotonin uptake inhibitors, including the long-acting fluoxetine, have been found to decrease alcohol intake in moderately dependent alcoholics. While the mechanism of their effect is not fully elucidated, a previous study with citalopram indicated that decreased desire to drink may be an important factor. Therefore, we tested fluoxetine effects on alcohol intake and desire to drink in a placebo-controlled study. Subjects, recruited by advertisement, were mildly/moderately dependent alcoholics (12 male, four female, aged 19-59 years, healthy, non-depressed) who did not believe they had a drinking problem and were not requesting treatment. After a 1 week baseline they received, single-blind, 2 weeks placebo followed by 2 weeks fluoxetine 60 mg/day. As out-patients, subjects recorded daily standard drinks (13.6 g ethanol) and rated interest, desire, craving and liking for alcohol biweekly. Each out-patient period was immediately followed by a double-blind experimental drinking session. Out-patient daily drinks slightly decreased during fluoxetine to 6.6 +/- 0.9 (mean +/- S.E.M.) compared with during placebo (7.16 +/- 0.95, p = 0.07, N.S.) and baseline (7.18 +/- 1.0, p > 0.1, N.S.). Desire, interest and craving for alcohol decreased during fluoxetine vs placebo baseline (p < 0.05), but not vs placebo. Appetite loss and decrease in food intake (p < 0.01, fluoxetine vs placebo) correlated with each other (r = 0.91, p < 0.01) but neither correlated with decrease in alcohol intake (appetite: r = 0.26, N.S.; food intake: r = 0.22, N.S.). Weight loss occurred during fluoxetine (p < 0.05 vs placebo) but did not correlate with decrease in alcohol intake (r = 0.1, N.S.). In the experimental drinking sessions after placebo and fluoxetine treatments subjects rated their desire for each of 18 mini-drinks (each one-third of a standard drink) offered at 5 min intervals. Fluoxetine decreased desire to drink throughout the sessions; both mean and maximum desire ratings were

  18. University Students' Knowledge of Alcoholic Drinks and Their Perception of Alcohol-Related Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasking, Penelope; Shortell, Carly; Machalek, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    A total of 371 university students were asked to estimate the amount of alcohol contained in a standard drink and to estimate the number of standard drinks contained in popular alcoholic beverages. In addition, students completed questionnaires assessing their perception of short and long term harm related to the consumption of beer, wine, spirits…

  19. University Students' Knowledge of Alcoholic Drinks and Their Perception of Alcohol-Related Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasking, Penelope; Shortell, Carly; Machalek, Mireille

    2005-01-01

    A total of 371 university students were asked to estimate the amount of alcohol contained in a standard drink and to estimate the number of standard drinks contained in popular alcoholic beverages. In addition, students completed questionnaires assessing their perception of short and long term harm related to the consumption of beer, wine, spirits…

  20. Alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity as predictors of behavioral economic demand for alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jason J; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Baldwin, Scott A; Murphy, James G; Lindgren, Kristen P

    2016-10-01

    Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices. College student drinkers (N = 223, 59% female) completed implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations at 3 time points separated by 3-month intervals, and completed the Alcohol Purchase Task to assess demand at Time 3. Given no change in our alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity measures over time, random intercept-only models were used to predict 2 demand indices: Amplitude, which represents maximum hypothetical alcohol consumption and expenditures, and Persistence, which represents sensitivity to increasing prices. When modeled separately, implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations positively predicted demand indices. When implicit and explicit measures were included in the same model, both measures of drinking identity predicted Amplitude, but only explicit drinking identity predicted Persistence. In contrast, explicit measures of alcohol-approach inclinations, but not implicit measures, predicted both demand indices. Therefore, there was more support for explicit, versus implicit, measures as unique predictors of alcohol demand. Overall, drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations both exhibit positive associations with alcohol demand and represent potentially modifiable cognitive constructs that may underlie elevated demand in college student drinkers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Alcohol-Approach Inclinations and Drinking Identity as Predictors of Behavioral Economic Demand for Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jason J.; Dennhardt, Ashley A.; Baldwin, Scott A.; Murphy, James G.; Lindgren, Kristen P.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economic demand curve indices of alcohol consumption reflect decisions to consume alcohol at varying costs. Although these indices predict alcohol-related problems beyond established predictors, little is known about the determinants of elevated demand. Two cognitive constructs that may underlie alcohol demand are alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity. The aim of this study was to evaluate implicit and explicit measures of these constructs as predictors of alcohol demand curve indices. College student drinkers (N = 223, 59% female) completed implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations at three timepoints separated by three-month intervals, and completed the Alcohol Purchase Task to assess demand at Time 3. Given no change in our alcohol-approach inclinations and drinking identity measures over time, random intercept-only models were used to predict two demand indices: Amplitude, which represents maximum hypothetical alcohol consumption and expenditures, and Persistence, which represents sensitivity to increasing prices. When modeled separately, implicit and explicit measures of drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations positively predicted demand indices. When implicit and explicit measures were included in the same model, both measures of drinking identity predicted Amplitude, but only explicit drinking identity predicted Persistence. In contrast, explicit measures of alcohol-approach inclinations, but not implicit measures, predicted both demand indices. Therefore, there was more support for explicit, versus implicit, measures as unique predictors of alcohol demand. Overall, drinking identity and alcohol-approach inclinations both exhibit positive associations with alcohol demand and represent potentially modifiable cognitive constructs that may underlie elevated demand in college student drinkers. PMID:27379444

  2. Alcohol Outcome Expectancies and Regrettable Drinking-Related Social Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dunne, Eugene M.; Katz, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Research has shown that alcohol outcome expectancies are predictive of heavy alcohol consumption, which can lead to risky behavior. The purpose of the present study was to assess the incidence of various low-risk social behaviors while drinking among college students. Such social behaviors may later be regretted (referred to as regrettable social behaviors) and include electronic and in-person communications. Methods College students (N = 236) completed measures of alcohol outcome expectancies and regrettable social behaviors. Results Regrettable social behaviors were reported by 66.1% of participants, suggesting that they may occur at a much higher rate than more serious drinking-related consequences (e.g. drinking and driving, violence, etc.). Expectancies for social facilitation predicted regrettable social behavior. Further, this relationship was mediated by amount of alcohol consumed. Conclusion Given the high incidence, regrettable social behaviors may be effective targets in alcohol prevention programming. PMID:25820611

  3. Roles of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Consequences, and Season Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.

    2013-01-01

    populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…

  4. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  5. The Effects of Drinking Goal on Treatment Outcome for Alcoholism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bujarski, Spencer; O'Malley, Stephanie S.; Lunny, Katy; Ray, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well known to clinicians and researchers in the field of alcoholism that patients vary with respect to drinking goal. The objective in this study was to elucidate the contribution of drinking goal to treatment outcome in the context of specific behavioral and pharmacological interventions. Method: Participants were 1,226…

  6. Roles of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Consequences, and Season Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward; Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Lewis, Todd F.; Orsini, Muhsin M.; Wyrick, David L.

    2013-01-01

    populations at risk for heavy-episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences. In this study, 63 (56% female, 62% Caucasian) first-year student-athletes completed a preliminary questionnaire assessing demographic characteristics, athlete-specific drinking motives,…

  7. Alcohol Sensitivity Moderates the Indirect Associations between Impulsive Traits, Impaired Control over Drinking, and Drinking Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wardell, Jeffrey D.; Quilty, Lena C.; Hendershot, Christian S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine impaired control over drinking behavior as a mediator of unique pathways from impulsive traits to alcohol outcomes in young adults and to investigate the moderating influence of self-reported sensitivity to alcohol on these pathways. Method Young adult heavy drinkers (N=172; n=82 women) recruited from the community completed self-report measures of impulsive traits (positive urgency, negative urgency, sensation seeking), alcohol sensitivity (Self-Rating of the Effects of Alcohol scale), impaired control over drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Multiple-groups path analysis was used to analyze the data. Results Path coefficients between urgency and impaired control were larger for individuals with lower versus higher self-reported sensitivity to alcohol. The same was true for the association between impaired control and alcohol problems. For participants lower on alcohol sensitivity, significant indirect paths were observed from both positive and negative urgency to all alcohol outcomes (quantity, frequency, and problems) mediated via impaired control. For participants higher on alcohol sensitivity, only the paths from negative urgency (but not positive urgency) to the three alcohol outcomes via impaired control were statistically significant. Sensation seeking was not uniquely associated with impaired control. Conclusions The findings indicate that relatively low sensitivity to the pharmacological effects of alcohol may exacerbate the association of urgency – especially positive urgency – with impaired control, supporting the notion that personality and level of response to alcohol may interact to increase risk for impaired control over drinking. PMID:25785803

  8. Corticosteroid-dependent plasticity mediates compulsive alcohol drinking in rats

    PubMed Central

    Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Barbier, Estelle; Schlosburg, Joel E.; Misra, Kaushik K.; Whitfield, Timothy W.; Logrip, Marian L.; Rivier, Catherine; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Sanna, Pietro P.; Heilig, Markus; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism is characterized by a compulsion to seek and ingest alcohol, loss of control over intake, and the emergence of a negative emotional state during abstinence. We hypothesized that sustained activation of neuroendocrine stress systems (e.g., corticosteroid release via the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis) by alcohol intoxication and withdrawal and consequent alterations in glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation drive compulsive alcohol drinking. Our results showed that rats exposed to alcohol vapor to the point of dependence displayed increased alcohol intake, compulsive drinking measured by progressive-ratio responding, and persistent alcohol consumption despite punishment, assessed by adding quinine to the alcohol solution, compared with control rats that were not exposed to alcohol vapor. No group differences were observed in the self-administration of saccharin-sweetened water. Acute alcohol withdrawal was accompanied by downregulated GR mRNA in various stress/reward-related brain regions (i.e., prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens [NAc], and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis [BNST]), whereas protracted alcohol abstinence was accompanied by upregulated GR mRNA in the NAc core, ventral BNST, and central nucleus of the amygdala. No significant alterations in MR mRNA levels were found. Chronic GR antagonism with mifepristone (RU38486) prevented the escalation of alcohol intake and compulsive responding induced by chronic, intermittent alcohol vapor exposure. Chronic treatment with mifepristone also blocked escalated alcohol drinking and compulsive responding during protracted abstinence. Thus, the GR system appears to be involved in the development of alcohol dependence and may represent a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:22649234

  9. Poor body image and alcohol use in women.

    PubMed

    Holzhauer, Cathryn Glanton; Zenner, Ashley; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2016-02-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the association between body image and alcohol use. Of interest was the extent to which alcohol outcome expectancies act as a moderator in this relationship, particularly in women. In Study 1, 421 college students (175 men, 246 women) provided self-report data on body image, social expressiveness expectancies, and average weekly alcohol use; the data were examined using a moderation model. Results showed that women with poor body image and high social expressiveness expectancies reported a significantly greater amount of average weekly alcohol consumption, whereas no such interaction was observed for men. Study 2 tested the same moderation model with 67 female participants; however, this second study utilized an in-lab behavioral measure of alcohol consumption as the outcome variable. The second study replicated results from Study 1, showing that women with overweight body image and alcohol-related high social expressiveness expectancies consumed significantly more beer during a taste rating task than women with other combinations of these variables. Taken together, the results of Studies 1 and 2 indicate that, specifically for women, an overweight body image and positive expectancies about the social, confidence-enhancing benefits of alcohol act as risk factors for excessive drinking. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Prediction of alcohol-related harm from controlled drinking strategies and alcohol consumption trajectories.

    PubMed

    Toumbourou, J W; Williams, I R; White, V M; Snow, P C; Munro, G D; Schofield, P E

    2004-04-01

    To establish predictors of age 21 alcohol-related harm from prior drinking patterns, current levels of alcohol consumption and use of controlled drinking strategies. One thousand, five hundred and ninety-six students recruited from an initial sample of 3300 during their final year of high school in 1993. Longitudinal follow-up across five waves of data collection. Post high school in Victoria, Australia. Self-administered surveys examining a range of health behaviours, including alcohol consumption patterns and related behaviour. Drinking behaviours at age 21 were found to be strongly predicted by drinking trajectories established through the transition from high school. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that alcohol-related harms at age 21 were reduced where current levels of alcohol use fell within limits recommended in Australian national guidelines. After controlling for this effect it was found that the range of strategies employed by participants to control alcohol use maintained a small protective influence. Post-high-school drinking trajectories continued to demonstrate a significant effect after controlling for current behaviours. revealed that over one quarter of males and females drank alcohol, but on a less-than-weekly basis. This pattern of alcohol use demonstrated considerable stability through the post-school transition and was associated with a low level of subsequent harm at age 21. Future research should investigate whether encouraging more Australian adolescents to drink alcohol on a less-than-weekly basis may be a practical intervention target for reducing alcohol-related harms.

  11. Alcohol drinking among college students: college responsibility for personal troubles.

    PubMed

    Lorant, Vincent; Nicaise, Pablo; Soto, Victoria Eugenia; d'Hoore, William

    2013-06-28

    One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities' responsibility in relation to their students' drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking.

  12. Alcohol drinking among college students: college responsibility for personal troubles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background One young adult in two has entered university education in Western countries. Many of these young students will be exposed, during this transitional period, to substantial changes in living arrangements, socialisation groups, and social activities. This kind of transition is often associated with risky behaviour such as excessive alcohol consumption. So far, however, there is little evidence about the social determinants of alcohol consumption among college students. We set out to explore how college environmental factors shape college students' drinking behaviour. Methods In May 2010 a web questionnaire was sent to all bachelor and master students registered with an important Belgian university; 7,015 students participated (participation = 39%). The survey looked at drinking behaviour, social involvement, college environmental factors, drinking norms, and positive drinking consequences. Results On average each student had 1.7 drinks a day and 2.8 episodes of abusive drinking a month. We found that the more a student was exposed to college environmental factors, the greater the risk of heavy, frequent, and abusive drinking. Alcohol consumption increased for students living on campus, living in a dormitory with a higher number of room-mates, and having been in the University for a long spell. Most such environmental factors were explained by social involvement, such as participation to the student folklore, pre-partying, and normative expectations. Conclusions Educational and college authorities need to acknowledge universities’ responsibility in relation to their students’ drinking behaviour and to commit themselves to support an environment of responsible drinking. PMID:23805939

  13. Assessment of binge drinking of alcohol in highly educated employees.

    PubMed

    Matano, Robert A; Koopman, Cheryl; Wanat, Stanley F; Whitsell, Shelly D; Borggrefe, Anne; Westrup, Darrah

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluated the usefulness of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and CAGE, a standardized screening instrument for detecting alcohol dependence in identifying binge drinking among highly educated employees. Brochures were mailed to an entire workforce inviting employees to learn about their coping strategies, stress levels, and risk for alcohol-related problems, with 228 employees providing complete data. Binge drinking in the previous 3 months was reported by 29% of the employees, with greater binge drinking reported by White employees, of mixed/other ethnic background, or younger. The AUDIT achieved a sensitivity of 35% in identifying respondents who reported binge drinking and a specificity of 98% in accurately identifying respondents who did not report binge drinking. Sensitivity using the cut-off of scoring one or more positive hits on the CAGE was 67%, and specificity was 84%. Therefore, neither the AUDIT nor the CAGE achieved adequate sensitivity, as well as specificity, as screening tools for assessing binge drinking. A more accurate method for assessing binge drinking appears to be by directly asking for the largest number of drinks consumed in a single drinking session.

  14. Drinking behaviours and blood alcohol concentration in four European drinking environments: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Reducing harm in drinking environments is a growing priority for European alcohol policy yet few studies have explored nightlife drinking behaviours. This study examines alcohol consumption and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in drinking environments in four European cities. Methods A short questionnaire was implemented among 838 drinkers aged 16-35 in drinking environments in four European cities, in the Netherlands, Slovenia, Spain and the UK. Questions included self-reported alcohol use before interview and expected consumption over the remainder of the night. Breathalyser tests were used to measured breath alcohol concentration (converted to BAC) at interview. Results Most participants in the Dutch (56.2%), Spanish (59.6%) and British (61.4%) samples had preloaded (cf Slovenia 34.8%). In those drinking < 3 h at interview, there were no differences in BAC by gender or nationality. In UK participants, BAC increased significantly in those who had been drinking longer, reaching 0.13% (median) in females and 0.17% in males drinking > 5 h. In other nationalities, BAC increases were less pronounced or absent. High BAC (> 0.08%) was associated with being male, aged > 19, British and having consumed spirits. In all cities most participants intended to drink enough alcohol to constitute binge drinking. Conclusions Different models of drinking behaviour are seen in different nightlife settings. Here, the UK sample was typified by continued increases in inebriation compared with steady, more moderate intoxication elsewhere. With the former being associated with higher health risks, European alcohol policy must work to deter this form of nightlife. PMID:22151744

  15. Linking masculinity to negative drinking consequences: the mediating roles of heavy episodic drinking and alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Wells, Samantha; Flynn, Andrea; Tremblay, Paul F; Dumas, Tara; Miller, Peter; Graham, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    This study extends previous research on masculinity and negative drinking consequences among young men by considering mediating effects of heavy episodic drinking (HED) and alcohol expectancies. We hypothesized that masculinity would have a direct relationship with negative consequences from drinking as well as indirect relationships mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies of courage, risk, and aggression. A random sample of 1,436 college and university men ages 19-25 years completed an online survey, including conformity to masculine norms, alcohol-related expectancies, HED, and negative drinking consequences. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used. Six of seven dimensions of masculinity and the alcohol expectancy scales were significantly associated with both HED and negative consequences. In multivariate regression models predicting HED and negative consequences, the playboy and violence dimensions of masculinity and the risk/aggression alcohol expectancy remained significant. HED and the risk-taking dimension of masculinity were also significant in the model predicting negative consequences. The structural equation model indicated that masculinity was directly associated with HED and negative consequences but also influenced negative consequences indirectly through HED and alcohol expectancies. The findings suggest that, among young adult male college and university students, masculinity is an important factor related to both HED and drinking consequences, with the latter effect partly mediated by HED and alcohol expectancies. Addressing male norms about masculinity may help to reduce HED and negative consequences from drinking.

  16. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  17. Characteristics of University Students Who Mix Alcohol and Energy Drinks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, Erin E.; Green, Michaela R.; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Research has identified correlates (e.g., drug use, risky sex, smoking) of using alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMEDs). Few studies have investigated common mental health-related concerns (e.g., depression, sleep). Participants: Alcohol-using college students (n = 380 never used AMEDs, n = 180 used AMEDs) were recruited in the study…

  18. Usefulness of Heavy Drinking and Binge Drinking for the Diagnosis of Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Gu; Sung, Han Na

    2016-01-01

    Background This research investigated the sensitivity and specificity of heavy and binge drinking for screening of alcohol use disorder. Methods This retrospective study was conducted with 976 adults who visited the Sun Health Screening Center for health screenings in 2015. Daily drinking amount, drinking frequency per week, and weekly drinking amount were investigated. Using criteria from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, participants were classified as normal drinkers, heavy drinkers, or binge drinkers, and grouped by age and sex. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of heavy and binge drinking were compared for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) 4th edition-text revision and alcohol use disorder using the DSM 5th edition. Results The sensitivity of heavy and binge drinking for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and alcohol use disorder were 51.7%, 43.8%, and 35.3%, and 69.0%, 62.5%, and 48.2%, respectively. The specificity of these were 90.1%, 91.7%, and 95.5%, and 84.3%, 86.8%, and 91.2%, respectively. The PPV of these were 24.8%, 40.5%, and 72.7%, and 21.7%, 38.0%, and 65.2%, respectively. The NPV of these were 96.7%, 92.6%, and 81.2%, and 97.8%, 94.7%, and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusion Heavy and binge drinking did not show enough diagnostic power to screen DSM alcohol use disorder although they did show high specificity and NPV. PMID:27468339

  19. Increased voluntary alcohol drinking concurrent with REM-sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Aalto, J; Kiianmaa, K

    1984-01-01

    The alcohol intake of twenty adult Long-Evans male rats was recorded before, during and after rapid eye movement sleep (REM) deprivation produced with the flowerpot technique modified by using a cuff pedestal and an electrified grid floor instead of water. The alcohol intake reached a steady level of 2.8 g/kg/day in the 3 weeks before REM deprivation. During seven REM-sleep deprivation days the alcohol intake was significantly elevated, finally increasing to 3.7 g/kg/day. A rebound decrease in alcohol drinking was then observed during the "REM-rebound" phase immediately after the termination of REM-sleep deprivation. The results suggest a possible vicious circle of REM-sleep deprivation increasing alcohol drinking and alcohol intake causing REM-sleep deprivation.

  20. Typology of Alcohol Users Based on Longitudinal Patterns of Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Magdalena; Velicer, Wayne F.; Ramsey, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Worldwide, alcohol is the most commonly used psychoactive substance. However, heterogeneity among alcohol users has been widely recognized. This paper presents a typology of alcohol users based on an implementation of idiographic methodology to examine longitudinal daily and cyclic (weekly) patterns of alcohol use at the individual level. Method A secondary data analysis was performed on the pre-intervention data from a large randomized control trial. A time series analysis was performed at the individual level, and a dynamic cluster analysis was employed to identify homogenous longitudinal patterns of drinking behavior at the group level. The analysis employed 180 daily observations of alcohol use in a sample of 177 alcohol users. Results The first order autocorrelations ranged from −.76 to .72, and seventh order autocorrelations ranged from −.27 to .79. Eight distinct profiles of alcohol users were identified, each characterized by a unique configuration of first and seventh autoregressive terms and longitudinal trajectories of alcohol use. External validity of the profiles confirmed the theoretical relevance of different patterns of alcohol use. Significant differences among the eight subtypes were found on gender, marital status, frequency of drug use, lifetime alcohol dependence, family history of alcohol use and the Short Index of Problems. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that individuals can have very different temporal patterns of drinking behavior. The daily and cyclic patterns of alcohol use may be important for designing tailored interventions for problem drinkers. PMID:24333036

  1. Predictors of weekly alcohol drinking and alcohol-related problems in binge-drinking undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Motos Sellés, Patricia; Cortés Tomás, María Teresa; Giménez Costa, José Antonio; Cadaveira Mahía, Fernando

    2015-06-17

    The important implications generated by binge drinking among university students justify the interest to determine which factors predict its occurrence. Specifically, this study aims to assess the role of personality and drinking onset in predicting weekly alcohol consumption, and the impact of the whole set of variables in predicting the number of consequences associated with consumption in undergraduates. Two hundred and thirteen freshmen who were intensive consumers (binge drinkers) from the University Complutense of Madrid were evaluated. All of them filled in a self-registration of consumption, the BIS-11, the NEO-FFI and the IECI consequences associated with intake. The hierarchical regression analysis shows that the drinking onset appears to be a relevant predictor variable in explaining weekly consumption and the number of consequences. The same can be said of the weekly consumption variable with regard to the number of consequences. In general, the influence of personality is quite limited. It is interesting to point out that responsibility and impulsivity, along with age, explain most of the weekly consumption behavior among males. With respect to the consequences of consumption, only impulsivity and neuroticism contribute to explain them, but with less strength than age and weekly consumption. Our results justify the need to plan tighter interventions and consider new predictors that help to explain further weekly consumption in women.

  2. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students.

    PubMed

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don; Asbridge, Mark

    2013-01-01

    An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents' consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or "other." Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84-4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90-2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of interventions aimed at reducing consumption of these drinks.

  3. Effects of naltrexone on alcohol drinking patterns and extinction of alcohol seeking in baboons

    PubMed Central

    Kaminski, Barbara J.; Duke, Angela N.; Weerts, Elise M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Understanding naltrexone’s effect on motivation to drink and pattern of drinking is important for better treatment outcomes and for comparison with novel medications. Objectives Naltrexone’s effects on number and pattern of seeking, self-administration, and extinction responses were evaluated in two groups of baboons trained under a 3 component chained schedule of reinforcement (CSR). Methods Alcohol (4% w/v; n=4; Alcohol Group) or a preferred non-alcoholic beverage (n=4; Control Group) was available for self-administration only in Component 3 of the CSR. Responses in Component 2 provided indices of motivation to drink (seeking). Naltrexone (0.32 – 3.2 mg/kg) and saline were administered before drinking and Component 2 extinction sessions. Results Acute doses of naltrexone significantly decreased total self-administration responses (p<0.01), intake volume (p<0.001) and g/kg of alcohol (p<0.01) in the Alcohol Group only. Pattern of drinking did not change, but number of drinks during the initial drinking bout was decreased significantly by naltrexone for both groups (P<0.05). During within-session extinction tests, acute naltrexone significantly decreased time to reach extinction (p<0.01) and number of seeking responses (p<0.05), particularly early in the extinction period in the Alcohol Group only. When administered chronically, naltrexone did not decrease progressive-ratio breaking points to gain access to alcohol, but dose-dependently reduced alcohol self-administration (p<0.05) by decreasing the magnitude of the initial drinking bout. Conclusions The results support clinical observations that naltrexone may be most effective at reducing self-administration in the context of ongoing alcohol availability and may reduce motivation to drink in the presence of alcohol-related cues. PMID:22451093

  4. [Sialadenosis in a patient with alcoholic fatty liver developing after heavy alcohol drinking].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yeon Hwa; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Seong Hwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Jun, Dae Won; Jo, Yun Ju; Ryu, Yong Suk; Kim, Hyeon Suk

    2009-07-01

    Sialadenosis is a unique form of non-inflammatory, non-neoplastic bilateral salivary gland disorder characterized by recurrent painless swelling which usually occurs in parotid glands. Alcoholism is one of the main causes of sialadenosis along with diabetes, bulimia, and other idiopathic causes. The prognosis is verified according to the degree of liver function. We present a case of a 46 year-old man who had alcoholic fatty liver disease diagnosed as alcoholic sialadenosis based on clinical points of recurrent bilateral parotid swelling after heavy alcohol drinking, computed tomography, and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. After stopping alcohol drinking and treated with conservative treatment, he got improved without specific sequela.

  5. Alcohol Increases Impulsivity and Abuse Liability in Heavy Drinking Women

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Stephanie Collins; Levin, Frances R.; Evans, Suzette M.

    2013-01-01

    Heavy drinking has increased in recent years and has been linked to numerous health-related risks, particularly in women. A number of factors may play a role in exacerbating the risks linked to heavy drinking, such as impulsivity, which itself is related to a number of risky behaviors. The present study investigated the effects of alcohol (0, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) on impulsivity in female heavy drinkers (n = 23) and female light drinkers (n = 23) using a double-blind, placebo-controlled outpatient design; all women were tested during follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Each session, participants completed a range of tasks including subjective measures of abuse liability, cognitive performance tasks, three behavioral impulsivity tasks, and a risk-taking task. Alcohol increased impulsivity on the Immediate and Delayed Memory Task (IMT and DMT) and Delay Discounting task. Heavy drinkers scored higher on impulsivity self-reports and were more impulsive on the IMT and the GoStop task than light drinkers. The high dose of alcohol further increased impulsive performance on the IMT and DMT in heavy drinkers. There were no group differences or alcohol effects on the Balloon Analogue Risk Task. Alcohol increased sedative-like effects more in light drinkers and increased stimulant-like effects and alcohol liking more in heavy drinkers. In summary, female heavy drinkers are less sensitive to the negative effects of alcohol, report more positive effects of alcohol, and are more impulsive than female light drinkers. Moreover, impulsive responding was exacerbated by alcohol drinking among female heavy drinkers, indicating that women who drink at this level are at increased risk for developing alcohol use disorders and engaging in other risky behaviors, particularly after drinking. PMID:23066857

  6. Prazosin + Naltrexone Decreases Alcohol Drinking More Effectively Than Does Either Drug Alone in P Rats with a Protracted History of Extensive Voluntary Alcohol Drinking, Dependence, and Multiple Withdrawals.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-09-01

    Prazosin (PRZ; an α1 -adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX; a nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring or "P"), and the combination of PRZ + NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. As drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence, and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/d access to food, water, and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: (i) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, (ii) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, (iii) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and (iv) postdeprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. The combination of PRZ + NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ + NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects, or malaise. Both daily and "as-needed" treatment with PRZ + NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent, and postdeprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence, and repeated relapse, as commonly

  7. DRINKING AND STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM IN SELECTED HIGH SCHOOLS OF UTAH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NELSON, DALE O.

    THIS TWO PART STUDY ASSESSED THE EXTENT OF DRINKING AMONG REPRESENTATIVE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS AND THEIR SOURCES OF ALCOHOL, DETERMINED THE KINDS OF INFORMATION ABOUT ALCOHOL HELD BY HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN GENERAL, AND SURVEYED THE KNOWLEDGE AND BACKGROUNDS OF TEACHERS WHO TEACH ABOUT ALCOHOL IN THEIR CLASSES. FOR THE FIRST PART OF THE STUDY,…

  8. Alcohol drinking and risk of Parkinson's disease: a case-control study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Wakaba; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Keiko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Kiyohara, Chikako; Tsuboi, Yoshio; Yamada, Tatsuo; Oeda, Tomoko; Miki, Takami; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Sakae, Nobutaka; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hirota, Yoshio; Nagai, Masaki

    2010-11-05

    Although some epidemiologic studies found inverse associations between alcohol drinking and Parkinson's disease (PD), the majority of studies found no such significant associations. Additionally, there is only limited research into the possible interactions of alcohol intake with aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) 2 activity with respect to PD risk. We examined the relationship between alcohol intake and PD among Japanese subjects using data from a case-control study. From 214 cases within 6 years of PD onset and 327 controls without neurodegenerative disease, we collected information on "peak", as opposed to average, alcohol drinking frequency and peak drinking amounts during a subject's lifetime. Alcohol flushing status was evaluated via questions, as a means of detecting inactive ALHD2. The multivariate model included adjustments for sex, age, region of residence, smoking, years of education, body mass index, alcohol flushing status, presence of selected medication histories, and several dietary factors. Alcohol intake during peak drinking periods, regardless of frequency or amount, was not associated with PD. However, when we assessed daily ethanol intake separately for each type of alcohol, only Japanese sake (rice wine) was significantly associated with PD (adjusted odds ratio of ≥66.0 g ethanol per day: 3.39, 95% confidence interval: 1.10-11.0, P for trend = 0.001). There was no significant interaction of alcohol intake with flushing status in relation to PD risk. We did not find significant associations between alcohol intake and PD, except for the daily amount of Japanese sake. Effect modifications by alcohol flushing status were not observed.

  9. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E.; Adlaf, Edward M.; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. Objective We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Design, Settings and Participants Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health’s 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11–20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Main Outcome Measures Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Results Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. Conclusions and Relevance TBI remains a

  10. Energy Drinks, Alcohol, Sports and Traumatic Brain Injuries among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ilie, Gabriela; Boak, Angela; Mann, Robert E; Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley; Asbridge, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Cusimano, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    The high prevalence of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) among adolescents has brought much focus to this area in recent years. Sports injuries have been identified as a main mechanism. Although energy drinks, including those mixed with alcohol, are often used by young athletes and other adolescents they have not been examined in relation to TBI. We report on the prevalence of adolescent TBI and its associations with energy drinks, alcohol and energy drink mixed in with alcohol consumption. Data were derived from the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health's 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS). This population-based cross-sectional school survey included 10,272 7th to 12th graders (ages 11-20) who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Mild to severe TBI were defined as those resulting in a loss of consciousness for at least five minutes, or being hospitalized for at least one night. Mechanism of TBI, prevalence estimates of TBI, and odds of energy drink consumption, alcohol use, and consumption of energy drinks mixed with alcohol are assessed. Among all students, 22.4% (95% CI: 20.7, 24.1) reported a history of TBI. Sports injuries remain the main mechanism of a recent (past year) TBI (45.5%, 95% CI: 41.0, 50.1). Multinomial logistic regression showed that relative to adolescents who never sustained a TBI, the odds of sustaining a recent TBI were greater for those consuming alcohol, energy drinks, and energy drinks mixed in with alcohol than abstainers. Odds ratios were higher for these behaviors among students who sustained a recent TBI than those who sustained a former TBI (lifetime but not past 12 months). Relative to recent TBI due to other causes of injury, adolescents who sustained a recent TBI while playing sports had higher odds of recent energy drinks consumption than abstainers. TBI remains a disabling and common condition among adolescents and the consumption of alcohol, energy drinks, and alcohol mixed with

  11. Alcohol-induced blackouts as predictors of other drinking related harms among emerging young adults

    PubMed Central

    Hingson, Ralph; Zha, Wenxing; Simons-Morton, Bruce; White, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol-related blackouts are periods of amnesia that reflect the failure of the brain to record memories of what transpires while drinking. This paper examined the incidence, predictors, and behavioral correlates of blackouts among emerging adults and examined whether questions about blackouts could serve as better markers of risk for other alcohol related harms than questions about levels of consumption. Methods In 2012-2013, 1,463 (68%) of 2,140 respondents one-year past high school reported having consumed alcohol. They were asked whether, in the past six months because of drinking, they forgot where they were or what they did. The survey also explored demographics, substance use behaviors, and other alcohol-related problems in the past six months. Chi square and logistic regression analyses explored bivariate and multivariate predictors of blackouts and other alcohol-related problems. Results Twenty percent of respondents who ever drank alcohol reported a blackout in the past six months. Blackouts were more prevalent among females and those who, in the past 30 days, used multiple drugs, more frequently binged, were drunk, smoked, had lower body weight, and lived in college dorms. After controlling for drinking levels, having a blackout was the strongest independent predictor of most other alcohol problems examined, including in the past six months because of drinking, missing class or work, getting behind in work or school, doing something respondents later regretted, arguing with friends, experiencing an overdose, and total number of alcohol problems reported. It was also an independent predictor of hangovers, damaging property, getting hurt, and trouble with police. Conclusion Because blackouts indicate drinking at levels that result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment, questions about blackouts could serve as important, simple screeners for the risk of experiencing other alcohol related harms. Additional work on this subject is

  12. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences.

