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Sample records for alcohol ethanol propanols

  1. Spatial investigation of plasma emission from laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames using LIBS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghezelbash, Mahsa; Majd, Abdollah Eslami; Darbani, Seyyed Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Seyyed Jabbar; Ghasemi, Ali; Tehrani, Masoud Kavosh

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique is used to record some plasma emissions of different laminar diffusion methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol alcohol flames, to investigate the shapes, structures (i.e., reactants and products zones), kind, and quality of burning in different areas. For this purpose, molecular bands of CH, CH*, C2, CN, and CO as well as atomic and ionic lines of C, H, N, and O are identified, simultaneously. Experimental results indicate that the CN and C2 emissions have highest intensity in LIBS spectrum of n-propanol flame and the lowest in methanol. In addition, lowest content of CO pollution and better quality of burning process in n-propanol fuel flame toward ethanol and methanol are confirmed by comparison between their CO molecular band intensities. Moreover, variation of the signal intensity from these three flames with that from a known area of burner plate is compared. Our findings in this research advance the prior results in time-integrated LIBS combustion application and suggesting that LIBS can be used successfully with the CCD detector as a non-gated analytical tool, given its simple instrumentation needs, real-time capability applications of molecular detection in laminar diffusion flame samples, requirements.

  2. Antimicrobial efficiency of ethanol and 2-propanol alcohols used on contaminated storage phosphor plates and impact on durability of the plate

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, A; Kornum, F; Knudsen, MR; Lau, E Frandsen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess (1) antimicrobial efficiency of wiping intraoral phosphor plates with alcohol tissues based on ethanol or 2-propanol alcohols after contamination with Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis, (2) a concept for autodisinfection with ultraviolet light of the transport ramp in a scanner for phosphor plates and (3) the impact of wiping with alcohol tissues on durability of the plate. Methods: Suspensions of C. albicans and S. oralis were prepared in concentrations of 109 and 105 organisms per ml, and Digora (Digora® Optime Imaging Plate, size 2; Soredex, PalaDEx Group Brenntag Nordic A/S, Hellerup, Denmark) and Vista (VistaScan® Imaging Plate PLUS, size 2; Dürr Dental AG, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) plates were contaminated. The plates were wiped with ethanol or 2-propanol disinfectant tissues and imprints obtained on agar. Number of microbial colonies after culturing was recorded. The scanner ramp was contaminated with C. albicans or S. oralis, respectively, the ultraviolet light (UV light) disinfection in the scanner was activated and the number of colonies after culturing was recorded. Plates from each system were sequentially wiped (5–60 times) with ethanol and 2-propanol, exposed and scanned. 48 images from each system were scored blind: 1 = no artefact, 2 = small artefacts and 3 = severe artefacts. Results: Ethanol eliminated C. albicans and S. oralis in high and low concentrations from both types of plates, whereas 2-propanol did not eliminate all micro-organisms at high concentrations. The UV light eliminated all micro-organisms from the ramp. Ethanol degraded the plates to a larger extent than did 2-propanol. Images from Vista plates showed severe artefacts after wiping with ethanol; those from Digora plates did not. Conclusions: Ethanol eliminated all micro-organisms but degraded phosphor plates, whereas 2-propanol did not eliminate all micro-organisms and still degraded plates from Vista but not from Digora. PMID

  3. Antimicrobial efficiency of ethanol and 2-propanol alcohols used on contaminated storage phosphor plates and impact on durability of the plate.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, A; Kornum, F; Knudsen, Mr; Lau, E Frandsen

    2013-01-01

    To assess (1) antimicrobial efficiency of wiping intraoral phosphor plates with alcohol tissues based on ethanol or 2-propanol alcohols after contamination with Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis, (2) a concept for autodisinfection with ultraviolet light of the transport ramp in a scanner for phosphor plates and (3) the impact of wiping with alcohol tissues on durability of the plate. Suspensions of C. albicans and S. oralis were prepared in concentrations of 10(9) and 10(5) organisms per ml, and Digora (Digora(®) Optime Imaging Plate, size 2; Soredex, PalaDEx Group Brenntag Nordic A/S, Hellerup, Denmark) and Vista (VistaScan(®) Imaging Plate PLUS, size 2; Dürr Dental AG, Bietigheim-Bissingen, Germany) plates were contaminated. The plates were wiped with ethanol or 2-propanol disinfectant tissues and imprints obtained on agar. Number of microbial colonies after culturing was recorded. The scanner ramp was contaminated with C. albicans or S. oralis, respectively, the ultraviolet light (UV light) disinfection in the scanner was activated and the number of colonies after culturing was recorded. Plates from each system were sequentially wiped (5-60 times) with ethanol and 2-propanol, exposed and scanned. 48 images from each system were scored blind: 1 = no artefact, 2 = small artefacts and 3 = severe artefacts. Ethanol eliminated C. albicans and S. oralis in high and low concentrations from both types of plates, whereas 2-propanol did not eliminate all micro-organisms at high concentrations. The UV light eliminated all micro-organisms from the ramp. Ethanol degraded the plates to a larger extent than did 2-propanol. Images from Vista plates showed severe artefacts after wiping with ethanol; those from Digora plates did not. Ethanol eliminated all micro-organisms but degraded phosphor plates, whereas 2-propanol did not eliminate all micro-organisms and still degraded plates from Vista but not from Digora.

  4. Infrared spectroscopic investigations of cationic ethanol, propanol, and butanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yoshiyuki; Harigaya, Hiroyuki; Xie, Min; Takahashi, Kaito; Fujii, Asuka

    2015-11-01

    Infrared spectroscopy of the alcohol cations of ethanol, propanol, and butanol was performed to investigate their structures and hyperconjugation mechanisms. In the ethanol cation, the Csbnd C bond hyperconjugates with the singly occupied molecular orbital (SOMO) at the oxygen atom, so that the Csbnd C bond weakens and the bond length elongates. Multiple hyperconjugations among SOMO, the Csbnd C bond, and the end Csbnd H bond occur in the propanol cation and enhance the acidity of the Csbnd H bond through the delocalization of its bonding σ electron. The butanol cation forms the oxonium-type structure through the proton transfer from the terminal CH bond.

  5. Conversion of Methanol, Ethanol and Propanol over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-06-04

    Renewable fuel from lignocellulosic biomass has recently attracted more attention due to its environmental and the potential economic benefits over the crude oil [1]. In particular the production of fuel range hydrocarbon (HC) from alcohol generated lots of interest since the alcohol can be produced from biomass via thermochemical [2] (mixed alcohol from gasification derived synthesis gas) as well as the biochemical routes [3] (alcohol fermentation). Along with the development of ZSM5 synthesis and the discovery of methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process by Mobil in 1970’s triggered lots of interest in research and development arena to understand the reaction mechanisms of alcohols over zeolites in particular ZSM5 [4]. More detailed research on methanol conversion was extensively reported [5] and in recent times the research work can be found on ethanol [6] and other alcohols as well but comprehensive comparison of catalyst activity and the deactivation mechanism of the conversion of various alcohols over zeolites has not been reported. The experiments were conducted on smaller alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol over HZSM5. The experimental results on the catalyst activity and the catalyst deactivation mechanism will be discussed.

  6. Interstellar Aldehydes and their corresponding Reduced Alcohols: Interstellar Propanol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etim, Emmanuel; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Gorai, Prasanta; Arunan, Elangannan

    2016-07-01

    There is a well-defined trend of aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols among the known interstellar molecules; methanal (CH_2O) and methanol (CH_3OH); ethenone (C_2H_2O) and vinyl alcohol (CH_2CHOH); ethanal (C_2H_4O) and ethanol(C_2H_5OH); glycolaldehyde (C_2H_4O_2) and ethylene glycol(C_2H_6O_2). The reduced alcohol of propanal (CH_3CH_2CHO) which is propanol (CH_3CH_2CH_2OH) has not yet been observed but its isomer; ethyl methyl ether (CH_3CH_2OCH_3) is a known interstellar molecule. In this article, different studies are carried out in investigating the trend between aldehydes and their corresponding reduced alcohols and the deviation from the trend. Kinetically and with respect to the formation route, alcohols could have been produced from their corresponding reduced aldehydes via two successive hydrogen additions. This is plausible because of (a) the unquestionable high abundance of hydrogen, (b) presence of energy sources within some of the molecular clouds and (c) the ease at which successive hydrogen addition reaction occurs. In terms of stability, the observed alcohols are thermodynamically favorable as compared to their isomers. Regarding the formation process, the hydrogen addition reactions are believed to proceed on the surface of the interstellar grains which leads to the effect of interstellar hydrogen bonding. From the studies, propanol and propan-2-ol are found to be more strongly attached to the surface of the interstellar dust grains which affects its overall gas phase abundance as compared to its isomer ethyl methyl ether which has been observed.

  7. Study on the toxic interaction of methanol, ethanol and propanol against the bovine hemoglobin (BHb) on molecular level.

    PubMed

    Jun, Chai; Xue, Yan; Liu, Rutao; Wang, Meijie

    2011-09-01

    The toxic interaction of methanol, ethanol and propanol with bovine hemoglobin (BHb) at protein molecular level was studied by resonance light scattering (RLS), fluorescence, ultraviolet-visible absorption (UV-vis) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. The experimental results showed that the three alcohols all had toxic effects on BHb and the effects increased along with the increasing alcohol dose. The results of RLS and fluorescence spectroscopy showed that alcohols can denature BHb. They changed the microenvironment of amino acid residues and led to molecular aggregation. The decreasing order of the influence is propanol, ethanol and methanol. The results of UV-vis and CD spectra revealed that alcohols led to conformational changes of BHb, including the loosening of the skeleton structure and the decreasing of α-helix in the second structure. The changes generated by propanol were much larger than those by methanol and ethanol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth of Methanogenic Bacteria in Pure Culture with 2-Propanol and Other Alcohols as Hydrogen Donors

    PubMed Central

    Widdel, Friedrich

    1986-01-01

    Two types of mesophilic, methanogenic bacteria were isolated in pure culture from anaerobic freshwater and marine mud with 2-propanol as the hydrogen donor. The freshwater strain (SK) was a Methanospirillum species, the marine, salt-requiring strain (CV), which had irregular coccoid cells, resembled Methanogenium sp. Stoichiometric measurements revealed formation of 1 mol of CH4 by CO2 reduction, with 4 mol of 2-propanol being converted to acetone. In addition to 2-propanol, the isolates used 2-butanol, H2, or formate but not methanol or polyols. Acetate did not serve as an energy substrate but was necessary as a carbon source. Strain CV also oxidized ethanol or 1-propanol to acetate or propionate, respectively; growth on the latter alcohols was slower, but final cell densities were about threefold higher than on 2-propanol. Both strains grew well in defined, bicarbonate-buffered, sulfide-reduced media. For cultivation of strain CV, additions of biotin, vitamin B12, and tungstate were necessary. The newly isolated strains are the first methanogens that were shown to grow in pure culture with alcohols other than methanol. Bioenergetic aspects of secondary and primary alcohol utilization by methanogens are discussed. Images PMID:16347050

  9. Nucleation of ethanol, propanol, butanol, and pentanol: A systematic experimental study along the homologous series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, Alexandra A.; Wedekind, Jan; Ghosh, David; Höhler, Kristina; Wölk, Judith; Strey, Reinhard

    2012-08-01

    We present homogeneous vapor-liquid nucleation rates of the 1-alcohols (CnH2n+1OH, n = 2-4) measured in the well-established two-valve nucleation pulse chamber as well as in a novel one-piston nucleation pulse chamber at temperatures between 235 and 265 K. The nucleation rates and critical cluster sizes show a very systematic behavior with respect to the hydrocarbon chain length of the alcohol, just as their thermo-physical parameters such as surface tension, vapor pressure, and density would suggest. For all alcohols, except ethanol, predictions of classical nucleation theory lie several orders of magnitude below the experimental results and show a strong temperature-dependence typically found in nucleation experiments. The more recent Reguera-Reiss theory [J. Phys. Chem. B 108(51), 19831 (2004)] achieves reasonably good predictions for 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and independent of the temperature. Ethanol, however, clearly shows the influence of strong association between molecules even in the vapor phase. We also scaled all experimental results with classic nucleation theory to compare our data with other data from the literature. We find the same overall temperature trend for all measurement series together but inverted and inconsistent temperature trends for individual 1-propanol and 1-butanol measurements in other devices. Overall, our data establishe a comprehensive and reliable data set that forms an ideal basis for comparison with nucleation theory.

  10. Continuous syngas fermentation for the production of ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Stevenson, Bradley S; Tanner, Ralph S; Wilkins, Mark R; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Syngas fermentation to fuels is a technology on the verge of commercialization. Low cost of fermentation medium is important for process feasibility. The use of corn steep liquor (CSL) instead of yeast extract (YE) in Alkalibaculum bacchi strain CP15 bottle fermentations reduced the medium cost by 27% and produced 78% more ethanol. When continuous fermentation was performed in a 7-L fermentor, 6g/L ethanol was obtained in the YE and YE-free media. When CSL medium was used in continuous fermentation, the maximum produced concentrations of ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were 8 g/L, 6 g/L and 1 g/L, respectively. n-Propanol and n-butanol were not typical products of strain CP15. A 16S rRNA gene-based survey revealed a mixed culture in the fermentor dominated by A. bacchi strain CP15 (56%) and Clostridium propionicum (34%). The mixed culture presents an opportunity for higher alcohols production from syngas. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Secondary alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzes the reduction of exogenous acetone to 2-propanol in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Sutak, Robert; Hrdy, Ivan; Dolezal, Pavel; Cabala, Radomir; Sedinová, Miroslava; Lewin, Joern; Harant, Karel; Müller, Miklos; Tachezy, Jan

    2012-08-01

    Secondary alcohols such as 2-propanol are readily produced by various anaerobic bacteria that possess secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (S-ADH), although production of 2-propanol is rare in eukaryotes. Specific bacterial-type S-ADH has been identified in a few unicellular eukaryotes, but its function is not known and the production of secondary alcohols has not been studied. We purified and characterized S-ADH from the human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. The kinetic properties and thermostability of T. vaginalis S-ADH were comparable with bacterial orthologues. The substantial activity of S-ADH in the parasite's cytosol was surprising, because only low amounts of ethanol and trace amounts of secondary alcohols were detected as metabolic end products. However, S-ADH provided the parasite with a high capacity to scavenge and reduce external acetone to 2-propanol. To maintain redox balance, the demand for reducing power to metabolize external acetone was compensated for by decreased cytosolic reduction of pyruvate to lactate and by hydrogenosomal metabolism of pyruvate. We speculate that hydrogen might be utilized to maintain cytosolic reducing power. The high activity of Tv-S-ADH together with the ability of T. vaginalis to modulate the metabolic fluxes indicate efficacious metabolic responsiveness that could be advantageous for rapid adaptation of the parasite to changes in the host environment.

  12. Interactions of methanol, ethanol, and 1-propanol with polar and nonpolar species in water at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Souda, Ryutaro

    2017-01-18

    Methanol is known as a strong inhibitor of hydrate formation, but clathrate hydrates of ethanol and 1-propanol can be formed in the presence of help gases. To elucidate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic effects of alcohols, their interactions with simple solute species are investigated in glassy, liquid, and crystalline water using temperature-programmed desorption and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. Nonpolar solute species embedded underneath amorphous solid water films are released during crystallization, but they tend to withstand water crystallization under the coexistence of methanol additives. The CO2 additives are released after crystallization along with methanol desorption. These results suggest strongly that nonpolar species that are hydrated (i.e., caged) associatively with methanol can withstand water crystallization. In contrast, ethanol and 1-propanol additives weakly affect the dehydration of nonpolar species during water crystallization, suggesting that the former tend to be caged separately from the latter. The hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic behavior of alcohols, which differs according to the aliphatic group length, also manifests itself in the different abilities of surface segregation of alcohols and their effects on the water crystallization kinetics.

  13. Higher-alcohols biorefinery: improvement of catalyst for ethanol conversion.

    PubMed

    Olson, Edwin S; Sharma, Ramesh K; Aulich, Ted R

    2004-01-01

    The concept of a biorefinery for higher-alcohol production is to integrate ethanol and methanol formation via fermentation and biomass gasification, respectively, with conversion of these simple alcohol intermediates into higher alcohols via the Guerbet reaction. 1-Butanol results from the self-condensation of ethanol in this multistep reaction occurring on a single catalytic bed. Combining methanol with ethanol gives a mixture of propanol, isobutanol, and 2-methyl-1-butanol. All of these higher alcohols are useful as solvents, chemical intermediates, and fuel additives and, consequently, have higher market values than the simple alcohol intermediates. Several new catalysts for the condensation of ethanol and alcohol mixtures to higher alcohols were designed and tested under a variety of conditions. Reactions of methanol-ethanol mixtures gave as high as 100% conversion of the ethanol to form high yields of isobutanol with smaller amounts of 1-propanol, the amounts in the mixture depending on the starting mixture. The most successful catalysts are multifunctional with basic and hydrogen transfer components.

  14. Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria of (diethyl carbonate + ethanol or 1-propanol + water) systems at 303.15 K under atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginting, Rizqy Romadhona; Mustain, Asalil; Gunardi, Ignatius; Wibawa, Gede

    2017-01-01

    Ternary (liquid + liquid) equilibria data of diethyl carbonate (DEC) + ethanol or 1-propanol + water systems were accurately determined at 303.15 K using jacketed equilibrium cell under atmospheric pressure. The reliability of experimental tie-line data were checked by using Bachman-Brown correlation giving an r-squared value of 0.9933 and 0.9996, respectively. Both systems studied in this work exhibit Treybal's Type I ternary phase behavior. The experimental tie-line data were correlated well using the Non-Random Two Liquid (NRTL) and Universal Quasi-Chemical (UNIQUAC) activity coefficient models giving root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) of 0.95 and 1.18% for DEC + ethanol + water system.,While DEC + 1-propanol + water system gives RMSD value of 0.30 and 0.37%, respectively. The effect of carbon chain length of alcohol to the phase boundary of both systems was observed and discussed in detail.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanol and other alcohols on rat paw edema and pleurisy.

    PubMed

    Strubelt, O; Zetler, G

    1980-06-01

    The rat paw edema due to carrageenan, yeast, and dextran was dose-dependently antagonized by oral administration of ethanol. Carrageenan-induced paw edema was also inhibited by methanol, 1-propanol, and 1-butanol. The rat carrageenan pleurisy was reduced by oral pretreatment with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and dimethyl sulfoxide. Central depression, altered adrenal functions, increased osmolality, and hypothermia were no important factors for these actions of solvents. It is concluded that the inhibitory effect of ethanol on inflammatory responses increases the susceptibility of alcoholics to infection.

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethanol, whiskey, and ethanol with n-propyl, n-butyl, and iso-amyl alcohols.

    PubMed

    Auty, R M; Branch, R A

    1977-08-01

    Plasma ethanol concentration, reaction time, and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded in 6 normal men after ingestion of ethanol along (Group 1), whiskey (Group 2), or a mixture of ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and iso-amyl alcohol (Group 3). The peak plasma ethanol concentration and the total area under the plasma concentration:time curve of ethanol did not depend upon the type of drink given, but the half-life of the terminal exponential phase of ethanol elimination was longer in Group 3. In each study period reaction time increased, there was a relative increase in delta activity (2 to 3 Hz) and a fall in mean dominant frequency in EEG activity. The extent of increase in reaction time depended on the rate of increase in plasma ethanol concentration and correlated with the concentration of ethanol while the plasma concentration of ethanol was falling. Differences in the effects of ethanol between study periods were minimal.

  17. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  18. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  19. Homogeneous nucleation of ethanol and n-propanol in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, F.

    1982-01-01

    The condensation by homogeneous nucleation of ethanol (200 proof) and of n-propanol (99.98%) carried at small mole fraction in dry air (99.995%) was studied in the unsteady, isentropic expansion of a shock tube. Samples of the vapor at different partial pressures in dry air at room temperature were expanded into the liquid coexistence regime of the condensing species. A Kristler pressure transducer and Rayleigh light scattering were used to measure the pressure in the expansion and the onset of condensation. Condensation was observed at different locations between 0.15 and 1 m upstream of the diaphragm location, which correspond to different cooling rates of of the vapor samples about 50 to 10 C/ms.

  20. Homogeneous nucleation of ethanol and n-propanol in a shock tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, F.

    1982-01-01

    The condensation by homogeneous nucleation of ethanol (200 proof) and of n-propanol (99.98%) carried at small mole fraction in dry air (99.995%) was studied in the unsteady, isentropic expansion of a shock tube. Samples of the vapor at different partial pressures in dry air at room temperature were expanded into the liquid coexistence regime of the condensing species. A Kristler pressure transducer and Rayleigh light scattering were used to measure the pressure in the expansion and the onset of condensation. Condensation was observed at different locations between 0.15 and 1 m upstream of the diaphragm location, which correspond to different cooling rates of of the vapor samples about 50 to 10 C/ms.

  1. Ethanol metabolism, cirrhosis and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lieber, C S

    1997-01-03

    Alcohol-induced tissue damage results from associated nutritional deficiencies as well as some direct toxic effects, which have now been linked to the metabolism of ethanol. The main pathway involves liver alcohol dehydrogenase which catalyzes the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde, with a shift to a more reduced state, and results in metabolic disturbances, such as hyperlactacidemia, acidosis, hyperglycemia, hyperuricemia and fatty liver. More severe toxic manifestations are produced by an accessory pathway, the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system involving an ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (2E1). After chronic ethanol consumption, there is a 4- to 10-fold induction of 2E1, associated not only with increased acetaldehyde generation but also with production of oxygen radicals that promote lipid peroxidation. Most importantly, 2E1 activates many xenobiotics to toxic metabolites. These include solvents commonly used in industry, anaesthetic agents, medications such as isoniazid, over the counter analgesics (acetaminophen), illicit drugs (cocaine), chemical carcinogens, and even vitamin A and its precursor beta-carotene. Furthermore, enhanced microsomal degradation of retinoids (together with increased hepatic mobilization) promotes their depletion and associated pathology. Induction of 2E1 also yields increased acetaldehyde generation, with formation of protein adducts, resulting in antibody production, enzyme inactivation, decreased DNA repair, impaired utilization of oxygen, glutathione depletion, free radical-mediated toxicity, lipid peroxidation, and increased collagen synthesis. New therapies include adenosyl-L-methionine which, in baboons, replenishes glutathione, and attenuates mitochondrial lesions. In addition, polyenylphosphatidylcholine (PPC) fully prevents ethanol-induced septal fibrosis and cirrhosis, opposes ethanol-induced hepatic phospholipid depletion, decreased phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase activity and activation of hepatic

  2. Ab initio calculations of cooperativity effects on clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and methanethiol

    SciTech Connect

    Sum, A.K.; Sandler, S.I.

    2000-02-17

    The results of ab initio calculations for cyclic clusters of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and methanethiol are presented. Dimer, trimer, and tetramer clusters of all four compounds are studied, as are pentamer and hexamer clusters of methanol. From optimized clusters at HG/6--31G**, total energies and binding energies were calculated with both the HF and MP2 theories using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set. Accurate binding energies were also calculated for the dimer and trimer of methanol using symmetry-adapted perturbation theory with the same basis set. Intermolecular and intramolecular distances, charge distribution of binding sites, binding energies, and equilibrium constants were computed to determine the hydrogen bond cooperativity effect for each species. The cooperativity effect, exclusive to hydrogen bonding systems, results form specific forces among the molecules, in particular charge-transfer processes and the greater importance of interactions between molecules not directly hydrogen bonded because of the longer range of the interactions. The ratios of equilibrium constants for forming multimer hydrogen bonds to that for dimer hydrogen bond formation increase rapidly with the cluster size, in contrast to the constant value commonly used in thermodynamic models for hydrogen bonding liquids.

  3. Hydrogen bond analysis in alcohol (1-Propanol, 2-Propanol and Glycerol)-DMF mixtures based on dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Guo-Zhu; Jie, Qian; Feng, Wang

    2015-11-01

    Dielectric properties of Propanol-DMF, and Glycerol-DMF mixtures at full concentrations have been obtained by the dielectric relaxation spectroscopy method at frequency from 20 MHz to 20 GHz at room temperature. The mixture behavior is described by the Davidson-Cole model using four parameters that relate to molecular structure. The hydrogen bond (HB) numbers and binding energies between two pairs (solute-solute and solute-solvent pairs) are estimated by Luzar model, also the type of dipolar ordering which depends on the extent of DMF is obtained. The combination of the excess inverse permittivity and the Luzar model gives a satisfactory explanation and valuable insights into the underlying of the relaxation acts. The binding energy of solute-solute (E11) and solute-solvent (E12) both decrease with the increased number of hydroxyl in mixture system.

  4. Microbial production of propanol.

    PubMed

    Walther, Thomas; François, Jean Marie

    2016-01-01

    Both, n-propanol and isopropanol are industrially attractive value-added molecules that can be produced by microbes from renewable resources. The development of cost-effective fermentation processes may allow using these alcohols as a biofuel component, or as a precursor for the chemical synthesis of propylene. This review reports and discusses the recent progress which has been made in the biochemical production of propanol. Several synthetic propanol-producing pathways were developed that vary with respect to stoichiometry and metabolic entry point. These pathways were expressed in different host organisms and enabled propanol production from various renewable feedstocks. Furthermore, it was shown that the optimization of fermentation conditions greatly improved process performance, in particular, when continuous product removal prevented accumulation of toxic propanol levels. Although these advanced metabolic engineering and fermentation strategies have facilitated significant progress in the biochemical production of propanol, the currently achieved propanol yields and productivities appear to be insufficient to compete with chemical propanol synthesis. The development of biosynthetic pathways with improved propanol yields, the breeding or identification of microorganisms with higher propanol tolerance, and the engineering of propanol producer strains that efficiently utilize low-cost feedstocks are the major challenges on the way to industrially relevant microbial propanol production processes.

  5. Vibrational spectra and assignments of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and 3-phenyl-1-propanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.; Förner, Wolfgang

    2011-09-01

    The complex conformational behavior of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol (cinnamyl alcohol) and its saturated analogue 3-phenyl-1-propanol were investigated at the DFT-B3LYP/6-311G **, MP2 and MP4(SDQ) levels of theory. The unsaturated 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol was predicted to exist in Cg and Gg1 conformational mixture as a result of competitive conjugation and hyperconjugation interactions in the molecule. The saturated 3-phenyl-1-propanol was predicted to exist predominantly in a Ggg structure as a result of predominant steric hindrances in the alcohol. Only the one predominant form was identified in the infrared and Raman spectra of both alcohols. The excellent agreement between the calculated wavenumbers and the observed ones in the infrared and Raman spectra supports the conclusion that each of the two alcohols is present in one predominant form in the condensed phases. The vibrational frequencies of 3-phenylprop-2-en-1-ol and 3-phenyl-1-propanol in their lowest energy forms were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  6. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  7. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made fr...

  8. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  9. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation's fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US martket, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  10. Solubility of anthracene in binary alcohol + 2-methyl-1-propanol and alcohol + 3-methyl-1-butanol solvent mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Zvaigzne, A.I.; Acree, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01

    Solid-liquid equilibrium data of organic nonelectrolyte systems are becoming increasingly important in the petroleum industry, particularly in light of present rends toward heavier feedstocks and known carcinogenicity/mutagenicity of many of the larger polycyclic aromatic compounds. Experimental solubilities are reported for anthracene dissolved in binary 2-propanol + 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-propanol + 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-propanol + 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-octanol + 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-butanol + 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-butanol + 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-butanol + 2-methyl-1-propanol, 1-octanol + 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 2-methyl-1-propanol + 3-methyl-1-butanol solvent mixtures at 25 C. Results of these measurements are used to test two mathematical representations based upon the combined nearly ideal binary solvent (NIBS)/Redlich-Kister equation and modified Wilson model. For the systems studied, the combined NIBS/Redlich-Kister and modified Wilson equations were found to provide very reasonable mathematical representations, with most deviations between experimental and back-calculated values being on the order of {+-} 1.0% or less.

  11. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Sylvia I; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R; Tao, Lin

    2013-07-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci.

  12. An Evaluation of Methanol, Ethanol, the Propanols, and the Butanols as Ship Propulsion Fuels.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    This report evaluates the alkyl monohydric alcohols from methanol through the butanols (C-1 to C-4) as Navy ship propulsion fuels. Properties of the alcohols from the technical literature are compared with the properties of Navy ship propulsion hydrocarbon fuels (Diesel Fuel Marine and JP-5). None of these alcohols is suitable as a direct substitute or as an extender for the currently used ship propulsion fuels. The use of methanol with its low volumetric energy content would entail over a 50% reduction in range

  13. Inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase after 2-propanol exposure in different geographic races of Drosophila mojavensis: lack of evidence for selection at the Adh-2 locus.

    PubMed

    Pfeiler, Edward; Reed, Laura K; Markow, Therese A

    2005-03-15

    High frequencies of the fast allele of alcohol dehydrogenase-2 (Adh-2F) are found in populations of Drosophila mojavensis that inhabit the Baja California peninsula (race BII) whereas the slow allele (Adh-2S) predominates at most other localities within the species' geographic range. Race BII flies utilize necrotic tissue of pitaya agria cactus (Stenocereus gummosus) which contains high levels of 2-propanol, whereas flies from most other localities utilize different cactus hosts in which 2-propanol levels are low. To test if 2-propanol acts as a selective force on Adh-2 genotype, or whether some other yet undetermined genetic factor is responsible, mature males of D. mojavensis lines derived from the Grand Canyon (race A) and Santa Catalina Island (race C), each with individuals homozygous for Adh-2F and Adh-2S, were exposed to 2-propanol for 24 h and ADH-2 specific activity was then determined on each genotype. Flies from five other localities homozygous for either the fast or slow allele also were examined. Results for all reported races of D. mojavensis were obtained. 2-propanol exposure inhibited ADH-2 specific activity in both genotypes from all localities, but inhibition was significantly less in two populations of race BII flies homozygous for Adh-2F. When F/F and S/S genotypes in flies from the same locality were compared, both genotypes showed high 2-propanol inhibition that was not statistically different, indicating that the F/F genotype alone does not provide a benefit against the inhibitory effects of 2-propanol. ADH-1 activity in female ovaries was inhibited less by 2-propanol than ADH-2. These results do not support the hypothesis that 2-propanol acts as a selective factor favoring the Adh-2F allele. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity.

    PubMed

    Van de Loo, Aurora; Mackus, Marlou; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; Brookhuis, Karel; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between urine ethanol concentration and alcohol hangover severity. N = 36 healthy social drinkers participated in a naturalistic study, comprising a hangover day and a control day. N = 18 of them have regular hangovers (the hangover group), while the other N = 18 claim to be hangover immune (hangover-immune group). On each test day at 9.30 am, urine samples were collected. Participants rated their overall hangover severity on a scale from 0 (absent) to 10 (extreme), as well as 18 individual hangover symptoms. Urine ethanol concentration was significantly higher on the hangover day when compared to the control day (p = 0.006). On the hangover day, urine ethanol concentration was significantly lower in the hangover-immune group when compared to the hangover group (p = 0.027). In the hangover-immune group, none of the correlations of urine ethanol concentration with individual hangover symptoms was significant. In contrast, in the hangover group, significant correlations were found with a variety of hangover symptoms, including nausea, concentration problems, sleepiness, weakness, apathy, sweating, stomach pain, thirst, heart racing, anxiety, and sleep problems. Urine ethanol levels are significantly associated with the presence and severity of several hangover symptoms.

  15. Ethanol biosensors based on alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Ana M; Prazeres, D Miguel F; Cabral, Joaquim M S; Fonseca, Luís P

    2005-08-15

    The detection and quantification of ethanol with high sensitivity, selectivity and accuracy is required in many different areas. A variety of methods and strategies have been reported for the determination of this analyte including gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, refractometry and spectrophotometry, among other. The use of the enzyme alcohol oxidase (AOX) on the analysis of ethanol in complex samples allows a considerable enhancement in specificity. This paper reviews the state of the art on ethanol determination based on AOX sensors, using either electrochemical electrodes or immobilised enzyme reactors. Almost all AOX-based ethanol sensors developed so far are based on the monitoring of O2 consumption or H2O2 formation. This has been mostly achieved using amperometric electrodes set at appropriate potentials namely, -600 mV for O2 monitoring or +600 mV for H2O2 monitoring. Mediated and non-mediated bienzymatic systems have also been assembled using AOX coupled to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Different types of electrodes have been proposed for the detection of ethanol, namely, membrane electrode, carbon paste electrodes, screen-printed electrodes and self-assembled monolayers. Another approach to work with this sensitive enzyme is to use high amounts of AOX in order to create an enzyme reservoir, a strategy which can be implemented using immobilised enzyme reactors. These reactors can be combined with a colorimetric detection in a flow-injection analysis system or with electrochemical transducers.

  16. Novel alcohol dehydrogenase activity in a mutant of Salmonella able to use ethanol as sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Dailly, Y; Mat-Jan, F; Clark, D P

    2001-07-10

    We selected a mutant of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium that is capable of growing in air on ethanol as sole carbon and energy source. This adhI mutant expressed high levels of a novel alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhI) that uses ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol as substrates. The fermentative AdhE alcohol dehydrogenase was not expressed aerobically in the adhI mutant. Anaerobically, both the novel AdhI enzyme and the AdhE were expressed simultaneously in the adhI mutant. However, the adhI mutant showed no alteration in the composition of the fermentation products. In addition we found that both the parental Salmonella and its alcohol using adhI mutant expressed substantial levels of a dye-linked aldehyde dehydrogenase that is presumably responsible for conversion of acetaldehyde to acetate. This contrasts with the situation in Escherichia coli where mutants able to grow on ethanol express high aerobic levels of the AdhE enzyme, which performs both the alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase reactions.

  17. Vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements at 101. 32 kPa for binary mixtures of methyl acetate + ethanol or 1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J.: Susial, P.; de Alfonso, C. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 101.32 {plus minus} 0.02 kPa for methyl acetate (1) + ethane (2) or + 1-propanol (2). The results are compared with those predicted by the UNIFAC and ASOG methods. The methyl acetate (1) + ethanol (2) system forms an azeotrope at 329.8 K and a molar concentration of x{sub 1} = 0.958. Both methods predict the vapor-phase compositions equally well, with overall mean errors of less than 5%.

  18. Lack of effects of a "sobering" product, "Eezup!", on the blood ethanol and congener alcohol concentration.

    PubMed

    Wunder, Cora; Hain, Sarah; Koelzer, Sarah C; Paulke, Alexander; Verhoff, Marcel A; Toennes, Stefan W

    2017-09-01

    The lifestyle product 'Eezup!' appeared on the German market and promised to normalize energy metabolism. Among vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E and zinc), rice protein and fructose the addition of alcohol dehydrogenase and catalase enzymes is a novel approach. The product was advertised as capable of boosting the rate of alcohol elimination. Seventeen subjects (11 men, 6 women, 19-58 years old), participated in a two-way crossover drinking study. Unfiltered wheat beer (4.4g% alcohol content) was drank within one hour to reach blood alcohol concentrations of 1‰ (1g/kg whole blood). On one day "Eezup!" was taken according to the manufacturer's instructions before and after drinking which was substituted for a placebo on the second test day. Blood samples were taken during 9h and ethanol and congener alcohols were determined. A comparison of Cmax, tmax, area under the curve (AUC) for ethanol and congener alcohols, and the hourly elimination rate of ethanol (β60) was performed to investigate an effect of Eezup!. Ethanol concentrations (Cmax) were in the range of 0,63-1,00‰ (median 0,85‰) and 0.62-1.22‰ (median 0.84‰) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition, respectively, and not statistically different. Also tmax (1-2.5h) and AUCs did not differ. The ethanol elimination rates were 0.16‰/h (0.14-0.19‰/h) and 0.17‰/h (0.14-0.22 ‰/h) in the placebo and "Eezup!" condition without significant difference. The pharmacokinetic parameters of the congener alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol) as well as of methanol did also not differ. The results of the present study failed to show any effect of the sobering product "Eezup!" on the amount of ethanol and congener alcohols absorbed (Cmax, tmax, AUC) and on the ethanol elimination rate (β60). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Monte Carlo simulation and SAFT modeling study of the solvation thermodynamics of dimethylformamide, dimethylsulfoxide, ethanol and 1-propanol in the ionic liquid trimethylbutylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide.

    PubMed

    Vahid, A; Maginn, E J

    2015-03-21

    Understanding fundamental solvation phenomena and mixture thermodynamic properties for organic molecules in ionic liquids is essential to the development of ionic liquids in many application areas. In the present work, molecular simulations were used to compute a wide range of properties for the pure ionic liquid trimethylbutylammonium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide as well as mixtures of this ionic liquid with ethanol, 1-propanol, dimethylformamide, and dimethylsulfoxide. A new force field for the ionic liquid was developed and validated by computing ionic liquid surface tension and density as a function of temperature. Force fields for ethanol and propanol were taken from the literature, while new force fields were developed for dimethylformamide and dimethylsulfoxide. These force fields were shown to yield vapor-liquid coexistence curves, vapor pressure curves and critical points in excellent agreement with experimental data. Absorption isotherms, enthalpies of mixing and mixture volumes were then computed and shown to agree well with available literature. The simulations help rationalize the observed trends in solubility and enthalpy of mixing in terms of the relative strength of hydrogen bonding between the solutes and the ionic liquid. It was found that the entropy of absorption plays a very important role in the solvation process. The PCIP-SAFT equation of state was able to fit the experimental data (or simulation results when experiments were unavailable) very accurately with only small adjustable binary interaction parameters.

  20. OZONE REACTION WITH N-ALDEHYDES (N=4-10), BENZALDEHYDE, ETHANOL, ISOPROPANOL, AND N-PROPANOL ADSORBED ON A DUAL-BED GRAPHITIZED CARBON/CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE ADSORBENT CARTRIDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n = 4 - 10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon/carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some samp...

  1. OZONE REACTION WITH N-ALDEHYDES (N=4-10), BENZALDEHYDE, ETHANOL, ISOPROPANOL, AND N-PROPANOL ADSORBED ON A DUAL-BED GRAPHITIZED CARBON/CARBON MOLECULAR SIEVE ADSORBENT CARTRIDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n = 4 - 10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon/carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some samp...

  2. Ethanol as a cause of hypersensitivity reactions to alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, I; Hipler, U-C; Zuberbier, T; Worm, M

    2002-08-01

    Adverse reactions after ingestion of alcoholic beverages are common. Metabolic differences in individuals and also the histamine content in alcoholic beverages have been implicated. By contrast pure ethanol has rarely been reported as a cause of hypersensitivity reactions and its mechanism has not been clarified yet. To determine whether ethanol itself accounts for alcohol hypersensitivity in patients with anaphylactic reactions after alcohol intake. In search of possible pathomechanisms all patients were analysed by skin prick testing and sulfidoleukotriene production of peripheral leucocytes using ethanol and its metabolites. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges with a cumulated amount of 30 mL ethanol were performed in 12 adult patients with a positive history of adverse reactions after consumption of different alcoholic beverages. Skin prick tests and measurement of sulfidoleukotriene production were performed using different concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde from 50 to 1000 mm. Oral challenges with pure ethanol were positive in six out of eleven patients. All challenge-positive patients, but also four out of five challenge-negative patients, showed an increased sulfidoleukotriene production in-vitro compared with healthy controls. Skin prick tests using alcoholic beverages, ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid were negative in all patients (12/12). Our study shows that ethanol itself is a common causative factor in hypersensitivity reactions to alcoholic beverages. These reactions occur dose-dependent and a non-IgE-mediated pathomechanism is likely, because skin prick tests were negative in all cases. Increased sulfidoleukotriene production was determined in some patients, but is no reliable predictor. Therefore oral provocation tests remain indispensable in making the diagnosis of ethanol hypersensitivity.

  3. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Luong, J H

    1985-03-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation: microi/micro0 = 1 - (P/Pm)alpha (for growth) nui/nu0 = 1 - (P/P'm)beta (for ethanol production). The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  4. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic drug interactions with ethanol (alcohol).

    PubMed

    Chan, Lingtak-Neander; Anderson, Gail D

    2014-12-01

    Ethanol (alcohol) is one of the most widely used legal drugs in the world. Ethanol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 drug-metabolizing enzyme that is also responsible for the biotransformation of xenobiotics and fatty acids. Drugs that inhibit ADH or CYP2E1 are the most likely theoretical compounds that would lead to a clinically significant pharmacokinetic interaction with ethanol, which include only a limited number of drugs. Acute ethanol primarily alters the pharmacokinetics of other drugs by changing the rate and extent of absorption, with more limited effects on clearance. Both acute and chronic ethanol use can cause transient changes to many physiologic responses in different organ systems such as hypotension and impairment of motor and cognitive functions, resulting in both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Evaluating drug interactions with long-term use of ethanol is uniquely challenging. Specifically, it is difficult to distinguish between the effects of long-term ethanol use on liver pathology and chronic malnutrition. Ethanol-induced liver disease results in decreased activity of hepatic metabolic enzymes and changes in protein binding. Clinical studies that include patients with chronic alcohol use may be evaluating the effects of mild cirrhosis on liver metabolism, and not just ethanol itself. The definition of chronic alcohol use is very inconsistent, which greatly affects the quality of the data and clinical application of the results. Our study of the literature has shown that a significantly higher volume of clinical studies have focused on the pharmacokinetic interactions of ethanol and other drugs. The data on pharmacodynamic interactions are more limited and future research addressing pharmacodynamic interactions with ethanol, especially regarding the non-central nervous system effects, is much needed.

  5. Role of alcohol dehydrogenase activity and the acetaldehyde in ethanol- induced ethane and pentane production by isolated perfused rat liver.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, A; Sies, H

    1982-01-01

    The volatile hydrocarbons ethane and n-pentane are produced at increased rates by isolated perfused rat liver during the metabolism of acutely ethanol. The effect is half-maximal at 0.5 mM-ethanol, and its is not observed when inhibitors of alcohol dehydrogenase such as 4-methyl- or 4-propyl-pyrazole are also present. Propanol, another substrate for the dehydrogenase, is also active. Increased alkane production can be initiated by adding acetaldehyde in the presence of 4-methyl- or 4-propyl-pyrazole. An antioxidant, cyanidanol, suppresses the ethanol-induced alkane production. The data obtained with the isolated organ demonstrate that products known to arise from the peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids are formed in the presence of ethanol and that the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase is required for the generation of the active radical species. The mere presence of ethanol, e.g. at binding sites of special form(s) of cytochrome P-450, it not sufficient to elicit an increased production of volatile hydrocarbons by rat liver. PMID:6751324

  6. Kinetics of ethanol inhibition in alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Luong, J.H.T.

    1985-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of ethanol on yeast growth and fermentation has been studied for the strain Saccharo-myces cerevisiae ATCC No. 4126 under anaerobic batch conditions. The results obtained reveal that there is no striking difference between the response of growth and ethanol fermentation. Two kinetic models are also proposed to describe the kinetic pattern of ethanol inhibition on the specific rates of growth and ethanol fermentation. The maximum allowable ethanol concentration above which cells do not grow was predicted to be 112 g/L. The ethanol-producing capability of the cells was completely inhibited at 115 g/L ethanol. The proposed models appear to accurately represent the experimental data obtained in this study and the literature data.

  7. Ligating behaviour of Schiff base ligands derived from heterocyclic β-diketone and ethanol or propanol amine with oxovanadium (IV) metal ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thaker, B. T.; Barvalia, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of six new oxovanadium (IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl sulphate pentahydrate and the Schiff base, viz.; (HL 1)-(HL 3) and (HL 4)-(HL 6) such as 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(2-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (I), 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (II) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-sulphoamido)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (III) with ethanol amine and propanol amine, respectively, in aqueous ethanol medium. The ligands and their Schiff base ligands have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR and 1H NMR. The resulting complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, mass, electronic, electron spin resonance spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, molar conductance and thermal studies. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as a dibasic bidentate with ON donor sequence towards metal ion. The molar conductivity data show them to be non-electrolytes. From the electronic, magnetic and ESR spectral data suggest that all the oxovanadium (IV) complexes have distorted octahedral geometry.

  8. Ligating behaviour of Schiff base ligands derived from heterocyclic beta-diketone and ethanol or propanol amine with oxovanadium (IV) metal ion.

    PubMed

    Thaker, B T; Barvalia, R S

    2009-12-01

    Synthesis and evaluation of six new oxovanadium (IV) complexes, formed by the interaction of vanadyl sulphate pentahydrate and the Schiff base, viz.; (HL(1))-(HL(3)) and (HL(4))-(HL(6)) such as 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(2-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (I), 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-chloro)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (II) and 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-1(3-sulphoamido)phenyl-1H-pyrazolone-4-carbaldehyde (III) with ethanol amine and propanol amine, respectively, in aqueous ethanol medium. The ligands and their Schiff base ligands have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR and (1)H NMR. The resulting complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, IR, (1)H NMR, mass, electronic, electron spin resonance spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurement, molar conductance and thermal studies. The IR spectral data suggest that the ligand behaves as a dibasic bidentate with ON donor sequence towards metal ion. The molar conductivity data show them to be non-electrolytes. From the electronic, magnetic and ESR spectral data suggest that all the oxovanadium (IV) complexes have distorted octahedral geometry.

  9. Rates of Ethanol Metabolism Decrease in Sons of Alcoholics Following a Priming Dose of Ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Blair U.; Jackson, Jennifer K.; Powell, Linda L.; Garbutt, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Rapid changes in rates of ethanol metabolism in response to acute ethanol administration have been observed in animals and humans. To examine whether this phenomenon might vary by risk for alcoholism, 23 young men with a positive family history of alcoholism (FHP) were compared to 15 young men without a family history of alcoholism (FHN). Rates of ethanol metabolism were measured in all subjects first after an initial ethanol dose (0.85 g/kg) and then, several hours later, a second dose (0.3 g/kg), and the two rates were compared. The two groups of subjects were similar in their histories of ethanol consumption. FHP subjects demonstrated faster initial rates of ethanol metabolism, 148 ± 36 mg/kg/hr, compared to FHN subjects, 124 ± 18 mg/kg/hr, p=.01. However, FHN subjects increased their rate of metabolism by 10 ± 27 percent compared to a decrease of -15 ± 24 percent in FHP subjects, p =.007. Fifty-two percent of the FHP and none of the FHN subjects exhibited a decline in metabolic rate of 20% or more, p=.0008. Since a significant proportion of FHP subjects exhibited a decrease in the second rate of ethanol metabolism, these preliminary data might help to partly explain why FHP individuals differ in their sensitivity to ethanol and are more likely to develop alcohol dependence. PMID:17521843

  10. Inhibition of alcoholic fermentation by substrate and ethanol. [Candida pseudotropicalis

    SciTech Connect

    Maulin, H.B.; Galzy, P.

    1980-11-01

    The effect of ethanol and sugars on rates of fermentation was studied. A strain of Candida pseudotropicalis was used. The specific rate of fermentation was determined by using the Warburg manometer. The effect of ethanol was formulated as an exponential function of ethanol concentration, but the empirical constant was different when glucose or lactose was used as a substrate. The effects of both ethanol and substrate were formulated. It was demonstrated that when lactose and glucose were present in the medium with a small amount of alcohol, a synergistic effect on the rate of fermentation appeared. This phenomenon considerably limits the rate of fermentation.

  11. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment (PP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  12. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  13. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  14. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol, Biodiesel, n-Propanol, n-Butanol, and iso-Butanol) in Aquifer Sediment (PP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the late 1990s, there was a perception that “green” fuels such as ethanol posed less of a threat to ground water because they were readily degraded. This lead to a conclusion that the transition to “green” fuels would require less vigilance and that the existing level of effo...

  15. A comparative study of the mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating ethanol/water, methanol/water, and 1-propanol/water aerosol droplets.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Rebecca J; Reid, Jonathan P

    2006-02-23

    The mass and heat transfer dynamics of evaporating multicomponent alcohol/water droplets have been probed experimentally by examining changes in the near surface droplet composition and average droplet temperature using cavity-enhanced Raman scattering (CERS) and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). The CERS technique provides a sensitive measure of the concentration of the volatile alcohol component in the outer shell of the droplet, due to the exponential relationship between CERS intensity and species concentration. Such volatile droplets, which are probed on a millisecond time scale, evaporate nonisothermally, resulting in both temperature and concentration gradients, as confirmed by comparisons between experimental measurements and quasi-steady state model calculations. An excellent agreement between the experimental evaporation trends and quasi-steady state model predictions is observed. An unexpectedly slow evaporation rate is observed for the evaporation of 1-propanol from a multicomponent droplet when compared to the model; possible explanations for this observation are discussed. In addition, the propagation depth of the CERS signal, and, therefore, the region of the droplet from which compositional measurements are made, can be estimated. Such measurements, when considered in conjunction with quasi-steady state theory, can allow droplet temperature gradients to be measured and vapor pressures and activity coefficients of components within the droplet to be determined.

  16. Active Transport of Alcohol in Corynebacterium acetophilum

    PubMed Central

    Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Harada, Tokuya

    1974-01-01

    The transport of alcohols was studied in Corynebacterium acetophilum, which was isolated as a strain growing well on acetate and ethanol. The transport of ethanol was found to be inducible by ethanol, n-propanol, n-butanol, and acetate, whereas transport of methanol occurred by noninducible passive diffusion. The entry of ethanol into the cells occurred against a concentration gradient and showed saturation kinetics with two Km values of 2.4 × 10−5 M and 6.0 × 10−5 M. Uptake of ethanol was inhibited by sodium azide, sodium cyanide, 2,4-dinitrophenol, and p-chloromercuribenzoate. The transport of ethanol was competitively inhibited by normal alcohols, but not by iso- or tert-alcohols. From these studies, we concluded that an inducible active alcohol transport system mediates the entry of ethanol, n-propanol, or n-butanol into the cells of C. acetophilum. Images PMID:4821092

  17. Prediction of vapor-liquid equilibria for the alcohol + glycerol systems using UNIFAC and modified UNIFAC (Dortmund)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartanto, Dhoni; Mustain, Asalil; Nugroho, Febry Dwi

    2017-03-01

    The vapor-liquid equilibria for eight systems of alcohols + glycerol at 101.325 kPa have been predicted in this study using UNIFAC and Modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) group contribution methods. The investigated alcohols were methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol. In order to study the accuracy of both contribution methods, the predicted data obtained from both approaches were compared to the experimental data from the literature. The prediction accuracy using modified UNIFAC (Dortmund) give better results compared to the UNIFAC method for (ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol and 1-butanol) + glycerol but UNIFAC method show better accuracy for methanol + glycerol system. In addition, the influences of carbon chain length on the phase behaviours of alcohol + glycerol systems were also discussed as well.

  18. Infrared Analysis of Gasoline/Alcohol Blends.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    in storage, routine handling and distribution. As a result, other oxygenates such as methanol , iso-propanol, t-butanoA, methyl -t- butyl ether, and...Table 1 lists TABLE 1. ALCOHOL ANALYTE BAND NUMBERS -1 Component Analytical Frequency, cm Gasoline 967 Methanol 1030 Ethanol 882 iso-propanol 952 t...of varying concen- trations of each alcohol in a gasoline were obtained, with Figure 4 showing a low and high standard for methanol . The net peak

  19. Prospects for Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  20. Prospects for Anaerobic Biodegradation of Biofuels (Ethanol and Biodiesel) and Proposed Biofuels (n-Propanol, iso-Propanol, n-Butanol, and 2,5-Dimethylfuran) in Aquifer Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biofuels, such as ethanol and biodiesel, are a growing component of the nation’s fuel supply. Ethanol is the primary biofuel in the US market, distributed as a blend with petroleum gasoline, in concentrations ranging from 10% ethanol (E10) to 85% ethanol (E85). Biodiesel, made ...

  1. Competitive surface enrichment of alcohols in ternary water alcohol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raina, G.; Kulkarni, G. U.

    2003-05-01

    Molecular beams generated from the vapors above the surfaces of ternary mixtures, water-methanol-ethanol, water-ethanol-1-propanol and water-methanol-1-propanol have been examined by mass spectrometry. The propensity for surface enrichment of the alcohols is obtained in terms of the vapor mole fractions of the alcohols, which in turn were estimated from the cluster populations in the molecular beam. The enriching propensities in the ternary mixtures are compared with those in the binary mixtures. The net surface enrichment in ternary mixtures is generally lowered in comparison to that in the binary mixtures, except in the case of water-methanol-ethanol, where it is similar. While the surface enriching ability of methanol is nearly unaffected, that of ethanol is enhanced. The enriching ability of the longer chain propanol, however decreases significantly.

  2. Thermal effects of added propanol on the helix-coil transition of (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10 in D 2O solution: An NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kai, Tsutomu; Uchiyama, Susumu; Nishi, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Yuji; Tomiyama, Tetsuo

    2010-05-01

    The conformational transition of collagen model peptide, (Pro-Pro-Gly) 10, from the triple helical structure to the statistical coil was observed in various aqueous alcohol solutions by NMR measurements. In methanol or ethanol solution, the thermal transition temperature, Tm, of the peptide increased regularly with the concentration of alcohols. In 1- or 2-propanol, however, Tm first decreased and then increased steeply, in apparent contrast to the general trend that the addition of alcohol on aqueous solution increases the stability of ordered structure of polypeptides. This exceptional behavior of the collagen model peptide in propanols might provide a clue to investigate the mechanism of stabilization of protein conformation.

  3. Ethanol Modulation of Gene Networks: Implications for Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Farris, Sean P.; Miles, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disease caused by a confluence of environmental and genetic factors influencing multiple brain pathways to produce a variety of behavioral sequelae, including addiction. Genetic factors contribute to over 50% of the risk for alcoholism and recent evidence points to a large number of genes with small effect sizes as the likely molecular basis for this disease. Recent progress in genomics (microarrays or RNA-Seq) and genetics has led to the identification of a large number of potential candidate genes influencing ethanol behaviors or alcoholism itself. To organize this complex information, investigators have begun to focus on the contribution of gene networks, rather than individual genes, for various ethanol-induced behaviors in animal models or behavioral endophenotypes comprising alcoholism. This chapter reviews some of the methods used for constructing gene networks from genomic data and some of the recent progress made in applying such approaches to the study of the neurobiology of ethanol. We show that rapid technology development in gathering genomic data, together with sophisticated experimental design and a growing collection of sophisticated tools are producing novel insights for understanding the molecular basis of alcoholism and that such approaches promise new opportunities for therapeutic development. PMID:21536129

  4. Ethanol modulation of gene networks: implications for alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Miles, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex disease caused by a confluence of environmental and genetic factors influencing multiple brain pathways to produce a variety of behavioral sequelae, including addiction. Genetic factors contribute to over 50% of the risk for alcoholism and recent evidence points to a large number of genes with small effect sizes as the likely molecular basis for this disease. Recent progress in genomics (microarrays or RNA-Seq) and genetics has led to the identification of a large number of potential candidate genes influencing ethanol behaviors or alcoholism itself. To organize this complex information, investigators have begun to focus on the contribution of gene networks, rather than individual genes, for various ethanol-induced behaviors in animal models or behavioral endophenotypes comprising alcoholism. This chapter reviews some of the methods used for constructing gene networks from genomic data and some of the recent progress made in applying such approaches to the study of the neurobiology of ethanol. We show that rapid technology development in gathering genomic data, together with sophisticated experimental design and a growing collection of analysis tools are producing novel insights for understanding the molecular basis of alcoholism and that such approaches promise new opportunities for therapeutic development.

  5. Modulation of alcohol dehydrogenase and ethanol metabolism by sex hormones in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Effect of chronic ethanol administration

    PubMed Central

    Rachamin, Gloria; Macdonald, J. Alain; Wahid, Samina; Clapp, Jeremy J.; Khanna, Jatinder M.; Israel, Yedy

    1980-01-01

    In young (4-week-old) male and female spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats, ethanol metabolic rate in vivo and hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in vitro are high and not different in the two sexes. In males, ethanol metabolic rate falls markedly between 4 and 10 weeks of age, which coincides with the time of development of sexual maturity in the rat. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity is also markedly diminished in the male SH rat and correlates well with the changes in ethanol metabolism. There is virtually no influence of age on ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the female SH rat. Castration of male SH rats prevents the marked decrease in ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, whereas ovariectomy has no effect on these parameters in female SH rats. Chronic administration of testosterone to castrated male SH rats and to female SH rats decreases ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity to values similar to those found in mature males. Chronic administration of oestradiol-17β to male SH rats results in marked stimulation of ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity to values similar to those found in female SH rats. Chronic administration of ethanol to male SH rats from 4 to 11 weeks of age prevents the marked age-dependent decreases in ethanol metabolic rate and alcohol dehydrogenase activity, but has virtually no effect in castrated rats. In the intoxicated chronically ethanol-fed male SH rats, serum testosterone concentrations are significantly depressed. In vitro, testosterone has no effect on hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase activity of young male and female SH rats. In conclusion, in the male SH rat, ethanol metabolic rate appears to be limited by alcohol dehydrogenase activity and is modulated by testosterone. Testosterone has an inhibitory effect and oestradiol has a testosterone-dependent stimulatory effect on alcohol dehydrogenase activity and ethanol metabolic rate in these

  6. Effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol preference in two BALB substrains.

    PubMed

    Blizard, David A; Vandenbergh, David J; Jefferson, Akilah L; Chatlos, Cynthia D; Vogler, George P; McClearn, Gerald E

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during adolescence is a rite of passage in many societies, but only a subset of individuals exposed to ethanol becomes dependent on alcohol. To explore individual differences in response to ethanol exposure, we compared the effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol drinking in an animal model. Male and female mice of two BALB substrains were exposed to ethanol in one of three forms--choice [water vs. 10% (volume/volume) ethanol], forced (10% ethanol in a single bottle), or gradual (single bottle exposure, starting with 0.5% ethanol and increasing at 2-day intervals to 10% ethanol)--from the 6th through the 12th week of age and administered two-bottle alcohol preference tests (10% ethanol vs. water) for 15 days immediately thereafter. All three forms of ethanol exposure increased alcohol preference in male and female BALB/cByJ mice, relative to findings for ethanol-naive control animals. Only gradual ethanol exposure produced an increase in alcohol preference in BALB/cJ mice. During extended alcohol preference testing (for a total of 39 days) of mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group, the higher alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cByJ male mice persisted, but alcohol preference of control group female mice in this strain--formerly ethanol naive, but at this point having received 10% ethanol in the two-bottle paradigm for 15 days--rose to the level of alcohol preference of female mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group. This finding demonstrated that both adolescent and adult ethanol exposure stimulated alcohol preference in female mice of this strain. Across days of testing in adulthood, alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cJ mice decreased, resulting in a lack of effect of gradual exposure to ethanol on alcohol preference in both male and female mice of this strain during the period of extended testing. These strain differences support a genetic basis for the effects of ethanol exposure on

  7. Ethanol metabolites: their role in the assessment of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich M; Thon, Natasha; Yegles, Michel; Schrück, Alexandra; Preuss, Ulrich W; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    Alcohol-related disorders are common, expensive in their course, and often underdiagnosed. To facilitate early diagnosis and therapy of alcohol-related disorders and to prevent later complications, questionnaires and biomarkers are useful. Indirect state markers like gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase, mean corpuscular volume, and carbohydrate deficient transferrin are influenced by age, gender, various substances, and nonalcohol-related illnesses, and do not cover the entire timeline for alcohol consumption. Ethanol (EtOH) metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide, ethyl sulfate, phosphatidylethanol, and fatty acid ethyl esters have gained enormous interest in the last decades as they are detectable after EtOH intake. For each biomarker, pharmacological characteristics, detection methods in different body tissues, sensitivity/specificity values, cutoff values, time frames of detection, and general limitations are presented. Another focus of the review is the use of the markers in special clinical and forensic samples. Depending on the biological material used for analysis, ethanol metabolites can be applied in different settings such as assessment of alcohol intake, screening, prevention, diagnosis, and therapy of alcohol use disorders. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  8. Moderate alcohol consumption and increased bone mineral density: potential ethanol and non-ethanol mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, R; O'Connell, M A; Sripanyakorn, S; Powell, J J

    2006-08-01

    Mounting epidemiological evidence indicates an association between the moderate ingestion of alcoholic beverages and higher bone mineral density (v. abstainers). More limited findings provide some evidence for translation of this association into reduced fracture risk, but further studies are required. Here, these data are reviewed and caveats in their assimilation, comparison and interpretation as well as in the use and application of bone health indices are discussed. Whilst it is concluded that evidence is now strong for the moderate alcohol-bone health association, at least in relation to bone mineral density, mechanisms are less clear. Both ethanol and non-ethanol components have been implicated as factors that positively affect bone health in the light of moderate consumption of alcoholic beverages, and four particular areas are discussed. First, recent findings suggest that moderate ethanol consumption acutely inhibits bone resorption, in a non-parathyroid hormone- and non-calcitonin-dependent fashion, which can only partly be attributed to an energy effect. Second, critical review of the literature does not support a role for moderate ethanol consumption affecting oestrogen status and leading to a knock-on effect on bone. Third, Si is present at high levels in certain alcoholic beverages, especially beer, and may have a measurable role in promoting bone formation. Fourth, a large body of work indicates that phytochemicals (e.g. polyphenols) from alcoholic beverages could influence bone health, but human data are lacking. With further work it is hoped to be able to model epidemiological observations and provide a clear pathway between the magnitude of association and the relative contribution of these mechanisms for the major classes of alcoholic beverage.