  13. Effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus consuming alcohol only on overall alcohol consumption and negative alcohol-related consequences

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; van der Palen, Job; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine differences in alcohol consumption and its consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks. Methods A survey was conducted among Dutch students at Utrecht University and the College of Utrecht. We collected data on alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences of alcohol consumed alone and/or alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED). The data were analyzed using a retrospective within-subject design, comparing occasions when subjects consumed AMED with those when they consumed alcohol only in the past 30 days. Results A representative sample of 6002 students completed the survey, including 1239 who consumed AMED. Compared with consuming alcohol only, when consuming AMED, students consumed significantly fewer alcoholic drinks on an average drinking day (6.0 versus 5.4, respectively), and reported significantly fewer drinking days in the previous month (9.2 versus 1.4), significantly fewer days being drunk (1.9 versus 0.5), and significantly fewer occasions of consuming more than four (female)/five (male) alcoholic drinks (4.7 versus 0.9). The maximum number of mixed alcoholic drinks (4.5) in the previous month was significantly lower when compared with occasions when they consumed alcohol only (10.7). Accordingly, the mean duration of a drinking session was significantly shorter when mixing alcoholic drinks (4.0 versus 6.0 hours). Finally, when consuming AMED, significantly fewer alcohol-related consequences were reported (2.6) for the previous year, including driving a car while intoxicated, taking foolish risks, or being injured or hurt, as compared with alcohol-related consequences when consuming alcohol only (4.9). Conclusion Mixing alcohol with energy drinks decreases overall alcohol consumption, and decreases the likelihood of experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences. PMID:23204859

  14. Prazosin + naltrexone decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone in P rats with a protracted history of extensive voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and multiple withdrawals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Dennis D; Kincaid, Carrie L; Froehlich, Janice C

    2015-01-01

    Background Prazosin (PRZ, an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist) and naltrexone (NTX, a non-specific opioid receptor antagonist) each decrease alcohol drinking when administered to rats selectively-bred for high voluntary alcohol drinking (alcohol-preferring, or “P”), and the combination of PRZ+NTX decreases alcohol drinking more effectively than does either drug alone. Since drug responsiveness can depend on history of alcohol drinking and dependence, we investigated whether various schedules of PRZ and NTX administration, alone or in combination, are effective in decreasing alcohol drinking in male P rats with a history of protracted voluntary alcohol drinking, dependence and repeated withdrawals closely resembling human alcoholism. Methods Male P rats became alcohol-dependent during 1 year of ad libitum 24 h/day access to food, water and 20% alcohol with repetitive temporary alcohol withdrawals. Four sequential studies then addressed effects of oral PRZ (2 mg/kg) and NTX (10 mg/kg), alone or together, on alcohol drinking during: 1) daily alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 2) intermittent alcohol access with daily drug treatment, 3) intermittent alcohol access with occasional drug treatment, and 4) post-deprivation reinstatement of alcohol access. Results The combination of PRZ+NTX consistently suppressed alcohol drinking during daily or intermittent alcohol access conditions and when drug treatment was either daily or occasional. PRZ+NTX was consistently more effective than either drug alone. The reduction in alcohol drinking was not due to sedation, motor effects or malaise. Conclusions Both daily and “as-needed” treatment with PRZ+NTX are highly effective in suppressing daily, intermittent and post-deprivation alcohol drinking in male P rats with a protracted history of alcohol dependence and repeated withdrawals. This drug combination may be especially effective for treating individuals with long histories of heavy alcohol abuse, dependence and

  15. Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries in college students.

    PubMed

    Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. College Alcohol Policy and Student Drinking-while-Driving: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…

  17. College Alcohol Policy and Student Drinking-while-Driving: A Multilevel Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol prohibition and legal or administrative sanctions have been implemented in attempts to curb alcohol drinking and drinking-while-driving in the general population as well as among college students. This dissertation study examines the impact of college alcohol prohibition and policy enforcement on students' alcohol drinking and…

  18. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kao, Sheng-Chin; Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery.

  19. The association between frequent alcohol drinking and opioid consumption after abdominal surgery: A retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Hsin-I; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Ta-Wei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Shiang

    2017-01-01

    Aims It is perceived that patients with a history of frequent alcohol consumption require more opioids for postoperative pain control and experience less postoperative nausea and vomiting than patients without such a history. However, there is scarce evidence supporting this notion. The aim of this study was to assess association between frequent alcohol consumption and opioid requirement for postoperative pain control and occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. Methods The medical records for 4143 patients using intravenous patient-control analgesia with opioids after abdominal surgery between January 2010 and September 2013 were obtained, and associations were sought between the cumulative opioid consumption (in intravenous morphine equivalence) per body weight (mg/kg) in the first 2 days after abdominal operation and several demographic and clinical variables by multiple regression analysis. The association between the occurrence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and several demographic and clinical variables was also sought by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results Frequent alcohol drinking, among other previously reported factors, was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control (p < 0.001). The estimate effect of frequent alcohol drinking was 0.117 mg/kg. Frequent alcohol drinking was also associated with decreased risks of postoperative nausea (odds ratio = 0.59, p = 0.003) and vomiting (odds ratio = 0.49, p = 0.026). Conclusions Frequent alcohol drinking was associated with increased opioid consumption for postoperative pain control and decreased risks of postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal surgery. PMID:28301483

  20. Relationship between Alcohol Dependence, Escape Drinking, and Early Neural Attention to Alcohol-Related Cuess

    PubMed Central

    Dickter, Cheryl L.; Forestell, Catherine A.; Hammett, Patrick J.; Young, Chelsie M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Previous work has indicated that implicit attentional biases to alcohol-related cues are indicative of susceptibility to alcohol dependence and escape drinking, or drinking to avoid dysphoric mood or emotions. Objective The goal of the current study was to examine whether alcohol dependence and escape drinking were associated with early neural attentional biases to alcohol cues. Methods EEG data were recorded from 54 college students who reported that they regularly drank alcohol, while they viewed alcohol and control pictures that contained human content (active) or no human content (inactive). Results Those who were alcohol dependent showed more neural attentional bias to the active alcohol-related stimuli than to the matched control stimuli early in processing, as indicated by N1 amplitude. Escape drinkers showed greater neural attention to the active alcohol cues than non-escape drinkers, as measured by larger N2 amplitudes. Conclusions While alcohol dependence is associated with enhanced automatic attentional biases early in processing, escape drinking is associated with more controlled attentional biases to active alcohol cues during a relatively later stage in processing. These findings reveal important information about the time-course of attentional processing in problem drinkers and have important implications for addiction models and treatment. PMID:24292342

  1. Drinking buddies and their prospective influence on alcohol outcomes: Alcohol expectancies as a mediator

    PubMed Central

    Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Braitman, Abby L.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Padilla, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The process by which peers or the social network influence individual alcohol use, particularly among adults, remains a necessary area of research. The purpose of the present study was to examine the longitudinal influence of “drinking buddies” on alcohol outcomes (i.e., alcohol use, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related problems) as mediated by alcohol expectancies of social facilitation. Participants were 1347 (men = 660) newly married individuals recruited from the community. They were assessed at the time of marriage and through the 4th wedding anniversary. Longitudinal mediation across time was evaluated using latent growth modeling. Overall, the prospective association between the number of drinking buddies in the social network and all three alcohol outcomes were mediated by alcohol expectancies. In testing group invariance across genders, findings suggest that social facilitation expectancies may be more relevant to men as compared to women in predicting typical alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Given that the social network may impact alcohol use at least in part through social expectancies, tailoring alcohol interventions to modify these specific beliefs may be particularly beneficial. In addition, strategies that target a drinker’s social network or their drinking buddies specifically may be useful. PMID:22732054

  2. Parental problem drinking, parenting, and adolescent alcohol use

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ron H. J.; Vermulst, Ad A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined whether parental problem drinking affected parenting (i.e., behavioral control, support, rule-setting, alcohol-specific behavioral control), and whether parental problem drinking and parenting affected subsequent adolescent alcohol use over time. A total of 428 families, consisting of both parents and two adolescents (mean age 13.4 and 15.2 years at Time 1) participated in a three-wave longitudinal study with annual waves. A series of path analyses were conducted using a structural equation modeling program (Mplus). Results demonstrated that, unexpectedly, parental problem drinking was in general not associated with parenting. For the younger adolescents, higher levels of both parenting and parental problem drinking were related to lower engagement in drinking over time. This implies that shared environment factors (parenting and modeling effects) influence the development of alcohol use in young adolescents. When adolescents grow older, and move out of the initiation phase, their drinking behavior may be more affected by other factors, such as genetic susceptibility, and peer drinking. PMID:18189121

  3. The unique contribution of attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks to the prediction of adolescents' and young adults' alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Roek, Marion A E; Spijkerman, Renske; Poelen, Evelien A P; Lemmers, Lex; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2010-06-01

    Attitudes toward alternative behaviors, such as drinking soda instead of alcohol, might contribute to the prediction of young people's drinking behavior. The current study explored the associations between late adolescents' and young adults' attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks and their alcohol consumption, and whether these associations were moderated by participants' sex, age and education level. Cross-sectional data were collected among 1012 15 to 25-year-olds. Participants completed an online questionnaire on attitudes toward alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, binge drinking and monthly alcohol consumption. Data were analyzed by employing structural equation modeling in Mplus. After controlling for the shared variance in both attitudes, attitudes toward alcoholic drinks were positively related and attitudes toward non-alcoholic drinks were negatively related to participants' monthly alcohol use and binge drinking. Relations between attitudes towards alcoholic drinks and monthly alcohol consumption were stronger for boys than for girls and stronger for participants with intermediate education background. Relations between both attitudes and binge drinking were strongest for high educated participants. According to our data, non-alcohol attitudes provide a unique contribution to the prediction of alcohol use.

  4. Maternal alcohol consumption producing fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD): quantity, frequency, and timing of drinking.

    PubMed

    May, Philip A; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K; Adnams, Colleen M; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles D H; Hoyme, H Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-12-01

    Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. MATERNAL ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION PRODUCING FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS (FASD): QUANTITY, FREQUENCY, AND TIMING OF DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Blankenship, Jason; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Barnard, Ronel; De Vries, Marlene; Hasken, Julie; Robinson, Luther K.; Adnams, Colleen M.; Buckley, David; Manning, Melanie; Parry, Charles; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Tabachnick, Barbara; Seedat, Soraya

    2013-01-01

    Background Concise, accurate measures of maternal prenatal alcohol use are needed to better understand fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Methods Measures of drinking by mothers of children with specific FASD diagnoses and mothers of randomly-selected controls are compared and also correlated with physical and cognitive/behavioral outcomes. Results Measures of maternal alcohol use can differentiate maternal drinking associated with FASD from that of controls and some from mothers of alcohol-exposed normals. Six variables that combine quantity and frequency concepts distinguish mothers of FASD children from normal controls. Alcohol use variables, when applied to each trimester and three months prior to pregnancy, provide insight on critical timing of exposure as well. Measures of drinking, especially bingeing, correlate significantly with increased child dysmorphology and negative cognitive/behavioral outcomes in children, especially low non-verbal IQ, poor attention, and behavioral problems. Logistic regression links (p<.001) first trimester drinking (vs. no drinking) with FASD, elevating FASD likelihood 12 times; first and second trimester drinking increases FASD outcomes 61 times; and drinking in all trimesters 65 times. Conversely, a similar regression (p=.008) indicates that drinking only in the first trimester makes the birth of a child with an FASD 5 times less likely than drinking in all trimesters. Conclusions There is significant variation in alcohol consumption both within and between diagnostic groupings of mothers bearing children diagnosed within the FASD continuum. Drinking measures are empirically identified and correlated with specific child outcomes. Alcohol use, especially heavy use, should be avoided throughout pregnancy. PMID:23932841

  6. Alcohol and risky sexual behavior among heavy drinking college students.

    PubMed

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Michael P; Carey, Kate B

    2010-08-01

    Multiple event-level methodology was used to examine the relation between risky sexual behavior and alcohol use among sexually active, heavy drinking college students (N = 221). Using a structured timeline follow-back interview, participants reported their sexual, alcohol, and drug use behaviors over a 3-month period. Over 2,700 vaginal or anal sexual events were reported from 177 participants. Overall, condom use was not associated with heavy or non-heavy alcohol consumption among those reporting both sexual events concurrent with heavy drinking and when no alcohol was consumed. Results from multilevel regression analyses revealed a more complex pattern. Among women, but not men, less condom use was associated with steady versus casual sexual partners, but partner type interacted with alcohol consumption such that less condom use occurred when heavy drinking preceded sex with steady partners. At the event-level, alcohol consumption among heavy drinking college students leads to risky sexual behavior but the relation differs by gender and partner type.

  7. Effects of stress on alcohol consumption in rats selectively bred for high or low alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Chester, Julia A; Blose, Annette M; Zweifel, Mark; Froehlich, Janice C

    2004-03-01

    Stress has long been thought to influence the initiation and maintenance of alcohol drinking in humans. However, results of studies in animals suggest that the relationship between stress and alcohol drinking is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of unpredictable and uncontrollable restraint stress on alcohol consumption in two sets of rat lines selectively bred for alcohol preference (P) and high alcohol drinking (HAD1) and for alcohol nonpreference (NP) and low alcohol drinking (LAD1). Male P (n = 26) and NP (n = 26) and HAD1 (n = 17) and LAD1 (n = 20) rats were counterbalanced on the basis of alcohol intake and assigned, in matched pairs, to either a stress (Stress) or a no-stress (Control) group. All rats were given a free choice between a 10% v/v alcohol solution and water, with food freely available. Unpredictable, uncontrollable stress, which consisted of immobilization in a nylon restraint sleeve for 30 to 120 min/day, was applied for 10 consecutive days. Stress moderately reduced alcohol intake in both P and HAD1 rats versus controls and had no effect on alcohol intake in either the NP or the LAD1 rats during the 10 days of stress application. Alcohol intake was increased for the first 5 days after stress termination in P rats but not in HAD1 rats. Alcohol intake remained stable for several weeks in both the NP and LAD1 lines after stress termination and then increased during the last 15 days of the 35-day poststress period in NP rats, but not in LAD1 rats. A reduction in alcohol intake during stress in rats with a genetic predisposition toward high alcohol intake seems to be a moderate but consistent finding, whereas an increase in alcohol intake after stress termination is less consistent and may be influenced by genetic background.

  8. Effects of alcohol mixed with energy drink and alcohol alone on subjective intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Andrea; Hemberger, Sophie Helene; Loidl, Alexandra; Dufek, Stephanie; Pablik, Eleonore; Fodor, Sugarka; Herle, Marion; Aufricht, Christoph

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that the combination of caffeine-containing drinks together with alcohol might reduce the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication-the so-called "masking effect". In this study, we aimed to review the effects of alcohol in combination with caffeine or energy drink with special focus on the "masking effect". Fifty-two healthy male volunteers were analysed concerning breath alcohol concentration and subjective sensations of intoxication using a 18 item Visual Analogue Scale in a randomised, double-blinded, controlled, four treatments cross-over trial after consumption of (A) placebo, (B) alcohol (vodka 37.5% at a dose of 46.5 g ethanol), (C) alcohol in combination with caffeine at a dose of 80 mg (equivalent to one 250 ml can of energy drink) and (D) alcohol in combination with energy drink at a dose of 250 ml (one can). Primary variables were headache, weakness, salivation and motor coordination. Out of four primary variables, weakness and motor coordination showed a statistically significant difference between alcohol and non-alcohol group, out of 14 secondary variables, five more variables (dizziness, alterations in sight, alterations in walking, agitation and alterations in speech) also showed significant differences due mainly to contrasts with the non-alcohol group. In none of these end points, could a statistically significant effect be found for the additional ingestion of energy drink or caffeine on the subjective feelings of alcohol intoxication. This within-subjects study does not confirm the presence of a "masking effect" when combining caffeine or energy drink with alcohol.

  9. The alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) rats--animal models of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this article is to review the literature on the utility of using the selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high-alcohol-drinking (HAD) lines of rats in studies examining high alcohol drinking in adults and adolescents, craving-like behavior, and the co-abuse of alcohol with other drugs. The P line of rats meets all of the originally proposed criteria for a suitable animal model of alcoholism. In addition, the P rat exhibits high alcohol-seeking behavior, demonstrates an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) under relapse drinking conditions, consumes amounts of ethanol during adolescence equivalent to those consumed in adulthood, and co-abuses ethanol and nicotine. The P line also exhibits excessive binge-like alcohol drinking, attaining blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) of 200 mg% on a daily basis. The HAD replicate lines of rats have not been as extensively studied as the P rats. The HAD1,2 rats satisfy several of the criteria for an animal model of alcoholism, e.g., these rats will voluntarily consume ethanol in a free-choice situation to produce BACs between 50 and 200 mg%. The HAD1,2 rats also exhibit an ADE under repeated relapse conditions, and will demonstrate similar levels of ethanol intake during adolescence as seen in adults. Overall, the P and HAD1,2 rats have characteristics attributed to an early onset alcoholic, and can be used to study various aspects of alcohol use disorders.

  10. Pharmacologic dissociation between impulsivity and alcohol drinking in High Alcohol Preferring mice

    PubMed Central

    Oberlin, Brandon G.; Bristow, R. Evan; Heighton, Meredith E.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Impulsivity is genetically correlated with, and precedes addictive behaviors and alcoholism. If impulsivity or attention is causally related to addiction, certain pharmacological manipulations of impulsivity and/or attention may affect alcohol drinking, and vice versa. The current studies were designed to explore the relationship among impulsivity, drinking, and vigilance in selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice, a line that has previously demonstrated both high impulsivity and high alcohol consumption. Amphetamine, naltrexone and memantine were tested in a delay discounting (DD) task for their effects on impulsivity and vigilance. The same drugs and doses were also assessed for effects on alcohol drinking in a two-bottle choice test. Methods HAP mice were subjected to a modified version of adjusting amount DD using 0.5 sec and 10 sec delays to detect decreases and increases, respectively, in impulsive responding. In 2 experiments, mice were given amphetamine (0.4, 0.8 or 1.2 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) before DD testing. Another pair of studies used scheduled access, two-bottle choice drinking to assess effects of amphetamine (0.4, 1.2, or 3.0 mg/kg), naltrexone (3 and 10 mg/kg), and memantine (1 and 5 mg/kg) on alcohol consumption. Results Amphetamine dose-dependently reduced impulsivity and vigilance decrement in DD, but similar doses left alcohol drinking unaffected. Naltrexone and memantine decreased alcohol intake at doses that did not affect water drinking, but had no effects on impulsivity or vigilance decrement in the DD task. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, none of the drugs tested here, while effective either on alcohol drinking or impulsivity, decreased both behaviors. These findings suggest that the genetic association between drinking and impulsivity observed in this population is mediated by mechanisms other than those targeted by the drugs tested in these studies. PMID:20491739

  11. Alcohol's Effects on the Body

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Alcohol Policy Special Populations & Co-occurring Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones en Español ...

  12. Alcohol expectancies, drinking refusal self-efficacy and drinking behaviour in Asian and Australian students.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Jardim, Claudia Lee

    2007-03-16

    The effects of alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) in predicting alcohol consumption in Caucasians has been well studied. However, the role of AE and DRSE in Asian students is still not well understood. This study reported on this using Caucasian (n=98) and Asian (n=92) student samples. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) to measure their hazardous alcohol consumption, and the drinking expectancy profile (DEP) to assess their alcohol related expectancies and ability to resist drinking in certain situations. Results showed that Caucasians reported significantly higher confidence, higher sexual interest, and higher tension reduction expectancies than Asians. Conversely, Asians significantly expected cognitive enhancement and negative consequences more than Caucasians. Relative to Caucasians, the Asian sample also reported that they would be more able to refuse alcohol when under social pressure. Results from regression analyses showed that for the Caucasian sample, AE, DRSE and their interactions were significant predictors of alcohol consumption. For the Asian group, the only significant effect to emerge was that DRSE was negatively related to alcohol consumption. The clinical implications of the differential pattern of results between the samples are discussed in terms of self-efficacy and negative consequences of alcohol consumption, especially when dealing with university aged individuals.

  13. Drinking reasons, alcohol consumption levels, and drinking locations among drunken drivers.

    PubMed

    Snow, R W; Wells-Parker, E

    1986-06-01

    In a DUI offender sample, four drinking reason factors are regressed on alcohol consumption variables and frequency of drinking in seven types of locations. Drinking for "pleasure" and "opposite sex/drunkenness" reasons are associated with both quantity consumed per occasion and away-from-home locations such as automobiles, bars, and parties, suggesting high traffic accident risk. "Escapism" reasons are related to quantity consumed per occasion, but are only weakly associated with specific locations; and "sociability" reasons are associated with drinking in friends' homes, but are not related to high consumption levels. Implications for DUI countermeasures are discussed.

  14. Drink-driving and perceptions of legally permissible alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Kypri, Kypros; Stephenson, Shaun

    2005-09-01

    The leading cause of death for young people in developed countries is road traffic crashes, a large proportion of which are attributable to drink-driving. The aims of the study were to estimate the prevalence of drink-driving and drink-riding in a sample of New Zealand university students, and to identify potential risk factors, in particular, students' perceptions of legally permissible consumption before driving. Participants were 1,564 survey respondents (82% response, mean age = 20.5 years) who were asked to indicate whether they had driven after having "perhaps too much to drink to be able to drive safely," if they had been a passenger in a vehicle "where the driver had perhaps too much to drink to be able to drive safely," and how many standard drinks they could consume in one hour and legally drive a car. An estimated blood alcohol concentration was computed and compared with legal limits. Drink-driving (past four weeks) was reported by 3.4% of women and 8.4% of men. Drink-riding (past four weeks) was reported by 7.0% of women and 11.5% of men. Estimated blood alcohol concentrations from students' reports of how much they could drink in one hour and be below the legal limit of 0.08 g/ml, showed that most respondents dramatically underestimated permissible consumption; only 5.8% overestimated it. This may be a case where misperception of a public health message serves the public good. Further reductions in drink-driving/riding will require attention to transport needs, more visible enforcement of existing legislation, and modification of youth drinking behavior.

  15. [Treatment processes of pre-alcoholism and alcohol dependence targeted towards drinking reduction].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Atsushi; Maesato, Hitoshi; Hisatomi, Nobuko; Higuchi, Susumu

    2013-02-01

    Since the 1990s, we have suggested the concept of pre-alcoholism which encompasses patients who have drunk a great deal of alcohol leading to alcohol related problems such as health issues, domestic violence, drunken driving and black-outs. Pre-alcoholism excludes alcohol-dependent patients who have experienced continuous drinking or withdrawal symptoms. We have treated many outpatients with pre-alcoholism for several years. Our regimen demands that the patients must be abstinent for half a year at the beginning of their treatment. After half a year they can choose whether they will continue to be abstinent or they will resume drinking with the aim of reducing their total alcohol consumption. The study clarified the character of pre-alcoholism by investigation of the patients' background and re-diagnosis of the patients based on the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10). A remarkable ratio of pre-alcoholic patients was diagnosed with alcohol dependence under ICD-10. We classified pre-alcoholic patients into two groups, one diagnosed as having ICD-10-classed alcohol dependence and the other which did not fulfill the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria of alcohol dependence, and examined the therapeutic processes of the two groups. It was shown that most pre-alcoholic patients could finally take required courses of treatment by themselves without regard to diagnosis under ICD-10, even if they chose any treatment and made alcohol related mistakes on the way. Our findings suggested that pre-alcoholic patients, a portion of whom may have exhibited mild alcohol dependence, could select drinking reduction as a primary goal of treatment after a certain period of abstinence.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on college alcohol drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Bani, Ridouan; Hameed, Rasheed; Szymanowski, Steve; Greenwood, Priscilla; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Mubayi, Anuj

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major problem, especially among students on and around college campuses. We use the mathematical framework of [16] and study the role of environmental factors on the long term dynamics of an alcohol drinking population. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses are carried out on the relevant functions (for example, on the drinking reproduction number and the extinction time of moderate and heavy drinking because of interventions) to understand the impact of environmental interventions on the distributions of drinkers. The reproduction number helps determine whether or not the high-risk alcohol drinking behavior will spread and become persistent in the population, whereas extinction time of high-risk drinking measures the effectiveness of control programs. We found that the reproduction number is most sensitive to social interactions, while the time to extinction of high-risk drinkers is significantly sensitive to the intervention programs that reduce initiation, and the college drop-out rate. The results also suggest that in a population, higher rates of intervention programs in low-risk environments (more than intervention rates in high-risk environments) are needed to reduce heavy drinking in the population.

  17. Personal strivings, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems.

    PubMed

    Simons, Jeffrey S; Christopher, Michael S; McLaury, Ann E

    2004-06-01

    This study examined relations between personal strivings and alcohol use among college students. Personal strivings are ongoing goals that individuals are characteristically trying to achieve through their behavior. Participants generated lists of personal strivings following standard instructions and then completed an assessment of alcohol use and related problems. Participants returned to complete a follow-up assessment of drinking behavior after 30 days. Personal strivings were coded into content categories by trained raters using a coding manual. Four content categories were examined for this study: achievement, affiliation, health, and self-presentation. A series of t tests revealed that participants endorsing achievement strivings reported less alcohol-related problems and marginally fewer instances of binge drinking during the 30-day follow-up period. In contrast, participants endorsing self-presentation strivings reported more alcohol-related problems during the follow-up period.

  18. Examining the Relationship Between Alcohol Energy Drink Risk Profiles and High-Risk Drinking Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Varvil-Weld, Lindsey; Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly A.; Cleveland, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The mixing of alcohol and energy drinks (AMEDs) is a trend among college students associated with higher rates of heavy episodic drinking and negative alcohol-related consequences. The goals of the present study were to take a person-centered approach to identify distinct risk profiles of college students based on AMED-specific constructs (expectancies, attitudes, and norms) and examine longitudinal associations between AMED use, drinking, and consequences. Method A random sample of incoming freshmen (n = 387, 59% female) completed measures of AMED use, AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and normative beliefs, and drinking quantity and alcohol-related consequences. Data were collected at two occasions: spring semester of freshmen year and fall semester of sophomore year. Results Latent profile analysis (LPA) identified four subgroups of individuals: occasional AMED, anti-AMED, pro-AMED, and strong peer influence. Individuals in the pro-AMED group reported the most AMED use, drinking, and consequences. There was a unique association between profile membership and AMED use, even after controlling for drinking. Conclusions Findings highlighted the importance of AMED-specific expectancies, attitudes, and norms. The unique association between AMED risk profiles and AMED use suggests AMED use is a distinct behavior that could be targeted by AMED-specific messages included in existing brief interventions for alcohol use. PMID:23527941

  19. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Rethinking Drinking: Alcohol and Your Health Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents RETHINKING DRINKING Alcohol and Your Health Visit NIAAA's Fully Interactive Web ...

  20. The temporal association between energy drink and alcohol use among adolescents: A short communication

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Brem, Meagan J.; Elmquist, JoAnna; Stuart, Gregory L.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the temporal relation between energy drink and alcohol use among adolescents. Methods Data were collected from adolescents attending public high schools in two waves (n = 894). Results Path analysis indicated that energy drink use at baseline was positively associated with the number of drinking days but not binge drinking or average drinks per drinking day over the past 30 days at follow-up. This relation remained while controlling for race, age, gender, previous alcohol use, and impulsivity. Conclusions Alcohol use prevention efforts should consider energy drink use as risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. PMID:26632245

  1. Alcohol industry and non-alcohol industry sponsorship of sportspeople and drinking.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Miller, Peter G; Kolt, Gregory S; Martens, Matthew P; Webber, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    To examine the relationship between direct alcohol and non-alcohol sponsorship and drinking in Australian sportspeople. Australian sportspeople (N = 652; 51% female) completed questionnaires on alcohol and non-alcohol industry sponsorship (from bars, cafes etc.), drinking behaviour (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)) and known confounders. 31% reported sponsorship (29.8% alcohol industry; 3.7% both alcohol and non-alcohol industry and 1.5% non-alcohol industry only) Multivariate regression showed that receipt of alcohol industry sponsorship was predictive of higher AUDIT scores (β(adj) = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.56-2.78), but non-alcohol industry sponsorship and combinations of both were not (β(adj) = 0.18, 95% CI: -2.61 to 2.68; and β(adj) = 2.58, 95% CI: -0.60 to 5.76, respectively). Governments should consider alternatives to alcohol industry sponsorship of sport. Hypothecated taxes on tobacco have been used successfully for replacing tobacco sponsorship of sport in some countries, and may show equal utility for the alcohol industry's funding of sport.

  2. Drinking at European universities? A review of students' alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Wicki, Matthias; Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-11-01

    High volumes of alcohol consumption and risky single occasion drinking (RSOD) among university students have been shown to be associated with considerable harm to both those who consume alcohol and their fellow students. The vast majority of these studies are based on US and Canadian samples. The present article provides an overview of the characteristics of alcohol-consuming university students in Europe. 65 relevant articles published within the last 20years using European student populations could be identified. Sociodemographic, individual, social, and university-related characteristics associated with alcohol consumption patterns could be identified. Male students, in particular, tended to consume alcohol more often and in higher quantities, including RSOD. Students consumed alcohol chiefly during social gatherings and for social and enhancement motives. Those without family obligations and those living alone, with roommates or in areas with a high density of students were more likely to consume alcohol in higher quantities, and to engage in RSOD. Students tend to overestimate the extent of their fellow students' alcohol consumption. Health promotion and prevention efforts which focus on these characteristics (i.e., gender, drinking motives, living conditions and social norms), and which have been successful and evaluated among university students in the US and Canada, may also be very promising for their European counterparts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol drinking during adolescence increases consumptive responses to alcohol in adulthood in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Leslie R; Kneiber, Diana; Wills, Derek N; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2017-03-01

    Binge drinking and the onset of alcohol-use disorders usually peak during the transition between late adolescence and early adulthood, and early adolescent onset of alcohol consumption has been demonstrated to increase the risk for alcohol dependence in adulthood. In the present study, we describe an animal model of early adolescent alcohol consumption where animals drink unsweetened and unflavored ethanol in high concentrations (20%). Using this model, we investigated the influence of drinking on alcohol-related appetitive behavior and alcohol consumption levels in early adulthood. Further, we also sought to investigate whether differences in alcohol-related drinking behaviors were specific to exposure in adolescence versus exposure in adulthood. Male Wistar rats were given a 2-bottle choice between 20% ethanol and water in one group and between two water bottles in another group during their adolescence (Postnatal Day [PD] 26-59) to model voluntary drinking in adolescent humans. As young adults (PD85), rats were trained in a paradigm that provided free access to 20% alcohol for 25 min after completing up to a fixed-ratio (FR) 16 lever press response. A set of young adult male Wistar rats was exposed to the same paradigm using the same time course, beginning at PD92. The results indicate that adolescent exposure to alcohol increased consumption of alcohol in adulthood. Furthermore, when investigating differences between adolescent high and low drinkers in adulthood, high consumers continued to drink more alcohol, had fewer FR failures, and faster completion of FR schedules in adulthood, whereas the low consumers were no different from controls. Rats exposed to ethanol in young adulthood also increased future intake, but there were no differences in any other components of drinking behavior. Both adolescent- and adult-exposed rats did not exhibit an increase in lever pressing during the appetitive challenge session. These data indicate that adolescent and early

  4. Binge alcohol drinking elicits persistent negative affect in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kaziya M; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A; Waltermire, Ryan S; Szumlinski, Karen K

    2015-09-15

    Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal.

  5. Binge Alcohol Drinking Elicits Persistent Negative Affect in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kaziya M.; Coehlo, Michal; McGregor, Hadley A.; Waltermire, Ryan S.; Szumlinski, Karen K.

    2015-01-01

    Cessation from chronic alcohol abuse often produces a dysphoric state that can persist into protracted withdrawal. This dysphoric state is theorized to function as a negative reinforcer that maintains excessive alcohol consumption and/or precipitates relapse in those struggling to abstain from alcohol. However, we know relatively little regarding the impact of cessation from binge drinking on behavioral measures of negative affect and related neurobiology. Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to unsweetened 20% alcohol for 6 weeks under modified Drinking-in-the-Dark procedures, followed by behavioral testing beginning either 1 or 21 days into withdrawal. Mice were administered a behavioral test battery consisting of: the elevated plus maze, light/dark box, novel object test, marble burying test, Porsolt forced swim test and sucrose preference test to assess anxiogenic and depressive signs. Egr1 immunostaining was used to quantify cellular activity within the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA), basolateral amygdala (BLA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), and the nucleus accumbens (Acb) shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC). Compared to water controls, alcohol-drinking mice exhibited higher indices of emotionality in the majority of behavioral assays. The hyper-emotionality exhibited by binge drinking mice was apparent at both withdrawal time-points and correlated with higher Egr1+ cell counts in the CEA and BNST, compared to controls. These data show that affective symptoms emerge very early after cessation of binge drinking and persist into protracted withdrawal. A history of binge drinking is capable of producing enduring neuroadaptations within brain circuits mediating emotional arousal. PMID:26048424

  6. Alcohol drinking behaviors among Turkish high school students.

    PubMed

    Alikaşifoğlu, Müjgan; Erginöz, Ethem; Ercan, Oya; Uysal, Omer; Albayrak-Kaymak, Deniz; Ilter, Ozdemir

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, behavioral patterns and correlates of regular alcohol drinking in high school students. This cross-sectional study involved the completion of a modified version of "Health Behavior in School Age Children" (HBSC 1997/1998) questionnaire by 4,153 grade 9-11 students from 26 randomly selected high schools in Istanbul. Chi-square test, Spearman correlation test and forward stepwise multiple logistic regression model were used for statistical analyses as appropriate. Overall, 61% of students were experimental drinkers, and 46% of the students were current drinkers. There was a significant difference between female and male students with respect to reporting current alcohol drinking at grade 9 and 11 (p > 0.05 for each comparison). Regular drinking was reported by 6% of students. Male students were more likely than female students to report regular drinking at each grade (p < 0.01 for each comparison). Nineteen percent of the students reported that they had been really drunk at least once during their lifetime. Malestudents were more likely than female students to report an occasion of drunkenness at each grade (p < 0.05 for each comparison). All types of drinking behavior rates tended to increase across grades for both genders (p < 0.05 for each comparison). In logistic regression analysis the following were all independently associated with regular drinking: being in grade 11, smoking cigarettes currently, lifetime drug use, bullying others, being sexually active, playing computer games > or = 4 h/week, exercising < or = 1 h/week, spending > or = four evenings with friends, at ease in talking to same gender friends, tiredness in the morning, perceived as good-looking/beautiful, higher educational level of the mother and perceived poor academic achievement. The results of this study showed that alcohol consumption is prevalent among high school students. There is therefore a need for school-based alcohol prevention

  7. Is alcohol drinking associated with renal impairment in the general population of South Korea?

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha-Na; Kim, Se-Hong; Song, Sang-Wook

    2014-01-01

    We examined relationships between the average amount of daily alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and renal dysfunction among South Korean adultsaged ≥ 20 years. The analysis used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), a cross-sectional survey of Korean civilians, conducted from January to December 2011. In this study, a sample of 5,251 participants was analysed. Compared with abstinence, the odds ratio for a decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was 0.14 (95% CI: 0.01-0.91) among heavy drinkers, and 0.42 (95% CI: 0.17-0.98) among binge drinkers and the association between the amount of mean daily alcohol intake, binge-drinking status and a likelihood of reduced eGFR value showed significant trends (p = 0.041 and p = 0.038, respectively), after adjusting for age, smoking status, amount of physical activity, morbid hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidaemia, anaemia and body mass index. There was no significant association between alcohol consumption and the urine albumin to creatinine ratio in men, or between alcohol consumption and renal dysfunction in women. Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with a reduction in eGFR in Korean men. However, these findings should be interpreted cautiously, given the other harmful effects related to alcohol consumption, especially heavy and binge drinking. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Disinhibited personality and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement: independent correlates of drinking behavior in sons of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Conrod, P J; Petersen, J B; Pihl, R O

    1997-10-01

    Thirty nonalcoholic young (18 to 30 years) males with extensive multigenerational family histories of male alcoholism and 29 age-matched, family history-negative controls completed a variety of trait personality questionnaires, participated in a competitive stress task (while sober and alcohol-intoxicated), and were assessed for self-report and laboratory drinking behavior. Low academic achievement, disinhibited personality (as measured by the P Scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire), and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were significant and powerful independent predictors of self-report (approximate R2 = 0.40, p < 0.0001) and laboratory (approximate R2 = 0.20, p < 0.0001) drinking behavior. There seemed to be some specificity with respect to the facets of drinking behavior accounted for by each independent variable: low academic achievement and sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement were more related to quantity of alcohol consumption and frequency of excessive consumption, whereas psychoticism was more related to self-reported negative consequences with alcohol. A cluster analysis on three identified correlates of drinking behavior indicated that the two experimental groups could be more accurately subdivided into three homogeneous types. Multigenerational family history males were disproportionately represented in two of these groups: one characterized by enhanced sensitivity to alcohol reinforcement and the other characterized by high psychoticism scores and alcohol-related problems.