  9. Effect of alcohol feeding mode on the biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.H.; Damodaran, V.K. )

    1994-12-01

    An alcohol utilizing Alcaligenes eutrophus produced poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) copolymer under phosphate limitation. Fermentation was performed for 42--46 h in a computer-controlled 5-L working volume fed-batch fermentor using ethanol and propanol as carbon sources. The culture experienced phosphate limitation in approximately 19 h. When propanol was used as a sole carbon source, 24 g/L of copolymer with 36.5 mol % of hydroxyvalerate (HV) was produced at a polymer yield of 0.41 g polymer/g alcohol (g/g) and an average polymer production rate of 0.08 g polymer/g residual biomass-h (g/g-h). Two experiments switching alcohols after phosphate exhaustion resulted in better polymer production (g/L), polymer yield (g/g) on alcohol, HV yield (g/g) on propanol, and average polymer production rate (g/g-h) as compared to propanol run without alcohol switching. One switching experiment was from a mixture of 50% ethanol and 50% propanol to 100% propanol and the other experiment was from 100% ethanol to a mixture of 65% ethanol and 35% propanol. Polymer yield for these two experiments was 0.51 g/g and 0.46 g/g, respectively. However, HV mol % in the copolymer for these two runs was lower compared to propanol run without alcohol switching. Direct switch from ethanol to propanol did not support cell growth and polymer production. Polymer production rate and polymer yield changed with time, and the pattern was dependent upon the alcohol feeding mode.

  10. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  11. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  12. ONTOGENY OF ETHANOL INTAKE IN ALCOHOL PREFERRING (P) AND ALCOHOL NON-PREFERRING (NP) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Truxell, Eric; Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Norman E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a scarcity of research on ethanol affinity in alcohol-preferring (P) rats before weaning and it is unknown if neonate P rats exhibit ethanol intake preferences comparable to those observed in adult P rats. This study examined ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring and non-preferring (NP) rats 3 hours after birth (Experiment 1, surrogate nipple test), at postnatal days (PD) 8, 12 and 18 (Experiment 2, consumption off the floor procedure) and at adolescence (Experiment 3, two-bottle choice test at PD32). The high-preference genotype was readily expressed three hours after birth. P neonates drank twice as much ethanol as their NP counterparts. This heightened ethanol preference transiently reversed at P8, reemerged as weaning approached (P18) and was fully expressed during adolescence. These results help clarify the ontogeny of genetic predisposition for ethanol. Genetic predisposition for higher ethanol intake in P than in NP rats seems to be present immediately following birth. PMID:21400486

  13. A membraneless biofuel cell powered by ethanol and alcoholic beverage.

    PubMed

    Deng, Liu; Shang, Li; Wen, Dan; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2010-09-15

    In this study, we reported on the construction of a stable single-chamber ethanol/O(2) biofuel cell harvesting energy from the ethanol and alcoholic beverage. We prepared a composite film which consisted of partially sulfonated (3-mercaptopropyl)-trimethoxysilane sol-gel (PSSG) and chitosan (CHI). The combination of ion-exchange capacity sol-gel and biopolymer chitosan not only provided the attached sites for mediator MDB and AuNPs to facilitate the electron transfer along the substrate reaction, but also gave the suitable microenvironment to retain the enzyme activity in long term. The ethanol bioanode was constructed with the film coimmobilized dehydrogenase (ADH), Meldola's blue (MDB) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The MDB/AuNPs/PSSG-CHI-ADH composite modified electrode showed prominent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ethanol. The oxygen biocathode consisted of laccase and AuNPs immobilized on the PSSG-CHI composite membrane. The AuNPs/PSSG-CHI-laccase modified electrode catalyzed four-electron reduction of O(2) to water, without any mediator. The assembled single-chamber biofuel cell exhibited good stability and power output towards ethanol. The open-circuit voltage of this biofuel cell was 860 mV. The maximum power density of the biofuel cell was 1.56 mWcm(-2) at 550 mV. Most interestingly, this biofuel cell showed the similar performance when the alcoholic beverage acted as the fuel. When this biofuel cell ran with wine as the fuel, the maximum power output density was 3.21 mAcm(-2) and the maximum power density was 1.78 mWcm(-2) at 680 mV of the cell voltage. Our system exhibited stable and high power output in the multi-component substrate condition. This cell has great potential for the development and practical application of bioethanol fuel cell.

  14. Ethanol-based cleanser versus isopropyl alcohol to decontaminate stethoscopes.

    PubMed

    Lecat, Paul; Cropp, Elliott; McCord, Gary; Haller, Nairmeen Awad

    2009-04-01

    Approximately 1 in 20 hospital admissions is complicated by a health care-associated infection. Stethoscopes may play a role in spreading nosocomial infections. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an ethanol-based cleanser (EBC) compared with isopropyl alcohol pads in reducing bacterial contamination of stethoscope diaphragms. Stethoscopes were cultured from medical professionals on 4 medical floors before and after cleaning with either EBC or isopropyl alcohol pads. The numbers of colony-forming units (cfu) grown were compared between the 2 cleaners and to baseline values. A total of 99 stethoscopes were cultured (49 EBC; 50 isopropyl alcohol), and all were positive for growth. After cleaning, 28.28% of the stethoscopes were growth-free (12 EBC; 16 isopropyl alcohol). Cleaning with EBC and isopropyl alcohol pads significantly reduced the cfu counts (by 92.8% and 92.5%, respectively), but neither was found to be statistically superior (F = 1.22; P = .2721). Cleaning a stethoscope diaphragm using either EBC or isopropyl alcohol led to a significant reduction in bacterial growth in culture. As an extension of the hand, a stethoscope should be cleaned with the same frequency as the hands. The simultaneous cleaning of hands and stethoscope may further increase compliance with current standards.

  15. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions in aqueous mixtures of alcohols at a hydrophobic surface.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Deepti; Chapman, Walter G

    2013-09-21

    Aqueous solutions of alcohols are interesting because of their anomalous behavior that is believed to be due to the molecular structuring of water and alcohol around each other in solution. The interfacial structuring and properties are significant for application in alcohol purification processes and biomolecular structure. Here we study aqueous mixtures of short alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol) at a hydrophobic surface using interfacial statistical associating fluid theory which is a perturbation density functional theory. The addition of a small amount of alcohol decreases the interfacial tension of water drastically. This trend in interfacial tension can be explained by the structure of water and alcohol next to the surface. The hydrophobic group of an added alcohol preferentially goes to the surface preserving the structure of water in the bulk. For a given bulk alcohol concentration, water mixed with the different alcohols has different interfacial tensions with propanol having a lower interfacial tension than methanol and ethanol. 2-propanol is not as effective in decreasing the interfacial tension as 1-propanol because it partitions poorly to the surface due to its larger excluded volume. But for a given surface alcohol mole fraction, all the alcohol mixtures give similar values for interfacial tension. For separation of alcohol from water, methods that take advantage of the high surface mole fraction of alcohol have advantages compared to separation using the vapor in equilibrium with a water-alcohol liquid.

  16. [Morphological signs of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence and chronic alcoholic intoxication in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system].

    PubMed

    Droblenkov, A V

    2011-01-01

    Forensic medical diagnostics of ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system remains an unresolved problem and encounters difficulties. This situation is due not only to the marked vulnerability of the neurons of the dopaminergic system but also to the fact that its mechanisms are poorly understood. The objective of the present work was to substantiate and develop diagnostic criteria for ethanol poisoning, alcohol abstinence, and chronic alcoholic intoxication of the neurons both in the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system and in other brain regions. The object of the study was the brain of healthy adult subjects who died from alcohol intoxication (in the period of ethanol resorption) and under conditions of alcohol abstinence (completion of the abstinence course). The purpose of the study was to elucidate factors responsible for the different degree of damage to the neurons of various identification groups (intact, hypochromic, picnomorphic, shadow) and macrogliocytes. The cells of all these types were counted at an area of 0.25 sq. mm within 4 squares each having a side of 250 mcm in length. The absolute and relative number of neurons in each group as well as the number of polyneuronal satellite cells per one intact neuron was determined. It was shown that alcohol intoxication is associated with acute swelling of and severe damage to brain neurons caused by the combination of such factors as toxic effect of ethanol, excessive production of catecholamines, and functional overstrain of dopaminergic neurons. The severity of acute alcohol damage to the neurons decreased with the distance from the mid-brain dopaminergic nuclei. Restoration of neurons during alcohol abstinence was due to compensatory activation of interactions between neurons and glial cells. It decreased in the sequence from the paranigral nucleus of the ventral portion of mesencephalic tegumentum to the medial portion of the

  17. Benzyl alcohol increases voluntary ethanol drinking in rats.

    PubMed

    Etelälahti, T J; Eriksson, C J P

    2014-09-01

    The anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate has been reported to increase voluntary ethanol intake in Wistar rats. In recent experiments we received opposite results, with decreased voluntary ethanol intake in both high drinking AA and low drinking Wistar rats after nandrolone treatment. The difference between the two studies was that we used pure nandrolone decanoate in oil, whereas in the previous study the nandrolone product Deca-Durabolin containing benzyl alcohol (BA) was used. The aims of the present study were to clarify whether the BA treatment could promote ethanol drinking and to assess the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-gonadal axes (HPAGA) in the potential BA effect. Male AA and Wistar rats received subcutaneously BA or vehicle oil for 14 days. Hereafter followed a 1-week washout and consecutively a 3-week voluntary alcohol consumption period. The median (± median absolute deviation) voluntary ethanol consumption during the drinking period was higher in BA-treated than in control rats (4.94 ± 1.31 g/kg/day vs. 4.17 ± 0.31 g/kg/day, p = 0.07 and 1.01 ± 0.26 g/kg/day vs. 0.38 ± 0.27 g/kg/day, p = 0.05, for AA and Wistar rats, respectively; combined effect p < 0.01). The present results can explain the previous discrepancy between the two nandrolone studies. No significant BA effects on basal and ethanol-mediated serum testosterone and corticosterone levels were observed in blood samples taken at days 1, 8 and 22. However, 2h after ethanol administration significantly (p = 0.02) higher frequency of testosterone elevations was detected in high drinking AA rats compared to low drinking Wistars, which supports our previous hypotheses of a role of testosterone elevation in promoting ethanol drinking. Skin irritation and dermatitis were shown exclusively in the BA-treated animals. Altogether, the present results indicate that earlier findings obtained with Deca-Durabolin containing BA need to be re-evaluated.

  18. Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Exposure Increases Biofilm Formation in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis.

    PubMed

    Luther, Megan K; Bilida, Sarah; Mermel, Leonard A; LaPlante, Kerry L

    2015-06-01

    Alcohols, including ethanol and isopropyl alcohol, are used in clinical practice for disinfection and infection prevention. Recent studies, however, demonstrate that alcohols may enhance biofilm production in Staphylococci. We quantified biofilm formation in the presence of ethanol and isopropyl alcohol in six different, well-characterized strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus. After 24 h of biofilm development, each strain was exposed to normal saline (NS), ethanol, or isopropyl alcohol (40%, 60%, 80% and 95%) for additional 24 h incubation. Adherent biofilms were stained and optical density was determined. Viability of strains was also determined after alcohol exposure. Ethanol increased biofilm formation in all six strains compared to normal saline (p < 0.05). There was increased biofilm formation with increasing ethanol concentration. Isopropyl alcohol also increased biofilm formation with increasing alcohol concentration in all six strains (p < 0.01 vs NS). The slime-negative, chemical mutant strain of S. epidermidis increased biofilm formation after exposure to both alcohols, likely reverting back its primary phenotype through modulation of the intercellular adhesin repressor. All strains demonstrated viability after exposure to each alcohol concentration, though viability was decreased. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol exposure increases biofilm formation of S. aureus and S. epidermidis at concentrations used in clinical settings. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol did not eradicate viable Staphylococci from formed biofilm.

  19. Sequential injection analysis of ethanol using immobilized alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Hedenfalk, M.; Mattiasson, B.

    1996-05-01

    A Sequential Injection (SI) system was used to analyze the ethanol concentration in fermentation broth. The method is based on the use of immobilized NAD{sup +} dependent alcohol dehydrogenase. A non-linear standard curve for ethanol (range 0.25-100 mM) was used to determine the concentration in fermentation broth and the results correlated well with HPLC measurements. The assay time was 140 s, 0.5 {mu}mol of cofactor was used for each determination, and the relative standard deviation was less than 6% when analyzing fermentation samples. The assay system is very stable and makes it possible to reduce the cofactor consumption while keeping the system set up simple.

  20. Alcohol Dehydrogenase and Ethanol in the Stems of Trees 1

    PubMed Central

    Kimmerer, Thomas W.; Stringer, Mary A.

    1988-01-01

    Anaerobic fermentation in plants is usually thought to be a transient phenomenon, brought about by environmental limitations to oxygen availability, or by structural constraints to oxygen transport. The vascular cambium of trees is separated from the air by the outer bark and secondary phloem, and we hypothesized that the cambium may experience sufficient hypoxia to induce anaerobic fermentation. We found high alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the cambium of several tree species. Mean activity of alcohol dehydrogenase in Populus deltoides was 165 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Pyruvate decarboxylase activity was also present in the cambium of P. deltoides, with mean activity of 26 micromoles NADH oxidized per minute per gram fresh weight in May. Lactate dehydrogenase activity was not present in any tree species we examined. Contrary to our expectation, alcohol dehydrogenase activity was inversely related to bark thickness in Acer saccharum and unrelated to bark thickness in two Populus species. Bark thickness may be less important in limiting oxygen availability to the cambium than is oxygen consumption by rapidly respiring phloem and cambium in actively growing trees. Ethanol was present in the vascular cambium of all species examined, with mean concentrations of 35 to 143 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, depending on species. Ethanol was also present in xylem sap and may have been released from the cambium into the transpiration stream. The presence in the cambium of the enzymes necessary for fermentation as well as the products of fermentation is evidence that respiration in the vascular cambium of trees may be oxygen-limited, but other biosynthetic origins of ethanol have not been ruled out. PMID:16666209

  1. Ethanol and ethyl glucuronide urine concentrations after ethanol-based hand antisepsis with and without permitted alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Gessner, Stephan; Below, Elke; Diedrich, Stephan; Wegner, Christian; Gessner, Wiebke; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Bockholdt, Britta; Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan; Below, Harald

    2016-09-01

    During hand antisepsis, health care workers (HCWs) are exposed to alcohol by dermal contact and by inhalation. Concerns have been raised that high alcohol absorptions may adversely affect HCWs, particularly certain vulnerable individuals such as pregnant women or individuals with genetic deficiencies of aldehyde dehydrogenase. We investigated the kinetics of HCWs' urinary concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite ethyl glucuronide (EtG) during clinical work with and without previous consumption of alcoholic beverages by HCWs. The median ethanol concentration was 0.7 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR], 0.5-1.9 mg/L; maximum, 9.2 mg/L) during abstinence and 12.2 mg/L (IQR, 1.5-139.6 mg/L; maximum, 1,020.1 mg/L) during alcohol consumption. During abstinence, EtG reached concentrations of up to 958 ng/mL. When alcohol consumption was permitted, the median EtG concentration of all samples was 2,593 ng/mL (IQR, 890.8-3,576 ng/mL; maximum, 5,043 ng/mL). Although alcohol consumption was strongly correlated with both EtG and ethanol in urine, no significant correlation for the frequency of alcoholic hand antisepsis was observed in the linear mixed models. The use of ethanol-based handrub induces measurable ethanol and EtG concentrations in urine. Compared with consumption of alcoholic beverages or use of consumer products containing ethanol, the amount of ethanol absorption resulting from handrub applications is negligible. In practice, there is no evidence of any harmful effect of using ethanol-based handrubs as much as it is clinically necessary. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of the Average Price and Ethanol Content of Alcoholic Beverages by Brand – United States, 2011

    PubMed Central

    DiLoreto, Joanna T.; Siegel, Michael; Hinchey, Danielle; Valerio, Heather; Kinzel, Kathryn; Lee, Stephanie; Chen, Kelsey; Shoaff, Jessica Ruhlman; Kenney, Jessica; Jernigan, David H.; DeJong, William

    2011-01-01

    Background There are no existing data on alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the level of alcohol brand. A comprehensive understanding of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level is essential for the development of effective public policy to reduce alcohol use among underage youth. The purpose of this study was to comprehensively assess alcoholic beverage prices and ethanol content at the brand level. Methods Using online alcohol price data from 15 control states and 164 online alcohol stores, we estimated the average alcohol price and percentage alcohol by volume for 900 brands of alcohol, across 17 different alcoholic beverage types, in the United States in 2011. Results There is considerable variation in both brand-specific alcohol prices and ethanol content within most alcoholic beverage types. For many types of alcohol, the within-category variation between brands exceeds the variation in average price and ethanol content among the several alcoholic beverage types. Despite differences in average prices between alcoholic beverage types, in 12 of the 16 alcoholic beverage types, customers can purchase at least one brand of alcohol that is under one dollar per ounce of ethanol. Conclusions Relying on data or assumptions about alcohol prices and ethanol content at the level of alcoholic beverage type is insufficient for understanding and influencing youth drinking behavior. Surveillance of alcohol prices and ethanol content at the brand level should become a standard part of alcohol research. PMID:22316218

  3. The "first hit" toward alcohol reinforcement: role of ethanol metabolites.

    PubMed

    Israel, Yedy; Quintanilla, María Elena; Karahanian, Eduardo; Rivera-Meza, Mario; Herrera-Marschitz, Mario

    2015-05-01

    This review analyzes literature that describes the behavioral effects of 2 metabolites of ethanol (EtOH): acetaldehyde and salsolinol (a condensation product of acetaldehyde and dopamine) generated in the brain. These metabolites are self-administered into specific brain areas by animals, showing strong reinforcing effects. A wealth of evidence shows that EtOH, a drug consumed to attain millimolar concentrations, generates brain metabolites that are reinforcing at micromolar and nanomolar concentrations. Salsolinol administration leads to marked increases in voluntary EtOH intake, an effect inhibited by mu-opioid receptor blockers. In animals that have ingested EtOH chronically, the maintenance of alcohol intake is no longer influenced by EtOH metabolites, as intake is taken over by other brain systems. However, after EtOH withdrawal brain acetaldehyde has a major role in promoting binge-like drinking in the condition known as the "alcohol deprivation effect"; a condition seen in animals that have ingested alcohol chronically, are deprived of EtOH for extended periods, and are allowed EtOH re-access. The review also analyzes the behavioral effects of acetate, a metabolite that enters the brain and is responsible for motor incoordination at low doses of EtOH. Also discussed are the paradoxical effects of systemic acetaldehyde. Overall, evidence strongly suggests that brain-generated EtOH metabolites play a major role in the early ("first-hit") development of alcohol reinforcement and in the generation of relapse-like drinking.

  4. Inhibition of the cerebellar inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-sensitive Ca2+ channel by ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols.

    PubMed Central

    Mezna, M; Patchick, T; Tovey, S; Michelangeli, F

    1996-01-01

    The effects of ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols on the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ pump and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3)-sensitive Ca2+ channel were studied in pig cerebellar microsomes. Methanol, ethanol and propanol all stimulated ATP-dependent Ca2+ uptake, whereas butanol inhibited this process. Ethanol inhibited InsP3-induced Ca2+ release [half-maximal inhibition at 3.5%, v/v (600 mM)]. However, ethanol affected only the amount of InsP3-releasable Ca2+, without affecting the concentration of InsP3 required to induce half-maximal release. Other alcohols of longer chain length were more potent than ethanol at inhibiting InsP3-induced Ca2+ release, but none of the alcohols tested affected [3H]InsP3 binding to its receptor. Using stopped-flow techniques, measurements of the rate of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release in the preparation of pig cerebellar microsomes used in this study showed the kinetics to be monophasic, with a rate constant of 0.93s-1 at 20 microM InsP3. This rate constant was dependent upon InsP3 concentration, decreasing to 0.38s-1 at 0.25 microM InsP3. Ethanol was shown to reduce the fractional amount of InsP3-induced Ca2+ release without significantly affecting the rate constant for this process. PMID:8660280

  5. Enhancement of photosensitivity in the alcohol-added ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiro, Abe; Kazuhisa, Matsuda; Masakazu, Taka; Yasuo, Shirai

    1995-10-01

    The observation of photoinduced image formation in the alcohol-added ferroin-catalyzed Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction is reported. It is found that alcohol acts as a reagent that reduces the activation energy both of the ferroin-catalyzed and the Ce-catalyzed BZ reaction system and enhances the photosensitivity. By comparing the photosensitivity and photoinduced image formation for the ferroin-catalyzed BZ system with and without alcohol, we concluded that the photosensitivity of this alcohol-added BZ reaction system is enhanced by the presence of alcohol. This enhancement of the photosensitivity was confirmed in other alcohols such as ethanol, 1-propanol and 2-propanol.

  6. An enzyme-amplified microtiter plate assay for ethanol: Its application to the detection of peanut ethanol and alcohol dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.Y.; Vercellotti, J.R.; Sanders, T.H.

    1995-12-01

    A calorimetric microliter plate assay for ethanol amplified by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) was developed. In the assay ethanol from a sample took part in a chain-reaction catalyzed by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and amplified by ALDH in the presence of NAD{sup +}, diaphorase, and p-ibdonitrotetrazolium-violet (INT-violet)(a precursor of red product). The resultant reaction gave a red color, the intensity of which was proportional to the amount of ethanol present. Using the technique, the content of activity from peanuts of differing maturity and curing stages were determined respectively. Data showed that immature peanuts had a higher level of ethanol and a lower ADH activity than mature peanuts, and that the level of ethanol and ADH activity decreased with the curing time. This indicates that peanut maturity and curing have an effect on ethanol. Also, this implies that other peanut volatiles could be affected in the same way as ethanol, a major volatile in peanuts.

  7. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  8. Ethanol-induced leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: kinetics and relationship to yeast ethanol tolerance and alcohol fermentation productivity

    SciTech Connect

    Salgueiro, S.P.; Sa-Correia, I.; Novais, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    Ethanol stimulated the leakage of amino acids and 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efflux followed first-order kinetics over an initial period. In the presence of lethal concentrations of ethanol, the efflux rates at 30 and 36/sup 0/C were an exponential function of ethanol concentration. At 36/sup 0/C, as compared with the corresponding values at 30/sup 0/C, the efflux rates were higher and the minimal concentration of ethanol was lower. The exponential constants for the enhancement of the rate of leakage had similar values at 30 or 36/sup 0/C and were of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding exponential constants for ethanol-induced death. Under isothermic conditions (30/sup 0/C) and up to 22% (vol/vol) ethanol, the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds was found to be closely related with the ethanol tolerance of three strains of yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus. The resistance to ethanol-induced leakage indicates the possible adoption of the present method for the rapid screening of ethanol-tolerant strains. The addition to a fermentation medium of the intracellular material obtained by ethanol permeabilization of yeast cells led to improvements in alcohol fermentation by S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The action of the intracellular material, by improving yeast ethanol tolerance, and the advantages of partially recycling the fermented medium after distillation were discussed.

  9. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to reporting...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to reporting...

  11. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14-alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to reporting...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14- alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.5358 - 2-propanol, 1,1′,1′-nitrilotris-, compds. with ethanol 2-[2-(C12-14- alkyloxy) ethoxy] derivs...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. 721.5358 Section 721.5358 Protection of Environment...-, compds. with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses.... with ethanol 2- derivs. hydrogen sulfates (PMN P-99-928; CAS No. 222975-06-6) is subject to...

  14. The role of ethanol metabolism in development of alcoholic steatohepatitis in the rat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The importance of ethanol metabolism in the development of alcoholic liver disease remains controversial. The present study examined the effects of selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1, compared with the inhibition of overall ethanol metabolism on the development of alcoholic st...

  15. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  16. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders.

  17. Metabolic pathway engineering for production of 1,2-propanediol and 1-propanol by Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Daniel; Wendisch, Volker F

    2015-01-01

    Production of the versatile bulk chemical 1,2-propanediol and the potential biofuel 1-propanol is still dependent on petroleum, but some approaches to establish bio-based production from renewable feed stocks and to avoid toxic intermediates have been described. The biotechnological workhorse Corynebacterium glutamicum has also been shown to be able to overproduce 1,2-propanediol by metabolic engineering. Additionally, C. glutamicum has previously been engineered for production of the biofuels ethanol and isobutanol but not for 1-propanol. In this study, the improved production of 1,2-propanediol by C. glutamicum is presented. The product yield of a C. glutamicum strain expressing the heterologous genes gldA and mgsA from Escherichia coli that encode methylglyoxal synthase gene and glycerol dehydrogenase, respectively, was improved by additional expression of alcohol dehydrogenase gene yqhD from E. coli leading to a yield of 0.131 mol/mol glucose. Deletion of the endogenous genes hdpA and ldh encoding dihydroxyacetone phosphate phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, respectively, prevented formation of glycerol and lactate as by-products and improved the yield to 0.343 mol/mol glucose. To construct a 1-propanol producer, the operon ppdABC from Klebsiella oxytoca encoding diol dehydratase was expressed in the improved 1,2-propanediol producing strain ending up with 12 mM 1-propanol and up to 60 mM unconverted 1,2-propanediol. Thus, B12-dependent diol dehydratase activity may be limiting 1-propanol production. Production of 1,2-propanediol by C. glutamicum was improved by metabolic engineering targeting endogenous enzymes. Furthermore, to the best of our knowledge, production of 1-propanol by recombinant C. glutamicum was demonstrated for the first time.

  18. Ethanol-Induced Leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Kinetics and Relationship to Yeast Ethanol Tolerance and Alcohol Fermentation Productivity.

    PubMed

    Salgueiro, S P; Sá-Correia, I; Novais, J M

    1988-04-01

    Ethanol stimulated the leakage of amino acids and 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efflux followed first-order kinetics over an initial period. In the presence of lethal concentrations of ethanol, the efflux rates at 30 and 36 degrees C were an exponential function of ethanol concentration: k(e) = k(e)e, where k(e) and k(e) are the efflux rate constants, respectively, in the presence of a concentration X of ethanol or the minimal concentration of ethanol, X(m), above which the equation was applicable, coincident with the minimal lethal concentration of ethanol. E is the enhancement constant. At 36 degrees C, as compared with the corresponding values at 30 degrees C, the efflux rates were higher and the minimal concentration of ethanol (X(m)) was lower. The exponential constants for the enhancement of the rate of leakage (E) had similar values at 30 or 36 degrees C and were of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding exponential constants for ethanol-induced death. Under isothermic conditions (30 degrees C) and up to 22% (vol/vol) ethanol, the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds was found to be closely related with the ethanol tolerance of three strains of yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus. The resistance to ethanol-induced leakage indicates the possible adoption of the present method for the rapid screening of ethanol-tolerant strains. The addition to a fermentation medium of the intracellular material obtained by ethanol permeabilization of yeast cells led to improvements in alcohol fermentation by S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The action of the intracellular material, by improving yeast ethanol tolerance, and the advantages of partially recycling the fermented medium after distillation were discussed.

  19. Ethanol-Induced Leakage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Kinetics and Relationship to Yeast Ethanol Tolerance and Alcohol Fermentation Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Salgueiro, Sancha P.; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Novais, Júlio M.

    1988-01-01

    Ethanol stimulated the leakage of amino acids and 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds from cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The efflux followed first-order kinetics over an initial period. In the presence of lethal concentrations of ethanol, the efflux rates at 30 and 36°C were an exponential function of ethanol concentration: keX = keXmeE (X-Xm), where keX and keXm are the efflux rate constants, respectively, in the presence of a concentration X of ethanol or the minimal concentration of ethanol, Xm, above which the equation was applicable, coincident with the minimal lethal concentration of ethanol. E is the enhancement constant. At 36°C, as compared with the corresponding values at 30°C, the efflux rates were higher and the minimal concentration of ethanol (Xm) was lower. The exponential constants for the enhancement of the rate of leakage (E) had similar values at 30 or 36°C and were of the same order of magnitude as the corresponding exponential constants for ethanol-induced death. Under isothermic conditions (30°C) and up to 22% (vol/vol) ethanol, the resistance to ethanol-induced leakage of 260-nm-light-absorbing compounds was found to be closely related with the ethanol tolerance of three strains of yeasts, Kluyveromyces marxianus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces bayanus. The resistance to ethanol-induced leakage indicates the possible adoption of the present method for the rapid screening of ethanol-tolerant strains. The addition to a fermentation medium of the intracellular material obtained by ethanol permeabilization of yeast cells led to improvements in alcohol fermentation by S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus. The action of the intracellular material, by improving yeast ethanol tolerance, and the advantages of partially recycling the fermented medium after distillation were discussed. PMID:16347612

  20. Metabolism of silage alcohols in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, N B; Storm, A; Raun, B M L; Røjen, B A; Harmon, D L

    2007-03-01

    Dairy cows fed silage are subjected to various alcohols and low molecular weight esters. Four lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and mesenteric artery were used to study the absorption of alcohols into portal blood and the metabolism of feed alcohols in the rumen and splanchnic tissues. The cows were allocated to 4 experimental treatments in a Latin square design. All treatments were formulated as total mixed rations with the same overall nutrient composition, differing by the source of corn silage. Treatments were a control silage and 3 qualities of problematic corn silage (silage with Fusarium toxin, Penicillium-infected silage, and silage with a high propanol content). Feeding was followed by a decreasing ruminal pH, as well as decreasing molar proportions of ruminal acetate and isobutyrate. The ruminal concentrations of total VFA, ethanol, propanol, 2-butanol, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, glucose, and L-lactate, and molar proportions of propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, valerate, and caproate increased after feeding. Treatments affected ruminal concentrations of propanol, propyl acetate, and butyrate and a strong correlation was observed between ruminal propyl acetate and the molar proportion of butyrate (r = -0.79). Arterial concentrations of ethanol, propanol, propanal, acetone (sum of acetone and acetoacetate), 3-hydroxybutyrate, L-lactate, glutamate, and glutamine increased, and the arterial concentration of glucose decreased after feeding, but no effects of treatment were observed for arterial variables. The postprandial increase in arterial ethanol was maintained for 5 h. The net portal release of ethanol tended to decrease with the treatment with the lowest ethanol content, and the net splanchnic release of ethanol increased after feeding, but overall, the net splanchnic flux of ethanol was not different from zero, in agreement with the

  1. Chemosensory responsiveness to ethanol and its individual sensory components in alcohol-preferring, alcohol-nonpreferring and genetically heterogeneous rats.

    PubMed

    Brasser, Susan M; Silbaugh, Bryant C; Ketchum, Myles J; Olney, Jeffrey J; Lemon, Christian H

    2012-03-01

    Alcohol activates orosensory circuits that project to motivationally relevant limbic forebrain areas that control appetite, feeding and drinking. To date, limited data exists regarding the contribution of chemosensory-derived ethanol reinforcement to ethanol preference and consumption. Measures of taste reactivity to intra-orally infused ethanol have not found differences in initial orofacial responses to alcohol between alcohol-preferring (P) and alcohol-non-preferring (NP) genetically selected rat lines. Yet, in voluntary intake tests, P rats prefer highly concentrated ethanol upon initial exposure, suggesting an early sensory-mediated attraction. Here, we directly compared self-initiated chemosensory responding for alcohol and prototypic sweet, bitter and oral trigeminal stimuli among selectively bred P, NP and non-selected Wistar (WI) outbred lines to determine whether differential sensory responsiveness to ethanol and its putative sensory components are phenotypically associated with genetically influenced alcohol preference. Rats were tested for immediate short-term lick responses to alcohol (3-40%), sucrose (0.01-1 M), quinine (0.01-3 mM) and capsaicin (0.003-1 mM) in a brief-access assay designed to index orosensory-guided behavior. P rats exhibited elevated short-term lick responses to both alcohol and sucrose relative to NP and WI lines across a broad range of concentrations of each stimulus and in the absence of blood alcohol levels that would produce significant post-absorptive effects. There was no consistent relationship between genetically mediated alcohol preference and orosensory avoidance of quinine or capsaicin. These data indicate that enhanced initial chemosensory attraction to ethanol and sweet stimuli are phenotypes associated with genetic alcohol preference and are considered within the framework of downstream activation of oral appetitive reward circuits.

  2. Inhibition by ethanol, acetaldehyde and trifluoroethanol of reactions catalysed by yeast and horse liver alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, C J; Dickinson, F M

    1978-01-01

    1. Produced inhibition by ethanol of the acetaldehyde-NADH reaction, catalysed by the alcohol dehydrogenases from yeast and horse liver, was studied at 25 degrees C and pH 6-9. 2. The results with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase are generally consistent with the preferred-pathway mechanism proposed previously [Dickenson & Dickinson (1975) Biochem. J. 147, 303-311]. The observed hyperbolic inhibition by ethanol of the maximum rate of acetaldehyde reduction confirms the existence of the alternative pathway involving an enzyme-ethanol complex. 3. The maximum rate of acetaldehyde reduction with horse liver alcohol dehydrogenase is also subject to hyperbolic inhibition by ethanol. 4. The measured inhibition constants for ethanol provide some of the information required in the determination of the dissociation constant for ethanol from the active ternary complex. 5. Product inhibition by acetaldehyde of the ethanol-NAD+ reaction with yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was examined briefly. The results are consistent with the proposed mechanism. However, the nature of the inhibition of the maximum rate cannot be determined within the accessible range of experimental conditions. 6. Inhibition of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase by trifluoroethanol was studied at 25 degrees C and pH 6-10. The inhibition was competitive with respect to ethanol in the ethanol-NAD+ reaction. Estimates were made of the dissociation constant for trifluoroethanol from the enzyme-NAD+-trifluoroethanol complex in the range pH6-10. PMID:208509

  3. Ethyl sulphate: a direct ethanol metabolite reflecting recent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Dresen, Sebastian; Allen, John P; Wiesbeck, Gerhard; Graf, Marc; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Ethyl sulphate (EtS), a direct ethanol metabolite, appears to offer potential as a biomarker for recent alcohol consumption. Although its window of assessment is similar to that of ethyl glucuronide (EtG), there are differences between the two markers in their pathways for formation and degradation. (a) To assess the excretion of EtS compared to EtG and ethanol in drinking experiments with healthy volunteers, and (b) to elucidate the possibility of using the two metabolites for monitoring abstinence in substance use disorder patients during rehabilitation treatment. (a) Nine drinking experiments were performed by six healthy volunteers (two females, four males), with a mean age of 34.1 years (20-62), average oral intake of 0.2 g/kg ethanol (0.1-0.61), and having 74 spot urine samples. (b) Thirty-six substance abuse patients (mean age 41.9 years, 20-59; 22 males, 14 females) in a rehabilitation programme after withdrawal, producing 98 urine samples. Ethyl glucuronide and ethyl sulphate were measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using d5-EtG and d5-EtS, respectively, as an internal standard. (a) EtG and EtS were detectable for up to 36 hours and reached the limits of determination in urine at 20.6 hours and 21.2 hours (median), respectively, after ethanol intake. EtG-100 (standardized to a creatinine of 100 mg/dl) reached its maximum level at 2.8 hours and EtS-100 at 2.1 hours (median) after the beginning of the experiment. Of the ethanol ingested, 0.022% was excreted as EtS in one volunteer. Eight samples were positive for EtS only and six for EtG only. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 0.84 (P < 0.0001) between EtG and EtS and 0.87 (P < 0.0001) between EtG-100 and EtS-100 were found. (b) of the 98 urine samples evaluated, 27 were positive for EtS and of these only 20 were also positive for EtG. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients of 0.84 (P < 0.0001) between EtG and EtS and 0.82 (P < 0.0001) between EtG-100 and Et

  4. Nepalese Homebrewed Alcoholic Beverages: Types, Ingredients, and Ethanol Concentration from a Nation Wide Survey.

    PubMed

    Thapa, N; Aryal, K K; Paudel, M; Puri, R; Thapa, P; Shrestha, S; Shrestha, S; Stray-Pedersen, B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the enormous public health problems related to traditional alcohol consumption practice in Nepal, this area has been ignored and the information at the national level is limited. Thus this study is designed to explore the readily available commonly practiced Nepalese homebrewed alcoholic beverages, the ingredients used and alcohol strength (ethanol concentration). This study was carried out as a part of ongoing household survey on "Alcohol consumption practice among married women of reproductive age in Nepal". A total of 284 homebrewed alcoholic beverage (distilled 175, non-distilled:109) samples were collected from the 16 survey districts of Nepal during the period of April to August, 2013. Ethanol percentage was tested in research lab by using standard procedure. Readily available homebrewed alcoholic beverages in practice were mainly of two types "Distilled" (local Raksi) and "Non-distilled" (Jand, Chhyang, Tumba). Rice, wheat, barley, millet, maize, fruits, and pure sugar were the commonly used ingredients to prepare alcohol. Ethanol concentration in homebrewed alcohol was 14.0% (IQR: 10.0-19.0) ranging from 3% to 40% for distilled, and 5.2% (IQR: 3.5-9.8) ranging from 1% to 18.9% for nondistilled. A significant difference (P<0.05) was found in alcohol strength by residence, development regions, types of alcohol, and the ingredients used. The median concentration of ethanol in readily available home brewed alcoholic beverages in Nepal was more than the strength of factory produced beer. The alcohol strength varies across their types, ingredients used, residence and regions.

  5. Contribution of liver alcohol dehydrogenase to metabolism of alcohols in rats.

    PubMed

    Plapp, Bryce V; Leidal, Kevin G; Murch, Bruce P; Green, David W

    2015-06-05

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5-20 mmol/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmol/kgh. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5-10 mmol/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmol/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6±1 mmol/kg h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD(+) for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD(+) for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD(+) is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified.

  6. Alcohol oxidizing enzymes and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Falzon, Miriam; Ansari, G. A. S.

    2016-01-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is a serious inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. Due to lack of a suitable animal model, the underlying mechanism of ACP is poorly understood. Chronic alcohol abuse inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas frequently damaged during chronic ethanol abuse. Earlier, we reported a concentration-dependent formation of FAEEs and cytotoxicity in ethanol-treated rat pancreatic tumor (AR42J) cells, which express high FAEE synthase activity as compared to ADH and cytochrome P450 2E1. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the role of various ethanol oxidizing enzymes in ethanol-induced pancreatic acinar cell injury. Confluent AR42J cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of ADH class I and II [4-methylpyrazole (MP)] or class I, II, and III [1,10-phenanthroline (PT)], cytochrome P450 2E1 (trans-1,2-dichloroethylene) or catalase (sodium azide) followed by incubation with 800 mg% ethanol at 37°C for 6 h. Ethanol metabolism, cell viability, cytotoxicity (apoptosis and necrosis), cell proliferation status, and formation of FAEEs in AR42J cells were measured. The cell viability and cell proliferation rate were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with 1,10-PT + ethanol followed by those with 4-MP + ethanol. In situ formation of FAEEs was twofold greater in cells incubated with l,10-PT + ethanol and ~1.5-fold in those treated with 4-MP + ethanol vs. respective controls. However, cells treated with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2E1 or catalase in combination of ethanol showed no significant changes either for FAEE formation, cell death or proliferation rate. Therefore, an impaired ADH class I—III catalyzed oxidation of ethanol appears to be a key contributing factor in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury via formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol. PMID:24281792

  7. Alcohol oxidizing enzymes and ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in rat pancreatic acinar AR42J cells.

    PubMed

    Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Falzon, Miriam; Ansari, G A S; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S

    2014-04-01

    Alcoholic chronic pancreatitis (ACP) is a serious inflammatory disease causing significant morbidity and mortality. Due to lack of a suitable animal model, the underlying mechanism of ACP is poorly understood. Chronic alcohol abuse inhibits alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and facilitates nonoxidative metabolism of ethanol to fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas frequently damaged during chronic ethanol abuse. Earlier, we reported a concentration-dependent formation of FAEEs and cytotoxicity in ethanol-treated rat pancreatic tumor (AR42J) cells, which express high FAEE synthase activity as compared to ADH and cytochrome P450 2E1. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to investigate the role of various ethanol oxidizing enzymes in ethanol-induced pancreatic acinar cell injury. Confluent AR42J cells were pre-treated with inhibitors of ADH class I and II [4-methylpyrazole (MP)] or class I, II, and III [1,10-phenanthroline (PT)], cytochrome P450 2E1 (trans-1,2-dichloroethylene) or catalase (sodium azide) followed by incubation with 800 mg% ethanol at 37°C for 6 h. Ethanol metabolism, cell viability, cytotoxicity (apoptosis and necrosis), cell proliferation status, and formation of FAEEs in AR42J cells were measured. The cell viability and cell proliferation rate were significantly reduced in cells pretreated with 1,10-PT + ethanol followed by those with 4-MP + ethanol. In situ formation of FAEEs was twofold greater in cells incubated with 1,10-PT + ethanol and ∼1.5-fold in those treated with 4-MP + ethanol vs. respective controls. However, cells treated with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 2E1 or catalase in combination of ethanol showed no significant changes either for FAEE formation, cell death or proliferation rate. Therefore, an impaired ADH class I-III catalyzed oxidation of ethanol appears to be a key contributing factor in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury via formation of nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol.

  8. Alcohol-induced insulin resistance in liver: Potential roles in regulation of ADH expression; ethanol clearance and alcohol liver disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Using total enteral nutrition (TEN), we demonstrated that low carbohydrate, high alcohol-containing diets (10-12 g/kg/dO produced alcoholic liver disease (ALD) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (300 g). Intragastric infusion of this diet generates regular pulses of blood ethanol concentrations (BEC...

  9. Drug-induced reductions in ethanol intake in alcohol preferring and Fawn-Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, A H; Overstreet, D H; Janowsky, D S

    1991-01-01

    The ethanol intake of Fawn-Hooded rats, a serotonin deficient strain, was examined under a two bottle choice between ethanol (10%) and tap water. The Fawn-Hooded rats drank as much ethanol as the alcohol preferring strain of rats (approximately 6 times that of the control Wistar rats), but drank more fluid and ate more. In general, direct and indirect serotonin agonists, reduced ethanol intake to a smaller degree in the Fawn-Hooded rats compared to the P rats. In contrast the centrally acting antimuscarinic scopolamine reduced ethanol intake to a similar degree in the two strains.

  10. Ethanol-associated selective fetal malnutrition: a contributing factor in the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fisher, S E; Atkinson, M; Burnap, J K; Jacobson, S; Sehgal, P K; Scott, W; Van Thiel, D H

    1982-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the FAS, particularly the characteristic IUGR, may be due in part to ethanol-related placental injury. Ethanol and/ or acetaldehyde may impair placental transfer of nutrients essential for growth, e.g., amino acids. Such restriction could occur regardless of maternal nutritional status: selective fetal malnutrition. Impairment of placental nutrient transport at critical phases of fetal organogenesis could compound any direct fetotoxic effects of ethanol or acetaldehyde. The effect of ethanol upon human placental hormone synthesis and transport of vitamins, minerals, glucose, and nucleic acid precursors awaits further investigation. Similarly, potential interactions between ethanol and other xenobiotics commonly abused by alcoholics require clarification.

  11. Investigation and evaluation of a method for determination of ethanol with the SIRE Biosensor P100, using alcohol dehydrogenase as recognition element.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Katrin; Bülow, Leif; Kriz, Dario; Krook, Margareta

    2005-11-15

    A new method for rapid determination of ethanol was developed, using alcohol dehydrogenase as recognition element for the SIRE (sensors based on injection of the recognition element) Biosensor, which is an amperometric biosensor. The method was simple, fast, accurate, specific and cost-effective. The recognition element solution used was stable at least for 24 h in room temperature, and at least one month when lyophilised. The optimal potential versus the silver wire electrode, the optimal pH of the buffer and the optimal temperature of the water bath was determined to be +950 mV, 8.1 and 308 K, respectively. The optimal concentrations of alcohol dehydrogenase, BSA and NAD(+) were determined to be 200 U/ml, 20 mg/ml and 15 mM, respectively. The total analysis time was between 50 s and 4 min per analysis, depending on the concentration range. The linear range was 0-12.5 mM. The detection limit was less than 0.1 mM. The repeatability (%R.S.D.) was 3-5% (n=10). The reproducibility was 5-8% (n=5). Methanol gave no signal at all, but higher alcohols, such as propanol, pentanol and hexanol, gave significant signals, decreasing with increasing length of the carbon chain. The price for one measurement was calculated to be 0.052 euro. The results from measurements with the biosensor were compared to those from an established analysis kit for ethanol. The results correlated well (R(2)=0.9874). The concentration of ethanol in different alcoholic beverages was investigated and correlated well with the concentrations given by the manufacturers.

  12. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  13. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  14. Heterogeneous Catalytic Conversion of Dry Syngas to Ethanol and Higher Alcohols on Cu-Based Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Mayank; Smith, Miranda L.; Spivey, James J.

    2011-04-19

    Ethanol and higher alcohols have been identified as potential fuel additives or hydrogen carriers for use in fuel cells. One method of ethanol production is catalytic conversion of syngas (a mixture of CO, H₂, CO₂, and H₂O), derived from biomass, coal, or natural gas. Thermodynamics of CO hydrogenation shows that ethanol is favored as the sole product at conditions of practical interest, but if methane is allowed as product in this analysis, essentially no ethanol is formed at equilibrium. The kinetics of ethanol formation must therefore be maximized. Although rhodium-based catalysts give C{sup 2+} oxygenates with high selectivity, their prohibitive cost has spurred research on less expensive copper-based alternatives. Copper-based catalysts require an optimum amount of promoter to suppress undesired reactions and maximize the yields of ethanol and higher alcohols. Common promoters include alkali, transition metals and their oxides, and rare earth oxides. Careful selection of operating variables is also necessary to achieve the desired activity and selectivity. This review describes the effects of promoters, supports, and operating conditions on the performance of copper-based catalysts for conversion of dry syngas to ethanol and higher alcohols. Proposed mechanisms from the literature for ethanol and higher-alcohol synthesis are outlined.

  15. Ethanol-induced alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) potentiates pneumolysin in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Luong, Truc Thanh; Kim, Eun-Hye; Bak, Jong Phil; Nguyen, Cuong Thach; Choi, Sangdun; Briles, David E; Pyo, Suhkneung; Rhee, Dong-Kwon

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol impairs the host immune system, rendering the host more vulnerable to infection. Therefore, alcoholics are at increased risk of acquiring serious bacterial infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including pneumonia. Nevertheless, how alcohol affects pneumococcal virulence remains unclear. Here, we showed that the S. pneumoniae type 2 D39 strain is ethanol tolerant and that alcohol upregulates alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE) and potentiates pneumolysin (Ply). Hemolytic activity, colonization, and virulence of S. pneumoniae, as well as host cell myeloperoxidase activity, proinflammatory cytokine secretion, and inflammation, were significantly attenuated in adhE mutant bacteria (ΔadhE strain) compared to D39 wild-type bacteria. Therefore, AdhE might act as a pneumococcal virulence factor. Moreover, in the presence of ethanol, S. pneumoniae AdhE produced acetaldehyde and NADH, which subsequently led Rex (redox-sensing transcriptional repressor) to dissociate from the adhE promoter. An increase in AdhE level under the ethanol condition conferred an increase in Ply and H2O2 levels. Consistently, S. pneumoniae D39 caused higher cytotoxicity to RAW 264.7 cells than the ΔadhE strain under the ethanol stress condition, and ethanol-fed mice (alcoholic mice) were more susceptible to infection with the D39 wild-type bacteria than with the ΔadhE strain. Taken together, these data indicate that AdhE increases Ply under the ethanol stress condition, thus potentiating pneumococcal virulence.

  16. Catalyst Activity Comparison of Alcohols over Zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol transformation to transportation fuel range hydrocarbon on HZSM-5 (SiO2 / Al2O3 = 30) catalyst was studied at 360oC and 300psig. Product distributions and catalyst life were compared using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol as a feed. The catalyst life for 1-propanol and 1-butanol was more than double compared to that for methanol and ethanol. For all the alcohols studied, the product distributions (classified to paraffin, olefin, napthene, aromatic and naphthalene compounds) varied with time on stream (TOS). At 24 hours TOS, liquid product from 1-propanol and 1-butanol transformation primarily contains higher olefin compounds. The alcohol transformation process to higher hydrocarbon involves a complex set of reaction pathways such as dehydration, oligomerization, dehydrocyclization, and hydrogenation. Compared to ethylene generated from methanol and ethanol, oligomerization of propylene and butylene has a lower activation energy and can readily take place on weaker acidic sites. On the other hand, dehydrocyclization of propylene and butylene to form the cyclic compounds requires the sits with stronger acid strength. Combination of the above mentioned reasons are the primary reasons for olefin rich product generated in the later stage of the time on stream and for the extended catalyst life time for 1 propanol and 1 butanol compared to methanol and ethanol conversion over HZSM-5.

  17. Brucine suppresses ethanol intake and preference in alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Ling; Liu, Qing; Gong, Qi; Li, Jun-Xu; Wei, Shou-Peng; Wang, Yan-Ting; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Jing, Li; Yong, Zheng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-Hui

    2014-07-01

    Brucine (BRU) extracted from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L is glycine receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that BRU may modify alcohol consumption by acting at glycine receptors, and evaluated the pharmacodynamic profiles and adverse effects of BRU in rat models of alcohol abuse. Alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rats were administered BRU (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, sc). The effects of BRU on alcohol consumption were examined in ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigm and 5-d ethanol deprivation test. In addition, open field test was used to assess the general locomotor activity of FH/Wjd rats, and conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted to assess conditioned reinforcing effect. In ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, treatment with BRU for 10 consecutive days dose-dependently decreased the ethanol intake associated with a compensatory increase of water intake, but unchanged the daily total fluid intake and body weight. In ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigms, BRU (30 mg/kg) administered before each testing session significantly decreased the number of lever presses for ethanol and the ethanol intake, without affecting the number of sucrose (10%) responses, total sucrose intake, and the number of lever presses for water. Acute treatment with BRU (30 mg/kg) completely suppressed the deprivation-induced elevation of ethanol consumption. Treatment with BRU (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) did not alter locomotion of FH/Wjd rats, nor did it produce place preference or aversion. BRU selectively decreases ethanol consumption with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, BRU may represent a new pharmacotherapy for alcoholism.

  18. Ethanol stimulates epithelial sodium channels by elevating reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hui-Fang; Song, John Z; Duke, Billie J; Ma, He-Ping; Denson, Donald D; Eaton, Douglas C

    2012-12-01

    Alcohol affects total body sodium balance, but the molecular mechanism of its effect remains unclear. We used single-channel methods to examine how ethanol affects epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells. The data showed that ethanol significantly increased both ENaC open probability (P(o)) and the number of active ENaC in patches (N). 1-Propanol and 1-butanol also increased ENaC activity, but iso-alcohols did not. The effects of ethanol were mimicked by acetaldehyde, the first metabolic product of ethanol, but not by acetone, the metabolic product of 2-propanol. Besides increasing open probability and apparent density of active channels, confocal microscopy and surface biotinylation showed that ethanol significantly increased α-ENaC protein in the apical membrane. The effects of ethanol on ENaC P(o) and N were abolished by a superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) and blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Consistent with an effect of ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on ENaC, primary alcohols and acetaldehyde elevated intracellular ROS, but secondary alcohols did not. Taken together with our previous finding that ROS stimulate ENaC, the current results suggest that ethanol stimulates ENaC by elevating intracellular ROS probably via its metabolic product acetaldehyde.

  19. Ethanol stimulates epithelial sodium channels by elevating reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Hui-Fang; Song, John Z.; Duke, Billie J.; Ma, He-Ping; Denson, Donald D.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol affects total body sodium balance, but the molecular mechanism of its effect remains unclear. We used single-channel methods to examine how ethanol affects epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) in A6 distal nephron cells. The data showed that ethanol significantly increased both ENaC open probability (Po) and the number of active ENaC in patches (N). 1-Propanol and 1-butanol also increased ENaC activity, but iso-alcohols did not. The effects of ethanol were mimicked by acetaldehyde, the first metabolic product of ethanol, but not by acetone, the metabolic product of 2-propanol. Besides increasing open probability and apparent density of active channels, confocal microscopy and surface biotinylation showed that ethanol significantly increased α-ENaC protein in the apical membrane. The effects of ethanol on ENaC Po and N were abolished by a superoxide scavenger, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyloxy (TEMPOL) and blocked by the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002. Consistent with an effect of ethanol-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) on ENaC, primary alcohols and acetaldehyde elevated intracellular ROS, but secondary alcohols did not. Taken together with our previous finding that ROS stimulate ENaC, the current results suggest that ethanol stimulates ENaC by elevating intracellular ROS probably via its metabolic product acetaldehyde. PMID:22895258

  20. Adapting to alcohol: Dwarf hamster (Phodopus campbelli) ethanol consumption, sensitivity, and hoard fermentation.

    PubMed

    Lupfer, Gwen; Murphy, Eric S; Merculieff, Zoe; Radcliffe, Kori; Duddleston, Khrystyne N

    2015-06-01

    Ethanol consumption and sensitivity in many species are influenced by the frequency with which ethanol is encountered in their niches. In Experiment 1, dwarf hamsters (Phodopus campbelli) with ad libitum access to food and water consumed high amounts of unsweetened alcohol solutions. Their consumption of 15%, but not 30%, ethanol was reduced when they were fed a high-fat diet; a high carbohydrate diet did not affect ethanol consumption. In Experiment 2, intraperitoneal injections of ethanol caused significant dose-related motor impairment. Much larger doses administered orally, however, had no effect. In Experiment 3, ryegrass seeds, a common food source for wild dwarf hamsters, supported ethanol fermentation. Results of these experiments suggest that dwarf hamsters may have adapted to consume foods in which ethanol production naturally occurs.

  1. Low-molecular-weight metabolites relevant to ethanol metabolism: correlation with alcohol withdrawal severity and utility for identification of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Pronko, P S; Velichko, M G; Moroz, A R; Rubanovich, N N

    1997-01-01

    The blood levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetate, methanol, acetone, lactate, pyruvate, and glucose were measured in 23 male alcohol-dependent patients on days 2 to 6 after hospitalization and in 22 healthy male blood donors. Correlations between the biochemical parameters and 17 symptoms of the alcohol-withdrawal syndrome (AWS) were calculated. Abnormally high levels of ethanol, methanol, acetate, and acetone as well as hypoglycaemia were found on day 2, but lactacidaemia and pyruvataemia were pronounced throughout the observation period. AWS severity correlated positively with the acetone content on day 2 and with the acetate content on days 2 to 6. Negative correlations were found between ethanol levels and craving for alcohol, methanol levels and craving for alcohol, and between psychopathologic disorders and the total AWS severity score. The results suggest that concentrations of blood ethanol, methanol, acetate, and acetone exceeding their normal endogenous levels can be used only as indicators of recent heavy drinking. Linear discriminant analysis using the levels of the nine parameters studied enabled the correct classification of 91% to 96% of alcoholic patients during 1 week of abstinence and 100% of control subjects. The most informative parameters in the discrimination between alcoholics and controls were lactate, pyruvate, the lactate/pyruvate ratio, acetate, and acetone.

  2. Aggregation kinetics of latex microspheres in alcohol-water media.

    PubMed

    Odriozola, G; Schmitt, A; Callejas-Fernández, J; Hidalgo-Alvarez, R

    2007-06-15

    We report zeta potential and aggregation kinetics data on colloidal latex particles immersed in water-alcohol media. Zeta potential values show absolute maxima for volume fractions of alcohol of 0.10 and 0.05 for ethanol and 1-propanol, respectively. For methanol, no maximum of the absolute value of the zeta potential was found. Aggregation kinetics was studied by means of a single-cluster optical sizing equipment and for alcohol volume fractions ranging from 0 to 0.1. The aggregation processes are induced by adding different potassium bromide concentrations to the samples. We expected to find a slowdown of the overall aggregation kinetics for ethanol and 1-propanol, and no significant effect for methanol, as compared with pure water data. That is, we expected the zeta potential to govern the overall aggregation rate. However, we obtained a general enhancement of the aggregation kinetics for methanol and 1-propanol and a general slowdown of the aggregation rate for ethanol. In addition, aggregation data under ethanol show a slower kinetics for large electrolyte concentration than that obtained for intermediate electrolyte concentration. We think that these anomalous behaviors are linked to layering, changes in hydrophobicity of particle surfaces due to alcohol adsorption, complex ion-water-alcohol-surface structuring, and competition between alcohol-surface adsorption and alcohol-alcohol clustering.

  3. Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

    2013-07-01

    There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition.

  4. The phytotoxic effect of exogenous ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L.

    PubMed

    Kern, Kátia Aparecida; Pergo, Erica Marusa; Kagami, Fernanda Lima; Arraes, Luis Saraiva; Sert, Maria Aparecida; Ishii-Iwamoto, Emy Luiza

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exogenously applied ethanol on Euphorbia heterophylla L., a troublesome weed in field and plantation crops. Ethanol at concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1.5% caused a dose-dependent inhibition of germination and growth of E. heterophylla. Measurements of respiratory activity and alcohol dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.1) activity during seed imbibition and initial seedling growth revealed that ethanol induces a prolongation of hypoxic conditions in the growing tissues. In isolated mitochondria, ethanol inhibited the respiration coupled to ADP phosphorylation, an action that probably contributed to modifications observed in the respiratory activity of embryos. A comparison of the effects of methanol, ethanol, propanol and acetaldehyde on germination and growth of E. heterophylla indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase activity is required for the observed effects, with the conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde playing a role in the ethanol-induced injuries.

  5. [Direct metabolites of ethanol as biological markers of alcohol use: basic aspects and applications].

    PubMed

    Thon, N; Weinmann, W; Yegles, M; Preuss, U; Wurst, F M

    2013-09-01

    In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in the diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to the influence of age, gender and non-alcohol related diseases, among others. Direct metabolites of ethanol such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake - EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programmes, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and foetal alcohol syndrome. Due to their properties, they open up new perspectives for prevention, interdisciplinary cooperation, diagnosis of and therapy for alcohol-related problems.

  6. [What ethanol metabolites as biological markers tell us about alcohol use].

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Thon, Natasha; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Yegles, Michel; Preuss, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and tobacco related disorders are the two leading and most expensive causes of illness in central Europe. In addition to self reports and questionnaires, biomarkers are of relevance in diagnosis and therapy of alcohol use disorders. Traditional biomarkers such as gamma glutamyl transpeptidase or mean corpuscular volume are indirect biomarkers and are subject to influence of age, gender and non alcohol related diseases, among others.Direct ethanol metabolites such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG), ethyl sulphate (EtS) and phosphatidylethanol (PEth) are direct metabolites of ethanol, that are positive after intake of ethyl alcohol. They represent useful diagnostic tools for identifying alcohol use even more accurately than traditional biomarkers. Each of these drinking indicators remains positive in serum and urine for a characteristic time spectrum after the cessation of ethanol intake--EtG and EtS in urine up to 7 days, EtG in hair for months after ethanol has left the body. Applications include clinical routine use, emergency room settings, proof of abstinence in alcohol rehabilitation programs, driving under influence offenders, workplace testing, assessment of alcohol intake in the context of liver transplantation and fetal alcohol syndrome.

  7. Ethanol exposure alters zebrafish development: a novel model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Joseph; Barnett, Jalynn A; Hancock, Laura; Saszik, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has been shown to produce the overt physical and behavioral symptoms known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in humans. Also, it is believed that low concentrations and/or short durations of alcohol exposure can produce more subtle effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to determine whether this species is a viable animal model for studying FAS. Fertilized embryos were reared in varying concentrations of ethanol (1.5% and 2.9%) and exposure times (e.g., 0-8, 6-24, 12-24, and 48-72 h postfertilization; hpf); anatomical measures including eye diameter and heart rate were compared across groups. Results found that at the highest concentration of ethanol (2.9%), there were more abnormal physical distortions and significantly higher mortality rates than any other group. Embryos exposed to ethanol for a shorter duration period (0-8 hpf) at a concentration of 1.5% exhibited more subtle effects such as significantly smaller eye diameter and lower heart rate than controls. These results indicate that embryonic alcohol exposure affects external and internal physical development and that the severity of these effects is a function of both the amount of ethanol and the timing of ethanol exposure. Thus, the zebrafish represents a useful model for examining basic questions about the effects of embryonic exposure to ethanol on development.

  8. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    PubMed

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's.

  9. Action of ethanol and some alcoholic beverages on gastric acid secretion in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Teyssen, S; González-Calero, G; Korn, A; Singer, M V

    1997-01-01

    The action of intragastric ethanol in various concentrations equivalent to those found in alcoholic beverages (1.5-40 v/v), ethanol 96% (v/v) and of some commonly ingested alcoholic beverages produced by alcoholic fermentation (beer, wine, champagne, martini and sherry) or by fermentation plus distillation (e.g. whisky, cognac, calvados, armagnac and rum) on gastric acid output (GAO) was studied in anaesthetized Wistar rats. Ethanol concentrations of 1.5%, 4% and 10% v/v did not significantly alter basal GAO, whereas all higher concentrations of ethanol (20%, 40% and 96% v/v) significantly (P < 0.05) and dose-dependently decreased the GAO. All alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation significantly increased GAO by 30-35% of maximal acid output (MAO; 48 micrograms/kg pentagastrin intramuscularly), whereas alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation plus distillation significantly decreased GAO as compared to control (isotonic glucose and distilled water). Glucose solutions to which yeast was added, resulting in fermentation, were as potent stimuli of GAO as beer. Lyophilized fermented glucose at different concentrations (dilution of 1:20 to 1:1) dose-dependently stimulated GAO: the highest dilution (1:20) had no effect, the 1:5 dilution significantly increased gastric acid secretion similarly to that of beer and fermented glucose. The highest concentration of lyophilized fermented glucose (1:1) was as potent as the MAO after pentagastrin (90% of MAO). In conclusion, the present investigation shows for the first time that, in rats: (1) ethanol in a concentration > 10% v/v inhibits GAO; (2) lower ethanol concentrations (< 10% v/v) do not alter GAO; (3) alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation but not those produced by alcoholic fermentation plus distillation are powerful stimulants of GAO; (4) the stimulatory non-alcoholic ingredients of these alcoholic beverages are most likely produced during the process of fermentation of carbohydrates and removed during

  10. Alcohol causes a fatty pancreas. A rat model of ethanol-induced pancreatic steatosis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J S; Colley, P W; Sosula, L; Pirola, R C; Chapman, B A; Somer, J B

    1982-01-01

    To develop an animal mode of alcoholic pancreatic steatosis, female Wistar rats were pair fed liquid diets, containing ethanol as 36% of calories or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate for 3 weeks. Electron microscopic examination showed lipid vesicles localized principally at the bases of pancreatic acinar cells in the ethanol-fed rats. Ethanol feeding significantly increased pancreatic content of cholesteryl ester without changing levels of other lipids. Ethanol feeding enhanced labeled acetate, palmitate, oleate, and linoleate incorporation into cholesteryl ester. Therefore, increased esterification of cholesterol may, in part, explain the observed accumulation of cholesteryl ester.

  11. [Alcohol fermentation: effect of temperature on ethanol accumulation within yeast cells (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Navarro, J M; Durand, G

    1978-01-01

    During fermentation, yeast growth is rapidly stopped when the concentration of alcohol in the medium increases but fermentive activity is not entirely inhibited until high alcohol concentrations are reached. The rate of alcohol accumulation within the cells and certain kinetic parameters were simultaneously determined in such fermentative processes using Saccharomyces carlsbergensis cells. The growth inhibitory effect of alcohol was related to its retention inside within the cells; i.e. yeast multiplication is stopped when intracellular alcohol concentration reaches a maximum value. Moreover, the higher the temperature, the deeper the inhibitory effect of ethanol and the higher the maximal intracellular alcohol concentration. Activation energy determinations showed that ethanol accumulation within the cells was a consequence of the resistance to its diffusion through the cell wall from within to outside the cell.

  12. Ghrelin knockout mice show decreased voluntary alcohol consumption and reduced ethanol-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Tolle, Virginie; Fehrentz, Jean-Alain; Brunel, Luc; Martinez, Jean; Tomasetto, Catherine-Laure; Karam, Sherif M

    2013-05-01

    Recent work suggests that stomach-derived hormone ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonism may reduce motivational aspects of ethanol intake. In the current study we hypothesized that the endogenous GHS-R1A agonist ghrelin modulates alcohol reward mechanisms. For this purpose ethanol-induced conditioned place preference (CPP), ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation and voluntary ethanol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm were examined under conditions where ghrelin and its receptor were blocked, either using ghrelin knockout (KO) mice or the specific ghrelin receptor (GHS-R1A) antagonist "JMV2959". We showed that ghrelin KO mice displayed lower ethanol-induced CPP than their wild-type (WT) littermates. Consistently, when injected during CPP-acquisition, JMV2959 reduced CPP-expression in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation was lower in ghrelin KO mice. Moreover, GHS-R1A blockade, using JMV2959, reduced alcohol-stimulated locomotion only in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. When alcohol consumption and preference were assessed using the two-bottle choice test, both genetic deletion of ghrelin and pharmacological antagonism of the GHS-R1A (JMV2959) reduced voluntary alcohol consumption and preference. Finally, JMV2959-induced reduction of alcohol intake was only observed in WT but not in ghrelin KO mice. Taken together, these results suggest that ghrelin neurotransmission is necessary for the stimulatory effect of ethanol to occur, whereas lack of ghrelin leads to changes that reduce the voluntary intake as well as conditioned reward by ethanol. Our findings reveal a major, novel role for ghrelin in mediating ethanol behavior, and add to growing evidence that ghrelin is a key mediator of the effects of multiple abused drugs.

  13. Brain impairment in well-nourished chronic alcoholics is related to ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Nicolás, J M; Estruch, R; Salamero, M; Orteu, N; Fernandez-Solà, J; Sacanella, E; Urbano-Márquez, A

    1997-05-01

    To determine the influence of chronic ethanol intake on the central nervous system, we studied 40 asymptomatic, well-nourished, chronic alcoholics (mean age, 42.6 +/- 9.1 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and education-matched control subjects. Studies included neuropsychological testing, visual and short-latency auditory evoked potentials, and morphometric analysis of computed tomography scans. The mean daily ethanol consumption of the alcoholics was 204 gm over an average of 26.4 years. Compared to control subjects, chronic alcoholics exhibited a significant prolongation of the P100 latency of visual evoked potentials, and a prolongation and reduction in the amplitude of the latency of the V wave of short-latency auditory evoked potentials. These abnormalities were related to the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed. Brain morphometric analysis showed that alcoholics had a significantly greater degree of brain shrinkage with age, compared to control subjects. The cortical atrophy index correlated significantly with the lifetime ethanol consumption. Neuropsychological testing in alcoholics compared to controls revealed a significant impairment of frontal skills that was related to age, degree of scholarship, and the presence of frontal atrophy. In conclusion, well-nourished chronic alcoholics exhibited significant brain impairment, as demonstrated by neuropsychological testing, evoked potentials, and brain morphometric analysis, which was correlated with the lifetime dose of ethanol consumed.

  14. Exclusion and tortuosity effects for alcohol/water separation by zeolite-filled PDMS membranes. [polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Te Hennepe, H.J.C.; Smolders, C.A.; Bargeman, D.; Mulder, M.H.V. )

    1991-01-01

    A resistance model has been developed to describe the increased pervaporation flux and selectivity for the separation of ethanol/water mixtures with silicalite-filled silicone rubber (SR) membranes as compared to unfilled SR membranes. The model interprets the increased component flux for ethanol in terms of an increasing ethanol permeability of the membrane. Membrane permeability is given as a function of rubber and silicalite permeabilities and of the silicalite content of the membrane. It is shown that silicalite permeability varies with the type of alcohol and the alcohol concentration in the feed mixture. In the series methanol, ethanol propanol, and butanol, the alcohol permeability of silicalite varies with the length of the alcohol molecule, the lowest permeability being found for butanol. In the presence of propanol an butanol, the silicalite particles are impermeable to water and obstruct water transport through the membrane.

  15. Chronic Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Induces Favorable Ceramide Profiles in Selectively Bred Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Jessica; Jeanguenin, Lisa; Castro, Norma; Olney, Jeffrey J.; Dudley, Jason; Pipkin, Joseph; Walls, Stanley M.; Wang, Wei; Herr, Deron R.; Harris, Greg L.; Brasser, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption has detrimental neurologic effects, inducing widespread neuronal loss in both fetuses and adults. One proposed mechanism of ethanol-induced cell loss with sufficient exposure is an elevation in concentrations of bioactive lipids that mediate apoptosis, including the membrane sphingolipid metabolites ceramide and sphingosine. While these naturally-occurring lipids serve as important modulators of normal neuronal development, elevated levels resulting from various extracellular insults have been implicated in pathological apoptosis of neurons and oligodendrocytes in several neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. Prior work has shown that acute administration of ethanol to developing mice increases levels of ceramide in multiple brain regions, hypothesized to be a mediator of fetal alcohol-induced neuronal loss. Elevated ceramide levels have also been implicated in ethanol-mediated neurodegeneration in adult animals and humans. Here, we determined the effect of chronic voluntary ethanol consumption on lipid profiles in brain and peripheral tissues from adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to further examine alterations in lipid composition as a potential contributor to ethanol-induced cellular damage. P rats were exposed for 13 weeks to a 20% ethanol intermittent-access drinking paradigm (45 ethanol sessions total) or were given access only to water (control). Following the final session, tissues were collected for subsequent chromatographic analysis of lipid content and enzymatic gene expression. Contrary to expectations, ethanol-exposed rats displayed substantial reductions in concentrations of ceramides in forebrain and heart relative to non-exposed controls, and modest but significant decreases in liver cholesterol. qRT-PCR analysis showed a reduction in the expression of sphingolipid delta(4)-desaturase (Degs2), an enzyme involved in de novo ceramide synthesis. These findings indicate that ethanol intake levels achieved by

  16. Ozone reaction with n-aldehydes (n=4-10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon-carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge.

    PubMed

    McClenny, W A; Colón, M; Oliver, K D

    2001-09-21

    Ozone reacts with n-aldehydes (n=4-10), benzaldehyde, ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol adsorbed on a dual-bed graphitized carbon-carbon molecular sieve adsorbent cartridge. Destruction of n-aldehydes increases with n number and with ozone concentration. In some sampling experiments both generation and destruction of n-aldehydes by ozone are observed. In field experiments the results of sample analysis for n-aldehydes and benzaldehyde are frequently not proportional to sample volume whereas results for toluene and isoprene, and sometimes for total carbon, are. A simple theory is developed to simulate the net result of three processes: the adsorption of compounds from an air stream onto a solid adsorbent, the generation of compounds by reaction of ozone with materials upstream of or on the adsorbent, and the destruction by ozone of pre-existing compounds and compounds adsorbed from the sample stream. The use of distributed volume pairs is recommended as a way to identify loss of sample integrity during air monitoring experiments.

  17. Ethanol concentrations in the human gastrointestinal tract after intake of alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Rubbens, Jari; Brouwers, Joachim; Wolfs, Kris; Adams, Erwin; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2016-04-30

    The goal of this study was to monitor gastric and duodenal ethanol concentrations arising from the consumption of commonly used alcoholic beverages. In a cross-over study, five fasting volunteers were asked to drink two standard consumptions of commercially available alcoholic beverages, including beer (Stella Artois®, 500 mL, 5.2% ethanol), wine (Blanc du Blanc®, 200 mL, 11% ethanol) and whisky (Gallantry Whisky®, 80 mL, 40% ethanol). The volunteers finished drinking beer within 10 min and wine or whisky within 5 min. Ethanol concentrations in gastric and duodenal fluids, aspirated as a function of time, were analyzed by headspace gas chromatography. In all three conditions, the average gastric profile shows a maximum ethanol concentration (Cmax) at 7 min, while the mean duodenal profiles have a Tmax at 20, 7 and 12 min for beer, wine and whisky, respectively. The median gastric ethanol Cmax (min-max) for the beer, wine and whisky conditions amounts to 4.1% (3.1-4.1), 4.1% (2.6-7.3) and 11.4% (6.3-21.1), respectively. The mean duodenal profiles follow the same pattern as their corresponding gastric profiles, albeit with lower percentages of ethanol. Median duodenal ethanol Cmax (min-max) for beer, wine and whisky are 1.97% (0.89-4.3), 2.39% (2.02-5.63) and 5.94% (3.55-17.71), respectively. Intraluminal ethanol concentrations appear to decline relatively rapidly in fasting conditions: both stomach and duodenum contained less than 0.05% of ethanol after 120 min. This in vivo study is the first to present intraluminal ethanol concentrations in man after the intake of alcoholic beverages. Relatively low and fast declining gastric ethanol concentrations were observed, contrasting with the current Food and Drug Administration guidelines for the in vitro testing of formulations with respect to ethanol resistance. The presented gastric and duodenal ethanol concentrations and their variation may serve as reference data to design relevant models for predicting (i

  18. Molecular and physiological aspects of alcohol dehydrogenases in the ethanol metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    de Smidt, Olga; du Preez, James C; Albertyn, Jacobus

    2012-02-01

    The physiological role and possible functional substitution of each of the five alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) isozymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in five quadruple deletion mutants designated strains Q1-Q5, with the number indicating the sole intact ADH gene. Their growth in aerobic batch cultures was characterised in terms of kinetic and stoichiometric parameters. Cultivation with glucose or ethanol as carbon substrate revealed that Adh1 was the only alcohol dehydrogenase capable of efficiently catalysing the reduction of acetaldehyde to ethanol. The oxidation of produced or added ethanol could also be attributed to Adh1. Growth of strains lacking the ADH1 gene resulted in the production of glycerol as a major fermentation product, concomitant with the production of a significant amount of acetaldehyde. Strains Q2 and Q3, expressing only ADH2 or ADH3, respectively, produced ethanol from glucose, albeit less than strain Q1, and were also able to oxidise added ethanol. Strains Q4 and Q5 grew poorly on glucose and produced ethanol, but were neither able to utilise the produced ethanol nor grow on added ethanol. Transcription profiles of the ADH4 and ADH5 genes suggested that participation of these gene products in ethanol production from glucose was unlikely.

  19. Chemiluminescent imaging of transpired ethanol from the palm for evaluation of alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takahiro; Kita, Kazutaka; Wang, Xin; Miyajima, Kumiko; Toma, Koji; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-05-15

    A 2-dimensional imaging system was constructed and applied in measurements of gaseous ethanol emissions from the human palm. This imaging system measures gaseous ethanol concentrations as intensities of chemiluminescence by luminol reaction induced by alcohol oxidase and luminol-hydrogen peroxide-horseradish peroxidase system. Conversions of ethanol distributions and concentrations to 2-dimensional chemiluminescence were conducted on an enzyme-immobilized mesh substrate in a dark box, which contained a luminol solution. In order to visualize ethanol emissions from human palm skin, we developed highly sensitive and selective imaging system for transpired gaseous ethanol at sub ppm-levels. Thus, a mixture of a high-purity luminol solution of luminol sodium salt HG solution instead of standard luminol solution and an enhancer of eosin Y solution was adapted to refine the chemiluminescent intensity of the imaging system, and improved the detection limit to 3 ppm gaseous ethanol. The highly sensitive imaging allows us to successfully visualize the emissions dynamics of transdermal gaseous ethanol. The intensity of each site on the palm shows the reflection of ethanol concentrations distributions corresponding to the amount of alcohol metabolized upon consumption. This imaging system is significant and useful for the assessment of ethanol measurement of the palmar skin.

  20. Glycine and GABAA Ultra-Sensitive Ethanol Receptors as Novel Tools for Alcohol and Brain Research

    PubMed Central

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H.; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Perkins, Daya I.; Alkana, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABAARs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol. PMID:25245406

  1. Innate BDNF expression is associated with ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats.

    PubMed

    Raivio, Noora; Miettinen, Pekka; Kiianmaa, Kalervo

    2014-09-04

    We have shown recently that acute administration of ethanol modulates the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in several rat brain areas known to be involved in the development of addiction to ethanol and other drugs of abuse, suggesting that BDNF may be a factor contributing to the neuroadaptive changes set in motion by ethanol exposure. The purpose of the present study was to further clarify the role of BDNF in reinforcement from ethanol and in the development of addiction to ethanol by specifying the effect of acute administration of ethanol (1.5 or 3.0 g/kg i.p.) on the expression profile of BDNF mRNA in the ventral tegmental area and in the terminal areas of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway in the brain of alcohol-preferring AA and alcohol-avoiding ANA rats, selected for high and low voluntary ethanol intake, respectively. The level of BDNF mRNA expression was higher in the amygdala and ventral tegmental area of AA than in those of ANA rats, and there was a trend for a higher level in the nucleus accumbens. In the amygdala and hippocampus, a biphasic change in the BDNF mRNA levels was detected: the levels were decreased at 3 and 6h but increased above the basal levels at 24h. Furthermore, there was a difference between the AA and ANA lines in the effect of ethanol, the ANA rats showing an increase in BDNF mRNA levels while such a change was not seen in AA rats. These findings suggest that the innate levels of BDNF expression may play a role in the mediation of the reinforcing effects of ethanol and in the control of ethanol intake.

  2. Irritative action of alcoholic beverages in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2005-01-01

    The mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages such as white wine, Japanese sake and whisky was examined in rat stomachs in vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. The concentration of ethanol in these alcoholic beverages was 15%. Mucosal application of ethanol (15%) and whisky in the chambered stomach caused a decrease in gastric potential difference (PD), while that of Japanese sake and white wine caused a slight increase but not decrease in PD. Likewise, both ethanol and whisky markedly reduced the cell viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min incubation, whereas neither Japanese sake nor white wine had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose, one of the non-alcoholic ingredients of white wine and Japanese sake, antagonized a reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less than that of ethanol or whisky and that these properties may be, at least partly, due to the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  3. Gastric and Duodenal Ethanol Concentrations after Intake of Alcoholic Beverages in Postprandial Conditions.

    PubMed

    Rubbens, Jari; Riethorst, Danny; Brouwers, Joachim; Wolfs, Kris; Adams, Erwin; Tack, Jan; Augustijns, Patrick

    2017-08-11

    This study determined intraluminal ethanol concentrations (stomach and duodenum) in fed healthy volunteers after the consumption of common alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, and whisky). The results of this study were compared with a previous study in fasted volunteers. Five healthy volunteers were recruited in a crossover study. The fed state was simulated by ingestion of 250 mL of Nutridrink Compact Neutral. Volunteers subsequently consumed two standard units of beer (Stella Artois, 500 mL, 5.2% ethanol), wine (Blanc du Blanc, 200 mL, 11% ethanol), or whisky (Gallantry Whisky, 80 mL, 40% ethanol). Gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated through two catheters over time and analyzed for ethanol content by head space gas chromatography. The capability of ethanol to permeate gastric and duodenal rat mucosa was examined in an Ussing chambers setup. A similar average gastric Cmax was observed in the beer and the wine conditions: 3.3% and 3.7% ethanol, respectively. The gastric Cmax in the whisky condition amounted to 8.5% ethanol. Lower ethanol concentrations were observed in the duodenum compared to the stomach. The duodenal Cmax was similar in all three conditions: 1.3%, 1.2%, and 1.6% ethanol for beer, wine, and whisky, respectively. Compared to the fasted state (reported in a previous study), higher gastric ethanol concentrations were observed during a longer time period. In the beer and wine conditions, similar concentrations were observed in the intestine regardless of the prandial state. After intake of whisky, however, the ethanol concentration was lower in the fed intestine. Alcohol was observed to permeate both gastric and duodenal rat mucosa. Higher intragastric ethanol concentrations were maintained for a longer period of time in fed compared to fasted state conditions. However, the observed concentration profiles were not in line with current FDA guidelines for alcohol resistance testing of formulations, stating that in vitro tests should investigate the

  4. Effects of zinc deficiency on ethanol metabolism and alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities.

    PubMed

    Das, I; Burch, R E; Hahn, H K

    1984-10-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase, low Km and high Km mitochondrial and microsomal aldehyde dehydrogenase, and in vivo ethanol elimination rates were determined in five groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats given liquid diets, as follows: control (C), control plus 5% ethanol (CE), pair-fed control and zinc-deficient (PC-ZnD), zinc-deficient (ZnD), and zinc-deficient plus 5% ethanol (ZnDE). Rats fed CE had decreased liver and serum zinc content. The animals given ZnD diets had an even more dramatic decrease in their tissue zinc concentrations and displayed marked growth retardation. The in vivo blood ethanol elimination rate was increased in animals fed ethanol, and this increase was accompanied by increased alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. There was a significant decrease in the ethanol elimination rate in rats given ZnD and ZnDE diets. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities in rats with deficient zinc levels also were decreased, and there were no changes in acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Our results suggest that the metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde is impaired in zinc deficiency, but acetaldehyde to acetate conversion appears normal.

  5. In vivo relationship between monoamine oxidase type B and alcohol dehydrogenase: effects of ethanol and phenylethylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Aliyu, S.U.; Upahi, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of acute ethanol and phenylethylamine on the brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activities, hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase, redox state and motor behavior were studied in male rats. Ethanol on its own decreased the redox couple ratio, as well as, alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the liver while at the same time it increased brain and platelet monoamine oxidase activity due to lower Km with no change in Vmax. The elevation in both brain and platelet MAO activity was associated with ethanol-induced hypomotility in the rats. Co-administration of phenylethylamine and ethanol to the animals, caused antagonism of the ethanol-induced effects described above. The effects of phenylethylamine alone, on the above mentioned biochemical and behavioral indices, are more complex. Phenylethylamine on its own, like ethanol, caused reduction of the cytosolic redox, ratio and elevation of monoamine oxidase activity in the brain and platelets. However, in contrast to ethanol, this monoamine produced hypermotility and activation of the hepatic cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenase activity in the animals.

  6. Sex differences, alcohol dehydrogenase, acetaldehyde burst, and aversion to ethanol in the rat: a systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske; Sapag, Amalia; Gerdtzen, Ziomara; Israel, Yedy

    2007-08-01

    Individuals who carry the most active alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoforms are protected against alcoholism. This work addresses the mechanism by which a high ADH activity leads to low ethanol intake in animals. Male and female ethanol drinker rats (UChB) were allowed access to 10% ethanol for 1 h. Females showed 70% higher hepatic ADH activity and displayed 60% lower voluntary ethanol intake than males. Following ethanol administration (1 g/kg ip), females generated a transient blood acetaldehyde increase ("burst") with levels that were 2.5-fold greater than in males (P < 0.02). Castration of males led to 1) an increased ADH activity (+50%, P < 0.001), 2) the appearance of an acetaldehyde burst (3- to 4-fold vs. sham), and 3) a reduction of voluntary ethanol intake comparable with that of naïve females. The ADH inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole blocked the appearance of arterial acetaldehyde and increased ethanol intake. Since the release of NADH from the ADH.NADH complex constitutes the rate-limiting step of ADH (but not of ALDH2) activity, endogenous NADH oxidizing substrates present at the time of ethanol intake may contribute to the acetaldehyde burst. Sodium pyruvate given at the time of ethanol administration led to an abrupt acetaldehyde burst and a greatly reduced voluntary ethanol intake. Overall, a transient surge of arterial acetaldehyde occurs upon ethanol administration due to 1) high ADH levels and 2) available metabolites that can oxidize hepatic NADH. The acetaldehyde burst is strongly associated with a marked reduction in ethanol intake.

  7. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Bhopale, Kamlesh K.; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu Hai; Boor, Paul J.; Ansari, G.A. Shakeel

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH{sup -}) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH{sup -} and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH{sup +}) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was {approx} 1.5-fold greater in ADH{sup -} vs. ADH{sup +} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH{sup -} deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis.

  8. Pancreatic injury in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deer mice after subchronic exposure to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Bhopale, Kamlesh K; Kondraganti, Shakuntala; Wu, Hai; Boor, Paul J; Ansari, G A Shakeel

    2010-08-01

    Pancreatitis caused by activation of digestive zymogens in the exocrine pancreas is a serious chronic health problem in alcoholic patients. However, mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis remains obscure due to lack of a suitable animal model. Earlier, we reported pancreatic injury and substantial increases in endogenous formation of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in the pancreas of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)-deficient (ADH(-)) deer mice fed 4% ethanol. To understand the mechanism of alcoholic pancreatitis, we evaluated dose-dependent metabolism of ethanol and related pancreatic injury in ADH(-) and hepatic ADH-normal (ADH(+)) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% ethanol via Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet daily for 2months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was remarkably increased and the concentration was ∼1.5-fold greater in ADH(-) vs. ADH(+) deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. At the end of the experiment, remarkable increases in pancreatic FAEEs and significant pancreatic injury indicated by the presence of prominent perinuclear space, pyknotic nuclei, apoptotic bodies and dilation of glandular ER were found only in ADH(-) deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol. This pancreatic injury was further supported by increased plasma lipase and pancreatic cathepsin B (a lysosomal hydrolase capable of activating trypsinogen), trypsinogen activation peptide (by-product of trypsinogen activation process) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (endoplasmic reticulum stress marker). These findings suggest that ADH-deficiency and high alcohol levels in the body are the key factors in ethanol-induced pancreatic injury. Therefore, determining how this early stage of pancreatic injury advances to inflammation stage could be important for understanding the mechanism(s) of alcoholic pancreatitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amperometric ethanol biosensor based on poly(vinyl alcohol)-multiwalled carbon nanotube-alcohol dehydrogenase biocomposite.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yu-Chen; Huang, Jing-Dae; Chiu, Chian-Cheng

    2007-06-15

    A novel amperometric ethanol biosensor was constructed using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) physically immobilized within poly(vinyl alcohol)-multiwalled carbon nanotube (PVA-MWCNT) composite obtained by a freezing-thawing process. It comprises a MWCNT conduit, a PVA binder, and an ADH function. The measurement of ethanol is based on the signal produced by beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), the product of the enzymatic reaction. The homogeneity of the resulting biocomposite film was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The performance of the PVA-MWCNT-ADH biocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was evaluated using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in the presence of NADH and in the presence of ethanol. The ethanol content in standard solutions was determined and a sensitivity of 196 nA mM(-1), a linear range up to 1.5mM, and a response time of about 8s were obtained. These characteristics allowed its application for direct detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages: beer, red wine, and spirit.

  10. In vivo ethanol elimination in man, monkey and rat: A lack of relationship between the ethanol metabolism and the hepatic activities of alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases

    SciTech Connect

    Zorzano, A. ); Herrera, E. )

    1990-01-01

    The in vivo ethanol elimination in human subjects, monkeys and rats was investigated after an oral ethanol dosage. After 0.4 g. ethanol/kg of body weight, ethanol elimination was much slower in human subjects than in monkeys. In order to detect a rise in monkey plasma ethanol concentrations as early as observed in human subjects, ethanol had to be administered at a dose of 3 g/kg body weight. Ethanol metabolism in rats was also much faster than in human subjects. However, human liver showed higher alcohol dehydrogenase activity and higher low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase activity than rat liver. Thus, our data suggest a lack of relationship between hepatic ethanol-metabolizing activities and the in vivo ethanol elimination rate.

  11. Phosphatidylinositol from alcoholic rats is uniquely able to render membranes tolerant to disordering by ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ellingson, J.S.; Taraschi, T.F.; Rubin, E.

    1986-05-01

    Rat liver microsomal membranes from rats chronically fed ethanol are resistant (tolerant) to membrane disordering by 50-100 mM ethanol. To identify the molecular basis of tolerance, the authors quantitatively separated microsomal phospholipids (PL's) extracted from control and ethanol-fed rats by preparative HPLC, and examined, by electron spin resonance, the structural properties of multilamellar vesicles (MLV's) prepared by recombining control and alcoholic PL's. MLV's made from alcoholic PL's (mixed in same molar ratios as in microsomes) were tolerant to disordering by ethanol, whereas control MLV's were not. If alcoholic phosphatidylcholine (66.5%), phosphatidylethanolamine (21%) or phosphatidylserine (4.0%) replaced their respective PL in control MLV's, the membranes were not tolerant. In contrast, when 8.5% alcoholic phosphatidylinositol (PI) replaced control PI, the MLV's were tolerant. Alcoholic rat PI (8.5%) also conferred tolerance to MLV's containing 91.5% bovine PL's. The authors conclude that the acquisition of membrane tolerance in alcoholic liver microsomes is related to changes in PI.

  12. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    PubMed Central

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Ju, Hyunsu; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <0.2% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 were observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. PMID:24625836

  13. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding.

    PubMed

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S; Calhoun, William J

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to <1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease.

  14. Increased expression of the yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter Pdr18 leads to increased ethanol tolerance and ethanol production in high gravity alcoholic fermentation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The understanding of the molecular basis of yeast tolerance to ethanol may guide the design of rational strategies to increase process performance in industrial alcoholic fermentations. A set of 21 genes encoding multidrug transporters from the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Superfamily and Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) in S. cerevisiae were scrutinized for a role in ethanol stress resistance. Results A yeast multidrug resistance ABC transporter encoded by the PDR18 gene, proposed to play a role in the incorporation of ergosterol in the yeast plasma membrane, was found to confer resistance to growth inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 expression was seen to contribute to decreased 3 H-ethanol intracellular concentrations and decreased plasma membrane permeabilization of yeast cells challenged with inhibitory ethanol concentrations. Given the increased tolerance to ethanol of cells expressing PDR18, the final concentration of ethanol produced during high gravity alcoholic fermentation by yeast cells devoid of PDR18 was lower than the final ethanol concentration produced by the corresponding parental strain. Moreover, an engineered yeast strain in which the PDR18 promoter was replaced in the genome by the stronger PDR5 promoter, leading to increased PDR18 mRNA levels during alcoholic fermentation, was able to attain a 6 % higher ethanol concentration and a 17 % higher ethanol production yield than the parental strain. The improved fermentative performance of yeast cells over-expressing PDR18 was found to correlate with their increased ethanol tolerance and ability to restrain plasma membrane permeabilization induced throughout high gravity fermentation. Conclusions PDR18 gene over-expression increases yeast ethanol tolerance and fermentation performance leading to the production of highly inhibitory concentrations of ethanol. PDR18 overexpression in industrial yeast strains appears to be a promising approach to improve alcoholic

  15. Using expression genetics to study the neurobiology of ethanol and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Farris, Sean P; Wolen, Aaron R; Miles, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    Recent simultaneous progress in human and animal model genetics and the advent of microarray whole genome expression profiling have produced prodigious data sets on genetic loci, potential candidate genes, and differential gene expression related to alcoholism and ethanol behaviors. Validated target genes or gene networks functioning in alcoholism are still of meager proportions. Genetical genomics, which combines genetic analysis of both traditional phenotypes and whole genome expression data, offers a potential methodology for characterizing brain gene networks functioning in alcoholism. This chapter will describe concepts, approaches, and recent findings in the field of genetical genomics as it applies to alcohol research.

  16. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    PubMed

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p < 0.05 vs. controls). The ability of daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. [The influence of six alcoholic beverages on ethanol concentration in the blood and breath].

    PubMed

    Hey, Henrik; Haslund-Vinding, Peter

    2006-01-30

    We investigated the area under the curve (AUC) as a measure of the bioavailability of ethanol in healthy volunteers drinking six alcoholic beverages of different types. Furthermore, we investigated the correlation between the ethanol concentration in the blood and the breath test. Twelve healthy volunteers (seven females, five males) consumed six drinks of different types in a crossover design after a six-hour fast. The men ingested 36 g of ethanol and the women 24 g. Venous blood was obtained for determination of serum ethanol and glucose concentration at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180 minutes postdosing, and at the same time a breath alcohol test was done using an alcoholometer. The AUC of ethanol differed significantly between pure ethanol and the three beverages red wine, sparkling wine and Smirnoff Ice (p < 0.01). The glucose and insulin concentrations increased by factors of 2 and 4, respectively, 60 minutes after drinking beer or Smirnoff Ice, respectively (p < 0.05). We found a high correlation between the ethanol concentration in the blood and the breath test, r 2 = 0.77, r = 0.87 (p < 0.005). Using the blood alcohol concentration as a "gold standard", we found that the risk of obtaining a false- positive breath test was 1% at the legal limit for driving in Denmark (0.5%). Conversely, 59% of the participants with a blood alcohol level > or = 0.5% showed a negative (false negative). This investigation shows that the type of alcoholic beverage consumed determines the amount of alcohol absorbed. Furthermore, the different drinks caused different changes in the glucose and insulin concentrations, which might be important in connection with alcohol-induced disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism (e.g., hypo- and hyperglycaemia). Our data indicate that the alcoholometer breath test was an acceptable screening method to estimate the blood alcohol level and to measure the amount of ethanol ingested. However, for evidental purposes during prosecution of drunk drivers

  18. Dermal and pulmonary absorption of ethanol from alcohol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Ahmed-Lecheheb, D; Cunat, L; Hartemann, P; Hautemanière, A

    2012-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication of healthcare workers (HCWs) using alcohol-based hand rubs (ABHRs) in the workplace is a potentially serious issue. This study quantified the level of ethanol absorption among HCWs after hygienic hand disinfection. Eighty-six HCWs from Nancy University Hospital were tested before and after a 4-h shift. Participants used ABHR containing 70% ethanol. Levels of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate in blood and urine were determined using gas chromatography. A breathalyzer was used to measure the level of ethanol in expired air. Ethanol [mean concentration 0.076 (standard deviation 0.05) mg/L] was detected in the expired air of 28 HCWs 1-2 min post exposure. Ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate were undetectable in blood after a 4-h shift, and urine tests were negative in all participants. Ethanol exposure from ABHR, particularly inhalation of vapours, resulted in positive breathalyzer readings 1-2 min after exposure. Dermal absorption of ethanol was not detected. Pulmonary absorption was detected but was below toxic levels. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn Marie; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  20. Fate of ethanol during cooking of liquid foods prepared with alcoholic beverages: Theory and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Snitkjær, Pia; Ryapushkina, Julia; Skovenborg, Erik; Astrup, Arne; Bech, Lene Mølskov; Jensen, Morten Georg; Risbo, Jens

    2017-09-01

    To obtain an understanding of the ethanol loss during cooking of liquid foods containing alcoholic beverages, ethanol concentration was measured as a function of time and remaining volume in meat stocks prepared with wine and beer. A mathematical model describing the decline in volatile compounds during heating of simple liquid foods was derived. The experimental results and the model show that concentration of ethanol at any given time is determined by the initial concentration and a power law function of the remaining volume fraction. The power law function is found to be independent of factors like pot dimensions and temperature. When using a lid to cover the pot during cooking, the model was still valid but the ethanol concentrations decreased more steeply, corresponding to a higher exponent. The results provide a theoretical and empirical guideline for predicting the ethanol concentration in cooked liquid foods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mutant alcohol dehydrogenase leads to improved ethanol tolerance in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven D; Guss, Adam M; Karpinets, Tatiana V; Parks, Jerry M; Smolin, Nikolai; Yang, Shihui; Land, Miriam L; Klingeman, Dawn M; Bhandiwad, Ashwini; Rodriguez, Miguel; Raman, Babu; Shao, Xiongjun; Mielenz, Jonathan R; Smith, Jeremy C; Keller, Martin; Lynd, Lee R

    2011-08-16

    Clostridium thermocellum is a thermophilic, obligately anaerobic, gram-positive bacterium that is a candidate microorganism for converting cellulosic biomass into ethanol through consolidated bioprocessing. Ethanol intolerance is an important metric in terms of process economics, and tolerance has often been described as a complex and likely multigenic trait for which complex gene interactions come into play. Here, we resequence the genome of an ethanol-tolerant mutant, show that the tolerant phenotype is primarily due to a mutated bifunctional acetaldehyde-CoA/alcohol dehydrogenase gene (adhE), hypothesize based on structural analysis that cofactor specificity may be affected, and confirm this hypothesis using enzyme assays. Biochemical assays confirm a complete loss of NADH-dependent activity with concomitant acquisition of NADPH-dependent activity, which likely affects electron flow in the mutant. The simplicity of the genetic basis for the ethanol-tolerant phenotype observed here informs rational engineering of mutant microbial strains for cellulosic ethanol production.

  2. Fusion of pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lewicka, Aleksandra J; Lyczakowski, Jan J; Blackhurst, Gavin; Pashkuleva, Christiana; Rothschild-Mancinelli, Kyle; Tautvaišas, Dainius; Thornton, Harry; Villanueva, Hugo; Xiao, Weike; Slikas, Justinas; Horsfall, Louise; Elfick, Alistair; French, Christopher

    2014-12-19

    Ethanol is an important biofuel. Heterologous expression of Zymomonas mobilis pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB) increases ethanol production in Escherichia coli. A fusion of PDC and ADH was generated and expressed in E. coli. The fusion enzyme was demonstrated to possess both activities. AdhB activity was significantly lower when fused to PDC than when the two enzymes were expressed separately. However, cells expressing the fusion protein generated ethanol more rapidly and to higher levels than cells coexpressing Pdc and AdhB, suggesting a specific rate enhancement due to the fusion of the two enzymes.

  3. Determination of breath alcohol value after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Foglio-Bonda, P L; Poggia, F; Foglio-Bonda, A; Mantovani, C; Pattarino, F; Giglietta, A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate breath alcohol value and blood alcohol concentration after using mouthwashes containing ethanol in a panel of healthy young adults. To determine zeroing time of these values and if subjects' body mass index or gender influenced it. Breathalyzer test is a practice performed to detect alcohol-impaired-drivers that can be penalized. Sometimes Italian judges revoke the penalty justifying that the presence of residual ethanol in the oral cavity can cause false positive values. Our study involved 40 young adult volunteers; the cohort was composed of University students aged between 21 and 30 years. They underwent a medical examination to evaluate BMI. We selected four alcoholic mouthwashes available on the market with a different ethanol amount and an ethanol/ water (10/90) mixture as a reference. Breath alcohol concentration values were collected using a portable breathalyzer immediately after the rinse (T0), after 10 and 20 minutes (T10 and T20). We evaluated blood alcohol concentration 5 minutes after the rinse. All T10 values are lower than 0.5 g/L (Italian BAC driving limit). Differences between average values at T0-T10 are statistically significant (p < 0.05). Correlations between BAV and BMI are not statistically significant respectively at T0 (A: p = 0.54. B: p = 0.96. C: p = 0.93. D: p = 0.53) and T10 (A: p = 0.42. C: p = 0.99. D: p = 0.66). Differences between male and female groups aren't statistically significant (A: p = 0.49; B: p = 0.79; C: p = 0.97; D: p = 0.06). High BAV values determined at T-0 are a consequence of residual ethanol present in the oral cavity, the zeroing time of these ones (oppure thereof) is very swift. Our study shows that rinsing with an alcoholic mouthwash before undergoing the breathalyzer test does not realistically influence the result.

  4. Non-oxidative ethanol metabolites as a measure of alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Maenhout, Thomas M; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2013-01-16

    Recent alcohol intake can be monitored by the measurement of indirect biomarkers. Elevated levels of liver enzymes (i.e. gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino transferase (AST)) in blood are commonly used in clinical practice as an indicator of alcohol-induced liver damage. With the exception of carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (CDT), the specificity of indirect markers is only moderate because many cases of elevated levels are unrelated to alcohol consumption. Because of their intermediate half-life and tendency to accumulate in hair, non-oxidative ethanol metabolites can be used as markers with an intermediate timeframe between ethanol measurements and GGT and CDT with regard to recent alcohol consumption occurring between hours to 1 week. Additionally, these biomarkers offer a high ethanol-specificity in combination with approximately a two-fold higher sensitivity in comparison with indirect alcohol markers. In case of forensic use of direct ethanol metabolites, caution has to be taken in interpretation and pre-analytical pitfalls should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Ethanol metabolism, oxidative stress, and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in the lungs of hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase deficient deer mice after chronic ethanol feeding

    SciTech Connect

    Kaphalia, Lata; Boroumand, Nahal; Hyunsu, Ju; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Calhoun, William J.

    2014-06-01

    Consumption and over-consumption of alcoholic beverages are well-recognized contributors to a variety of pulmonary disorders, even in the absence of intoxication. The mechanisms by which alcohol (ethanol) may produce disease include oxidative stress and prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Many aspects of these processes remain incompletely understood due to a lack of a suitable animal model. Chronic alcohol over-consumption reduces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), the principal canonical metabolic pathway of ethanol oxidation. We therefore modeled this situation using hepatic ADH-deficient deer mice fed 3.5% ethanol daily for 3 months. Blood ethanol concentration was 180 mg% in ethanol fed mice, compared to < 1.0% in the controls. Acetaldehyde (oxidative metabolite of ethanol) was minimally, but significantly increased in ethanol-fed vs. pair-fed control mice. Total fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol) were 47.6 μg/g in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to 1.5 μg/g in pair-fed controls. Histological and immunohistological evaluation showed perivascular and peribronchiolar lymphocytic infiltration, and significant oxidative injury, in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice compared to pair-fed controls. Several fold increases for cytochrome P450 2E1, caspase 8 and caspase 3 found in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice as compared to pair-fed controls suggest role of oxidative stress in ethanol-induced lung injury. ER stress and unfolded protein response signaling were also significantly increased in the lungs of ethanol-fed mice. Surprisingly, no significant activation of inositol-requiring enzyme-1α and spliced XBP1 was observed indicating a lack of activation of corrective mechanisms to reinstate ER homeostasis. The data suggest that oxidative stress and prolonged ER stress, coupled with formation and accumulation of cytotoxic FAEEs may contribute to the pathogenesis of alcoholic lung disease. - Highlights: • Chronic

  6. Biochemical characterization of ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunrui; Metthew Lam, L K; Xun, Luying

    2011-11-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is usually converted to hydrolysates, which consist of sugars and sugar derivatives, such as furfural. Before yeast ferments sugars to ethanol, it reduces toxic furfural to non-inhibitory furfuryl alcohol in a prolonged lag phase. Bioreduction of furfural may shorten the lag phase. Cupriavidus necator JMP134 rapidly reduces furfural with a Zn-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (FurX) at the expense of ethanol (Li et al. 2011). The mechanism of the ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural by FurX and three homologous alcohol dehydrogenases was investigated. The reduction consisted of two individual reactions: ethanol-dependent reduction of NAD(+) to NADH and then NADH-dependent reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol. The kinetic parameters of the coupled reaction and the individual reactions were determined for the four enzymes. The data indicated that limited NADH was released in the coupled reaction. The enzymes had high affinities for NADH (e.g., K ( d ) of 0.043 μM for the FurX-NADH complex) and relatively low affinities for NAD(+) (e.g., K ( d ) of 87 μM for FurX-NAD(+)). The kinetic data suggest that the four enzymes are efficient "furfural reductases" with either ethanol or NADH as the reducing power. The standard free energy change (ΔG°') for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural was determined to be -1.1 kJ mol(-1). The physiological benefit for ethanol-dependent reduction of furfural is likely to replace toxic and recalcitrant furfural with less toxic and more biodegradable acetaldehyde.

  7. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Kimpel, Mark W; McClintick, Jeanette N; Strother, Wendy N; Carr, Lucinda G; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A; Mayfield, R Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J; McBride, William J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-h dark cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24h/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hours after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p<0.01; Storey false discovery rate=0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal.

  8. Gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-preferring rats following chronic ethanol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Kimpel, Mark W.; McClintick, Jeanette N.; Strother, Wendy N.; Carr, Lucinda G.; Liang, Tiebing; Rodd, Zachary A.; Mayfield, R. Dayne; Edenberg, Howard J.; McBride, William J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of binge-like alcohol drinking on gene expression changes in the nucleus accumbens (ACB) of alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult male P rats were given ethanol under multiple scheduled access (MSA; three 1-hr dark-cycle sessions/day) conditions for 8 weeks. For comparison purposes, a second ethanol drinking group was given continuous/daily alcohol access (CA; 24 hr/day). A third group was ethanol-naïve (W group). Average ethanol intakes for the CA and MSA groups were approximately 9.5 and 6.5 g/kg/day, respectively. Fifteen hr after the last drinking episode, rats were euthanized, the brains extracted, and the ACB dissected. RNA was extracted and purified for microarray analysis. The only significant differences were between the CA and W groups (p < 0.01; Storey false discovery rate = 0.15); there were 374 differences in named genes between these 2 groups. There were 20 significant Gene Ontology (GO) categories, which included negative regulation of protein kinase activity, anti-apoptosis, and regulation of G-protein-coupled receptor signaling. Ingenuity® analysis indicated a network of transcription factors, involving oncogenes (Fos, Jun, Junb had higher expression in the ACB of the CA group), suggesting increased neuronal activity. There were 43 genes located within rat QTLs for alcohol consumption and preference; 4 of these genes (Tgfa, Hspa5, Mtus1 and Creb3l2) are involved in anti-apoptosis and increased transcription, suggesting that they may be contributing to cellular protection and maintaining high alcohol intakes. Overall, these findings suggest that chronic CA drinking results in genomic changes that can be observed during the early acute phase of ethanol withdrawal. Conversely, chronic MSA drinking, with its associated protracted withdrawal periods, results in genomic changes that may be masked by tight regulation of these genes following repeated experiences of ethanol withdrawal. PMID:19666046

  9. Chronic ethanol tolerance as a result of free-choice drinking in alcohol-preferring rats of the WHP line.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Taracha, Ewa

    2012-01-01

    The development of tolerance to alcohol with chronic consumption is an important criterion for an animal model of alcoholism and may be an important component of the genetic predisposition to alcoholism. The aim of this study was to determine whether the selectively bred Warsaw High Preferring (WHP) line of alcohol-preferring rats would develop behavioral and metabolic tolerance during the free-choice drinking of ethanol. Chronic tolerance to ethanol-induced sedation was tested. The loss of righting reflex (LRR) paradigm was used to record sleep duration in WHP rats. Ethanol (EtOH)-naive WHP rats received a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.), and sleep duration was measured. Subsequently, rats had access to a 10% ethanol solution under a free-choice condition with water and food for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks of the free-choice intake of ethanol, the rats received another single i.p. injection of 5.0 g ethanol/kg b.w., and sleep duration was reassessed. The blood alcohol content (BAC) for each rat was determined after an i.p. injection of 5 g/kg of ethanol in naive rats and again after chronic alcohol drinking at the time of recovery of the righting reflex (RR). The results showed that the mean ethanol intake was 9.14 g/kg/24 h, and both sleep duration and BAC were decreased after chronic ethanol intake. In conclusion, WHP rats exposed to alcohol by free-choice drinking across 12 weeks exhibited increased alcohol elimination rates. Studies have demonstrated that WHP rats after chronic free-choice drinking (12 weeks) of alcohol develop metabolic tolerance. Behavioral tolerance to ethanol was demonstrated by reduced sleep duration, but this decrease in sleep duration was not significant.

  10. Ethanol production by the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus by expression of bacterial bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenases.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew W; Lipscomb, Gina L; Nguyen, Diep M; Crowley, Alexander T; Schut, Gerrit J; Scott, Israel; Kelly, Robert M; Adams, Michael W W

    2017-02-14

    Ethanol is an important target for the renewable production of liquid transportation fuels. It can be produced biologically from pyruvate, via pyruvate decarboxylase, or from acetyl-CoA, by alcohol dehydrogenase E (AdhE). Thermophilic bacteria utilize AdhE, which is a bifunctional enzyme that contains both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. Many of these organisms also contain a separate alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA) that generates ethanol from acetaldehyde, although the role of AdhA in ethanol production is typically not clear. As acetyl-CoA is a key central metabolite that can be generated from a wide range of substrates, AdhE can serve as a single gene fuel module to produce ethanol through primary metabolic pathways. The focus here is on the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows by fermenting sugar to acetate, CO2 and H2 . Previously, by the heterologous expression of adhA from a thermophilic bacterium, P. furiosus was shown to produce ethanol by a novel mechanism from acetate, mediated by AdhA and the native enzyme aldehyde oxidoreductase (AOR). In this study, the AOR gene was deleted from P. furiosus to evaluate ethanol production directly from acetyl-CoA by heterologous expression of the adhE gene from eight thermophilic bacteria. Only AdhEs from two Thermoanaerobacter strains showed significant activity in cell-free extracts of recombinant P. furiosus and supported ethanol production in vivo. In the AOR deletion background, the highest amount of ethanol (estimated 61% theoretical yield) was produced when adhE and adhA from Thermoanaerobacter were co-expressed.

  11. Reduction of ethanol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats by dual expression gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Meza, Mario; Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske

    2012-01-01

    To mimic, in an animal model of alcoholism, the protective phenotype against alcohol consumption observed in humans carrying a fast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1B*2) and an inactive aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2*2). We developed a multiple expression cassette adenoviral vector (AdV-ADH/asALDH2) encoding both a fast rat ADH and an antisense RNA against rat ALDH2. A control adenoviral vector (AdV-C) containing intronic non-coding DNA was also developed. These adenoviral vectors were administered intravenously to rats bred as high alcohol-drinkers (University of Chile bibulous) that were previously rendered alcohol dependent by a 75-day period of voluntary 10% ethanol intake. Animals administered AdV-ADH/asALDH2 showed a 176% increase in liver ADH activity, whereas liver ALDH2 activity was reduced by 24%, and upon the administration of a dose of ethanol (1 g/kg, i.p.), these showed arterial acetaldehyde levels that were 400% higher than those of animals administered AdV-C. Rats that received the AdV-ADH/asALDH2 vector reduced by 60% their voluntary ethanol intake versus controls. This study provides evidence that the simultaneous increase of liver ADH and a reduction of ALDH activity by gene transfer could constitute a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment of alcoholism.

  12. Molecular control of the induction of alcohol dehydrogenase by ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster larvae

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoun, A.M.; Geer, B.W.; Heinstra, P.W.H. ); Corbin, V. ); McKechnie, S.W. )

    1990-04-01

    The activity of alcohol dehydrogenase, the initial enzyme in the major pathway for ethanol degradation, is induced in Drosophila melanogaster larvae by low concentrations of dietary ethanol. Two lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic products of the ADH pathway for ethanol degradation are not directly involved in the induction of Adh. First, the accumulation of the proximal transcript in Adh{sup n2} larvae was increased when the intracellular level of ethanol was elevated. In addition, the ADH activity, the proximal Adh mRNA, and the intracellular concentration of ethanol were elevated coordinately in wild-type larvae fed hexadeuterated-ethanol, which is metabolized more slowly than normal ethanol.l An examination of P element transformant lines with specific deletions in the 5{prime} regulatory DNA of the Adh gene showed that the DNA sequence between +604 and +634 of the start site of transcription from the distal promoter was essential for this induction. The DNA sequence between {minus}660 and about {minus}5,000 of the distal transcript start site was important for the down-regulation of the induction response.

  13. Fishing for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Zebrafish as a Model for Ethanol Teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lovely, Charles Ben; Fernandes, Yohaan; Eberhart, Johann K

    2016-10-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) describes a wide array of ethanol-induced developmental defects, including craniofacial dysmorphology and cognitive impairments. It affects ∼1 in 100 children born in the United States each year. Due to the pleiotropic effects of ethanol, animal models have proven critical in characterizing the mechanisms of ethanol teratogenesis. In this review, we focus on the utility of zebrafish in characterizing ethanol-induced developmental defects. A growing number of laboratories have focused on using zebrafish to examine ethanol-induced defects in craniofacial, cardiac, ocular, and neural development, as well as cognitive and behavioral impairments. Growing evidence supports that genetic predisposition plays a role in these ethanol-induced defects, yet little is understood about these gene-ethanol interactions. With a high degree of genetic amenability, zebrafish is at the forefront of identifying and characterizing the gene-ethanol interactions that underlie FASD. Because of the conservation of gene function between zebrafish and humans, these studies will directly translate to studies of candidate genes in human populations and allow for better diagnosis and treatment of FASD.

  14. Zebrafish fetal alcohol syndrome model: effects of ethanol are rescued by retinoic acid supplement.

    PubMed

    Marrs, James A; Clendenon, Sherry G; Ratcliffe, Don R; Fielding, Stephen M; Liu, Qin; Bosron, William F

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a zebrafish experimental model to examine defects in retinoic acid (RA) signaling caused by embryonic ethanol exposure. RA deficiency may be a causative factor leading to a spectrum of birth defects classified as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Experimental support for this hypothesis using Xenopus showed that effects of treatment with ethanol could be partially rescued by adding retinoids during ethanol treatment. Previous studies show that treating zebrafish embryos during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages with a pathophysiological concentration of ethanol (100mM) produces effects that are characteristic features of FASD. We found that treating zebrafish embryos with RA at a low concentration (10(-9)M) and 100mM ethanol during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages significantly rescued a spectrum of defects produced by treating embryos with 100mM ethanol alone. The rescued phenotype that we observed was quantitatively more similar to embryos treated with 10(-9)M RA alone (RA toxicity) than to untreated or 100mM ethanol-treated embryos. RA rescued defects caused by 100mM ethanol treatment during gastrulation and somitogenesis stages that include early gastrulation cell movements (anterior-posterior axis), craniofacial cartilage formation, and ear development. Morphological evidence also suggests that other characteristic features of FASD (e.g., neural axis patterning) are rescued by RA supplement.

  15. The composition of unrecorded alcohol from eastern Ukraine: is there a toxicological concern beyond ethanol alone?

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Samokhvalov, Andriy V; Leitz, Jenny; Schoeberl, Kerstin; Kuballa, Thomas; Linskiy, Igor V; Minko, Oleksandr I; Rehm, Jürgen

    2010-10-01

    In 2005, approximately half of all alcohol consumption in Ukraine was unrecorded. This paper investigates the chemical composition of unrecorded and low-cost alcohol, including a toxicological evaluation. A sample of alcohol products (n=78) from both recorded and unrecorded sources was obtained mainly from eastern Ukraine, and chemically analyzed. Analysis entailed alcoholic strength, levels of volatile compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols), ethyl carbamate, anions, and inorganic elements. The majority of unrecorded alcohol was homemade samohon with alcoholic strength averaging close to 40% vol. A limited number of samples, advertised for medicinal purposes, were identified with high alcoholic strengths (above 60% vol.). Single samples showed contamination with acetaldehyde and ethyl carbamate above the levels of toxicological concern. Metal contamination was frequent, with copper levels above 2mg/l in 33 samples, and zinc above 5mg/l in 10 samples. Overall, however, the composition of unrecorded samples did not raise major public health concerns other those for ethanol. The priority of alcohol policy in Ukraine should be the general reduction of alcohol consumption with a specific focus on that from small-scale home production. Further research is needed on potential mitigative measures and the origin of the metal contamination in particular alcoholic beverages. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Disruption of circulation by ethanol promotes fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) in medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhui; Khan, Ikhlas A; Dasmahapatra, Asok K

    2008-09-01

    Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) embryos exposed to ethanol have developed craniofacial, cardiovascular and skeletal defects which can be compared with the phenotypic features of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) observed in human. The present experiment was designed to show that the disruption in circulation by ethanol during embryogenesis is a potential cause of FASD. Fertilized eggs were exposed to ethanol (0, 100 and/or 400 mM) for 24 or 48 h at various developmental stages (Iwamatsu stages 4-30) and were analyzed at 6 day post fertilization (dpf). It was observed that controls and the embryos exposed to 100 mM ethanol were in circulating state; however, a significant number of embryos of stages 4-24 exposed to 400 mM ethanol had disrupted circulation. Compared to controls, protein and RNA contents were significantly reduced in non-circulating embryos. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) analysis was made at 3, 6, 24, 48, 96 and 144 hour post fertilization (hpf). LPO was increased with the advancement of morphogenesis; however, ethanol or the circulation status had no effect. We further analyzed alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh 5 and adh8) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh9A and Aldh1A2) enzyme mRNAs in the embryos exposed to 400 mM ethanol for 24 h. A developmental stage-specific reduction in these enzyme mRNAs by ethanol was observed. We conclude that ethanol-induced disruption in circulation during embryogenesis is a potential cause of the development of FASD features in medaka.