  9. Relationship of Body Mass Index to Alcohol Consumption in College Freshmen

    PubMed Central

    Nies, Mary A.; Sun, Linman; Kazemi, Donna; Carriker, Amy; Dmochowski, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and drinking in college freshman. Method. College freshman (N = 199) at a university completed the drinking questionnaires. Drinking amount and the alcohol problem index (RAPI) served as outcomes, and BMI was the independent variable. Results. RAPI scores were associated with gender, amount of drinking, and BMI (P < 0.001, F = 13.44). Increase of RAPI with drinking amount was larger for females (slope = 0.06) than for males (slope = 0.03). Conclusion. This information can be helpful when providing health promotion strategies to college students regarding nutrition modifications that would be most beneficial for their health. PMID:22654639

  10. Drinking-and-Driving-Related Cognitions Mediate the Relationship Between Alcohol Demand and Alcohol-Impaired Driving.

    PubMed

    Amlung, Michael; Morris, David H; Hatz, Laura E; Teeters, Jenni B; Murphy, James G; McCarthy, Denis M

    2016-07-01

    Elevated behavioral economic demand for alcohol has been shown to be associated with drinking and driving in college students. The present study sought to clarify the underlying mechanisms of this relationship by examining whether drinking-and-driving-related cognitions (e.g., attitudes, perceptions, and normative beliefs) mediate the association between alcohol demand and drinking and driving. A total of 134 young adult social drinkers completed an alcohol purchase task and measures of perceived dangerousness of drinking and driving, normative beliefs about drinking and driving, and perceived driving limit (i.e., perceived number of drinks one could consume and still drive safely). The frequency of drinking and driving in the past year was assessed via self-report. Individuals who reported drinking and driving exhibited greater alcohol demand (intensity, Omax, and elasticity) compared with those who did not engage in drinking and driving. Increased demand was also correlated with more favorable drinking-and-driving cognitions. Indirect effects tests revealed that perceived driving limit partially mediated the relationship between alcohol demand and drinking-and-driving behavior, even after accounting for drinking level, sex, and delay discounting. These findings provide further support for the utility of behavioral economic theory in understanding drinking-and-driving behavior. In particular, they provide evidence for one mechanism-drinking-and-driving-related cognitions-by which alcohol demand influences drinking and driving. Additional research using longitudinal and experimental designs is required to confirm this model and to identify other potential mediators.

  11. Sociodemographic risk factors of alcohol drinking in Hong Kong adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rong; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent drinking in Western countries has been associated with older age and high socioeconomic status, but the association with family structure was inconsistent. In a 2012-2013 school-based survey in Hong Kong, 23,096 students (mean age 14.7 years, SD 1.8 years) completed an anonymous questionnaire. Current drinking was defined as any drinking and binge drinking as consuming at least 5 drinks on one occasion, both in the past 30 days. Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine the association of sociodemographic characteristics with current drinking, binge drinking and type of alcohol consumed. Current drinking was associated with age (≥ 15 vs ≤ 14 years) (adjusted OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.74 to 2.02), higher perceived family affluence versus low affluence (1.11, 1.02 to 1.21 for medium affluence; 1.55, 1.38 to 1.75 for high affluence), private housing versus public housing (1.11, 1.01 to 1.21) and non-intact family versus intact family (1.31, 1.19 to 1.45 for separated/divorced parents; 1.40, 1.21 to 1.62 for one or both deceased parents). Similar risk factors were observed for binge drinking. Girls were more likely to drink fruit wine (1.48, 1.36 to 1.62), while they were less likely to drink beer (0.85, 0.79 to 0.92) and spirits (0.69, 0.54 to 0.87). Students who reported high family affluence were more likely to drink wine (1.91, 1.59 to 2.30) and spirits (2.23, 1.54 to 3.24). Generally, adolescents who were older and had higher socioeconomic status were more likely to drink. High family affluence was associated with wine and spirits drinking. Beer and spirits were preferred more by boys, and fruit wine by girls. These results indicated high-risk groups for adolescent alcohol interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Pregnancy and alcohol: occasional, light drinking may be safe.

    PubMed

    2012-02-01

    Many pregnant women drink varying quantities of alcohol, although several guidelines recommend total abstinence. What is known of the dangers of alcohol for the outcome of pregnancy and for the unborn child? To answer this question, we conducted a review of the literature using the standard Prescrire methodology. Fetal alcohol syndrome, which combines facial dysmorphism, growth retardation and intellectual disability, occurs in about 5% of children who are regularly exposed to at least five standard units per day (about 50 g of alcohol per day). Four studies have explored the link between heavy maternal alcohol use over a short period and the risk of cognitive impairment in the child. The results were inconclusive, however, and the authors failed to take concomitant chronic alcohol consumption into account. A methodologically sound study showed an increase in neurological abnormalities (seizures and epilepsy) when the mother drank heavily during short periods between the 11th and 16th weeks of pregnancy. There is a risk of cognitive and behavioural problems in children whose mothers regularly drank more than 2 standard units per day. Studies involving a total of about 150 000 pregnancies sought a link between low-level alcohol consumption and abnormal pregnancy outcomes. Very few showed a statistically significant link, and the results are undermined by the failure to take other risk factors into account. Weekly consumption of 5 standard units or more during pregnancy has been linked to an increased risk of cryptorchidism. Studies in a total of 57 000 pregnancies showed no effect of minimal alcohol consumption on the risk of malformations. A study of 1000 pregnancies showed a statistically significant risk of major malformations, but there were several apparent biases. A link between infant mortality and alcohol consumption during pregnancy was examined in large cohort studies. Consumption of at least 4 standard units per week increased the risk of early neonatal

  13. Effect of alcohol references in music on alcohol consumption in public drinking places.

    PubMed

    Engels, Rutger C M E; Slettenhaar, Gert; ter Bogt, Tom; Scholte, Ron H J

    2011-01-01

    People are exposed to many references to alcohol, which might influence their consumption of alcohol directly. In a field experiment, we tested whether textual references to alcohol in music played in bars lead to higher revenues of alcoholic beverages. We created two databases: one contained songs referring to alcohol, the parallel database contained songs with matching artists, tempo, and energetic content, but no references to alcohol. Customers of three bars were exposed to either music textually referring to alcohol or to the control condition, resulting in 23 evenings in both conditions. Bartenders were instructed to play songs with references to alcohol (or not) during a period of 2 hours each of the evenings of interest. They were not blind to the experimental condition. The results showed that customers who were exposed to music with textual references to alcohol spent significantly more on alcoholic drinks compared to customers in the control condition. This pilot study provides preliminary evidence that alcohol-related lyrics directly affect alcohol consumption in public drinking places. Since our study is one of the first testing direct effects of music lyrics on consumption, our small-scale, preliminary study needs replication before firm conclusions can be drawn.

  14. Alcohol Drinking Increased the Risk of Advanced Colorectal Adenomas

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yoon Kyung; Seon, Choon Sik; Lim, Hye Jin; Son, Byung Kwan; Ahn, Sang Bong; Jo, Young Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Seung Chan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Age, sex, gene and life style are modulating risks for colon cancer. Although alcohol intake may impact on colorectal adenoma, clear association has not been established yet. We aimed to investigate effects of alcohol consumption on the characteristics of colorectal adenoma. Methods Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy of colorectal adenoma in the department of gastroenterology of Eulji hospital through 2005 to 2012, having both blood tests and ultrasound or abdominal CT examination were enrolled. The alcohol drinking patients were subdivided into normal or abnormal laboratory group, and alcoholic liver diseases group. Results 212 patients with colorectal adenoma were analyzed; advanced adenoma and multiple adenoma were found in 68 (32.0%) and 79 (37.2%) patients. When compared to the nondrinker group (120/212 patients), the alcohol drinker group (92/212 patients) represented significantly high odds ratios (ORs) for advanced adenoma (OR, 2.697; P=0.002), and multiple adenoma (OR, 1.929; P=0.039). Among alcohol drinker (92 patients), the ORs of advanced adenoma were 6.407 (P=0.003) in alcoholic liver diseases group (17 patients), 3.711 (P=0.002) in the alcohol drinker with abnormal lab (24 patients), and 2.184 (P=0.034), in the alcohol drinker with normal lab (51 patients) compared to nondrinker group. Conclusions This study showed that alcohol drinking may influence on the development of advanced colorectal adenoma and multiplicity. Especially in the group with alcoholic liver diseases and with abnormal lab presented significantly higher ORs of advanced adenoma. PMID:25691846

  15. Potential effect of alcohol content in energy drinks on breath alcohol testing.

    PubMed

    Lutmer, Brian; Zurfluh, Carol; Long, Christopher

    2009-04-01

    Since the advent of energy drinks in the U.S. marketplace, some defendants have claimed that positive breath alcohol test results have occurred due to the ingestion of non-alcoholic energy drinks. A variety of energy drinks were tested by gas chromatography and some 88.9% (24 of 27) were found to contain low concentrations of ethanol (5-230 mg/dL). Drinks were then consumed (24.6-32 oz) by volunteers to determine the extent of reaction that could be achieved on a portable breath-testing instrument. Eleven of 27 (40.7%) beverages gave positive results on a portable breath-testing instrument (0.006-0.015 g/210 L) when samples were taken within 1 min of the end of drinking. All tests taken by portable breath test, DataMaster, and Intox EC/IR II at least 15 min after the end of drinking resulted in alcohol-free readings (0.000 g/210 L). Affording subjects a minimum 15-min observation period prior to breath-alcohol testing eliminates the possibility that a small false-positive alcohol reading will be obtained.

  16. Problem Drinking and Attitudes Toward Alcohol Among Navy Recruits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-01

    example, lost labor costs did not include either lost production of those workers who were unemployed due to an alcohol problem, or intangible costs to...i.e., a sort of " machismo " effect. On the other hand, senior personnel may be in the habit of covering up or underreporting problem drinking out of

  17. [Alcohol drinking patterns in Spain: a country in transition].

    PubMed

    Galán, Iñaki; González, M José; Valencia-Martín, José L

    2014-08-01

    Alcohol consumption in Mediterranean countries is in a transition period. The objective is to describe in the Spanish adult population the pattern of alcohol consumption by major sociodemographic variables. A cross-sectional study among 20,608 individuals aged ≥ 15 years who participated in the Spanish Health Interview Survey (ENS) 2011-2012. According to average intake, people were classified as heavy drinkers if they drank ≥ 40 g/day of alcohol (men) or ≥ 24 g/day (women). Binge drinking was defined as the consumption of ≥ 6 standard drinks (men) and ≥ 5 (women) at any drinking occasion (4-6 hours) in the last year. The beverage preference and the trend for 1987-2012 (ENS of these years) were estimated. The relationship of the distribution of drinking patterns with sociodemographic variables was analyzed using adjusted logistic regression models. The prevalence of heavy drinkers was 1.3% (2% in men and 0.7% in women). In men, heavy drinking was more frequent among 45 to 64 year olds (odds ratio (OR)=2.92 compared to men of 15-29 years; CI 95%: 1.59-5.38) and those born in Spain (OR=3.45; CI 95%: 1.59-7.69). In women, the only differences observed were those regarding education level, with heavy drinking increasing as the level of education increases (p linear trend <0.001). The prevalence of binge drinking during the last year was 19.6% in men and 7.1% in women. In both genders, the risk of binge drinking decreased with age and increased with higher education level (p linear trend <0.001). The standardized prevalence of heavy drinkers has declined from 18.8% in 1987 to 1.3% in 2012. Alcohol consumption in Spain is consistent with the model for countries in transition, where binge drinking is the most common pattern of excessive use of alcohol. A strong decline in heavy drinkers was observed and wine has been displaced by beer in beverage preference.

  18. Automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues predict drinking after detoxification treatment in alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Field, Matt; Di Lemma, Lisa; Christiansen, Paul; Dickson, Joanne

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Automatic Avoidance Tendencies for Alcohol Cues Predict Drinking After Detoxification Treatment in Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dependence is characterized by conflict between approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol that operate in automatic and controlled processes. This article describes the first study to investigate the predictive validity of these motivational orientations for relapse to drinking after discharge from alcohol detoxification treatment in alcohol-dependent patients. One hundred twenty alcohol-dependent patients who were nearing the end of inpatient detoxification treatment completed measures of self-reported (Approach and Avoidance of Alcohol Questionnaire; AAAQ) and automatic (modified Stimulus-Response Compatibility task) approach and avoidance motivational orientations for alcohol. Their drinking behavior was assessed via telephone follow-ups at 2, 4, and 6 months after discharge from treatment. Results indicated that, after controlling for the severity of alcohol dependence, strong automatic avoidance tendencies for alcohol cues were predictive of higher percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) at 4-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.07, 0.43]) and 6-month (β = 0.22, 95% CI [0.01, 0.42]) follow-ups. We failed to replicate previous demonstrations of the predictive validity of approach subscales of the AAAQ for relapse to drinking, and there were no significant predictors of PHDD at 2-month follow-up. In conclusion, strong automatic avoidance tendencies predicted relapse to drinking after inpatient detoxification treatment, but automatic approach tendencies and self-reported approach and avoidance tendencies were not predictive in this study. Our results extend previous findings and help to resolve ambiguities with earlier studies that investigated the roles of automatic and controlled cognitive processes in recovery from alcohol dependence. PMID:27935726

  20. Decisional balance: Alcohol decisional balance intervention for heavy drinking undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background This study evaluated a decisional balance intervention among heavy drinking undergraduates and compared a non-weighted decisional balance proportion (DBP; Collins, Carey, & Otto, 2009) to a participant-weighted DBP with weights based on relative importance of items. We expected: 1) the intervention to decrease drinking compared to control; 2) the weighted intervention to be more effective compared to the non-weighted or control in reducing drinking; and 3) intervention efficacy to be moderated by initial DBP. Method Participants (N =162, Mean age = 24.37, SD = 6.81, 27% male) were randomly assigned to an alcohol intervention wherein they were either asked to assign weights of importance to pros and cons (weighted intervention), or not (non-weighted intervention), or to control. Participants completed web-based questionnaires at baseline and again during a one month follow-up assessment. Results Consistent with expectations, the non-weighted intervention was associated with reduced follow-up weekly drinking, and the weighted intervention was associated with reductions in drinking frequency. Results further indicated that initial decisional balance did not moderate intervention efficacy. Discussion Findings suggest that the decisional balance procedure can reduce drinking but there was not compelling evidence for the addition of weights. This study lays the groundwork for enhancing future interventions by increasing empirical knowledge of the role motivation plays in heavy alcohol use. PMID:26555004

  1. Effect of dissolved oxygen in alcoholic beverages and drinking water on alcohol elimination in humans.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Su-jin; Chae, Jung-woo; Song, Byung-jeong; Lee, Eun-sil; Kwon, Kwang-il

    2013-02-01

    Oxygen plays an important role in the metabolism of alcohol. An increased dissolved oxygen level in alcoholic beverages reportedly accelerates the elimination of alcohol. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of dissolved oxygen in alcohol and the supportive effect of oxygenated water on alcohol pharmacokinetics after the excessive consumption of alcohol, i.e., 540 ml of 19.5% alcohol (v/v). Fifteen healthy males were included in this randomized, 3 × 3 crossover study. Three combinations were tested: X, normal alcoholic beverage and normal water; Y, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and normal water; Z, oxygenated alcoholic beverage and oxygenated water. Blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) were determined by conversion of breath alcohol concentrations. Four pharmacokinetic parameters (C(max), T(max), K(el), and AUCall) were obtained using non-compartmental analysis and the times to reach 0.05% and 0.03% BAC (T(0.05%) and T(0.03%)) were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's post hoc test. With combination Z, the BAC decreased to 0.05% significantly faster (p < 0.05) than with combination X. Analyzing the pharmacokinetic parameters, the mean K(el) was significantly higher for combination Z than for combinations X and Y (p < 0.05), whereas the mean values of C(max), T(max) and AUCall did not differ significantly among the combinations. Dissolved oxygen in drinks accelerates the decrease in BAC after consuming a large amount of alcohol. However, the oxygen dissolved in the alcoholic beverage alone did not have a sufficient effect in this case. We postulate that highly oxygenated water augments the effect of oxygen in the alcoholic beverage in alcohol elimination. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the supportive effect of ingesting additional oxygenated water after heavy drinking of normal alcoholic beverages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Age, Sex, Body Weight, and Quantity of Alcohol Consumption on Occurrence and Severity of Alcoholic Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Puri, Puneet; Shah, Vijay H; Kamath, Patrick; Sanyal, Arun; Urban, Thomas; Ren, Xiaowei; Katz, Barry; Radaeva, Svetlana; Chalasani, Naga; Crabb, David W

    2016-12-01

    Only a minority of heavy drinking individuals develop alcoholic hepatitis (AH), for unclear reasons. We analyzed data from the Translational Research and Evolving Alcoholic Hepatitis Treatment cohort, consisting of subjects who drink heavily with normal results from liver tests (controls) and patients with AH. We examined risk factors for the development of AH including body mass index (BMI), drinking pattern and quantity, and sex. We compared data from 145 patients with AH and 124 controls based on BMI when they joined the cohort; groups were matched for sex and race. Drinking patterns were assessed using the timeline followback method, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and the National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism 6-question survey. We performed univariable and multivariable analyses to assess the effects of these factors and their interaction in increasing the risk for AH. We also explored the association between PNPLA3 variants and AH. Cases with AH were older (47 vs 44 y; P = .03). For nearly all measures of quantity of alcohol consumed or frequency of binge drinking, controls drank more heavily than cases with AH. We did not find an association between BMI, sex, drinking patterns, and the presence of AH. Age and BMI were independent predictors for the severity of AH. When we analyzed cases and controls of European ancestry, the PNPLA3 single-nucleotide polymorphism rs738409 was associated with risk for AH (odds ratio, 1.89; P = .007). Compared with heavy drinkers without liver disease, subjects with AH consumed lower levels of alcohol and had less binge drinking, suggesting an increased sensitivity to the toxic effects of alcohol. The risk for AH may be associated with the PNPLA3 rs738409 polymorphism. Copyright © 2016 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included "I like the taste" (58.6%), "To keep me awake" (54.3%), "It gives me energy" (44.3%), "It helps concentrating when studying" (33.9%), "It increases alertness" (28.8%), "It helps me concentrate better" (20.6%), and "It makes me less sleepy when driving" (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included "I like the taste" (81.1%), "I wanted to drink something else" (35.3%), and "To celebrate a special occasion" (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were observed between the occasions when energy drinks or other nonalcoholic beverages were

  4. Interactive effects of contextual cues and acute alcohol intoxication on the associations between alcohol expectancy activation and urge to drink.

    PubMed

    Wardell, Jeffrey D; Read, Jennifer P

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the joint effects of contextual cues and alcohol intoxication on the associations between activation of positive and negative alcohol expectancies in memory and self-reported urges to drink alcohol after a laboratory alcohol administration. Young adult heavy drinkers were randomly assigned to drink a moderate dose of alcohol or a placebo (alcohol manipulation), and then listened to positive or negative drinking scenarios (cue manipulation). Before and after these manipulations, participants completed an alcohol expectancy Stroop task assessing positive and negative expectancy activation, as well as self-report measures of urges to drink. Regression analyses revealed that the alcohol and cue manipulations had a joint, moderating impact on the associations between expectancy activation and postcue changes in urge to drink. Specifically, both increased activation of negative expectancies and decreased activation of positive expectancies predicted decreases in urges to drink, but only for intoxicated participants in the negative cue condition. There were no associations between expectancy activation and urges to drink for those in the positive cue condition regardless of beverage condition. Results suggest that whether memory activation of alcohol expectancies has an impact on urge to drink after alcohol is on board may depend on the relevance of the activated expectancies to the current drinking context. This process appears to be influenced by a complex interaction between contextual cues in the environment and the pharmacological effects of alcohol.

  5. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Participants (n = 976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games.

  6. Social anxiety and drinking refusal self-efficacy moderate the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Napper, Lucy E.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Participation in drinking games is associated with excessive drinking and alcohol risks. Despite the growing literature documenting the ubiquity and consequences of drinking games, limited research has examined the influence of psychosocial factors on the experience of negative consequences as the result of drinking game participation. Objectives The current event-level study examined the relationships among drinking game participation, social anxiety, drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) and alcohol-related consequences in a sample of college students. Methods Participants (n =976) reported on their most recent drinking occasion in the past month in which they did not preparty. Results After controlling for sex, age, and typical drinking, higher levels of social anxiety, lower levels of DRSE, and playing drinking games predicted greater alcohol-related consequences. Moreover, two-way interactions (Social Anxiety × Drinking Games, DRSE × Drinking Games) demonstrated that social anxiety and DRSE each moderated the relationship between drinking game participation and alcohol-related consequences. Participation in drinking games resulted in more alcohol problems for students with high social anxiety, but not low social anxiety. Students with low DRSE experienced high levels of consequences regardless of whether they participated in drinking games; however, drinking game participation was associated with more consequences for students confident in their ability to resist drinking. Conclusion Findings highlight the important role that social anxiety and DRSE play in drinking game-related risk, and hence provide valuable implications for screening at-risk students and designing targeted harm reduction interventions that address social anxiety and drink refusal in the context of drinking games. PMID:25192207

  7. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  8. Ethnic Differences in Drinking Motives and Alcohol Use among College Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doumas, Diana M.; Midgett, Aida

    2015-01-01

    This study examined drinking motives, alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems among White college athletes and college athletes of color (N = 113). Results indicated no differences in drinking motives between the 2 groups. White athletes reported higher levels of alcohol use, whereas athletes of color reported higher levels of alcohol-related…

  9. Combined Use of Alcohol and Energy Drinks Increases Participation in High-Risk Drinking and Driving Behaviors Among College Students.

    PubMed

    Woolsey, Conrad L; Williams, Ronald D; Housman, Jeff M; Barry, Adam E; Jacobson, Bert H; Evans, Marion W

    2015-07-01

    A recent study suggested that college students who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely than students who consumed only alcohol to drive when their blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was higher than the .08% limit and to choose to drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely. This study sought to replicate those findings with a larger sample while also exploring additional variables related to impaired driving. College students (N = 549) completed an anonymous online survey to assess differences in drinking and driving-related behaviors between alcohol-only users (n = 281) and combined alcohol-energy drink users (n = 268). Combined users were more likely than alcohol-only users to choose to (a) drive when they perceived they were over the .08% BAC limit (35.0% vs. 18.1%, p < .001), (b) drive despite knowing they had too much alcohol to drive safely (36.3% vs. 17.0%, p < .001), and (c) be a passenger when they knew the driver had too much alcohol to drive safely (44.1% vs. 23.6%, p < .001). Combined users were significantly more likely (p < .001) to report indicators of high-risk alcohol use, such as larger number of drinks consumed, number of days drinking, number of days drunk, number of heavy episodic drinking episodes, greatest number of drinks on one occasion, and average hours of consumption. Combined use of alcohol and energy drinks may place drinkers at greater risk when compared with those who consume only alcohol. College students in this sample who combined alcohol and energy drinks were more likely to participate in high-risk driving behaviors than those who consumed only alcohol.

  10. Ten-year patterns of alcohol consumption and drinking problems among older women and men.

    PubMed

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen; Brennan, Penny; Moos, Bernice S

    2004-07-01

    This study focused on changes in 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption among older women and men, late-life and life history predictors of drinking problems, and gender differences in these predictors. A sample of late-middle-aged community residents (N = 1291) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 1 year, 4 years and 10 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems and health-related and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking. Over the 10 years, the proportion of individuals who consumed alcohol declined. Among individuals who continued to drink, women and men showed comparable declines in alcohol consumption, minor concomitants of alcohol consumption and drinking problems. In addition to the amount of alcohol consumption, smoking, friends' approval of drinking and avoidance coping consistently predicted late-life drinking problems. With respect to life history factors, heavy drinking, drinking problems and increased drinking in response to life events were related to a higher likelihood of late-life drinking problems; obtaining help from family members and friends and, among men, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous, were related to a lower likelihood of problems. Older women and men show comparable declines in alcohol consumption and drinking problems. Specific late-life social context and coping variables, and life history indices, are risk factors for late-life drinking problems among both women and men.

  11. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E. S.; Knibbe, Ronald A.; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Methods: Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Results: Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. Conclusions: These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy. PMID:27420089

  12. A Multilevel Study of Students in Vietnam: Drinking Motives and Drinking Context as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption.

    PubMed

    Diep, Pham Bich; Tan, Frans E S; Knibbe, Ronald A; De Vries, Nanne

    2016-07-13

    This study used multi-level analysis to estimate which type of factor explains most of the variance in alcohol consumption of Vietnamese students. Data were collected among 6011 students attending 12 universities/faculties in four provinces in Vietnam. The three most recent drinking occasions were investigated per student, resulting in 12,795 drinking occasions among 4265 drinkers. Students reported on 10 aspects of the drinking context per drinking occasion. A multi-level mixed-effects linear regression model was constructed in which aspects of drinking context composed the first level; the age of students and four drinking motives comprised the second level. The dependent variable was the number of drinks. Of the aspects of context, drinking duration had the strongest association with alcohol consumption while, at the individual level, coping motive had the strongest association. The drinking context characteristics explained more variance than the individual characteristics in alcohol intake per occasion. These findings suggest that, among students in Vietnam, the drinking context explains a larger proportion of the variance in alcohol consumption than the drinking motives. Therefore, measures that reduce the availability of alcohol in specific drinking situations are an essential part of an effective prevention policy.

  13. Associations Between Personality and Drinking Motives Among Abstinent Adult Alcoholic Men and Women.

    PubMed

    Mosher Ruiz, Susan; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Kemppainen, Maaria I; Valmas, Mary M; Sawyer, Kayle S

    2017-07-01

    Men and women differ in personality characteristics and may be motivated to use alcohol for different reasons. The goals of the present study were to characterize personality and drinking motives by gender and alcoholism status in adults, and to determine how alcoholism history and gender are related to the associations between personality traits and drinking motivation. Personality characteristics were assessed with the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, which includes Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Lie (Social Conforming) scales. To evaluate drinking motivation, we asked abstinent long-term alcoholic men and women, and demographically similar nonalcoholic participants to complete the Drinking Motives Questionnaire, which includes Conformity, Coping, Social and Enhancement scales. Patterns of personality scale scores and drinking motives differed by alcoholism status, with alcoholics showing higher psychopathology and stronger motives for drinking compared with controls. Divergent gender-specific relationships between personality and drinking motives also were identified, which differed for alcoholics and controls. Alcoholic and control men and women differed with respect to the associations between personality traits and motives for drinking. A better understanding of how different personality traits affect drinking motivations for alcoholic men and women can inform individualized relapse prevention strategies. Men and women differed in their personality traits and their motivations for drinking, and these relationships differed for abstinent alcoholic and control groups. Additionally, alcoholics scored higher on Neuroticism and Psychoticism personality traits, and had lower Enhancement and Social Conformity drinking motives than nonalcoholic controls.

  14. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions.

    PubMed

    Mustonen, Heli; Mäkelä, Pia; Lintonen, Tomi

    2016-11-01

    The first aim was to estimate the extent to which the variation in alcohol use across specific drinking occasions arises from variation at the occasion level and from variation at the drinker level. The second aim was to identify characteristics of drinking situations that moderate or increase situational alcohol use beyond the influence of drinker-level characteristics. The general population aged 15-69 years in Finland was sampled randomly in 2008. The multilevel analysis was based on data from 1511 drinkers and 2933 drinking occasions that occurred in the 7 days before the interview. Alcohol use was operationalised as estimated blood alcohol level (BAL). Characteristics of drinking occasions included location, circumstance, company and timing. Drinker-level data included demographic and drinking pattern variables. Fifty-three percent of the variance in BAL was between occasions and 47% between respondents, for both women and men. With drinking patterns and demographic characteristics controlled for, the dominant characteristics of drinking occasions predisposing to greater intoxication were late-night drinking, across locations and for both genders. For private locations, predisposing characteristics included drinking on weekends for both genders and drinking with friends for men. Situational and drinker levels are equally important in determining the BAL in drinking occasions; therefore, prevention efforts should be targeted at both risky individuals and risky drinking occasions. Occasions occurring late at night, often at home and with friends, are a central challenge for targeting preventive efforts related to situational drinking.[Mustonen H, Mäkelä P, Lintonen T. Situational drinking in private and public locations: A multilevel analysis of blood alcohol level in Finnish drinking occasions. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:772-784]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  15. Alcohol Use and Problem Drinking among Women Firefighters.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C; Jahnke, Sara A; Jitnarin, Nattinee

    2017-08-16

    Given high levels of occupational stress and toxic exposures, firefighters have a relatively high prevalence of occupationally related medical and mental health disorders compared with the general public. Previous research found high rates of heavy and binge drinking among male firefighters. This study is the first to examine alcohol use among women firefighters. Data were collected as part of a national online survey of women, career firefighters. A total of 1,913 women firefighters completed questions regarding alcohol use. Nearly 40% reported binge drinking in the previous month and 4.3% reported driving while intoxicated. Among those who drank, 16.5% screened positive for problem drinking. Problem drinkers were more than 2.5 times as likely to have been diagnosed with depression or have symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, and were approximately 40% more likely to have been injured on the job in the previous year, when compared with other women firefighters. Those who screened positive for problem drinking also were significantly less likely to say that they would recommend a fire service career to other women. As with male firefighters, heavy and problem drinking are prevalent among women firefighters and are associated with negative occupational outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex, strain, and estrous cycle influences on alcohol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Priddy, Brittany M; Carmack, Stephanie A; Thomas, Lisa C; Vendruscolo, Janaina C M; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2017-01-01

    Although women appear to be more vulnerable to alcohol-induced pathophysiology than men, the neurobiological basis for sex differences is largely unknown, partially because most studies on alcohol drinking are conducted in male subjects only. The present study examined sex differences in alcohol consumption in two rat strains, Long Evans and Wistar, using multiple behavioral paradigms. The effects of the estrous cycle on alcohol consumption were monitored throughout the study. The results indicated that females drank more alcohol than males when given either continuous or intermittent access to alcohol (vs. water) in their home cages (voluntary drinking). Under operant conditions, no sex or strain differences were found in drinking prior to development of alcohol dependence. However, upon dependence induction by chronic, intermittent alcohol vapor exposure, Wistar rats of both sexes substantially escalated their alcohol intake compared with their nondependent drinking levels, whereas Long Evans rats only exhibited a moderate escalation of drinking. Under these conditions, the estrous cycle had no effect on alcohol drinking in any strain and drinking model. Thus, strain, sex, and drinking conditions interact to modulate nondependent and dependent alcohol drinking. The present results emphasize the importance of including sex and strain as biological variables in exploring individual differences in alcohol drinking and dependence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Drinking Songs: Alcohol Effects on Learned Song of Zebra Finches

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Christopher R.; Owen, Devin C.; Ryabinin, Andrey E.; Mello, Claudio V.

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds’ ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors. PMID:25536524

  18. Drinking songs: alcohol effects on learned song of zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Olson, Christopher R; Owen, Devin C; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Mello, Claudio V

    2014-01-01

    Speech impairment is one of the most intriguing and least understood effects of alcohol on cognitive function, largely due to the lack of data on alcohol effects on vocalizations in the context of an appropriate experimental model organism. Zebra finches, a representative songbird and a premier model for understanding the neurobiology of vocal production and learning, learn song in a manner analogous to how humans learn speech. Here we show that when allowed access, finches readily drink alcohol, increase their blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) significantly, and sing a song with altered acoustic structure. The most pronounced effects were decreased amplitude and increased entropy, the latter likely reflecting a disruption in the birds' ability to maintain the spectral structure of song under alcohol. Furthermore, specific syllables, which have distinct acoustic structures, were differentially influenced by alcohol, likely reflecting a diversity in the neural mechanisms required for their production. Remarkably, these effects on vocalizations occurred without overt effects on general behavioral measures, and importantly, they occurred within a range of BEC that can be considered risky for humans. Our results suggest that the variable effects of alcohol on finch song reflect differential alcohol sensitivity of the brain circuitry elements that control different aspects of song production. They also point to finches as an informative model for understanding how alcohol affects the neuronal circuits that control the production of learned motor behaviors.

  19. Not all drinking events are the same: Exploring 21st birthday and typical alcohol expectancies as a risk factor for high-risk drinking and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Geisner, Irene Markman; Rhew, Isaac C; Ramirez, Jason J; Lewis, Melissa E; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2017-02-13

    Alcohol expectancies are a central construct in understanding college student typical alcohol use. However, to our knowledge, there is no research addressing how alcohol expectancies for specific events (i.e. 21st birthday) are different from expectancies regarding typical drinking. We examine the extent to which 21st birthday alcohol expectancies differ from general alcohol expectancies and how 21st birthday expectancies are associated with actual alcohol use and consequences experienced on 21st birthdays, above and beyond expectancies for typical drinking. Participants were college students (N=585; 54% women) who were turning 21 within a week, and intended to drink 4/5 (female/male) drinks on their birthday. All negative expectancies (impairment, risk and aggression, negative self-perception) and positive expectancies (social, liquid courage, sex) except tension reduction were significantly greater for 21st birthday drinking than for typical drinking. While 21st birthday expectancies were not uniquely related to actual birthday drinking, several positive and negative 21st birthday expectancy subscales were associated with 21st birthday drinking-related consequences, even when controlling for typical drinking expectancies. Expectancy challenge interventions aimed specifically at these subscales may be effective at attenuating alcohol-related consequences that result from 21st birthday drinking.

  20. A survey of energy drink and alcohol mixed with energy drink consumption.

    PubMed

    Magnezi, Racheli; Bergman, Lisa Carroll; Grinvald-Fogel, Haya; Cohen, Herman Avner

    2015-01-01

    Energy drink consumption among youth is increasing despite recommendations by the American Academy of Pediatrics to eliminate consumption by youth. This study provides information on consumption of energy drinks and alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) in a sample of Israeli youth and how consumer knowledge about the risks affects consumption rates. The study was conducted in three Tel Aviv public schools, with a total enrollment of 1,253 students in grades 8 through 12. Among them, 802 students completed a 49-item questionnaire about energy drink and AmED consumption, for a 64 % response rate Non-responders included 451 students who were absent or refused to participate. All students in the same school were administered the questionnaire on the same day. Energy drinks are popular among youth (84.2 % have ever drunk). More tenth through twelfth grade students consumed energy drinks than eighth and ninth grade students. Students who began drinking in elementary school (36.8 %) are at elevated risk for current energy drink (P < .001) and AmED (P = .002) use. Knowledge about amounts consumed and recommended allowances is associated with less consumption (OR 1.925; 95 %CI 1.18-3.14). The association between current AmED consumption and drinking ED at a young age is important. Boys and those who start drinking early have a greater risk of both ED and AmED consumption. The characteristics of early drinkers can help increase awareness of potential at-risk youth, such as junior and senior high school students with less educated or single parents. Risks posed by early use on later energy drink and AmED consumption are concerning. We suggest that parents should limit accessibility. Increased knowledge about acceptable and actual amounts of caffeine in a single product might decrease consumption.

  1. Will increasing alcohol availability by lowering the minimum legal drinking age decrease drinking and related consequences among youths?

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben F

    2010-06-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions.

  2. Will Increasing Alcohol Availability By Lowering the Minimum Legal Drinking Age Decrease Drinking and Related Consequences Among Youths?

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol use health consequences are considerable; prevention efforts are needed, particularly for adolescents and college students. The national minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is a primary alcohol-control policy in the United States. An advocacy group supported by some college presidents seeks public debate on the minimum legal drinking age and proposes reducing it to 18 years. We reviewed recent trends in drinking and related consequences, evidence on effectiveness of the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years, research on drinking among college students related to the minimum legal drinking age, and the case to lower the minimum legal drinking age. Evidence supporting the minimum legal drinking age of 21 years is strong and growing. A wide range of empirically supported interventions is available to reduce underage drinking. Public health professionals can play a role in advocating these interventions. PMID:20395573

  3. Alcohol expectancies in childhood: change with the onset of drinking and ability to predict adolescent drunkenness and binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Jester, Jennifer M; Wong, Maria M; Cranford, James A; Buu, Anne; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Zucker, Robert A

    2015-01-01

    We examined the relationship between alcohol expectancies in childhood and onset of drinking, binge drinking and drunkenness in adolescence and the influence of drinking onset on expectancy development. A prospective, longitudinal study of children assessed for alcohol expectancies and drinking at four time-points between ages 6 and 17 years. Community study of families at high risk for alcoholism conducted in a four-county area in the Midwestern United States. The study involved 614 children; 460 were children of alcoholics and 70% were male. Expectancies about alcohol effects were measured using the Beverage Opinion Questionnaire and child's drinking by the Drinking and Drug History-Youth Form. Partial factor invariance was found for expectancy factors from ages 6 to 17 years. Survival analysis showed that social/relaxation expectancies in childhood predicted time to onset of binge drinking and first time drunk (Wald χ(2) , 1 d.f. = 3.8, P = 0.05 and 5.0, P < 0.05, respectively). The reciprocal effect was also present; when adolescents began drinking, there was an increase in social/relaxation expectancy and a concomitant increase in slope of the expectancy changes lasting throughout adolescence. A reciprocal relationship exists between childhood alcohol expectancies and the development of alcohol involvement. Higher expectancies for positive effects predict earlier onset of problem drinking. Onset of use, in turn, predicts an increase in rate of development of positive expectancies. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The Gender-Specific Association between Age at First Drink and Later Alcohol Drinking Patterns in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean. PMID:24595268

  5. The gender-specific association between age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsun; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the association between the age at first drink and later alcohol drinking patterns, and analyzed whether differences in the association exist among Korean adults according to gender. The subjects included 10,649 adults (5,405 men and 5,244 women) from the fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2007 and 2009, which extracted the standard survey household by using the proportional systematic sampling method. Baseline individual characteristics, the age at first drink, and individual alcohol drinking patterns were obtained by specially trained interviewers or examiners. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol drinking patterns was summarized with odds ratios and their confidence intervals obtained from multiple logistic regression analysis with sampling weights of KNHANES complex sample survey design. The results of this study show that age, co-habitation, occupation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significantly related to the drinking patterns for men, whereas education, co-habitation, smoking, and self-rated stress level were significant factors for the drinking patterns of women. The association between the age at first drink and the adult alcohol consumption was significant for both genders and, interestingly, the alcohol drinking patterns were significantly differed by gender even after controlling for the individual characteristics. These results imply a need for gender-specific strategies to prevent hazardous alcohol consumption at a later time for Korean.

  6. Not All Drinks Are Created Equal: Implications for Alcohol Assessment in India

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Madhabika B.; Kerr, William; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Pillai, Aravind

    2008-01-01

    Aims: There is sparse literature on drink alcohol content in developing countries. This study documented detailed information on drink sizes and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages consumed in three different parts of India. Methods: Data primarily from formative phases of studies on alcohol use patterns in the states of Delhi, Rajasthan and Goa are reported. Participant observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants and drinking respondents were used to assess different beverage types and to empirically measure actual drink sizes as poured. Investigation of ethanol content included the use of biochemical analyses, the alcoholmeter and the Analox Analyser AM3. Respondents interviewed in the post-formative phase in one study were also asked to define the volume of their drinks by indicating pour levels in select drinking vessels. Results: A wide range of alcoholic drinks were documented that varied in ethanol concentration across and within sites. Drink sizes, particularly for high-strength beverages, varied both by study site and respondent, with pours of distilled spirits on average being larger than standard measures. Conclusion: Estimates of both mean volume of alcohol consumption and heavy drinking amounts are influenced by variability in alcohol concentration and respondent-defined pour sizes. The variation in drink alcohol content found across Indian states indicates that prior to conducting quantitative surveys, preliminary work on sources of drink alcohol content variation should be undertaken to tailor measurement tools to specific beverages and drinking practices observed. Recommendations for alcohol research in developing countries are provided. PMID:18832137

  7. Recruitment of medial prefrontal cortex neurons during alcohol withdrawal predicts cognitive impairment and excessive alcohol drinking

    PubMed Central

    George, Olivier; Sanders, Chelsea; Freiling, John; Grigoryan, Edward; Vu, Shayla; Allen, Camryn D.; Crawford, Elena; Mandyam, Chitra D.; Koob, George F.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic intermittent access to alcohol leads to the escalation of alcohol intake, similar to binge drinking in humans. Converging lines of evidence suggest that impairment of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) cognitive function and overactivation of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) are key factors that lead to excessive drinking in dependence. However, the role of the mPFC and CeA in the escalation of alcohol intake in rats with a history of binge drinking without dependence is currently unknown. To address this issue, we examined FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (Fos) expression in the mPFC, CeA, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens and evaluated working memory and anxiety-like behavior in rats given continuous (24 h/d for 7 d/wk) or intermittent (3 d/wk) access to alcohol (20% vol/vol) using a two-bottle choice paradigm. The results showed that abstinence from alcohol in rats with a history of escalation of alcohol intake specifically recruited GABA and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in the mPFC and produced working memory impairments associated with excessive alcohol drinking during acute (24–72 h) but not protracted (16 –68 d) abstinence. Moreover, abstinence from alcohol was associated with a functional disconnection of the mPFC and CeA but not mPFC and nucleus accumbens. These results show that recruitment of a subset of GABA and CRF neurons in the mPFC during withdrawal and disconnection of the PFC–CeA pathway may be critical for impaired executive control over motivated behavior, suggesting that dysregulation of mPFC interneurons may be an early index of neuroadaptation in alcohol dependence. PMID:23071333

  8. The effects of energy drink in combination with alcohol on performance and subjective awareness.

    PubMed

    Alford, Chris; Hamilton-Morris, Jennifer; Verster, Joris C

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the coadministration of an energy drink with alcohol to study the effects on subjective intoxication and objective performance. This study aims to evaluate the objective and subjective effects of alcohol versus placebo at two alcohol doses, alone and in combination with an energy drink, in a balanced order, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Two groups of ten healthy volunteers, mean (SD) age of 24 (6.5), participated in the study. One group consumed energy drink containing 80 mg of caffeine and the other consumed a placebo drink, with both receiving two alcohol doses (0.046 and 0.087% breathalyser alcohol concentration). Tests included breath alcohol assessment, objective measures of performance (reaction time, word memory and Stroop task) and subjective visual analogue mood scales. Participants showed significantly impaired reaction time and memory after alcohol compared to the no alcohol condition and had poorer memory after the higher alcohol dose. Stroop performance was improved with the energy drink plus alcohol combination compared to the placebo drink plus alcohol combination. Participants felt significant subjective dose-related impairment after alcohol compared to no alcohol. Neither breath alcohol concentration nor the subjective measures showed a significant difference between the energy drink and the placebo energy drink when combined with alcohol. Subjective effects reflected awareness of alcohol intoxication and sensitivity to increasing alcohol dose. There were no overall significant group differences for subjective measures between energy drink and placebo groups in the presence of alcohol and no evidence that the energy drink masked the subjective effects of alcohol at either dose.

  9. Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Differences in Alcohol-Related Harm: A Population-Based Study of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Antai, D.; Lopez, G. B.; Antai, J.; Anthony, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use and associated alcohol-related harm (ARH) are a prevalent and important public health problem, with alcohol representing about 4% of the global burden of disease. A discussion of ARH secondary to alcohol consumption necessitates a consideration of the amount of alcohol consumed and the drinking pattern. This study examined the association between alcohol drinking patterns and self-reported ARH. Pearson chi-square test (χ 2) and logistic regression analyses were used on data from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). The NCS-R is a cross-sectional nationally representative sample. Data was obtained by face-to-face interviews from 9282 adults aged ≥18 years in the full sample, and 5,692 respondents in a subsample of the full sample. Results presented as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Alcohol drinking patterns (frequency of drinking, and drinks per occasion) were associated with increased risks of self-reported ARH; binge or “risky” drinking was strongly predictive of ARH than other categories of drinks per occasion or frequency of drinking; and men had significantly higher likelihood of ARH in relation to frequency of drinking and drinks per occasion. Findings provide evidence for public health practitioners to target alcohol prevention strategies at the entire population of drinkers. PMID:25057502

  10. A technique based on droplet evaporation to recognize alcoholic drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2017-07-01

    Chromatography is, at present, the most used technique to determine the purity of alcoholic drinks. This involves a careful separation of the components of the liquid elements. However, since this technique requires sophisticated instrumentation, there are alternative techniques such as conductivity measurements and UV-Vis and infrared spectrometries. We report here a method based on salt-induced crystallization patterns formed during the evaporation of alcoholic drops. We found that droplets of different samples form different structures upon drying, which we characterize by their radial density profiles. We prove that using the dried deposit of a spirit as a control sample, our method allows us to differentiate between pure and adulterated drinks. As a proof of concept, we study tequila.

  11. A technique based on droplet evaporation to recognize alcoholic drinks.

    PubMed

    González-Gutiérrez, Jorge; Pérez-Isidoro, Rosendo; Ruiz-Suárez, J C

    2017-07-01

    Chromatography is, at present, the most used technique to determine the purity of alcoholic drinks. This involves a careful separation of the components of the liquid elements. However, since this technique requires sophisticated instrumentation, there are alternative techniques such as conductivity measurements and UV-Vis and infrared spectrometries. We report here a method based on salt-induced crystallization patterns formed during the evaporation of alcoholic drops. We found that droplets of different samples form different structures upon drying, which we characterize by their radial density profiles. We prove that using the dried deposit of a spirit as a control sample, our method allows us to differentiate between pure and adulterated drinks. As a proof of concept, we study tequila.

  12. Drinking Alcohol Surrogates Among Clients of an Alcohol-Misuser Treatment Clinic in Novosibirsk, Russia

    PubMed Central

    BOBROVA, NATALIA; WEST, ROBERT; MALUTINA, DARYA; KOSHKINA, EVGENIA; TERKULOV, RAVIL; BOBAK, MARTIN

    2014-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted in the Russian city Novosibirsk during 2006–2007 with 40 participants sampled from clients admitted to health services for drinking-related problems to explore surrogates for alcoholic beverage drinking using semistructured interviews. Types of surrogates consumed and reasons for their consumption were investigated. Results revealed that the most prevalent reported surrogate used was industrial spirit. The main reasons for drinking surrogates were the high affordability and physical availability of surrogates combined with the need to relieve severe withdrawal symptoms. The study limitations are described, and suggestions for future research are made. PMID:20001282

  13. Milk consumption during adolescence decreases alcohol drinking in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pian, Jerry P; Criado, Jose R; Walker, Brendan M; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2009-11-01

    Early onset of alcohol consumption increases the risk for the development of dependence. Whether adolescent consumption of other highly palatable solutions may also affect alcohol drinking in adulthood is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of adolescent consumption of four solutions: water, sucrose, sucrose-milk and milk on ethanol drinking in adult rats. Rats had limited access to one of the four solutions from day PND 29 to PND 51 and were subsequently trained to consume ethanol (E) using a sucrose (S) fade-out procedure. Adolescent consumption of sucrose and sucrose-milk solutions increased intake of 2.5% E when it was combined with 10% S but it had no effect on the drinking of 10% E alone. Adolescent consumption of milk and sucrose-milk significantly decreased the intake of 10% E when it was combined with 10% S, and milk significantly reduced 10% E consumption alone and when it was combined with 5% S. Adolescent exposure to the sucrose-milk and sucrose solutions was also found to increase sucrose and sucrose-milk consumption. Our findings suggest adolescent exposure to sucrose increases, whereas, exposure to milk reduces ethanol consumption in adult rats. Our results may provide a new theoretical approach to the early prevention of alcoholism.

  14. Poor adjustment to college life mediates the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol consequences: a look at college adjustment, drinking motives, and drinking outcomes.

    PubMed

    LaBrie, Joseph W; Ehret, Phillip J; Hummer, Justin F; Prenovost, Katherine

    2012-04-01

    The current study examined whether the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol-related outcomes was mediated by college adjustment. Participants (N=253) completed an online survey that assessed drinking motives, degree of both positive and negative college adjustment, typical weekly drinking, and past month negative alcohol-related consequences. Structural equation modeling examined negative alcohol consequences as a function of college adjustment, drinking motives, and weekly drinking behavior in college students. Negative college adjustment mediated the relationship between coping drinking motives and drinking consequences. Positive college adjustment was not related to alcohol consumption or consequences. Positive reinforcement drinking motives (i.e. social and enhancement) not only directly predicted consequences, but were partially mediated by weekly drinking and degree of negative college adjustment. Gender specific models revealed that males exhibited more variability in drinking and their positive reinforcement drinking motives were more strongly associated with weekly drinking. Uniquely for females, coping motives were directly and indirectly (via negative adjustment) related to consequences. These findings suggest that interventions which seek to decrease alcohol-related risk may wish to incorporate discussions about strategies for decreasing stress and increasing other factors associated with better college adjustment.

  15. Effects of the local alcohol environment on adolescents' drinking behaviors and beliefs.

    PubMed

    Paschall, Mallie J; Lipperman-Kreda, Sharon; Grube, Joel W

    2014-03-01

    To examine relationships between characteristics of the local alcohol environment and adolescent alcohol use and beliefs in 50 California cities. The study used longitudinal survey data collected from adolescents; city-level measures of local alcohol policy comprehensiveness, policy enforcement, adult drinking and bar density; and multi-level modeling with three levels (city, individual, time), allowing for random effects. Models included interaction terms (time × alcohol environment characteristics) and main effects, controlling for city and youth demographic characteristics. Analyses also examined possible mediating effects of alcohol-related beliefs. Fifty California cities (50000-500000 population). Random samples of 1478 adolescents and 8553 adults. Past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking, and alcohol-related beliefs (e.g. perceived alcohol availability) among adolescents; past 28-day alcohol use among adults; ratings of local alcohol control policies; funding for enforcement activities; bars per roadway mile. Local alcohol policy comprehensiveness and enforcement were associated with lower levels of past-year alcohol use (betas=-0.003 and -0.085, P<0.05). Bar density was associated with a higher level of past-year alcohol use (beta=1.086, P<0.01). A greater increase in past-year alcohol use and heavy drinking over time was observed among adolescents living in cities with higher levels of adult drinking (betas=0.224 and 0.108, P<0.01). Effects of bar density appeared to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and perceived approval of alcohol use. Adolescent alcohol use and heavy drinking are related to characteristics of the local alcohol environment, including alcohol control policies, enforcement, adult drinking and bar density. Change in adolescents' drinking appears to be influenced by community-level adult drinking. Bar density effects appear to be mediated through perceived alcohol availability and approval of alcohol use. © 2013 Society

  16. Child maltreatment, alcohol use and drinking consequences among male and female college students: An examination of drinking motives as mediators.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Abby L; Flett, Gordon L; Wekerle, Christine

    2010-06-01

    Although the relationship between child maltreatment and alcohol use and drinking problems is well established, the mechanisms involved in this relationship remain largely unknown and research has focused primarily on women. Using the Modified Drinking Motives Questionnaire-Revised (M-DMQ-R; Grant, Stewart, O'Connor, Blackwell & Conrod, 2007), drinking motives were examined as mediators in the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol consumption and consequences among male and female college student drinkers (N = 218, 60.6% women). Participants completed questionnaires assessing child maltreatment, drinking motives, alcohol consumption and alcohol consequences. Enhancement motives in particular mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and alcohol consequences for men, whereas coping-depression motives mediated this relationship for women. Implications of these findings for alcohol interventions and future research are discussed, along with limitations of the present study.

  17. Drinking and Driving among College Students: The Influence of Alcohol-Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Randomly selected full-time college students attending four-year colleges in 39 states completed a questionnaire about alcohol consumption and driving. The results revealed that 29 percent of the students drove after drinking some amount of alcohol 10 percent drove after drinking five or more drinks, and 23 percent rode with a driver who was high…

  18. Drinking and Driving among College Students: The Influence of Alcohol-Control Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Randomly selected full-time college students attending four-year colleges in 39 states completed a questionnaire about alcohol consumption and driving. The results revealed that 29 percent of the students drove after drinking some amount of alcohol 10 percent drove after drinking five or more drinks, and 23 percent rode with a driver who was high…

  19. Delineating potential mechanisms of implicit alcohol cognitions: drinking restraint, negative affect, and their relationship with approach alcohol associations.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Amy M; Cameron, Amy Y; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-06-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. It is paradoxical that attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction not temptation was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation not IAT predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking not temptation to drink and are less strongly influenced by mood state.

  20. Delineating Potential Mechanisms of Implicit Alcohol Cognitions: Drinking Restraint, Negative Affect, and their Relationship with Approach Alcohol Associations

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Amy M.; Cameron, Amy Y.; Udo, Tomoko; Hagman, Brett T.; Mitchell, Jessica; Bramm, Stephanie; Ehlke, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Problem drinkers may use alcohol to avoid negative mood states and may develop implicit cognitive associations between negative emotional states and reinforcing properties of drinking. Ironically, attempts to control drinking, such as among those high in drinking restraint, may inadvertently increase desire to drink and subsequent alcohol consumption, and this may be exaggerated under times of emotional distress when urges to drink are high. We examined whether individuals who are high on drinking restraint would demonstrate stronger alcohol-related thoughts elicited by stimuli that represent the desire to use alcohol, in response to stronger versus weaker negative mood arousal. Seventy hazardous drinkers completed measurements of drinking restraint, alcohol consumption, and consequences of use. After being randomized to view negative or positive pictures sets, participants completed an Implicit Association Task (IAT) to test differences in the strength of the association between desire to approach or avoid alcohol or water cues, and then a measurement of subjective craving following the IAT. Regression analyses showed that trait restriction, but not temptation, was positively related to IAT scores, after controlling for relevant covariates and explained 7% of the total variance. Trait temptation, but not IAT, predicted subjective craving. Negative affect was unrelated to IAT scores, singly or in conjunction with measures of drinking restraint, contrary to predictions. In sum, implicit alcohol cognitions are related to attempts to restrict drinking, but not temptation to drink, and are less strongly influenced by mood state. PMID:22369223

  1. Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths. PMID:24409412

  2. Alcohol, drinking pattern and all-cause, cardiovascular and alcohol-related mortality in Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Bobak, Martin; Malyutina, Sofia; Horvat, Pia; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Kubinova, Ruzena; Simonova, Galina; Topor-Madry, Roman; Peasey, Anne; Pikhart, Hynek; Marmot, Michael G

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol has been implicated in the high mortality in Central and Eastern Europe but the magnitude of its effect, and whether it is due to regular high intake or episodic binge drinking remain unclear. The aim of this paper was to estimate the contribution of alcohol to mortality in four Central and Eastern European countries. We used data from the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe is a prospective multi-centre cohort study in Novosibirsk (Russia), Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six Czech towns. Random population samples of 34,304 men and women aged 45-69 years in 2002-2005 were followed up for a median 7 years. Drinking volume, frequency and pattern were estimated from the graduated frequency questionnaire. Deaths were ascertained using mortality registers. In 230,246 person-years of follow-up, 2895 participants died from all causes, 1222 from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), 672 from coronary heart disease (CHD) and 489 from pre-defined alcohol-related causes (ARD). In fully-adjusted models, abstainers had 30-50% increased mortality risk compared to light-to-moderate drinkers. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) in men drinking on average ≥60 g of ethanol/day (3% of men) were 1.23 (95% CI 0.95-1.59) for all-cause, 1.38 (0.95-2.02) for CVD, 1.64 (1.02-2.64) for CHD and 2.03 (1.28-3.23) for ARD mortality. Corresponding HRs in women drinking on average ≥20 g/day (2% of women) were 1.92 (1.25-2.93), 1.74 (0.76-3.99), 1.39 (0.34-5.76) and 3.00 (1.26-7.10). Binge drinking increased ARD mortality in men only. Mortality was associated with high average alcohol intake but not binge drinking, except for ARD in men.

  3. Cross-sectional study on parental pro-drinking practices and adolescent alcohol drinking in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-02-02

    To investigate the association between parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs) and alcohol drinking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. A cross-sectional study. 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. 1738 students (mean age 14.6 years ± 2.0, boys 67.8%). Drinking status, drinking intention and exposure to 9 PPDPs (eg, seeing parents drunk, helping parents buy alcohol, encouraged to drink by parents) were reported by students. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs (AORs) of drinking and intention to drink by each PPDP and the number of PPDPs (0, 1-2, 3-4, 5 or above), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, parental drinking and school clustering. Nearly half (48.6%) of the students were ever-drinkers, 16.2% drank monthly (at least once per month) and 40.3% intended to drink in the next 12 months. Most PPDPs were significantly associated with ever drinking (AORs 1.40-6.20), monthly drinking (AORs 1.12-8.20) and intention to drink (AORs 1.40-5.02). Both ever and monthly drinking were most strongly associated with parental training of drinking capacity (ability to drink more without getting drunk) with AORs of 6.20 and 8.20 (both p<0.001), respectively. Adolescent drinking intention was most strongly associated with parental encouragement of drinking and training of drinking capacity with AORs of 3.19 and 5.02 (both p<0.001), respectively. Exposure to PPDPs was associated with ever drinking, monthly drinking and drinking intention in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. More studies, especially prospective studies, should be conducted to confirm these results, followed by interventional studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Cross-sectional study on parental pro-drinking practices and adolescent alcohol drinking in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs) and alcohol drinking in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Participants 1738 students (mean age 14.6 years ±2.0, boys 67.8%). Main outcome measures Drinking status, drinking intention and exposure to 9 PPDPs (eg, seeing parents drunk, helping parents buy alcohol, encouraged to drink by parents) were reported by students. Logistic regression was used to compute adjusted ORs (AORs) of drinking and intention to drink by each PPDP and the number of PPDPs (0, 1–2, 3–4, 5 or above), adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, parental drinking and school clustering. Results Nearly half (48.6%) of the students were ever-drinkers, 16.2% drank monthly (at least once per month) and 40.3% intended to drink in the next 12 months. Most PPDPs were significantly associated with ever drinking (AORs 1.40–6.20), monthly drinking (AORs 1.12–8.20) and intention to drink (AORs 1.40–5.02). Both ever and monthly drinking were most strongly associated with parental training of drinking capacity (ability to drink more without getting drunk) with AORs of 6.20 and 8.20 (both p<0.001), respectively. Adolescent drinking intention was most strongly associated with parental encouragement of drinking and training of drinking capacity with AORs of 3.19 and 5.02 (both p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Exposure to PPDPs was associated with ever drinking, monthly drinking and drinking intention in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. More studies, especially prospective studies, should be conducted to confirm these results, followed by interventional studies. PMID:26839012

  5. The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks: prevalence and key correlates among Canadian high school students

    PubMed Central

    Azagba, Sunday; Langille, Don

    2013-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research has reported high consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young adults, particularly college students. However, little is known about adolescents’ consumption of these drinks. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks and to examine its correlates among Canadian high school students. Methods We used a nationally representative sample of 36 155 Canadian students in grades 7 to 12 who participated in the 2010/2011 Youth Smoking Survey. Results About 20% of Canadian high school students reported consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks in the last year, with considerable variation across provinces. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that the odds of consumption of these drinks were higher among students in lower grades (grades 7 and 8) and among students who identified their ethnicity as black or “other.” Consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks was positively associated with substance use (current smoking [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19–1.95], past-year heavy drinking [adjusted OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.84–4.09] and marijuana use [adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.90–2.76]), absence from school, participation in school team sports and having more weekly spending money. Students who felt more connected to school and had an academic average of 70% or higher were less likely to consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks. Interpretation The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks is an emerging public health concern. Consumption of these drinks is substantial among Canadian high school students and can lead to many potential harms, both acute (e.g., injury) and long term (e.g., increased alcohol dependence). Our findings highlight the need for further research into the long-term effects of consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks among young people, as well as the development of

  6. Effects of commercial energy drink consumption on athletic performance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Stephanie L; Wellborn-Kim, Jennifer J; Clauson, Kevin A

    2010-04-01

    Energy drinks are frequently marketed to individuals interested in athletics and an active lifestyle. From 2001 to 2008, estimates of energy drink use in adolescent to middle-aged populations ranged from 24% to 56%. Most energy drinks feature caffeine and a combination of other components, including taurine, sucrose, guarana, ginseng, niacin, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin. This article examines the evidence for 2 commonly purported uses of energy drinks: athletic performance enhancement and weight loss. Observed ergogenic benefits of energy drinks are likely attributable to caffeine and glucose content. There is conflicting evidence regarding the impact of energy drinks on weight loss, although some data suggest that combining energy drink use with exercise may enhance body fat reduction. As with any pharmacologically active substance, energy drinks are associated with adverse effects. Combining energy drinks with alcohol exacerbates safety concerns and is an increasingly common practice contributing to toxic jock identity among college-aged male athletes. Practitioners should monitor identified populations likely to consume these loosely regulated beverages.

  7. The effect of alcohol binge drinking in early pregnancy on general intelligence in children.

    PubMed

    Kesmodel, U S; Eriksen, H-L Falgreen; Underbjerg, M; Kilburn, T R; Støvring, H; Wimberley, T; Mortensen, E L

    2012-09-01

    To examine the effects of binge alcohol consumption during early pregnancy, including the number of binge episodes and the timing of binge drinking, on general intelligence in 5-year-old children. Follow-up study. Neuropsychological testing in four Danish cities 2003-2008. A cohort of 1617 women and their children sampled from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants were sampled on the basis of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. At 5 years of age the children were tested with six subtests from the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence - Revised (WPPSI-R). Parental education, maternal IQ, prenatal maternal smoking, the child's age at testing, the gender of the child, and tester were considered core confounding factors, whereas the full model also controlled for prenatal maternal average alcohol intake, maternal age, maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), parity, home environment, postnatal parental smoking, health status, and indicators for hearing and vision impairment. WPPSI-R. There were no systematic or significant differences in general intelligence between children of mothers reporting binge drinking and children of mothers with no binge episodes, except that binge drinking in gestational weeks 1-2 significantly reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.31-0.96) when adjusted for core confounding factors. The results were otherwise not statistically significantly related to the number of binge episodes (with a maximum of 12) and timing of binge drinking. We found no systematic association between binge drinking during early pregnancy and child intelligence. However, binge drinking reduced the risk of low, full-scale IQ in gestational weeks 1-2. This finding may be explained by residual confounding. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  8. Acute Alcohol Drinking Promotes Piecemeal Percepts during Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Dingcai; Zhuang, Xiaohua; Kang, Para; Hong, Sang W.; King, Andrea C.

    2016-01-01

    Binocular rivalry refers to perceptual alternation when two eyes view different images. One of the potential percepts during binocular rivalry is a spatial mosaic of left- and right-eye images, known as piecemeal percepts, which may result from localized rivalries between small regions in the left- and right-eye images. It is known that alcohol increases inhibitory neurotransmission, which may reduce the number of alternations during binocular rivalry. However, it is unclear whether alcohol affects rivalry dynamics in the same manner for both coherent percepts (i.e., percepts of complete left or right images) and piecemeal percepts. To address this question, the present study measured the dynamics of binocular rivalry before and after 15 moderate-to-heavy social drinkers consumed an intoxicating dose of alcohol versus a placebo beverage. Both simple rivalrous stimuli consisting of gratings with different orientations, and complex stimuli consisting of a face or a house were tested to examine alcohol effects on rivalry as a function of stimulus complexity. Results showed that for both simple and complex stimuli, alcohol affects coherent and piecemeal percepts differently. More specifically, alcohol reduced the number of coherent percepts but not the mean dominance duration of coherent percepts. In contrast, for piecemeal percepts, alcohol increased the mean dominance duration but not the number of piecemeal percepts. These results suggested that alcohol drinking may selectively affect the dynamics of transitional period of binocular rivalry by increasing the duration of piecemeal percepts, leading to a reduction in the number of coherent percepts. The differential effect of alcohol on the dynamics of coherent and piecemeal percepts cannot be accounted for by alcohol’s effect on a common inhibitory mechanism. Other mechanisms, such as increasing neural noise, are needed to explain alcohol’s effect on the dynamics of binocular rivalry. PMID:27092096

  9. Alcohol drinking and pro-drinking practices in parents of Hong Kong adolescents.

    PubMed

    Au, Wing Man; Ho, Sai Yin; Wang, Man Ping; Lo, Wing Sze; Tin, Sze Pui Pamela; Huang, Rong; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the prevalence of various parental pro-drinking practices and its association with parental drinking status. A school-based survey was completed by 2200 students (mean age 14.8, SD 2.0; boys 51.4%) from 4 randomly selected secondary schools in Hong Kong. Students reported whether they had ever experienced each of nine parental pro-drinking practices (PPDPs). Overall, 67.5% of students reported at least one PPDP, but the prevalence was much higher if both parents were drinkers (89.0%) compared with non-drinkers (38.8%). The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP was 6.79 (4.98, 9.26) if either parent drank and 15.71 (10.50, 23.50) if both drank compared with none (P for trend <0.001). Compared with non-drinking, the AORs (95% CI) of experiencing at least one PPDP for occasional drinking and frequent drinking were 6.72 (5.03, 8.98) and 18.11 (9.88, 33.18) in fathers (P for trend <0.001), and 7.33 (5.15, 10.44) and 5.33 (1.98, 14.45) in mothers. The prevalence of PPDPs was generally low in non-drinking parents, but increased dramatically with the number of drinking parents and the frequency of paternal drinking. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  10. Examining the Unique Influence of Interpersonal and Intrapersonal Drinking Perceptions on Alcohol Consumption Among College Students*

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Bachrach, Rachel L.; Turrisi, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Interventions for college student drinking often incorporate interpersonal factors such as descriptive and/or injunctive norms to correct misperceptions about campus drinking (e.g., BASICS [Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students] and social-norms campaigns). Some interventions also focus on intra-personal factors of alcohol consumption, which can be considered as one's own perception of drinking, one's attitude toward drinking, and one's intended outcome related to drinking. The current study sought to extend previous work by examining relationships between both inter- and intrapersonal perceptions of drinking and reported drinking behavior. Method: College students (N = 303) completed questionnaires assessing drinking behaviors, perceptions of other students' attitudes toward drinking (i.e., injunctive norms), their perception of the quantity and frequency of student/friend drinking (i.e., descriptive norms), and their attitudes and perceptions toward their own alcohol consumption (i.e., intrapersonal factors). Results: Multiple regressions were used to analyze the unique influence between inter- and intrapersonal drinking perceptions and drinking behavior. Conclusions: Among the interpersonal perceptions of drinking, only closest friend's drinking significantly predicted alcohol consumption, whereas all three intrapersonal factors significantly predicted alcohol consumption. Suggestions for enhancing college student drinking interventions are discussed. PMID:19261229

  11. Drinking Game Participation among Undergraduate Students Attending National Alcohol Screening Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Jennifer M.; Heidelberg, Natalie; Simmons, Lisa; Lyle, Sarah B.; Mitra-Varma, Kathakali; Correia, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objectives, Participants, Methods: Drinking game participation has increased in popularity among college students and is associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. The current study investigated drinking game participation among 133 undergraduates attending National Alcohol Screening Day (NASD) in April of 2007.…

  12. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E.; Wall, Tamara L.; Kirchhoff, Aaron M.; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y.; Stewart, Robert B.; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L.; Chester, Julia A.; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-01-01

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21–26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans. PMID:27527158

  13. The FKBP5 Gene Affects Alcohol Drinking in Knockout Mice and Is Implicated in Alcohol Drinking in Humans.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bin; Luczak, Susan E; Wall, Tamara L; Kirchhoff, Aaron M; Xu, Yuxue; Eng, Mimy Y; Stewart, Robert B; Shou, Weinian; Boehm, Stephen L; Chester, Julia A; Yong, Weidong; Liang, Tiebing

    2016-08-05

    FKBP5 encodes FK506-binding protein 5, a glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-binding protein implicated in various psychiatric disorders and alcohol withdrawal severity. The purpose of this study is to characterize alcohol preference and related phenotypes in Fkbp5 knockout (KO) mice and to examine the role of FKBP5 in human alcohol consumption. The following experiments were performed to characterize Fkpb5 KO mice. (1) Fkbp5 KO and wild-type (WT) EtOH consumption was tested using a two-bottle choice paradigm; (2) The EtOH elimination rate was measured after intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 2.0 g/kg EtOH; (3) Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured after 3 h limited access of alcohol; (4) Brain region expression of Fkbp5 was identified using LacZ staining; (5) Baseline corticosterone (CORT) was assessed. Additionally, two SNPs, rs1360780 (C/T) and rs3800373 (T/G), were selected to study the association of FKBP5 with alcohol consumption in humans. Participants were college students (n = 1162) from 21-26 years of age with Chinese, Korean or Caucasian ethnicity. The results, compared to WT mice, for KO mice exhibited an increase in alcohol consumption that was not due to differences in taste sensitivity or alcohol metabolism. Higher BAC was found in KO mice after 3 h of EtOH access. Fkbp5 was highly expressed in brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response, such as the hippocampus, amygdala, dorsal raphe and locus coeruleus. Both genotypes exhibited similar basal levels of plasma corticosterone (CORT). Finally, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FKBP5 were found to be associated with alcohol drinking in humans. These results suggest that the association between FKBP5 and alcohol consumption is conserved in both mice and humans.