  17. Ethanol effects on embryonic craniofacial growth and development: implications for study of the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weston, W M; Greene, R M; Uberti, M; Pisano, M M

    1994-02-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), which is brought about by maternal consumption of ethanol during pregnancy, is a major public health problem. To gain understanding of the etiology of this condition, a number of teratological studies have been performed in different animal systems to develop an animal model for FAS. The C57BL/6J mouse strain has been described as susceptible to the teratogenic effects of ethanol, whereas the ICR (CD-1) strain is considered relatively insensitive. We have compared the effects of ethanol on DNA and protein synthesis in cultured embryonic palate mesenchymal cells from both strains to determine if the reported differential sensitivity to ethanol is reflected in differences in ethanol's effects on cell behavior. Chronic exposure to 200 mM ethanol for 48 hr had a strong inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis in palate cells derived from both the C57BL/6J and ICR strains and a significant effect on protein synthesis in C57BL/6J palate cells. When we attempted to verify strain differences in susceptibility to ethanol teratogenesis, we were not able to observe an increased incidence of birth defects due to ethanol in either strain. High doses of ethanol (5.8 g/kg, administered by intraperitoneal injection on gestational day 8) resulted in death in both C57BL/6J and ICR mice. A lower dose (4.8 g/kg) caused decreased fetal weight and increased resorption in both strains, but did not bring about FAS-like craniofacial dysmorphology in either strain. It appears, therefore, that whereas ethanol can significantly affect the behavior of cells derived from craniofacial tissue, these effects cannot be correlated with sensitivity to ethanol teratogenesis in the mouse system.

  18. Promoting Bio-Ethanol in the United States by Incorporating Lessons from Brazil's National Alcohol Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du, Yangbo

    2007-01-01

    Current U.S. energy policy supports increasing the use of bio-ethanol as a gasoline substitute, which Brazil first produced on a large scale in response to the 1970s energy crises. Brazil's National Alcohol Program stood out among its contemporaries regarding its success at displacing a third of Brazil's gasoline requirements, primarily due to…

  19. Cyclic ethanol metabolism in hypophysectomized rats continuously infused alcohol-containing diets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chronic ethanol (EtOH) intake induces hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) expression via disruption of insulin signaling in liver (JBC 2006; 281:1126-34). Total enteral nutrition (TEN) is a method of slow and continuous (approx. 23/day) feeding patients through an intragastric tube. Rats fed EtOH-co...

  20. Yeast's balancing act between ethanol and glycerol production in low-alcohol wines.

    PubMed

    Goold, Hugh D; Kroukamp, Heinrich; Williams, Thomas C; Paulsen, Ian T; Varela, Cristian; Pretorius, Isak S

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol is fundamental to the character of wine, yet too much can put a wine off-balance. A wine is regarded to be well balanced if its alcoholic strength, acidity, sweetness, fruitiness and tannin structure complement each other so that no single component dominates on the palate. Balancing a wine's positive fruit flavours with the optimal absolute and relative concentration of alcohol can be surprisingly difficult. Over the past three decades, consumers have increasingly demanded wine with richer and riper fruit flavour profiles. In response, grape and wine producers have extended harvest times to increase grape maturity and enhance the degree of fruit flavours and colour intensity. However, a higher degree of grape maturity results in increased grape sugar concentration, which in turn results in wines with elevated alcohol concentration. On average, the alcohol strength of red wines from many warm wine-producing regions globally rose by about 2% (v/v) during this period. Notwithstanding that many of these 'full-bodied, fruit-forward' wines are well balanced and sought after, there is also a significant consumer market segment that seeks lighter styles with less ethanol-derived 'hotness' on the palate. Consumer-focussed wine producers are developing and implementing several strategies in the vineyard and winery to reduce the alcohol concentration in wines produced from well-ripened grapes. In this context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts have proven to be a pivotal strategy to reduce ethanol formation during the fermentation of grape musts with high sugar content (> 240 g l(-1) ). One of the approaches has been to develop 'low-alcohol' yeast strains which work by redirecting their carbon metabolism away from ethanol production to other metabolites, such as glycerol. This article reviews the current challenges of producing glycerol at the expense of ethanol. It also casts new light on yeast strain development programmes which, bolstered by synthetic

  1. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    PubMed

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children.

  2. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing

    PubMed Central

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and “non-fermented” food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the “categories” bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the “categories,” exposure rose to 12.5–23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. PMID:27405361

  3. Characterization of an Arxula adeninivorans alcohol dehydrogenase involved in the metabolism of ethanol and 1-butanol.

    PubMed

    Kasprzak, Jakub; Rauter, Marion; Riechen, Jan; Worch, Sebastian; Baronian, Kim; Bode, Rüdiger; Schauer, Frieder; Kunze, Gotthard

    2016-05-01

    In this study, alcohol dehydrogenase 1 from Arxula adeninivorans (Aadh1p) was identified and characterized. Aadh1p showed activity with short and medium chain length primary alcohols in the forward reaction and their aldehydes in the reverse reaction. Aadh1p has 64% identity with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Adh1p, is localized in the cytoplasm and uses NAD(+) as cofactor. Gene expression analysis showed a low level increase in AADH1 gene expression with ethanol, pyruvate or xylose as the carbon source. Deletion of the AADH1 gene affects growth of the cells with 1-butanol, ethanol and glucose as the carbon source, and a strain which overexpressed the AADH1 gene metabolized 1-butanol more rapidly. An ADH activity assay indicated that Aadh1p is a major enzyme for the synthesis of ethanol and the degradation of 1-butanol in A. adeninivorans.

  4. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  5. Comparison of enteral ethanol and benzodiazepines for alcohol withdrawal in neurocritical care patients.

    PubMed

    Gipson, Gregory; Tran, Kim; Hoang, Cuong; Treggiari, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    We designed a study to evaluate the use of benzodiazepines and ethanol in patients being assessed for alcohol withdrawal and compare outcomes between the two agents. This is a retrospective chart review of patients admitted to neurocritical care or neurosurgical services who were at risk for ethanol withdrawal between June 2011 and September 2015. Patients were divided into two groups based on the first medication administered for alcohol withdrawal management, either benzodiazepine (n=50) or enteral ethanol (n=50). The primary endpoint was the maximum change in Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment of Alcohol scale (CIWA) score within the first 24hours. Secondary endpoints included maximum and minimum CIWA score in 5days, length of stay, and change in Glasgow Coma Scale. Study groups differed by mortality risk, level of coma at admission, and other clinical characteristics, with the ethanol group appearing less severely ill. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the maximum change in CIWA score at 24hours (-0.97, 95%CI: -3.21 to 1.27, p=0.39). Hospital and intensive care unit length of stay was 6.5 days and 1 day shorter for the ethanol group (p=0.03 and p=0.02, respectively). In summary, enteral ethanol was preferentially used in patients who are more likely to be capable of tolerating oral intake. We found that the change from baseline in CIWA score or other physiologic variables was not substantially different between the two agents. The overall utility of benzodiazepines and enteral ethanol remains unclear for this population and further study is needed to determine superiority.

  6. Betulin alleviated ethanol-induced alcoholic liver injury via SIRT1/AMPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ting; Yang, Yong; Yao, You-Li; Sun, Peng; Lian, Li-Hua; Wu, Yan-Ling; Nan, Ji-Xing

    2016-03-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effect of betulin, a triterpene from the bark of Betula platyphylla Suk, against ethanol-induced alcoholic liver injury and its possible underlying mechanisms. In vitro, human hepatic stellate cell line, LX-2 cells were treated with betulin (6.25, 12.5 and 25 μM) prior to ethanol (50mM) for 24h. Cell viability was analyzed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium assay, protein expressions were assessed by Western blot. In vivo, we induced alcoholic liver injury in male C57BL/6 mice, placing them on Lieber-DeCarli ethanol-containing diets for 10 days and then administering a single dose of ethanol (5 g/kg body weight) via gavage. Betulin (20 and 50mg/kg) were given by gavage every day. In vitro results showed that betulin effectively decreased LX-2 cell viability, attenuated collagen-I, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) levels, activated liver kinase B-1 (LKB1) and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation. Betulin suppressed the expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), and genetic deletion of AMPK blocked the effect of betulin on SREBP-1 in ethanol treated LX-2 cells. In vivo, betulin attenuated the increases in serum aminotransferase and triglyceride levels in the mice fed with chronic-binge ethanol, while significantly inhibited SREBP-1 expression and activated LKB1-AMPK phosphorylation. Additionally, betulin enhanced the sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) expression mediated by ethanol. Taken together, betulin alleviates alcoholic liver injury possibly through blocking the regulation of SREBP-1 on fatty acid synthesis and activating SIRT1-LKB1-AMPK signaling pathway.

  7. Carbon monoxide bioconversion to butanol-ethanol by Clostridium carboxidivorans: kinetics and toxicity of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Naveira, Ánxela; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Butanol production from carbon monoxide-rich waste gases or syngas is an attractive novel alternative to the conventional acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Solvent toxicity is a key factor reported in ABE fermentation with carbohydrates as substrates. However, in the gas-fermentation process, kinetic aspects and the inhibition effect of solvents have not thoroughly been studied. Therefore, different batch bottle experiments were carried out with the bacterial species Clostridium carboxidivorans using CO as carbon source for butanol-ethanol fermentation. A maximum specific growth rate of 0.086 ± 0.004 h(-1) and a biomass yield of 0.011 gbiomass/gCO were found, which is significantly lower than in other clostridia grown on sugars. Besides, three assays were carried out to check the inhibitory effect of butanol, ethanol, and their mixtures. Butanol had a higher inhibitory effect on the cells than ethanol and showed a lower IC50, reduced growth rate, and slower CO consumption with increasing alcohol concentrations. A concentration of 14-14.50 g/L butanol caused 50 % growth inhibition in C. carboxidivorans, and 20 g/L butanol resulted in complete inhibition, with a growth rate of 0 h(-1). Conversely, 35 g/L ethanol decreased by 50 % the final biomass concentration respect to the control and yielded the lowest growth rate of 0.024 h(-1). The inhibitory effect of mixtures of both alcohols was also checked adding similar, near identical, concentrations of each one. Growth decreased by 50 % in the presence of a total concentration of alcohols of 16.22 g/L, consisting of similar amounts of each alcohol. Occasional differences in initially added concentrations of alcohols were minimal. The lowest growth rate (0.014 h(-1)) was observed at the highest concentration assayed (25 g/L).

  8. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Haupt, Simone; Schulz, Katja

    2008-04-01

    Higher alcohols occur naturally in alcoholic beverages as by-products of alcoholic fermentation. Recently, concerns have been raised about the levels of higher alcohols in surrogate alcohol (i.e., illicit or home-produced alcoholic beverages) that might lead to an increased incidence of liver diseases in regions where there is a high consumption of such beverages. In contrast, higher alcohols are generally regarded as important flavour compounds, so that European legislation even demands minimum contents in certain spirits. In the current study we review the scientific literature on the toxicity of higher alcohols and estimate tolerable concentrations in alcoholic beverages. On the assumption that an adult consumes 4 x 25 ml of a drink containing 40% vol alcohol, the maximum tolerable concentrations of 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol and 1-hexanol in such a drink would range between 228 and 3325 g/hl of pure alcohol. A reasonable preliminary guideline level would be 1000 g/hl of pure alcohol for the sum of all higher alcohols. This level is higher than the concentrations usually found in both legal alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohols, so that we conclude that scientific data are lacking so far to consider higher alcohols as a likely cause for the adverse effects of surrogate alcohol. The limitations of our study include the inadequate toxicological data base leading to uncertainties during the extrapolation of toxicological data between the different alcohols, as well as unknown interactions between the different higher alcohols and ethanol.

  9. Involvement of AMPK in Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuated Myocardial Dysfunction Following Acute Ethanol Challenge in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I.; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. Methods ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca2+ handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Results Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-γ, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Cα and PGC-1α, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 µM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. Conclusions In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca2+ mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade. PMID:20585647

  10. Involvement of AMPK in alcohol dehydrogenase accentuated myocardial dysfunction following acute ethanol challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I; Ren, Jun

    2010-06-23

    Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-gamma, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Calpha and PGC-1alpha, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 microM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade.

  11. Ethanol drinking reduces extracellular dopamine levels in the posterior ventral tegmental area of nondependent alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Engleman, Eric A; Keen, Elizabeth J; Tilford, Sydney S; Thielen, Richard J; Morzorati, Sandra L

    2011-09-01

    Moderate ethanol exposure produces neuroadaptive changes in the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system in nondependent rats and increases measures of DA neuronal activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, moderate ethanol drinking and moderate systemic exposure elevates extracellular DA levels in mesocorticolimbic projection regions. However, the neuroadaptive changes subsequent to moderate ethanol drinking on basal DA levels have not been investigated in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the present study, adult female alcohol-preferring (P) rats were divided into alcohol-naive, alcohol-drinking, and alcohol-deprived groups. The alcohol-drinking group had continuous access to water and ethanol (15%, vol/vol) for 8 weeks. The alcohol-deprived group had 6 weeks of access followed by 2 weeks of ethanol deprivation, 2 weeks of ethanol re-exposure, followed again by 2 weeks of deprivation. The deprived rats demonstrated a robust alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) on ethanol reinstatement. The alcohol-naïve group had continuous access to water only. In the last week of the drinking protocol, all rats were implanted with unilateral microdialysis probes aimed at the posterior VTA and no-net-flux microdialysis was conducted to quantify extracellular DA levels and DA clearance. Results yielded significantly lower basal extracellular DA concentrations in the posterior VTA of the alcohol-drinking group compared with the alcohol-naive and alcohol-deprived groups (3.8±0.3nM vs. 5.0±0.5nM [P<.02] and 4.8±0.4nM, [P<.05], respectively). Extraction fractions were significantly (P<.0002) different between the alcohol-drinking and alcohol-naive groups (72±2% vs. 46±4%, respectively) and not significantly different (P=.051) between alcohol-deprived and alcohol-naive groups (61±6% for the alcohol-deprived group). The data indicate that reductions in basal DA levels within the posterior VTA occur after moderate chronic ethanol intake in nondependent P rats. This reduction may

  12. Inhibition of catalase-dependent ethanol metabolism in alcohol dehydrogenase-deficient deermice by fructose.

    PubMed Central

    Handler, J A; Bradford, B U; Glassman, E B; Forman, D T; Thurman, R G

    1987-01-01

    Hepatic microsomal fractions from ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase)-negative deermice incubated with an NADPH-generating system metabolized butanol and ethanol at rates around 10 nmol/min per mg. In contrast, cytosolic catalase from ADH-negative deermouse liver oxidized ethanol, but not butanol, when incubated with an H2O2-generating system. Thus butanol is oxidized by cytochrome P-450 in microsomal fractions, but not by cytosolic catalase, in tissues from ADH-negative deermice. In perfused livers from ADH-negative deermice, rates of ethanol uptake at low concentrations of ethanol (1.5 mM) were about 60 mumol/h per g, yet butanol (1.5 mM) uptake was undetectable (less than 4 mumol/h per g). At higher concentrations of alcohol (25-30 mM), rates of ethanol uptake were about 80 mumol/h per g, whereas rates of butanol uptake were only about 9 mumol/h per g. Because rates of butanol metabolism via cytochrome P-450 in deermice were more than an order of magnitude lower than rates of ethanol uptake in livers from ADH-negative deermice, it is concluded that ethanol uptake by perfused livers from ADH-negative deermice is catalysed predominantly via catalase-H2O2. In support of this conclusion, rates of H2O2 generation, which are rate-limiting for the peroxidation of ethanol by catalase, were about 65 mumol/h per g in livers from ADH-negative deermice, values similar to rates of ethanol uptake of about 60 mumol/h per g measured under identical conditions. Rates of ethanol uptake by perfused livers from ADH-positive, but not from ADH-negative, deermice were increased by about 50% by infusion of fructose. Thus it is concluded that the stimulation of hepatic ethanol uptake by fructose is dependent on the presence of ADH. Unexpectedly, fructose decreased rates of ethanol metabolism and H2O2 generation by about 60% in perfused livers from ADH-negative deermice, probably by decreasing activation of fatty acids and thus diminishing rates of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. PMID:3435455

  13. Ethanol at low concentrations protects glomerular podocytes through alcohol dehydrogenase and 20-HETE.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Ellen T; Zhou, Jianping; Eckert, Ryan; Genochio, David; Sharma, Rishi; Oni, Olurinde; De, Alok; Srivastava, Tarak; Sharma, Ram; Savin, Virginia J; Sharma, Mukut

    2015-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest cardiovascular and renal benefits of ingesting small amounts of ethanol. Effects of ethanol, role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in podocytes of the glomerular filtration barrier have not been reported. We found that mouse podocytes at baseline generate 20-HETE and express ADH but not CYP2e1. Ethanol at high concentrations altered the actin cytoskeleton, induced CYP2e1, increased superoxide production and inhibited ADH gene expression. Ethanol at low concentrations upregulated the expression of ADH and CYP4a12a. 20-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite generated by CYP4a12a, blocked the ethanol-induced cytoskeletal derangement and superoxide generation. Ethanol at high concentration or ADH inhibitor increased glomerular albumin permeability in vitro. 20-HETE and its metabolite produced by ADH activity, 20-carboxy-arachidonic acid, protected the glomerular permeability barrier against an ADH inhibitor, puromycin or FSGS permeability factor. We conclude that ADH activity is required for glomerular function, 20-HETE is a physiological substrate of ADH in podocytes and that podocytes are useful biosensors to understand glomeruloprotective effects of ethanol.

  14. Ethanol at Low Concentrations Protects Glomerular Podocytes through Alcohol Dehydrogenase and 20-HETE

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Ellen T.; Zhou, Jianping; Eckert, Ryan; Genochio, David; Sharma, Rishi; Oni, Olurinde; De, Alok; Srivastava, Tarak; Sharma, Ram; Savin, Virginia J.; Sharma, Mukut

    2014-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest cardiovascular and renal benefits of ingesting small amounts of ethanol. Effects of ethanol, role of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) or of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) in podocytes of the glomerular filtration barrier have not been reported. We found that mouse podocytes at baseline generate 20-HETE and express ADH but not CYP2e1. Ethanol at high concentrations altered the actin cytoskeleton, induced CYP2e1, increased superoxide production and inhibited ADH gene expression. Ethanol at low concentrations upregulated the expression of ADH and CYP4a12a. 20-HETE, an arachidonic acid metabolite generated by CYP4a12a, blocked the ethanol-induced cytoskeletal derangement and superoxide generation. Ethanol at high concentration or ADH inhibitor increased glomerular albumin permeability in vitro. 20-HETE and its metabolite produced by ADH activity, 20-carboxy-arachidonic acid, protected the glomerular permeability barrier against an ADH inhibitor, puromycin or FSGS permeability factor. We conclude that ADH activity is required for glomerular function, 20-HETE is a physiological substrate of ADH in podocytes and that podocytes are useful biosensors to understand glomeruloprotective effects of ethanol. PMID:25447342

  15. Carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde in alcoholic beverages: risk assessment outside ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In addition to being produced in ethanol metabolism, acetaldehyde occurs naturally in alcoholic beverages. Limited epidemiological evidence points to acetaldehyde as an independent risk factor for cancer during alcohol consumption, in addition to the effects of ethanol. This study aims to estimate human exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages and provide a quantitative risk assessment. The human dietary intake of acetaldehyde via alcoholic beverages was estimated based on World Health Organization (WHO) consumption data and literature on the acetaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the European Food Safety Authority's margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments. Life-time cancer risk was calculated using the T25 dose descriptor. The average exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 0.112 mg/kg body weight/day. The MOE was calculated to be 498, and the life-time cancer risk at 7.6 in 10,000. Higher risk may exist for people exposed to high acetaldehyde contaminations, as we have found in certain unrecorded alcohol beverages in Guatemala and Russia, for which we have demonstrated possible exposure scenarios, with risks in the range of 1 in 1000. The life-time cancer risks for acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages greatly exceed the usual limits for cancer risks from the environment set between 1 : 10,000 and 1 : 1,000,000. Alcohol consumption has thus been identified as a direct source of acetaldehyde exposure, which in conjunction with other sources (food flavourings, tobacco) results in a magnitude of risk requiring intervention. An initial public health measure could be to reduce the acetaldehyde content in alcoholic beverages as low as technologically possible, and to restrict its use as a food flavour additive.

  16. Alcohol-induced suppression of gluconeogenesis is greater in ethanol fed female rat hepatocytes than males.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Ken D; Cogger, Alma A; Matveyenko, Aleksey V

    2007-03-01

    The impact of alcohol-induced suppression on hepatic gluconeogenesis (HGN) after chronic ethanol consumption between males and females is unknown. To determine the effects of chronic alcohol consumption (8 weeks) on HGN, the isolated hepatocyte technique was used on 24 h fasted male and female Wistar rats. Livers were initially perfused with collagenase and the hepatocytes were isolated. Aliquots of the cell suspension were placed in Krebs-Henseleit buffer and incubated for 30 min with lactate, [U -14C]lactate, and nine different concentrations of ethanol (EtOH). Dose-effect curves were generated for the determination of maximal and half-maximal alcohol-induced inhibition on HGN. There was no significant difference in HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) between males and females fed the control diet (88.5 +/- 5.1 nmol/mg protein/30 min). Similarly, the HGN (lactate only and no EtOH) in males fed the ethanol diet (ME) were not significantly different (82.8 +/- 3.5 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls. In contrast, the females chronically fed the ethanol diet (FE) had significantly (P < .05) lower HGN (67.8 +/- 4.6 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to both ME and controls. With alcohol in the incubation medium, the HGN significantly (P<.05) declined in all groups. While alcohol suppressed HGN to a larger (P < .05) extent in ME (45.8 +/- 3.7 nmol/mg protein/30 min) compared to controls (64.0 +/- 3.8 nmol/mg protein/30 min), the inhibition was even greater (P < .05) in FE (32.7 +/- 3.2 nmol/mg protein/30 min). The more pronounced effect of chronic alcohol consumption on HGN in the presence of ethanol in female hepatocytes was supported by the concomitant decreases (P < .05) in 14C-lactate incorporation into 14C-glucose, lactate uptake, and 14C-lactate uptake. The results suggest that chronic alcohol consumption elicits a greater reduction on HGN in the presence of ethanol in the hepatocytes of females compared to males.

  17. Place conditioning with ethanol in rats bred for high (UChB) and low (UChA) voluntary alcohol drinking.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, María Elena; Tampier, Lutske

    2011-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the ability of an ethanol dose (1g/kg) administered intraperitoneally to induce conditioned place preference (CPP) and/or conditioned place aversion (CPA) in two lines of rats selectively bred for their high (UChB) or low (UChA) voluntary ethanol intake. It was found that five pairings with ethanol induced CPA in ethanol-naïve rats of both lines, but the magnitude of avoidance was lower in the UChB relative to the UChA rats, indicating that ethanol was less aversive to naïve rats bred for high alcohol drinking. After 2 months of high voluntary ethanol drinking (~6-7g/kg/day), in free choice between 10% ethanol and water, ethanol produced CPP in UChB rats, reflecting that ethanol had become rewarding to these rats. By contrast, the low voluntary ethanol intake (<1g/kg/day) displayed by UChA rats preexposed for 2 months in free choice did not change ethanol-induced CPA. However, preexposure of UChA rats to forced ethanol drinking (~5.7g/kg/day) and the later inhibition of ethanol-derived acetaldehyde by 4-methylpyrazole (10mg/kg intraperitoneal), an inhibitor of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase, not only increased their voluntary ethanol intake in free choice, but also had a facilitating effect on the development of CPP. Taken together, these results show that the expression of the reinforcing effects of ethanol required a period of voluntary ethanol intake in UChB rats, whereas in UChA rats, both prior exposure to forced ethanol drinking and reduction of high blood ethanol-derived acetaldehyde were required.

  18. Adsorption studies of alcohol molecules on monolayer MoS2 nanosheet-A first-principles insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2017-08-01

    The electronic and adsorption properties of three different alcohol molecules namely methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet is investigated using DFT method. The structural stability of MoS2 nanosheet is ascertained with formation energy. The adsorption properties of alcohol molecules on MoS2 base material is discussed in terms of average energy gap variation, Mulliken charge transfer, energy band gap and adsorption energy. The prominent adsorption sites of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet are studied in atomistic level. The projected density of states (PDOS) spectrum gives the clear insights on the electronic properties of MoS2 nanosheet. The PDOS and energy band structure confirmed the adsorption of alcohol vapors on MoS2 nanosheet. The variation in the band structure and PDOS is noticed upon adsorption of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on MoS2 nanosheet. The PDOS spectrum also reveals the variation in peak maxima owing to transfer of electron between alcohol molecules and MoS2 base material. The adsorption of 1-propanol vapor on MoS2 nanosheet is observed to be more favorable than other alcohol molecules. The findings confirm that monolayer MoS2 nanosheet can be used to detect the presence of alcohol vapors in the environment.

  19. Neuropeptide Y Administration into the Amygdala Suppresses Ethanol Drinking in Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats Following Multiple Deprivations

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Stewart, Robert B.; Badia-Elder, Nancy E.

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-exposure, 4 groups of rats received bilateral infusions NPY (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 μg) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the amygdala. Two additional groups were given uninterrupted ethanol access and were infused with a single NPY dose (1.0 μg) or aCSF. The highest NPY dose (1.0 μg) suppressed ethanol intake for 24 hrs in rats with a history of ethanol abstinence (i.e. deprivation) periods, but had no effect in rats with a history of continuous ethanol access. Water and food intakes were not altered. These results suggest that the amygdala mediates the suppressive effects of centrally administered NPY on ethanol drinking, and that NPY may block relapse-like drinking by opposing the anxiogenic effects of ethanol abstinence. PMID:18499241

  20. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    PubMed

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish.

  1. Neuropeptide Y administration into the amygdala suppresses ethanol drinking in alcohol-preferring (P) rats following multiple deprivations.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Stewart, Robert B; Badia-Elder, Nancy E

    2008-09-01

    The present experiment examines the effects of NPY administered into the amygdala on ethanol drinking by alcohol-preferring P rats following long-term continuous ethanol access, with and without multiple periods of imposed ethanol abstinence. P rats had access to 15% (v/v) ethanol and water for 11 weeks followed by 2 weeks of ethanol abstinence, re-exposure to ethanol for 2 weeks, 2 more weeks of ethanol abstinence, and a final ethanol re-exposure. Immediately prior to the second ethanol re-exposure, 4 groups of rats received bilateral infusions NPY (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 microg) or artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF) into the amygdala. Two additional groups were given uninterrupted ethanol access and were infused with a single NPY dose (1.0 microg) or aCSF. The highest NPY dose (1.0 microg) suppressed ethanol intake for 24 h in rats with a history of ethanol abstinence (i.e. deprivation) periods, but had no effect in rats with a history of continuous ethanol access. Water and food intakes were not altered. These results suggest that the amygdala mediates the suppressive effects of centrally administered NPY on ethanol drinking, and that NPY may block relapse-like drinking by opposing the anxiogenic effects of ethanol abstinence.

  2. Ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are required for unfolded protein response activation and steatosis in zebrafish with alcoholic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Tsedensodnom, Orkhontuya; Vacaru, Ana M.; Howarth, Deanna L.; Yin, Chunyue; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Secretory pathway dysfunction and lipid accumulation (steatosis) are the two most common responses of hepatocytes to ethanol exposure and are major factors in the pathophysiology of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). However, the mechanisms by which ethanol elicits these cellular responses are not fully understood. Recent data indicates that activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to secretory pathway dysfunction can cause steatosis. Here, we examined the relationship between alcohol metabolism, oxidative stress, secretory pathway stress and steatosis using zebrafish larvae. We found that ethanol was immediately internalized and metabolized by larvae, such that the internal ethanol concentration in 4-day-old larvae equilibrated to 160 mM after 1 hour of exposure to 350 mM ethanol, with an average ethanol metabolism rate of 56 μmol/larva/hour over 32 hours. Blocking alcohol dehydrogenase 1 (Adh1) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (Cyp2e1), the major enzymes that metabolize ethanol, prevented alcohol-induced steatosis and reduced induction of the UPR in the liver. Thus, we conclude that ethanol metabolism causes ALD in zebrafish. Oxidative stress generated by Cyp2e1-mediated ethanol metabolism is proposed to be a major culprit in ALD pathology. We found that production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) increased in larvae exposed to ethanol, whereas inhibition of the zebrafish CYP2E1 homolog or administration of antioxidants reduced ROS levels. Importantly, these treatments also blocked ethanol-induced steatosis and reduced UPR activation, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acted as a pro-oxidant that synergized with low doses of ethanol to induce the UPR. Collectively, these data demonstrate that ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress are conserved mechanisms required for the development of steatosis and hepatic dysfunction in ALD, and that these processes contribute to ethanol-induced UPR activation and secretory pathway stress in hepatocytes. PMID

  3. Effects of ethanol on the accumbal output of dopamine, GABA and glutamate in alcohol-tolerant and alcohol-nontolerant rats.

    PubMed

    Piepponen, T Petteri; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Ahtee, Liisa

    2002-12-01

    Effects of ethanol on the accumbal extracellular concentrations of dopamine, as well as of the amino acid transmitters gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate and taurine, were studied in the alcohol-insensitive (alcohol-tolerant, AT) and alcohol-sensitive (alcohol-nontolerant, ANT) rats selected for low and high sensitivity to ethanol-induced motor impairment. Ethanol (2 or 3 g/kg ip) enhanced the output of dopamine and its metabolites in freely moving rats of both lines as measured by in vivo microdialysis. The effect of ethanol on the metabolites of dopamine tended to be stronger in the ANT rats. The smaller dose of ethanol decreased the output of GABA only in the AT rats, whereas the larger dose of ethanol decreased the output of GABA in rats of both lines to a similar degree. Ethanol at the dose of 2 g/kg slightly, but statistically, significantly decreased the output of glutamate in rats of both lines, but the larger dose of ethanol decreased the output of glutamate only in the AT rats. Ethanol at the dose of 2 g/kg induced a small transient increase in the output of taurine within 2 h after its administration in rats of both lines, but the larger dose of ethanol was without significant effect. These results confirm the previous findings that ethanol suppresses the release of GABA more in the AT than ANT rats. Thus, among the neurotransmitter systems we studied, the effects of ethanol might be the most relevant on GABAergic transmission regarding the sensitivity towards ethanol. However, our findings suggest that glutamate is also involved in this respect.

  4. The importance of alcohol dehydrogenase in regulation of ethanol metabolism in rat liver cells.

    PubMed Central

    Page, R A; Kitson, K E; Hardman, M J

    1991-01-01

    We used titration with the inhibitors tetramethylene sulphoxide and isobutyramide to assess quantitatively the importance of alcohol dehydrogenase in regulation of ethanol oxidation in rat hepatocytes. In hepatocytes isolated from starved rats the apparent Flux Control Coefficient (calculated assuming a single-substrate irreversible reaction with non-competitive inhibition) of alcohol dehydrogenase is 0.3-0.5. Adjustment of this coefficient to allow for alcohol dehydrogenase being a two-substrate reversible enzyme increases the value by 1.3-1.4-fold. The final value of the Flux Control Coefficient of 0.5-0.7 indicates that alcohol dehydrogenase is a major rate-determining enzyme, but that other factors also have a regulatory role. In hepatocytes from fed rats the Flux Control Coefficient for alcohol dehydrogenase decreases with increasing acetaldehyde concentration. This suggests that, as acetaldehyde concentrations rise, control of the pathway shifts from alcohol dehydrogenase to other enzymes, particularly aldehyde dehydrogenase. There is not a single rate-determining step for the ethanol metabolism pathway and control is shared among several steps. PMID:1898355

  5. Amelioration of alcohol-induced hepatotoxicity by the administration of ethanolic extract of Sida cordifolia Linn.

    PubMed

    Rejitha, S; Prathibha, P; Indira, M

    2012-10-01

    Sida cordifolia Linn. (Malvaceae) is a plant used in folk medicine for the treatment of the inflammation of oral mucosa, asthmatic bronchitis, nasal congestion and rheumatism. We studied the hepatoprotective activity of 50 % ethanolic extract of S. cordifolia Linn. against alcohol intoxication. The duration of the experiment was 90 d. The substantially elevated levels of toxicity markers such as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase due to the alcohol treatment were significantly lowered in the extract-treated groups. The activity of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content, which was lowered due to alcohol toxicity, was increased to a near-normal level in the co-administered group. Lipid peroxidation products, protein carbonyls, total collagen and hydroxyproline, which were increased in the alcohol-treated group, were reduced in the co-administered group. The mRNA levels of cytochrome P450 2E1, NF-κB, TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 were found to be increased in the alcohol-treated rats, and their expressions were found to be decreased in the co-administered group. These observations were reinforced by histopathological analysis. Thus, the present study clearly indicates that 50 % ethanolic extract of the roots of S. cordifolia Linn. has a potent hepatoprotective action against alcohol-induced toxicity, which was mediated by lowering oxidative stress and by down-regulating the transcription factors.

  6. Ecophysiological consequences of alcoholism on human gut microbiota: implications for ethanol-related pathogenesis of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruya, Atsuki; Kuwahara, Akika; Saito, Yuta; Yamaguchi, Haruhiko; Tsubo, Takahisa; Suga, Shogo; Inai, Makoto; Aoki, Yuichi; Takahashi, Seiji; Tsutsumi, Eri; Suwa, Yoshihide; Morita, Hidetoshi; Kinoshita, Kenji; Totsuka, Yukari; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Mizukami, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Akira; Shimoyama, Takefumi; Nakayama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of excess ethanol increases the risk of colorectal cancer. The pathogenesis of ethanol-related colorectal cancer (ER-CRC) is thought to be partly mediated by gut microbes. Specifically, bacteria in the colon and rectum convert ethanol to acetaldehyde (AcH), which is carcinogenic. However, the effects of chronic ethanol consumption on the human gut microbiome are poorly understood, and the role of gut microbes in the proposed AcH-mediated pathogenesis of ER-CRC remains to be elaborated. Here we analyse and compare the gut microbiota structures of non-alcoholics and alcoholics. The gut microbiotas of alcoholics were diminished in dominant obligate anaerobes (e.g., Bacteroides and Ruminococcus) and enriched in Streptococcus and other minor species. This alteration might be exacerbated by habitual smoking. These observations could at least partly be explained by the susceptibility of obligate anaerobes to reactive oxygen species, which are increased by chronic exposure of the gut mucosa to ethanol. The AcH productivity from ethanol was much lower in the faeces of alcoholic patients than in faeces of non-alcoholic subjects. The faecal phenotype of the alcoholics could be rationalised based on their gut microbiota structures and the ability of gut bacteria to accumulate AcH from ethanol. PMID:27295340

  7. Taking alcohol by deception: an analysis of ethanol concentration of "paraga" an alcoholic herbal mixture in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol related road traffic injuries are on the rise in Nigeria. A sizable proportion of the alcohol intake is disguised as herbal medicines which are commonly available at motor parks in most urban centres. This study aims to determine the ethanol concentration of the herbal preparations and the vendors' knowledge about their preparation and use. Twenty-eight samples of the paraga mixtures were obtained for analysis from 22 paraga vendors. The vendors were interviewed in the motor parks using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results All the paraga outlets were located in or near motor parks. Commercial motor drivers and motorcyclists accounted for most customers. There were no formal recipes, production involved no calibrations or weighing and thus the components and concentration of different batches varied. The alcohol by volume (ABV) of the samples ranged between 1.20% and 20.84%. Nine samples were weaker than beers (Alcohol By Volume (ABV) of 1-3.1%). Ten were equivalent to beer (ABV:3-8%) and the rest were equivalent to wine (ABV:8-12%) or stronger (ABV: 18-20%). Conclusions Paraga should be classified as alcoholic beverages, and its sale restricted as such. The production should come under scrutiny, because the haphazard ways they are prepared may pose other health risks apart from those due to their alcoholic contents. PMID:22394987

  8. Room temperature ordering of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine bilayers induced by short chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Wachtel, E; Bach, D; Miller, I R

    2013-01-01

    Using differential scanning calorimetry and small and wide angle X-ray diffraction, we show that, following extended incubation at room temperature, methanol, propanol, and three of the isomers of butanol can induce ordering in dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS) gel phase bilayers. The organization of the bilayers in the presence of ethanol, described previously, is now observed to be a general effect of short chain alcohols. Evidence is presented for tilting of the acyl chains with respect to the bilayer normal in the presence of ethanol or propanol. However, the different chain lengths of the alcohols, and isomeric form, influence the thermal stability of the ordered gel to different extents. This behavior is unlike that of the gel state phosphatidylcholine analog which, in the presence of short chain alcohols, undergoes hydrocarbon chain interdigitation. Dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine added to DPPS in the presence of 20 vol% ethanol, acts to suppress the ordered gel phase.

  9. Mechanistic insights into aqueous phase propanol dehydration in H-ZSM-5 zeolite

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-10-06

    Aqueous phase dehydration of 1-propanol over H-ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The water molecules in the zeolite pores prefer to aggregate via the hydrogen bonding network and be protonated at the Brønsted acidic sites (BAS). Two typical configurations, i.e., dispersed and clustered, of water molecules were identified by ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of the mimicking aqueous phase H-ZSM-5 zeolite unit cell with 20 water molecules per unit cell. DFT calculated Gibbs free energies suggest that the dimeric propanol-propanol, the propanol-water complex, and the trimeric propanol-propanol-water are formed at high propanol concentrations, which provide a kinetically feasible dehydration reaction channel of 1-propanol to propene. However, calculation results also indicate that the propanol dehydration via the unimolecular mechanism becomes kinetically discouraged due to the enhanced stability of the protonated dimeric propanol and the protonated water cluster acting as the BAS site for alcohol dehydration reaction. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). EMSL is a national scientific user facility located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and sponsored by DOE’s Office of Biological and Environmental Research.

  10. Impedimetric detection of alcohol vapours using nanostructured zinc ferrite.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Saraswathi, Ramiah

    2014-11-01

    A comparative study on the sensing characteristics of nanostructured zinc ferrite to three primary alcohols viz. methanol, ethanol and propanol has been carried out. The zinc ferrite has been prepared by a combustion method and characterized by XRD, FTIR, AFM and SEM. Impedance studies in the alcohol concentration range varying from 100 to 1000 ppm show definite variations in response to both the nature of the alcohol and its concentration. The nanostructured zinc ferrite shows the highest sensor response to methanol and least to propanol. Equivalent circuit modelling and calibration have been made for all the three alcohol sensors. The material shows a better selectivity to the alcohols compared to formaldehyde, ammonia and acetone vapours.

  11. Intravenous ethanol infusions can mimic the time course of breath alcohol concentrations following oral alcohol administration in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, Vijay A; Plawecki, Martin; Li, Ting-Kai; O'Connor, Sean

    2009-05-01

    Our previous studies have used intravenous (IV) clamping methods to demonstrate that family history positive (FHP) subjects exhibit a greater initial response to alcohol than family history negative (FHN) subjects. These results differ from other studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) influences, most of which have used an oral alcohol challenge, suggesting that the route of administration may influence both the response to alcohol and FHA-related differences in response. To examine this possibility, one approach would be to directly compare responses following oral and IV alcohol administration in the same subjects. There is, however, a 3- to 4-fold variance, between- and within-subjects, in the breath alcohol concentrations (BrACs) following oral alcohol administration. Thus, our objective was to characterize the between-subject variability in the time course of BrACs following oral alcohol administration in healthy volunteers and to develop an IV infusion method to mimic the BrAC-time course attained following oral alcohol in the same subject. This was a 2-session study in young adult, healthy, nondependent drinkers. In the first session, subjects ingested an oral dose of alcohol, based on total body water, to achieve a target peak BrAC of 80 mg%. In the second session, subjects received an IV infusion of ethanol designed to achieve the same BrAC time course as that achieved in the first session. The individualized infusion-rate profile was precomputed using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for alcohol with model parameters adjusted to the individual's physiology. The peak BrACs (C(max)), times of peak BrAC (T(max)), and the areas under the BrAC vs. time curve (AUC) were compared between sessions to assess how closely the BrAC exposure during the IV infusion session mimicked the exposure following oral alcohol. The time course of BrACs following oral alcohol administration showed a high degree of between-subject variability. Mean C

  12. Effects of alcohol and saccharin deprivations on concurrent ethanol and saccharin operant self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Oster, Scott M; Kuc, Kelly A; Pommer, Tylene J; Murphy, James M; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2008-06-01

    Consumption of sweet solutions has been associated with a reduction in withdrawal symptoms and alcohol craving in humans. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of ethanol and saccharin (SACC) deprivations on operant oral self-administration. Alcohol-preferring (P) rats were allowed to lever press concurrently self-administer ethanol (15% vol/vol) and SACC (0.0125% g/vol) for 8 weeks. Rats were then maintained on daily operant access (nondeprived), deprived of both fluids (2 weeks), deprived of SACC and given 2 ml of ethanol daily, or deprived of ethanol and given 2 ml of SACC daily. All groups were then given 2 weeks of daily operant access to ethanol and SACC, followed by an identical second deprivation period. P rats responded more for ethanol than SACC. All deprived groups increased responding on the ethanol lever, but not on the SACC lever. Daily consumption of 2 ml ethanol decreased the duration of the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE). Home cage access to 2 ml of SACC also decreased the ADE but to a lesser extent than access to ethanol. A second deprivation period further increased and prolonged the expression of an ADE. These results show ethanol is a more salient reinforcer than SACC. With concurrent access to ethanol and SACC, P rats do not display a saccharin deprivation effect. Depriving P rats of both ethanol and SACC had the most pronounced effect on the magnitude and duration of the ADE, suggesting that there may be some interactions between ethanol and SACC in their CNS reinforcing effects.

  13. Alterations in ethanol seeking and self-administration following yohimbine in selectively bred alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol drinking (HAD-2) rats.

    PubMed

    Bertholomey, Megan L; Verplaetse, Terril L; Czachowski, Cristine L

    2013-02-01

    Evidence suggests that stress increases alcohol drinking and promotes relapse in humans. Animal models that assess related behaviors include the sipper tube ethanol self-administration and the stress-induced reinstatement paradigms. While selectively bred for the same high-ethanol-drinking behavior, alcohol-preferring P rats appear to show greater sensitivity to ethanol reinforcement than high-alcohol-drinking HAD rats. The present experiment tested the effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, on the motivation to seek and consume ethanol implementing a combined sipper tube/reinstatement model using male P and HAD-2 rats. Following training to self-administer ethanol using the sipper tube procedure, rats were tested for the effects of yohimbine (0.625-2.5 mg/kg) on ethanol drinking. Subsequently, rats were tested for the effects of 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine on reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Yohimbine (0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg) increased ethanol self-administration, and the latter dose also decreased latency to complete the response requirement. Yohimbine elicited reinstatement of ethanol seeking in both lines. HAD-2 rats drank more ethanol, but showed similar responding on the ethanol-associated lever compared to P rats. These findings extend both the reinstatement and sipper tube models and justify further exploration of this unique combined paradigm. Despite prior evidence suggesting that P rats are more motivated to seek and consume ethanol, differences in these behaviors between P and HAD-2 rats were not systematic in the present experiment. Further investigation may elucidate whether either selected line may be more sensitive than other selectively bred or outbred rats to stress-related changes in ethanol's reinforcing effects.

  14. Changes in free and bound alcohol metabolites in the urine during ethanol oxidation.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, S; Kanegae, T; Uchigasaki, S; Kitazawa, M; Fujioka, T; Fujioka, S; Imamura, Y; Nagoya, T; Shimamura, M; Mieda, Y

    1993-12-01

    Free and bound ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetate, acetone and methanol in urine during alcohol oxidation were analyzed by means of a head space gas chromatography. Four healthy male volunteers drank beer for 20 min with 16 ml/kg for non-flushers (A, B) and 8 ml/kg for flushers (C, D). In the urine, the highest bound ethanol levels were between 0.5-1.1 mM for the non-flushers (NF) and 0.2-0.3 mM for the flushers (F). The urine free ethanol levels were 23-70 times as high as bound ethanol levels. The maximum free acetaldehyde in urine was 11-13 microM for the NF and 26-55 microM for the F. The urine bound acetaldehyde levels were 4-5 microM for the NF and 7-15 microM for the F. Urine acetaldehyde existed in free forms at 2.4-3.6 times as high concentrations as in bound forms during ethanol oxidation. The urine free acetate ranged between 0.3-2.0 mM. The bound acetate varied between 0.7-1.1 mM. The urine free methanol at 70-110 microM before the intake increased to 104-180 microM. The bound methanol reached to 78-126 microM from 48-97 microM before the intake. Ethanol levels in the urine were ethanol dose-dependent, whereas it was thought that free and bound acetaldehyde or acetate reflected individual metabolic abilities and not the amount of ethanol consumed.

  15. Assessment of alcohol use among methadone maintenance patients by direct ethanol metabolites and self-reports.

    PubMed

    Wurst, Friedrich Martin; Dürsteler-MacFarland, Kenneth M; Auwaerter, Volker; Ergovic, Sonja; Thon, Natasha; Yegles, Michel; Halter, Claudia; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A

    2008-09-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption may accelerate the progression of hepatitis C (HCV)-related liver disease and/or limit efforts at antiviral treatment. As most of the patients in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) suffer from hepatitis C infection, this study was conducted to identify the alcohol intake among these patients at a Swiss Psychiatric University Clinic by self-reports and direct ethanol metabolites as biomarkers of ethanol consumption. A convenience sample of 40 MMT patients (15 women, 25 men; median age 39 years) of the total 124 patients was asked and consented to participate in this study. This sample was not different in age, gender distribution, and rate of hepatitis C infection from the total sample. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and self-reported ethanol intake during the previous 7 days were assessed. In addition, ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in urine, and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and EtG in hair were determined using LC-MS/MS and gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer. The limit of quantitation for UEtG, HEtG, and FAEEs were 0.1 mg/l, 2.3 pg/mg, and 0.1 ng/mg, respectively. Fourteen participants reported abstinence from alcohol for the previous 7 days. AUDIT scores were > or =8 in 15 male and >5 in 5 female participants. Direct ethanol metabolites were as follows (median, min, max, standard deviation): UEtG (19 positives; 9.91, 1.38 to 251, 62.39 mg/l); the values of HEtG were 17.65, 0 to 513, 105.62 pg/mg [in 2 cases no material, 8 abstinent (up to 7 pg/mg), 15 social drinkers (up to 50 g per day), and 15 excessive users (>50/60 g/d)]. For the 13 cases, where enough material for additional determination of HFAEEs was available, the values were 0.32, 0 to 1.32, 0.44 ng/mg. Among the 30 HEtG-positive participants, 20 had not reported the corresponding ethanol intake using question 1 (frequency) and 2 (quantity) of the AUDIT. Of the 14 participants reporting no alcohol intake during the previous 7 days, 4 were UEt

  16. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  17. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.

  18. Intensive use of biomass feedstock in ethanol conversion: The alcohol-water, vapor-phase separation

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, G.H.; Doyle, L.R.; Pavlath, A.E.

    1983-12-01

    Fermentation of ethanol in a system whereby the biomass is used intensively (both to separate alcohol from water by vapor phase adsorption and to serve as the feedstock) is shown to be possible on theoretical grounds when the biomass is grain. The rationale for a vapor-phase adsorption process as an alternative to distillation is shown to be energetically valid above 84 wt % ethanol. The capacity of grain in new vapor-phase ambient adsorption processes was estimated experimentally with the finding that sufficient capacity exists for the intensive use but that the adsorption is dynamically controlled so that the grain form and particle size are important. Pretreatments such as explosive dehydration improve the transfer of water to the grain in adsorption with potential improvement in the efficiency of liquefaction and saccharification. At room temperature, these sorbents are not perfectly selective for water but adsorb ethanol which will be carried to the liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation with the feedstock.

  19. Identifying gene networks underlying the neurobiology of ethanol and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Wolen, Aaron R; Miles, Michael F

    2012-01-01

    For complex disorders such as alcoholism, identifying the genes linked to these diseases and their specific roles is difficult. Traditional genetic approaches, such as genetic association studies (including genome-wide association studies) and analyses of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in both humans and laboratory animals already have helped identify some candidate genes. However, because of technical obstacles, such as the small impact of any individual gene, these approaches only have limited effectiveness in identifying specific genes that contribute to complex diseases. The emerging field of systems biology, which allows for analyses of entire gene networks, may help researchers better elucidate the genetic basis of alcoholism, both in humans and in animal models. Such networks can be identified using approaches such as high-throughput molecular profiling (e.g., through microarray-based gene expression analyses) or strategies referred to as genetical genomics, such as the mapping of expression QTLs (eQTLs). Characterization of gene networks can shed light on the biological pathways underlying complex traits and provide the functional context for identifying those genes that contribute to disease development.

  20. Shock Hugoniot equations of state for binary water-alcohol liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, David; Bolme, Cynthia; Brown, Kathryn; McGrane, Shawn; Schulze, Peter

    2015-06-01

    Shock Hugoniot data were obtained using laser generated shock and ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) methods for several non-ideal water-alcohol liquid mixtures, using methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and t-butanol (a.k.a., 2-methyl-2-propanol or tert-butanol). The sound speeds of the mixtures were obtained using Brillouin scattering when not available in the literature. The shock and particle velocities obtained from the UDE data were compared to expectations of the universal liquid Hugoniot (ULH) and to literature shock (plate impact) data where available. The shock Hugoniot trends for all these mixtures, represented as deviations from predictions of the ULH, versus fraction of alcohol are quite similar to each other and suggest that complex hydrogen bonding networks in water-alcohol mixtures alter the compressibility of the mixtures. Data and trends will be presented. LA-UR-15-20328.

  1. Determinations of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate in blood and urine during alcohol oxidation in man.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, S; Muto, T; Nagoya, T; Shimamura, M; Saito, M; Tainaka, H

    1989-01-01

    Blood and urine samples were analyzed for ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetate during alcohol oxidation in Japanese men by head space gas chromatography, following the consumption of 16 ml/kg of beer during a 20 min period. The maximum level of blood/urine ethanol was found to be 15-17 mM (20-22 mM), while that of acetaldehyde in a flusher and in non-flushers was 20 microM (52 microM) and 2-5 microM (10-13 microM), respectively. Acetate levels in these groups ranged from 0.2 mM (0.1 mM) to 0.8 mM (1.0 mM). Blood ethanol levels were dose dependent, whereas acetaldehyde and acetate levels reflected individual metabolic rates. The relative concentrations of ethanol and acetaldehyde in blood and that of acetate in alcohol metabolism could be summarized as follows: 7500 (15 mM): 1-3 (2-5 microM); 250-400 (0.5-0.8 mM) for non-flushers; and 7500 (15 mM): 5-10 (10-20 microM): 250-400 (0.5-0.8 mM) for a flusher.

  2. Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini form a stable ethanol-producing consortium in a commercial alcohol production process.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Blomqvist, Johanna; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-07-01

    The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms.

  3. Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini Form a Stable Ethanol-Producing Consortium in a Commercial Alcohol Production Process▿

    PubMed Central

    Passoth, Volkmar; Blomqvist, Johanna; Schnürer, Johan

    2007-01-01

    The ethanol production process of a Swedish alcohol production plant was dominated by Dekkera bruxellensis and Lactobacillus vini, with a high number of lactic acid bacteria. The product quality, process productivity, and stability were high; thus, D. bruxellensis and L. vini can be regarded as commercial ethanol production organisms. PMID:17483277

  4. Biosensing approach for alcohol determination using immobilized alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Huseyin Bekir; Toppare, Levent

    2006-06-15

    Alcohol oxidase (AOD) was immobilized in polypyrrole (PPy) and a random copolymer containing 3-methylthienyl methacrylate and p-vinylbenzyloxy poly(ethyleneoxide) matrices. Immobilization of enzyme was performed via entrapment in conducting polymers during electrochemical polymerization of pyrrole through the thiophene moiety of the copolymer. Three different alcohols, namely methanol, ethanol and n-propanol, were used as substrates. Maximum reaction rates, Michaelis-Menten constants, optimum temperature and pH values, operational stabilities and shelf life of the enzyme electrodes were investigated.

  5. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  6. Interactions of ethanol and folate deficiency in development of alcoholic liver disease in the micropig.

    PubMed Central

    Halsted, Charles H.; Villanueva, Jesus A.; Devlin, Angela M.; James, S. Jill

    2002-01-01

    Folate deficiency is present in most patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD), whereas folate regulates and alcoholism perturbs intrahepatic methionine metabolism, and S-adenosyl-methionine prevents the development of experimental ALD. Our studies explored the hypothesis that abnormal methionine metabolism is exacerbated by folate deficiency and promotes the development of ALD in the setting of chronic ethanol exposure. Using the micropig animal model, dietary combinations of folate deficiency and a diet containing 40% of kcal as ethanol were followed by measurements of hepatic methionine metabolism and indices of ALD. Alcoholic liver injury, expressed as steatohepatitis in terminal 14 week liver specimens, was evident in micropigs fed the combined ethanol containing and folate deficient diet but not in micropigs fed each diet separately. Perturbations of methionine metabolism included decreased hepatic S-adenosylmethionine and glutathione with increased products of DNA and lipid oxidation. Thus, the development of ALD is linked to abnormal methionine metabolism and is accelerated in the presence of folate deficiency. PMID:12053707

  7. Increased anxiety, voluntary alcohol consumption and ethanol-induced place preference in mice following chronic psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-07-01

    Stress exposure is known to be a risk factor for alcohol use and anxiety disorders. Comorbid chronic stress and alcohol dependence may lead to a complicated and potentially severe treatment profile. To gain an understanding of the interaction between chronic psychosocial stress and drug exposure, we studied the effects of concomitant chronic stress exposure on alcohol reward using two-bottle choice and ethanol-conditioned place preference (CPP). The study consisted of exposure of the chronic subordinate colony (CSC) mice "intruders" to an aggressive "resident" mouse for 19 consecutive days. Control mice were single housed (SHC). Ethanol consumption using two-bottle choice paradigm and ethanol CPP acquisition was assessed at the end of this time period. As expected, CSC exposure increased anxiety-like behavior and reduced weight gain as compared to SHC controls. Importantly, in the two-bottle choice procedure, CSC mice showed higher alcohol intake than SHC. When testing their response to ethanol-induced CPP, CSC mice achieved higher preference for the ethanol-paired chamber. In fact, CSC exposure increased ethanol-CPP acquisition. Taken together, these data demonstrate the long-term consequences of chronic psychosocial stress on alcohol intake in male mice, suggesting chronic stress as a risk factor for developing alcohol consumption and/or anxiety disorders.

  8. Microbial ethanol production: experimental study and multivariate evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Economou, Vangelis; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2012-02-10

    Ethanol can be produced from all the postmortem available substrates, though with higher rates and yields from carbohydrates, during the early stages of putrefaction. The so-called higher alcohols (1-propanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-2-butanol) and 1-butanol could be produced, from all the available postmortem substrates. However, a quantitative relationship between the produced ethanol and the potentially produced other alcohols is still missing. The objective of this study was the development of a simple, mathematical model which could be able to approximate the microbial produced ethanol in correlation with other produced alcohols. The selected bacterial species included two Gram+ spore-forming anaerobic bacteria and two (one Gram+ one Gram-) aerobic/facultative anaerobic bacteria, all being common commensals of the digestive tract and common colonizers of the corpse. The selected bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfrigens, Clostridium sporogenes and Enterococcus faecalis, were cultured separately at 25 °C, for 30 days, under controlled anaerobic conditions. The produced ethanol and the previously referred alcohols were determined in the culture medium in 24h intervals. Using partial least squares (PLS) regression, the estimation of the relevance score for the available descriptors established the statistical model to assess the ethanol concentration produced by each studied microbe. E. coli, C. perfrigens, and C. sporogenes produced different patterns of ethanol and other alcohols, while E. faecalis produced negligible amounts of ethanol and higher alcohols. In constructing the mathematical models to predict the produced ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and isobutanol were significant for C. perfrigens and C. sporogenes, while 1-butanol, 1-propanol, and methyl-butanol were significant for E. coli. The applicability of these models was tested in microbial, anaerobic cultures of normal human blood and plasma at 25 °C. The

  9. Nicotinic receptor ligands reduce ethanol intake by high alcohol-drinking HAD-2 rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Eiler, Bill J A; Cook, Jason B; Rahman, Shafiqur

    2009-12-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are implicated in the reinforcing effects of many drugs of abuse, including ethanol. The present study examined the efficacy of cytisine, a nAChR partial agonist, and lobeline, a putative nAChR antagonist, on the maintenance of ethanol drinking by HAD-2 rats. Adult male HAD-2 rats were given access to ethanol (15 and 30%, with ad libitum access to water and food) 22 h/day for 12 weeks, beginning at 60 days of age, after which cytisine (0.0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/kg) was tested for 3 consecutive days. The rats were given an 18-day washout period and were then tested with lobeline (0.0, 1.0, and 5.0 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Ethanol intake was measured at 1, 4, and 22 h postinjection. Rats were injected intraperitoneally just before lights out (1200 h). There was a significant main effect of cytisine treatment on the second test day, with the 1.5 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake at the 1- and 4-h time-points, relative to saline, and the 0.5 mg/kg dose inducing a significant reduction at the 4-h time-point. Conversely, lobeline treatment resulted in significant main effects of treatment for all three time-points within each test day, with the 5.0 mg/kg dose significantly reducing ethanol intake, relative to saline, at each time-point within each test day. These findings provide further evidence that activity at the nAChR influences ethanol intake and is a promising target for pharmacotherapy development for the treatment of alcohol dependence and relapse.