  14. Alcohol Mixed With Energy Drinks: Associations with Risky Drinking and Functioning in High School

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joan S.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Ewing, Brett A.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Mixing alcohol with energy drinks is associated with heavier drinking and related problems among college students. However, little is known about how high school drinkers who mix alcohol with energy drinks (AmED) compare to those who do not (AwoED). This study compares high school AmED and AwoED users on their alcohol use during middle and high school, as well as key domains of functioning in high school. Methods Two surveys were conducted three years apart in adolescents initially recruited from 16 middle schools in Southern California. The analytic sample consists of 696 past month drinkers. Multivariable models compared AmED and AwoED users on alcohol use, mental health, social functioning, academic orientation, delinquency and other substance use at age 17, and on their alcohol use and related cognitions at age 14. Results AmED was reported by 13% of past month drinkers. AmED and AwoED users did not differ on alcohol use or cognitions in middle school, but AmED users drank more often, more heavily, and reported more negative consequences in high school. AmED users were also more likely to report poor grades, delinquent behavior, substance use-related unsafe driving, public intoxication, and drug use than AwoED users in high school. Group differences were not found on mental health, social functioning, or academic aspirations. Conclusions AmED use is common among high school drinkers. The higher risk behavioral profile of these young AmED users, which includes drug use and substance use-related unsafe driving, is a significant cause for concern and warrants further attention. PMID:27522534

  15. Food-alcohol competition: As young females eat more food, do they drink less alcohol?

    PubMed

    Cummings, Jenna R; Ray, Lara A; Tomiyama, A Janet

    2017-04-01

    Seminal health behaviour theories and behaviour modification techniques are applied to health behaviours individually. Limited empirical work investigates how change in one health behaviour may change another. This study proposes a food-alcohol competition hypothesis, where individuals tend to consume one rewarding substance to the other's exclusion. In a large sample of adolescent girls assessed yearly from age 15 to 19, Latent Growth Modelling indicated that a tendency to consume processed or sweet high-fat foods 'competed' with a tendency to drink alcohol. In order to best improve overall health, it is important to consider interrelationships between food and alcohol consumption.

  16. The enduring influence of drinking motives on alcohol consumption after fateful trauma.

    PubMed

    Beseler, Cheryl L; Aharonovich, Efrat; Hasin, Deborah S

    2011-05-01

    Drinking motives predict later levels of alcohol consumption and development of alcohol dependence, but their effects on stress-related drinking are less clear. Proximity to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) on 9/11/01 was significantly associated with alcohol consumption 1 and 16 weeks after 9/11/01. We investigated the relationship between drinking motives measured a decade earlier, proximity to the WTC, and drinking after 9/11/01. This event constitutes a natural experiment for studying the effects of previously measured drinking motives on alcohol consumption after fateful trauma. Adult drinkers (N = 644) residing in a New Jersey county were evaluated for four drinking motives: coping with negative affect, for enjoyment, for social facilitation and social pressure. After 9/11/01, their exposure to the WTC attack and subsequent drinking were assessed. Poisson regression was used to assess the relationships between proximity to the WTC, drinking motives and post-9/11/01 drinking; models were adjusted for alcohol dependence, age, gender and race. Drinking to cope with negative affect predicted alcohol consumption 1 week after 9/11/01 (p = 0.04) and drinking for enjoyment predicted drinking 1 and 16 weeks after 9/11/01 (p = 0.001 and 0.01, respectively). The associations were independent of proximity to the WTC. No interactions were observed between drinking motives, proximity to the WTC or lifetime alcohol dependence. Drinking motives a decade earlier predicted higher alcohol consumption after fateful trauma independently from proximity to the WTC on 9/11/01. Results suggest that drinking motives constitute a robust, enduring influence on drinking behavior, including after traumatic experiences. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. The relationship between early drinking contexts of women "coming out" as lesbian and current alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Parks, Cheryl A; Hughes, Tonda L; Kinnison, Kelly E

    2007-01-01

    Several decades of research show that lesbians are at risk for hazardous drinking. Compared with heterosexual women, lesbians are less likely to abstain from drinking, less likely to decrease their alcohol consumption as they age, and more likely to report alcohol-related problems. Stress associated with lesbian identity and reliance on lesbian or gay bars for socialization and support are frequently posited--but largely untested--explanations for lesbians' heightened risk. Results from general population studies indicate that patterns of alcohol use established early in the life-course or during life transitions influence later alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Further, heavy-drinking peers, availability of alcohol, and drinking in particular social contexts--such as at bars and parties--are believed to contribute to heavier drinking and to alcohol-related problems. To better understand lesbians' risks for hazardous drinking, we examined relationships between retrospective accounts of drinking patterns and drinking contexts in the early stages of lesbian identity development and current drinking outcomes in a large sample of adult lesbians. Findings suggest that early drinking patterns and drinking contexts influence later alcohol use and have important implications for risk reduction and prevention among lesbians.

  18. Drinking Location and Pregaming as Predictors of Alcohol Intoxication Among Mandated College Students.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mary Beth; Borsari, Brian; Fernandez, Anne C; Yurasek, Ali M; Hustad, John T P

    2016-07-02

    Both drinking location and pregaming have been associated with heavy alcohol use among college students, yet the manner by which they uniquely contribute to alcohol intoxication remains unclear. The current study examined the unique utility of drinking location and pregaming in predicting alcohol intoxication among college students who violated campus alcohol policy. Between 2011 and 2012, mandated college students who reported drinking prior to their referral events (N = 212, 41% female, 80% White, Mage = 19.4 y) completed a computerized assessment of drinking location and related behaviors as part of larger research trial. Chi-squared statistics, t-tests, one-way analyses of covariance, and regression were used to examine study aims. Participants were most likely (44%) to report drinking in off-campus housing prior to the referral event, and approximately half (47%) reported pregaming. Alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral event differed significantly as a function of both drinking location and pregaming, but pregaming did not moderate the association between drinking location and alcohol intoxication among mandated students. Female birth sex, pregaming, and drinking at either fraternities or off-campus housing predicted greater levels of alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral incident, while drinking in a residence hall/dorm predicted lower intoxication. Drinking location and pregaming are distinct predictors of alcohol intoxication among mandated college students. Future interventions may benefit from targeting both where and how college students consume alcohol.

  19. Drinking Location and Pregaming as Predictors of Alcohol Intoxication Among Mandated College Students

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mary Beth; Borsari, Brian; Fernandez, Anne C.; Yurasek, Ali M.; Hustad, John T. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Both drinking location and pregaming have been associated with heavy alcohol use among college students, yet the manner by which they uniquely contribute to alcohol intoxication remains unclear. Objective The current study examined the unique utility of drinking location and pregaming in predicting alcohol intoxication among college students who violated campus alcohol policy. Method Between 2011 and 2012, mandated college students who reported drinking prior to their referral events (N=212, 41% female, 80% White, Mage =19.4 y) completed a computerized assessment of drinking location and related behaviors as part of larger research trial. Chi-squared statistics, t-tests, one-way analyses of covariance, and regression were used to examine study aims. Results Participants were most likely (44%) to report drinking in off-campus housing prior to the referral event, and approximately half (47%) reported pregaming. Alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral event differed significantly as a function of both drinking location and pregaming, but pregaming did not moderate the association between drinking location and alcohol intoxication among mandated students. Female birth sex, pregaming, and drinking at either fraternities or off-campus housing predicted greater levels of alcohol intoxication on the night of the referral incident, while drinking in a residence hall/dorm predicted lower intoxication. Conclusions/Importance Drinking location and pregaming are distinct predictors of alcohol intoxication among mandated college students. Future interventions may benefit from targeting both where and how college students consume alcohol. PMID:27070480

  20. Energy drink enhances the behavioral effects of alcohol in adolescent mice.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Cláudio C; da Silva Quaresma, Renata; Schibuola, Helen Gomes; Abreu-Villaça, Yael; Manhães, Alex C; Ribeiro-Carvalho, Anderson

    2017-06-09

    Mixing alcohol with energy drinks has become increasingly popular among teenagers and young adults due to the prevailing view that the stimulant properties of energy drinks decrease the depressant effects of alcohol. Surprisingly, in spite of energy drinks being heavily marketed to and consumed by adolescents, there is scarcely available preclinical data on the neurobehavioral effects of energy drinks mixed with alcohol during adolescence. Thus, here we examine the effects of the combined exposure to alcohol and energy drink on adolescent mice using a variety of behavioral tasks to assess locomotor activity, righting reflex and motor coordination. At postnatal day 40, male and female Swiss mice were assigned to the following experimental groups: alcohol diluted in energy drink (Ed+Etoh), alcohol diluted in water (Etoh) or controls (Ctrl: energy drink or water). Alcohol and energy drink (Red Bull) concentrations were 4g/kg and 8ml/kg, respectively, and all solutions were administered via oral gavage. When compared to Etoh mice, Ed+Etoh animals displayed greater locomotor activity and increased anxiety-like behaviors in the open-field, lost their righting reflexes sooner and displayed poorer motor coordination in the rotarod. Collectively, our findings indicate that alcohol-induced deficits in adolescent mice are worsened by energy drink and go against the view that the stimulant properties of energy drinks can antagonize the adverse effects of alcohol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An Examination of Risky Drinking Behaviors and Motivations for Alcohol Use in a College Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Brynn E.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Linden, Ashley N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined (1) drinking motives as a mediator of risky drinking behaviors (ie, pregaming and drinking games) and alcohol-related problems and (2) whether gender moderates the association between risky drinking behaviors and negative consequences. Participants: Participants ("N" = 368; 68% female) were drinkers…

  2. Viewing alcohol warning advertising reduces urges to drink in young adults: an online experiment.

    PubMed

    Stautz, Kaidy; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-07-08

    Tobacco counter-advertising is effective at promoting smoking cessation. Few studies have evaluated the impact of alcohol warning advertising on alcohol consumption and possible mechanisms of effect. This pilot study aimed to assess whether alcohol warning advertising is effective in reducing urges to drink alcohol, if emotional responses to advertising explain any such effect or perceived effectiveness, and whether effects differ among heavier drinkers. One hundred fifty-two young adult (aged 18-25) alcohol users completed an online experiment in which they were randomly assigned to view one of three sets of six advertisements: (i) alcohol warning; (ii) alcohol promoting; or (iii) advertisements for non-alcohol products. Urges to drink alcohol were self-reported post-exposure. Affective responses (pleasure and arousal) to each advertisement and perceived effectiveness of each advertisement were recorded. Typical level of alcohol consumption was measured as a potential effect modifier. Participants exposed to alcohol warning advertisements reported significantly lower urges to drink alcohol than those who viewed either alcohol promoting or non-alcohol advertisements. This effect was fully mediated by negative affective responses (displeasure) to the alcohol warning advertisements. Perceived effectiveness of alcohol warning advertisements was associated with high arousal responses. Impact of the advertisements was unaffected by typical level of alcohol consumption, although the study was not powered to detect anything other than large effects. In line with findings from the tobacco literature, alcohol warning advertisements that elicit negative affect reduce urges to drink alcohol. Their impact upon actual consumption awaits investigation.

  3. Alcohol consumption and mortality. I. Characteristics of drinking groups.

    PubMed

    Fillmore, K M; Golding, J M; Graves, K L; Kniep, S; Leino, E V; Romelsjö, A; Shoemaker, C; Ager, C R; Allebeck, P; Ferrer, H P

    1998-02-01

    This is the first of a set of three papers evaluating drinking status and mortality risk. Analyses of multiple studies describe associations of drinking patterns with characteristics hypothesized to confound the relationships between drinking status and mortality. Characteristics which both significantly differentiate drinking groups and are consistent across studies would suggest that mortality studies not controlling for them may be compromised. Associations are evaluated from the raw data of 10 general population studies which contained mortality data. Long-term abstainers are compared to former drinkers, long-term abstainers and former drinkers are compared to light drinkers (by quantity, frequency and volume in separate analyses) and moderate to heavy drinkers are compared to light drinkers. Tetrachoric correlation coefficients assess statistical significance; meta-analysis determines if associations are homogeneous across studies. Measures of alcohol consumption are quantity, frequency and volume; long-term abstainers are differentiated from former drinkers. Multiple measures of health, social position, social integration and mental health characteristics are evaluated. Across studies, adult male former drinkers are consistently more likely to be heavier smokers, depressed, unemployed, lower SES and to have used marijuana than long-term abstainers. Adult female former drinkers are consistently more likely to be heavier smokers, in poorer health, not religious, and unmarried than long-term abstainers. Both types of abstainers tend to be of lower SES than light drinkers and report poorer health (not consistent). Female abstainers are more likely to be of normal or overweight than light drinkers. Characteristics of two groups of abstainers, other than their non-use of alcohol, may confound the associations found between drinking and mortality risk.

  4. Sociodemographic Correlates of Energy Drink Consumption With and Without Alcohol: Results of a Community Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lisa K.; Fendrich, Michael; Chen, Han-Yang; Arria, Amelia M.; Cisler, Ron A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We examined the sociodemographic correlates of energy drink use and the differences between those who use them with and without alcohol in a representative community sample. Methods A random-digit-dial landline telephone survey of adults in the Milwaukee, Wisconsin area responded to questions about energy drink and alcohol plus energy drink use. Results Almost one-third of respondents consumed at least one energy drink in their lifetime, while slightly over 25% used energy drinks in the past year and 6% were past-year alcohol plus energy drink users. There were important racial/ethnic differences in consumption patterns. Compared to non-users, past-year energy drink users were more likely to be non-Black minorities; and past-year alcohol plus energy drink users when compared to energy drink users only were more likely to be White and younger. Alcohol plus energy drink users also were more likely to be hazardous drinkers. Conclusions Our results which are among the first from a community sample suggest a bifurcated pattern of energy drink use highlighting important population consumption differences between users of energy drinks only and those who use alcohol and energy drinks together. PMID:21276661

  5. Tax policy, adult binge drinking, and youth alcohol consumption in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S

    2013-10-01

    Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  6. Vested Interests in Addiction Research and Policy Alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    Background In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a ‘partnership’ role with governments to design national alcohol policies. Methodology A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. Findings The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. Conclusions The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine ‘active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process’. PMID:20078460

  7. Vested interests in addiction research and policy alcohol policies out of context: drinks industry supplanting government role in alcohol policies in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Øystein; Endal, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an analysis of alcohol policy initiatives sponsored by alcohol producer SABMiller and the International Center on Alcohol Policies, an alcohol industry-funded organization. In a number of sub-Saharan countries these bodies have promoted a 'partnership' role with governments to design national alcohol policies. A comparison was conducted of four draft National Alcohol Policy documents from Lesotho, Malawi, Uganda and Botswana using case study methods. The comparison indicated that the four drafts are almost identical in wording and structure and that they are likely to originate from the same source. The processes and the draft policy documents reviewed provide insights into the methods, as well as the strategic and political objectives of the multi-national drinks industry. This initiative reflects the industry's preferred version of a national alcohol policy. The industry policy vision ignores, or chooses selectively from, the international evidence base on alcohol prevention developed by independent alcohol researchers and disregards or minimizes a public health approach to alcohol problems. The policies reviewed maintain a narrow focus on the economic benefits from the trade in alcohol. In terms of alcohol problems (and their remediation) the documents focus upon individual drinkers, ignoring effective environmental interventions. The proposed policies serve the industry's interests at the expense of public health by attempting to enshrine 'active participation of all levels of the beverage alcohol industry as a key partner in the policy formulation and implementation process'.

  8. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  9. Beliefs about Alcohol and the College Experience as Moderators of the Effects of Perceived Drinking Norms on Student Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Lizabeth A.; Novak, Katherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Many students view the abuse of alcohol as integral to the student role. Thus, they feel entitled to drink heavily without sanction. OLS regression was used to assess the extent to which these beliefs about alcohol and the college experience moderate the effects of descriptive and injunctive campus drinking norms on students' levels of alcohol…

  10. Influences of gender and age on relationships between alcohol drinking and atherosclerotic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Araki, Yoshihiko

    2010-02-01

    Alcohol drinking affects atherosclerotic progression mainly through blood pressure and lipid metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether effects of alcohol drinking on atherosclerotic risk factors differ by gender and age. The database of periodic health check-ups for local district workers was used. The subjects were divided into 3 groups according to mean ethanol consumption per day (nondrinkers; light drinkers, less than 30 g per day; moderate-to-heavy drinkers, 30 g or more per day). The mean levels of each atherosclerosis-related variable in the 3 groups were compared. The mean level of body mass index (BMI) was slightly but significantly lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in men and in the twenties, thirties, forties, and fifties age groups in women, while this tendency was not found in the sixties age groups of men and women. In men, mean blood pressure was higher in moderate-to-heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers in all age groups and was higher in light drinkers than in nondrinkers only in the age groups after 40 years. Mean blood pressure of women was higher in the moderate-to-heavy drinker group than in the nondrinker group and this difference became higher with advance of age. In women, mean blood pressure was not affected by light drinking in any of the age groups except for the fifties age group. In men, serum total cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the twenties age group but was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers at thirties or older. Serum total cholesterol in women was lower in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the age groups from twenties to forties but tended to be higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers in the sixties age group. Serum HDL cholesterol increased with advance of age from thirties to sixties in men, while it decreased with advance of age from twenties to sixties in women. Serum HDL cholesterol was higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers

  11. Alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy mediate the association of impulsivity with alcohol misuse.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Matthew J; Dawe, Sharon; Kambouropoulos, Nicolas; Staiger, Petra K; Jackson, Chris J

    2010-08-01

    Recent work suggests that 2 biologically based traits convey risk for alcohol misuse: reward sensitivity/drive and (rash) impulsiveness. However, the cognitive mechanisms through which these traits convey risk are unclear. This study tested a model predicting that the risk conveyed by reward sensitivity is mediated by a learning bias for the reinforcing outcomes of alcohol consumption (i.e., positive alcohol expectancy). The model also proposed that the risk conveyed by rash impulsiveness (RI) is mediated by drinkers' perceived ability to resist alcohol (i.e., drinking refusal self-efficacy). Study 1 tested the model in a sample of young adults (n = 342). Study 2 tested the model in a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers (n = 121). All participants completed a battery of personality, cognitive, and alcohol use questionnaires and models were tested using structural equation modeling. In both studies, the hypothesized model was found to provide a good fit to the data, and a better fit than alternative models. In both young adults and treatment-seeking individuals, positive alcohol expectancy fully mediated the association between reward sensitivity and hazardous alcohol use. For treatment seekers, drinking refusal self-efficacy fully mediated the association between RI and hazardous drinking. However, there was partial mediation in the young adult sample. Furthermore, neither trait was directly associated with the other cognitive mediator. The hypothesized model was confirmed on a large sample of young adults and replicated on a sample of treatment-seeking substance abusers. Taken together, these findings shed further light on the mechanisms through which an impulsive temperament may convey risk for alcohol misuse.

  12. [Alcohol metabolism at moderate drinking in healthy men. Comparison between differences of alcohol beverages, with and without meal, and genetic polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Oshima, Shunji; Haseba, Takeshi; Masuda, Chiaki; Abe, Yuko; Sami, Manabu; Kanda, Tomomasa; Ohno, Youkichi

    2011-06-01

    Studies on metabolisms of alcohol and the metabolites (e.g.:acetaldehyde) after drinking give basic and important information to recognize the physiological influence of drinking to human bodies. The aims of these studies were to clarify the influences of ALDH2 genotype difference, kinds of alcohol beverages, and fasted or prandial state to alcohol metabolisms at moderate drinking. The studies were conducted by a randomized cross-over design. After overnight fast, fifteen of ALDH2*1/*1 (Experiment 1) and twenty of ALDH21/*2 (Experiment 2) in Japanese healthy men aged 40 to 59 years old drank beer or shochu at a dose of 0.32g ethanol / kg body weight with or without test meal (460 kcal). The peak of blood ethanol (C(max)) was higher with shochu than with beer in the fasted condition in both ALDH2 genotypes, however, the difference between two types of alcohol beverages went out in the prandial condition. Simultaneous ingestion of test meal with alcohol beverage significantly decreased blood ethanol concentrations and increased ethanol disappearance rate (EDR) in the both genotypes. EDR values were significantly higher in ALDH2*1/*1 type than in ALDH2*1/*2 type in the both beverages with and without meal, whereas beta values showed no significant difference between two genotypes. The concentrations of blood acetaldehyde in ALDH2*1/*2 type were higher in prandial condition than in fasted condition with shochu. These results indicate that meal modified the differences of alcohol metabolism between beer and shochu and also between ALDH2 genotypes. Thus, alcohol metabolism in daily drinking is shown to be regulated by various combinatorial drinking conditions.

  13. Non-response bias in a community survey of drinking, alcohol-related experiences and public opinion on alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Langley, John; Room, Robin

    2012-11-01

    The continuing decline in response rates to household surveys is a concern for the health and social sciences as it increases the risk of selective non-response biasing the estimates of interest. We analysed non-response bias in a postal survey measuring drinking behaviour, experience of harm and opinion on local government alcohol policies among residents in six New Zealand communities. The Continuum of Resistance model, which suggests that late respondents to a survey are most similar to non-respondents on the measures of interest, was used to guide our investigation. Men, younger people, those of Māori descent and those living in more deprived areas were less likely to respond to our survey than women, older people, those not of Māori descent and those living in comparatively affluent areas. Late respondents more closely resembled non-respondents demographically than early respondents. The prevalence of binge drinking and experience of assault was higher, and support for restrictive local government alcohol policies lower, among late respondents. Assuming the drinking behaviour and alcohol-related experiences of non-respondents were the same as those of late respondents, prevalence was under-estimated by 3.4% (relative difference: 13%) and 2.1% (relative difference: 21%) for monthly binge drinking and assault respectively. Policy support was not over-estimated. The findings add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that surveys under-estimate risk behaviour because of selective non-response and this bias increases as response rates fall. Notably, public opinion may not be subject to such misestimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ups and Downs of Alcohol Use among First-year College Students: Number of Drinks, Heavy Drinking, and Stumble and Pass out Drinking Days

    PubMed Central

    Maggs, Jennifer L.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. PMID:21106298

  15. Ups and downs of alcohol use among first-year college students: Number of drinks, heavy drinking, and stumble and pass out drinking days.

    PubMed

    Maggs, Jennifer L; Williams, Lela Rankin; Lee, Christine M

    2011-03-01

    Given the dynamic fluctuating nature of alcohol use among emerging adults (Del Boca, Darkes, Greenbaum, & Goldman, 2004), patterns of alcohol use were modeled across 70 days in an intensive repeated-measures diary design. Two hundred first-year college students provided 10 weekly reports of their daily alcohol consumption via computer-assisted telephone interviews. Multi-level models demonstrated large within-person variability across days in drinks consumed, binge drinking, and days exceeding self-reported limits for stumbling around and passing out; these outcome variables were predicted by weekdays vs. weekend days (within-person) and gender, age of drinking initiation, fraternity/sorority membership, and alcohol motivations (between-persons). Repeated measurement of alternate indicators of alcohol use permits the examination of novel and important questions about alcohol use and abuse particularly in young adult and other erratically drinking populations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Alcohol marketing receptivity, marketing-specific cognitions, and underage binge drinking.

    PubMed

    McClure, Auden C; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E; Engels, Rutger C M E; Sargent, James D

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. This study describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1,734 U.S. 15- to 20-year-old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including TV time, Internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol-branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30-day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies, and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for sociodemographics, personality, and peer drinking. Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30-day binge drinking. Correlations between mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 to 0.47), and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand to drink, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. Copyright © 2012 by the Research Society on

  17. Understanding the relationship between religiousness, spirituality, and underage drinking: the role of positive alcohol expectancies.

    PubMed

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Burris, Jessica L; Carlson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    Research has consistently found that religiousness and spirituality are negatively associated with underage drinking. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the mechanisms by which these variables influence this important outcome. With 344 underage young adults (ages 18-20; 61 % women), we investigated positive alcohol expectancies as a mediator between religiousness and spirituality (measured separately) and underage alcohol use. Participants completed the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, and Drinking Styles Questionnaire. Results indicate less positive alcohol expectancies partially mediate the relationship between both religiousness and spirituality and underage alcohol use. This suggests religiousness and spirituality's protective influence on underage drinking is partly due to their influence on expectations about alcohol's positive effects. Since underage drinking predicts problem drinking later in life and places one at risk for serious physical and mental health problems, it is important to identify specific points of intervention, including expectations about alcohol that rise from religious and spiritual factors.

  18. Mental and Social Health Impacts the Use of Protective Behavioral Strategies in Reducing Risky Drinking and Alcohol Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Garcia, Jonathan A.; Ferraiolo, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The present study is the first to examine the moderating effects of mental and social health status in the relationship between protective behavioral strategies utilized to reduce high-risk drinking (e.g., alternating alcoholic and nonalcoholic drinks or avoiding drinking games) and alcohol outcomes (drinking variables and alcohol-related negative…

  19. Acute alcohol effects on inhibitory control and implicit cognition: implications for loss of control over drinking.

    PubMed

    Field, Matt; Wiers, Reinout W; Christiansen, Paul; Fillmore, Mark T; Verster, Joris C

    2010-08-01

    Alcohol impairs inhibitory control, and it alters implicit alcohol cognitions including attentional bias and implicit associations. These effects are seen after doses of alcohol which do not lead to global impairments in cognitive performance. We review studies which demonstrate that the effects of alcohol on inhibitory control are associated with the ability of alcohol to prime alcohol-seeking behavior. We also hypothesize that alcohol-induced changes in implicit alcohol cognitions may partially mediate alcohol-induced priming of the motivation to drink. Based on contemporary theoretical models and conceptualizations of executive function, impulsivity, and the motivational salience of alcohol-related cues, we speculate on other aspects of cognition that may underlie alcohol's effects on alcohol seeking. Inconsistencies in existing research and priorities for future research are highlighted, including dose effects and the potential interactions between chronic heavy drinking and the acute effects of alcohol on these cognitive processes.

  20. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  1. Social contexts of drinking and subsequent alcohol use disorder among college students.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kenneth H; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; Arria, Amelia M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested important contextual factors that can differentiate problem and nonproblem drinkers. To evaluate the strength of the prospective association between social contexts of drinking and subsequent alcohol use disorder and drunk driving 2-3 years later. The sample consisted of 652 individuals who were originally recruited at college entry, had complete data on at least one social context subscale, met the minimum criteria for Year 1 drinking, and had nonmissing data on at least one of the outcome variables in Years 3 and/or 4. Social contexts of drinking were assessed in Year 1 by using previously validated scales measuring six different situational and motivational contexts in which alcohol is consumed. DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence and drunk driving were assessed annually. Holding constant gender, race/ethnicity, and baseline drinking frequency, the frequency of drinking in a context of social facilitation, sex-seeking, or in a motor vehicle during Year 1 was significantly related to a greater likelihood of alcohol abuse, alcohol dependence, and drunk driving in Years 3 and/or 4. Drinking in a context of emotional pain was related to alcohol dependence and drunk driving but not to alcohol abuse. The Social Context of Drinking Scales have utility for identifying students who are at risk for developing alcohol-related problems. Identifying college students who might develop alcohol dependence requires an assessment of both situational and motivational factors that influence drinking, especially drinking in a motor vehicle.

  2. Under-Researched Demographics: Heavy Episodic Drinking and Alcohol-Related Problems Among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Kaya, Aylin; Grivel, Margaux; Clinton, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Asian Americans represent the fastest- growing population in the United States (Le 2010). At the same time, there is evidence that problematic drinking rates are increasing among young-adult Asian Americans (Grant et al. 2004). Accordingly, it is essential to understand the etiological determinants and mechanisms of risk that may help explain this growth in problematic alcohol use among this group. The high prevalence of the ALDH2*2 and ADH1B*2 alleles in a large percentage of Asian subgroups has been studied as a potential protective factors against alcohol abuse, yet some individuals who possess these genes still engage in problematic alcohol use (Wall et al. 2001). Other social and psychological factors may account for this discrepancy. Thus, some factors, such as negative physiological alcohol expectancies, are protective against alcohol abuse in this population (Hendershot et al. 2009). Sociocultural factors such as acculturation and nativity also may help explain drinking patterns among this group. The literature suggests that vast and significant within-group differences exist among Asian Americans, such that individuals who were born in the United States and/or are more acculturated are at elevated risk for alcohol abuse and related problems (Hahm et al. 2003). Differences also have been observed among Asian-American ethnic subgroups, with some groups (e.g., Japanese, Korean, and multi-Asian Americans) reporting higher rates of drinking compared with others (e.g., Chinese and Vietnamese Americans) (Iwamoto et al. 2012). Furthermore, Asian Americans who report higher levels of depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and perceived discrimination seem to be at a heightened risk for abusing alcohol (Iwamoto et al. 2011a; Nishimura et al. 2005; Yoo et al. 2010). Finally, an emerging body of research examining gender-relevant factors, including feminine and masculine norms, may help explain within-group differences among Asian-American women and men. Thus

  3. Tax Policy, Adult Binge Drinking, and Youth Alcohol Consumption in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Ziming; Nelson, Toben F.; Heeren, Timothy; Blanchette, Jason; Nelson, David E.; Gruenewald, Paul; Naimi, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior research attributed youth alcohol consumption to the attitudes and drinking patterns among adults. Yet at a population level, few have examined the relationship between state-level adult binge drinking prevalence and youth drinking behaviors, or whether tax policy plays a role in this relationship. Methods We analyzed 6 biennial surveys (1999 to 2009) of individual-level youth alcohol use and related behaviors from state-based Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and corresponding years of state-level adult binge drinking prevalence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We employed logistic regression with generalized estimating equations method to assess the extent to which state adult binge drinking predicted individual-level youth drinking outcomes and examined the role of alcohol taxes in that relationship. Results Population-aggregate analyses based on 194 state-year strata showed a positive correlation between state adult binge drinking and youth binge drinking (Pearson r = 0.40, p < 0.01). For individual-level youth drinking outcomes, a 5 percentage point increase in binge drinking prevalence among adults was associated with a 12% relative increase in the odds of alcohol use (adjusted OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.16). Taxes were strongly inversely related with adult and youth drinking measures, and the effect of tax on youth drinking was attenuated after controlling for adult binge drinking. Conclusions Both tax and adult binge drinking are strong predictors of youth drinking. Tax may affect youth drinking through its effect on adult alcohol consumption. Implementing effective alcohol policies to reduce excessive drinking in the general population is an important strategy to reduce youth drinking. PMID:23711219

  4. Are All Alcohol and Energy Drink Users the Same? Examining Individual Variation in Relation to Alcohol Mixed with Energy Drink Use, Risky Drinking and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Mallett, Kimberly A.; Marzell, Miesha; Scaglione, Nichole; Hultgren, Brittney; Turrisi, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmEDs) have been identified as higher-risk drinkers, as they are more prone to drink increased amounts of alcohol and experience more consequences compared to non-AmED users. The present study examined differential AmED use and alcohol consumption simultaneously as multi-dimensional risk behaviors among AmED users. Students who identified as drinkers and current AmED users (n = 195) completed a web-based survey related to their AmED consumption and typical drinking patterns. Latent profile analysis was used to classify participants into distinct AmED user profiles. Profiles were then compared on AmEd-based cognitive factors (e.g., expectancies, norms) and alcohol-related consequences. Four AmED user profiles emerged: Moderate drinker, low proportion AmEd users (ML); Heavy drinker, low proportion AmED users (HL); Moderate drinker, high proportion AmED users (MH); and Heavy drinker, high proportion AmED users (HH). Membership in higher-proportion AmED groups was associated with more positive AmED expectancies and perceived norms. No significant differences were observed in the amount of consequences endorsed by HL and HHs, however MHs experienced significantly more alcohol-related physical consequences than MLs. This suggests increased use of AmEDs is associated with increased risk of experiencing alcohol related consequences for moderate drinkers. Screening students for AmED use could be used as a novel, inexpensive tool to identify high-risk drinkers for targeted interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. PMID:23528198

  5. Enhanced labelling on alcoholic drinks: reviewing the evidence to guide alcohol policy.

    PubMed

    Martin-Moreno, Jose M; Harris, Meggan E; Breda, Joao; Møller, Lars; Alfonso-Sanchez, Jose L; Gorgojo, Lydia

    2013-12-01

    Consumer and public health organizations have called for better labelling on alcoholic drinks. However, there is a lack of consensus about the best elements to include. This review summarizes alcohol labelling policy worldwide and examines available evidence to support enhanced labelling. A literature review was carried out in June-July 2012 on Scopus using the key word 'alcohol' combined with 'allergens', 'labels', 'nutrition information', 'ingredients', 'consumer information' and/or 'warning'. Articles discussing advertising and promotion of alcohol were excluded. A search through Google and the System for Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE) identified additional sources on alcohol labelling policies, mainly from governmental and organizational websites. Five elements were identified as potentially useful to consumers: (i) a list of ingredients, (ii) nutritional information, (iii) serving size and servings per container, (iv) a definition of 'moderate' intake and (v) a health warning. Alcohol labelling policy with regard to these aspects is quite rudimentary in most countries, with few requiring a list of ingredients or health warnings, and none requiring basic nutritional information. Only one country (Australia) requires serving size and servings per container to be displayed. Our study suggests that there are both potential advantages and disadvantages to providing consumers with more information about alcohol products. Current evidence seems to support prompt inclusion of a list of ingredients, nutritional information (usually only kcal) and health warnings on labels. Standard drink and serving size is useful only when combined with other health education efforts. A definition of 'moderate intake' and recommended drinking guidelines are best suited to other contexts.

  6. Youth and alcoholic beverages: Drinking patterns among high school students in central Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the drinking patterns of high school students in central Thailand. Eleven thousand three hundred sixty high school students from central Thailand were divided into 2 groups (drinkers and nondrinkers) according to their alcohol consumption. Information was obtained by an anonymous self-reporting questionnaire which consisted of 2 parts: general characteristics, and characteristics of alcohol drinking behavior. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by a computerized statistical package. The socio-demographic factors related to the student's alcohol consumption during the previous 12 months were: age > 15 years old, male sex, grades 9 and 11 education level, living in a private dormitory, staying with a relative or a friend, having a grade point average <2.0 or >3.0, having a job earning money and having family members with alcohol/drug problems (p<0.05). Drinking patterns were classified into 5 categories: life time drinking, drinking during the previous year, drinking during the previous 30 days, binge drinking during the previous 30 days and drinking until intoxication during the previous 30 days. A higher proportion of drinking was reported by boys than girls. The prevalence of drinking increased in proportion to the educational level. The 3 main drinking places were parties (48.5%), at home or in the dormitory (37.5%) and in shops around the school (12.4%). Boys drank alcohol on average 1-2 times per month in 59.8% and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 38.6%. Eighty point one percent of girls drank alcohol 1-2 times per month and 1-2 standard drinks per time in 55.6%. Drinking alcohol among high school students should be controlled by limiting access to alcoholic beverages in order to reduce accidents, injuries, violence and alcohol-related health problems among young people.

  7. Alcohol expectancy and drinking refusal self-efficacy: a test of specificity theory.

    PubMed

    Oei, T P; Burrow, T

    2000-01-01

    Although alcohol expectancy (expectations about the effects of drinking alcohol on one's behavior and mood) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (one's perceived ability to resist drinking in high-risk situations) have consistently been demonstrated to be useful to our understanding of alcohol use and abuse, the specificity of these constructs to alcohol consumption has not been previously demonstrated. Using 161 first-year psychology students and multiple regression analyses this study indicated that alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy were specifically related to quantity of alcohol consumption, but not to caffeine or nicotine intake. These results provide empirical evidence to confirm the theoretical and practical utility of these two cognitive constructs to alcohol research and serve to strengthen the theoretical foundations of alcohol expectancy theory.

  8. Intracerebral Stem Cell Administration Inhibits Relapse-like Alcohol Drinking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Israel, Yedy; Ezquer, Fernando; Quintanilla, María Elena; Morales, Paola; Ezquer, Marcelo; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Study describes the blockade of relapse-like alcohol drinking by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). High alcohol-intake bred rats consumed alcohol for 3 months and were subjected to repeated alcohol deprivations for 7-14 days, followed by alcohol reaccess. Upon reaccess, animals consumed 2.2 g alcohol/kg in 60 minutes. A single intra-cerebroventricular MSC administration inhibited relapse-like drinking up to 80-85% for 40 days (P < 0.001). An alcohol-use-disorder was prevented.

  9. Pregaming in High School Students: Relevance to Risky Drinking Practices, Alcohol Cognitions, and the Social Drinking Context

    PubMed Central

    Zamboanga, Byron L.; Borsari, Brian; Ham, Lindsay S.; Olthuis, Janine V.; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Casner, Hilary G.

    2010-01-01

    Pregaming is the practice of consuming alcohol prior to going out to a social event. Although pregaming has begun to receive research attention in the college setting, very little is known about this risky drinking behavior in high school students. As pregaming has health implications for both students who are college bound and those who are not, we examined the prevalence of this behavior in a sample of high school students who reported current alcohol use and completed pregaming measures (n = 233). The present study examined the associations of gender, age, alcohol expectancies, motivations for drinking (e.g., social, enhancement, and coping), and engagement in other risky drinking practices (i.e., general hazardous use and drinking game participation) with pregaming. Results indicate that pregaming was significantly associated with being older, being a male, having high levels of hazardous alcohol use, and participating in drinking games frequently. Pregaming also occurred most often before parties and sporting events and it was associated positively with frequency of attendance at parties where alcohol is available, the tendency to use alcohol at these parties, and the amount of alcohol consumed at these parties. We discuss the findings in the context of pregaming research that has been conducted with college students, and make suggestions regarding prevention and intervention efforts focused on this risky drinking practice. PMID:21443300

  10. Pregaming in high school students: relevance to risky drinking practices, alcohol cognitions, and the social drinking context.

    PubMed

    Zamboanga, Byron L; Borsari, Brian; Ham, Lindsay S; Olthuis, Janine V; Van Tyne, Kathryne; Casner, Hilary G

    2011-06-01

    Pregaming is the practice of consuming alcohol prior to going out to a social event. Although pregaming has begun to receive research attention in the college setting, very little is known about this risky drinking behavior in high school students. As pregaming has health implications for both students who are college bound and those who are not, we examined the prevalence of this behavior in a sample of high school students who reported current alcohol use and completed pregaming measures (n = 233). The present study examined the associations of gender, age, alcohol expectancies, motivations for drinking (e.g., social, enhancement, and coping), and engagement in other risky drinking practices (i.e., general hazardous use and drinking game participation) with pregaming. Results indicate that pregaming was significantly associated with being older, being a male, having high levels of hazardous alcohol use, and participating in drinking games frequently. Pregaming also occurred most often before parties and sporting events and it was associated positively with frequency of attendance at parties where alcohol is available, the tendency to use alcohol at these parties, and the amount of alcohol consumed at these parties. We discuss the findings in the context of pregaming research that has been conducted with college students, and make suggestions regarding prevention and intervention efforts focused on this risky drinking practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Motives for mixing alcohol with energy drinks and other nonalcoholic beverages, and consequences for overall alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Scholey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this survey was to assess the motives for energy drink consumption, both alone and mixed with alcohol, and to determine whether negative or neutral motives for consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AMED) have a differential effect on overall alcohol consumption. Methods Demographics, alcohol and energy drink consumption-related questions, and motives for the consumption of energy drinks (alone or mixed with alcohol) were assessed. The motives to mix alcohol with energy drinks were compared with those for mixing alcohol with other nonalcoholic beverages. Results A total of 2,329 students who completed the study consumed energy drinks. The motives for consuming energy drinks (without alcohol) included “I like the taste” (58.6%), “To keep me awake” (54.3%), “It gives me energy” (44.3%), “It helps concentrating when studying” (33.9%), “It increases alertness” (28.8%), “It helps me concentrate better” (20.6%), and “It makes me less sleepy when driving” (14.2%). A total of 1,239 students reported occasionally consuming AMED (AMED group). The most frequent motives included “I like the taste” (81.1%), “I wanted to drink something else” (35.3%), and “To celebrate a special occasion” (14.6%). No relevant differences in motives were observed for using an energy drink or another nonalcoholic beverage as a mixer. A minority of students (21.6%) reported at least one negative motive to consume AMED. Despite these negative motives, students reported consuming significantly less alcohol on occasions when they consumed AMED compared to alcohol-only occasions. Conclusion The majority of students who consume energy drinks (without alcohol) do so because they like the taste, or they consume these drinks to keep them awake and give them energy. AMED consumption is more frequently motivated by neutral as opposed to negative motives. No relevant differences in drinking motives and overall alcohol consumption were

  12. Drinking Motives Mediate the Negative Associations between Mindfulness Facets and Alcohol Outcomes among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Corey R.; Pearson, Matthew R.; Brown, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Mindfulness and drinking motives have both been linked to affect regulation, yet the relationship between mindfulness and drinking motives is poorly understood. The present study examined whether drinking motives, particularly mood regulatory motives, mediated the associations between facets of mindfulness and alcohol-related outcomes among college students (N = 297). We found three specific facets of mindfulness (describing, nonjudging of inner experience, and acting with awareness) to have negative associations with alcohol outcomes. Importantly, specific drinking motives mediated these associations such that lower levels of mindfulness were associated with drinking for distinct reasons (enhancement, coping, conformity), which in turn predicted alcohol use and/or alcohol problems. Our findings suggest that drinking motives, especially mood regulatory and negative reinforcement motives, are important to examine when studying the role of mindfulness in college student drinking behavior. PMID:25546142

  13. Drinking motives mediate the negative associations between mindfulness facets and alcohol outcomes among college students.

    PubMed

    Roos, Corey R; Pearson, Matthew R; Brown, David B

    2015-03-01

    Mindfulness and drinking motives have both been linked to affect regulation, yet the relationship between mindfulness and drinking motives is poorly understood. The present study examined whether drinking motives, particularly mood regulatory motives, mediated the associations between facets of mindfulness and alcohol-related outcomes among college students (N = 297). We found 3 specific facets of mindfulness (describing, nonjudging of inner experience, and acting with awareness) to have negative associations with alcohol outcomes. Importantly, specific drinking motives mediated these associations such that lower levels of mindfulness were associated with drinking for distinct reasons (enhancement, coping, conformity), which in turn predicted alcohol use and/or alcohol problems. Our findings suggest that drinking motives, especially mood regulatory and negative reinforcement motives, are important to examine when studying the role of mindfulness in college student drinking behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Aubin, H J; Laureaux, C; Tilikete, S; Barrucand, D

    1999-03-01

    To assess the changes in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking after alcohol detoxification in alcoholics. Evaluation at admission and an average 16 days following discharge. Alcohol detoxification inpatient programme. Seventy-three alcohol dependent (DSM-III-R) inpatients. Average number of cigarettes and of cups of coffee per day; urine cotinine level. Smokers were classified as moderate on the basis of consuming fewer than 30 cigarettes per day at the time of admission; heavy smokers were those who smoked 30 cigarettes per day or more. As a group, the smokers (N = 58) did not significantly change their cigarette consumption and there was no change in urine cotinine level. Heavy smokers (N = 34), however, significantly decreased their cigarette consumption, but urine cotinine was unchanged. Moderate smokers (N = 24) significantly increased their cigarette consumption but urine cotinine was not significantly changed. All patients--non-smokers, moderate and heavy smokers--significantly increased their coffee intake. The results suggest that heavy smokers may react to alcohol cues and thus reduce smoking activity when sober. Moderate smokers may increase their smoking rate to cope with alcohol abstinence. These changes appear only to reflect a behavioural adjustment, without modification of patients' nicotine-seeking. Alcoholics may increase their coffee intake to cope with alcohol abstinence.

  15. Nondaily smoking and alcohol use, hazardous drinking, and alcohol diagnoses among young adults: findings from the NESARC.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Emily L R; Desai, Rani A; McKee, Sherry A

    2008-12-01

    Nondaily smoking and heavy alcohol use are prevalent behaviors among young adults, with nondaily smoking occurring primarily in the context of alcohol use. Although the relationship between drinking and daily smoking has been well characterized in young adults, few epidemiological investigations have investigated the association between nondaily smoking and drinking behavior. We examined Wave 1 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Grant et al., 2003b; n = 43,093). Young adults (aged 18 to 25 years; n = 5,838) were stratified on current smoking behavior (daily, nondaily, and nonsmokers in the past 12 months) and differences in weekly quantity of alcohol use, frequency of alcohol use, frequency of binge drinking behavior, rates of NIAAA-defined hazardous drinking, and rates of DSM-IV alcohol diagnoses were investigated. College student status was examined. Twenty-five percent were current smokers and 7% were smoking on a nondaily basis. Seventy-one percent were current drinkers, 39% reported binge drinking at least once a month, 41% met criteria for hazardous drinking, and 18% had alcohol use disorders. Across all measures of alcohol use, there was a significant effect of smoking status, with daily smokers having greater alcohol use patterns, compared with nondaily smokers, with nonsmokers consuming the least. Nondaily smokers were more likely to report any binge drinking in the past 12 months. However, daily smokers were more likely to report daily binge drinking. With regard to hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorders, nondaily smoking conferred the greatest risk, followed by daily smoking with nonsmoking as the reference group. Multinomial logistic regression demonstrated that the odds of being a hazardous drinker were 16 times greater (95% CI 9.46-26.48) in a nondaily smoker compared with a nonsmoker, whereas the odds for a daily smoker were increased by 7-fold (95% CI 5.54-9.36). A similar pattern of results was

  16. Impact of family level factors on alcohol drinking in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Rehorcíková, Veronika; Nemcovská, Eva; Sklenárová, Zuzana; Kállay, Andrej; Kállayová, Daniela; Brazinová, Alexandra; Slaná, Miriam

    2013-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify and analyze selected factors influencing alcohol use among primary school children aged 8 to 15 years in the academic year 2009/10. The sample consisted of children from 28 primary schools. Data of this cross-sectional study were collected using questionnaires. Chi-Square test was used to test differences in proportions of observed phenomena between boys and girls. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the influence of selected factors on the variable "child's alcohol drinking per week". The sample consisted of 2,494 respondents (52% of boys, 48% of girls). In the study group 78% of all respondents (95% CI=76-80) drank alcohol infrequently (less than once a week) or did not drink alcohol at all, and 22% of respondents (95% Cl=20-24) drank alcohol at least once a week. More boys than girls considered alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and spirit as quite easily available. We performed the model of multivariate logistic regression analysis using the independent variables: age of respondents, gender of respondents, mother's alcohol drinking, father's alcohol drinking, sibling's alcohol drinking, parental rules, parental control, and mental support from parents (if their children have problems) to identify their effect on the dependent variable - child's alcohol drinking per week. We found out that mother's alcohol drinking and a lack of mental support from parents did not have a statistically significant influence on child's alcohol drinking per week. The results of our study point to the fact that it is necessary to focus on the prevention of alcohol drinking in general and among school children in particular. We recommend greater control of the sale of alcoholic beverages, so as to prevent the purchase by people under 18 years of age.

  17. A cognitive model of binge drinking: the influence of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Oei, Tian P S; Morawska, A

    2004-01-01

    While binge drinking-episodic or irregular consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol-is recognised as a serious problem affecting our youth, to date there has been a lack of psychological theory and thus theoretically driven research into this problem. The current paper develops a cognitive model using the key constructs of alcohol expectancies (AEs) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) to explain the acquisition and maintenance of binge drinking. It is suggested that the four combinations of the AE and DRSE can explain the four drinking styles. These are normal/social drinkers, binge drinkers, regular heavy drinkers, and problem drinkers or alcoholics. Since AE and DRSE are cognitive constructs and therefore modifiable, the cognitive model can thus facilitate the design of intervention and prevention strategies for binge drinking.

  18. Ethnic identity, drinking motives, and alcohol consequences among Alaska Native and non-Native college students.

    PubMed

    Skewes, Monica C; Blume, Arthur W

    2015-01-01

    This research involves the examination of drinking motives, alcohol consequences, and ethnic identity in a sample of Native and non-Native college student drinkers in Alaska. Although more Alaska Native students are abstinent from alcohol compared to any other ethnic group, Native students who do drink experience greater alcohol consequences and dependence symptoms. Therefore, we attempted to examine the influence of ethnic identity on alcohol consequences in a diverse sample of Native and non-Native students in Alaska. Findings showed that drinking motives, as measured by the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (social, coping, enhancement, and conformity), significantly predicted alcohol consequences after controlling for frequency of monthly binge drinking. In addition, after controlling for depression, binge drinking, and drinking motives, one aspect of ethnic identity (Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment) was significantly negatively related to alcohol consequences, whereas another aspect of ethnic identity (Ethnic Identity Search) was not. Taken together, these findings suggest that interventions for college student alcohol misuse that target Native students should be culturally grounded and focused on enhancing the Affirmation, Belonging, and Commitment to one's ethnic heritage and should address drinking motives, especially drinking to cope, as a way to reduce alcohol related harm.

  19. [Alcohol drinking parties and consumption of alcohol and other drugs in youth].

    PubMed

    Gómez Fraguela, José Antonio; Fernández Pérez, Nuria; Romero Triñanes, Estrella; Luengo Martín, Angeles

    2008-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is to analyze the relationships of involvement in the "botellon" (meetings of youth in public places to drink, chat, etc.) with alcohol/other drug abuse and vandalism in young people. A school survey was performed in centres of Compulsory Secondary School (E.S.O.), high school, professional training and University education in Lugo, NW Spain. The sample (aged 12 to 30) was split into three groups according to alcohol use and botellon involvement; drug abuse, drug-related problems and vandalism were assessed in each group. Results indicate that regular botellon attendants display more problems with alcohol and other drugs, as well as higher involvement in vandalism; this relationship is stronger among young students. The increase in adolescent risk associated with the practice of the botellon is explained by peer group pressure to use drugs and the greater accessibility of alcohol/other drugs in these contexts.

  20. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  1. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This article fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative…

  2. Executive functioning and alcohol binge drinking in university students.

    PubMed

    Parada, María; Corral, Montserrat; Mota, Nayara; Crego, Alberto; Rodríguez Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando

    2012-02-01

    Binge drinking (BD) is prevalent among college students. Studies on alcoholism have shown that the prefrontal cortex is vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. The prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes during adolescence and young adulthood. Sex differences have been observed in brain maturation and in alcohol-induced damage. The objective of the present study was to analyze the relationship between BD and cognitive functions subserved by the prefrontal cortex in male and female university students. The sample comprised 122 undergraduates (aged 18 to 20 years): 62 BD (30 females) and 60 non-BD (29 females). Executive functions were assessed by WMS-III (Backward Digit Span and Backward Spatial Span), SOPT (abstract designs), Letter Fluency (PMR), BADS (Zoo Map and Key Search) and WCST-3. BD students scored lower in the Backward Digit Span Subtest and generated more perseverative responses in the SOPT In relation to interaction BD by sex, BD males scored lower in the Backward Digit Span test than BD females and non-BD males. BD is associated with poorer performance of executive functions subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The results do not support enhanced vulnerability of women to alcohol neurotoxic effects. These difficulties may reflect developmental delay or frontal lobe dysfunction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Alcohol Consumption in Undergraduate Students: The Role of Ego-Identity Status, Alcohol Expectancies, and Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentrim-Tapio, Erin M.

    2004-01-01

    The study examined the effects of ego identity status, matriculation level, and gender on alcohol consumption, alcohol expectancies, and drinking refusal self-efficacy. Male (n = 64) and female (n = 114) undergraduate students at a 4-year college were surveyed and classified into four identity status categories. Data on alcohol expectancies,…

  4. Alcohol-Induced Disinhibition Expectancies and Impaired Control as Prospective Predictors of Problem Drinking in Undergraduates

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Toll, Benjamin A.; Taylor, Laura A.; Volpicelli, Joseph R.

    2009-01-01

    Trait disinhibition is associated with problem drinking and alcohol drinking itself can bring about a state of disinhibition. It is unclear however, if expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition are unique predictors of problem drinking. Impaired control (i.e., difficulty in limiting alcohol consumption) may be related to disinhibition expectancies in that both involve issues of control related to alcohol use. Data from a prospective survey of undergraduates assessed during freshman (N = 337) and senior year (N = 201) were analyzed to determine whether subscales of the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale and the Impaired Control Scale predicted unique variance in heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. In Time 1 cross-sectional models, dysphoric disinhibition expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems and impaired control predicted both alcohol-related problems and heavy episodic drinking. In prospective models, Time 1 impaired control predicted Time 2 alcohol-related problems and Time 1 euphoric/social disinhibition expectancies predicted Time 2 heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition and impaired control predict unique variance in problem drinking cross-sectionally and prospectively and that these phenomena should be targeted in early intervention efforts. PMID:20025361

  5. Alcohol-induced disinhibition expectancies and impaired control as prospective predictors of problem drinking in undergraduates.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Toll, Benjamin A; Taylor, Laura A; Volpicelli, Joseph R

    2009-12-01

    Trait disinhibition is associated with problem drinking and alcohol drinking can bring about a state of disinhibition. It is unclear however, if expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition are unique predictors of problem drinking. Impaired control (i.e., difficulty in limiting alcohol consumption) may be related to disinhibition expectancies in that both involve issues of control related to alcohol use. Data from a prospective survey of undergraduates assessed during freshman (N = 337) and senior year (N = 201) were analyzed to determine whether subscales of the Drinking-Induced Disinhibition Scale (Leeman, Toll, & Volpicelli, 2007) and the Impaired Control Scale (Heather et al., 1993) predicted unique variance in heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related problems. In Time 1 cross-sectional models, Dysphoric disinhibition expectancies predicted alcohol-related problems and impaired control predicted both alcohol-related problems and heavy episodic drinking. In prospective models, Time 1 impaired control predicted Time 2 alcohol-related problems and Time 1 Euphoric/social Disinhibition expectancies predicted Time 2 heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that expectancies of alcohol-induced disinhibition and impaired control predict unique variance in problem drinking cross-sectionally and prospectively, and that these phenomena should be targeted in early intervention efforts. Copyright 2009 APA

  6. 'Hardcore drinking': portrayals of alcohol consumption in young women's and men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Antonia C; Dalton, Sue I; Hoy, Anna

    2006-03-01

    Young adults and young women in particular are drinking more alcohol than ever before, with implications for risky behaviours and long-term health. This study explored the ways in which alcohol and drinking were represented in six monthly UK magazines (three targeted at young men, three at young women) across a three-month period (18 magazines). We identified three main discourses across the texts, namely the drug alcohol; masculinity and machismo; and drinking as normality. These discourses constructed women's and men's drinks and drinking behaviours in sharp contrast. Drinking was aligned with traditional masculine images, although new kinds of drinks were aligned with traditional feminine images--and derided in men's magazines. Findings highlight how gender, constructed in relation to the other, is an important aspect of representations of drinking patterns in young adults.

  7. Age at first drink, drinking, binge drinking, and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder among Hispanic national groups in the United States.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A; Vaeth, Patrice A C; Reingle, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    This article examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Respondents come from 2 independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N = 1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer-assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The Hispanic American Baseline Alcohol Survey and the border sample response rates were 76 and 67%, respectively. U.S.-born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign-born, independent of national group. Among foreign-born Hispanics, age of arrival in the United States is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing, and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Alcohol consumption and risky drinking patterns in Malaysia: findings from NHMS 2011.

    PubMed

    Mutalip, Mohd Hatta B Abdul; Kamarudin, Rozanim Bt; Manickam, Mala; Abd Hamid, Hamizatul Akmal Bt; Saari, Riyanti Bt

    2014-01-01

    To identify the characteristics of current drinker and risky alcohol-drinking pattern by profiles in Malaysia. We analyzed data from the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2011. It was a cross-sectional population-based with two stages stratified random sampling design. A validated Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test Malay questionnaire was used to assess the alcohol consumption and its alcohol related harms. Analysis of complex survey data using Stata Version 12 was done for descriptive analysis on alcohol use and risky drinking by socio-demography profiles. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association of risky drinking status with the socio-demography characteristics. The prevalence of current alcohol use was 11.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.5, 12.7], among them 23.6% (95% CI: 21.0, 26.4) practiced risky drinking. The onset for alcohol drinking was 21 years old (standard deviation 7.44) and majority preferred Beer. Males significantly consumed more alcohol and practiced risky drinking. Current alcohol use was more prevalent among urbanites, Chinese, those with high household income, and high education. Conversely, risky drinking was more prevalent among rural drinkers, Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak, low education and low household income. The estimated odds of risky drinking increased by a factor of 3.5 among Males while a factor of 2.7 among Bumiputera Sabah and Sarawak. Education status and household income was not a significant predictor to risky drinking. There was an inverse drinking pattern between current drinker and risky drinking by the socio-demography profiles. Initiating early screening and focused intervention might avert further alcohol related harms and dependence among the risky drinkers. © The Author 2014. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  9. Alcohol Marketing Receptivity, Marketing-specific Cognitions and Underage Binge Drinking

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Tanski, Susanne E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Sargent, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Exposure to alcohol marketing is prevalent and is associated with both initiation and progression of alcohol use in underage youth. The mechanism of influence is not well understood, however. This study tests a model that proposes alcohol-specific cognitions as mediators of the relation between alcohol marketing and problematic drinking among experimental underage drinkers. Methods This paper describes a cross-sectional analysis of 1734 U.S. 15–20 year old underage drinkers, recruited for a national study of media and substance use. Subjects were queried about a number of alcohol marketing variables including television time, internet time, favorite alcohol ad, ownership of alcohol branded merchandise (ABM), and exposure to alcohol brands in movies. The relation between these exposures and current (30 day) binge drinking was assessed, as were proposed mediators of this relation, including marketing-specific cognitions (drinker identity and favorite brand to drink), favorable alcohol expectancies and alcohol norms. Paths were tested in a structural equation model that controlled for socio-demographics, personality and peer drinking. Results Almost one-third of this sample of ever drinkers had engaged in 30 day binge drinking. Correlations among mediators were all statistically significant (range 0.16 – 0.47) and all were significantly associated with binge drinking. Statistically significant mediation was found for the association between ABM ownership and binge drinking through both drinker identity and having a favorite brand, which also mediated the path between movie brand exposure and binge drinking. Peer drinking and sensation seeking were associated with binge drinking in paths through all mediators. Conclusions Associations between alcohol marketing and binge drinking were mediated through marketing-specific cognitions that assess drinker identity and brand allegiance, cognitions that marketers aim to cultivate in the consumer. PMID:23256927

  10. Interactions Between Alcohol Metabolism Genes and Religious Involvement in Association With Maximum Drinks and Alcohol Dependence Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chartier, Karen G; Dick, Danielle M; Almasy, Laura; Chan, Grace; Aliev, Fazil; Schuckit, Marc A; Scott, Denise M; Kramer, John; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Bierut, Laura J; Nurnberger, John; Porjesz, Bernice; Hesselbrock, Victor M

    2016-05-01

    Variations in the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) enzymes are associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence in multiple populations. Additionally, some environmental factors have been recognized as modifiers of these relationships. This study examined the modifying effect of religious involvement on relationships between ADH gene variants and alcohol consumption-related phenotypes. Subjects were African American, European American, and Hispanic American adults with lifetime exposure to alcohol (N = 7,716; 53% female) from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genetic markers included ADH1Brs1229984, ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, ADH4-rs1042364, and ADH4-rs1800759. Phenotypes were maximum drinks consumed in a 24-hour period and total number of alcohol dependence symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Religious involvement was defined by self-reported religious services attendance. Both religious involvement and ADH1B-rs1229984 were negatively associated with the number of maximum drinks consumed and the number of lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms endorsed. The interactions of religious involvement with ADH1B-rs2066702, ADH1C-rs698, and ADH4-rs1042364 were significantly associated with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms. Risk variants had weaker associations with maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms as a function of increasing religious involvement. This study provided initial evidence of a modifying effect for religious involvement on relationships between ADH variants and maximum drinks and alcohol dependence symptoms.

  11. Combining alcohol and energy drinks: An examination of psychosocial constructs and alcohol outcomes among college students using a longitudinal design

    PubMed Central

    Marzell, Miesha; Turrisi, Rob; Mallett, Kimberly; Ray, Anne E.; Scaglione, Nichole Marie

    2013-01-01

    Combining alcohol and energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) is a significant problem on college campuses. To date, few studies have examined psychosocial constructs specific to alcohol-energy drink cocktail (AmED) consumption that could be amenable to change via prevention efforts targeting this population. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in AmED-specific attitudes, beliefs, normative perceptions among students who report AmED use compared to college student drinkers who consume alcohol only. In addition, these two groups were compared on their intentions to consume AmEDs, actual AmED use, and other drinking outcomes using a longitudinal design. Participants (N = 386, 59% female) completed a web-based survey in the spring of their first year of college and fall of their second year assessing alcohol-energy drink cocktail use, psychosocial decision-making constructs, heavy drinking, and alcohol-related consequences. Findings revealed that combiners of alcohol and energy drinks had more positive attitudes and beliefs about AmED use, higher perceived peer norms, and stronger intentions toward future use. Accordingly, at Time 2, this group reported significantly higher AmED use, along with high-risk drinking and related consequences. The findings reinforce that AmED use is associated with risky drinking practices, and suggest potential targets for change for future prevention efforts. PMID:25346654

  12. Suppression of heavy drinking and alcohol seeking by a selective ALDH-2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Arolfo, Maria P; Overstreet, David H; Yao, Lina; Fan, Peidong; Lawrence, Andrew J; Tao, Guoxin; Keung, Wing-Ming; Vallee, Bert L; Olive, M Foster; Gass, Justin T; Rubin, Emanuel; Anni, Helen; Hodge, Clyde W; Besheer, Joyce; Zablocki, Jeff; Leung, Kwan; Blackburn, Brent K; Lange, Louis G; Diamond, Ivan

    2009-11-01

    Inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However, daidzin can reduce drinking in some rodents without necessarily increasing acetaldehyde. Therefore, a selective ALDH-2 inhibitor might affect other metabolic factors involved in regulating drinking. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 inhibitors were synthesized based on the co-crystal structure of ALDH-2 and daidzin. We tested the efficacy of a highly selective reversible ALDH-2 inhibitor, CVT-10216, in models of moderate and high alcohol drinking rats. We studied 2-bottle choice and deprivation-induced drinking paradigms in Fawn Hooded (FH) rats, operant self-administration in Long Evans (LE), FH, and inbred P (iP) rats and in cue-induced reinstatement in iP rats. We also assayed blood acetaldehyde levels as well as dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and tested possible rewarding/aversive effects of the inhibitor in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. CVT-10216 increases acetaldehyde after alcohol gavage and inhibits 2-bottle choice alcohol intake in heavy drinking rodents, including deprivation-induced drinking. Moreover, CVT-10216 also prevents operant self-administration and eliminates cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking even when alcohol is not available (i.e., no acetaldehyde). Alcohol stimulates DA release in the NAc, which is thought to contribute to increased drinking and relapse in alcoholism. CVT-10216 prevents alcohol-induced increases in NAc DA without changing basal levels. CVT-10216 does not show rewarding or aversive properties in the CPP paradigm at therapeutic doses. Our findings suggest

  13. Alcohol and Energy Drink Use among Adolescents Seeking Emergency Department Care

    PubMed Central

    Bonar, Erin E.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Polshkova, Svitlana; Chermack, Stephen T.; Blow, Frederic C.; Walton, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Emergency Department (ED) visits due to energy drinks rose drastically from 2007 to 2011. Consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks by young people is particularly concerning. Among youth (ages 14–20) in the ED reporting past-year alcohol use, we assessed frequency, reasons, and medical consequences of consuming alcohol and energy drinks in the same beverage or on the same occasion, and relationships with other risk behaviors. The sample included 439 youth (Mage=18.6 years, SD=1.4; 41% male; 73% Caucasian): those who drank alcohol, but not energy drinks (Non-users; 41%, n=178), those who drank alcohol and energy drinks on separate occasions (Separate; 23%, n=103), and those who combined alcohol and energy drinks in the same beverage or on the same occasion (Combined; 36%, n=158). Common reasons for combining energy drinks and alcohol were hiding the flavor of alcohol (39%) and liking the taste (36%). Common consequences were feeling jittery (71%) and trouble sleeping (46%). Combined users had the highest rates of risk behaviors (e.g., drug use, sexual risk behaviors, driving after drinking) and alcohol use severity. Multinomial logistic regression indicated that men, those who had sex after substance use, those who had used drugs, and those with higher alcohol severity were more likely to be Combined users than Non-Users. Those with higher alcohol severity were also more likely to be Combined users than Separate users. Combining energy drinks and alcohol is associated with higher rates of other risk behaviors among young drinkers. Future studies are needed to determine longitudinal relationships of energy drink use on substance use problem trajectories. PMID:25528143

  14. Differential relationships of family drinking with alcohol expectancy among urban school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Positive alcohol outcome expectancy has consistently been linked with problematic drinking, but there is little population-based evidence on its role on early stages of drinking in childhood. The present study seeks to understand the extent to which drinking of family members is differentially associated with the endorsement of alcohol expectancy in late childhood. Methods A representative sample of 4th and 6th graders (N = 2455) drawn from 28 public schools in an urban region of Taiwan completed a self-administered paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Each student provided information on alcohol expectancy, drinking experiences, and individual and family attributes. Complex survey analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship, with stratification by children's alcohol drinking history. Results An estimated 29% of the 4th graders and 43% of the 6th graders had initiated alcohol consumption (over 40% of them had drank on three or more occasions). Alcohol drinking-related differences appear in both the endorsement and the correlates of alcohol expectancy. Positive alcohol expectancy was strongly associated with family drinking, particularly the dimension of "enhanced social behaviors"; negative alcohol expectancy was inversely associated with drinking frequency. Among alcohol naïve children, significant connections appear between paternal drinking and three dimensions of positive alcohol expectancy (i.e., enhanced social behaviors:βwt = 0.15, promoting relaxation or tension reduction:βwt = 0.18, and global positive transformation:βwt = 0.22). Conclusions Individual tailored strategies that address family influences on alcohol expectancy may be needed in prevention programs targeting drinking behaviors in children. PMID:21303522

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations Between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-Related Problems.

    PubMed

    Young, Chelsie M; DiBello, Angelo M; Traylor, Zachary K; Zvolensky, Michael J; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-09-01

    The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over 2 years. First-year college student drinkers (n = 818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every 6 months over a 2-year period. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  16. Alcohol outlet density, levels of drinking and alcohol-related harm in New Zealand: a national study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Jennie L; Kypri, Kypros; Bell, Melanie L; Cousins, Kimberly

    2011-10-01

    Previous research shows associations of geographical density of alcohol outlets with a range of alcohol-related harms. Socioeconomic conditions that are associated with both outlet density and alcohol-related outcomes may confound many studies. We examined the association of outlet density with both consumption and harm throughout New Zealand while controlling for indicators of area deprivation and individual socioeconomic status (SES). Individual alcohol consumption and drinking consequences were measured in a 2007 national survey of 18-70 year olds (n=1925). All alcohol outlets in New Zealand were geocoded. Outlet density was the number of outlets of each type (off-licences (stores that sell alcoholic beverages for consumption elsewhere), bars, clubs, restaurants) within 1 km of a person's home. We modelled the association of outlet density with total consumption, binge drinking, risky drinking (above New Zealand guidelines) and two measures of effects ('harms' and 'troubles' due to drinking) in the previous year. Logistic regression and zero-inflated Poisson models were used, adjusting for sex, educational level, a deprivation index (NZDep06) and a rurality index. No statistically significant association was seen between outlet density and either average alcohol consumption or risky drinking. Density of off-licences was positively associated with binge drinking, and density of all types of outlet was associated with alcohol-related harm scores, before and after adjustment for SES. Associations of off-licences and clubs with trouble scores were no longer statistically significant in the adjusted analysis. The positive associations seen between alcohol outlet density and both individual level binge drinking and alcohol-related problems appear to be independent of individual and neighbourhood SES. Reducing density of alcohol outlets may reduce alcohol-related harm among those who live nearby.

  17. Male solitary drinking and hazardous alcohol use in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    PubMed

    Stickley, Andrew; Koyanagi, Ai; Roberts, Bayard; Murphy, Adrianna; Kizilova, Kseniya; McKee, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Despite evidence that many people engage in solitary drinking and that it might be associated with negative consequences, to date, little research has focused on this form of drinking behaviour. This study examined the prevalence and factors associated with solitary drinking, and assessed whether it is linked with hazardous alcohol use among males in nine countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data came from a cross-sectional population-based survey undertaken in 2010/11 in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine. Information was obtained on the frequency of solitary drinking among male regular drinkers (i.e., those consuming alcoholic drinks at least once a month), and on problem drinking (CAGE) and heavy episodic drinking (HED). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between the variables. The prevalence of occasional and frequent solitary drinking ranged from 8.4% (Georgia) to 42.4% (Azerbaijan), and 3.1% (Kazakhstan) to 8.2% (Armenia), respectively. Solitary drinking was associated with being older, divorced/widowed, living alone, having a bad/very bad household financial situation, lower levels of social support, and poor self-rated health. Occasional solitary drinking was linked to problem drinking and HED, while frequent solitary alcohol use was related to problem drinking. Solitary drinking is relatively common among male regular drinkers in the fSU and is linked to older age, social and economic disadvantage, and hazardous alcohol use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  19. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  20. Underage College Students' Drinking Behavior, Access to Alcohol, and the Influence of Deterrence Policies: Findings from the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Lee, Jae Eun; Nelson, Toben F.; Kuo, Meichun

    2002-01-01

    Used data from college alcohol surveys conducted between 1993-01 to compare underage students' and older students' drinking behaviors, access to alcohol, and exposure to prevention. While underage drinking rates decreased, binge drinking rates remained constant. Underage students' frequent binge drinking and related problems increased. College…

  1. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  2. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  3. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  4. A Naturalistic Experiment on Alcohol Availability Patterns of Consumption and the Context for Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin; Alsop, Brent

    Reduced alcohol availability following the closure of the sole hotels in two rural towns afforded a naturalistic experiment to study the effects of alcohol availability and context for drinking on consumption. Measures of consumption derived from interviews, total dollars of liquor sales, and police drink-driving data were compared across two…

  5. Genderedness of Bar Drinking Culture and Alcohol-Related Harms: A Multi-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in…

  6. Alcohol Outlet Density, Drinking Contexts and Intimate Partner Violence: A Review of Environmental Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunradi, Carol B.; Mair, Christina; Todd, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use is a robust predictor of intimate partner violence (IPV). A critical barrier to progress in preventing alcohol-related IPV is that little is known about how an individual's specific drinking contexts (where, how often, and with whom one drinks) are related to IPV, or how these contexts are affected by environmental characteristics,…

  7. Alcohol-Related Information in Multi-Component Interventions and College Students' Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thadani, Vandana; Huchting, Karen; LaBrie, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Education-only interventions produce little change in drinking behaviors; but, multi-component prevention programs, which include alcohol information as one feature, can decrease drinking. This study examined the role of alcohol knowledge in a multi-component intervention previously found to reduce first-year female college students' alcohol…

  8. The Effect of Perceived Parental Approval of Drinking on Alcohol Use and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messler, Erick C.; Quevillon, Randal P.; Simons, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between perceived parental approval of drinking and alcohol use and problems was explored with undergraduate students in a small midwestern university. Participants completed a survey measuring demographic information, perceived approval of drinking, and alcohol use and problems. Results indicated perceived parental approval of…

  9. Effects of school, family and alcohol marketing communication on alcohol use and intentions to drink among Thai students.