  10. Contribution of Liver Alcohol Dehydrogenase to Metabolism of Alcohols in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Plapp, Bryce V.; Leidal, Kevin G.; Murch, Bruce P.; Green, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics of oxidation of various alcohols by purified rat liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) were compared with the kinetics of elimination of the alcohols in rats in order to investigate the roles of ADH and other factors that contribute to the rates of metabolism of alcohols. Primary alcohols (ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol) and diols (1,3-propanediol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1,5-pentanediol) were eliminated in rats with zero-order kinetics at doses of 5–20 mmole/kg. Ethanol was eliminated most rapidly, at 7.9 mmole/kg•h. Secondary alcohols (2-propanol-d7, 2-propanol, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, cyclopentanol, cyclohexanol) were eliminated with first order kinetics at doses of 5–10 mmole/kg, and the corresponding ketones were formed and slowly eliminated with zero or first order kinetics. The rates of elimination of various alcohols were inhibited on average 73% (55% for 2-propanol to 90% for ethanol) by 1 mmole/kg of 4-methylpyrazole, a good inhibitor of ADH, indicating a major role for ADH in the metabolism of the alcohols. The Michaelis kinetic constants from in vitro studies (pH 7.3, 37 °C) with isolated rat liver enzyme were used to calculate the expected relative rates of metabolism in rats. The rates of elimination generally increased with increased activity of ADH, but a maximum rate of 6 ± 1 mmole/kg•h was observed for the best substrates, suggesting that ADH activity is not solely rate-limiting. Because secondary alcohols only require one NAD+ for the conversion to ketones whereas primary alcohols require two equivalents of NAD+ for oxidation to the carboxylic acids, it appears that the rate of oxidation of NADH to NAD+ is not a major limiting factor for metabolism of these alcohols, but the rate-limiting factors are yet to be identified. PMID:25641189

  11. Three alcohol dehydrogenase genes and one acetyl-CoA synthetase gene are responsible for ethanol utilization in Yarrowia lipolytica.

    PubMed

    Gatter, Michael; Ottlik, Stephanie; Kövesi, Zsolt; Bauer, Benjamin; Matthäus, Falk; Barth, Gerold

    2016-10-01

    The non-conventional yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is able to utilize a wide range of different substrates like glucose, glycerol, ethanol, acetate, proteins and various hydrophobic molecules. Although most metabolic pathways for the utilization of these substrates have been clarified by now, it was not clear whether ethanol is oxidized by alcohol dehydrogenases or by an alternative oxidation system inside the cell. In order to detect the genes that are required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica, eight alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) genes and one alcohol oxidase gene (FAO1) have been identified and respective deletion strains were tested for their ability to metabolize ethanol. As a result of this, we found that the availability of ADH1, ADH2 or ADH3 is required for ethanol utilization in Y. lipolytica. A strain with deletions in all three genes is lacking the ability to utilize ethanol as sole carbon source. Although Adh2p showed by far the highest enzyme activity in an in vitro assay, the availability of any of the three genes was sufficient to enable a decent growth. In addition to ADH1, ADH2 and ADH3, an acetyl-CoA synthetase encoding gene (ACS1) was found to be essential for ethanol utilization. As Y. lipolytica is a non-fermenting yeast, it is neither able to grow under anaerobic conditions nor to produce ethanol. To investigate whether Y. lipolytica may produce ethanol, the key genes of alcoholic fermentation in S. cerevisiae, ScADH1 and ScPDC1, were overexpressed in an ADH and an ACS1 deletion strain. However, instead of producing ethanol, the respective strains regained the ability to use ethanol as single carbon source and were still not able to grow under anaerobic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of swelling characteristics on the permselective properties of multi-layer composite membranes for water removal from alcohols (conference poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of water from organic solvents and biofuels, including lower alcohols (i.e., methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol), is necessary for the production, blending, and reuse of those organic compounds. Water forms an azeotrope with many hydrophilic solvents, complicati...

  13. Non-invasive spatial visualization system of exhaled ethanol for real-time analysis of ALDH2 related alcohol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Ando, Eri; Takahashi, Daishi; Arakawa, Takahiro; Kudo, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hirokazu; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2011-09-21

    A novel imaging system of ethanol in exhaled breath induced by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2)-related alcohol metabolism has been developed. The system provides an image of ethanol distribution as chemiluminescence (CL) on an enzyme-immobilized support. The spatiotemporal change of CL generated by ethanol in exhaled breath after oral administration of ethanol was detected by employing an electron multiplier CCD (EM-CCD) camera, illustrated and analyzed. Prior to measurement of standard gaseous ethanol and ethanol in exhaled breath, the system was optimized by investigating the enzyme-immobilized supports, concentration of substrate and pH condition of Tris-HCl buffer solution. The ethanol skin patch test, a simple method as an indicator of ALDH2, was performed on healthy volunteers. Breath samples of 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (+) and 5 volunteers with ALDH2 (-) were used for exhaled ethanol analysis. Concentration-time profiles of exhaled ethanol obtained from all volunteers were analyzed over a period of 120 min after oral administration of ethanol (0.4 g per kg body weight) in the form of beer which contains 5% of alcohol. The results obtained from the system showed that the peaks of exhaled ethanol concentrations appeared at 30 min, which was considered as a rapid ethanol absorption phase following first-order kinetics. Exhaled ethanol concentrations of volunteers with ALDH2 (+) were lower than volunteers with ALDH2 (-) and the digestion of ethanol in volunteers with ALDH2 (+) was faster than in volunteers with ALDH2 (-). The eliminations were analyzed to follow zero-order kinetics with a rate constant for each group.

  14. Persistent escalation of alcohol drinking in C57BL/6J mice with intermittent access to 20% ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Lara S.; Chu, Adam; Levinson, Sally A.; Kayyali, Tala M.; DeBold, Joseph F.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Intermittent access to drugs of abuse, as opposed to continuous access, is hypothesized to induce a kindling-type transition from moderate to escalated use, leading to dependence. Intermittent 24-hour cycles of ethanol access and deprivation can generate high levels of voluntary ethanol drinking in rats. Methods The current study uses C57BL/6J mice (B6) in an intermittent access to 20% ethanol protocol to escalate ethanol drinking levels. Adult male and female B6 mice were given intermittent access to 20% ethanol on alternating days of the week with water available ad libitum. Ethanol consumption during the initial 2 hours of access was compared to a short term, limited access “binge” drinking procedure, similar to drinking-in-the-dark (DID). B6 mice were also assessed for ethanol dependence with handling-induced convulsion (HIC), a reliable measure of withdrawal severity. Results After 3 weeks, male mice given intermittent access to ethanol achieved high stable levels of ethanol drinking in excess of 20 g/kg/24h, reaching above 100 mg/dl BEC, and showed a significantly higher ethanol preference than mice given continuous access to ethanol. Also, mice given intermittent access drank about twice as much as DID mice in the initial 2-hour access period. B6 mice that underwent the intermittent access protocol for longer periods of time displayed more severe signs of alcohol withdrawal. Additionally, female B6 mice were given intermittent access to ethanol and drank significantly more than males (ca. 30 g/kg/24h). Discussion The intermittent access method in B6 mice is advantageous because it induces escalated, voluntary, and preferential per os ethanol intake, behavior that may mimic a cardinal feature of human alcohol dependence, though the exact nature and site of ethanol acting in the brain and blood as a result of intermittent access has yet to be determined. PMID:21631540

  15. Fragrance material review on 2-phenyl-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Scognamiglio, J; Jones, L; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenyl-2-propanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenyl-2-propanol is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohols and is a tertiary alcohol. The AAAs are a structurally diverse class of fragrance ingredients that includes primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl alcohols covalently bonded to an aryl (Ar) group, which may be either a substituted or unsubstituted benzene ring. The common structural element for the AAA fragrance ingredients is an alcohol group -C-(R1)(R2)OH and generically the AAA fragrances can be represented as an Ar-C-(R1)(R2)OH or Ar-Alkyl-C-(R1)(R2)OH group. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenyl-2-propanol were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire Aryl Alkyl Alcohols will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all Aryl Alkyl Alcohols in fragrances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A rapid increase in lipoprotein (a) levels after ethanol withdrawal in alcoholic men

    SciTech Connect

    Kervinen, K.; Savolainen, J.J.; Kesaeniemi, Y.A. )

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) were studied in 11 male alcoholics at the end of a drinking period and monitored during subsequent abstinence. Lp(a) levels showed a daily increase for four consecutive days after the beginning of abstinence, the values for the third and the fourth day being significantly higher than those of the first day. The changes in Lp(a) showed no association with the changes in low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. In one alcoholic subject with a heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia who was monitored for 11 days, the Lp(a) levels rose up to the fourth day and remained at a high level thereafter. These results suggest that ethanol ingestion may be associated with a lower of Lp(a) levels, which may contribute to the delayed progression of atherosclerosis observed in alcohol drinkers.

  17. Polymorphism of ethanol-metabolism genes and alcoholism: correlation of allelic variations with the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chyan; Peng, Giia-Sheun; Wang, Ming-Fang; Tsao, Tien-Ping; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2009-03-16

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) are the principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol. Both ADH and ALDH exhibit genetic polymorphisms among racial populations. Functional variant alleles ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 have been consistently replicated to show protection against developing alcohol dependence. Multiple logistic regression analyses suggest that ADH1B*2 and ALDH2*2 may independently influence the risk for alcoholism. It has been well documented that homozygosity of ALDH2*2 almost fully protects against developing alcoholism and that the heterozygosity only affords a partial protection to varying degrees. Correlations of blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations, cardiovascular hemodynamic responses, and subjective perceptions have been investigated in men with different combinatorial ADH1B and ALDH2 genotypes following challenge with ethanol for a period of 130 min. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic consequences indicate that acetaldehyde, rather than ethanol, is primarily responsible for the observed alcohol sensitivity reactions, suggesting that the full protection by ALDH2*2/*2 can be ascribed to the intense unpleasant physiological and psychological reactions caused by persistently elevated blood acetaldehyde after ingesting a small amount of alcohol and that the partial protection by ALDH2*1/*2 can be attributed to a faster elimination of acetaldehyde and the lower accumulation in circulation. ADH1B polymorphism does not significantly contribute to buildup of the blood acetaldehyde. Physiological tolerance or innate insensitivity to acetaldehyde may be crucial for development of alcohol dependence in alcoholics carrying ALDH2*2.

  18. Vapor-alcohol control tests with compressed ethanol-gas mixtures: scientific basis and actual performance.

    PubMed

    Dubowski, K M; Essary, N A

    1996-10-01

    Commercial compressed vapor-alcohol mixtures ("dry gas") were evaluated to ascertain their suitability for control tests in breath-alcohol analysis. Dry gas control tests were conducted at nominal vapor-alcohol concentrations (VACs) of 0.045, 0.085, and 0.105 g/210 L (n = 50 at each VAC) with Alcotest 7110 MK III and Intoxilyzer 1400 evidential breath-alcohol testers. The measurement results were analyzed by standard statistical methods, and their correlation with certified dry gas VAC target values was examined. Also measured and examined statistically were the VACs of National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable Research Gas mixtures (dry gas) ethanol standards at 97.8 and 198 ppm (n = 30-50 at each VAC). With the Alcotest 7110 MK III programmed to report VACs normalized to standard atmospheric pressure at 760 torr and the intoxilyzer 1400 programmed to report VACs at ambient atmospheric pressure, the predicted effects of ambient atmospheric pressure were confirmed experimentally. We developed and validated the following conversion factor for VAC units at 34 degrees C and 760 torr: ppm/2605 = g/210 L and g/210 L x 2605 = ppm. We found that the dry gas vapor-alcohol control samples conformed to established formal specifications and concluded that they compared favorably with simulator effluents for control tests of breath-alcohol analyzers, which are capable of adjusting VAC results for ambient atmospheric pressure.

  19. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium

    PubMed Central

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26–34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0–110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health. PMID:27011168

  20. Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: Analysis of Two Direct Metabolites of Ethanol in Meconium.

    PubMed

    Sanvisens, Arantza; Robert, Neus; Hernández, José María; Zuluaga, Paola; Farré, Magí; Coroleu, Wifredo; Serra, Montserrat; Tor, Jordi; Muga, Robert

    2016-03-22

    Alcohol consumption in young women is a widespread habit that may continue during pregnancy and induce alterations in the fetus. We aimed to characterize prevalence of alcohol consumption in parturient women and to assess fetal ethanol exposure in their newborns by analyzing two direct metabolites of ethanol in meconium. This is a cross-sectional study performed in September 2011 and March 2012 in a series of women admitted to an obstetric unit following childbirth. During admission, socio-demographic and substance use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, and opiates) during pregnancy were assessed using a structured questionnaire and clinical charts. We also recorded the characteristics of pregnancy, childbirth, and neonates. The meconium analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to detect the presence of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS). Fifty-one parturient and 52 neonates were included and 48 meconium samples were suitable for EtG and EtS detection. The median age of women was 30 years (interquartile range (IQR): 26-34 years); EtG was present in all meconium samples and median concentration of EtG was 67.9 ng/g (IQR: 36.0-110.6 ng/g). With respect to EtS, it was undetectable (<0.01 ng/g) in the majority of samples (79.1%). Only three (6%) women reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy in face-to-face interviews. However, prevalence of fetal exposure to alcohol through the detection of EtG and EtS was 4.2% and 16.7%, respectively. Prevention of alcohol consumption during pregnancy and the detection of substance use with markers of fetal exposure are essential components of maternal and child health.

  1. Inhibition of muscarinic receptor-induced proliferation of astroglial cells by ethanol: mechanisms and implications for the fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Lucio G; Guizzetti, Marina

    2002-12-01

    In utero exposure to ethanol is deleterious to fetal brain development. Children born with the fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) display a number of abnormalities, the most significant of which are central nervous system (CNS) dysfunctions, such as microencephaly and mental retardation. An interaction of ethanol with glial cells, particularly astrocytes, has been suggested to contribute to the developmental neurotoxicity of this alcohol. At low concentrations (10-100 mM) ethanol inhibits the proliferation of astroglial cells in vitro, particularly when stimulated by acetycholine through muscarinic M3 receptors. Of the several signal transduction pathways activated by these receptors in astrocytes or astrocytoma cells, which are involved in mitogenic signaling, only some (e.g. protein kinase C (PKC) zeta, p70S6 kinase) appear to be targeted by ethanol at the same low concentrations which effectively inhibit proliferation. Inhibition of astroglial proliferation by ethanol may contribute to the microencephaly seen in FAS.

  2. A distinct type of alcohol dehydrogenase, adh4+, complements ethanol fermentation in an adh1-deficient strain of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Masao; Tohda, Hideki; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Giga-Hama, Yuko

    2004-03-01

    In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, only one alcohol dehydrogenase gene, adh1(+), has been identified. To elucidate the influence of adh1(+) on ethanol fermentation, we constructed the adh1 null strain (delta adh1). The delta adh1 cells still produced ethanol and grew fermentatively as the wild-type cells. Both DNA microarray and RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that this ethanol production is caused by the enhanced expression of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH4-like gene product (SPAC5H10.06C named adh4(+)). Since the strain lacking both adh1 and adh4 genes (delta adh1 delta adh4) showed non-fermentative retarded growth, only these two ADHs produce ethanol for fermentative growth. This is the first observation that a S. cerevisiae ADH4-like alcohol dehydrogenase functions in yeast ethanol fermentation.

  3. Ethanol metabolite acetic acid as causative agent for type-1 hypersensitivity-like reactions to alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Boehncke, W H; Gall, H

    1996-09-01

    Adverse reactions to alcoholic beverages are common and more frequently mediated by immunological mechanisms than previously thought. To elucidate relevant allergens in this context we studied patients with an informative medical history. This report describes a comprehensive allergological approach in a patient exhibiting type-I hypersensitivity-like reactions towards beverages and medication containing alcohol, and salad dressings with acetic acid. The ethanol metabolite acetic acid was found to yield positive prick test results in concentrations not eliciting reactions in healthy and atopic controls. Among other ethanol metabolites, acetic acid is a potential allergen in the context of hypersensitivity towards alcoholic beverages.

  4. β-Catenin is Essential for Ethanol Metabolism and Protection Against Alcohol-mediated Liver Steatosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiguang; Yeh, Tzu-Hsuan; Singh, Vijay P.; Shiva, Sruti; Krauland, Lindsay; Li, Huanan; Zhang, Pili; Kharbanda, Kusum; Ritov, Vladimir; Monga, Satdarshan P. S.; Scott, Donald K.; Eagon, Patricia K.; Behari, Jaideep

    2011-01-01

    The liver plays a central role in ethanol metabolism and oxidative stress is implicated in alcohol-mediated liver injury. β-Catenin regulates hepatic metabolic zonation and adaptive response to oxidative stress. We hypothesized that β-catenin regulates the hepatic response to ethanol ingestion. Female liver-specific β-catenin knockout (KO) mice and wild type (WT) littermates were fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet (5% ethanol) in a pair-wise fashion. Liver histology, biochemistry, and gene expression studies were performed. Plasma alcohol and ammonia levels were measured using standard assays. Ethanol-fed KO mice exhibited systemic toxicity and early mortality. KO mice exhibited severe macrovesicular steatosis and five to six-fold higher serum ALT and AST levels. KO mice had modest increase in hepatic oxidative stress, lower expression of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD-2), and lower citrate synthase activity, the first step in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) did not prevent ethanol-induced mortality in KO mice. In WT livers, β-catenin was found to co-precipitate with FoxO3, the upstream regulator of SOD-2. Hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities and expression were lower in KO mice. Hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 protein levels were upregulated in ethanol-fed WT mice but were nearly undetectable in KO mice. These changes in ethanol-metabolizing enzymes were associated with 30-fold higher blood alcohol levels in KO mice. Conclusion β-catenin is essential for hepatic ethanol metabolism and plays a protective role in alcohol-mediated liver steatosis. Our results strongly suggest that integration of these functions by β-catenin is critical for adaptation to ethanol ingestion in vivo. PMID:22031168

  5. Fetal alcohol exposure reduces responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal chemosensory neurons to ethanol and its flavor components.

    PubMed

    Glendinning, John I; Tang, Joyce; Morales Allende, Ana Paula; Bryant, Bruce P; Youngentob, Lisa; Youngentob, Steven L

    2017-08-01

    Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose, and NaCl. To assess trigeminal responsiveness, we measured changes in calcium levels of isolated trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons during stimulation with ethanol, capsaicin, mustard oil, and KCl. Compared with adolescent control rats, the adolescent experimental rats exhibited diminished CT nerve responses to ethanol, quinine, and sucrose and GL nerve responses to quinine and sucrose. The reductions in taste responsiveness persisted into adulthood for quinine but not for any of the other stimuli. Adolescent experimental rats also exhibited reduced TG neuron responses to ethanol, capsaicin, and mustard oil. The lack of change in responsiveness of the taste nerves to NaCl and the TG neurons to KCl indicates that FAE altered only a subset of the response pathways within each chemosensory system. We propose that FAE reprograms development of the peripheral taste and trigeminal systems in ways that reduce their responsiveness to ethanol and surrogates for its pleasant (i.e., sweet) and unpleasant (i.e., bitterness, oral burning) flavor attributes.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Pregnant mothers are advised to avoid alcohol. This is because even small amounts of alcohol can alter fetal brain development and increase the risk of adolescent alcohol abuse. We asked how fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) produces the latter effect in adolescent rats by measuring responsiveness of taste nerves and trigeminal

  6. Identification and overexpression of a bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase responsible for ethanol production in Thermoanaerobacter mathranii.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shuo; Mikkelsen, Marie Just

    2010-01-01

    Thermoanaerobacter mathranii contains four genes, adhA, adhB, bdhA and adhE, predicted to code for alcohol dehydrogenases involved in ethanol metabolism. These alcohol dehydrogenases were characterized as NADP(H)-dependent primary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhA), secondary alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhB), butanol dehydrogenase (BdhA) and NAD(H)-dependent bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE), respectively. Here we observed that AdhE is an important enzyme responsible for ethanol production in T. mathranii based on the constructed adh knockout strains. An adhE knockout strain fails to produce ethanol as a fermentation product, while other adh knockout strains showed no significant difference from the wild type. Further analysis revealed that the ΔadhE strain was defective in aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, but still maintained alcohol dehydrogenase activity. This showed that AdhE is the major aldehyde dehydrogenase in the cell and functions predominantly in the acetyl-CoA reduction to acetaldehyde in the ethanol formation pathway. Finally, AdhE was conditionally expressed from a xylose-induced promoter in a recombinant strain (BG1E1) with a concomitant deletion of a lactate dehydrogenase. Overexpressions of AdhE in strain BG1E1 with xylose as a substrate facilitate the production of ethanol at an increased yield. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Polymorphisms of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations of Japanese alcoholic men.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akira; Tsutsumi, Eri; Imazeki, Hiromi; Suwa, Yoshihide; Nakamura, Chizu; Yokoyama, Tetsuji

    2010-07-01

    The effects of genetic polymorphism of aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) on alcohol metabolism are striking in nonalcoholics, and the effects of genetic polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B (ADH1B) are modest at most, whereas genetic polymorphisms of both strongly affect the susceptibility to alcoholism and upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer of drinkers. We evaluated associations between ADH1B/ADH1C/ALDH2 genotypes and the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of 168 Japanese alcoholic men who came to our hospital for the first time in the morning and had been drinking until the day before. The ethanol levels in their blood and saliva were similar, but the acetaldehyde levels in their saliva were much higher than in their blood, probably because of acetaldehyde production by oral bacteria. Blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels were both significantly higher in the subjects with the less active ADH1B*1/*1 genotype than in the ADH1B*2 carriers, but none of the levels differed according to ALDH2 genotype. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected between the ADH1B and ADH1C genotypes, but ADH1C genotype did not affect the blood or salivary ethanol or acetaldehyde levels. High blood acetaldehyde levels were found even in the active ALDH2*1/*1 alcoholics, which were comparable with the levels of the inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 alcoholics with less active ADH1B*1/*1. The slope of the increase in blood acetaldehyde level as the blood ethanol level increased was significantly steeper in alcoholics with inactive heterozygous ALDH2*1/*2 plus ADH1B*2 allele than with any other genotype combinations, but the slopes of the increase in salivary acetaldehyde level as the salivary ethanol level increased did not differ between the groups of subjects with any combinations of ALDH2 and ADH1B genotypes. The ADH1B/ALDH2 genotype affected the blood and salivary ethanol and acetaldehyde levels of nonabstinent alcoholics in a different manner

  8. Modeling microbial ethanol production by E. coli under aerobic/anaerobic conditions: applicability to real postmortem cases and to postmortem blood derived microbial cultures.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Kourkoumelis, Nikolaos; Gousia, Panagiota; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2013-10-10

    The mathematical modeling of the microbial ethanol production under strict anaerobic experimental conditions for some bacterial species has been proposed by our research group as the first approximation to the quantification of the microbial ethanol production in cases where other alcohols were produced simultaneously with ethanol. The present study aims to: (i) study the microbial ethanol production by Escherichia coli under controlled aerobic/anaerobic conditions; (ii) model the correlation between the microbial produced ethanol and the other higher alcohols; and (iii) test their applicability in: (a) real postmortem cases that had positive BACs (>0.10 g/L) and co-detection of higher alcohols and 1-butanol during the original ethanol analysis and (b) postmortem blood derived microbial cultures under aerobic/anaerobic controlled experimental conditions. The statistical evaluation of the results revealed that the formulated models were presumably correlated to 1-propanol and 1-butanol which were recognized as the most significant descriptors of the modeling process. The significance of 1-propanol and 1-butanol as descriptors was so powerful that they could be used as the only independent variables to create a simple and satisfactory model. The current models showed a potential for application to estimate microbial ethanol - within an acceptable standard error - in various tested cases where ethanol and other alcohols have been produced from different microbes.

  9. Glycine and GABA(A) ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors as novel tools for alcohol and brain research.

    PubMed

    Naito, Anna; Muchhala, Karan H; Asatryan, Liana; Trudell, James R; Homanics, Gregg E; Perkins, Daya I; Davies, Daryl L; Alkana, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    A critical obstacle to developing effective medications to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders is the lack of specific knowledge regarding the plethora of molecular targets and mechanisms underlying alcohol (ethanol) action in the brain. To identify the role of individual receptor subunits in ethanol-induced behaviors, we developed a novel class of ultra-sensitive ethanol receptors (USERs) that allow activation of a single receptor subunit population sensitized to extremely low ethanol concentrations. USERs were created by mutating as few as four residues in the extracellular loop 2 region of glycine receptors (GlyRs) or γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABA(A)Rs), which are implicated in causing many behavioral effects linked to ethanol abuse. USERs, expressed in Xenopus oocytes and tested using two-electrode voltage clamp, demonstrated an increase in ethanol sensitivity of 100-fold over wild-type receptors by significantly decreasing the threshold and increasing the magnitude of ethanol response, without altering general receptor properties including sensitivity to the neurosteroid, allopregnanolone. These profound changes in ethanol sensitivity were observed across multiple subunits of GlyRs and GABA(A)Rs. Collectively, our studies set the stage for using USER technology in genetically engineered animals as a unique tool to increase understanding of the neurobiological basis of the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  10. Daily patterns of ethanol drinking in adolescent and adult, male and female, high alcohol drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; McConnell, Kathleen K; Rodd, Zachary A; McBride, William J; Bell, Richard L

    2012-10-01

    The rationale for our study was to determine the pattern of ethanol drinking by the high alcohol-drinking (HAD) replicate lines of rats during adolescence and adulthood in both male and female rats. Rats were given 30 days of 24 h free-choice access to ethanol (15%, v/v) and water, with ad lib access to food, starting at the beginning of adolescence (PND 30) or adulthood (PND 90). Water and alcohol drinking patterns were monitored 22 h/day with a "lickometer" set-up. The results indicated that adolescent HAD-1 and HAD-2 males consumed the greatest levels of ethanol and had the most well defined ethanol licking binges among the age and sex groups with increasing levels of ethanol consumption throughout adolescence. In addition, following the first week of adolescence, male and female HAD-1 and HAD-2 rats differed in both ethanol consumption levels and ethanol licking behavior. Adult HAD-1 male and female rats did not differ from one another and their ethanol intake or licking behaviors did not change significantly over weeks. Adult HAD-2 male rats maintained a relatively constant level of ethanol consumption across weeks, whereas adult HAD-2 female rats increased ethanol consumption levels over weeks, peaking during the third week when they consumed more than their adult male counterparts. The results indicate that the HAD rat lines could be used as an effective animal model to examine the development of ethanol consumption and binge drinking in adolescent male and female rats providing information on the long-range consequences of adolescent alcohol drinking. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Ethyl alcohol (ethanol)-containing cologne, perfume, and after-shave ingestions in children.

    PubMed

    Scherger, D L; Wruk, K M; Kulig, K W; Rumack, B H

    1988-06-01

    Colognes, perfumes, and after-shaves containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) are frequently ingested by children. These products may contain from 50% to 99% ethanol. To determine if ingestion of colognes, perfumes, or after-shaves by children results in serious ethanol toxic reactions, this retrospective study was performed. One hundred twenty-three cases of children younger than 6 years old who ingested these products were reviewed. The cases were arbitrarily divided into three groups based on the amount ingested by history. Group 1 included children in whom less than 30 mL was ingested; group 2, 30 to 60 mL was ingested; and group 3, more than 60 to 105 mL was ingested. Of the 102 patients in group 1, no children experienced symptoms or signs. One of 17 children in group 2 was described by parents as sleepy but was asymptomatic one hour later. Two of four children in group 3 behaved as if intoxicated, yet blood ethanol levels were undetectable within 2 1/2 hours after ingestion. Based on our study, asymptomatic children who ingested by history less than 105 mL of a cologne, perfume, or after-shave and remain asymptomatic can be safely watched at home. All children with symptoms of intoxication need health care facility referral.

  12. Alcohols for Skin Antisepsis at Clinically Relevant Skin Sites▿

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Mirja; Heisig, Peter; Kohlmann, Thomas; Kampf, Günter

    2009-01-01

    The antiseptic efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol at 60%, 70%, and 89.5% (all vol/vol) was analyzed after 2, 3, or 4 min of application to the forehead, back, and abdomen of 180 volunteers by the use of a standardized swab sampling method. Results of recolonization by the aerobic skin flora of the upper arms and backs of 20 volunteers were compared 72 h after treatment with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) in 89.5% n-propanol. The most effective alcohol at all skin sites was n-propanol, with a mean log10 reduction of 1.82 after 2 min on the forehead. Efficacy against the aerobic flora of the forehead was mainly influenced by the type of alcohol (P < 0.001), followed by the concentration (P < 0.001) and the application time (P = 0.006). Ethanol and isopropanol were significantly less effective (both P < 0.001). Alcohol supplemented with 0.5% or more CHG was significantly more effective than alcohol alone in the suppression of recolonization (P < 0.05). An 89.5% solution of n-propanol was the most effective alcohol for the reduction of populations of aerobic skin flora. Its combination with CHG is appropriate whenever recolonization of the skin must be limited. Further studies are needed to determine the most effective concentration of CHG in n-propanol to provide the best protection against recolonization of the skin, e.g., for catheter site care. PMID:19738017

  13. Alcohols for skin antisepsis at clinically relevant skin sites.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Mirja; Heisig, Peter; Kohlmann, Thomas; Kampf, Günter

    2009-11-01

    The antiseptic efficacy of ethanol, isopropanol, and n-propanol at 60%, 70%, and 89.5% (all vol/vol) was analyzed after 2, 3, or 4 min of application to the forehead, back, and abdomen of 180 volunteers by the use of a standardized swab sampling method. Results of recolonization by the aerobic skin flora of the upper arms and backs of 20 volunteers were compared 72 h after treatment with 0.5%, 1%, or 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) in 89.5% n-propanol. The most effective alcohol at all skin sites was n-propanol, with a mean log(10) reduction of 1.82 after 2 min on the forehead. Efficacy against the aerobic flora of the forehead was mainly influenced by the type of alcohol (P < 0.001), followed by the concentration (P < 0.001) and the application time (P = 0.006). Ethanol and isopropanol were significantly less effective (both P < 0.001). Alcohol supplemented with 0.5% or more CHG was significantly more effective than alcohol alone in the suppression of recolonization (P < 0.05). An 89.5% solution of n-propanol was the most effective alcohol for the reduction of populations of aerobic skin flora. Its combination with CHG is appropriate whenever recolonization of the skin must be limited. Further studies are needed to determine the most effective concentration of CHG in n-propanol to provide the best protection against recolonization of the skin, e.g., for catheter site care.

  14. Effect of different alcohols on stratum corneum kallikrein 5 and phospholipase A2 together with epidermal keratinocytes and skin irritation.

    PubMed

    Cartner, T; Brand, N; Tian, K; Saud, A; Carr, T; Stapleton, P; Lane, M E; Rawlings, A V

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the effect of ethanol, isopropanol and n-propanol on stratum corneum (SC) enzymes and keratinocytes in vitro together with their effects on skin condition and function. Activities of kallikrein 5 (KLK5) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) as well as keratinocyte metabolic activity, interleukin-1α (IL-1α) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured in vitro in the presence and absence of the different alcohols. We also measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, visual dryness and visual redness on the volar forearms of 25 Caucasian women following application of the alcohols 20 and 100 times per day over a period of 14 days in a clinical study. Reduced activities of KLK5 and PLA2 were observed in the presence of the alcohols. The greatest denaturing effect was always observed for n-propanol (P < 0.001), and in the case of PLA2, the effect of isopropanol was greater than ethanol (P < 0.001). Equally, ethanol had the mildest effects on keratinocyte metabolic activity and cytokine secretion (P < 0.001) and n-propanol always produced the most severe changes in normal and differentiated keratinocytes. These in vitro findings supported the clinical results where the major effects were on the induction of skin irritation (increased dropout rates) and ranked the intolerance of the different alcohols as follows: n-propanol > isopropanol > ethanol. At the high application frequencies, the effect of the different alcohols on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance was similar, but at the low application frequencies, n-propanol had a significant effect on TEWL and capacitance values (P < 0.05). Equally, n-propanol and isopropanol produced significantly more skin redness at the low application frequencies. Clearly, isopropanol and n-propanol caused significant SC and keratinocyte perturbation in vitro together with damage to skin condition and function in vivo whereas ethanol

  15. Lifelong ethanol consumption and brain regional GABAA receptor subunit mRNA expression in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sarviharju, Maija; Hyytiä, Petri; Hervonen, Antti; Jaatinen, Pia; Kiianmaa, Kalervo; Korpi, Esa R

    2006-11-01

    Brain regional gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor subunit mRNA expression was studied in ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rats after moderate ethanol drinking for up to 2 years of age. In situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes specific for 13 different subunits was used with coronal cryostat sections of the brains. Selective alterations were observed by ethanol exposure and/or aging in signals for several subunits. Most interestingly, the putative highly ethanol-sensitive alpha4 and beta3 subunit mRNAs were significantly decreased in several brain regions. The age-related alterations in alpha4 subunit expression were parallel to those caused by lifelong ethanol drinking, whereas aging had no significant effect on beta3 subunit expression. The results suggest that prolonged ethanol consumption leading to blood concentrations of about 10 mM may downregulate the mRNA expression of selected GABAA receptor subunits and that aging might have partly similar effects.

  16. Ethanol impairs Rho GTPase signaling and differentiation of cerebellar granule neurons in a rodent model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Joshi, S; Guleria, R S; Pan, J; Bayless, K J; Davis, G E; Dipette, D; Singh, U S

    2006-12-01

    Developmental exposure to ethanol impairs fetal brain development and causes fetal alcohol syndrome. Although the cerebellum is one of the most alcohol-sensitive brain areas, signaling mechanisms underlying the deleterious effects of ethanol on developing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are largely unknown. Here we describe the effects of in vivo ethanol exposure on neurite formation in CGNs and on the activation of Rho GTPases (RhoA and Rac1), regulators of neurite formation. Exposure of 7-day-old rat pups to ethanol for 3 h moderately increased blood alcohol concentration (BAC) ( approximately 40 mM) and inhibited neurite formation and Rac1 activation in CGNs. Longer exposure to ethanol for 5 h resulted in higher BAC ( approximately 80 mM), induced apoptosis, inhibited Rac1, and activated RhoA. Studies demonstrated a regulatory role of Rho GTPases in differentiation of cerebellar neurons, and indicated that ethanol-associated impairment of Rho GTPase signaling might contribute to brain defects observed in fetal alcohol syndrome.

  17. Long-term survival of Bacillus spores in alcohol and identification of 90% ethanol as relatively more spori/bactericidal.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Pious

    2012-02-01

    This study was taken up with a view to generate basic information on spore hardiness to ethanol in various Bacillus species and related genera, and to assess the effectiveness of different levels of ethanol as a bacterial disinfectant. Predominantly spore-bearing cultures of five Bacillus spp. (B. pumilus, B. subtilis, B. megaterium, B. fusiformis and B. flexus) that were isolated from the spent-alcohol used during plant tissue culture work were challenged with aqueous ethanol (25, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90% v/v) in 1 ml volumes at 10¹⁰⁻¹¹ CFU ml⁻¹. Monitoring the spore endurance through spotting and plating revealed prolonged tolerance (>12 months) at different alcohol levels depending on the organism except in 90% where no survival was observed beyond 2-12 months. Spores of related genera like Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus also showed long-term ethanol survival. Alcohol tolerance of spore-forming organisms depended on the extent of spores and spore hardiness, which in turn varied with the organism, strain, age of culture, growing conditions and other factors as authenticated with ATCC strains of B. pumilus and B. subtilis. Aqueous 90% ethanol caused instant inactivation of vegetative cells in different spore formers and twelve other non-sporulating Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms tested. Taking into account both vegetative cells and spores, the appropriate concentration of ethanol as a disinfectant emerged to be 90% followed by absolute ethanol compared with the generally recommended 70-80% level.

  18. Effect of low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols and related compounds on platelet factor 4 subunit association.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Barker, S; Chen, M J; Mayo, K H

    1993-05-05

    Titration of platelet factor 4 (PF4) with increasing concentrations of various low molecular weight aliphatic alcohols disrupts dimer and tetramer quaternary structure while preserving tertiary structural integrity. Normally observed slow subunit exchange (1H NMR time scale) is shifted into the fast chemical exchange regime. The order of effectiveness is butanol > 2-propanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol. Fluorination of ethanol (trifluoroethanol) and 2-propanol (hexafluoro-2-propanol) increases effectiveness by approximately 2 orders of magnitude. Oxidation to 2-propanone or trifluoro-2-propanone produces a less effective compound, suggesting a mechanistic role for the hydroxyl group. Increasing the number of hydroxyls to three, as in glycerol, however, is relatively ineffective in disrupting aggregate states or modifying subunit exchange rates. While 19F NMR studies indicate that these alcohols specifically interact with PF4, binding alone can not explain their mechanism of action. Dimethyl sulfoxide, structurally similar to 2-propanol, disrupts PF4 aggregation by direct binding, but does not shift subunit exchange kinetics into the NMR fast-exchange regime. Although not fully understood, the effectiveness of these compounds appears to be related to the colligative properties of the solution.

  19. Effect of alcohols on polypeptide chain elongation and aminoacyl-tRNA formation.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, K; Watanabe, Y; Nagayama, C; Hirose, S

    1975-11-01

    The effect of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and propanol) on polypeptide chain elongation was studied. In the E. coli and rat liver cell-free systems, the optimal concentration of Mg2+ decreased with increase of ethanol concentration, although the maximum polyphenylalanine synthesis decreased. Methanol had almost the same effect as ethanol. Propanol decreased the optimal magnesium concentration, but polyphenylalanine synthetic activity was markedly decreased. The shift of optimal Mg2+ concentration by ethanol was also observed in polylysine and polysome-dependent polypeptide syntheses. Even in the presence of spermidine, ethanol caused the shift of optimal Mg2+ concentration. Ribosome-bound Mg2+ was decreased by the addition of ethanol. A study of the effect of alcohols on aminoacyl-tRNA formation with ten amino acids in the absence of added Mg2+ showed that the formation of arginyl-, leucyl-, and valyl-tRNA was stimulated by the alcohols. Valyl-tRNA formation in the presence of alcohols was completely inhibited by EDTA, while that in the presence of Mg2+ was inhibited slightly by EDTA. No PP1-ATP exchange was observed when alcohol was used as the only stimulant of valyl-tRNA formation.

  20. Effects of naltrexone and LY255582 on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Dhaher, Ronnie; Toalston, Jamie E; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; McKinzie, David L; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2012-02-01

    Research indicates opioid antagonists can reduce alcohol drinking in rodents. However, tests examining the effects of opioid antagonists on ethanol seeking and relapse behavior have been limited. The present study examined the effects of two opioid antagonists on ethanol maintenance, seeking, and relapse responding by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult P rats were self-trained in two-lever operant chambers to self-administer 15% (vol/vol) ethanol on a fixed-ratio 5 (FR5) versus water on a FR1 concurrent schedule of reinforcement in daily 1-h sessions. After 10 weeks, rats underwent extinction training, followed by 2 weeks in their home cages. Rats were then returned to the operant chambers without ethanol or water to measure responses on the ethanol and water levers for four sessions. After a subsequent 2 weeks in the home cage, without access to ethanol, rats were returned to the operant chambers with ethanol and water available. Effects of antagonists on maintenance responding were tested after several weeks of daily 1-h sessions. Naltrexone (NAL; 1-10mg/kg, subcutaneously [s.c.]; n=8/dose), LY255582 (LY; 0.03-1mg/kg, s.c.; n=8/dose), or vehicle were injected 30min before the first session (in the absence of ethanol), following 2 weeks in their home cages, and for four consecutive sessions of ethanol self-administration under maintenance and relapse conditions. Both NAL and LY reduced responses on the ethanol lever without any fluids present, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going drinking conditions, with LY being more potent than NAL. Both NAL and LY were less effective in reducing responding in the absence of ethanol than in reducing ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results indicate that the opioid system is involved in mediating ethanol seeking, and ethanol self-administration under relapse and on-going alcohol drinking, but that different neurocircuits may underlie these behaviors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Influence of tobacco smoke exposure on pharmacokinetics of ethyl alcohol in alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Florek, Ewa; Kulza, Maksymilian; Piekoszewski, Wojciech; Gomółka, Ewa; Jawień, Wojciech; Teżyk, Artur; Napierała, Marta

    2015-10-01

    A vast majority of people who abuse alcohol are also defined as "heavy smokers". Tobacco smokes induces CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6 isoenzymes, but on the other hand, ethanol activates CYP2E1, which can be important during combined, chronic use of both of them. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of tobacco smoke xenobiotics on ethanol pharmacokinetics and the level of its metabolites in alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, methanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were determined in whole blood by means of gas chromatography. Cotinine in serum was determined by LC-MS/MS. A non-compartmental analysis (cotinine, acetaldehyde) and Widmark equation (ethanol) were used for pharmacokinetic parameters calculation. Ethanol levels were lower in animals exposed to tobacco smoke compared to rats receiving this xenobiotic, without a prior exposure to tobacco smoke. Lower values of the studied pharmacokinetic parameters were observed in the alcohol preferring males compared to the non-alcohol preferring rats. Both n-propanol and n-butanol had higher values of the pharmacokinetic parameters analyzed in the animals exposed to tobacco smoke and ethanol compared to those, which ethanol was administered only once. An increase in maximum concentration and the area under concentration-time curve for ethanol after its administration to rats preferring alcohol and exposed to tobacco smoke are accompanied by a decrease in the volume of distribution. The changes in the volume of distribution may be caused by an increase in the first-pass effect, in the intestinal tract and/or in the liver. The acetaldehyde elimination rate constant was significantly higher in alcohol-preferring animals. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  2. Interaction of alcohols on monolayer stanane nanosheet: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagarajan, V.; Chandiramouli, R.

    2017-10-01

    The electronic and adsorption properties of alcohol vapors such as methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on 2D stanane nanosheet are investigated through density functional theory method along with passivation of hydrogen and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects. The most suitable adsorption sites of alcohol vapor molecules on stanane nanosheet are investigated in atomistic level. The adsorption behavior of alcohol molecules on stanane nanosheet is studied in terms of adsorption energy, density of states spectrum, Mulliken charge transfer and average energy gap variation. The energy band structure and DOS spectrum clearly reveals the adsorption of alcohol vapors on stanane nanostructure. The changes in the energy band gap and density of charge is observed upon adsorption of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol on p-type stanane base material. The adsorption of 1-propanol molecule on stanane nanosheet is observed to be more rather than ethanol and methanol molecules. The findings on the adsorption properties of alcohol on monolayer stanane nanosheet give the insight on stanane based chemical nanosensor.

  3. Stable disruption of ethanol production by deletion of the genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase isozymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ida, Yoshihiro; Furusawa, Chikara; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2012-02-01

    We analyzed the effects of the deletions of genes encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isozymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The decrease in ethanol production by ADH1 deletion alone could be partially compensated by the upregulation of other isozyme genes, while the deletion of all known ADH isozyme genes stably disrupted ethanol production. Copyright © 2011 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of Mesoscopic Structured 2-Propanol/Water Mixtures Using Pressure Perturbation Calorimetry and Molecular Dynamic Simulation.

    PubMed

    Bye, Jordan W; Freeman, Colin L; Howard, John D; Herz, Gregor; McGregor, James; Falconer, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the application of pressure perturbation calorimetry (PPC) to the characterization of 2-propanol/water mixtures. PPC of different 2-propanol/water mixtures provides two useful measurements: (i) the change in heat (ΔQ); and (ii) the [Formula: see text] value. The results demonstrate that the ΔQ values of the mixtures deviate from that expected for a random mixture, with a maximum at ~20-25 mol% 2-propanol. This coincides with the concentration at which molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show a maximum deviation from random distribution, and also the point at which alcohol-alcohol hydrogen bonds become dominant over alcohol-water hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, the [Formula: see text] value showed transitions at 2.5 mol% 2-propanol and at approximately 14 mol% 2-propanol. Below 2.5 mol% 2-propanol the values of [Formula: see text] are negative; this is indicative of the presence of isolated 2-propanol molecules surrounded by water molecules. Above 2.5 mol% 2-propanol [Formula: see text] rises, reaching a maximum at ~14 mol% corresponding to a point where mixed alcohol-water networks are thought to dominate. The values and trends identified by PPC show excellent agreement not only with those obtained from MD simulations but also with results in the literature derived using viscometry, THz spectroscopy, NMR and neutron diffraction.

  5. Mixed culture syngas fermentation and conversion of carboxylic acids into alcohols.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kan; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Stevenson, Bradley S; Tanner, Ralph S; Wilkins, Mark R; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2014-01-01

    Higher alcohols such as n-butanol and n-hexanol have higher energy density than ethanol, are more compatible with current fuel infrastructure, and can be upgraded to jet and diesel fuels. Several organisms are known to convert syngas to ethanol, but very few can produce higher alcohols alone. As a potential solution, mixed culture fermentation between the syngas fermenting Alkalibaculum bacchi strain CP15 and propionic acid producer Clostridium propionicum was studied. The monoculture of CP15 produced only ethanol from syngas without initial addition of organic acids to the fermentation medium. However, the mixed culture produced ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol from syngas. The addition of propionic acid, butyric acid and hexanoic acid to the mixed culture resulted in a 50% higher conversion efficiency of these acids to their respective alcohols compared to CP15 monoculture. These findings illustrate the great potential of mixed culture syngas fermentation in production of higher alcohols.

  6. Does the clinical use of ethanol-based hand sanitizer elevate blood alcohol levels? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael A; Rosin, Alex; Levsky, Marc E; Patel, Manish M; Gregory, Timothy J D; Crystal, Chad S

    2006-11-01

    Ethanol-based hand sanitizers (EBHSs) are used in most health care facilities in the United States. Infection control personnel advocate the use of generous quantities of EBHS before and after contact with patients. Although it is assumed that little systemic absorption of ethanol occurs during EBHS use, many alcohols are absorbed to varying degrees via the transdermal route. Ethanol intoxication by employees in the medical workplace is a potentially serious finding, and it is of forensic and medical-legal importance to elucidate the effects of frequent use of EBHS upon serum blood ethanol levels (BELs). To investigate the effect of frequent use of EBHS upon serum blood ethanol concentrations, we prospectively studied 5 volunteers undergoing frequent application of EBHS. Enrolled subjects applied 5 mL of the product (62% denatured ethyl alcohol manufactured by Kimberley-Clark, Roswell, GA) to both hands and rubbed until dry. This activity was repeated 50 times over 4 hours. Participants had their blood drawn before as well as after completing the study. Each participant was without alcohol exposure during the 12 hours preceding the study. Five volunteers were enrolled. All had an initial blood ethanol level of less than 5 mg/dL. All 5 participants completed the 4-hour study. There were no noted adverse reactions during the study. Blood ethanol level upon completion of the 50 applications of EBHS was less than 5 mg/dL in all 5 study participants. The results of this study demonstrate that use of ethanol-based hand sanitizers, when frequently used in accordance with labeling, do not raise serum blood ethanol levels.

  7. Ethanol utilization regulatory protein: profile alignments give no evidence of origin through aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase gene fusion.

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, H. B.; Persson, B.; Jörnvall, H.; Hempel, J.

    1995-01-01

    The suggestion that the ethanol regulatory protein from Aspergillus has its evolutionary origin in a gene fusion between aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase genes (Hawkins AR, Lamb HK, Radford A, Moore JD, 1994, Gene 146:145-158) has been tested by profile analysis with aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenase family profiles. We show that the degree and kind of similarity observed between these profiles and the ethanol regulatory protein sequence is that expected from random sequences of the same composition. This level of similarity fails to support the suggested gene fusion. PMID:8580855

  8. Assessment of exposure to ethanol vapors released during use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs by healthcare workers.

    PubMed

    Hautemanière, Alexis; Cunat, Lisiane; Ahmed-Lecheheb, Djihane; Hajjard, Farah; Gerardin, Fabien; Morele, Yves; Hartemann, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Despite the increasing use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rub solutions, few studies have quantified the concentrations of inhaled ethanol. The aim of this study was to assess ethanol exposure during hygienic and surgical hand disinfection practices. Ethanol concentrations were measured at the nose level of a wooden dummy and human volunteers. Two systems were used in parallel to determine short-term ethanol vapor exposures: activated charcoal tubes followed by gas chromatography analysis and direct reading on a photoionization detector (PID). Exposure was assessed for 4 different sequences (N=10) reproducing hand rubs for simple surgery, nursing care, intensive care and surgical scrub. The ethanol concentrations measured were of a similar order between the dummy and volunteers. The concentrations obtained by PID were higher than the gas chromatography values for the simple care (45%) and nursing care (27%) sequences and reflected specific exposure peaks of ethanol, whereas ethanol concentrations were continuously high for intensive care (440 mg m(-3)) or surgical scrub (650 mg m(-3)). Ethanol concentrations were similar for these two exposure assessment methods and demonstrated a relationship between handled doses and inhaled doses. However, the ethanol vapors released during hand disinfection were safe for the healthcare workers. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Regulatory Network Controlling Ethanol-Induced Expression of Alcohol Dehydrogenase in the Endophyte Azoarcus sp. Strain BH72.

    PubMed

    Krause, Andrea; Julich, Henrike; Mankar, Manasee; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2017-10-01

    The habitat of the nitrogen-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 is grass roots grown under waterlogged conditions that produce, under these conditions, ethanol. Strain BH72 is well equipped to metabolize ethanol, with eight alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), of which ExaA2 and ExaA3 are the most relevant ones. exaA2 and exaA3 cluster and are surrounded by genes encoding two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) termed ExaS-ExaR and ElmS-GacA. Functional genomic analyses revealed that i) expression of the corresponding genes was induced by ethanol, ii) the genes were also expressed in the rhizoplane or even inside of rice roots, iii) both TCSs were indispensable for growth on ethanol, and iv) they were important for competitiveness during rice root colonization. Both TCSs form a hierarchically organized ethanol-responsive signal transduction cascade with ExaS-ExaR as the highest level, essential for effective expression of the ethanol oxidation system based on ExaA2. Transcript and expression levels of exaA3 increased in tcs deletion mutants, suggesting no direct influence of both TCSs on its ethanol-induced expression. In conclusion, this underscores the importance of ethanol for the endophytic lifestyle of Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 and indicates a tight regulation of the ethanol oxidation system during root colonization.

  10. Attenuation of ethanol self-administration and of conditioned reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behaviour by the antiopioid peptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Economidou, Daina; Fedeli, Amalia; Angeletti, Stefania; Weiss, Friedbert; Heilig, Markus; Massi, Maurizio

    2004-03-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), the endogenous ligand of the opioid-like orphan receptor NOP, was shown to reduce home-cage ethanol consumption, ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behaviour. The present study, using genetically selected Marchigian Sardinian alcohol-preferring (msP) rats, was designed to evaluate the effect of this opioid peptide on 10% ethanol and 10% sucrose self-administration, under a fixed-ratio 1 (FR 1) or a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Furthermore, using an experimental model of relapse in which rats were trained to lever press for ethanol in the presence of the discriminative stimulus of an orange odour (S(+)) and a 1-s cue light (CS(+)) or for water in the presence of anise odour (S(-)) and 1-s white noise (CS(-)), the effect of N/oFQ on cue-induced reinstatement of extinguished ethanol responding was investigated. Sub-chronic (6 days) intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of 0.5 microg or 1.0 microg N/OFQ per rat significantly reduced alcohol self-administration under both the FR 1 and PR schedules of reinforcement. Conversely, i.c.v. administration of 0.5, 1.0 or 4.0 microg of the peptide per rat did not affect sucrose self-administration. In addition, i.c.v. N/OFQ (1.0-2.0 microg per rat) significantly inhibited the reinstatement of extinguished ethanol responding under an S(+)/CS(+) condition, whereas lever pressing under S(-)/CS(-) was not altered. The present study demonstrates that the reinforcing effects of ethanol are markedly blunted by activation of the opioidergic N/OFQ receptor system. Moreover, the data provide evidence of the efficacy of N/OFQ to prevent reinstatement of ethanol-seeking behaviour elicited by environmental conditioned stimuli.

  11. Synthesis propanol by esterification and reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmahaminati; Jumina

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of propanol from propanoic acid had been done. Propanol was synthesized via two steps. They are; esterification of propanoic acid and methanol in the presence of the sulfuric acid catalyst with the mole ratio of 4:3 to produce methyl propanoate, and reduction of methyl propanoate with sodium using ethylene glycol as the solvent to yield propanol. Structural characterizations of methyl propanoate and propanol were done using IR, 1H-NMR, and GC spectrometers. The results show that esterification of propanoic acid with methanol produced methyl propanoate in 75% yield. Reduction of methyl propanoate using ethylene glycol as a solvent produced propanol in yield of 77%.

  12. EFFECTS OF NEUROPEPTIDE Y (NPY) AND ETHANOL ON AROUSAL AND ANXIETY-LIKE BEHAVIOR IN ALCOHOL-PREFERRING (P) RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, N.W.; Henderson, A.N.; Badia-Elder, N.E.; Stewart, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models, and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on [1] the acoustic startle reflex (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and [2] social interaction behavior of P rats. In Experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol-naïve. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In Experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and then were injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats. PMID:20880660

  13. Effects of neuropeptide Y and ethanol on arousal and anxiety-like behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Henderson, Angela N; Badia-Elder, Nancy E; Stewart, Robert B

    2011-03-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is abundant in the mammalian brain and plays a prominent role in behaviors related to negative affect and alcohol. NPY suppresses anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-drinking behaviors in a wide array of rodent models and also affects changes in these behaviors produced by fearful and stressful stimuli. Rats selectively bred for high alcohol preference (P rats) appear to be particularly sensitive to the behavioral effects of NPY. The dual purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of intraventricular NPY on (1) the acoustic startle response (ASR) of P rats in a high-anxiety setting and (2) social interaction behavior of P rats. In experiment 1, P rats were either cycled through periods of long-term ethanol access and abstinence or they remained ethanol naive. Rats were injected with one of four NPY doses and tested for ASR before and after footshock stress. NPY suppressed ASR in all P rats regardless of shock condition or drinking history. In experiment 2, rats received intraventricular infusion of one of four NPY doses and were then injected with either ethanol (0.75 g/kg) or saline and tested for social interaction. NPY increased social interaction in P rats even at doses that suppressed locomotor activity, regardless of ethanol dose. Suppression of anxiety-like and arousal behaviors by NPY in the present study confirm a role for NPY in alcohol-related behaviors in alcohol-preferring P rats.

  14. Vitamin B6 metabolism in chronic alcohol abuse The effect of ethanol oxidation on hepatic pyridoxal 5'-phosphate metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Vech, R L; Lumeng, L; Li, T K

    1975-01-01

    Individuals with chronic alcohol abuse frequently exhibit lowered plasma levels of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the coenzyme form of vitamin B6. Because the liver is the primary source of this coenzyme in plasma and also the principal organ that oxidizes ethanol, the effect of ethanol on hepatic pyridoxal phosphate metabolism was studied in the rat. The chronic feeding of ethanol (36 percent of the total dietary calories) for 6 wk significantly decreased the hepatic pyridoxal phosphate content both in animals given a sufficient amount of vitamin B6 in their diet and in those rendered vitamin B6 deficient. In isolated perfused livers, the addition of 18 mM ethanol lowered the pyridoxal phosphate content of livers from vitamin B6-sufficient animals and deceased the net synthesis of pyridoxal phosphate from pyridoxine by the livers of vitamin B6-deficient animals. Ethanol also diminished the rate of release of pyridoxal phosphate into the perfusate by the livers of vitamin B6-deficient rats. These effects of ethanol, in vitro, were abolished by 4-methyl pyrazole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. Thus the derangement of pyridoxal phosphate metabolism produced by ethanol is dependt upon its oxidation. These data support previous findings whic indicate that acetaldehyde is the responsible agent which acts by accelerating the degradation of intracellular pyridoxal phosphate. Images PMID:1168205

  15. Mouse alcohol dehydrogenase 4: kinetic mechanism, substrate specificity and simulation of effects of ethanol on retinoid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Plapp, B V; Mitchell, J L; Berst, K B

    2001-01-30

    Mouse ADH4 (purified, recombinant) has a low catalytic efficiency for ethanol and acetaldehyde, but very high activity with longer chain alcohols and aldehydes, at pH 7.3 and temperature 37 degrees C. The observed turnover numbers and catalytic efficiencies for the oxidation of all-trans-retinol and the reduction of all-trans-retinal and 9-cis-retinal are low relative to other substrates; 9-cis-retinal is more reactive than all-trans-retinal. The reduction of all-trans- or 9-cis-retinals coupled to the oxidation of ethanol by NAD(+) is as efficient as the reduction with NADH. However, the Michaelis constant for ethanol is about 100 mM, which indicates that the activity would be lower at physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol. Simulations of the oxidation of retinol to retinoic acid with mouse ADH4 and human aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH1), using rate constants estimated for all steps in the mechanism, suggest that ethanol (50 mM) would modestly decrease production of retinoic acid. However, if the K(m) for ethanol were smaller, as for human ADH4, the rate of retinol oxidation and formation of retinoic acid would be significantly decreased during metabolism of 50 mM ethanol. These studies begin to describe quantitatively the roles of enzymes involved in the metabolism of alcohols and carbonyl compounds.

  16. Serotonin-3 receptors in the posterior ventral tegmental area regulate ethanol self-administration of alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Rodd, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Oster, Scott M; Toalston, Jamie E; Pommer, Tylene J; McBride, William J; Murphy, James M

    2010-05-01

    Several studies indicated the involvement of serotonin-3 ([5-hydroxy tryptamine] 5-HT(3)) receptors in regulating alcohol-drinking behavior. The objective of this study was to determine the involvement of 5-HT(3) receptors within the ventral tegmental area (VTA) in regulating ethanol self-administration by alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Standard two-lever operant chambers (Coulbourn Instruments, Allentown, PA) were used to examine the effects of seven consecutive bilateral microinfusions of ICS 205-930 (ICS), a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist, directly into the posterior VTA on the acquisition and maintenance of 15% (vol/vol) ethanol self-administration. P rats readily acquired ethanol self-administration by the fourth session. The three highest doses (0.125, 0.25, and 1.25 microg) of ICS prevented acquisition of ethanol self-administration. During the acquisition postinjection period, all rats treated with ICS demonstrated higher responding on the ethanol lever, with the highest dose producing the greatest effect. In contrast, during the maintenance phase, the three highest doses (0.75, 1.0, and 1.25 microg) of ICS significantly increased responding on the ethanol lever; after the 7-day dosing regimen, responding on the ethanol lever returned to control levels. Microinfusion of ICS into the posterior VTA did not alter the low responding on the water lever and did not alter saccharin (0.0125% wt/v) self-administration. Microinfusion of ICS into the anterior VTA did not alter ethanol self-administration. Overall, the results of this study suggest that 5-HT(3) receptors in the posterior VTA of the P rat may be involved in regulating ethanol self-administration. In addition, chronic operant ethanol self-administration and/or repeated treatments with a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist may alter neuronal circuitry within the posterior VTA.

  17. Elucidating the contributions of multiple aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases to butanol and ethanol production in Clostridium acetobutylicum

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zongjie; Dong, Hongjun; Zhang, Yanping; Li, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Ethanol and butanol biosynthesis in Clostridium acetobutylicum share common aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases. However, little is known about the relative contributions of these multiple dehydrogenases to ethanol and butanol production respectively. The contributions of six aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenases of C. acetobutylicum on butanol and ethanol production were evaluated through inactivation of the corresponding genes respectively. For butanol production, the relative contributions from these enzymes were: AdhE1 > BdhB > BdhA ≈ YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2. For ethanol production, the contributions were: AdhE1 > BdhB > YqhD > SMB_P058 > AdhE2 > BdhA. AdhE1 and BdhB are two essential enzymes for butanol and ethanol production. AdhE1 was relatively specific for butanol production over ethanol, while BdhB, YqhD, and SMB_P058 favor ethanol production over butanol. Butanol synthesis was increased in the adhE2 mutant, which had a higher butanol/ethanol ratio (8.15:1) compared with wild type strain (6.65:1). Both the SMB_P058 mutant and yqhD mutant produced less ethanol without loss of butanol formation, which led to higher butanol/ethanol ratio, 10.12:1 and 10.17:1, respectively. To engineer a more efficient butanol-producing strain, adhE1 could be overexpressed, furthermore, adhE2, SMB_P058, yqhD are promising gene inactivation targets. This work provides useful information guiding future strain improvement for butanol production. PMID:27321949

  18. Insulin resistance alters hepatic ethanol metabolism: studies in mice and children with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Engstler, Anna Janina; Aumiller, Tobias; Degen, Christian; Dürr, Marion; Weiss, Eva; Maier, Ina Barbara; Schattenberg, Jörn Markus; Jin, Cheng Jun; Sellmann, Cathrin; Bergheim, Ina

    2016-09-01

    Increased fasting blood ethanol levels, suggested to stem from an increased endogenous ethanol synthesis in the GI tract, are discussed to be critical in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present study was to further delineate the mechanisms involved in the elevated blood ethanol levels found in patients with NAFLD. In 20 nutritionally and metabolically screened children displaying early signs of NAFLD and 29 controls (aged 5-8 years), ethanol plasma levels were assessed. Ethanol levels along the GI tract, in vena cava and portal vein, intestinal and faecal microbiota, and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) were measured in wild-type, ob/ob and anti-TNFα antibody (aT) treated ob/ob mice. Despite not differing in dietary pattern or prevalence of intestinal overgrowth, fasting ethanol levels being positively associated with measures of insulin resistance were significantly higher in children with NAFLD than in controls. Ethanol levels were similar in portal vein and chyme obtained from different parts of the GI tract between groups while ethanol levels in vena cava plasma were significantly higher in ob/ob mice. ADH activity was significantly lower in liver tissue obtained from ob/ob mice in comparison to wild-type controls and ob/ob mice treated with aT. Taken together, our data of animal experiments suggest that increased blood ethanol levels in patients with NAFLD may result from insulin-dependent impairments of ADH activity in liver tissue rather than from an increased endogenous ethanol synthesis. NCT01306396. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Accentuates Ethanol-Induced Myocardial Dysfunction and Mitochondrial Damage in Mice: Role of Mitochondrial Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Methods ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Results Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O2•−. Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-α, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis. PMID:20090911

  20. Alcohol dehydrogenase accentuates ethanol-induced myocardial dysfunction and mitochondrial damage in mice: role of mitochondrial death pathway.

    PubMed

    Guo, Rui; Ren, Jun

    2010-01-18

    Binge drinking and alcohol toxicity are often associated with myocardial dysfunction possibly due to accumulation of the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde although the underlying mechanism is unknown. This study was designed to examine the impact of accelerated ethanol metabolism on myocardial contractility, mitochondrial function and apoptosis using a murine model of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). ADH and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Myocardial contractility, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis (death receptor and mitochondrial pathways) were examined. Ethanol led to reduced cardiac contractility, enlarged cardiomyocyte, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, the effects of which were exaggerated by ADH transgene. In particular, ADH exacerbated mitochondrial dysfunction manifested as decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and accumulation of mitochondrial O(2) (*-). Myocardium from ethanol-treated mice displayed enhanced Bax, Caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression, the effect of which with the exception of Caspase-3 was augmented by ADH. ADH accentuated ethanol-induced increase in the mitochondrial death domain components pro-caspase-9 and cytochrome C in the cytoplasm. Neither ethanol nor ADH affected the expression of ANP, total pro-caspase-9, cytosolic and total pro-caspase-8, TNF-alpha, Fas receptor, Fas L and cytosolic AIF. Taken together, these data suggest that enhanced acetaldehyde production through ADH overexpression following acute ethanol exposure exacerbated ethanol-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, cardiomyocyte enlargement, mitochondrial damage and apoptosis, indicating a pivotal role of ADH in ethanol-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly through mitochondrial death pathway of apoptosis.

  1. Ethanol and Other Short-Chain Alcohols Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation through Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Stimulation.

    PubMed

    Hoyt, Laura R; Ather, Jennifer L; Randall, Matthew J; DePuccio, Daniel P; Landry, Christopher C; Wewers, Mark D; Gavrilin, Mikhail A; Poynter, Matthew E

    2016-08-15

    Immunosuppression is a major complication of alcoholism that contributes to increased rates of opportunistic infections and sepsis in alcoholics. The NLRP3 inflammasome, a multiprotein intracellular pattern recognition receptor complex that facilitates the cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, can be inhibited by ethanol, and we sought to better understand the mechanism through which this occurs and whether chemically similar molecules exert comparable effects. We show that ethanol can specifically inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, resulting in attenuated IL-1β and caspase-1 cleavage and secretion, as well as diminished apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) speck formation, without affecting potassium efflux, in a mouse macrophage cell line (J774), mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, mouse neutrophils, and human PBMCs. The inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome were independent of γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor activation or N-methyl-d-asparate receptor inhibition but were associated with decreased oxidant production. Ethanol treatment markedly decreased cellular tyrosine phosphorylation, whereas administration of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate prior to ethanol restored tyrosine phosphorylation and IL-1β secretion subsequent to ATP stimulation. Furthermore, sodium orthovanadate-induced phosphorylation of ASC Y144, necessary and sufficient for Nlrp3 inflammasome activation, and secretion of phosphorylated ASC were inhibited by ethanol. Finally, multiple alcohol-containing organic compounds exerted inhibitory effects on the Nlrp3 inflammasome, whereas 2-methylbutane (isopentane), the analogous alkane of the potent inhibitor isoamyl alcohol (isopentanol), did not. Our results demonstrate that ethanol antagonizes the NLRP3 inflammasome at an apical event in its activation through the stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphatases, an effect shared by other

  2. Effects of alcohols on the stability and low-frequency local motions that control the slow changes in structural dynamics of ferrocytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Jain, Rishu; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-10-01

    To determine the effects of alcohols on the low-frequency local motions that control slow changes in structural dynamics of native-like compact states of proteins, we have studied the effects of alcohols on structural fluctuation of M80-containing Ω-loop by measuring the rate of thermally driven CO dissociation from a natively folded carbonmonoxycytochrome c under varying concentrations of alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 3°-butanol, 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol). As alcohol is increased, the rate coefficient of CO dissociation (k(diss)) first decreases in subdenaturing region and then increases on going from subdenaturing to denaturing milieu. This decrease in k(diss) is more for 2,2,2-trifluroethanol and 1-propanol and least for methanol, indicating that the first phase of motional constraint is due to the hydrophobicity of alcohols and intramolecular protein cross-linking effect of alcohols, which results in conformational entropy loss of protein. The thermal denaturation midpoint for ferrocytochrome c decreases with increase in alcohol, indicating that alcohol decrease the global stability of protein. The stabilization free energy (ΔΔG) in alcohols' solution was calculated from the slope of the Wyman-Tanford plot and water activity. The m-values obtained from the slope of ΔΔG versus alcohols plot were found to be more negative for longer and linear chain alcohols, indicating destabilization of proteins by alcohols through disturbance of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding.

  3. Ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Qrunfleh, Abeer M; Alazizi, Adnan; Sari, Youssef

    2013-06-01

    Relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior depends on increased glutamate transmission in the mesocorticolimbic motive circuit. Extracellular glutamate is regulated by a number of glutamate transporters. Of these transporters, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) is responsible for the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We have recently reported that ceftriaxone (CEF) treatment (i.p.), a β-lactam antibiotic known to elevate GTL1 expression, reduced ethanol intake in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. We investigated here whether CEF treatment attenuates relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior. P rats were exposed to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol for 5 weeks and treated with CEF (50 and 100 mg/kg, i.p.) during the last 5 days of the 2-week deprivation period. Rats treated with CEF during the deprivation period showed a reduction in ethanol intake compared with saline-treated rats upon re-exposure to ethanol; this effect persisted for 9 days. Moreover, CEF-mediated attenuation in relapse to ethanol-drinking behavior was associated with upregulation of GLT1 level in prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens core. GLT1 upregulation was revealed only at the higher dose of CEF. In addition, CEF has no effect on relapse-like sucrose-drinking behavior. These findings suggest that ceftriaxone might be used as a potential therapeutic treatment for the attenuation of relapse-like ethanol-drinking behavior.

  4. Ginsenoside-free molecules from steam-dried ginseng berry promote ethanol metabolism: an alternative choice for an alcohol hangover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Seung Tae; Lee, Dong Hoon; Yu, Jung Min; Jang, Su Kil; Joo, Seong Soo

    2014-07-01

    Ethanol metabolism produces harmful compounds that contribute to liver damage and cause an alcohol hangover. The intermediate metabolite acetaldehyde is responsible for alcohol hangover and CYP2E1-induced reactive oxygen species damage liver tissues. In this study, we examined whether ginsenoside-free molecules (GFMs) from steam-dried ginseng berries promote ethanol metabolism and scavenge free radicals by stimulating primary enzymes (alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase, CYP2E1, and catalase) and antioxidant effects using in vitro and in vivo models. The results revealed that GFM effectively scavenged 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radicals and hydroxyl radicals. Notably, GFM significantly enhanced the expression of primary enzymes within 2 h in HepG2 cells. GFM clearly removed the consumed ethanol and significantly reduced the level of acetaldehyde as well as enhancement of primary gene expression in BALB/c mice. Moreover, GFM successfully protected HepG2 cells from ethanol attack. Of the major components identified in GFM, it was believed that linoleic acid was the most active ingredient. Based on these findings, we conclude that GFM holds promise for use as a new candidate for ethanol metabolism and as an antihangover agent.

  5. Detection of ethanol in alcoholic beverages or vapor phase using fluorescent molecules embedded in a nanofibrous polymer.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Masaaki; Mori, Taizo; Okamoto, Ken; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Kumagai, Ken; Shiratori, Seimei; Yamamura, Masaki; Nabeshima, Tatsuya; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Hill, Jonathan P; Ariga, Katsuhiko

    2015-03-25

    An alcohol sensor was developed using the solid-state fluorescence emission of terphenyl-ol (TPhOH) derivatives. Admixtures of TPhOH and sodium carbonate exhibited bright sky-blue fluorescence in the solid state upon addition of small quantities of ethanol. A series of terphenol derivatives was synthesized, and the effects of solvent polarities and the structures of these π-conjugated systems on their fluorescence were systematically investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. In particular, π-extended TPhOHs and TPhOHs containing electron-withdrawing groups exhibited significant solvatochromism, and fluorescence colors varied from blue to red. Detection of ethanol contents in alcohol beverages (detection limit ∼ 5 v/v %) was demonstrated using different TPhOHs revealing the effect of molecular structure on sensing properties. Ethanol contents in alcoholic beverages could be estimated from the intensity of the fluorescence elicited from the TPhOHs. Moreover, when terphenol and Na2CO3 were combined with a water-absorbent polymer, ethanol could be detected at lower concentrations. Detection of ethanol vapor (8 v/v % in air) was also accomplished using a nanofibrous polymer scaffold as the immobilized sensing film.

  6. Alpha-ketoglutarate reduces ethanol toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster by enhancing alcohol dehydrogenase activity and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Shmihel, Halyna V; Lylyk, Maria P; Storey, Kenneth B; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol at low concentrations (<4%) can serve as a food source for fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, whereas at higher concentrations it may be toxic. In this work, protective effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG) against ethanol toxicity were studied. Food supplementation with 10-mM AKG alleviated toxic effects of 8% ethanol added to food, and improved fly development. Two-day-old adult flies, reared on diet containing both AKG and ethanol, possessed higher alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity as compared with those reared on control diet or diet with ethanol only. Native gel electrophoresis data suggested that this combination diet might promote post-translational modifications of ADH protein with the formation of a highly active ADH form. The ethanol-containing diet led to significantly higher levels of triacylglycerides stored in adult flies, and this parameter was not altered by AKG supplement. The influence of diet on antioxidant defenses was also assessed. In ethanol-fed flies, catalase activity was higher in males and the levels of low molecular mass thiols were unchanged in both sexes compared to control values. Feeding on a mixture of AKG and ethanol did not affect catalase activity but caused a higher level of low molecular mass thiols compared to ethanol-fed flies. It can be concluded that both a stimulation of some components of antioxidant defense and the increase in ADH activity may be responsible for the protective effects of AKG diet supplementation in combination with ethanol. The results suggest that AKG might be useful as a treatment option to neutralize toxic effects of excessive ethanol intake and to improve the physiological state of D. melanogaster and other animals, potentially including humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats.

    PubMed

    Dyr, Wanda; Wyszogrodzka, Edyta; Paterak, Justyna; Siwińska-Ziółkowska, Agnieszka; Małkowska, Anna; Polak, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    The aversive action of the pharmacological properties of ethanol was studied in selectively bred Warsaw Alcohol High-Preferring (WHP) and Warsaw Alcohol Low-Preferring (WLP) rats. For this study, a conditioned-taste aversion test was used. Male WHP and WLP rats were submitted to daily 20-min sessions for 5 days, in which a saccharin solution (1.0 g/L) was available (pre-conditioning phase). Next, this drinking was paired with the injection of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1.0 g/kg), intraperitoneally [i.p.] immediately after removal of the saccharin bottle (conditioning phase). Afterward, the choice between the saccharin solution and water was extended for 18 subsequent days for 20-min daily sessions (post-conditioning phase). Both doses of ethanol did not produce an aversion to saccharin in WLP and WHP rats in the conditioning phase. However, injection of the 1.0 g/kg dose of ethanol produced an aversion in WLP rats that was detected by a decrease in saccharin intake at days 1, 3, 7, and 10 of the post-conditioning phase, with a decrease in saccharin preference for 16 days of the post-conditioning phase. Conditioned taste aversion, measured as a decrease in saccharin intake and saccharin preference, was only visible in WHP rats at day 1 and day 3 of the post-conditioning phase. This difference between WLP and WHP rats was apparent despite similar blood ethanol levels in both rat lines following injection of 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg of ethanol. These results may suggest differing levels of aversion to the post-ingestional effects of ethanol between WLP and WHP rats. These differing levels of aversion may contribute to the selected line difference in ethanol preference in WHP and WLP rats.

  8. Alcohol vapours sensor based on thin polyaniline salt film and quartz crystal microbalance.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamad M; Torad, Nagy L

    2009-06-15

    A sensor based on the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) technique was developed for detection of a number of primary aliphatic alcohols such as ethanol, methanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol vapours. Detection was based on a sensitive and a thin film of polyaniline, emeraldine salt (ES), coated the QCM electrode. The frequency shifts (Delta f) of the QCM were increased due to the vapour absorption into the ES film. The values of Delta f were found to be linearly correlated with the concentrations of alcohols vapour in mg L(-1). The changes in frequency are due to the hydrophilic character of the ES and the electrostatic interaction as well as the type of the alcohol. The sensor shows a good reproducibility and reversibility. The diffusion and diffusion coefficient (D) of different alcohols vapour were determined. It was found that the sensor follows Fickian kinetics.

  9. Catalytic activity of carbon nanotubes in the conversion of aliphatic alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhitnev, Yu. N.; Tveritinova, E. A.; Chernyak, S. A.; Savilov, S. V.; Lunin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) obtained via the catalytic pyrolysis of hexane at 750°C were studied as the catalysts in conversion of C2-C4 alcohols. The efficiency of CNTs as catalysts in dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, 2-butanol, and tert-butanol was studied by means of pulse microcatalysis. The surface and structural characteristics of CNTs are investigated via SEM, TEM, DTA, BET, and XPS. CNTs are shown to be effective catalysts in the conversion of alcohols and do not require additional oxidative treatment. The regularities of the conversion of aliphatic alcohols, related to the properties of the CNTs surface and the structure of the alcohols are identified.

  10. Effects of alcohol consumption on biomarkers of oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in ethanol-fed pigs.

    PubMed

    Petitpas, F; Sichel, F; Hébert, B; Lagadu, S; Beljean, M; Pottier, D; Laurentie, M; Prevost, V

    2013-03-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption is known to result in tissue injury, particularly in the liver, and is considered a major risk factor for cancers of the upper respiratory tract. Here we assessed the oxidative effects of subchronic ethanol consumption on DNA and lipids by measuring biomarkers 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively. Physiological responses of pigs (n = 4) administered ethanol in drinking water for 39 days were compared with those of water-fed pigs (n = 4). Alcoholisation resulted in serum ethanol concentration of 1.90 g L(-1) and in a moderate but significant increase in alanine aminotransferase activity, an index of liver injury. However, between the alcoholised and control groups there were no significant differences in the levels of 8-oxodG (8-oxodG per 10(6) 2'deoxyguanosine) from leucocytes (2.52 ± 0.42 Vs 2.39 ± 0.34) or from target organs, liver, cardia and oesophagus. Serum MDA levels were also similar in ethanol-fed pigs (0.33 ± 0.04 μM) and controls (0.28 ± 0.03 μM). Interestingly, levels of 8-oxodG in cardia were positively correlated with those in oesophagus (Spearman correlation coefficient R = 1, P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that alcohol consumption may not cause oxidative damage to DNA and lipids as measured by 8-oxodG and MDA, respectively. The duration of alcoholisation and the potential alcohol-induced nutritional deficiency may be critical determinants of ethanol toxicity. Relevant biomarkers, such as factors involved in sensitization to ethanol-induced oxidative stress are required to better elucidate the relationship between alcohol consumption, oxidative stress and carcinogenesis.

  11. Lead-induced catalase activity differentially modulates behaviors induced by short-chain alcohols.

    PubMed

    Correa, M; Pascual, M; Sanchis-Segura, C; Guerri, C; Aragon, C M G

    2005-11-01

    Acute lead administration produces a transient increase in brain catalase activity. This effect of lead has been used to assess the involvement of brain ethanol metabolism, and therefore centrally formed acetaldehyde, in the behavioral actions of ethanol. In mice, catalase is involved in ethanol and methanol metabolism, but not in the metabolism of other alcohols such as 1-propanol or tert-butanol. In the present study, we assessed the specificity of the effects of lead acetate on catalase-mediated metabolism of alcohols, and the ability of lead to modulate the locomotion and loss of the righting reflex (LRR) induced by 4 different short-chain alcohols. Animals were pretreated i.p. with lead acetate (100 mg/kg) or saline, and 7 days later were injected i.p. with ethanol (2.5 or 4.5 g/kg), methanol (2.5 or 6.0 g/kg), 1-propanol (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg) or tert-butanol (0.5 or 2.0 g/kg) for locomotion and LRR, respectively. Locomotion induced by ethanol was significantly potentiated in lead-treated mice, while methanol-induced locomotion was reduced by lead treatment. The loss of righting reflex induced by ethanol was shorter in lead-treated mice, and lead produced the opposite effect in methanol-treated mice. There was no effect of lead on 1-propanol or tert-butanol-induced behaviors. Lead treatment was effective in inducing catalase activity and protein both in liver and brain. These results support the hypothesis that the effects of lead treatment on ethanol-induced behaviors are related to changes in catalase activity, rather than some nonspecific effect that generalizes to all alcohols.

  12. Amperometric sensor for ethanol based on one-step electropolymerization of thionine-carbon nanofiber nanocomposite containing alcohol oxidase.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lina; McIntosh, Mike; Zhang, Xueji; Ju, Huangxian

    2007-12-15

    Thionine had strong interaction with carbon nanofiber (CNF) and was used in the non-covalent functionalization of carbon nanofiber for the preparation of stable thionine-CNF nanocomposite with good dispersion. With a simple one-step electrochemical polymerization of thionine-CNF nanocomposite and alcohol oxidase (AOD), a stable poly(thionine)-CNF/AOD biocomposite film was formed on electrode surface. Based on the excellent catalytic activity of the biocomposite film toward reduction of dissolved oxygen, a sensitive ethanol biosensor was proposed. The ethanol biosensor could monitor ethanol ranging from 2.0 to 252 microM with a detection limit of 1.7 microM. It displayed a rapid response, an expanded linear response range as well as excellent reproducibility and stability. The combination of catalytic activity of CNF and the promising feature of the biocomposite with one-step non-manual technique favored the sensitive determination of ethanol with improved analytical capabilities.

  13. The effect of cobalt concentration, methanol, and ethanol on the alcohol synthesis over a CuZnCr catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Calafat, A.; Laine, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Doping CuZnCr (38/38/24) with Co (0-5 mol%), and adding methanol or ethanol to a CO + H[sub 2] reactant mixture led to considerable modifications in catalytic activity and selectivity. Modification of the reducibility of the catalyst and copper aggregation were attributed to the presence of Co. The introduction of methanol inhibited production of other oxygenated compounds. On the contrary, the introduction of ethanol enhanced it. Results obtained with ethanol in the reactant flow for both Co-modified and unmodified catalysts suggest that production of methanol and ethanol are related and that the active sites for methanol synthesis are the same as those for higher alcohol synthesis under low-pressure reaction conditions. 27 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Differential sensitivity of ethanol-elicited ERK phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens of Sardinian alcohol-preferring and -non preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Michela; Zaru, Alessandro; Sabariego, Marta; Giugliano, Valentina; Carboni, Ezio; Colombo, Giancarlo; Acquas, Elio

    2014-08-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) and -non preferring (sNP) rats have been selectively bred for opposite ethanol preference and consumption; sP rats represent a validated experimental tool to model several aspects of excessive ethanol drinking in humans. Phosphorylated Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (pERK) in dopamine-rich terminal areas plays a critical role in several psychopharmacological effects of addictive drugs, including ethanol. This study was aimed at investigating whether ethanol-elicited ERK activation may differ in key brain areas of ethanol-naïve sP and sNP rats. To this end, the effects of ethanol (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg, administered intra-gastrically [i.g.]) on ERK phosphorylation were assessed by pERK immunohistochemistry in the shell (AcbSh) and core (AcbC) of the nucleus accumbens (Acb) as well as in the prelimbic (PrL) and infralimbic (IL) prefrontal cortex (PFCx), in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTL) and in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Ethanol (1 g/kg) significantly increased pERK immunoreactivity in AcbSh and AcbC of sP but not sNP rats. Conversely, ethanol failed to affect pERK expression in PrL and IL PFCx as well as in BSTL and CeA of both sP and sNP rats. These results suggest that selective breeding of these rat lines results in differential effects of acute ethanol on ERK phosphorylation in brain regions critical for the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol.

  15. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: Implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders

    PubMed Central

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M.; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R.; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G.; Petasis, Nicos A.; Alkana, Ronald L.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Prior work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM’s ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM’s effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABA ARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAA receptor function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs. PMID:24451653

  16. Avermectins differentially affect ethanol intake and receptor function: implications for developing new therapeutics for alcohol use disorders.

    PubMed

    Asatryan, Liana; Yardley, Megan M; Khoja, Sheraz; Trudell, James R; Hyunh, Nhat; Louie, Stan G; Petasis, Nicos A; Alkana, Ronald L; Davies, Daryl L

    2014-06-01

    Our laboratory is investigating ivermectin (IVM) and other members of the avermectin family as new pharmaco-therapeutics to prevent and/or treat alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Earlier work found that IVM significantly reduced ethanol intake in mice and that this effect likely reflects IVM's ability to modulate ligand-gated ion channels. We hypothesized that structural modifications that enhance IVM's effects on key receptors and/or increase its brain concentration should improve its anti-alcohol efficacy. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the abilities of IVM and two other avermectins, abamectin (ABM) and selamectin (SEL), to reduce ethanol intake in mice, to alter modulation of GABAARs and P2X4Rs expressed in Xenopus oocytes and to increase their ability to penetrate the brain. IVM and ABM significantly reduced ethanol intake and antagonized the inhibitory effects of ethanol on P2X4R function. In contrast, SEL did not affect either measure, despite achieving higher brain concentrations than IVM and ABM. All three potentiated GABAAR function. These findings suggest that chemical structure and effects on receptor function play key roles in the ability of avermectins to reduce ethanol intake and that these factors are more important than brain penetration alone. The direct relationship between the effect of these avermectins on P2X4R function and ethanol intake suggest that the ability to antagonize ethanol-mediated inhibition of P2X4R function may be a good predictor of the potential of an avermectin to reduce ethanol intake and support the use of avermectins as a platform for developing novel drugs to prevent and/or treat AUDs.

  17. [Pecularities of correction of alcohol affctions of liver in patients with acute ethanol poisoning in the setting of consequence of toxic effect of ethanol].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; batotsyrenov, B V; Vasil'ev, S A; Shikalova, I A; Kuznetsov, O A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this work was to test the usage of infusion of hepatoprotector "remaxol" in intensive therapy of acute ethanol poisoning accompanied with severe alcohol affections of the lever. In the result of the examination and treatment of 130 patients it was established that severe alcohol poisonings registered on alcohol abused patients with toxic hepatopathy, are always accompanied with serious metabolic violations. In the process of a comparative valuation of the using of heptral (ademethionin) and remaxol in the intensive therapy of alcohol poisonings it has been revealed that the using of remaxol led to improvement of the clinic of that poisonings, what had been registered as a decrease of frequency and duration of an alcohol delirium from 33,9% to 10,8%, a decrease of frequency of secondary lung complication from 18,5 to 3,1%, a decrease of a duration of treatment in intensive care unit from 7,3 +/- 0,6 to 5,6 +/- 0,3 and a hospital treatment duration from 11,8 +/- 0,5 to 9,0 +/- 0,3 days. Biochemical investigation has shown that using as heptral, as remaxol led to improvement of lever damages due to alcohol. However remaxol compared with heptral was better in the treatment of metabolic violations.

  18. A Simple Visual Ethanol Biosensor Based on Alcohol Oxidase Immobilized onto Polyaniline Film for Halal Verification of Fermented Beverage Samples

    PubMed Central

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-01

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%–0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification. PMID:24473284

  19. Turmeric Extract Rescues Ethanol-Induced Developmental Defect in the Zebrafish Model for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).

    PubMed

    Muralidharan, Pooja; Connors, Craig T; Mohammed, Arooj S; Sarmah, Swapnalee; Marrs, Kathleen; Marrs, James A; Chism, Grady W

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure causes the most frequent preventable birth disorder, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The effect of turmeric extracts in rescuing an ethanol-induced developmental defect using zebrafish as a model was determined. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress is one of the major mechanisms underlying FASD. We hypothesize that antioxidant inducing properties of turmeric may alleviate ethanol-induced defects. Curcuminoid content of the turmeric powder extract (5 mg/mL turmeric in ethanol) was determined by UPLC and found to contain Curcumin (124.1 ± 0.2 μg/mL), Desmethoxycurcumin (43.4 ± 0.1 μg/mL), and Bisdemethoxycurcumin (36.6 ± 0.1 μg/mL). Zebrafish embryos were treated with 100 mM (0.6% v/v) ethanol during gastrulation through organogenesis (2 to 48 h postfertilization (hpf)) and supplemented with turmeric extract to obtain total curcuminoid concentrations of 0, 1.16, 1.72, or 2.32 μM. Turmeric supplementation showed significant rescue of the body length at 72 hpf compared to ethanol-treated embryos. The mechanism underlying the rescue remains to be determined. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase immobilized onto polyaniline film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples.

    PubMed

    Kuswandi, Bambang; Irmawati, Titi; Hidayat, Moch Amrun; Jayus; Ahmad, Musa

    2014-01-27

    A simple visual ethanol biosensor based on alcohol oxidase (AOX) immobilised onto polyaniline (PANI) film for halal verification of fermented beverage samples is described. This biosensor responds to ethanol via a colour change from green to blue, due to the enzymatic reaction of ethanol that produces acetaldehyde and hydrogen peroxide, when the latter oxidizes the PANI film. The procedure to obtain this biosensor consists of the immobilization of AOX onto PANI film by adsorption. For the immobilisation, an AOX solution is deposited on the PANI film and left at room temperature until dried (30 min). The biosensor was constructed as a dip stick for visual and simple use. The colour changes of the films have been scanned and analysed using image analysis software (i.e., ImageJ) to study the characteristics of the biosensor's response toward ethanol. The biosensor has a linear response in an ethanol concentration range of 0.01%-0.8%, with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.996. The limit detection of the biosensor was 0.001%, with reproducibility (RSD) of 1.6% and a life time up to seven weeks when stored at 4 °C. The biosensor provides accurate results for ethanol determination in fermented drinks and was in good agreement with the standard method (gas chromatography) results. Thus, the biosensor could be used as a simple visual method for ethanol determination in fermented beverage samples that can be useful for Muslim community for halal verification.

  1. A novel alcohol/iron (III) fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Guorong; Nie, Huidong; Zhou, Xiulin

    2016-07-01

    A novel alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using Fe3+ as the oxidation agent instead of the conventional O2. Various alcohols as the fuels are tested, including methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. In this fuel cell, the anode catalysts tested are PdSn/β-cd-CNT, PdSn/CNT, Pd/β-cd-CNT, Pd/CNT and Pd/β-cd-C, prepared by using multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon powder (C), as well as β-cyclodexdrin (β-cd) modified CNT (β-cd-CNT) and β-cd modified C (β-cd-C), as the substrates to immobilize PdSn and Pd nanoparticles in glycol solvent. The as-synthesized PdSn/β-cd-CNT catalyst presents significantly higher electroactivity for alcohol oxidation than the conventional Pd/C catalyst. Fe3+ reduction reaction is carried out on the cathode made of carbon powder. The anolyte (alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH) and catholyte (Fe3+ in 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl) are separated with a Nafion 117 membrane. Open circuit voltage (OCV) of the cell with the anode PdSn/β-cd-CNT is 1.14-1.22 V, depending upon the used alcohol. The maximum power densities with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol fuels are 15.2, 16.1, 19.9 and 12.2 mW cm-2, respectively.

  2. S-adenosylmethionine decreases the peak blood alcohol levels 3 h after an acute bolus of ethanol by inducing alcohol metabolizing enzymes in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bardag-Gorce, Fawzia; Oliva, Joan; Wong, Wesley; Fong, Stephanie; Li, Jun; French, Barbara A; French, Samuel W

    2010-12-01

    An alcohol bolus causes the blood alcohol level (BAL) to peak at 1-2 h post ingestion. The ethanol elimination rate is regulated by alcohol metabolizing enzymes, primarily alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH1), acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), and cytochrome P450 (CYP2E1). Recently, S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) was found to reduce acute BALs 3 h after an alcohol bolus. The question, then, was: what is the mechanism involved in this reduction of BAL by feeding SAMe? To answer this question, we investigated the changes in ethanol metabolizing enzymes and the epigenetic changes that regulate the expression of these enzymes during acute binge drinking and chronic drinking. Rats were fed a bolus of ethanol with or without SAMe, and were sacrificed at 3 h or 12 h after the bolus. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that SAMe significantly induced ADH1 levels in the 3 h liver samples. However, SAMe did not affect the changes in ADH1 protein levels 12 h post bolus. Since SAMe is a methyl donor, it was postulated that the ADH1 gene expression up regulation at 3 h was due to a histone modification induced by methylation from methyl transferases. Dimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2), a modification responsible for gene expression activation, was found to be significantly increased by SAMe at 3 h post bolus. These results correlated with the low BAL found at 3 h post bolus, and support the concept that SAMe increased the gene expression to increase the elimination rate of ethanol in binge drinking by increasing H3K4me2. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Elevated activation of ERK-1 and ERK-2 accompany enhanced liver injury following alcohol binge in chronically ethanol fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya R.; Jackson, Daniel E.; Shukla, Shivendra D.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Binge drinking after chronic ethanol consumption is one of the important factors contributing to the progression of steatosis to steatohepatitis. The molecular mechanisms of this effect remain poorly understood. We have therefore examined in rats the effect of single and repeat ethanol binge superimposed on chronic ethanol intake on liver injury, activation of mitogen activated protein kinases and gene expression. Methods Rats were chronically treated with ethanol in liquid diet for four weeks followed by single ethanol binge (5 gm/kg body weight) or three similar repeated doses of ethanol. Serum alcohol and ALT levels were determined by enzymatic methods. Steatosis was assessed by histology and hepatic triglycerides. Activation of MAPKs, RSK, and caspase-3 were evaluated by western blot. Levels of mRNA for TNFα, egr-1, and plasminogen activator inhibitor -1 (PAI-1) were measured by real time qRT-PCR. Results Chronic ethanol treatment resulted in mild steatosis and necrosis, whereas chronic ethanol followed by binge group exhibited marked steatosis and significant increase in necrosis. Chronic-binge group also showed significant increase (compared to chronic ethanol alone) in the phosphorylation of ERK1&ERK2, and RSK. Phosphorylation of JNK and p38 MAPK did not increase by the binge. Ethanol binge, after chronic ethanol intake, caused increase in mRNA for of egr-1 and PAI-1, but not TNFα. Conclusions Chronic ethanol exposure increases the susceptibility of rat liver to increased injury by one or three repeat binge. Among other alterations, the activated levels of ERK1, and more so ERK2, were remarkably amplified by binge suggesting a role of these isotypes in the binge amplification of the injury. In contrast, p38MAPK and JNK1/2 activities were not amplified. These binge induced changes were also reflected in the increases in the RNA levels for egr-1 and PAI -1. This study offers chronic followed by repeat-binge as a model for the study of progression of

  4. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    PubMed

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  5. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol. PMID:25790020

  6. Conformational equilibrium and internal dynamics in the iso-propanol-water dimer.

    PubMed

    Evangelisti, Luca; Gou, Qian; Feng, Gang; Caminati, Walther; Mead, Griffin J; Finneran, Ian A; Carroll, P Brandon; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2016-12-21

    The molecular complex between iso-propanol and water has been investigated by Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Two distinct rotational spectra have been assigned, corresponding to two different isomers of the adduct. In both cases the water molecule acts as a proton donor to the alcoholic oxygen atom of iso-propanol in its gauche arrangement. The isomer in which the water molecule is oriented along the symmetry plane of the iso-propanol molecule (inner) is more stable than the second isomer, where the water is positioned outside the iso-propanol symmetry plane (outer). The rotational transitions of the inner isomer display a doubling, due to the two equivalent minima related to the internal rotation of the hydroxyl group (concerted with a rearrangement of the water unit). The tunneling splitting has been determined to be 25.16(8) GHz, corresponding to a B2 barrier of ∼440 cm(-1).

  7. THE CYCLIC PATTERN OF BLOOD ALCOHOL LEVELS DURING CONTINUOUS ETHANOL FEEDING IN RATS. THE EFFECT OF FEEDING S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE

    PubMed Central

    Bardag-Gorce, F; Li, J; Oliva, J; Lu, SC; French, BA; French, SW

    2010-01-01

    S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the major methyl donor for DNA and histone methylation was fed with ethanol for one month in order to modify the effects of ethanol on rat liver. The following parameters were studied to determine the effects of SAMe; liver histology, the blood alcohol cycle (BAL), changes in gene expression mined from microarray analysis, changes in histone methylation, changes in liver SAMe levels and its metabolites and ADH. SAMe changed the type of fatty liver, reduced liver ALT levels and prevented the BAL cycle caused by intragastric ethanol feeding. Microarray analysis showed that SAMe feeding prevented most of the changes in gene expression induced by ethanol feeding, presumably by inducing H3K27me3 and gene silencing. H3K27me3 was significantly increased by SAMe with or without ethanol feeding. It is concluded that SAMe feeding stabilized global gene expression so that the changes in gene expression involved in the blood alcohol cycle were prevented. PMID:20303346

  8. Effect of gestational ethanol exposure on parvalbumin and calretinin expressing hippocampal neurons in a chick model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Audrey G; McCarthy, Molly M; Brishnehan, Kirk M; Rao, Venugopal; Batia, Lyn M; Gupta, Madhul; Das, Srijit; Mitra, Nilesh K; Chaudhuri, Joydeep D

    2009-03-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), a condition occurring in some children of mothers who have consumed alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by physical deformities and learning and memory deficits. The chick hippocampus, whose functions are controlled by interneurons expressing calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calretinin (CR), is involved in learning and memory mechanisms. Effects on growth and development and hippocampal morphology were studied in chick embryos exposed to 5% and 10% ethanol volume/volume (vol/vol) for 2 or 8 days of gestation. There was a significant dose-dependent reduction (P<.05) in body weight and mean number per section of PV and CR expressing hippocampal neurons in ethanol-exposed chicks, without alterations in neuronal nuclear size or hippocampal volume, compared appropriate controls. Moreover, when chicks exposed to 5% ethanol for 2 and 8 days of gestation were compared, no significant differences were found in body parameters or neuronal counts. Similarly, exposure to 10% ethanol did not induce any significant changes in chicks exposed for 2 or 8 gestational days. Thus, these results suggest that gestational ethanol exposure induces a reduction in the mean number per section of PV and CR expressing hippocampal neurons, and could be a possible mechanism responsible for learning and memory disorders in FAS.

  9. Alcohol flushing and positive ethanol patch test in patients with coronary spastic angina: possible role of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 polymorphisms.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Yuji; Morita, Sumio; Harada, Eisaku; Shono, Makoto; Morikawa, Yoshinobu; Murohara, Toyoaki; Yasue, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    Coronary spasm plays an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and angina pectoris caused by coronary spasm or coronary spastic angina (CSA) is prevalent in Japan. However, the precise mechanisms underlying coronary spasm are unclear. Alcohol intolerance is prevalent among East Asians, and we previously reported that coronary spasm could be induced by alcohol intake in CSA patients. We herein examined whether CSA is associated with alcohol intolerance in Japanese subjects. The study subjects consisted of 80 CSA patients (57 men/ 23 women, mean age 62 ± 12) and 52 non-CSA patients (25 men/27 women, mean age 63 ± 10). The ethanol patch test (EPT) and questionnaire which evaluates flushing after ethanol intake, along with an examination of clinical features and laboratory chemistry data for CHD risk factors were done. Gender (male) and smoking were higher (p=0.007, and p=0.019, respectively) and plasma HDL cholesterol level was lower (p=0.035) in the CSA patients than in the non-CSA patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis including age, EPT, smoking, and plasma HDL cholesterol level as independent variables revealed that positive EPT and smoking were significant predictors of CSA (p=0.011 and p=0.016, respectively). Positive EPT and alcohol flushing following alcohol intake, as well as smoking and plasma levels of HDL cholesterol, were significantly associated with CSA in Japanese patients. Therefore, alcohol ingestion as well as smoking is a significant risk factor for CSA in Japanese.

  10. Inhibition of MMPs by alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Tezvergil-Mutluay, Arzu; Agee, Kelli A.; Hoshika, Tomohiro; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; Thompson, Jeremy M.; McCracken, Courtney E.; Looney, Stephen W.; Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives While screening the activity of potential inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), due to the limited water solubility of some of the compounds, they had to be solubilized in ethanol. When ethanol solvent controls were run, they were found to partially inhibit MMPs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare the MMP-inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols. Methods The possible inhibitory activity of a series of alcohols was measured against soluble rhMMP-9 and insoluble matrix-bound endogenous MMPs of dentin in completely demineralized dentin. Increasing concentrations (0.17, 0.86, 1.71 and 4.28 moles/L) of a homologous series of alcohols (i.e. methanol, ethanol, propanols, butanols, pentanols, hexanols, the ethanol ester of methacrylic acid, heptanols and octanol) were compared to ethanediol, and propanediol by regression analysis to calculate the molar concentration required to inhibit MMPs by 50% (i.e. the IC50). Results Using two different MMP models, alcohols were shown to inhibit rhMMP-9 and the endogenous proteases of dentin matrix in a dose-dependent manner. The degree of MMP inhibition by alcohols increased with chain length up to 4 methylene groups. Based on the molar concentration required to inhibit rhMMP-9 fifty percent, 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA), 3-hexanol, 3-heptanol and 1-octanol gave the strongest inhibition. Significance The results indicate that alcohols with 4 methylene groups inhibit MMPs more effectively than methanol or ethanol. MMP inhibition was inversely related to the Hoy's solubility parameter for hydrogen bonding forces of the alcohols (i.e. to their hydrophilicity). PMID:21676453

  11. Rising taurine and ethanol concentrations in nucleus accumbens interact to produce the dopamine-activating effects of alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ericson, Mia; Chau, Peipei; Adermark, Louise; Söderpalm, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol misuse and addiction is a worldwide problem causing enormous individual suffering as well as financial costs for the society. To develop pharmacological means to reduce suffering, we need to understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of ethanol in the brain. Ethanol is known to increase extracellular levels of both dopamine and taurine in the nucleus accumbens (nAc), a part of the brain reward system, but the two events have not been connected. In previous studies we have demonstrated that glycine receptors in the nAc are involved in modulating both basal- and ethanol-induced dopamine output in the same brain region. By means of in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats we here demonstrate that the endogenous glycine receptor ligand taurine mimics ethanol in activating the brain reward system. Furthermore, administration of systemic ethanol diluted in an isotonic (0.9% NaCl) or hypertonic (3.6% NaCl) saline solution was investigated with respect to extracellular levels of taurine and dopamine in the nAc. We found that ethanol given in a hypertonic solution, contrary to an isotonic solution, failed to increase concentrations of both taurine and dopamine in the nAc. However, a modest, non-dopamine elevating concentration of taurine in the nAc disclosed a dopamine elevating effect of systemic ethanol also when given in a hypertonic solution. We conclude that the elevations of taurine and dopamine in the nAc are closely related and that in order for ethanol to induce dopamine release, a simultaneous increase of extracellular taurine levels in the nAc is required. These data also -provide support for the notion that the nAc is the primary target for ethanol in its dopamine-activating effect after systemic administration and that taurine is a prominent participant in activating the brain reward system.

  12. A study of the molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawi, Hassan M.

    2012-02-01

    The conformational stability of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and 1,1,1-trichloro-2-methyl-2-propanol (chlorobutanol) was investigated by the DFT-B3LYP/6-311+G**, MP2/6-311+G** and MP4(SDQ)/6-311+G** levels of theory. From the calculations chlorobutanol was predicted to exist in a non-planar gauche structure. The planar cis and trans structures of chlorobutanol were calculated to be about 3 kcal/mol higher in energy than the gauche structure. From the calculations 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol was predicted to exist in a Ggg1 and Ggg conformational mixture at ambient temperature. In the low energy structures of both alcohols the non-bonded Cl⋯H(O) distance was calculated to be of about 2.6-2.7 Å. The observation of a broad and very intense band at about 3400 cm -1 in the infrared spectra of the two alcohols supports the presence of strong intermolecular Cl⋯H(O) dipolar interactions in their condensed phases. The analysis of the Raman spectra of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol suggests the presence of a second high energy Ggg structure of the dichloride at room temperature. The vibrational frequencies of 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol and chlorobutanol in their low energy structures were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were made for their normal modes on the basis of combined calculated and experimental data.

  13. Enzymatic single-drop microextraction for the assay of ethanol in alcohol-free cosmetics using microvolume fluorospectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Noelia; de la Calle, Inmaculada; Bendicho, Carlos; Lavilla, Isela

    2012-07-06

    A green assay based on the development of an enzymatic reaction in drop format under headspace single-drop microextraction conditions is described for the first time. An aqueous drop containing the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase and the cofactor β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide has been used as fluorescence probe for determining ethanol in alcohol-free cosmetics by microvolume fluorospectrometry. Experimental parameters affecting the microextraction performance were carefully optimized. Under the conditions employed, the contribution of other alcohols was found to be negligible. After 10 min of microextraction, a detection limit of 0.04 μg g(-1) ethanol, a repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation, of 5.3% for a 0.05 mM ethanol standard and a preconcentration factor of 391, were reached. Accuracy of the proposed methodology was evaluated by comparison of calibration slopes corresponding to external calibration with aqueous standards and standard addition calibration. The method was successfully applied to different alcohol-free cosmetics (external calibration was carried out in all cases). Additional advantages such as simplicity and high sample throughput can be highlighted. The greenness profile of proposed methodology was established using NEMI criteria (US National Environmental Methods Index).

  14. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence ethanol biosensor based on alcohol dehydrogenase functionalized Ru(bpy)3(2+) doped silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Tian-tian; Cai, Zhi-min; Chen, Xiao-mei; Lin, Zhi-jie; Huang, Xiao-li; Chen, Xi; Chen, Guo-nan

    2009-09-15

    An ethanol biosensor, based on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence of Ru(bpy)(3)(2+)-doped silica nanoparticles (RuSiNPs), was investigated in this study. The biosensor was a modified glassy carbon electrode, where alcohol dehydrogenase was crosslinked to RuSiNPs, and then immobilized on the electrode surface using chitosan. The results indicated that the biosensor exhibited excellent performance during ethanol determination with a wide linear range (10(-7) to 10(-2) M), low detection limit (5.0x10(-8) M) and good stability.

  15. A novel route for ethanol oxidation in the acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii: the acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase pathway.

    PubMed

    Bertsch, Johannes; Siemund, Anna Lena; Kremp, Florian; Müller, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a common substrate for anaerobic microorganisms despite its high redox potential (E0' etha- nol/acetaldehyde = -190mV), which does not allow for NAD(+) reduction. How this thermodynamic barrier is overcome is largely unknown. The acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii can also grow on ethanol. The genome harbours 11 genes encoding putative alcohol dehydrogenases, but only one, adhE, was upregulated during growth on ethanol. The bifunctional acetaldehyde/ethanol dehydrogenase (AdhE) was purified from ethanol-grown cells. It catalysed the NAD(+) - and CoA-dependent oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetyl-CoA. The enzyme was regulated by free coenzyme A: in the absence of coenzyme A, the Km value for ethanol was shifted from 3.4 to 40 mM. The alcohol dehydrogenase domain could also oxidize 1-propanol and 1-butanol; however, the aldehyde dehydrogenase domain was highly specific for acetaldehyde as substrate. Apparently, the bifunctional AdhE allows for NAD(+) reduction by lowering the concentration of acetaldehyde, which makes the first oxidation reaction thermodynamically feasible. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Biochemical pathways generating post-mortem volatile compounds co-detected during forensic ethanol analyses.

    PubMed

    Boumba, Vassiliki A; Ziavrou, Kallirroe S; Vougiouklakis, Theodore

    2008-01-30

    In this contribution are presented the fermentations of the main substrates present in a decaying corpse, namely carbohydrates, amino acids, glycerol and fatty acids, generating the post-mortem volatile compounds that could be detected along with ethanol during the forensic ethanol analysis. The available literature (preferably reviews) on microbial metabolic pathways (enzymes, substrates, conditions) that are implicated in the formation of these volatiles has been reviewed. The microbial formation of the following volatiles is supported by the presented biochemical data: ethanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, 2-propanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, d-amyl alcohol, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and ethyl esters (mainly ethyl acetate). The extracted information was correlated with the existing forensic literature on the post-mortem detected volatiles. The significance of the microbial produced volatiles on the selection of an appropriate internal standard for the ethanol analysis has been considered. Finally, the possible contribution of the presence of volatiles in the interpretation of ethanol analysis results in post-mortem cases is discussed.

  17. Escherichia coli mar and acrAB mutants display no tolerance to simple alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ankarloo, Jonas; Wikman, Susanne; Nicholls, Ian A

    2010-03-31

    The inducible Mar phenotype of Escherichia coli is associated with increased tolerance to multiple hydrophobic antibiotics as well as some highly hydrophobic organic solvents such as cyclohexane, mediated mainly through the AcrAB/TolC efflux system. The influence of water miscible alcohols ethanol and 1-propanol on a Mar constitutive mutant and a mar deletion mutant of E. coli K-12, as well as the corresponding strains carrying the additional acrAB deletion, was investigated. In contrast to hydrophobic solvents, all strains were killed in exponential phase by 1-propanol and ethanol at rates comparable to the parent strain. Thus, the Mar phenotype does not protect E. coli from killing by these more polar solvents. Surprisingly, AcrAB does not contribute to an increased alcohol tolerance. In addition, sodium salicylate, at concentrations known to induce the mar operon, was unable to increase 1-propanol or ethanol tolerance. Rather, the toxicity of both solvents was increased in the presence of sodium salicylate. Collectively, the results imply that the resilience of E. coli to water miscible alcohols, in contrast to more hydrophobic solvents, does not depend upon the AcrAB/TolC efflux system, and suggests a lower limit for substrate molecular size and functionality. Implications for the application of microbiological systems in environments containing high contents of water miscible organic solvents, e.g., phage display screening, are discussed.

  18. Escherichia coli mar and acrAB Mutants Display No Tolerance to Simple Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Ankarloo, Jonas; Wikman, Susanne; Nicholls, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    The inducible Mar phenotype of Escherichia coli is associated with increased tolerance to multiple hydrophobic antibiotics as well as some highly hydrophobic organic solvents such as cyclohexane, mediated mainly through the AcrAB/TolC efflux system. The influence of water miscible alcohols ethanol and 1-propanol on a Mar constitutive mutant and a mar deletion mutant of E. coli K-12, as well as the corresponding strains carrying the additional acrAB deletion, was investigated. In contrast to hydrophobic solvents, all strains were killed in exponential phase by 1-propanol and ethanol at rates comparable to the parent strain. Thus, the Mar phenotype does not protect E. coli from killing by these more polar solvents. Surprisingly, AcrAB does not contribute to an increased alcohol tolerance. In addition, sodium salicylate, at concentrations known to induce the mar operon, was unable to increase 1-propanol or ethanol tolerance. Rather, the toxicity of both solvents was increased in the presence of sodium salicylate. Collectively, the results imply that the resilience of E. coli to water miscible alcohols, in contrast to more hydrophobic solvents, does not depend upon the AcrAB/TolC efflux system, and suggests a lower limit for substrate molecular size and functionality. Implications for the application of microbiological systems in environments containing high contents of water miscible organic solvents, e.g., phage display screening, are discussed. PMID:20480026

  19. Alcohol dehydrogenase AdhA plays a role in ethanol tolerance in model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Rebeca

    2017-02-03

    The protein AdhA from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (hereafter Synechocystis) has been previously reported to show alcohol dehydrogenase activity towards ethanol and both NAD and NADP. This protein is currently being used in genetically modified strains of Synechocystis capable of synthesizing ethanol showing the highest ethanol productivities. In the present work, mutant strains of Synechocystis lacking AdhA have been constructed and tested for tolerance to ethanol. The lack of AdhA in the wild-type strain reduces survival to externally added ethanol at lethal concentration of 4% (v/v). On the other hand, the lack of AdhA in an ethanologenic strain diminishes tolerance of cells to internally produced ethanol. It is also shown that light-activated heterotrophic growth (LAHG) of the wild-type strain is impaired in the mutant strain lacking AdhA (∆adhA strain). Photoautotrophic, mixotrophic, and photoheterotrophic growth are not affected in the mutant strain. Based on phenotypic characterization of ∆adhA mutants, the possible physiological function of AdhA in Synechocystis is discussed.

  20. The Role of Ethanol Metabolism in Development of Alcoholic Steatohepatitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Ronis, Martin J.; Korourian, Soheila; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badeaux, Jamie; Badger, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    The importance of ethanol (EtOH) metabolism in development of alcoholic liver disease remains controversial. The current study examined the effects of selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2E1 compared to inhibition of overall EtOH metabolism on the development of alcoholic steatohepatitis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed via total enteral nutrition for 45 d with or without 10–12 g/kg/d EtOH. Some groups were given 200 mg/kg/d of the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallylsulfide (DAS). Other groups were treated with 164 mg/kg/d of the alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitor 4-methylpyazole (4MP) and dosed at 2–3 g/kg/d EtOH to maintain similar average urine EtOH concentrations. Liver pathology scores and levels of apoptosis were elevated by EtOH (P< 0.05), but did not differ significantly on co-treatment with DAS or 4MP. However, liver triglycerides were lower when EtOH was fed with DAS or 4MP (P< 0.05). Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were significantly lower in EtOH-fed 4MP-treated rats indicating reduced necrosis. Hepatic oxidative stress and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress marker TRB3 were increased after EtOH (P<0.05); further increased by DAS; but partly attenuated by 4MP. DAS and 4MP both reversed EtOH increases in the cytokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and the chemokine CXCL-2 (P<0.05). However, neither inhibitor prevented EtOH suppression of interleukins IL-4 or IL-12. Moreover, neither inhibitor prevented EtOH increases in tumor growth factor (TGF)β mRNA. EtOH and DAS additively induced hepatic hyperplasia (P<0.05). These data suggest that a significant proportion of hepatic injury following EtOH exposure is independent of alcohol metabolism. EtOH metabolism by CYP2E1 may be linked in part to triglyceride accumulation; to induction of TNFα; and to chemokine production. EtOH metabolism by ADH may be linked in part to oxidative and ER stress and necrotic injury. PMID:20116195

  1. Acid-Catalyzed Conversion of Furfuryl Alcohol to Ethyl Levulinate in Liquid Ethanol.

    PubMed

    González Maldonado, Gretchen M; Assary, Rajeev S; Dumesic, James; Curtiss, Larry A

    2012-09-20

    Reaction pathways for the acid-catalyzed conversion of furfuryl alcohol (FAL) to ethyl levulinate (EL) in ethanol were investigated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and ab initio high-level quantum chemical (G4MP2) calculations. Our combined studies show that the production of EL at high yields from FAL is not accompanied by stoichiometric production of diethyl either (DEE), indicating that ethoxymethyl furan (EMF) is not an intermediate in the major reaction pathway. Several intermediates were observed using an LC-MS system, and three of these intermediates were isolated and subjected to reaction conditions. The structures of two intermediates were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR techniques. One of these intermediates is EMF, which forms EL and DEE in a secondary reaction pathway. The second intermediate identified is 4,5,5-triethoxypentan-2-one, which is analogous to one of the intermediates observed in the conversion of FAL to LA in water (i.e. 4,5,5-trihydroxypentan-2-one). Furthermore, conversion of this intermediate to EL again involves the formation of DEE, indicating that it is also part of a secondary pathway. The primary pathway for production of EL involves solvent-assisted transfer of a water molecule from the partially detached protonated hydroxyl group of FAL to a ring carbon, followed by intra-molecular hydrogen shift, where the apparent reaction barrier for the hydrogen shift is relatively smaller in ethanol (21.1 kcal/mol) than that in water (26.6 kcal/mol).

  2. Toluidine blue adsorbed on alcohol dehydrogenase modified glassy carbon electrode for voltammetric determination of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Arun Prakash; Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2011-01-15

    A novel toluidine blue O (TBO) adsorbed alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) biocomposite film have been prepared through simple adsorption technique with the help of electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged layers. Nafion (NF) coating was made on top of the biocomposite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) to protect ADH from leaching. The fabricated ADH/TBO/NF biocomposite electrode remains highly stable in the pH range from 4 to 13. More facile electron transfer process occurs at ADH/TBO/NF biocomposite than at TBO/NF film, which is obvious from the six folds increase in k(s) value. Maximum surface coverage concentration (Γ) of TBO is noticed at ADH/TBO/NF film, which is 82% higher than at TBO/NF and 15% higher than at ADH/TBO film modified GCEs. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies reveal that ADH has been well immobilized in the biocomposite film. Scanning electron microscopy studies confirm the discriminate surface morphology of various components present in the biocomposite film. Cyclic voltammetry studies validate that ADH/TBO/NF biocomposite film exhibits excellent electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation at low over potential (I(pa)=-0.14 V). The same studies show biocomposite film possesses a good sensitivity of 7.91 μAM(-1)cm(-2) for ethanol determination. This above sensitivity value is 17.40% higher than the sensitivity obtained for TBO/NF film (6.74 μAM(-1)cm(-2)). Further, using differential pulse voltammetry, a sensitivity of 1.70 μAM(-1)cm(-2) has been achieved for ADH/TBO/NF biocomposite film. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics and morphology the bone in rat femurs.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J A D; Souza, A L T; Cruz, L H C; Marques, P P; Camilli, J A; Nakagaki, W R; Esteves, A; Rossi-Junior, W C; Fernandes, G J M; Guerra, F D; Soares, E A

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to verify the effects of ethanol consumption and alcohol detoxification on the biomechanics, area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone in rat femur. This was an experimental study in which 18 male Wistar rats were used, with 40 days of age, weighing 179 ± 2.5 g. The rats were divided into three groups (n=06): CT (control), AC (chronic alcoholic), DT (detoxification). After experimental procedures, the animals were euthanized by an overdose of the anesthetic and their femurs were collected for mechanical testing and histological processing. All animals did not present malnutrition or dehydration during experimentation period. Morphometric analysis of cortical and trabecular bones in rat femurs demonstrated that AC animals showed inferior dimensions and alcohol detoxification (DT) allowed an enhancement in area and thickness of cortical and trabecular bone. Material and structural properties data of AC group highlighted the harmful effects of ethanol on bone mechanical properties. The results of this study demonstrated that chronic alcoholic rats (AC) presented major bone damage in all analyzed variables. Those findings suggested that alcohol detoxification is highly suggested in pre-operative planning and this corroborates to the success of bone surgery and bone tissue repair. Thanks to the financial support offered by PROBIC - UNIFENAS.

  4. A novel membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Yang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-less fuel cell possesses such advantages as simplified design and lower cost. In this paper, a membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) supported Pd and ternary PdSnNi composites as the anode catalysts and Fe/C-PANI composite, produced by direct pyrolysis of Fe-doped polyaniline precursor, as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The alcohols investigated in the present study are methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol and sec-butanol. The cathode catalyst Fe/C-PANI is electrochemically inactive to oxidation of the alcohols. The performance of the cell with various alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH solution on either Pd/MWCNT or PdSnNi/MWCNT catalyst has been evaluated. In any case, the performance of the cell using the anode catalyst PdSnNi/MWCNT is considerably better than Pd/MWCNT. For the PdSnNi/MWCNT, the maximum power densities of the cell using methanol (0.5 mol L-1), ethanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), iso-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-butanol (0.2 mol L-1), iso-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) and sec-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) are 0.34, 1.03, 1.07, 0.44, 0.50, 0.31 and 0.15 mW cm-2, respectively.

  5. Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

    2014-07-03

    We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ≈ xylitol ≈ meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration.