    PubMed

    Kheokao, Jantima K; Kirkgulthorn, Tassanee; Yingrengreung, Siritorn; Singhprapai, Phuwasith

    2013-07-04

    This study explored effects of family, school, and marketing communications on alcohol use and intention to drink of Thai students. We conducted a survey in which 5,184 students participated. Respondents were selected randomly from school districts throughout Thailand. In this survey we measured the exposure to, reception of, and perceptions concerning alcohol marketing communication, school absenteeism and achievement, family alcohol use, students' alcohol use, and drinking intentions. Findings indicated students' low alcohol use, moderate intention to drink, and high prevalence of family drinking. The levels of exposure and also the information receptivity to alcohol media marketing of Thai students were low. The respondents had a high level of media literacy on alcohol marketing communication. Multiple regression and focus group discussions provided support for the contention that there were significant effects of school achievement, absenteeism and media marketing communication on alcohol use (R2 = 14%) and intention to drink (R2 = 11%). Therefore, consideration of relevant school and alcohol policies, including monitoring of media marketing communication, will be needed.

  10. Mixing alcohol with energy drink (AMED) and total alcohol consumption: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Verster, Joris C; Benson, Sarah; Johnson, Sean J; Scholey, Andrew; Alford, Chris

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that consuming alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) may increase total alcohol consumption. Aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were (i) to compare alcohol consumption of AMED consumers with alcohol only (AO) consumers (between-group comparisons), and (ii) to examine if alcohol consumption of AMED consumers differs on AMED and AO occasions (within-subject comparisons). A literature search identified fourteen studies. Meta-analyses of between-group comparisons of N = 5212 AMED consumers and N = 12,568 AO consumers revealed that on a typical single drinking episode AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than AO consumers (p = 0.0001, ES = 0.536, 95%CI: 0.349 to 0.724). Meta-analyses of within-subject comparisons among N = 2871 AMED consumers revealed no significant difference in overall alcohol consumption on a typical drinking episode between AMED and AO occasions (p = 0.465, ES = -0.052, 95%CI: -0.192 to 0.088). In conclusion, between-group comparisons suggest that heavy alcohol consumption is one of the several phenotypical differences between AMED and AO consumers. Within-subject comparisons revealed, however, that AMED consumption does not increase the total amount of alcohol consumed on a single drinking episode.

  11. Rewarding, stimulant, and sedative alcohol responses and relationship to future binge drinking.

    PubMed

    King, Andrea C; de Wit, Harriet; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2011-04-01

    Excessive consumption of alcohol is a major problem in the United States and abroad. Despite many years of study, it is unclear why some individuals drink alcohol excessively while others do not. It has been postulated that either lower or greater acute responses to alcohol, or both, depending on the limb of the breath alcohol concentration curve, contribute to propensity for alcohol misuse. To prospectively assess the relationship of acute alcohol responses to future binge drinking. Within-subject, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multidose laboratory alcohol challenge study with intensive follow-up. Each participant completed 3 randomized sessions examining responses to a high (0.8 g/kg) and low (0.4 g/kg) alcohol dose and placebo, followed by quarterly assessments for 2 years examining drinking behaviors and alcohol diagnoses. Participants recruited from the community. High-risk heavy social drinkers aged 21 to 35 years who habitually engage in weekly binge drinking (n = 104) and light drinker controls (n = 86). We conducted 570 laboratory sessions with a subsequent 99.1% follow-up (1506 of 1520). Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scale, Drug Effects Questionnaire, cortisol response, Timeline Follow-Back, Drinker Inventory of Consequences-Recent, and DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol produced greater stimulant and rewarding (liking and wanting) responses and lower sedative and cortisol responses in heavy vs light drinkers. Among the heavy drinkers, greater positive effects and lower sedative effects after alcohol consumption predicted increased binge drinking frequency during follow-up. In turn, greater frequency of binge drinking during follow-up was associated with greater likelihood of meeting diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse and dependence. The widely held low level response theory and differentiator model should be revised: in high-risk drinkers, stimulant and rewarding alcohol responses even at peak breath alcohol concentrations are important

  12. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting idols, friends and normative drinking practices.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Kolt, Gregory S; Webber, Andrew; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

     High-profile sportspeople are posited as role models for others. We examine whether university sportspeople and non-sportspeople's perceptions of high-profile sportspeople's (sports stars) and friends perceived drinking behaviours are related to their own drinking behaviours. Further, we examine the importance of drinking with competitors after sports events.  A convenience sample of 1028 participants (58% females, n=652 sportspeople) from two Australian universities were approached at sporting and university venues. Participants completed a survey booklet containing demographic questions, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT, alcohol measure), perceived drinking of high-profile sportspeople and friends (social norms), and for sportspeople only, items assessing the importance of drinking with competitors. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to assess relationships.  Both sporting and non-sporting participants perceived high-profile sportspeople to drink less than themselves and their friends. Small significant bivariate relationships were found between high-profile sportspeople's perceived drinking and self-reported drinking for sportspeople (r=0.20, P <0.0005). However, in multivariate regression models the perceived drinking behaviours of high-profile sportspeople were not significant predictors of sportspeople's drinking, and were negatively related to non-sportspeople's drinking. The practice of drinking with competitors after sports and games accounted for an additional 6.1% of the unique variance in AUDIT-scores (P<0.0005).  Sports stars are touted as negative role models when it comes to drinking. Contrary to expectations high-profile sportspeople were not perceived to be heavy drinkers and their perceived drinking was not predictive of others drinking. Friends' and normative drinking practices were predictors of drinking.[O'Brien KS, Kolt GS, Webber A, Hunter JA. Alcohol consumption in sport: The influence of sporting

  13. A UK student survey investigating the effects of consuming alcohol mixed with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sean J; Alford, Chris; Stewart, Karina; Verster, Joris C

    2016-12-01

    Previous research reported positive associations between alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption and overall alcohol consumption. However, results were largely based on between-subjects comparisons comparing AMED consumers with alcohol-only (AO) consumers, and therefore cannot sufficiently control for differences in personal characteristics between these groups. In order to determine whether AMED consumers drink more alcohol on occasions they consume AMED compared to those when they drink AO additional within-subjects comparisons are required. Therefore, this UK student survey assessed both alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences when consumed alone and when mixed with energy drinks, using a within-subject design. A total of 1873 students completed the survey, including 732 who consumed AMED. It was found that AMED consumers drank significantly less alcohol when they consumed AMED compared to when they drank AO (p < 0.001). In line with reduced alcohol consumption significantly fewer negative alcohol-related consequences were reported on AMED occasions compared to AO occasions (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that mixing alcohol with energy drinks does not increase total alcohol consumption or alcohol-related negative consequences.

  14. Heavy alcohol consumption among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia: motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking.

    PubMed

    Horyniak, Danielle; Higgs, Peter; Cogger, Shelley; Dietze, Paul; Bofu, Tapuwa

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about substance use among resettled refugee populations. This study aimed to describe motivations for drinking, experiences of alcohol-related problems and strategies for managing drinking among marginalised African refugee young people in Melbourne, Australia. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 self-identified African refugees recruited from street-based settings in 2012-2013. Interview transcripts were analysed inductively to identify key themes. Participants gathered in public spaces to consume alcohol on a daily or near-daily basis. Three key motivations for heavy alcohol consumption were identified: drinking to cope with trauma, drinking to cope with boredom and frustration and drinking as a social experience. Participants reported experiencing a range of health and social consequences of their alcohol consumption, including breakdown of family relationships, homelessness, interpersonal violence, contact with the justice system and poor health. Strategies for managing drinking included attending counselling or residential detoxification programmes, self-imposed physical isolation and intentionally committing crime in order to be incarcerated. These findings highlight the urgent need for targeted harm reduction education for African young people who consume alcohol. Given the importance of social relationships within this community, use of peer-based strategies are likely to be particularly effective. Development and implementation of programmes that address the underlying health and psychosocial causes and consequences of heavy alcohol use are also needed.

  15. Disentangling the Effects of Parental Drinking, Family Management, and Parental Alcohol Norms on Current Drinking by Black and White Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Peggy L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A longitudinal study of 450 adolescents and their parents, begun when the adolescents were ages 12 to 13, found that parental drinking frequency was a predictor of alcohol use at ages 14 to 15 for both black and white adolescents. Good family management practices and proscriptions against involving children in other family members' alcohol use…

  16. Evaluation of the Evidence Base for the Alcohol Industry's Actions to Reduce Drink Driving Globally.

    PubMed

    Esser, Marissa B; Bao, James; Jernigan, David H; Hyder, Adnan A

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the evidence base for the content of initiatives that the alcohol industry implemented to reduce drink driving from 1982 to May 2015. We systematically analyzed the content of 266 global initiatives that the alcohol industry has categorized as actions to reduce drink driving. Social aspects public relations organizations (i.e., organizations funded by the alcohol industry to handle issues that may be damaging to the business) sponsored the greatest proportion of the actions. Only 0.8% (n = 2) of the sampled industry actions were consistent with public health evidence of effectiveness for reducing drink driving. The vast majority of the alcohol industry's actions to reduce drink driving does not reflect public health evidenced-based recommendations, even though effective drink-driving countermeasures exist, such as a maximum blood alcohol concentration limit of 0.05 grams per deciliter for drivers and widespread use of sobriety checkpoints.

  17. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  18. Alcohol Expectancies and Drinking Behaviors among College Students with Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Christina C.; Curry, John F.; Looney, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. Participants: The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent…

  19. Lifetime drinking history in patients with alcoholic liver disease and patients with alcohol use disorder without liver disease.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jon Kristinn; Olafsson, Sigurdur; Bergmann, Ottar M; Runarsdottir, Valgerdur; Hansdottir, Ingunn; Sigurdardottir, Ragna; Björnsson, Einar S

    To determine the differences in lifetime alcohol intake (LAI) and drinking patterns between patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) without notable liver injury and between males and females with ALD. Alcohol drinking patterns were assessed using the Lifetime Drinking History (LDH) a validated questionnaire, during an outpatient visit. Patients with AUD, currently in addiction treatment, were matched for gender and age (±5 years) with the ALD group. A total of 39 patients with ALD (26 males and 13 females; median age 58) and equal number of AUD patients were included (median age 56 years). The onset age for alcohol drinking and duration of alcohol consumption was similar in ALD and AUD. The number of drinking days was higher in women with ALD than in women with AUD: 4075 [(3224-6504) versus 2092 (1296-3661), p = .0253]. The LAI and drinks per drinking day (DDD) were not significantly different between patients with ALD and AUD. Females with ALD had lower LAI than males with ALD: 32,934 (3224-6504) versus 50,923 (30,360-82,195), p = .0385, fewer DDD (p = .0112), and lower proportion of binge drinking as compared to males with ALD (p = .0274). The total LAI was similar in patients with ALD and AUD. The number of drinking days over the lifetime was associated with the development of ALD in females. Females with ALD had significantly lower alcohol consumption than men with ALD despite similar duration in years of alcohol intake which supports the concept of female propensity of ALD.

  20. A Longitudinal Examination of the Associations between Shyness, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Alcohol-related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Young, Chelsie M.; DiBello, Angelo M.; Traylor, Zachary K.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Neighbors, Clayton

    2015-01-01

    Background The current study evaluated the roles of drinking motives and shyness in predicting problem alcohol use over two years. Methods First-year college student drinkers (N=818) completed assessments of alcohol use and related problems, shyness, and drinking motives every six months over a two year period. Results Generalized linear mixed models indicated that shyness was associated with less drinking, but more alcohol-related problems. Further, shyness was associated with coping, conformity, and enhancement drinking motives, but was not associated with social drinking motives. However, when examining coping motives, moderation analyses revealed that social drinking motives were more strongly associated with coping motives among individuals higher in shyness. In addition, coping, conformity, and enhancement motives, but not social motives, mediated associations between shyness and alcohol-related problems over time. Finally, coping motives mediated the association between the interaction of shyness and social motives and alcohol-related problems. Conclusions Together, the results suggest that shy individuals may drink to reduce negative affect, increase positive affect, and fit in with others in social situations, which may then contribute to greater risk for subsequent alcohol-related problems. PMID:26207856

  1. The importance of alcohol expectancies and drinking refusal self-efficacy in the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Lee, N K; Oei, T P

    1993-01-01

    Expectancies about alcohol have been shown to be related to and predictive of alcohol consumption. Research to date, however, has often failed to make a clear distinction between expectations about the effects of alcohol (alcohol expectancies) and expectations about one's ability to resist drinking in certain situations (drinking refusal self-efficacy). There is some evidence that alcohol expectancies (AE) and drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) can play differential roles in the prediction of consumption in terms of quantity and frequency of drinking. This study aimed to replicate and extend these findings to the community population. Subjects (N = 185) were recruited from the general community using a peer network system. They were given a booklet comprising six self-report measures, including the Drinking Expectancy Questionnaire (DEQ), the Drinking Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (DSEQ), and the Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT), which produces measures of usual and maximum quantity as well as frequency of the usual and maximum consumed. It was expected that AE would be related to frequency of consumption whereas DRSE would be related to both quantity and frequency. The findings confirmed the differential role of AE and DRSE in drinking, and the role of factors within the two concepts. Results indicated that low DRSE was related to higher frequency of general consumption and a larger maximum quantity on any one occasion. AE was related to frequency, but not to quantity, as expected. The findings are presented with respect to the theoretical constructs; clinical and research implications are also discussed.

  2. Alcohol consumption patterns and attitudes toward drink-drive behaviours and road safety enforcement strategies.

    PubMed

    Stephens, A N; Bishop, C A; Liu, S; Fitzharris, M

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol contributes to approximately 30% of all serious crashes. While the majority of drivers acknowledge the risks associated with drink-driving, a significant proportion of the population continue to engage in this behaviour. Attitudes towards drink-driving as well as personal alcohol consumption patterns are likely to underpin a driver's decision to drink-drive. These associations were explored in the current study. A large (N=2994) cross-sectional online survey of a representative sample of drivers in Australia was conducted. Participants provided information about their own alcohol consumption patterns, drink-driving behaviour as well as attitudes towards drink-driving (own and others) and enforcement strategies. Alcohol consumption patterns differed according to age, gender and work status. Drivers who reported drink-driving behaviour and had high risk alcohol consumption patterns were less likely to agree that drink-driving leads to increased crash risk and more likely to agree they drink and drive when they believed they could get away with it. In contrast, drivers who did not report drink-driving and had low risk consumption patterns were more likely to report that the enforcement strategies are too lenient. Binary logistic regression showed that high risk alcohol consumption patterns and agreement from drivers that they drink and drive when they believe they can get away with it had the strongest associations with drink-driving. These findings highlight the relationships between one's drinking patterns, drink-drive behaviour and attitudes towards drink-driving and drink-driving enforcement CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The patterns of associations that emerged suggest that drink-driving is the expression of a broader health issue for the most "at-risk" cohort of drinkers. The decision to drink and drive may result from a need borne from an alcohol dependent lifestyle exacerbated by a social acceptability of the behaviour and positive attitudes towards

  3. Alcohol expectancies and drinking behaviors among college students with disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Rush, Christina C; Curry, John F; Looney, John G

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated binge drinking, alcohol expectancies, and risky and protective drinking behaviors in relation to disordered eating behaviors in male and female college students. The full sample consisted of 7,720 undergraduate students, 18 to 22 years of age. Drinking behaviors were analyzed in 4,592 recent drinkers. Participants anonymously completed a survey as part of a universal alcohol abuse prevention program between September 2007 and April 2008. Co-occurring disordered eating behaviors and binge drinking characterized 17.1% of males and 19.0% of females. Rates of binge drinking were higher in those with disordered eating behaviors. Students with disordered eating behaviors also had more positive and negative alcohol expectancies and engaged in more risky and fewer protective drinking behaviors than their counterparts. Students with disordered eating behaviors have outcome expectancies and behavior patterns associated with problematic drinking. These findings may enhance prevention and intervention programs.

  4. Genderedness of bar drinking culture and alcohol-related harms: A multi-country study

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Sarah C. M.; Bond, Jason; Korcha, Rachael; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether associations between consuming alcohol in bars and alcohol-related harms are consistent across countries and whether country-level characteristics modify associations. We hypothesized that genderedness of bar drinking modifies associations, such that odds of harms associated with bar drinking increase more rapidly in predominantly male bar-drinking countries. Multilevel analysis was used to analyze survey data from 21 countries representing five continents from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An International Study (GENACIS). Bar frequency was positively associated with harms overall. Relationships between bar frequency and harms varied across country. Genderedness modified associations between bar frequency and odds of fights, marriage/relationship harms, and work harms. Findings were significant only for men. Contrary to our hypothesis, odds of harms associated with bar drinking increased less rapidly in countries where bar drinking is predominantly male. This suggests predominantly male bar drinking cultures may be protective for males who more frequently drink in bars. PMID:23710158

  5. Binge drinking and alcohol-related problems among U.S.-born Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Derek; Takamatsu, Stephanie; Castellanos, Jeanett

    2012-07-01

    Binge drinking (five drinks or more in a 2-h sitting for men or four or more drinks in a 2-h sitting for women) and alcohol-related problems are a growing problem among Asian American young adults. The current study examines the sociocultural (i.e., generational status and ethnic identity) determinants of binge drinking and alcohol-related problems across U.S.-born, young-adult, Asian American ethnic groups. Data were collected from 1,575 Asian American undergraduates from a public university in Southern California. Chinese Americans consisted of the largest Asian ethnicity in the study, followed by Vietnamese, Filipino, Korean, South Asian, Japanese, Multi-Asian, and "other Asian American." Participants completed a web-based assessment of binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, ethnic identity, descriptive norms (i.e., perceived peer drinking norms), and demographic information. An analysis of variance was used to determine potential gender and ethnic differences in binge drinking and alcohol-related problems. Negative binomial regression was selected to examine the relationship between the predictors and outcomes in our model. There were no gender differences between Asian American men and women in regards to binge drinking; however, men reported more alcohol-related problems. Japanese Americans reported the highest number of binge-drinking episodes and alcohol-related problems, followed by Filipino and Multi-Asian Americans (e.g., Chinese and Korean). Living off-campus; higher scores in descriptive norms; Greek status; and belonging to the ethnic groups Japanese, Filipino, Multi-Asian, Korean, and South Asian increased the risk of engaging in binge drinking. Quantity of alcohol consumed, Greek status, gender, Filipino, South Asian, other Asian, and lower ethnic identity scores were related to alcohol-related problems. Using one of the largest samples collected to date on sociocultural determinants and drinking among U.S.-born Asian American young adults, the

  6. The Potential Clinical Utility of Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring Data to Estimate the Number of Alcoholic Drinks Consumed

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Cates, Sharon E.; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Transdermal alcohol monitoring is used extensively in forensic settings to identify whether individuals have violated court-ordered mandates to abstain from drinking. Despite widespread use in that setting, comparatively few studies have explored the clinical utility of transdermal alcohol monitoring. Furthermore, of the few studies conducted, most have relied on the forensically established conservative criteria to identify whether or not a drinking episode has occurred. Here, we explore how transdermal alcohol monitoring data can be used to estimate more clinically meaningful parameters relevant to clinical treatment programs. Methods We developed a procedure to use transdermal data to objectively estimate the number of standardized drinks an individual has consumed. Participants included 46 men and women who consumed 1 to 5 beers within 2 hours in the laboratory on separate days while wearing devices to monitor transdermal alcohol concentrations (TAC). Results A mathematical model was derived to estimate the number of standardized alcohol drinks consumed, which included a number of variables (time-to-peak TAC, area under the TAC curve, and sex). The model was then validated by applying it to data from a separate study. Our results indicate that transdermal alcohol devices can be used to estimate the number of standard drinks consumed. Conclusions Objective methods characterizing both the level of intoxication achieved and the number of drinks consumed, such as transdermal alcohol monitoring, could be useful in both research and treatment settings. PMID:26500459

  7. Favourite alcohol advertisements and binge drinking among adolescents: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Sargent, James D; Sweeting, Helen; Faggiano, Fabrizio; Mathis, Federica; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between having a favourite alcohol advertisement and binge drinking among European adolescents. Data were obtained from a longitudinal observational study on relationships between smoking and drinking and film tobacco and alcohol exposures. State-funded schools. Baseline survey of 12 464 German, Italian, Polish and Scottish adolescents (mean age 13.5 years), of whom 10 259 (82%) were followed-up 12 months later. Pupils were asked the brand of their favourite alcohol advertisement at baseline. Multi-level mixed-effects logistic regressions assessed relationships between having a favourite alcohol advertisement ('alcohol marketing receptivity') and (i) binge drinking at baseline; and (ii) initiating binge drinking during follow-up among a subsample of 7438 baseline never binge drinkers. Life-time binge drinking prevalence at baseline was 29.9% and 25.9% initiated binge drinking during follow-up. Almost one-third of the baseline sample (32.1%) and 22.6% of the follow-up sample of never-bingers named a branded favourite alcohol advertisement, with high between-country variation in brand named. After controlling for age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics and drinking behaviour of peers, parents and siblings, alcohol marketing receptivity was related significantly to both binge drinking at baseline [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.92, 2.36] and binge drinking initiation in longitudinal analysis (AOR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.26, 1.66). There was no evidence for effect heterogeneity across countries. Among European adolescents naming a favourite alcohol advertisement was associated with increased likelihood of initiating binge drinking during 1-year follow-up, suggesting a relationship between alcohol marketing receptivity and adolescent binge drinking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. The subjective, rather than the disinhibiting, effects of alcohol are related to binge drinking.

    PubMed

    Rose, Abigail Katherine; Grunsell, Laura

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that alcohol-related problems are associated with impulsivity and disinhibited behavior. Less certain is whether disinhibited behavior is due to an impulsive disposition or alcohol's ability to disinhibit some people more than others. There are a range of disinhibited behaviors associated with alcohol, including excessive alcohol consumption, bingeing. The study tested whether nondependent alcohol bingers showed more disinhibition after placebo and/or alcohol relative to nonbingers and whether this was related to enhanced motivation to drink following a priming dose of alcohol. Twenty participants (10 bingers) attended the laboratory twice. Baseline measures included impulsivity, alcohol-related cognitions, alcohol urge, and mood. Participants were preloaded with alcohol (male: 0.6 g/kg, female: 0.5 g/kg) and placebo (counterbalanced). After a 20-minute rest, participants completed 2 impulsivity tasks (Two Choice & Time Estimation) separated by second urge and mood ratings. Bingers did not show greater impulsivity characteristics but were more concerned about their drinking (p = 0.02) and ability to control drinking (p = 0.04). A priming effect was found: alcohol urge increased after alcohol but not placebo (p = 0.006). Bingers reported greater tolerance to the sedative (p = 0.05) and lightheaded (p = 0.04) effects of alcohol, relative to nonbingers. Binge status was not associated with impulsivity task performance, while preload type (alcohol/placebo) supported only marginal associations. Risk of binge drinking in nondependent individuals is not strongly affected by impulsive personality characteristics or alcohol's ability to induce behavioral disinhibition. However, alcohol did lead to a priming effect and bingers were more tolerant to the sedative and lightheaded effects of alcohol relative to placebo. Risk of binge drinking is associated with the subjective effects of a priming dose of alcohol.

  9. Reported alcohol drinking and mental health problems in Hong Kong Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, R; Ho, S Y; Wang, M P; Lo, W S; Lam, T H

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the association between reported alcohol drinking and mental health problems in Hong Kong adolescents. In a school-based questionnaire survey in 2012-13 on 4620 Secondary one (US Grade seven) to six students (mean age 14.5, SD 1.6 years; 53.4% boys), alcohol drinking was classified as never drinking (reference), experimental, former, less-than-weekly and weekly drinking. Binge drinking was defined as drinking at least five drinks on one occasion. Mental health was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) with five subscales (emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer relationship problems and prosocial activity) and the total difficulties score (sum of the first four subscales). Multilevel regression was used to analyse the associations of mental health problems with drinking frequency and binge drinking, adjusting for potential confounders. Compared with never drinking, higher total difficulties scores were associated with less-than-weekly drinking (adjusted odds ratio AOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.91), weekly drinking (AOR 3.21, 95% CI 2.18-4.70), and binge drinking (AOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.42-3.32). Weekly drinking was most strongly associated with hyperactivity (AOR 6.27, 95% CI 1.42-3.32) among all subscales. Girls were more likely than boys to report emotional problems (AOR 3.36 vs 1.47) and hyperactivity (AOR 19.2 vs 2.31) related to weekly alcohol drinking (both P for interaction <0.05). In Hong Kong adolescents, less-than-weekly, weekly, and binge drinking are associated with higher risks of mental health problems based on self-reported data. Prospective studies are warranted to explore the causality between alcohol drinking and mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Portrayal of Alcohol Consumption in Movies and Drinking Initiation in Low-Risk Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sargent, James D.; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen; Engels, Rutger C.M.E.; Scholte, Ron H.J.; Mathis, Federica; Florek, Ewa; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol consumption in movies affects the likelihood that low-risk adolescents will start to drink alcohol. METHODS: Longitudinal study of 2346 adolescent never drinkers who also reported at baseline intent to not to do so in the next 12 months (mean age 12.9 years, SD = 1.08). Recruitment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in 112 state-funded schools in Germany, Iceland, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, and Scotland. Exposure to movie alcohol consumption was estimated from 250 top-grossing movies in each country in the years 2004 to 2009. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions assessed the relationship between baseline exposure to movie alcohol consumption and initiation of trying alcohol, and binge drinking (≥ 5 consecutive drinks) at follow-up. RESULTS: Overall, 40% of the sample initiated alcohol use and 6% initiated binge drinking by follow-up. Estimated mean exposure to movie alcohol consumption was 3653 (SD = 2448) occurrences. After age, gender, family affluence, school performance, TV screen time, personality characteristics, and drinking behavior of peers, parents, and siblings were controlled for, exposure to each additional 1000 movie alcohol occurrences was significantly associated with increased relative risk for trying alcohol, incidence rate ratio = 1.05 (95% confidence interval, 1.02–1.08; P = .003), and for binge drinking, incidence rate ratio = 1.13 (95% confidence interval, 1.06–1.20; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Seeing alcohol depictions in movies is an independent predictor of drinking initiation, particularly for more risky patterns of drinking. This result was shown in a heterogeneous sample of European youths who had a low affinity for drinking alcohol at the time of exposure. PMID:24799536

  11. Oral infection, regular alcohol drinking pattern, and myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Håheim, Lise Lund; Olsen, Ingar; Rønningen, Kjersti S

    2012-12-01

    Oral infections have been associated with an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Conversely, low, regular alcohol consumption is associated with a lower association of CVD. The objective was to test the novel hypothesis that oral infections are modified by regular alcohol drinking which has the effect of lowering the incidence of MI's. The effect has been observed where tooth extractions where carried out due to infections and compared with extractions unconnected to infections. Oral infections and in particular periodontal infections impose an infectious load on the health in many people. In its advanced forms (periodontal pockets ≥ 6mm) periodontitis affects ∼10-15% of adults. The infection runs a chronic course with exacerbations. The bacteria cause local infection destructive to the supporting tissues of the teeth and have been detected in systemic diseases through bacterial products and bacteria entering the circulation. The often persistent, long term history of chronic periodontal infection in individuals is a challenge to the immune system. Over 700 oral bacteria and other microorganisms have been identified, many of which are virulent. Control of the level of oral microbiota is through well known oral hygiene measures. Alcohol by being bactericidal is a factor that may reduce the bacterial level in the oral cavity. If this effect truly exists, it should be observed through reduction of infections in the mouth. Tooth extraction is the ultimate consequence of periodontal and dental infections and a reduction of tooth extraction due to infections should therefore be observed. The hypothesis was tested using the screening data of the Oslo II-study in a cross sectional analysis. The Oslo-study included men aged 48-67 years. The main finding was that the effect of a drinking pattern of 2-7 times per week reduced the risk of MI among men who had a history of tooth extractions due to infections versus tooth

  12. Social anxiety and alcohol-related impairment: The mediational impact of solitary drinking.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Terlecki, Meredith A

    2016-07-01

    Social anxiety disorder more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to drinking frequency. Inconsistent findings may be at least partially due to lack of attention to drinking context - it may be that socially anxious individuals are especially vulnerable to drinking more often in specific contexts that increase their risk for alcohol-related problems. For instance, socially anxious persons may drink more often while alone, before social situations for "liquid courage" and/or after social situations to manage negative thoughts about their performance. Among current (past-month) drinkers (N=776), social anxiety was significantly, positively related to solitary drinking frequency and was negatively related to social drinking frequency. Social anxiety was indirectly (via solitary drinking frequency) related to greater past-month drinking frequency and more drinking-related problems. Social anxiety was also indirectly (via social drinking frequency) negatively related to past-month drinking frequency and drinking-related problems. Findings suggest that socially anxious persons may be vulnerable to more frequent drinking in particular contexts (in this case alone) and that this context-specific drinking may play an important role in drinking problems among these high-risk individuals.

  13. Mental Health, Sleep Quality, Drinking Motives, and Alcohol-Related Consequences: A Path-Analytic Model

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; LaBrie, Joseph W.; Hummer,, Justin F.; Pham, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Poor mental health, sleep problems, drinking motivations, and high-risk drinking are prevalent among college students. However, research designed to explicate the interrelationships among these health risk behaviors is lacking. This study was designed to assess the direct and indirect influences of poor mental health (a latent factor consisting of depression, anxiety, and stress) to alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences through the mediators of global sleep quality and drinking motives in a comprehensive model. Method: Participants were 1,044 heavy-drinking college students (66.3% female) who completed online surveys. Results: A hybrid structural equation model tested hypotheses involving relations leading from poor mental health to drinking motives and poorer global sleep quality to drinking outcomes. Results showed that poor mental health significantly predicted all four subscales of drinking motivations (social, coping, conformity, and enhancement) as well as poor sleep. Most of the drinking motives and poor sleep were found to explain alcohol use and negative alcohol consequences. Poor sleep predicted alcohol consequences, even after controlling for all other variables in the model. The hypothesized mediational pathways were examined with tests of indirect effects. Conclusions: This is the first study to assess concomitantly the relationships among three vital health-related domains (mental health, sleep behavior, and alcohol risk) in college students. Findings offer important implications for college personnel and interventionists interested in reducing alcohol risk by focusing on alleviating mental health problems and poor sleep quality. PMID:24172110

  14. Do students mandated to intervention for campus alcohol-related violations drink more than nonmandated students?

    PubMed

    Merrill, Jennifer E; Carey, Kate B; Lust, Sarah A; Kalichman, Seth C; Carey, Michael P

    2014-12-01

    It is often assumed that "mandated students" (i.e., those who violate campus alcohol policies and are mandated to receive an alcohol intervention) drink more than students from the general population. To test this assumption empirically, we compared alcohol-use levels of a sample of students mandated for alcohol violations (n = 435) with a representative sample of nonmandated students from the same university (n = 1,876). As expected, mandated students were more likely to be male, younger, first-year students, and living in on-campus dorms, and they reported poorer academic performance (i.e., grade point averages). With respect to alcohol use, after controlling for demographic differences, they reported more drinks per week than those in the general university sample but they did not report drinking heavily more frequently than nonmandated students. Within the mandated student sample, there was considerable variability in drinking level; that is, the frequency of heavy drinking covered the full range from never to 10+ times in the past month, and there was a larger standard deviation for drinks per week among mandated students than among those in the general sample. These results challenge the assumption that mandated students drink heavily more often but do provide empirical support for the assumption that students who violate alcohol policies drink at higher quantities, justifying the need for an alcohol use reduction intervention.

  15. The role of social drinking motives in the relationship between social norms and alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Halim, Andrew; Hasking, Penelope; Allen, Felicity

    2012-12-01

    Social norms are key predictors of college student drinking. Additionally, the social reasons for consumption (i.e. social drinking motives) are important to understanding drinking behaviour. This study investigated the effects of social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption. A total of 229 college students completed an online questionnaire assessing their drinking behaviour, social drinking motives and their perceived drinking social norms. Drinking social norms were assessed as descriptive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived prevalence of alcohol consumption), and injunctive norms (i.e. the individual's perceived approval of drinking by their peers). Additionally, injunctive norms were further separated into distal (socially distant peers) and proximal (socially close peers). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed descriptive norms, proximal injunctive norms and social motives all independently predicted alcohol consumption. Additionally, the relationship between proximal injunctive norms and consumption, and descriptive norms and consumption was mediated by social motives. Lastly, there was a significant three-way interaction between descriptive norms, distal injunctive norms and social motives on drinking. Consideration of both the individual factors and the complex interplay between social norms and social motives on alcohol consumption is necessary to further understand drinking behaviour, and to develop more effective alcohol harm-reduction strategies.