  6. TLR4 response mediates ethanol-induced neurodevelopment alterations in a model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Pascual, María; Montesinos, Jorge; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Forteza, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Arias, Marta; Miñarro, José; Guerri, Consuelo

    2017-07-24

    Inflammation during brain development participates in the pathogenesis of early brain injury and cognitive dysfunctions. Prenatal ethanol exposure affects the developing brain and causes neural impairment, cognitive and behavioral effects, collectively known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Our previous studies demonstrate that ethanol activates the innate immune response and TLR4 receptor and causes neuroinflammation, brain damage, and cognitive defects in the developmental brain stage of adolescents. We hypothesize that by activating the TLR4 response, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy triggers the release of cytokines and chemokines in both the maternal sera and brains of fetuses/offspring, which impairs brain ontogeny and causes cognitive dysfunction. WT and TLR4-KO female mice treated with or without 10% ethanol in the drinking water during gestation and lactation were used. Cytokine/chemokine levels were determined by ELISA in the amniotic fluid, maternal serum, and cerebral cortex, as well as in the offspring cerebral cortex. Microglial and neuronal markers (evaluated by western blotting), myelin proteins (immunohistochemical and western blotting) and synaptic parameters (western blotting and electron microscopy) were assessed in the cortices of the WT and TLR4-KO pups on PND 0, 20, and 66. Behavioral tests (elevated plus maze and passive avoidance) were performed in the WT and TLR4-KO mice on PND 66 exposed or not to ethanol. We show that alcohol intake during gestation and lactation increases the levels of several cytokines/chemokines (IL-1β, IL-17, MIP-1α, and fractalkine) in the maternal sera, amniotic fluid, and brains of fetuses and offspring. The upregulation of cytokines/chemokines is associated with an increase in activated microglia markers (CD11b and MHC-II), and with a reduction in some synaptic (synaptotagmin, synapsin IIa) and myelin (MBP, PLP) proteins in the brains of offspring on days 0, 20, and 66 (long-term effects

  7. Association between in vivo alcohol metabolism and genetic variation in pathways that metabolize the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation in the Alcohol Challenge Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Penelope A; Macgregor, Stuart; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela AF; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Whitfield, John B

    2013-01-01

    Background Variation in alcohol metabolism affects the duration of intoxication and alcohol use. While the majority of genetic association studies investigating variation in alcohol metabolism have focused on polymorphisms in alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases, we have now tested for association with genes in alternative metabolic pathways that catalyze the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation. Methods 950 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 14 genes (ACN9, ACSS1, ACSS2, ALDH1A1, CAT, CYP2E1, GOT1, GOT2, MDH1, MDH2, SLC25A10, SLC25A11, SLC25A12, SLC25A13) were genotyped in 352 young adults who participated in an alcohol challenge study. Traits tested were blood and breath alcohol concentration, peak alcohol concentration and rates of alcohol absorption and elimination. Allelic association was tested using quantitative univariate and multivariate methods. Results A CYP2E1 promoter SNP (rs4838767, minor allele frequency 0.008) exceeded the threshold for study-wide significance (4.01 × 10−5) for two early blood alcohol concentration (BAC), eight breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) measures and the peak BrAC. For each phenotype the minor C-allele was related to a lower alcohol concentration, most strongly for the fourth BrAC (P = 2.07 × 10−7) explaining ~8% of the phenotypic variance. We also observed suggestive patterns of association with variants in ALDH1A1 and on chromosome 17 near SLC25A11 for aspects of blood and breath alcohol metabolism. A SNP upstream of GOT1 (rs2490286) reached study-wide significance for multivariate BAC metabolism (P = 0.000040). Conclusions Overall, we did not find strong evidence that variation in genes coding for proteins that further metabolize the carbon backbone of acetaldehyde, or contribute to mechanisms for regenerating NAD from NADH, affects alcohol metabolism in our European-descent subjects. However, based on the breath alcohol data, variation in the promoter of CYP2E1 may play a role in pre

  8. Association between in vivo alcohol metabolism and genetic variation in pathways that metabolize the carbon skeleton of ethanol and NADH reoxidation in the alcohol challenge twin study.

    PubMed

    Lind, Penelope A; Macgregor, Stuart; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Whitfield, John B

    2012-12-01

    Variation in alcohol metabolism affects the duration of intoxication and alcohol use. While the majority of genetic association studies investigating variation in alcohol metabolism have focused on polymorphisms in alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenases, we have now tested for association with genes in alternative metabolic pathways that catalyze the carbon skeleton of ethanol (EtOH) and NADH reoxidation. Nine hundred fifty single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning 14 genes (ACN9, ACSS1, ACSS2, ALDH1A1, CAT, CYP2E1, GOT1, GOT2, MDH1, MDH2, SLC25A10, SLC25A11, SLC25A12, SLC25A13) were genotyped in 352 young adults who participated in an alcohol challenge study. Traits tested were blood alcohol concentration (BAC), breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), peak alcohol concentration, and rates of alcohol absorption and elimination. Allelic association was tested using quantitative univariate and multivariate methods. A CYP2E1 promoter SNP (rs4838767, minor allele frequency 0.008) exceeded the threshold for study-wide significance (4.01 × 10(-5) ) for 2 early BAC, 8 BrAC measures, and the peak BrAC. For each phenotype, the minor C allele was related to a lower alcohol concentration, most strongly for the fourth BrAC (p = 2.07 × 10(-7) ) explaining ~8% of the phenotypic variance. We also observed suggestive patterns of association with variants in ALDH1A1 and on chromosome 17 near SLC25A11 for aspects of blood and breath alcohol metabolism. An SNP upstream of GOT1 (rs2490286) reached study-wide significance for multivariate BAC metabolism (p = 0.000040). Overall, we did not find strong evidence that variation in genes coding for proteins that further metabolize the carbon backbone of acetaldehyde, or contribute to mechanisms for regenerating NAD from NADH, affects alcohol metabolism in our European-descent subjects. However, based on the breath alcohol data, variation in the promoter of CYP2E1 may play a role in preabsorptive or early hepatic alcohol metabolism

  9. Heterogeneity of p53 dependent genomic responses following ethanol exposure in a developmental mouse model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Camargo Moreno, Maria; Mooney, Sandra M; Middleton, Frank A

    2017-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure can produce structural and functional deficits in the brain and result in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). In rodent models acute exposure to a high concentration of alcohol causes increased apoptosis in the developing brain. A single causal molecular switch that signals for this increase in apoptosis has yet to be identified. The protein p53 has been suggested to play a pivotal role in enabling cells to engage in pro-apoptotic processes, and thus figures prominently as a hub molecule in the intracellular cascade of responses elicited by alcohol exposure. In the present study we examined the effect of ethanol-induced cellular and molecular responses in primary somatosensory cortex (SI) and hippocampus of 7-day-old wild-type (WT) and p53-knockout (KO) mice. We quantified apoptosis by active caspase-3 immunohistochemistry and ApopTag™ labeling, then determined total RNA expression levels in laminae of SI and hippocampal subregions. Immunohistochemical results confirmed increased incidence of apoptotic cells in both regions in WT and KO mice following ethanol exposure. The lack of p53 was not protective in these brain regions. Molecular analyses revealed a heterogeneous response to ethanol exposure that varied depending on the subregion, and which may go undetected using a global approach. Gene network analyses suggest that the presence or absence of p53 alters neuronal function and synaptic modifications following ethanol exposure, in addition to playing a classic role in cell cycle signaling. Thus, p53 may function in a way that underlies the intellectual and behavioral deficits observed in FASD.

  10. Inhibition of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by cimetidine and assessment of its effects on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Long; Li, Yeung-Pin; Liu, Chiu-Ming; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shan; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2013-02-25

    Previous studies have reported that cimetidine, an H2-receptor antagonist used to treat gastric and duodenal ulcers, can inhibit alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) and ethanol metabolism. Human alcohol dehydrogenases and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs), the principal enzymes responsible for metabolism of ethanol, are complex enzyme families that exhibit functional polymorphisms among ethnic groups and distinct tissue distributions. We investigated the inhibition by cimetidine of alcohol oxidation by recombinant human ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, ADH1C2, ADH2, and ADH4, and aldehyde oxidation by ALDH1A1 and ALDH2 at pH 7.5 and a cytosolic NAD(+) concentration. Cimetidine acted as competitive or noncompetitive inhibitors for the ADH and ALDH isozymes/allozymes with near mM inhibition constants. The metabolic interactions between cimetidine and ethanol/acetaldehyde were assessed by computer simulation using the inhibition equations and the determined kinetic constants. At therapeutic drug levels (0.015 mM) and physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (10 mM) and acetaldehyde (10 μM) in target tissues, cimetidine could weakly inhibit (<5%) the activities of ADH1B2 and ADH1B3 in liver, ADH2 in liver and small intestine, ADH4 in stomach, and ALDH1A1 in the three tissues, but not significantly affect ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1C1/2, or ALDH2. At higher drug levels, which may accumulate in cells (0.2 mM), the activities of the weakly-inhibited enzymes may be decreased more significantly. The quantitative effects of cimetidine on metabolism of ethanol and other physiological substrates of ADHs need further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  12. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc., Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains a summary of the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic factors involved in the siting, construction and operation of the plant.

  13. Oxidation of Thiodiglycol (2,2’-Thiobis-ethanol) by Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Comparison of Human Isoenzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    3 . DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Oxidation of Thiodiglycol (2,2’-Thiobis-ethanol) by Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Comparison of Human...tion of protein (serine/threonine) phosphatases in tis- sue cytosol by sulfur mustard in vitro [ 3 ]. These en- zymes have been implicated in the...mustard itself [ 3 ]. Unsuccessful attempts to rep- licate the inhibitory effect of TDG on purified prepa- rations of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A (A

  14. Ethanol metabolism by HeLa cells transduced with human alcohol dehydrogenase isoenzymes: control of the pathway by acetaldehyde concentration.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W

    2011-01-01

    Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low K(m) aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs was constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady-state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Effect of alcohol dehydrogenase-1B and -7 polymorphisms on blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in healthy subjects with a history of moderate alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Roberta; Iuliano, Luigi; Vecchioni, Alessia; Arzani, Dario; Milic, Mirta; Annunziata, Francesca; Zerbinati, Chiara; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bonassi, Stefano; McKay, James D; Boccia, Stefania

    2017-07-21

    To evaluate the effect of ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes on blood acetaldehyde and ethanol levels after alcohol ingestion, and to measure the genotoxic effect of smoking and ethanol on the buccal cells, also controlling for ADH variants. We recruited healthy Italian subjects with at least a moderate history of alcohol consumption. All subjects were given an alcoholic drink of 0.4 g ethanol /kg of body weight. Blood venous samples were collected at baseline, and 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes after ingestion. Buccal cells were collected before ethanol ingestion. Sixty subjects were enrolled in the study. Individuals with the ADH1B GG genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.4-7.2), and those with the ADH1B GT/TT genotype had 4.7 mM (IQR 4.2-4.8). Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH1B GG genotype and 1.6 μM (IQR 1.5-1.7) for ADH1B CG/GG genotype. Individuals with the ADH7 CC genotype had median ethanol levels of 5.0 mM (IQR 3.3-7.2), while 5.0 mM (IQR 4.7-5.6) was in those with the ADH7 CG/GG genotype. Corresponding acetaldehyde levels were 1.5 μM (IQR 0.7-2.6) for ADH7 CC genotype and 1.5 μM (IQR 1.4-1.6) for ADH7 CG/GG genotypes. A non significant increase in the frequency of karyolitic and pyknotic cells was found in the group of heavy drinkers and current smokers, when compared to the moderate drinkers and the non-smokers. Our study does not support the hypothesis that ADH1B and ADH7 genotypes affect blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effect of Alcohol Solvents on the Porosity and Phase Composition of Titania.

    PubMed

    Song; Pratsinis

    2000-11-15

    Bimodally porous titania powders were made by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) dissolved in various alcohols (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and sec-butanol). The specific surface area (SSA) of the powders dried at 150 degrees C ranged from 332 to 624 m(2)/g as determined by nitrogen adsorption. At excess alcohol concentration, the SSA of the dried powders decreased in the order of sec-butanol, iso-propanol, ethanol, and methanol at a constant alcohol/TTIP molar ratio. The pore size distribution was bimodal with fine intraparticle pore diameters at 1-6 nm and larger interparticle pore diameters at 30-120 nm as determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms. The average intraparticle pore diameter decreased with increasing alcohol concentration for methanol and ethanol, while it was rather constant at 3.3 nm, irrespective of alcohol concentration for iso-propanol and sec-butanol. The evolution of particle phase composition was determined by X-ray diffraction ranging from amorphous to crystalline anatase and rutile largely proportional to the calcination temperature and to a lesser extent on the type and concentration of alcohols. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  17. Effects of ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols on NO-mediated relaxations in rat anococcygeus muscles and gastric fundus strips.

    PubMed Central

    Rand, M. J.; Li, C. G.

    1994-01-01

    1. In anococcygeus muscles, ethanol (20-500 mM) slightly increased the tone and inhibited relaxations elicited by nitrergic nerve stimulation (0.5-5 Hz) in a concentration-dependent manner. 2. Other aliphatic alcohols decreased the tone but had inhibitory effects similar to ethanol on stimulation-induced relaxations, the EC50 (mM) values being: methanol 280, ethanol 80, propan-1-ol 20, propan-2-ol 55, propan 1,2-diol 135, butan-1-ol 120, butan-2-ol 15 and pentan-1-ol 3. 3. Relaxations induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10 nM) were inhibited by ethanol (20-500 mM) in a concentration-dependent manner and by propan-2-ol (100 mM). Relaxations induced by NO (1 microM) were inhibited by high concentrations of ethanol (200-300 mM) and by propan-2-ol (100 mM). 4. In gastric fundus strips, ethanol (60-200 mM) did not affect the resting tone but inhibited NO-mediated relaxations elicited by low frequency (1 Hz) field stimulation and reduced the initial relaxation by high frequency field stimulation (10 Hz) and by SNP (50 nM). The relaxant action of isoprenaline (10 nM) was not reduced although it was slightly slower in onset. Other aliphatic alcohols tested decreased the tone and inhibited relaxations elicited by field stimulation. 5. Acetaldehyde (1-10 mM) inhibited relaxations elicited by field stimulation and SNP in both the rat anococcygeus muscles and gastric fundus strips. The tone of gastric fundus strips was decreased by acetaldehyde but it was transiently increased in anococcygeus muscles.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8032595

  18. Effect of ethanol on the redox state of the coenzyme bound to alcohol dehydrogenase studied in isolated hepatocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Cronholm, T

    1987-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from fed female rats and incubated with a redox indicator system consisting of cyclohexanone and unlabelled or perdeuterated cyclohexanol. The concentrations and deuterium contents of these were measured by g.l.c. and g.l.c.-m.s. of oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives. The equilibrium composition represented the redox state of the coenzyme bound to alcohol dehydrogenase, since 4-methylpyrazole inhibited the interconversion. Reduction appeared to be catalysed to a small extent also by an NADPH-dependent aldehyde reductase. The NADH/NAD+ ratio on alcohol dehydrogenase was 3 orders of magnitude higher in the presence of ethanol than in its absence. This redox shift has the degree expected from reported kinetic constants. The shift was due both to a decreased rate of oxidation and to an increased rate of reduction in the indicator system. The results indicate that the redox effect of ethanol on the free NAD system is due to efficient removal of acetaldehyde from a near-equilibrium system consisting of ethanol, acetaldehyde and bound coenzymes, together with dissociation of NADH from the enzyme. The effect on the redox state of the bound coenzyme was less marked when the ethanol was deuterated at C-1, indicating an isotope effect. The 2H excess in the cyclohexanol formed was about 70% of that in the [1,1-2H2]ethanol. This dilution, which is caused by binding of free NADH to the enzyme, indicates that reoxidation of cytosolic NADH partly limits the rate of ethanol oxidation. PMID:3435467

  19. Carbon Dioxide Effects on Ethanol Production, Pyruvate Decarboxylase, and Alcohol Dehydrogenase Activities in Anaerobic Sweet Potato Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ling A.; Hammett, Larry K.; Pharr, David M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of varied anaerobic atmospheres on the metabolism of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam.) roots was studied. The internal gas atmospheres of storage roots changed rapidly when the roots were submerged under water. O2 and N2 gases disappeared quickly and were replaced by CO2. There were no appreciable differences in gas composition among the four cultivars that were studied. Under different anaerobic conditions, ethanol concentration in the roots was highest in a CO2 environment, followed by submergence and a N2 environment in all the cultivars except one. A positive relationship was found between ethanol production and pyruvate decarboxylase activity from both 100% CO2-treated and 100% N2-treated roots. CO2 atmospheres also resulted in higher pyruvate decarboxylase activity than did N2 atmospheres. Concentrations of CO2 were higher within anaerobic roots than those in the ambient anaerobic atmosphere. The level of pyruvate decarboxylase and ethanol in anaerobic roots was proportional to the ambient CO2 concentration. The measurable activity of pyruvate decarboxylase that was present in the roots was about 100 times less than that of alcohol dehydrogenase. Considering these observations, it is suggested that the rate-limiting enzyme for ethanol biosynthesis in sweet potato storage roots under anoxia is likely to be pyruvate decarboxylase rather than alcohol dehydrogenase. PMID:16662798

  20. Shock Hugoniot equations of state for binary water-alcohol liquid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Peter A.; Ivanov, Trevor W.; Bolme, Cynthia A.; Brown, Kathryn E.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2014-01-01

    Shock Hugoniot data were obtained using laser generated shock and ultrafast dynamic ellipsometry (UDE) methods for several non-ideal water-alcohol liquid mixtures, with the alcohols being methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and t-butanol (a.k.a., 2-methyl-2-propanol or tert-butanol). The sound speeds of the mixtures were obtained using Brillouin scattering when not available in the literature. The shock and particle velocities obtained from the UDE data were compared to expectations of the universal liquid Hugoniot (ULH) and to literature shock (plate impact) data where available. The ethanol/water data were presented in a previous publication [Schulze et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 6158-6163 (2013)]. The shock Hugoniot trends for all these mixtures, here represented as deviations from predictions of the ULH, versus fraction of alcohol are quite similar to each other and suggest that complex hydrogen bonding networks in alcohol-water mixtures alter the compressibility of the mixtures.

  1. Fragrance material review on 3-phenyl-1-propanol.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, S P; Wellington, G A; Cocchiara, J; Lalko, J; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2011-12-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenyl-1-propanol when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenyl-1-propanol is a member of the fragrance structural group cinnamyl phenylpropyl compounds. The common characteristic structural element of cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials is an aryl substituted primary alcohol/aldehyde/ester. They are simple aromatic compounds with saturated propyl or unsaturated propenyl side chains containing a primary oxygenated functional group which has little toxic potential. 3-Phenyl-1-propyl derivatives participate in the same beta-oxidation pathways as do their parent cinnamic acid derivatives. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenyl-1-propanol was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, in vitro skin absorption and mutagenicity. A safety assessment of all cinnamyl phenylpropyl compounds will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2011) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all cinnamyl phenylpropyl materials in fragrances (Belsito, D., Bickers, D., Bruze, M., Dagli, M.L., Fryer, A., Greim, H., Miyachi, Y., Saurat, J.H., Sipes, I.G., 2011. A toxicologic and dermatologic assessment of cinnamyl phenylpropyl compounds when used as fragrance ingredients.). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood monocytes in chronic alcoholism: relationship with ethanol intake and liver disease.

    PubMed

    Laso, Francisco Javier; Vaquero, José Miguel; Almeida, Julia; Marcos, Miguel; Orfao, Alberto

    2007-09-01

    Controversial results have been reported about the effects of alcoholism on the functionality of monocytes. In the present study we analyze the effects of chronic alcoholism on the intracellular production of inflammatory cytokines by peripheral blood (PB) monocytes. Spontaneous and in vitro-stimulated production of interleukin (IL) 1alpha (TNFalpha) by PB monocytes was analyzed at the single level by flow cytometry in chronic alcoholics without liver disease and active ethanol (EtOH) intake (AWLD group), as well as in patients with alcohol liver cirrhosis (ALC group), who were either actively drinking (ALCET group) or with alcohol withdrawal (ALCAW group). A significantly increased spontaneous production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha was observed on PB monocytes among AWLD individuals. Conversely, circulating monocytes form ALCET patients showed an abnormally low spontaneous and stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines. No significant changes were observed in ALCAW group as regards production of IL1beta, IL6, IL12, and TNFalpha. Our results show an altered pattern of production of inflammatory cytokines in PB monocytes from chronic alcoholic patients, the exact abnormalities observed depending on both the status of EtOH intake and the existence of alcoholic liver disease. Copyright 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  3. Immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodgett films to detect ethanol.

    PubMed

    Caseli, Luciano; Perinotto, Angelo C; Viitala, Tapani; Zucolotto, Valtencir; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2009-03-03

    Enzyme immobilization in nanostructured films may be useful for a number of biomimetic systems, particularly if suitable matrixes are identified. Here we show that alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) has high affinity toward a negatively charged phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidic acid (DMPA), which forms a Langmuir monolayer at an air-water interface. Incorporation of ADH into the DMPA monolayer was monitored with surface pressure measurements and polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy, with the alpha-helices from ADH being mainly oriented parallel to the water surface. ADH remained at the interface even at high surface pressures, thus allowing deposition of Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films from the DMPA-ADH film. Indeed, interaction with DMPA enhances the transfer of ADH, where the mass transferred onto a solid support increased from 134 ng for ADH on a Gibbs monolayer to 178 ng for an LB film with DMPA. With fluorescence spectroscopy it was possible to confirm that the ADH structure was preserved even after one month of the LB deposition. ADH-containing films deposited onto gold-interdigitated electrodes were employed in a sensor array capable of detecting ethanol at concentrations down to 10 ppb (in volume), using impedance spectroscopy as the method of detection.

  4. Discrimination between ethanol inhibition models in a continuous alcoholic fermentation process using flocculating yeast.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S C; Paiva, T C; Visconti, A E; Giudici, R

    1998-09-01

    Discrimination between different rival models for describing the inhibitory effect of ethanol both on yeast growth and on fermentation was studied for a continuous process of alcoholic fermentation in a tower reactor with recycling of flocculating cells. Models tested include linear, parabolic, hyperbolic, exponential, and generalized nonlinear power-law types. The best expressions were identified under the criteria that all the kinetic parameters should assume acceptable values in a feasible range and should result in the best fit of the experimental data. The kinetic parameters were estimated from steady-state data of several sugar concentrations in feeding stream (S0 = 160, 170, 180, 190, 200 g/L), constant dilution rate (D = 0.2 h-1), recycle ratio (alpha = 13.6), and temperature (T = 30 degrees C). The best model for the yeast growth was of power-law type, whereas for the product formation the best model was of linear type. These models were able to reproduce the trends of the process variables satisfactorily.

  5. Effective immobilization of alcohol dehydrogenase on carbon nanoscaffolds for ethanol biofuel cell.

    PubMed

    Umasankar, Yogeswaran; Adhikari, Bal-Ram; Chen, Aicheng

    2017-12-01

    An efficient approach for immobilizing alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) while enhancing its electron transfer ability has been developed using poly(2-(trimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) (MADQUAT) cationic polymer and carbon nanoscaffolds. The carbon nanoscaffolds were comprised of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The ADH entrapped within the MADQUAT that was present on the carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited a high electron exchange capability with the electrode through its cofactor β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide hydrate and β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced disodium salt hydrate (NAD(+)/NADH) redox reaction. The advantages of the carbon nanoscaffolds used as the support matrix and the MADQUAT employed for the entrapment of ADH versus physisorption were demonstrated via cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Our experimental results showed a higher electron transfer, electrocatalytic activity, and rate constant for MADQUAT entrapped ADH on the carbon nanoscaffolds. The immobilization of ADH using both MADQUAT and carbon nanoscaffolds exhibited strong potential for the development of an efficient bio-anode for ethanol powered biofuel cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A "Universal" Spectroscopic Map for the OH Stretching Mode in Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mesele, Oluwaseun O; Thompson, Ward H

    2017-08-10

    Empirical maps are presented for the OH stretching vibrations in neat alcohols in which the relevant spectroscopic quantities are expressed in terms of the electric field exerted on the hydrogen atom by the surrounding liquid. It is found, by examination of the four lowest linear alcohols, methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol, that a single map can be used for alcohols with different alkyl groups. This "universal" map is in very good agreement with maps optimized for the individual alcohols but differs from those previously developed for water. This suggests that one map can be used for all alcohols, perhaps even those not examined in the present study. The universal map gives IR lineshapes in good agreement with measured spectra for isotopically dilute methanol and ethanol, while the two-dimensional IR photon echo spectra give results that differ from experiments. The role of non-Condon effects, reorientation dynamics, hydrogen bonding, and spectral diffusion is discussed.

  7. Alcohol-induced electrical remodeling: effects of sustained short-term ethanol infusion on ion currents in rabbit atrium.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Roman; Eick, Christian; Schwiebert, Mareike; Schreiner, Birgit; Weig, Hans-Joerg; Weretka, Slawomir; Bosch, Ralph F; Schreieck, Juergen

    2009-10-01

    In some patients, above-average alcohol consumption before occurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in terms of a "holiday heart syndrome" (HHS) can be determined. There is evidence that long before development of apparent alcohol-induced cardiomyopathy, above-average alcohol consumption generates an arrhythmogenic substrate which abets the onset of AF. Changes of atrial current densities in terms of an electrical remodeling after sustained short-term ethanol infusion in rabbits as a potential part of HHS pathophysiology were examined in this study. Rabbits of the ethanol group (EG) received sustained short-term intravenous alcohol infusion for 120 hours (during infusion period, blood alcohol level did not fall below 158 mg/dl), whereas NaCl 0.9% was infused in the placebo group (PG). Using patch clamp technique in whole-cell mode, atrial current densities were measured and compared between both groups. Ethanol infusion did not alter current densities of I(to) [58.7 +/- 5.0 pA/pF (PG, n = 20 cells) vs. 53.9 +/- 5.0 pA/pF (EG, n = 24)], I(sus) [11.3 +/- 1.4 pA/pF (PG, n = 20) vs. 10.2 +/- 1.0 pA/pF (EG, n = 24)], and I(K1) [-1.6 +/- 0.3 pA/pF (PG, n = 17) vs. -2.0 +/- 0.3 pA/pF (EG, n = 22)]. However, alcohol infusion resulted in a remarkable reduction of I(Ca,L) current densities [-28.4 +/- 1.8 pA/pF (PG, n = 20) vs. -15.2 +/- 1.4 pA/pF (EG, n = 22)] and I(Na) [-75.4 +/- 3.6 pA/pF (PG, n = 17) vs. -35.4 +/- 4.4 pA/pF (EG, n = 21)], respectively. Sustained short-term ethanol infusion in rabbits alters atrial current densities. HHS might be favored by alcohol-induced atrial electrical remodeling.

  8. Comparing the effects of various fuel alcohols on the natural attenuation of Benzene Plumes using a general substrate interaction model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Diego E.; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2010-04-01

    The effects of five fuel alcohols (methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, iso-butanol and n-butanol) on the natural attenuation of benzene were compared using a previously developed numerical model (General Substrate Interaction Module — GSIM) and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Simulations with a 30 gal dissolving LNAPL (light non-aqueous phase liquid) source consisting of a range of gasoline blends (10% and 85% v:v alcohol content) suggest that all fuel alcohols can hinder the natural attenuation of benzene, due mainly to accelerated depletion of dissolved oxygen and a decrease in the specific degradation rate for benzene (due to catabolite repression and metabolic flux dilution). Simulations for blends with 10% alcohol, assuming a homogeneous sandy aquifer, inferred maximum benzene plume elongations (relative to a regular gasoline release) of 26% for ethanol, 47% for iso-butanol, 147% for methanol, 188% for 1-propanol, and 265% for n-butanol. The corresponding elongation percentages for blends with 85% alcohol were generally smaller (i.e., 25%, 54%, 135%, 163%, and 181%, respectively), reflecting a lower content of benzene in the simulated release. Benzene plume elongation and longevity were more pronounced in the presence of alcohols that biodegrade slower (e.g., propanol and n-butanol), forming longer and more persistent alcohol plumes. Conversely, ethanol and iso-butanol exhibited the lowest potential to hinder the natural attenuation of benzene, illustrating the significant effect that a small difference in chemical structure (e.g., isomers) can have on biodegradation. Overall, simulations were highly sensitive to site-specific biokinetic coefficients for alcohol degradation, which forewarns against generalizations about the level of impact of specific fuel alcohols on benzene plume dynamics.

  9. Alcohol dehydrogenase activities and ethanol tolerance in Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae) fruit-fly species and their hybrids

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The ADH (alcohol dehydrogenase) system is one of the earliest known models of molecular evolution, and is still the most studied in Drosophila. Herein, we studied this model in the genus Anastrepha (Diptera, Tephritidae). Due to the remarkable advantages it presents, it is possible to cross species with different Adh genotypes and with different phenotype traits related to ethanol tolerance. The two species studied here each have a different number of Adh gene copies, whereby crosses generate polymorphisms in gene number and in composition of the genetic background. We measured certain traits related to ethanol metabolism and tolerance. ADH specific enzyme activity presented gene by environment interactions, and the larval protein content showed an additive pattern of inheritance, whilst ADH enzyme activity per larva presented a complex behavior that may be explained by epistatic effects. Regression models suggest that there are heritable factors acting on ethanol tolerance, which may be related to enzymatic activity of the ADHs and to larval mass, although a pronounced environmental effect on ethanol tolerance was also observed. By using these data, we speculated on the mechanisms of ethanol tolerance and its inheritance as well as of associated traits. PMID:21637665

  10. Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase overexpression in Escherichia coli resulted in high ethanol production and rewired metabolic enzyme networks.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingfeng; Li, Xuefeng; Bu, Chunya; Wang, Hui; Shi, Guanglu; Yang, Xiushan; Hu, Yong; Wang, Xiaoqin

    2014-11-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase and alcohol dehydrogenase are efficient enzymes for ethanol production in Zymomonas mobilis. These two enzymes were over-expressed in Escherichia coli, a promising candidate for industrial ethanol production, resulting in high ethanol production in the engineered E. coli. To investigate the intracellular changes to the enzyme overexpression for homoethanol production, 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were performed. More than 1,000 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the gel by image analysis. Compared to the wild-type, 99 protein spots showed significant changes in abundance in the recombinant E. coli, in which 46 were down-regulated and 53 were up-regulated. Most proteins related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, glycerol metabolism and other energy metabolism were up-regulated, whereas proteins involved in glycolysis and glyoxylate pathway were down-regulated, indicating the rewired metabolism in the engineered E. coli. As glycolysis is the main pathway for ethanol production, and it was inhibited significantly in engineered E. coli, further efforts should be directed at minimizing the repression of glycolysis to optimize metabolism network for higher yields of ethanol production.

  11. Withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption results in increased packing density of glutamine synthetase-immunoreactive astrocytes in the prelimbic cortex of alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, José Javier

    2006-01-01

    Excess activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebral cortex following ethanol withdrawal is considered to contribute to significant behavioural disturbances, and to alcohol craving. Astrocytes may play a role in these manifestations because astrocytes are essential in the regulation of released glutamate and its conversion to glutamine through the enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS). However, it is unclear if withdrawal from free-choice ethanol drinking causes changes in the numbers of astrocytes expressing GS or the cytoskeletal protein of astrocytes glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed to free-choice ethanol drinking were either maintained without forced interruption of ethanol drinking, subjected to a 3-day withdrawal period at the end of 2 months, or subjected to three 3-day withdrawal periods along 6 months. At 2 months, P rats were also compared with alcohol-naïve alcohol non-preferring rats (NP) rats. Packing density of GS and GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) astrocytes was measured in sections from the prelimbic cortex (PLC) using the optical disector probe. An alcohol deprivation effect was observed in P rats with withdrawals during a 6-month ethanol drinking period. Ethanol withdrawal significantly increased the packing density of GS- and GFAP-IR astrocytes in the PLC of P rats as compared with P rats with continuous access to ethanol. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the pre-withdrawal ethanol consumption and the packing density of GS-IR astrocytes. The present results suggest the involvement of astrocytes in the regulation of the glutamatergic activation associated with withdrawal from free-choice ethanol consumption and point to differential adaptations of GS and GFAP to prolonged alcohol drinking in the PLC of P rats.

  12. Effects of short deprivation and re-exposure intervals on the ethanol drinking behavior of selectively bred high alcohol-consuming rats.

    PubMed

    Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Schultz, Jonathon A; Peper, Caron L; Lumeng, Lawrence; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J

    2008-08-01

    Alcoholics generally display cycles of excessive ethanol intake, abstinence and relapse behavior. Using an animal model of relapse-like drinking, the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE), our laboratory has shown that repeated 2-week cycles of ethanol deprivation and re-exposure, following an initial 6-week access period, result in a robust ADE by alcohol-preferring (P) and high alcohol-drinking (HAD-1 and HAD-2) rats. These rat lines have been selectively bred to prefer a 10% ethanol solution over water. The present study examined whether P and HAD rats would display an ADE using much shorter ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals. Rats were given either continuous or periodic concurrent access to multiple concentrations (10%, 20%, and 30% [vol/vol]) of ethanol. The periodic protocol involved access to ethanol for 12 days followed by four cycles of 4 days of deprivation and 4 days of re-exposure to ethanol access. High-alcohol-drinking rats displayed a robust 24-h ADE upon first re-exposure (HAD-1: approximately 5 vs. 8g/kg/day; HAD-2: approximately 6 vs. 9g/kg/day, baseline vs. re-exposure), whereas P rats ( approximately 7 vs. 8g/kg/day) displayed a modest, nonsignificant, increase in 24-h intake. In a separate group of rats, ethanol intake and blood alcohol concentrations after the first hour of the fourth re-exposure cycle were HAD-1: 2.0g/kg and 97 mg%, HAD-2: 2.3g/kg and 73 mg%, and P: 1.2g/kg and 71 mg%; with all three lines displaying a robust first hour ADE. These findings suggest that (a) an ADE may be observed with short ethanol deprivation and re-exposure intervals in HAD rats, and (b) the genetic make-up of the P and HAD rats influences the expression of this ADE.

  13. Sound absorption and concentration fluctuations in water-propanol mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madigosky, W. M.; Warfield, R. W.

    1987-02-01

    The excess ultrasonic sound absorption in 1-propanol water mixtures has been measured from 45 kHz to 474 MHz and is shown to result from a coupling of the sound wave with the long-wavelength spectrum of the composition fluctuations. The results are shown to be in agreement with the fluctuation theories of Fixman, Romanov and Solovyev, and Kawasaki and the more recent theories of Kroll and Ruhland, and Bhattacharjee and Ferrell. It is further suggested that the large absorption observed in alcohol-water mixtures may be due to the presence of large associated groups, or clusters.

  14. Adsorption and Reaction of C1-C3 Alcohols over CeOx(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    D Mullins; S Senanayake; T Chen

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub x}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  15. Effect of the allelic variant of alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1B*2 on ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kang, Gaeun; Bae, Kyung-Yeol; Kim, Sung-Wan; Kim, Jin; Shin, Hee-Young; Kim, Jae-Min; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang; Kim, Jong-Keun

    2014-06-01

    It has been known that ADH1B*2 allele has a protective effect against the development of alcohol dependence. However, the protection mechanism is still unknown. We investigated whether ADH1B gene polymorphism affects ethanol (EtOH) metabolism. In a parent study, we conducted a randomized crossover trials on 24 healthy male subjects who were selected by genotyping: 12 with ALDH2*1/*1 (active form) and 12 with ALDH2*1/*2 (inactive form). In the present study, the 24 subjects were reclassified into 2 groups of 11 with ADH1B*1/*2 and 13 with ADH1B*2/*2 according to the ADH1B genotypes. Each subject was administered 1 of 3 doses of EtOH (0.25, 0.5, 0.75 g/kg) or a placebo in 4 trials. After the administration of alcohol, blood EtOH and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured 9 times over 4 hours. In the case of EtOH, the area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 4 hours (AUC0-4 ) and the peak blood concentration of EtOH (Cmax ) in subjects with ADH1B*2/*2 were significantly higher than those in subjects with ADH1B*1/*2 at all 3 dosages before stratifying by ALDH2 genotype. However, after stratifying by ALDH2 genotype, a statistically significant difference between ADH1B*2/*2 and ADH1B*1/*2 was found only at the 0.5 g/kg dosage regardless of ALDH2 genotype. In the case of acetaldehyde, the AUC0-4 and Cmax of acetaldehyde of ADH1B*2/*2 after administration of 0.25 g/kg alcohol and the AUC0-4 of acetaldehyde of ADH1B*2/*2 at 0.5 g/kg were significantly higher than corresponding values of ADH1B*1/*2 only in the group of ALDH2*1/*2. Our findings indicate that the blood EtOH concentrations of ADH1B*2/*2 group are higher than those of ADH1B*1/*2 group regardless of ALDH2 genotype, and the blood acetaldehyde concentrations of ADH1B*2/*2 are also higher than those of ADH1B*1/*2 only in the ALDH2*1/*2 group. To our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the association of ADH1B*2 allele with blood EtOH and acetaldehyde levels in humans, and these results

  16. Striatal modulation of BDNF expression using microRNA124a-expressing lentiviral vectors impairs ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference and voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2013-07-01

    Alcohol abuse is a major health, economic and social concern in modern societies, but the exact molecular mechanisms underlying ethanol addiction remain elusive. Recent findings show that small non-coding microRNA (miRNA) signaling contributes to complex behavioral disorders including drug addiction. However, the role of miRNAs in ethanol-induced conditioned-place preference (CPP) and voluntary alcohol consumption has not yet been directly addressed. Here, we assessed the expression profile of miR124a in the dorsal striatum of rats upon ethanol intake. The results show that miR124a was downregulated in the dorso-lateral striatum (DLS) following alcohol drinking. Then, we identified brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a direct target of miR124a. In fact, BDNF mRNA was upregulated following ethanol drinking. We used lentiviral vector (LV) gene transfer technology to further address the role of miR124a and its direct target BDNF in ethanol-induced CPP and alcohol consumption. Results reveal that stereotaxic injection of LV-miR124a in the DLS enhances ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm. Moreover, miR124a-silencer (LV-siR124a) as well as LV-BDNF infusion in the DLS attenuates ethanol-induced CPP as well as voluntary alcohol consumption. Importantly, LV-miR124a, LV-siR124a and LV-BDNF have no effect on saccharin and quinine intake. Our findings indicate that striatal miR124a and BDNF signaling have crucial roles in alcohol consumption and ethanol conditioned reward.

  17. Oxidation of methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol with human alcohol dehydrogenases and the inhibition by ethanol and 4-methylpyrazole.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shou-Lun; Shih, Hsuan-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chou; Li, Yeung-Pin; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2011-05-30

    Human alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) include multiple isozymes with broad substrate specificity and ethnic distinct allozymes. ADH catalyzes the rate-limiting step in metabolism of various primary and secondary aliphatic alcohols. The oxidation of common toxic alcohols, that is, methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropanol by the human ADHs remains poorly understood. Kinetic studies were performed in 0.1M sodium phosphate buffer, at pH 7.5 and 25°C, containing 0.5 mM NAD(+) and varied concentrations of substrate. K(M) values for ethanol with recombinant human class I ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, and ADH1C2, and class II ADH2 and class IV ADH4 were determined to be in the range of 0.12-57 mM, for methanol to be 2.0-3500 mM, for ethylene glycol to be 4.3-2600mM, and for isopropanol to be 0.73-3400 mM. ADH1B3 appeared to be inactive toward ethylene glycol, and ADH2 and ADH4, inactive with methanol. The variations for V(max) for the toxic alcohols were much less than that of the K(M) across the ADH family. 4-Methylpyrazole (4MP) was a competitive inhibitor with respect to ethanol for ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1C1 and ADH1C2, and a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH1B3, ADH2 and ADH4, with the slope inhibition constants (K(is)) for the whole family being 0.062-960 μM and the intercept inhibition constants (K(ii)), 33-3000 μM. Computer simulation studies using inhibition equations in the presence of alternate substrate ethanol and of dead-end inhibitor 4MP with the determined corresponding kinetic parameters for ADH family, indicate that the oxidation of the toxic alcohols up to 50mM are largely inhibited by 20 mM ethanol or by 50 μM 4MP with some exceptions. The above findings provide an enzymological basis for clinical treatment of methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning by 4MP or ethanol with pharmacogenetic perspectives.

  18. Homogeneous catalysis of ethyl tert-butyl ether formation from tert-butyl alcohol in hot, compressed liquid ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Habenicht, C.; Kam, L.C.; Wilschut, M.J.; Antal, M.J. Jr.

    1995-11-01

    Ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and isobutene are the only significant products of the sulfuric acid ({le} 0.001 M) catalyzed reactions of tert-butyl alcohol in water/ethanol mixtures at 3 MPa and 170 C. Equilibrium is established after a few minutes or less. A 10 parameter kinetic model which embodies a first order elimination reaction and a first order nucleophilic substitution reaction adequately describes the influences of reactant (ethanol, water, and tert-butyl alcohol) concentrations, acid concentration, and residence time on product yields. The fit of the model to the data improves when the influence of water on the solvent`s dielectric constant is included by the addition of two more parameters. One finding of the simulation effort is that protonated isobutene (the key ingredient in ETBE formation) forms only from tert-butyl alcohol (not isobutene) under the conditions employed in this work. Thus tert-butyl alcohol should be preferred over isobutene as a reactant for ETBE synthesis at elevated pressures and temperatures.

  19. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  20. Offspring of parents with an alcohol use disorder prefer higher levels of brain alcohol exposure in experiments involving computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE).

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ulrich S; Mick, Inge; Laucht, Manfred; Vitvitskiy, Victor; Plawecki, Martin H; Mann, Karl F; O'Connor, Sean

    2009-03-01

    Acute alcohol effects may differ in social drinkers with a positive family history of alcohol use disorders (FHP) compared to FH negative (FHN) controls. To investigate whether FHP subjects prefer higher levels of brain alcohol exposure than do FHN controls. Twenty-two young healthy nondependent social drinkers participated in two identical sessions of computer-assisted self-infusion of ethanol (CASE); the first for practicing the procedures, the second to test hypotheses. All 12 FHP (four women) and ten FHN (three women) participants received a priming exposure, increasing arterial blood alcohol concentration (aBAC) to 30 mg% at 10 min and decreasing it to 15 mg% at 25 min. A 2-h self-administration period followed, during which only the subjects could increase their aBAC by pressing a button connected to a computer controlling the infusion pump. Infusion rate profiles were calculated instantaneously to increase aBAC by precisely 7.5 mg% within 2.5 min after each button press, followed by a steady descent. Subjects were instructed to produce the same alcohol effects as they would do at a weekend party. The mean and maximum aBAC during the self-administration period and the number of alcohol requests (NOAR) were significantly higher in the FHP vs. FHN participants. This is the first laboratory experiment demonstrating higher alcohol self-administration in FHP compared to FHN subjects. A practice session increases the sensitivity of CASE experiments for detection of subtle differences in human alcohol self-administration.

  1. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partial pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.

  2. Adsorption of 2-propanol on ice probed by ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Newberg, John T.; Bluhm, Hendrik

    2015-08-18

    The interaction of 2-propanol with ice was examined via ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS), a surface sensitive technique that probes the adsorbed 2-propanol directly with submonolayer resolution. Isothermal uptake experiments were performed on vapor deposited ice at 227 K in the presence of the equilibrium water vapor pressure of 0.05 Torr and 2-propanol partial pressures ranging from 5 × 10-5 to 2 × 10-3 Torr. The C 1s APXPS spectra of adsorbed 2-propanol showed two characteristic peaks associated with the COH alcohol group and CMe methyl groups in a 1 : 2 ratio, respectively. Coverage increased with 2-propanol partialmore » pressure and followed first order Langmuir kinetics with a Langmuir constant of K = 6.3 × 103 Torr-1. The 1 : 2 ratio of COH : CMe remained constant with increasing coverage, indicating there is no chemical reaction upon adsorption. The observed Langmuir kinetics using APXPS is consistent with previous observations of other small chain alcohols via indirect adsorption methods using, e.g., Knudsen cell and coated wall flow tube reactors.« less

  3. The Formation of Ethanol in Postmortem Tissues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    for ethanol analysis. The postmortem tissue specimens received by our laboratory have generally been subjected to severe trauma and may have been...Furthermore, the tissue specimens received by our laboratory typically have been subjected to trauma as a result of the violent nature of avia- tion...uoride, t-butanol, acetaldehyde , methanol, 2-propanol, acetone, n-propanol, isobutanol, n-butanol, sec-butanol and ethanol were purchased from Sigma

  4. [Forensic medical expertise of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy in the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine].

    PubMed

    Sokolova, O V; Petrova, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cases of sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy of the subjects having a low ethanol concentration in the blood and urine; the second objective was the statistical analysis of the data thus obtained. It was shown that sudden cardiac death from alcoholic cardiomyopathy occurs in the men more frequently than in the women despite rather low ethanol levels in the blood and urine of both genders or even in the cases of complete absence of ethanol in these fluids. It is concluded that ethanol concentration in the blood and urine of the subjects who died from the alcohol-induced heart injury depends on their age and sex.

  5. Kinetics of the. gamma. -radiation-initiated reaction of 2-propanol with tri- and hexafluoropropylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zamyslov, R.A.; Shostenko, A.G.; Dobrov, I.V.; Tarasova, N.P.

    1988-02-01

    The initiation of telomerization reactions by ionizing radiation provides good opportunities for studying the kinetics of free radical reactions. The fluoroalcohols and their derivatives prepared using fluoroolefins and aliphatic alcohols find wide practical application. The object of this exercise was to study the reactivity of trifluoropropylene and hexafluoropropylene with 2-propanol. The reaction products were analyzed gas chromatographically.

  6. Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Lee, Sang Yup

    2014-09-02

    Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols.

  7. Metabolic Engineering of Microorganisms for the Production of Higher Alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Jun; Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the increasing concerns about limited fossil resources and environmental problems, there has been much interest in developing biofuels from renewable biomass. Ethanol is currently used as a major biofuel, as it can be easily produced by existing fermentation technology, but it is not the best biofuel due to its low energy density, high vapor pressure, hygroscopy, and incompatibility with current infrastructure. Higher alcohols, including 1-propanol, 1-butanol, isobutanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 3-methyl-1-butanol, which possess fuel properties more similar to those of petroleum-based fuel, have attracted particular interest as alternatives to ethanol. Since microorganisms isolated from nature do not allow production of these alcohols at high enough efficiencies, metabolic engineering has been employed to enhance their production. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the production of higher alcohols. PMID:25182323

  8. Low-energy process to extract anhydrous ethanol from fermentation beers. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, L.D.; Allen, M.B.; Cekala, C.

    1982-11-01

    The feasibility of an energy efficient technique was demonstrated utilizing patented POROPLASTIC ultramicroporous membranes for the separation of ethanol from fermentation beers. Initial research focused on the selection of the best solvent for extracting ethanol from aqueous ethanol feed streams. The most promising solvents were selected on the basis of physical properties, distribution coefficients, water rejection capabilities and cost. Several of the best strip solvents were then employed in actual membrane extractions. A single-membrane extraction module was constructed, in which a strip solvent stream and an aqueous ethanol stream encountered a Poroplastic membrane. The membrane established the interface where ethanol transfer occurred. Membrane extraction systems with good ethanol extraction characteristics were successfully designed. A 33% ethanol solution was reduced to 26% in a long-term extraction experiment with a net transport rate of 476 ..mu..g/cm/sup 2//min. Even though the rates of ethanol recovery appeared very promising the rates of water transfer were also significant. The co-extraction of water and ethanol prevented the production of an anhydrous ethanol product stream.

  9. Drunken Membranes: Short-Chain Alcohols Alter Fusion of Liposomes to Planar Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Paxman, Jason; Hunt, Brady; Hallan, David; Zarbock, Samuel R; Woodbury, Dixon J

    2017-01-10

    Although the effects of ethanol on protein receptors and lipid membranes have been studied extensively, ethanol's effect on vesicles fusing to lipid bilayers is not known. To determine the effect of alcohols on fusion rates, we utilized the nystatin/ergosterol fusion assay to measure fusion of liposomes to a planar lipid bilayer (BLM). The addition of ethanol excited fusion when applied on the cis (vesicle) side, and inhibited fusion on the trans side. Other short-chain alcohols followed a similar pattern. In general, the inhibitory effect of alcohols (trans) occurs at lower doses than the excitatory (cis) effect, with a decrease of 29% in fusion rates at the legal driving limit of 0.08% (w/v) ethanol (IC50 = 0.2% v/v, 34 mM). Similar inhibitory effects were observed with methanol, propanol, and butanol, with ethanol being the most potent. Significant variability was observed with different alcohols when applied to the cis side. Ethanol and propanol enhanced fusion, butanol also enhanced fusion but was less potent, and low doses of methanol mildly inhibited fusion. The inhibition by trans addition of alcohols implies that they alter the planar membrane structure and thereby increase the activation energy required for fusion, likely through an increase in membrane fluidity. The cis data are likely a combination of the above effect and a proportionally greater lowering of the vesicle lysis tension and hydration repulsive pressure that combine to enhance fusion. Alternate hypotheses are also discussed. The inhibitory effect of ethanol on liposome-membrane fusion is large enough to provide a possible biophysical explanation of compromised neuronal behavior.

  10. The Millimeter- and Submillimeter-Wave Spectrum of the Gt Conformer of n-Propanol (n-CH3CH2CH2OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Atsuko; De Lucia, Frank C.; Herbst, Eric; Pearson, John C.; Riccobono, Joanna; Trosell, Elizabeth; Bohn, Robert K.

    2006-02-01

    As part of our continuing spectroscopic program of measuring the rotational spectra of large gas-phase molecules that may exist in observable quantities in the interstellar medium, we have studied the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum of the alcohol n-propanol (n-CH3CH2CH2OH), a straight-chain molecule with one more carbon atom than ethanol, which has already been detected in hot molecular cores. Although the molecule is thought to exist in five different conformers, we have only studied what is most likely to be the Gauche-trans (Gt) conformer, and analyzed over 2800 lines through 375 GHz in frequency. These lines have been added to both previously and newly measured rotational lines at lower frequencies. The global data set has been fitted to experimental accuracy, allowing us to determine accurate spectral parameters so as to predict useful frequencies for many more transitions of the conformer.

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum of the Gt conformer of n-propanol (n-CH3CH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, A.; de, F. C. Lucia; Herbst, E.; Pearson, J. C.; Riccobono, J.; Trosell, E.; Bohn, R. K.

    As part of our continuing spectroscopic program of measuring the rotational spectra of large gas-phase molecules that may exist in observable quantities in the interstellar medium, we have studied the millimeter- and submillimeter-wave spectrum of the alcohol n-propanol (n-CH3CH2CH2OH), a straight-chain molecule with one more carbon atom than ethanol, which has already been detected in hot molecular cores. Although the molecule is thought to exist in five different conformers, we have only studied what is most likely to be the Gauche-trans (Gt) conformer, and analyzed over 2800 lines through 375GHz in frequency. (2 data files).

  12. β-Lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, attenuates ethanol intake and increases glial glutamate transporters expression in alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Sari, Youssef

    2017-09-14

    Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression. We found that clavulanic acid, at 5mg/kg (i.p.) dose, significantly attenuated ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in P rats as compared to vehicle-treated group. This effect was associated with a significant increase in water intake in clavulanic acid treated group. Importantly, we found that clavulanic acid increased the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in nucleus accumbens. However, there was no effect of clavulanic acid on GLAST expression in the nucleus accumbens. Clavulanic acid treatment did not upregulate the expression of GLT-1, xCT and GLAST in prefrontal cortex. These findings revealed that clavulanic acid at 20-40 fold lower dose than ceftriaxone can attenuate ethanol consumption, in part through upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, we suggest that clavulanic acid might be used as an alternative option to ceftriaxone to attenuate ethanol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Inhibition of human alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases by acetaminophen: Assessment of the effects on first-pass metabolism of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yung-Pin; Liao, Jian-Tong; Cheng, Ya-Wen; Wu, Ting-Lun; Lee, Shou-Lun; Liu, Jong-Kang; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2013-11-01

    Acetaminophen is one of the most widely used over-the-counter analgesic, antipyretic medications. Use of acetaminophen and alcohol are commonly associated. Previous studies showed that acetaminophen might affect bioavailability of ethanol by inhibiting gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, potential inhibitions by acetaminophen of first-pass metabolism (FPM) of ethanol, catalyzed by the human ADH family and by relevant aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) isozymes, remain undefined. ADH and ALDH both exhibit racially distinct allozymes and tissue-specific distribution of isozymes, and are principal enzymes responsible for ethanol metabolism in humans. In this study, we investigated acetaminophen inhibition of ethanol oxidation with recombinant human ADH1A, ADH1B1, ADH1B2, ADH1B3, ADH1C1, ADH1C2, ADH2, and ADH4, and inhibition of acetaldehyde oxidation with recombinant human ALDH1A1 and ALDH2. The investigations were done at near physiological pH 7.5 and with a cytoplasmic coenzyme concentration of 0.5 mM NAD(+). Acetaminophen acted as a noncompetitive inhibitor for ADH enzymes, with the slope inhibition constants (Kis) ranging from 0.90 mM (ADH2) to 20 mM (ADH1A), and the intercept inhibition constants (Kii) ranging from 1.4 mM (ADH1C allozymes) to 19 mM (ADH1A). Acetaminophen exhibited noncompetitive inhibition for ALDH2 (Kis = 3.0 mM and Kii = 2.2 mM), but competitive inhibition for ALDH1A1 (Kis = 0.96 mM). The metabolic interactions between acetaminophen and ethanol/acetaldehyde were assessed by computer simulation using inhibition equations and the determined kinetic constants. At therapeutic to subtoxic plasma levels of acetaminophen (i.e., 0.2-0.5 mM) and physiologically relevant concentrations of ethanol (10 mM) and acetaldehyde (10 μm) in target tissues, acetaminophen could inhibit ADH1C allozymes (12-26%) and ADH2 (14-28%) in the liver and small intestine, ADH4 (15-31%) in the stomach, and ALDH1A1 (16-33%) and ALDH2 (8.3-19%) in all 3 tissues. The

  14. Oxidation with the H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-VO{sub 3}{sup -} - pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid reagent 2. Oxidation of alcohols and aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Shul`pin, G.B.; Druzhinina, A.N.; Nizova, G.V.

    1994-02-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalytic amounts of VO{sub 3}{sup -} and pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid into phenols (provided excess hydrocarbon is used) or into quinones (at high H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations). 2-Propanol, ethanol, cyclohexanol, and benzyl alcohol are transformed into the corresponding aldehydes and ketones under the same conditions (without a solvent or in MeCN).

  15. Decreased expression of nardilysin in SH-SY5Y cells under ethanol stress and reduced density of nardilysin-expressing neurons in brains of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Stricker, Rolf; Zschiebsch, Katja; Müller, Susan; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Steiner, Johann; Bogerts, Bernhard; Reiser, Georg

    2013-03-01

    There is evidence for a genetic link between the metalloendopeptidase nardilysin and alcohol dependence, but the functional implication of the enzyme in alcoholism is unknown. Interestingly, some of the enzyme's substrates and interaction partners are altered in neural and non-neural tissues under the influence of ethanol consumption. To learn more about putative roles of nardilysin in alcohol dependence we studied the expression of the enzyme protein in human neuroblastoma cells under chronic ethanol exposure as well as in four brain regions of alcoholics and matched controls. Cultured SH-SY5Y cells were exposed for 96 h to two different concentrations of ethanol (50 and 200 mM). Nardilysin expression was determined using Western blotting with densitometric analysis. Furthermore, we morphometrically studied the cellular expression of nardilysin in postmortem brains of eight chronic alcoholics and nine controls by counting the number of nardilysin-immunopositive neurons in left frontal limbic area, Nuc. basalis of Meynert, paraventricular and supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei and calculating numerical cell densities. Nardilysin expression was significantly reduced after 96 h of SH-SY5Y cells exposure to 200 mM ethanol. In human brains nardilysin protein was localized to multiple neurons. In heavy drinkers there was a significantly reduced density of nardilysin immunoreactive neurons in Nuc. basalis of Meynert, paraventricular, and supraoptic nuclei. The alcohol-dependent reduction of nardilysin in cell culture and nervous tissue points to an implication of the enzyme in the pathophysiology of alcoholism.

  16. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  17. Development of an amperometric ethanol biosensor based on a multiwalled carbon nanotube-Nafion-alcohol dehydrogenase nanobiocomposite.

    PubMed

    Liaw, Hong-Wei; Chen, Jie-Ming; Tsai, Yu-Chen

    2006-08-01

    An amperometric biosensor for the determination of ethanol has been constructed. It comprises a multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) conduit, a Nafion binder, and an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) function. The measurement of ethanol is based on the signal produced by beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), the product of the enzymatic reaction. The MWNTs are cylindrical with an outer diameter in the range 40-60 nm, an inner diameter in the range 2-5 nm, and a length of up to several micrometers. The homogeneity of the resulting nanobiocomposite film was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The performance of the MWNTs-Nafion-ADH nanobiocomposite modified glassy carbon electrode was examined using cyclic voltammetry and amperometry in presence of NADH and in the presence of ethanol. The electrocatalytic activity of MWNTs towards the oxidation of NADH has allowed an effective low-potential amperometric determination of ethanol. In the case of 6 mgmL(-1) ADH, the MWNTs-Nafion-ADH nanobiocomposite film displayed a sensitivity of 830 nAmM(-1), a linear range up to 0.1 mM, a detection limit of 3 microM, and a response time of about 4 s.

  18. Catalyst for producing lower alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, Jerome W.; Klingler, Robert J.; Heiberger, John J.

    1987-01-01

    A process and system for the production of the lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol and propanol involves the reaction of carbon monoxide and water in the presence of a lead salt and an alkali metal formate catalyst combination. The lead salt is present as solid particles such as lead titanate, lead molybdate, lead vanadate, lead zirconate, lead tantalate and lead silicates coated or in slurry within molten alkali metal formate. The reactants, carbon monoxide and steam are provided in gas form at relatively low pressures below 100 atmospheres and at temperatures of 200-400.degree. C. The resulted lower alcohols can be separated into boiling point fractions and recovered from the excess reactants by distillation.