  16. Self-Control and Implicit Drinking Identity as Predictors of Alcohol Consumption, Problems, and Cravings

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Kristen P; Neighbors, Clayton; Westgate, Erin; Salemink, Elske

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We investigated trait and alcohol-specific self-control as unique predictors and moderators of the relation between implicit drinking identity associations and drinking. Method: Three hundred undergraduates completed a drinking identity Implicit Association Test (IAT), trait and alcohol self-control questionnaires, and alcohol consumption, problems, and cravings inventories. Results: Regression analyses tested for unique effects of predictors and for Self-Control × IAT interactions. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in consumption, but there was no evidence of moderation effects. Both types of self-control, but not IAT scores, accounted for unique variance in problems. A Trait Self-Control × Implicit Drinking interaction accounted for excess zeros in problems, with a greater likelihood of not having alcohol problems among individuals with low implicit identity who had higher versus lower trait self-control. Each predictor accounted for unique variance in cravings. A Trait Self-Control × IAT interaction was also found, indicating that implicit drinking identity was a stronger predictor of cravings among those with lower versus higher trait self-control. Conclusions: Results are partially consistent with previous research: Both types of self-control and drinking identity associations predicted unique variance in drinking, and moderation effects were observed for trait self-control and drinking identity associations and two of the three drinking variables. Findings suggest that trait and alcohol-specific self-control and implicit drinking identity could be useful intervention targets. PMID:24650823

  17. Attitudes as mediators of the longitudinal association between alcohol advertising and youth drinking.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Matthis; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Hanewinkel, Reiner

    2011-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that changes in alcohol-related attitudes and expectancies mediate the effect of alcohol advertising on youth drinking. Longitudinal survey with a 9-month interval. Twenty-nine public schools in 3 German states. A total of 2130 sixth- to eighth-grade students (age range, 11-17 years; mean, 12.2 years) who were nondrinkers at baseline. Exposure to alcohol and nonalcohol advertising was measured at baseline with masked images of 17 commercial advertisements with all brand information digitally removed; students indicated contact frequency and brand names. Positive attitudes toward alcohol, current alcohol use, lifetime binge drinking. A total of 581 of the students (28%) started to drink alcohol during the observation period. Alcohol use initiation was positively related to baseline alcohol advertisement exposure. This effect of alcohol advertisement exposure on alcohol use was partially mediated by a change in alcohol-related attitudes, which explained about 35% of the total effect after controlling for baseline covariates and exposure to other advertising contents. The analysis revealed similar results for binge-drinking initiation. More favorable attitudes about alcohol may be one path through which alcohol advertising exerts behavioral influence.

  18. NMDA receptor antagonism has differential effects on alcohol craving and drinking in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; O’Malley, Stephanie S.; Franco, Nicholas; Cavallo, Dana A.; Morean, Meghan; Shi, Julia; Pittman, Brian; Krystal, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effects of the NMDA receptor antagonist, memantine (0, 20, 40 mg/day), upon alcohol drinking and craving in heavy drinkers with or without a family history (FH) of alcoholism, and to explore the modulatory influence of the presence of impulsivity on these outcomes. Methods Ninety-two, non-treatment-seeking, heavy drinkers received memantine or placebo for eight days. On the eighth day, they received a priming dose of ethanol followed by a three-hour period of alcohol access. Results Memantine at a dose of 20 mg reduced alcohol craving but did not influence alcohol drinking. No effects of FH were observed. In participants with higher baseline levels of impulsivity, 40 mg of memantine reduced alcohol craving but increased alcohol drinking and alcohol-induced stimulation. Conclusions NMDA receptor signaling may play divergent roles in mediating alcohol cue-induced craving and alcohol drinking in heavy drinkers. The potential efficacy of memantine as monotherapy for alcohol use disorders may be limited by its tendency to disinhibit drinking in some individuals. PMID:25664775

  19. Acute alcohol consumption and motivation to reduce drinking among injured patients in a Swedish emergency department.

    PubMed

    Trinks, Anna; Festin, Karin; Bendtsen, Preben; Cherpitel, Cheryl J; Nilsen, Per

    2012-10-01

    Injuries constitute a major public health problem. Millions of people are injured each year, and acute drinking is a well-known risk factor for injuries. Research suggests that acknowledgment of alcohol as a factor in an injury enhances willingness to change drinking behavior, possibly because the patient becomes aware of the negative consequences of their drinking. This study aims to investigate the prevalence of acute alcohol consumption (drinking before the event) among injury patients and to examine the importance of factors potentially associated with motivation to reduce alcohol consumption among these patients. All patients aged 18-69 years were requested to answer alcohol-related questions on a touchscreen computer. Fifteen percent of injured patients were categorized as acute drinkers, and of these, 64% reported that their injury was connected to alcohol. There were significant differences for all sociodemographic and drinking characteristics between acute drinkers and nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were categorized as risky drinkers to a much higher extent than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had a considerably higher average weekly alcohol consumption and engaged far more frequently in heavy episodic drinking than nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers were motivated to reduce their alcohol intake to a greater extent than nonacute drinkers; 51% were in the action, preparation, and contemplation stages, compared with 19% of the nonacute drinkers. Acute drinkers had considerably more detrimental alcohol consumption than nonacute drinkers, and the acute drinkers were more motivated to reduce their drinking than the nonacute drinkers.

  20. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks are robustly associated with patterns of problematic alcohol consumption among young adult college students.

    PubMed

    Snipes, Daniel J; Jeffers, Amy J; Green, Brooke A; Benotsch, Eric G

    2015-02-01

    Young adults are a population at great risk for problematic health behaviors. Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) consumption is a relatively popular health risk behavior among young adults. AmED consumption continues to illustrate negative outcomes in the research literature, having been linked with other substance use, high-risk sexual behavior, and sexual victimization. Limited research to date has examined associations between AmED consumption and patterns of alcohol dependence. Undergraduate college students (n=757) filled out an online survey which assessed their drinking habits in the past week and month, including their consumption of AmED beverages, personality characteristics, substance use, and problematic alcohol consumption via the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). A minority of participants reported AmED consumption in both the past month (11.6%) and past week (9.7%). Compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts, AmED consumers scored significantly higher on measures of impulsivity, and lower on anxiety sensitivity when compared to their alcohol-only drinking counterparts. In multivariate analyses, AmED consumption was robustly associated with patterns of alcohol dependence (AUDIT score≥8) among young adult college students, while controlling for energy drink use, alcohol use, personality factors, substance use, and demographic variables. AmED consumption in the past month is robustly associated with problematic alcohol consumption. The present study describes harmful outcomes associated with AmED consumption, and extends the literature on the combined effects of alcohol and energy drinks on young adult risk behaviors. Further research needs to address causal mechanisms for the AmED and problematic alcohol consumption relation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Age at First Drink, Drinking, Binge Drinking and DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder among Hispanic National Groups in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Mills, Britain A.; Vaeth, Patrice A. C.; Reingle, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper examines age at first drink and adult drinking, binge drinking and DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (AUD) among U.S. Hispanic national groups. Methods Respondents come from two independent studies. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older selected from the household population in: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston and Los Angeles. Respondents in the border area (N=1,307) constituted a household probability sample of Mexican Americans living on U.S. counties that border Mexico. In both surveys, data were collected during computer assisted interviews conducted in respondents' homes. The HABLAS and the border sample response rates were 76% and 67%, respectively. Results U.S. born Hispanics begin drinking at a younger age than those who are foreign born, independent of national group. Among foreign born Hispanics, age of arrival in the U.S. is not associated with age at first drink. Results support the hypothesis that a younger age at first drink is associated with a higher mean volume of drinking, a higher probability of bingeing and a higher probability of DSM-5 AUD. But the results do not show a clear pattern by which a particular national group would consistently show no associations or stronger associations between age at first drink and the alcohol-related outcomes under consideration. Conclusions An earlier age at first drinking is positively associated with heavier drinking patterns among U.S. Hispanics. However, as in other areas of alcohol epidemiology, here too there is considerable variation in age at first drink and drinking across Hispanic national groups. PMID:24689445

  2. Personality and alcohol metacognitions as predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ailsa; Tran, Cathy; Weiss, Alexander; Caselli, Gabriele; Nikčević, Ana V; Spada, Marcantonio M

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the relative contribution of the Big 5 personality factors and alcohol metacognitions in predicting weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. No research to date has investigated whether either of these constructs predicts levels of weekly alcohol use in binge drinkers. A sample of university students (n=142) who were classified as binge drinkers were administered the following self-report instruments: NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992), Positive Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (PAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), Negative Alcohol Metacognitions Scale (NAMS; Spada & Wells, 2008), and Khavari Alcohol Test (KAT; Khavari & Farber, 1978). Pearson product-moment correlations showed that weekly levels of alcohol use were negatively correlated with agreeableness and conscientiousness and positively correlated with positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation, negative alcohol metacognitions about uncontrollability and negative alcohol metacognitions about cognitive harm. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that conscientiousness and positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation were the only two significant predictors of weekly levels of alcohol use when controlling for gender. These findings show that being male, low on conscientiousness and high on positive alcohol metacognitions about cognitive self-regulation raises the risk for increased weekly levels of alcohol use in binge drinking university students. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Socioeconomic differences in alcohol-specific parenting practices and adolescents' drinking patterns.

    PubMed

    Spijkerman, Renske; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Huiberts, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent alcohol-specific parenting practices relate to adolescents' alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol-related problems, and whether these associations are moderated by socioeconomic status (SES), i.e. parents' education level and family income. The present data were collected within the framework of a representative study on alcohol use among Dutch students. The present findings are based on data from respondents who had been drinking in the past year (81.5%), and of whom one of the parents had filled out a short questionnaire including SES characteristics (52%). The sample consisted of 1,344 adolescents. Adolescents were approached in a school setting; parents received a short questionnaire at the home address. The results show that applying strict rules about alcohol use and having qualitative good conversations about drinking alcohol seem to prevent adolescents from heavy drinking patterns, whereas parental alcohol use seems to promote adolescents' drinking. A positive association was found between frequency of alcohol communication and availability of alcohol at home on the one hand and adolescents' drinking on the other. Some moderating effects of SES were found.

  4. Peers and social network on alcohol drinking through early adolescence in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Chen; Ting, Te-Tien; Chen, Duan-Rung; Tseng, Fang-Yi; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to identify peers and social network characteristics associated with drinking occasions through early adolescence. The study sample of 1808 middle school students (aged 13-15 years) in northern Taiwan was collected via a two-wave longitudinal study of the Alcohol-Related Experiences among Children (AREC). Data concerning individual sociodemographics, family characteristics, peer influence, and alcohol drinking behaviors were collected via web-based self-administered questionnaire. Building upon the maximum of five friends nominated by young respondents at 7th grade, class-based social network was first constructed via the UCINET and Pajek; the network position (i.e., member, bridge, and isolate) for each student was subsequently ascertained. Complex surveys analyses and negative binominal regression models were used to evaluate concurrent and prospective relationship estimates. Effects of peers and social network were found to operate differentially by childhood alcohol experience. For the alcohol naïve youngsters, receiving higher peer's nomination at baseline was linked with subsequent increased drinking occasions (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio [aIRR]=1.06; 95% CI=1.01-1.10), whereas having peers against alcohol drinking may reduce drinking occasions at 9th grade (aIRR=0.59; 95% CI=0.41-0.87). For the alcohol experienced youngsters, having parental alcohol offer, drinking peers, and attending classes of higher drinking norms may increase future drinking occasions by 90%, 80% and 44%, respectively. Our results demonstrated that parental alcohol offer, peer norms, and social network may affect adolescent drinking occasions differentially depending on childhood drinking experience. The findings have implications for the interventions to reduce alcohol consumption in underage population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Stressor-related drinking and future alcohol problems among university students.

    PubMed

    Russell, Michael A; Almeida, David M; Maggs, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    Research using daily designs has shown that daily stressors (i.e., conflict, school/work demands) are associated with alcohol use, and that the strength of within-person links between stressors and alcohol use differs from person to person. However, to our knowledge no research has tested whether individual differences in stressor-related drinking-characterized by within-person associations between daily stressors and drinking-predict risk for future alcohol problems, a relationship suggested by theoretical models. The current study used an Internet-based daily diary design among 744 university students to (a) examine the day-level relationship between stressors and alcohol use during the first 3 years of college, and (b) test whether individual differences in the stressor-drinking relationship, captured by person-specific slopes generated from multilevel models, predicted alcohol problems as measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) in the fourth year of college. Results showed that students were more likely to drink on days with many versus fewer stressors, and on drinking days, students consumed more drinks with each additional stressor they experienced. Next, using individual multilevel modeling slopes as predictors, we found that students whose odds of drinking alcohol increased more sharply on high- versus low-stressor days (steeper slopes) had more severe AUDIT alcohol problems in the fourth year than students whose drinking odds increased less sharply (flatter slopes). Findings highlight the role of daily stressors in college student drinking and suggest stressor-related drinking as a risk factor for future alcohol problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Absorption and peak blood alcohol concentration after drinking beer, wine, or spirits.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Mack C; Teigen, Erin L; Ramchandani, Vijay A

    2014-05-01

    Both the amount and the rate of absorption of ethanol (EtOH) from alcoholic beverages are key determinants of the peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and exposure of organs other than gut and liver. Previous studies suggest EtOH is absorbed more rapidly in the fasting than in the postprandial state. The concentration of EtOH and the type of beverage may determine gastric emptying/absorption of EtOH. The pharmacokinetics of EtOH were measured in 15 healthy men after consumption of 0.5 g of EtOH/kg body weight. During this 3-session crossover study, subjects consumed in separate sessions, beer (5.1% v/v), white wine (12.5% v/v), or vodka/tonic (20% v/v) over 20 minutes following an overnight fast. BAC was measured by gas chromatography at multiple points after consumption. Peak BAC (Cmax ) was significantly higher (p < 0.001) after vodka/tonic (77.4 ± 17.0 mg/dl) than after wine (61.7 ± 10.8 mg/dl) or beer (50.3 ± 9.8 mg/dl) and was significantly higher (p < 0.001) after wine than beer. The time to Cmax occurred significantly earlier (p < 0.01) after vodka/tonic (36 ± 10 minutes) compared to wine (54 ± 14 minutes) or beer (62 ± 23 minutes). Six subjects exceeded a Cmax of 80 mg/dl after vodka/tonic, but none exceeded this limit after beer or wine. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was significantly greater after drinking vodka/tonic (p < 0.001) than after wine or beer. Comparison of AUCs indicated the relative bioavailability of EtOH was lower after drinking beer. Findings indicate that BAC is higher after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine after fasting. A binge pattern is significantly more likely to result in BAC above 80 mg/dl after drinking vodka/tonic than beer or wine. Men drinking on an empty stomach should know BAC will vary depending on beverage type and the rate and amount of EtOH. © 2014 The Authors. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Research Society on Alcoholism.

  7. Drinking of flavored solutions by high preferring (WHP) and low preferring (WLP) alcohol-drinking rats.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Mierzejewski, Paweł; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2014-02-01

    Selective breeding alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-nonpreferring (NP) rats showed a strong preference for the sucrose solutions, whereas P rats intake greater amounts than NP rats. The aim of this study was the estimation of selectively bred ethanol-preferring (WHP - Warsaw High Preferring) and ethanol-nonpreferring (WLP - Warsaw Low Preferring) rats for their preference for various tastes. The oral drinking of the following substances was studied at a range of concentrations: sucrose (0.5-64.0 g/100 ml), NaCl (0.025-3.2 g/100 ml), citric acid (0.008-2.048 g/l), and sucrose octaacetate (0.002-0.512 g/l) solutions. Separate groups of 7-8 rats from each line were investigated of each of the four tastes. The investigated solutions were presented continuously keeping water and food always available. Concentrations of the various flavors were doubled every 48 h. Rats from WHP and WLP lines clearly revealed the preference for the sucrose solution and the highest preference was at the 4.0 and 8.0 g/100ml sucrose concentration. Similar to sucrose, both lines exposed strong preference for the NaCl solution and this preference enhanced together with the increase of the NaCl concentration. Nevertheless their preference for the NaCl solutions decreased when the concentration of NaCl reached 1.600 g/100 ml. Both lines of rats did not differ in citric acid or sucrose octaacetate intake at any of the concentrations studied. Selective breeding of rats (WHP) for high and rats (WLP) for low ethanol drinking is favorably correlated with the drinking of sweet and salty solutions and negatively correlated with the consumption of sour and bitter tastes. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  8. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness-alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness-risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS-alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis suggest

  9. Drinking Motives As Mediators of the Associations between Reinforcement Sensitivity and Alcohol Misuse and Problems

    PubMed Central

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Dupuis, Marc; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol may be used and misused for different reasons, i.e., to enhance positive affect and to cope with negative affect. These to pathways are thought to depend on two distinct and relatively stable neurobiological systems: the behavioral activation (BAS; i.e., fun seeking, drive, reward responsiveness) and behavioral inhibition (BIS) systems. This study investigates the associations of BAS and BIS sensitivity with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder in a representative sample of 5362 young Swiss men. In order to better understand the contribution of more proximal motivational factors in the associations of BIS and BAS with alcohol outcomes, mediations via drinking motives (i.e., enhancement, social, coping, conformity) was also tested. Risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were positively associated with fun seeking and negatively with reward responsiveness. Drive was negatively associated with risky single-occasion drinking. BIS was positively associated with alcohol use disorder and negatively with risky single-occasion drinking. Positive associations of fun seeking with risky single-occasion drinking and alcohol use disorder were partially mediated mainly by enhancement motives. Negative association of drive with risky single-occasion drinking was partially mediated by conformity motives. The negative reward responsiveness—alcohol use disorder association was partially mediated, whereas the negative reward responsiveness—risky single-occasion drinking association was fully mediated, mainly by coping and enhancement motives. The positive BIS–alcohol use disorder association was fully mediated mainly by coping motives. Fun seeking constitutes a risk factor, whereas drive and reward responsiveness constitute protective factors against alcohol misuse and disorder. BIS constitutes a protective factor against risky single-occasion drinking and a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. The results of the mediation analysis

  10. Youth Acquisition of Alcohol and Drinking Contexts: An In-Depth Look

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.; Moore, Roland S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite efforts to limit underage access to alcohol, alcohol availability remains a challenge for youth drinking prevention. This paper fills a gap in our understanding of alcohol consumption among youths by systematically investigating how and under what circumstances they obtain alcohol and the context within which they consume it. Qualitative interviews (n=47) were conducted with teens to collect information about where and how they obtain alcohol and the contexts within which they drink. Respondents were knowledgeable about commercial and social sources and used this knowledge in their decision making regarding where to obtain alcohol. Teens used their social relationships to circumvent existing policies designed to limit underage access to alcohol. Findings indicate that the majority of teens’ drinking occasions occur in their own or someone else’s home. PMID:25445811

  11. Does the How Mediate the Why? A Multiple Replication Examination of Drinking Motives, Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies, and Alcohol Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Adrian J.; Prince, Mark A.; Pearson, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study attempted to assess the evidence of use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS) as a mediator in the relationship between drinking motives and alcohol outcomes. Specifically, to understand various statistical approaches in modeling this proposed mediation model (e.g., drinking motives to PBS use to alcohol outcomes), we tried to replicate models based on earlier research. Method: To maximize the robustness of our replication attempts, we conducted each replication attempt across two distinct data sets whenever possible. Participants were recruited from psychology department research pools at a large southeastern U.S. university (Sample 1; n = 774) and a large southwestern U.S. university (Sample 2; n = 594). We matched the original articles’ analytic procedures as closely as possible including overall analysis approach, measurement of variables, and inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results: Consistent with previous studies, we found that PBS use may be a mechanism through which both positively reinforcing (i.e., social and enhancement) motives and coping motives relate to alcohol outcomes (e.g., alcohol-related consequences). Specifically, students who tend to drink for these specific motives appear to use fewer PBS, which may place them at risk for heavier, more problematic drinking. Conclusions: Our results suggest that when drinking motives are examined separately, they demonstrate differential relationships with PBS use and alcohol outcomes. Overall, it is clear that PBS use plays a role in the drinking motives–alcohol outcomes relationship, but this role varies by type of motive. PMID:26562595

  12. Trends in Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Patterns Among Students: 1981-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.

    1986-01-01

    Reports data assessing recent changes in college students' knowledge of alcohol and their drinking patterns gathered by Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the Health of University Students (BACCHUS) during spring break at Daytona Beach. Found an emerging trend toward reduced consumption of alcoholic beverages among students. (Author/ABB)

  13. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term…

  14. Alcohol-Free Alternative Activities for University Students: Modeling Associated Drinking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maney, Dolores W.; Mortensen, Sharon; Powell, M. Paige; Lozinska-Lee, Monika; Kennedy, Susan; Moore, Betty

    2002-01-01

    An exploration of the linear relationships among alcohol use, participation in late-night alcohol-free entertainment options, perceived drinking norms, social identity, perception of university policy, and demographics was conducted. The sample was 1,074 college students enrolled in introductory psychology courses. Alcohol use was measured using…

  15. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  16. Trends in Alcohol Knowledge and Drinking Patterns Among Students: 1981-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Gerardo M.

    1986-01-01

    Reports data assessing recent changes in college students' knowledge of alcohol and their drinking patterns gathered by Boost Alcohol Consciousness Concerning the Health of University Students (BACCHUS) during spring break at Daytona Beach. Found an emerging trend toward reduced consumption of alcoholic beverages among students. (Author/ABB)

  17. Alcohol mixed with energy drinks: methodology and design of the Utrecht Student Survey

    PubMed Central

    de Haan, Lydia; de Haan, Hein A; Olivier, Berend; Verster, Joris C

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology of the Utrecht Student Survey. This online survey was conducted in June 2011 by 6002 students living in Utrecht, The Netherlands. The aim of the survey was to determine the potential impact of mixing alcoholic beverages with energy drinks on overall alcohol consumption and alcohol-related consequences. In contrast to most previous surveys conducted on this topic, the current survey used a more appropriate within-subject design, comparing the alcohol consumption of individuals who consume alcohol mixed with energy drinks on occasions. Specifically, a comparison was conducted to examine the occasions during which these individuals consume this mixture versus occasions during which they consume alcohol alone. In addition to energy drinks, the consumption of other non-alcoholic mixers was also assessed when combined with alcoholic beverages. Furthermore, the reasons for consuming energy drinks alone or in combination with alcohol were investigated, and were compared to reasons for mixing alcohol with other non-alcoholic beverages. Finally, personality characteristics and the level of risk-taking behavior among the individuals were also assessed to explore their relationship with alcohol consumption. The Utrecht Student Survey will be replicated in the USA, Australia, and the UK. Results will be pooled, but also examined for possible cross-cultural differences. PMID:23118547

  18. Teenage Thinking on Teenage Drinking: 15- to 16-Year Olds' Experiences of Alcohol in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Michael T.; Cole, Jon C.; Sumnall, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 15- to 16-year olds in Northern Ireland looking at reasons for alcohol consumption and reflections on specific attitudes towards alcohol and behaviours resulting from alcohol use. Participants reported greater concern with "being caught" drinking by parents than with any negative short- or long-term…

  19. Positive and Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences: Associations with Past Drinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Christine M.; Maggs, Jennifer L.; Neighbors, Clayton; Patrick, Megan E.

    2011-01-01

    While recent attention suggests that positive and negative alcohol-related expectancies are important determinants of alcohol use, less is known about what types of consequences young people report actually experiencing when drinking alcohol. The present study (N = 742, 54% women) examined positive (Fun/Social, Relaxation/Coping, Positive Image)…

  20. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  1. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  2. Drinking Places: Young People and Cultures of Alcohol Consumption in Rural Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentine, Gill; Holloway, Sarah; Knell, Charlotte; Jayne, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the contemporary British moral panic about young people and the consumption of alcohol in public space. Most of this public debate has focused on binge drinking in urban areas as a social problem. Here, we consider instead the role of alcohol in rural communities, and in particular alcohol consumption in domestic and informal…

  3. Effects of Beverage-Specific Alcohol Consumption on Drinking Behaviors among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M.; Reingle, Jennifer M.; Tobler, Amy L.; Komro, Kelli A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholic beverage consumption among high school students has shifted from beer to liquor. The current longitudinal study examined the effects of beverage-specific alcohol use on drinking behaviors among urban youth. Data included 731 adolescents who participated in Project Northland Chicago and reported consuming alcohol in 7th grade. Logistic…

  4. Self-Cognitions, Risk Factors for Alcohol Problems, and Drinking in Preadolescent Urban Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corte, Colleen; Szalacha, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In this study we examine relationships between self-structure and known precursors for alcohol problems in 9- to 12-year-old primarily black and Latino youths (N = 79). Parental alcohol problems and being female predicted few positive and many negative self-cognitions and a future-oriented self-cognition related to alcohol ("drinking possible…

  5. Were James Bond’s drinks shaken because of alcohol induced tremor?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Graham; Guha, Indra Neil

    2013-01-01

    Objective To quantify James Bond’s consumption of alcohol as detailed in the series of novels by Ian Fleming. Design Retrospective literature review. Setting The study authors’ homes, in a comfy chair. Participants Commander James Bond, 007; Mr Ian Lancaster Fleming. Main outcome measures Weekly alcohol consumption by Commander Bond. Methods All 14 James Bond books were read by two of the authors. Contemporaneous notes were taken detailing every alcoholic drink taken. Predefined alcohol unit levels were used to calculate consumption. Days when Bond was unable to consume alcohol (such as through incarceration) were noted. Results After exclusion of days when Bond was unable to drink, his weekly alcohol consumption was 92 units a week, over four times the recommended amount. His maximum daily consumption was 49.8 units. He had only 12.5 alcohol free days out of 87.5 days on which he was able to drink. Conclusions James Bond’s level of alcohol intake puts him at high risk of multiple alcohol related diseases and an early death. The level of functioning as displayed in the books is inconsistent with the physical, mental, and indeed sexual functioning expected from someone drinking this much alcohol. We advise an immediate referral for further assessment and treatment, a reduction in alcohol consumption to safe levels, and suspect that the famous catchphrase “shaken, not stirred” could be because of alcohol induced tremor affecting his hands. PMID:24336307

  6. Alcohol intake in high alcohol drinking (HAD) rats is suppressed by FG5865, a novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Long, T A; Kalmus, G W; Björk, A; Myers, R D

    1996-01-01

    Both the 5-HT2 antagonist, FG5606 (amperozide), and the mixed 5-HT1 agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5893, attenuate significantly the volitional intake of alcohol in the cyanamide treated rat. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect on alcohol drinking in the selectively bred, high alcohol drinking (HAD) rat of a new and novel 5-HT1A agonist/5-HT2 antagonist, FG5865 (2-[4-[4,4-bis(4-fluorophenyl)butyl]-1-piperazinyl]-3-pyridinecarboxy lic acid methyl ester), which shares pharmacological properties with FG5893. Initially, a standard three bottle preference test for water vs. 3% to 30% alcohol solutions was given over 11 days to determine the maximally preferred concentration for each animal. Then water and this solution, which ranged between 9% and 20% with an overall mean absolute intake of 6.3 +/- 0.5 g/kg per day, was offered over three consecutive 4-day test sequences: (1) predrug control; (2) SC injections b.i.d. of either 1.0 mg/kg or 2.5 mg/kg FG5865 or saline control vehicle; and (3) postdrug. Whereas saline failed to alter alcohol consumption of the HAD rats, FG5865 caused a significant dose dependent reduction by as much as 75% in the intakes of alcohol during its administration in terms of both g/kg (p < 0.01) and proportion of alcohol to total fluid intake (p < 0.01). During the administration of 2.5 mg/kg FG5865, alcohol drinking declined from 6.5 +/- 0.3 g/kg to as low as 2.3 +/- 0.2 g/kg per day. Neither the body weight of the HAD animals nor their intake of food was affected by either dose of FG5865. These results uphold the concept that the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes in the brain play a part in the aberrant drinking of alcohol of the HAD rat. Because FG5865 influences the activity of serotonergic neurons in the mesolimbic system of the rat, it is envisaged that the drug suppresses alcohol drinking by way of its action on these neurons.

  7. College Student Dating Partner Drinking Profiles: Differences in Relationship Functioning and Relationship-Specific Alcohol Expectancies.

    PubMed

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy; Kelley, Michelle L

    2016-06-06

    Although the majority of research on partner drinking styles has examined married couples, dating partners may influence one another's problem behaviors including alcohol use. This study identified patterns of at-risk alcohol use in college women and their dating partners using a person-centered statistical approach (i.e., latent profile analysis). Participants were 286 college student women in dating relationships. They completed questionnaires regarding their own and their partners' drinking, alcohol use severity, intimate partner violence (IPV), relationship satisfaction, and relationship-specific alcohol expectancies. Data were collected in 2012 through 2013. Results revealed three distinct, latent classes based on both partners' alcohol outcomes. The "Low-Risk" group (58%) consisted of non-heavy drinking partners. In the "High-Risk - Higher Men" class (27%), men drank more than women; however, both men and women were high-risk drinkers. The "High-Risk - Higher Women" group (15%) consisted of high-risk drinking partners but women consumed more alcohol than men. Both high-risk couple groups were more dissatisfied in their relationships and experienced more IPV, but held stronger beliefs about how alcohol influenced their relationship. Findings indicate that there are several distinct classes of dating couples that differ in relationship problems and beliefs about alcohol's impact on their relationship. Riskier couples differ in behaviors and alcohol-related beliefs from low-risk couples. These findings may inform the development of more efficacious alcohol interventions tailored toward high-risk drinking dating couples.

  8. The effects of a priming dose of alcohol and drinking environment on snack food intake.

    PubMed

    Rose, A K; Hardman, C A; Christiansen, P

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol consumption is a potential risk factor for being overweight. We aimed to investigate the effects of an alcohol priming dose and an alcohol-related environment on snacking behaviour. One hundred and fourteen social drinkers completed one of four experimental sessions either receiving a priming dose of alcohol (.6 g/kg) or soft drink in a bar-lab or a sterile lab. Participants provided ratings of appetite, snack urge, and alcohol urge before and after consuming their drinks. Participants completed an ad libitum snack taste test of savoury and sweet, healthy and unhealthy foods before completing the self-reports a final time. Appetite and snack urge increased more following alcohol consumption, and decreased to a lesser extent following the taste test relative to the soft drink. Total calories (including drink calories) consumed were significantly higher in the alcohol groups. There was a marginal effect of environment; those in the bar-lab consumed a higher proportion of unhealthy foods. These effects were more pronounced in those who were disinhibited. While alcohol may not increase food consumption per se, alcohol may acutely disrupt appetite signals, perhaps via processes of reward and inhibitory control, resulting in overall greater calorie intake. Individuals who are generally disinhibited may be more vulnerable to the effects of alcohol and drinking environments on eating behaviour.

  9. Effects of isoflavones on alcohol pharmacokinetics and alcohol-drinking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, R C; Li, T K

    1998-12-01

    Puerarin, daidzin, and daidzein are 3 major isoflavonoid compounds isolated from Pueraria lobata, an edible vine used widely in China for various medicinal purposes. We studied the antiinebriation and the antidipsotropic effects of these antioxidants in rats. Daidzin and daidzein shortened alcohol-induced sleep time (loss of righting reflex) in rats that were given ethanol intragastrically but not in those given ethanol intraperitoneally. When daidzin was given to animals intragastrically with the ethanol solution, the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was found to peak later and be lower than in control rats that were given only the ethanol solution. BACs also receded more slowly if daidzin was fed to the animals. None of the 3 isoflavonoid compounds administered orally affected liver alcohol dehydrogenase or aldehyde dehydrogenase activities, as was reported for intraperitoneal administration. Further experiments indicated that the suppression of the BAC by daidzin was due mainly to delay of stomach emptying. All 3 compounds suppressed voluntary alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats. The decrease in alcohol consumption was accompanied by an increase in water intake, so that the total volume of liquid consumed daily remained unchanged. Daily food consumption and body weight gain were not affected. Alcohol preference returned to baseline levels after the isoflavonoids were discontinued. We postulate that the suppression of alcohol reinforcement produced by these compounds is mediated centrally in the brain reward pathway.

  10. Exposure to alcohol use in motion pictures and teen drinking in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N.; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Gutierrez, Inti Barrientos; Thrasher, James F.; Sargent, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from two Latin American countries. Methods Cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge-drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style and media access. Results Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7) and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8% and 10.9% respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (OR) comparing quartiles 4 and 1 1.99 (95% CI 1.73 - 2.30) for current drinking, 1.68 (1.39 - 2.02) for binge drinking, and 1.80 (1.52 - 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 - 1.76.) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to trying drinking (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 - 1.64). Conclusions Higher levels of exposure to alcohol use in films was associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. PMID:26857804

  11. Exposure to Alcohol Use in Motion Pictures and Teen Drinking in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Raul; Pérez, Adriana; Abad-Vivero, Erika N; Kollath-Cattano, Christy; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Inti; Thrasher, James F; Sargent, James D

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to assess whether exposure to alcohol use in films (AUF) is associated with alcohol use susceptibility, current alcohol use, and binge drinking in adolescents from 2 Latin American countries. We performed a cross-sectional study with 13,295 middle school students from public and private schools in Mexico and Argentina. Exposure to alcohol use in over 400 contemporary top box office films in each country was estimated using previously validated methods. Outcome measures included current drinking (i.e., any drink in the last 30 days), ever binge drinking (i.e., more than 4 or 5 drinks in a row for females and males, respectively) and, among never drinkers, alcohol susceptibility (i.e., might drink in the next year or accept a drink from a friend). Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, parental education, peer drinking, sensation seeking, parenting style, and media access. Mean age was 12.5 years (SD = 0.7), and the prevalence of alcohol consumption and binge drinking was 19.8 and 10.9%, respectively. Mean exposure to alcohol from the film sample was about 7 hours in both countries. Adjusted models indicated independent dose-response associations between higher levels of exposure to AUF and all outcomes; the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing quartiles 4 and 1, 1.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.73 to 2.30) for current drinking, aOR 1.68 (CI 1.39 to 2.02) for binge drinking, and aOR 1.80 (1.52 to 2.12) for alcohol susceptibility. Compared to Mexican adolescents, Argentine adolescents were significantly more likely to have engaged in binge drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.76) and, among never drinkers, were more susceptible to try drinking (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.64). Higher levels of exposure to AUF were associated with higher likelihood of alcohol use, binge drinking, and alcohol susceptibility in Latin American adolescents. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  12. The impact of alcohol marketing on youth drinking behaviour: a two-stage cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ross; MacKintosh, Anne Marie; Moodie, Crawford

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether awareness of, and involvement with alcohol marketing at age 13 is predictive of initiation of drinking, frequency of drinking and units of alcohol consumed at age 15. A two-stage cohort study, involving a questionnaire survey, combining interview and self-completion, was administered in respondents' homes. Respondents were drawn from secondary schools in three adjoining local authority areas in the West of Scotland, UK. From a baseline sample of 920 teenagers (aged 12-14, mean age 13), in 2006, a cohort of 552 was followed up 2 years later (aged 14-16, mean age 15). Data were gathered on multiple forms of alcohol marketing and measures of drinking initiation, frequency and consumption. At follow-up, logistic regression demonstrated that, after controlling for confounding variables, involvement with alcohol marketing at baseline was predictive of both uptake of drinking and increased frequency of drinking. Awareness of marketing at baseline was also associated with an increased frequency of drinking at follow-up. Our findings demonstrate an association between involvement with, and awareness of, alcohol marketing and drinking uptake or increased drinking frequency, and we consider whether the current regulatory environment affords youth sufficient protection from alcohol marketing.

  13. The influence of drinking pattern, at individual and aggregate levels, on alcohol-related negative consequences.

    PubMed

    Astudillo, M; Kuntsche, S; Graham, K; Gmel, G

    2010-01-01

    To det