  19. A rapid and sensitive alcohol oxidase/catalase conductometric biosensor for alcohol determination.

    PubMed

    Hnaien, M; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N

    2010-04-15

    A new conductometric biosensor has been developed for the determination of short chain primary aliphatic alcohols. The biosensor assembly was prepared through immobilization of alcohol oxidase from Hansenula sp. and bovine liver catalase in a photoreticulated poly(vinyl alcohol) membrane at the surface of interdigitated microelectrodes. The local conductivity increased rapidly after alcohol addition, reaching steady-state within 10 min. The sensitivity was maximal for methanol (0.394+/-0.004 microS microM(-1), n=5) and decreased by increasing the alcohol chain length. The response was linear up to 75 microM for methanol, 70 microM for ethanol and 65 microM for 1-propanol and limits of detection were 0.5 microM, 1 microM and 3 microM, respectively (S/N=3). No significant loss of the enzyme activities was observed after 3 months of storage at 4 degrees C in a 20mM phosphate buffer solution pH 7.2 (two or three measurements per week). After 4 months, 95% of the initial signal still remained. The biosensor response to ethanol was not significantly affected by acetic, lactic, ascorbic, malic, oxalic, citric, tartaric acids or glucose. The bi-enzymatic sensor was successfully applied to the determination of ethanol in different alcoholic beverages. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Reduction of furfural to furfuryl alcohol by ethanologenic strains of bacteria and its effect on ethanol production from xylose.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Tony; Buszko, Marian L; Ingram, Lonnie O; Preston, James F

    2002-01-01

    The ethanologenic bacteria Escherichia coli strains KO11 and LYO1, and Klebsiella oxytoca strain P2, were investigated for their ability to metabolize furfural. Using high performance liquid chromatography and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, furfural was found to be completely biotransformed into furfuryl alcohol by each of the three strains with tryptone and yeast extract as sole carbon sources. This reduction appears to be constitutive with NAD(P)H acting as electron donor. Glucose was shown to be an effective source of reducing power. Succinate inhibited furfural reduction, indicating that flavins are unlikely participants in this process. Furfural at concentrations >10 mM decreased the rate of ethanol formation but did not affect the final yield. Insight into the biochemical nature of this furfural reduction process may help efforts to mitigate furfural toxicity during ethanol production by ethanologenic bacteria.

  1. Alcohol Oxidation at Platinum–Gas and Platinum–Liquid Interfaces: The Effect of Platinum Nanoparticle Size, Water Coadsorption, and Alcohol Concentration

    DOE PAGES

    Tatsumi, Hironori; Liu, Fudong; Han, Hui-Ling; ...

    2017-03-21

    Platinum nanoparticles size range from 1 to 8 nm deposited on mesoporous silica MCF-17 catalyzed alcohol oxidations were studied in the gas and liquid phases. Among methanol, ethanol, 2- propanol and 2-butanol reactions, the turnover frequency increased with Pt nanoparticle size for all the alcohols utilized. The activation energies for the oxidations were almost same among all alcohol species, but higher in the gas phase than those in the liquid phase. Water coadsorption poisoned the reaction in the gas phase, while it increased the reaction turnover rates in the liquid phase. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy studies and DFTmore » calculations revealed that the alcohol molecules pack horizontally on the metal surface in low concentrations and stand up in high concentrations, which affect the dissociation of β-hydrogen of the alcohols as the critical step in alcohol oxidations.« less

  2. Adsorption and Reaction of C(1)-C(3) Alcohols over CeO(x)(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Senanayake, Sanjaya D; Chen, Tsung-Liang

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, and 2-propanol with well-ordered CeO{sub 2}(111) thin film surfaces. All of the alcohols adsorb at low temperature by forming alkoxy and hydroxyl species on the surface. On fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111), recombination occurs between some of the alkoxys and hydroxyls, resulting in alcohol desorption near 220 K. At the same temperature, some of the surface hydroxyls disproportionate to produce water and the loss of lattice O. The remaining alkoxys react above 550 K. The primary alcohols favor dehydrogenation products (aldehydes). There is a net loss of O from the system, resulting in a reduction of the ceria. The secondary alcohol, 2-propanol, undergoes primarily dehydration, producing propene with no net change in the cerium oxidation state. Reduced CeO{sub X}(111) competes with the gaseous products for available O. Little or no water is produced. The reaction selectivity for the C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} alcohols shifts toward favoring dehydration products. The loss of O from the alcohols leads to oxidation of the reduced ceria. Compared with the oxidized surface, the alkene desorption shifts to lower temperature, whereas the aldehyde desorption shifts to higher temperature. This indicates that, on the reduced surface, it is easier to break the C-O bond but more difficult to break the O-substrate bond.

  3. Ethanol Metabolism by HeLa Cells Transduced with Human Alcohol Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes: Control of the Pathway by Acetaldehyde Concentration†

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Michinaga; Cyganek, Izabela; Sanghani, Paresh C.; Cho, Won Kyoo; Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Crabb, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Human class I alcohol dehydrogenase 2 isoenzymes (encoded by the ADH1B locus) have large differences in kinetic properties; however, individuals inheriting the alleles for the different isoenzymes exhibit only small differences in alcohol elimination rates. This suggests that other cellular factors must regulate the activity of the isoenzymes. Methods The activity of the isoenzymes expressed from ADH1B*1, ADH1B*2, and ADH1B*3 cDNAs was examined in stably transduced HeLa cell lines, including lines which expressed human low Km aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). The ability of the cells to metabolize ethanol was compared with that of HeLa cells expressing rat class I ADH (HeLa-rat ADH cells), rat hepatoma (H4IIEC3) cells, and rat hepatocytes. Results The isoenzymes had similar protein half-lives in the HeLa cells. Rat hepatocytes, H4IIEC3 cells, and HeLa-rat ADH cells oxidized ethanol much faster than the cells expressing the ADH1B isoenzymes. This was not explained by high cellular NADH levels or endogenous inhibitors; but rather because the activity of the β1 and β2 ADHs were constrained by the accumulation of acetaldehyde, as shown by the increased rate of ethanol oxidation by cell lines expressing β2 ADH plus ALDH2. Conclusion The activity of the human β2 ADH isoenzyme is sensitive to inhibition by acetaldehyde, which likely limits its activity in vivo. This study emphasizes the importance of maintaining a low steady–state acetaldehyde concentration in hepatocytes during ethanol metabolism. PMID:21166830

  4. Correlation between ethanol stress and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non-Saccharomyces in comparison with Saccharomyces cerevisiae by multivariate techniques.

    PubMed

    Archana, K M; Ravi, R; Anu-Appaiah, K A

    2015-10-01

    Wine production is a complex process both from biochemical and microbiological point of view in which yeast plays a central role. The use of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non- Saccharomyces yeasts as mixed starter cultures for wine fermentations is of increasing interest to enhance the quality of wine.The most common stress, yeast cells encounter during wine fermentation is the increase in ethanol concentration.To enhance ethanol tolerance, alteration in the cellular lipid composition is one of its defence mechanism. Ethanol tolerance and cellular fatty acid composition of alcohol producing non Saccharomyces forms were compared with enological strains of Sacccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae used for the study, tolerated 15 % of ethanol and the non Saccharomyces strains such as, Issatchenkia occidentalis and Issatchenkia orientalis tolerated 10 % of ethanol. On exposure of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ethanol stress, the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids increased with concomitant decrease in saturated fatty acids. Decrease in monounsaturated fatty acids, exhibited by non-Saccharomyces yeasts when exposed to ethanol stress, could be one of the reasons for their inability to withstand more than 10 % of alcohol. Multivariate techniques of data analysis - principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were employed in order to establish differentiation criteria as function of yeast strains, alcohol stress and their fatty acid profile. Based on the data, Chemometrics, such as principal component analysis and discriminant function analysis, can be successfully applied to fatty acid data to categorize the yeast.

  5. Saturated and Unsaturated Dietary Fats Differentially Modulate Ethanol-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiome and Metabolome in a Mouse Model of Alcoholic Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Kirpich, Irina A; Petrosino, Joseph; Ajami, Nadim; Feng, Wenke; Wang, Yuhua; Liu, Yanlong; Beier, Juliane I; Barve, Shirish S; Yin, Xinmin; Wei, Xiaoli; Zhang, Xiang; McClain, Craig J

    2016-04-01

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) ranks among major causes of morbidity and mortality. Diet and crosstalk between the gut and liver are important determinants of ALD. We evaluated the effects of different types of dietary fat and ethanol on the gut microbiota composition and metabolic activity and the effect of these changes on liver injury in ALD. Compared with ethanol and a saturated fat diet (medium chain triglycerides enriched), an unsaturated fat diet (corn oil enriched) exacerbated ethanol-induced endotoxemia, liver steatosis, and injury. Major alterations in gut microbiota, including a reduction in Bacteroidetes and an increase in Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, were seen in animals fed an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol but not a saturated fat diet and ethanol. Compared with a saturated fat diet and ethanol, an unsaturated fat diet and ethanol caused major fecal metabolomic changes. Moreover, a decrease in certain fecal amino acids was noted in both alcohol-fed groups. These data support an important role of dietary lipids in ALD pathogenesis and provide insight into mechanisms of ALD development. A diet enriched in unsaturated fats enhanced alcohol-induced liver injury and caused major fecal metagenomic and metabolomic changes that may play an etiologic role in observed liver injury. Dietary lipids can potentially serve as inexpensive interventions for the prevention and treatment of ALD.

  6. Neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 reduces ethanol consumption in part through activation of GLT1 in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Sari, Y; Sreemantula, S N

    2012-12-27

    We have previously shown that ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic known to upregulate glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), reduced ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. GLT1 is a glial glutamate transporter that regulates the majority of extracellular glutamate uptake. We tested in this study the effects of neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 (3-(3-pyridyl)-1-propyl (2S)-1-(3,3-dimethyl-1,2-dioxopentyl)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylate), known also to upregulate GLT1 expression, in ethanol intake in P rats. Male P rats had concurrent access to free choice of 15% and 30% ethanol, water, and food for five weeks. On Week 6, P rats continued in this drinking and food regimen and they were administered either 10 or 20mg/kg GPI-1046 (i.p.), or a vehicle for five consecutive days. Body weight, ethanol intake, and water consumption were measured daily for 8 days starting on Day 1 of GPI-1046 or vehicle i.p. injections. We have also tested the effect of GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) on daily sucrose (10%) intake. The data revealed significant dose-dependent effects in the reduction of ethanol intake starting 48 h after the first treatment with GPI-1046 throughout treatment and post-treatment periods. There were also dose-dependent increases in water intake. However, GPI-1046 treatment did not affect the body weight of all animals nor sucrose intake. Importantly, GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level compared to all groups in nucleus accumbens core (NAc-core). Alternatively, GPI-1046 (10mg/kg) upregulated GLT1 level in NAc-core compared to vehicle (ethanol naïve) group. Moreover, both doses of GPI-1046 increased significantly GLT1 level in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) compared to ethanol naïve vehicle group. GPI-1046 (20mg/kg) increased GLT1 level in PFC compared to naïve control group that was exposed to water and food only. These findings demonstrated that neuroimmunophilin GPI-1046 attenuates ethanol intake in part through the upregulation of GLT1 in PFC and NAc-core.

  7. Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzymatic reaction was investigated and typical Michaelis-Mentin kinetics was observed during the first week. The first order reaction at relatively low concentrations of ethanol and the pseudo zero-order reaction at high concentrations of ethanol were emphasized.

  8. Kinetics of Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Catalyzed Oxidation of Ethanol Followed by Visible Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendinskas, Kestutis; DiJiacomo, Christopher; Krill, Allison; Vitz, Ed

    2005-01-01

    The effect of substrate concentration on the rate of enzymatic reaction was investigated and typical Michaelis-Mentin kinetics was observed during the first week. The first order reaction at relatively low concentrations of ethanol and the pseudo zero-order reaction at high concentrations of ethanol were emphasized.

  9. Effects of ethanol exposure on subsequent acquisition and extinction of ethanol self-administration and expression of alcohol-seeking behavior in adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats: I. Periadolescent exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodd-Henricks, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2002-11-01

    The current study examined the effects of ethanol (EtOH) drinking during periadolescence on the subsequent acquisition and extinction of operant self-administration of EtOH and expression of alcohol-seeking behavior in adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats to test the hypothesis that alcohol drinking during periadolescence produces enduring alterations that enhance the reinforcing properties of EtOH. Periadolescent female P rats were given 24 hr free-choice access to 15% (v/v) EtOH starting at postnatal day (PND) 30 and ending on PND 60 or were similarly housed and received water only. On PND 75, without any prior training, periadolescent alcohol-drinking and periadolescent alcohol-naïve rats were placed in standard two-lever (15% EtOH and water) chambers to examine acquisition of EtOH self-administration with a fixed ratio (FR) 1 schedule of reinforcement. After the acquisition phase and after stable responding was established on an FR5 for EtOH and FR1 for water, P rats underwent extinction training for both EtOH and water rewards. After extinction training and a 2 week home cage period, rats were returned to the operant chambers in the absence of reward for seven consecutive sessions (Pavlovian spontaneous recovery). After this testing period, animals were maintained in their home cage for a week before being returned to the operant chambers and allowed to respond for EtOH and water (reacquisition). Compared with periadolescent alcohol-naïve rats, periadolescent alcohol-drinking rats acquired EtOH responding sooner (i.e., in the first acquisition session), displayed a greater resistance to extinguish EtOH responding (i.e., higher levels of responding in sessions 4-6), had higher responding for more sessions on the EtOH lever in the absence of reward after a prolonged home cage rest period, and had a more prolonged elevated level of EtOH responding during reacquisition (four sessions versus one session). Overall, the results suggest that periadolescent Et

  10. Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Alladio, Eugenio; Martyna, Agnieszka; Salomone, Alberto; Pirro, Valentina; Vincenti, Marco; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    The detection of direct ethanol metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), in scalp hair is considered the optimal strategy to effectively recognize chronic alcohol misuses by means of specific cut-offs suggested by the Society of Hair Testing. However, several factors (e.g. hair treatments) may alter the correlation between alcohol intake and biomarkers concentrations, possibly introducing bias in the interpretative process and conclusions. 125 subjects with various drinking habits were subjected to blood and hair sampling to determine indirect (e.g. CDT) and direct alcohol biomarkers. The overall data were investigated using several multivariate statistical methods. A likelihood ratio (LR) approach was used for the first time to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers. LR strategies provide a more robust outcome than the plain comparison with cut-off values, where tiny changes in the analytical results can lead to dramatic divergence in the way they are interpreted. An LR model combining EtG and FAEEs hair concentrations proved to discriminate non-chronic from chronic consumers with ideal correct classification rates, whereas the contribution of indirect biomarkers proved to be negligible. Optimal results were observed using a novel approach that associates LR methods with multivariate statistics. In particular, the combination of LR approach with either Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) proved successful in discriminating chronic from non-chronic alcohol drinkers. These LR models were subsequently tested on an independent dataset of 43 individuals, which confirmed their high efficiency. These models proved to be less prone to bias than EtG and FAEEs independently considered. In conclusion, LR models may represent an efficient strategy to sustain the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption

  11. Early ethanol and water intake: choice mechanism and total fluid regulation operate in parallel in male alcohol preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Azarov, Alexey V; Woodward, Donald J

    2014-01-17

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol/water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol/water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol/water choice.

  12. Early Ethanol and Water Intake: Choice Mechanism and Total Fluid Regulation Operate in Parallel in Male Alcohol Preferring (P) and both Wistar and Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Azarov, Alexey V.; Woodward, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to clarify similar and distinctly different parameters of fluid intake during early phases of ethanol and water choice drinking in alcohol preferring P-rat vs. non-selected Wistar and Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Precision information on the drinking amounts and timing is needed to analyze micro-behavioral components of the acquisition of ethanol intake and to enable a search for its causal activity patterns within individual CNS circuits. The experiment followed the standard ethanol-drinking test used in P-rat selective breeding, with access to water, then 10% ethanol (10E) as sole fluids, and next to ethanol / water choice. The novelty of the present approach was to eliminate confounding prandial elevations of fluid intake, by time-separating daily food from fluid access. P-rat higher initial intakes of water and 10E as sole fluids suggest adaptations to ethanol-induced dehydration in P vs. Wistar and SD rats. P-rat starting and overall ethanol intake during the choice period were the highest. The absolute extent of ethanol intake elevation during choice period was greatest in Wistar and their final intake levels approached those of P-rat, contrary to the hypothesis that selection would produce the strongest elevation of ethanol intake. The total daily fluid during ethanol / water choice period was strikingly similar between P, Wistar and SD rats. This supports the hypothesis for a universal system that gauges the overall intake volume by titrating and integrating ethanol and water drinking fluctuations, and indicates a stable daily level of total fluid as a main regulated parameter of fluid intake across the three lines in choice conditions. The present findings indicate that a stable daily level of total fluid comprises an independent physiological limit for daily ethanol intake. Ethanol drinking, in turn, stays under the ceiling of this limit, driven by a parallel mechanism of ethanol / water choice. PMID:24095933

  13. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Barger, P.T.

    1996-09-24

    A process is provided for the production of branched C{sub x} oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  14. Process for the conversion of lower alcohols to higher branched oxygenates

    DOEpatents

    Barger, Paul T.

    1996-01-01

    A process is provided for the production of branched C.sub.4+ oxygenates from lower alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, propanol and mixtures thereof. The process comprises contacting the lower alcohols with a solid catalyst comprising a mixed metal oxide support having components selected from the group consisting of oxides of zinc, magnesium, zirconia, titanium, manganese, chromium, and lanthanides, and an activation metal selected from the group consisting of Group VIII metal, Group IB metals, and mixtures thereof. The advantage of the process is improved yields and selectivity to isobutanol which can subsequently be employed in the production of high octane motor gasoline.

  15. Studies on the oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in alcohol-water medium by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liang, Huiling; Chen, Zhenzhen; He, Xiwen; Shen, Hanxi

    2006-03-01

    An oxidation reaction of tyrosine (Tyr) with H 2O 2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was studied by spectrofluorimetry and differential spectrophotometry in the alcohol(methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and isopropanol)-water mutual solubility system. Compared with the enzymatic-catalyzed reaction in the water medium, the fluorescence intensities of the product weakened, even extinguished. Because the addition of alcohols made the conformation of HRP change, the catalytic reaction shifted to the side of polymerization and the polymer (A nH 2, n ≥ 3) exhibited no fluorescence. The four alcohols cannot deactivate HRP. Moreover isopropanol activated HRP remarkably.

  16. Early exposure to ethanol but not red wine at the same alcohol concentration induces behavioral and brain neurotrophin alterations in young and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Fiore, Marco; Laviola, Giovanni; Aloe, Luigi; di Fausto, Veronica; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely affected by ethanol during prenatal and postnatal life. The aim of the current study was to investigate in male CD1 mice brain alterations in NGF and BDNF due to chronic early exposure to ethanol solution (11 vol%) or to red wine at the same alcohol concentration starting from 60 days before pregnancy up to pups weaning. Data revealed no differences between groups of dams in pregnancy duration, neither in pups delivery, pups mortality and sex ratio. Data also showed that adult animals exposed to only ethanol had disrupted levels of both NGF and BDNF in the hippocampus and other brain areas. This profile was associated with impaired ChAT immunopositivity in the septum and Nuclei Basalis and with altered cognition and emotional behavior. Quite interestingly mice exposed to red wine had no change in the behavior or in ChAT immunopositivity but a decrease in hippocampal BDNF and a mild NGF decrease in the cortex. Also NGF-induced neuritic outgrowth in PC-12 cells was still present when exposed to red wine but not when exposed to ethanol solution only. Data suggest differences in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity between red wine and ethanol solution only.

  17. Sensing properties of monolayer borophane nanosheet towards alcohol vapors: A first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, V; Chandiramouli, R

    2017-05-01

    The electronic properties of borophane nanosheet and adsorption behavior of three distinct alcohol vapors namely methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol on borophane nanosheet is studied using density functional theory method for the first time. The state-of-the-art provides insights on to the development of new two dimensional materials with the surface passivation on boron nanostructures. The density of states spectrum provides a clear perception on charge transfer upon adsorption of alcohol vapors on borophane nanosheets. The monolayer of borophane band gap widens upon adsorption of alcohol vapors, which can be used for the detection for volatile organic vapors. The adsorption properties of alcohol vapors on borophane base material are analyzed in terms of natural bond orbital, average energy gap variation, adsorption energy and energy gap. The most suitable adsorption sites of methanol, ethanol and 1-propanol molecules on borophane nanosheet are investigated in atomistic level. The adsorption of alcohol molecules on borophane nanosheet is found to be more favorable. The findings suggest that the monolayer borophane nanosheet can be utilized to detect the presence of alcohol vapors in the atmosphere.

  18. Drinking modulates monocyte migration in healthy subjects: a randomised intervention study of water, ethanol, red wine and beer with or without alcohol.

    PubMed

    Imhof, Armin; Blagieva, Roza; Marx, Nikolaus; Koenig, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality compared to non-consumption of alcohol and heavy drinking. Experimental data suggest a direct effect of alcohol on atherosclerotic lesion development. We assessed the effect of consumption of moderate amounts of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages on monocyte migration, a crucial step in atherogenesis. Forty-nine healthy men and women (aged 22-56 years) were enrolled in this randomised controlled trial. After wash-out, participants were assigned to either ethanol (concentration 12.5%), beer (5.6%) or red wine (12.5%) equivalent to 30 grams of ethanol per day (g/d) for men and 20 g/d for women, or to the same amount of de-alcoholised beer or red wine, or to water. Monocyte migration was evaluated ex vivo using a modified Boyden chamber. Intake of ethanol or de-alcoholised red wine significantly reduced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)-induced monocyte migration by 58% (p<0.05; n=6) and 36% (p<0.05; n=7) and FMLP (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine)-induced migration by 41% (p<0.05) and 36% (p<0.05), respectively. MCP-1 receptor expression was not affected by these interventions, as shown by flow cytometry. Short-term intervention with moderate amounts of ethanol and de-alcoholised red wine inhibits monocyte migration ex vivo. This might represent one mechanism by which alcoholic beverages lower cardiovascular risk.

  19. The role of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism in the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages: evidence from a large chemical survey.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Sohnius, Eva-Maria

    2008-08-01

    Acetaldehyde is a volatile compound naturally found in alcoholic beverages, and it is regarded as possibly being carcinogenic to humans (IARC Group 2B). Acetaldehyde formed during ethanol metabolism is generally considered as a source of carcinogenicity in alcoholic beverages. However, no systematic data is available about its occurrence in alcoholic beverages and the carcinogenic potential of human exposure to this directly ingested form of acetaldehyde outside ethanol metabolism. In this study, we have analysed and evaluated a large sample collective of different alcoholic beverages (n=1,555). Beer (9+/-7 mg/l, range 0-63 mg/l) had significantly lower acetaldehyde contents than wine (34+/-34 mg/l, range 0-211 mg/l), or spirits (66+/-101 mg/l, range 0-1,159 mg/l). The highest acetaldehyde concentrations were generally found in fortified wines (118+/-120 mg/l, range 12-800 mg/l). Assuming an equal distribution between the beverage and saliva, the residual acetaldehyde concentrations in the saliva after swallowing could be on average 195 microM for beer, 734 microM for wine, 1,387 microM for spirits, or 2,417 microM for fortified wine, which are above levels previously regarded as potentially carcinogenic. Further research is needed to confirm the carcinogenic potential of directly ingested acetaldehyde. Until then, some possible preliminary interventions include the reduction of acetaldehyde in the beverages by improvement in production technology or the use of acetaldehyde binding additives. A re-evaluation of the 'generally recognized as safe' status of acetaldehyde is also required, which does not appear to be in agreement with its toxicity and carcinogenicity.

  20. Effects of ethanol exposure on subsequent acquisition and extinction of ethanol self-administration and expression of alcohol-seeking behavior in adult alcohol-preferring (P) rats: II. Adult exposure.

    PubMed

    Rodd-Henricks, Zachary A; Bell, Richard L; Kuc, Kelly A; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Lumeng, Lawrence; Li, Ting-Kai

    2002-11-01

    In a preceding study, we reported that ethanol (EtOH) consumption during periadolescence in alcohol-preferring (P) rats produced significant effects on the acquisition, extinction, Pavlovian spontaneous recovery (PSR), and reacquisition of operant self-administration of EtOH. The objective of the present study was to determine if EtOH consumption during adulthood produced similar effects on subsequent operant behaviors. Adult female P rats (>135 days of age) were given 24 hr free-choice access to 15% EtOH for 30 days or were similarly housed and received water only. After a 15 day period of no EtOH access and without any prior training, adult alcohol drinking and adult alcohol-naïve rats were placed in standard two-lever (15% EtOH and water) chambers to examine acquisition of EtOH self-administration. After stable responding was established on a concurrent fixed ratio (FR) 5 FR1 schedule for EtOH versus water, the P rats underwent extinction training for nine sessions. After extinction and a 2 week home cage period (with no operant sessions or access to EtOH), rats were returned to the operant chambers in the absence of reward for seven consecutive sessions to test for PSR. After PSR testing, animals were maintained in their home cage for a week, before being reintroduced to the operant chambers and allowed to respond for EtOH and water. Both the adult alcohol-drinking and adult alcohol-naïve groups rapidly acquired EtOH self-administration, expressed a pronounced PSR, which was augmented by EtOH priming and the presence of a discriminative stimulus (odor cue), and increased responding when EtOH was reinstated. Adult pre-exposure to EtOH did not alter any of the operant measures. The results of this study suggest that, unlike the results with EtOH pre-exposure during periadolescence, chronic alcohol drinking by P rats in adulthood did not produce sufficient long-lasting changes in neuronal function to alter subsequent operant acquisition of alcohol self

  1. Purification and characterization of vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, H; Wieser, M; Morita, H; Sugio, T; Nagasawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Byssochlamys fulva V107 was purified to apparent homogeneity as shown by SDS-PAGE and gel-permeation HPLC. The enzyme is a homodimeric flavoenzyme consisting of two 58 kDa subunits. It catalyzes the dehydrogenation of different 4-hydroxybenzylic structures, including the conversion of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols such as vanillyl alcohol to the corresponding aldehydes, eugenol to coniferyl alcohol, and 4-alkylphenols to 1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)alcohols. The latter reaction was S-stereospecific and was used for the synthesis of S-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol and -propanol with enantiomeric excesses of 81.9 and 86.0%, respectively. The catalytic and structural similarities to a Penicillium vanillyl-alcohol oxidase and Pseudomonas 4-alkylphenol methylhydroxylases are discussed.

  2. Structure and dynamics of aqueous 2-propanol: a THz-TDS, NMR and neutron diffraction study.

    PubMed

    McGregor, James; Li, Ruoyu; Zeitler, J Axel; D'Agostino, Carmine; Collins, James H P; Mantle, Mick D; Manyar, Haresh; Holbrey, John D; Falkowska, Marta; Youngs, Tristan G A; Hardacre, Christopher; Stitt, E Hugh; Gladden, Lynn F

    2015-11-11

    Aqueous liquid mixtures, in particular, those involving amphiphilic species, play an important role in many physical, chemical and biological processes. Of particular interest are alcohol/water mixtures; however, the structural dynamics of such systems are still not fully understood. Herein, a combination of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and NMR relaxation time analysis has been applied to investigate 2-propanol/water mixtures across the entire composition range; while neutron diffraction studies have been carried out at two specific concentrations. Excellent agreement is seen between the techniques with a maximum in both the relative absorption coefficient and the activation energy to molecular motion occurring at ∼90 mol% H2O. Furthermore, this is the same value at which well-established excess thermodynamic functions exhibit a maximum/minimum. Additionally, both neutron diffraction and THz-TDS have been used to provide estimates of the size of the hydration shell around 2-propanol in solution. Both methods determine that between 4 and 5 H2O molecules per 2-propanol are found in the 2-propanol/water clusters at 90 mol% H2O. Based on the acquired data, a description of the structure of 2-propanol/water across the composition range is presented.

  3. Design and synthesis of copper-cobalt catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas to ethanol and higher alcohols.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Gonzalo; Beijer, Steven; Smith, Miranda L; He, Ming; Au, Yuen; Wang, Zi; Bruce, David A; de Jong, Krijn P; Spivey, James J; de Jongh, Petra E

    2014-06-16

    Combining quantum-mechanical simulations and synthesis tools allows the design of highly efficient CuCo/MoO(x) catalysts for the selective conversion of synthesis gas (CO+H2) into ethanol and higher alcohols, which are of eminent interest for the production of platform chemicals from non-petroleum feedstocks. Density functional theory calculations coupled to microkinetic models identify mixed Cu-Co alloy sites, at Co-enriched surfaces, as ideal for the selective production of long-chain alcohols. Accordingly, a versatile synthesis route is developed based on metal nanoparticle exsolution from a molybdate precursor compound whose crystalline structure isomorphically accommodates Cu(2+) and Co(2+) cations in a wide range of compositions. As revealed by energy-dispersive X-ray nanospectroscopy and temperature-resolved X-ray diffraction, superior mixing of Cu and Co species promotes formation of CuCo alloy nanocrystals after activation, leading to two orders of magnitude higher yield to high alcohols than a benchmark CuCoCr catalyst. Substantiating simulations, the yield to high alcohols is maximized in parallel to the CuCo alloy contribution, for Co-rich surface compositions, for which Cu phase segregation is prevented. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Antioxidants prevent ethanol-induced contractions of canine cerebral vascular smooth muscle: relation to alcohol-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zheng, T; Altura, B T; Altura, B M

    2001-03-30

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that alpha-tocopherol (Vit. E) and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) might exert direct effects on alcohol-induced contractions of canine basilar cerebral arteries. After precontraction of arterial ring segments with ethanol, PDTC (10(-8)-10(-6) M) and Vit. E (10(-6)-10(-4) M) induced concentration-dependent relaxations of cerebral arteries, compared to untreated controls. The effective concentrations producing approximately 50% of the maximal relaxation responses (EC(50) values) were about 2.48+/-0.09 x 10(-7) M for PDTC, and 1.87+/-0.10 x 10(-5) mM for Vit. E, respectively. Preincubation of these arterial rings with EC(50)'s of PDTC or Vit. E for 40 min attenuate markedly the contractions produced by alcohol, at concentrations of 1-400 mM. However, both PDTC and Vit.E do not relax equi-potent precontractions induced by either KCl or prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) or inhibit their contractions. These data suggest that alcohol-induced contractions of cerebral arteries are mediated via excitation-contraction coupling pathways different from those used by KCl or receptor-mediated agonists such as PGF(2alpha). The present results, when viewed in light of other recently published data, suggest that antioxidants may prove useful in the amelioration and treatment of alcohol-induced brain damage and strokes.

  5. Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for 1-butanol and 1-propanol production via the keto-acid pathways.

    PubMed

    Shen, C R; Liao, J C

    2008-11-01

    Production of higher alcohols via the keto-acid intermediates found in microorganism's native amino-acid pathways has recently shown promising results. In this work, an Escherichia coli strain that produces 1-butanol and 1-propanol from glucose was constructed. The strain first converts glucose to 2-ketobutyrate, a common keto-acid intermediate for isoleucine biosynthesis. Then, 2-ketobutyrate is converted to 1-propanol through reactions catalyzed by the heterologous decarboxylase and dehydrogenase, or to 1-butanol via the chemistry involved in the synthesis of the unnatural amino acid norvaline. We systematically improved the synthesis of 1-propanol and 1-butanol through deregulation of amino-acid biosynthesis and elimination of competing pathways. The final strain demonstrated a production titer of 2 g/L with nearly 1:1 ratio of butanol and propanol.

  6. Ethanol metabolism by alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 2E1 differentially impairs hepatic protein trafficking and growth hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Doody, Erin E; Groebner, Jennifer L; Walker, Jetta R; Frizol, Brittnee M; Tuma, Dean J; Fernandez, David J; Tuma, Pamela L

    2017-09-01

    The liver metabolizes alcohol using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1). Both enzymes metabolize ethanol into acetaldehyde, but CYP2E1 activity also results in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that promote oxidative stress. We have previously shown that microtubules are hyperacetylated in ethanol-treated polarized, hepatic WIF-B cells and livers from ethanol fed rats. We have also shown that enhanced protein acetylation correlates with impaired clathrin-mediated endocytosis, constitutive secretion and nuclear translocation and that the defects are likely mediated by acetaldehyde. However, the roles of CYP2E1-generated metabolites and ROS in microtubule acetylation and these alcohol-induced impairments have not been examined. To determine if CYP2E1-mediated alcohol metabolism is required for enhanced acetylation and the trafficking defects, we co-incubated cells with ethanol and diallyl sulfide (a CYP2E1 inhibitor) or N-acetyl cysteine (an anti-oxidant). Both agents failed to prevent microtubule hyperacetylation in ethanol-treated cells and also failed to prevent impaired secretion or clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Somewhat surprisingly, both NAS and DAC prevented impaired STAT5B nuclear translocation. Further examination of microtubule-independent steps of the pathway revealed that Jak2/STAT5B activation by growth hormone (GH) was prevented by DAS and NAC. These results were confirmed in ethanol-exposed HepG2 cells expressing only ADH or CYP2E1. Using quantitative RT-PCR, we further determined that ethanol exposure led to blunted GH-mediated gene expression. In conclusion, we determined that alcohol-induced microtubule acetylation and associated defects in microtubule-dependent trafficking are mediated by ADH metabolism whereas impaired microtubule-independent Jak2/STAT5B activation is mediated by CYP2E1 activity. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology.

  7. Dermal tolerance of Sterillium, a propanol-based hand rub.

    PubMed

    Kampf, G; Muscatiello, M

    2003-12-01

    Alcohol-based hand rubs have been used for hygienic hand disinfection in hospitals for decades. In order to achieve good compliance with hand hygiene practices in the healthcare setting, dermal tolerance of a hand rub product is crucial. Sterillium, which is used in many European countries for hygienic hand disinfection, is based on iso-propanol, n-propanol and mecetronium etilsulphate. The potential for dermal irritation and sensitization of commercially available propanol-based hand rubs containing emollients has not been studied systematically. We therefore studied the dermal tolerance of Sterillium in a repetitive occlusive patch test on 55 subjects. Sterillium was applied to one site on the back under an occlusive patch during an induction phase (total of nine applications over a three-week period) and two weeks later to a virgin site on the back during a challenge phase (one application). Twenty-four hours after removal of the patches (induction phase and challenge phase), and in addition, after 48 and 72 h (challenge phase), the sites were graded for skin reactions using a standardized scoring scale. In the induction phase, two of the 55 subjects had a barely perceptible minimal erythema at one of nine time points. The remaining 53 subjects had no skin reaction at any time. In the challenge phase, all 55 subjects had no skin reaction at all. The absence of significant reactions with respect to severity and frequency demonstrates the favourable dermal tolerance of the hand rub product. The lack of irritation or sensitization potential could enhance compliance with hand hygiene among healthcare workers.

  8. Viral-mediated knockdown of mGluR7 in the nucleus accumbens mediates excessive alcohol drinking and increased ethanol-elicited conditioned place preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine

    2013-10-01

    Whether metabotropic glutamate 7 (mGluR7) -activation enhances or diminishes the reinforcing properties of psychostimulants remains unclear. We have previously shown that systemic mGluR7 activation reduced alcohol consumption and preference as well as locomotor-stimulating and rewarding properties of ethanol. In this study, we further examined the contribution of mGluR7 on the effect of ethanol within the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a neural target for many drugs of abuse. Using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing lentiviral vectors (LV) to alter locally the activity of mGluR7 in male rats, we have shown that blocking mGluR7 expression increased ethanol consumption and preference in a two-bottle choice drinking paradigm with no effect either on saccharin or on quinine used for taste discrimination. In addition, mGluR7 knockdown increases preference for environments previously paired with low doses of ethanol in the conditioned place preference (CPP) test, as it shifted the dose-response curve for ethanol CPP to the left, indicating alterations in the rewarding effects of alcohol. More importantly, mGluR7 blockade in the dorsal striatum (DS) neither affected ethanol consumption nor ethanol-elicited CPP. These results show that levels of mGluR7 in the NAcc regulate responsiveness to alcohol. Taken together, these findings clearly demonstrate that mGluR7 signaling within the NAcc is a key modulator of functional responses to ethanol and offer an important target for regulating the addictive effects of alcohol.

  9. Deconvolving an Estimate of Breath Measured Blood Alcohol Concentration from Biosensor Collected Transdermal Ethanol Data£

    PubMed Central

    Dumett, M; Rosen, G; Sabat, J; Shaman, A; Tempelman, L; Wang, C; Swift, RM

    2008-01-01

    Biosensor measurement of transdermal alcohol oncentration in perspiration exhibits significant variance from subject to subject and device to device. Short duration data collected in a controlled clinical setting is used to calibrate a forward model for ethanol transport from the blood to the sensor. The calibrated model is then used to invert transdermal signals collected in the field (short or long duration) to obtain an estimate for breath measured blood alcohol concentration. A distributed parameter model for the forward transport of ethanol from the blood through the skin and its processing by the sensor is developed. Model calibration is formulated as a nonlinear least squares fit to data. The fit model is then used as part of a spline based scheme in the form of a regularized, non-negatively constrained linear deconvolution. Fully discrete, steepest descent based schemes for solving the resulting optimization problems are developed. The adjoint method is used to accurately and efficiently compute requisite gradients. Efficacy is demonstrated on subject field data. PMID:19255617

  10. Ethanol induces rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear factor-kappa B in cerebral vascular smooth muscle: relation to alcohol-induced brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa; Zhang, Aimin; Altura, Bella T

    2002-06-07

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute administration of alcohol (ethanol) to primary cultured cerebral vascular smooth muscle cells will cause lipid peroxidation, inhibition of IkappaB phosphorylation, and inhibition of nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB). Ethanol (10, 25, 100 mM) resulted in concentration-dependent rises in malondialdehyde in as little as 30-45 min after exposure to the alcohol, rising to levels 2.5-10x normal after 18-24 h. Using EMSA assays and specific antibodies, ethanol caused three DNA-binding proteins (p50, p65, c-Rel) to rise in nuclear extracts in a concentration-dependent manner. Using a rabbit antibody, IkappaB phosphorylation (and degradation) was stimulated by ethanol (in a concentration-dependent manner) and inhibited by a low concentration of the NF-kappaB inhibitor, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate. These new biochemical and molecular data indicate that ethanol, even in physiologic concentrations, can elicit rapid lipid peroxidation and activation of NF-kappaB in cerebral vascular muscle cells. The present results when viewed in light of other recently published data suggest that ethanol-induced lipid peroxidation and activation of nuclear transcription factors probably play important roles in alcohol-induced brain-vascular damage, neurobehavioral actions and stroke.

  11. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M; Jones, Patrik R; Akhtar, M Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability.

  12. A Comparison of the Microbial Production and Combustion Characteristics of Three Alcohol Biofuels: Ethanol, 1-Butanol, and 1-Octanol

    PubMed Central

    Kremer, Florian; Blank, Lars M.; Jones, Patrik R.; Akhtar, M. Kalim

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, microbes have been engineered for the manufacture of a variety of biofuels. Saturated linear-chain alcohols have great potential as transport biofuels. Their hydrocarbon backbones, as well as oxygenated content, confer combustive properties that make it suitable for use in internal combustion engines. Herein, we compared the microbial production and combustion characteristics of ethanol, 1-butanol, and 1-octanol. In terms of productivity and efficiency, current microbial platforms favor the production of ethanol. From a combustion standpoint, the most suitable fuel for spark-ignition engines would be ethanol, while for compression-ignition engines it would be 1-octanol. However, any general conclusions drawn at this stage regarding the most superior biofuel would be premature, as there are still many areas that need to be addressed, such as large-scale purification and pipeline compatibility. So far, the difficulties in developing and optimizing microbial platforms for fuel production, particularly for newer fuel candidates, stem from our poor understanding of the myriad biological factors underpinning them. A great deal of attention therefore needs to be given to the fundamental mechanisms that govern biological processes. Additionally, research needs to be undertaken across a wide range of disciplines to overcome issues of sustainability and commercial viability. PMID:26301219

  13. Moderate ingestion of alcohol is associated with acute ethanol-induced suppression of circulating CTX in a PTH-independent fashion.

    PubMed

    Sripanyakorn, Supannee; Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Mander, Adrian; Davidson, Sarah L; Thompson, Richard Ph; Powell, Jonathan J

    2009-08-01

    The "J shape" curve linking the risk of poor bone health to alcohol intake is now well recognized from epidemiological studies. Ethanol and nonethanol components of alcoholic beverages could influence bone remodeling. However, in the absence of a solid underlying mechanism, the positive association between moderate alcoholic intake and BMD remains questionable because of confounding associated social factors. The objective of this work was to characterize the short-term effects of moderate alcohol consumption on circulating bone markers, especially those involved in bone resorption. Two sequential blood-sampling studies were undertaken in fasted healthy volunteers (age, 20-47 yr) over a 6-h period using beer of different alcohol levels (<0.05-4.6%), solutions of ethanol or orthosilicic acid (two major components of beer), and water +/- calcium chloride (positive and negative controls, respectively). Study 1 (24 subjects) assessed the effects of the different solutions, whereas study 2 (26 subjects) focused on ethanol/beer dose. Using all data in a "mixed effect model," we identified the contributions of the individual components of beer, namely ethanol, energy, low-dose calcium, and high-dose orthosilicic acid, on acute bone resorption. Markers of bone formation were unchanged throughout the study for all solutions investigated. In contrast, the bone resorption marker, serum carboxy terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX), was significantly reduced after ingestion of a 0.6 liters of ethanol solution (>2% ethanol; p ethanol; p < 0.02), or a solution of calcium (180 mg calcium; p < 0.001), but only after calcium ingestion was the reduction in CTX preceded by a significant fall in serum PTH (p < 0.001). Orthosilicic acid had no acute effect. Similar reductions in CTX, from baseline, were measured in urine after ingestion of the test solutions; however, the biological variability in urine CTX was greater

  14. Low-alcohol beers: contribution to blood-ethanol concentration and its elevation above the UK legal limit after 'topping-up'.

    PubMed

    Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Morgan, Christopher J; Thomas, Roger

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the contribution of low-alcohol beers to blood-ethanol concentration (BEC) and to test if 'topping-up' with these beverages can increase BEC above the 80 mg/dl UK legal limit. Healthy male and female volunteers received a dose of ethanol designed to give a BEC of just below 80 mg/dl, and then received one pint (600 ml) of a 1% v/v alcohol beer in the fasting state or after lunch, or of a zero-alcohol or a 0.5% v/v alcohol beer after fasting. BEC was determined enzymatically and data were subjected to ANOVA. Topping-up with a pint of a 1% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC >80 mg/dl in fasting subjects, contributing an extra 12-17 mg/dl, which lasted longer in males (80 min) than in females (20 min). A 0.5% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC above 80 mg/dl only in males, which lasted for 60 min. After food intake, the 1% v/v alcohol beer increased BEC above 80 mg/dl transiently only in males. Low-alcohol beers make a significant contribution to blood-ethanol concentration and can increase it above the UK legal limit. Their use as a 'top-up' should be discouraged. Low-alcohol beers have a place as a substitute for normal-strength beverages as a strategy for decreasing alcohol consumption in general and in countries where low legal alcohol limits are in force or being contemplated.

  15. Clean air program: Design guidelines for bus transit systems using alcohol fuel (methanol and ethanol) as an alternative fuel. Final report, July 1995-April 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Raj, P.K.; DeMarco, V.R.; Hathaway, W.T.; Kangas, R.

    1996-08-01

    This report provides design guidelines for the safe use of alcohol fuel (Methanol or Ethanol). It is part of a series of individual monographs being published by the FTA providing guidelines for the safe use of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and alcohol fuels (Methanol and Ethanol). Each report in this series describes, for the subject fuel, the important fuel properties, guidelines for the design and operation of bus fueling, storage and maintenance facilities, issues on personnel training and emergency preparedness.

  16. [Characteristics of the pharmacological treatment of toxic liver damage in patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and an acute severe ethanol poison].

    PubMed

    Shilov, V V; Shikalova, I A; Vasil'ev, S A; Loladze, A T; Batotsyrenov, B V

    2012-01-01

    The examination of 130 patients with an alcohol abused syndrome and a severe ethanol poison have revealed that ethanol action are accompanied by significant metabolic disturbances. The comparative evaluation of the inclusion of heptral and remaxol in the treatment has shown that remaxol improves the clinical course of mentioned disorders decreasing the frequency and duration of alcohol delirium. Patients treated with this drug spent less time in acute care and their treatment duration was shorter. Remaxol reduces more effectively the severity of metabolic disorders.

  17. Efficient yet accurate approximations for ab initio calculations of alcohol cluster thermochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer, Muhammad; Kopp, Wassja A.; Leonhard, Kai

    2015-12-01

    We have calculated the binding enthalpies and entropies of gas phase alcohol clusters from ethanol to 1-decanol. In addition to the monomers, we have investigated dimers, tetramers, and pentamers. Geometries have been obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level and single point energy calculations have been performed with the Resolution of the Identity-MP2 (RIMP2) method and basis set limit extrapolation using aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets. Thermochemistry is calculated with decoupled hindered rotor treatment for large amplitude motions. The results show three points: First, it is more accurate to transfer the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator entropies from propanol to longer alcohols than to compute them with an ultra-fine grid and tight geometry convergence criteria. Second, the computational effort can be reduced considerably by using dimerization energies of longer alcohols at density functional theory (B3LYP) level plus a RIMP2 correction obtained from 1-propanol. This approximation yields results almost with the same accuracy as RIMP2 — both methods differ for 1-decanol only 0.4 kJ/mol. Third, the entropy of dimerization including the hindered rotation contribution is converged at 1-propanol with respect to chain length. This allows for a transfer of hindered rotation contributions from smaller alcohols to longer ones which reduces the required computational and man power considerably.

  18. Efficient yet accurate approximations for ab initio calculations of alcohol cluster thermochemistry.

    PubMed

    Umer, Muhammad; Kopp, Wassja A; Leonhard, Kai

    2015-12-07

    We have calculated the binding enthalpies and entropies of gas phase alcohol clusters from ethanol to 1-decanol. In addition to the monomers, we have investigated dimers, tetramers, and pentamers. Geometries have been obtained at the B3LYP/TZVP level and single point energy calculations have been performed with the Resolution of the Identity-MP2 (RIMP2) method and basis set limit extrapolation using aug-cc-pVTZ and aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets. Thermochemistry is calculated with decoupled hindered rotor treatment for large amplitude motions. The results show three points: First, it is more accurate to transfer the rigid-rotor harmonic oscillator entropies from propanol to longer alcohols than to compute them with an ultra-fine grid and tight geometry convergence criteria. Second, the computational effort can be reduced considerably by using dimerization energies of longer alcohols at density functional theory (B3LYP) level plus a RIMP2 correction obtained from 1-propanol. This approximation yields results almost with the same accuracy as RIMP2 - both methods differ for 1-decanol only 0.4 kJ/mol. Third, the entropy of dimerization including the hindered rotation contribution is converged at 1-propanol with respect to chain length. This allows for a transfer of hindered rotation contributions from smaller alcohols to longer ones which reduces the required computational and man power considerably.

  19. The Effect of Alcohols on Red Blood Cell Mechanical Properties and Membrane Fluidity Depends on Their Molecular Size

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Melda; Ince, Huseyin Yavuz; Yalcin, Ozlem; Ajdžanović, Vladimir; Spasojević, Ivan; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2013-01-01

    The role of membrane fluidity in determining red blood cell (RBC) deformability has been suggested by a number of studies. The present investigation evaluated alterations of RBC membrane fluidity, deformability and stability in the presence of four linear alcohols (methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol) using ektacytometry and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. All alcohols had a biphasic effect on deformability such that it increased then decreased with increasing concentration; the critical concentration for reversal was an inverse function of molecular size. EPR results showed biphasic changes of near-surface fluidity (i.e., increase then decrease) and a decreased fluidity of the lipid core; rank order of effectiveness was butanol > propanol > ethanol > methanol, with a significant correlation between near-surface fluidity and deformability (r = 0.697; p<0.01). The presence of alcohol enhanced the impairment of RBC deformability caused by subjecting cells to 100 Pa shear stress for 300 s, with significant differences from control being observed at higher concentrations of all four alcohols. The level of hemolysis was dependent on molecular size and concentration, whereas echinocytic shape transformation (i.e., biconcave disc to crenated morphology) was observed only for ethanol and propanol. These results are in accordance with available data obtained on model membranes. They document the presence of mechanical links between RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity, chain length-dependence of the ability of alcohols to alter RBC mechanical behavior, and the biphasic response of RBC deformability and near-surface membrane fluidity to increasing alcohol concentrations. PMID:24086751

  20. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure programs an increased susceptibility of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in female adult offspring rats

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Lang; Liu, Zhongfen; Gong, Jun; Zhang, Li; Wang, Linlong; Magdalou, Jacques; Chen, Liaobin; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-15

    Prenatal ethanol exposure (PEE) induces dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia in fetus and adult offspring. However, whether PEE increases the susceptibility to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in offspring and its underlying mechanism remain unknown. This study aimed to demonstrate an increased susceptibility to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD and its intrauterine programming mechanisms in female rat offspring with PEE. Rat model of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) was established by PEE, the female fetus and adult offspring that fed normal diet (ND) or HFD were sacrificed. The results showed that, in PEE + ND group, serum corticosterone (CORT) slightly decreased and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose increased with partial catch-up growth; In PEE + HFD group, serum CORT decreased, while serum IGF-1, glucose and triglyceride (TG) increased, with notable catch-up growth, higher metabolic status and NAFLD formation. Enhanced liver expression of the IGF-1 pathway, gluconeogenesis, and lipid synthesis as well as reduced expression of lipid output were accompanied in PEE + HFD group. In PEE fetus, serum CORT increased while IGF-1 decreased, with low body weight, hyperglycemia, and hepatocyte ultrastructural changes. Hepatic IGF-1 expression as well as lipid output was down-regulated, while lipid synthesis significantly increased. Based on these findings, we propose a “two-programming” hypothesis for an increased susceptibility to HFD-induced NAFLD in female offspring of PEE. That is, the intrauterine programming of liver glucose and lipid metabolic function is “the first programming”, and postnatal adaptive catch-up growth triggered by intrauterine programming of GC-IGF1 axis acts as “the second programming”. - Highlights: • Prenatal ethanol exposure increase the susceptibility of NAFLD in female offspring. • Prenatal ethanol exposure reprograms fetal liver’s glucose and lipid metabolism . • Prenatal ethanol exposure cause

  2. Paternal alcohol exposure in mice alters brain NGF and BDNF and increases ethanol-elicited preference in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Ceccanti, Mauro; Coccurello, Roberto; Carito, Valentina; Ciafrè, Stefania; Ferraguti, Giampiero; Giacovazzo, Giacomo; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Tirassa, Paola; Chaldakov, George N; Pascale, Esterina; Ceccanti, Marco; Codazzo, Claudia; Fiore, Marco

    2016-07-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure during pregnancy induces cognitive and physiological deficits in the offspring. However, the role of paternal alcohol exposure (PAE) on offspring EtOH sensitivity and neurotrophins has not received much attention. The present study examined whether PAE may disrupt nerve growth factor (NGF) and/or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and affect EtOH preference/rewarding properties in the male offspring. CD1 sire mice were chronically addicted for EtOH or administered with sucrose. Their male offsprings when adult were assessed for EtOH preference by a conditioned place preference paradigm. NGF and BDNF, their receptors (p75(NTR) , TrkA and TrkB), dopamine active transporter (DAT), dopamine receptors D1 and D2, pro-NGF and pro-BDNF were also evaluated in brain areas. PAE affected NGF levels in frontal cortex, striatum, olfactory lobes, hippocampus and hypothalamus. BDNF alterations in frontal cortex, striatum and olfactory lobes were found. PAE induced a higher susceptibility to the EtOH rewarding effects mostly evident at the lower concentration (0.5 g/kg) that was ineffective in non-PAE offsprings. Moreover, higher ethanol concentrations (1.5 g/kg) produced an aversive response in PAE animals and a significant preference in non-PAE offspring. PAE affected also TrkA in the hippocampus and p75(NTR) in the frontal cortex. DAT was affected in the olfactory lobes in PAE animals treated with 0.5 g/kg of ethanol while no differences were found on D1/D2 receptors and for pro-NGF or pro-BDNF. In conclusion, this study shows that: PAE affects NGF and BDNF expression in the mouse brain; PAE may induce ethanol intake preference in the male offspring.

  3. Helenalin attenuates alcohol-induced hepatic fibrosis by enhancing ethanol metabolism, inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing HSC activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xing; Zhang, Shijun; Huang, Renbin; Wei, Ling; Tan, Shimei; Liang, Shuang; Tian, Yuanchun; Wu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Zhongpeng; Huang, Quanfang

    2014-06-01

    A compound was isolated from Centipeda minima using bioassay-guided screening. The structure of this compound was elucidated based on its spectral data, and it was identified as helenalin. The hepatoprotective effect of helenalin was evaluated using a liver fibrosis model induced by intragastric administration with alcohol within 24 weeks in rats. The results revealed that helenalin significantly prevented alcohol-induced hepatic injury and fibrogenesis, as evidenced by the decrease in serum aminotransferase, the attenuation of histopathological changes, and the inhibition of the hepatic fibrosis indicators, such as hyaluronic acid, type III precollagen, laminin, hydroxyproline and collagen α type I. Mechanistically, studies showed that helenalin expedited ethanol metabolism by enhancing the alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenase activities. Furthermore, helenalin alleviated lipid peroxidation, recruited the antioxidative defense system, inhibited CYP2E1 activity, and reduced the inflammatory mediators, including TGF-β1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β and myeloperoxidase, via down-regulation of NF-κB. Helenalin significantly decreased collagen deposition by reducing the profibrotic cytokines like transforming growth factor-β, platelet-derived growth factor-β and connective tissue growth factor, and promoted extracellular matrix degradation by modulating the levels of tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9. In addition, helenalin inhibited HSC activation as evidenced by the down-regulation of α-SMA and TGF-β levels. In conclusion, helenalin had a significant protective effect on chronic ethanol-induced hepatic fibrosis and may be a major bioactive ingredient of C. minima.

  4. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior

    PubMed Central

    Dopico, Alex M.; Bukiya, Anna N.; Martin, Gilles E.

    2014-01-01

    In most tissues, the function of Ca2+- and voltage-gated K+ (BK) channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (Ca2+i), BK subunit composition and post-translational modifications, and the channel's lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1) subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus), acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophyseal axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction. PMID:25538625

  5. Ethanol modulation of mammalian BK channels in excitable tissues: molecular targets and their possible contribution to alcohol-induced altered behavior.

    PubMed

    Dopico, Alex M; Bukiya, Anna N; Martin, Gilles E

    2014-01-01

    In most tissues, the function of Ca(2+)- and voltage-gated K(+) (BK) channels is modified in response to ethanol concentrations reached in human blood during alcohol intoxication. In general, modification of BK current from ethanol-naïve preparations in response to brief ethanol exposure results from changes in channel open probability without modification of unitary conductance or change in BK protein levels in the membrane. Protracted and/or repeated ethanol exposure, however, may evoke changes in BK expression. The final ethanol effect on BK open probability leading to either BK current potentiation or BK current reduction is determined by an orchestration of molecular factors, including levels of activating ligand (Ca(2+) i), BK subunit composition and post-translational modifications, and the channel's lipid microenvironment. These factors seem to allosterically regulate a direct interaction between ethanol and a recognition pocket of discrete dimensions recently mapped to the channel-forming (slo1) subunit. Type of ethanol exposure also plays a role in the final BK response to the drug: in several central nervous system regions (e.g., striatum, primary sensory neurons, and supraoptic nucleus), acute exposure to ethanol reduces neuronal excitability by enhancing BK activity. In contrast, protracted or repetitive ethanol administration may alter BK subunit composition and membrane expression, rendering the BK complex insensitive to further ethanol exposure. In neurohypophyseal axon terminals, ethanol potentiation of BK channel activity leads to a reduction in neuropeptide release. In vascular smooth muscle, however, ethanol inhibition of BK current leads to cell contraction and vascular constriction.

  6. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  7. Emotional Reactivity to Incentive Downshift as a Correlated Response to Selection of High and Low Alcohol Preferring Mice and an Influencing Factor on Ethanol Intake

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes et al., 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption, or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that alcohol intake either doesn’t provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, that high drinking and emotional intensity following incentive

  8. Alcohols enhance caerulein-induced zymogen activation in pancreatic acinar cells

    PubMed Central

    LU, ZHAO; KARNE, SURESH; KOLODECIK, THOMAS; GORELICK, FRED S.

    2010-01-01

    Activation of zymogens within the pancreatic acinar cell is an early feature of acute pancreatitis. Supraphysiological concentrations of cholecystokinin (CCK) cause zymogen activation and pancreatitis. The effects of the CCK analog, caerulein, and alcohol on trypsin and chymotrypsin activation in isolated pancreatic acini were examined. Caerulein increased markers of zymogen activation in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Notably, trypsin activity reached a peak value within 30 min, then diminished with time, whereas chymotrypsin activity increased with time. Ethanol (35 mM) sensitized the acinar cells to the effects of caerulein (10−10 to 10−7 M) on zymogen activation but had no effect alone. The effects of ethanol were concentration dependent. Alcohols with a chain length of ≥2 also sensitized the acinar cell to caerulein; the most potent was butanol. Branched alcohols (2-propanol and 2-butanol) were less potent than aliphatic alcohols (1-propanol and 1-butanol). The structure of an alcohol is related to its ability to sensitize acinar cells to the effects of caerulein on zymogen activation. PMID:11842000

  9. Organic Microporous Nanofillers with Unique Alcohol Affinity for Superior Ethanol Recovery toward Sustainable Biofuels.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xi Quan; Konstas, Kristina; Doherty, Cara M; Wood, Colin D; Mulet, Xavier; Xie, Zongli; Ng, Derrick; Hill, Matthew R; Lau, Cher Hon; Shao, Lu

    2017-03-27

    To minimize energy consumption and carbon footprints, pervaporation membranes are fast becoming the preferred technology for alcohol recovery. However, this approach is confined to small-scale operations, as the flux of standard rubbery polymer membranes remain insufficient to process large solvent volumes, whereas membrane separations that use glassy polymer membranes are prone to physical aging. This study concerns how the alcohol affinity and intrinsic porosity of networked, organic, microporous polymers can simultaneously reduce physical aging and drastically enhance both flux and selectivity of a super glassy polymer, poly-[1-(trimethylsilyl)propyne] (PTMSP). Slight loss in alcohol transportation channels in PTMSP is compensated by the alcohol affinity of the microporous polymers. Even after continuous exposure to aqueous solutions of alcohols, PTMSP pervaporation membranes loaded with the microporous polymers outperform the state-of-the-art and commercial pervaporation membranes.

  10. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  11. Neutrophil elastase activity in differentiating HL-60 promyelocytes is decreased by culture with ethanol and elastase deficient neutrophils are produced in alcoholics

    SciTech Connect

    Sachs, C.; Christianson, R.; Pratt, P.; Lynn, W.

    1987-05-01

    Serum-free culture of HL-60 in the presence of recombinant Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor in four days elicits a five-fold increase in esterolytic neutrophil elastase (NE) like activity measured with methoxy-succinyl-ala-ala-pro-val p-nitroanilide and purified NE standard but does not cause terminal differentiation. Simultaneous exposure to 0.2, 0.4, or 0.6% (vol./vol.) ethanol blocks this increase in NE activity. Exposure to 0.85% ethanol promotes terminal differentiation to elastase-deficient granulocytes which as been described using DMSO. To ascertain if ethanol may have similar effects on granulocytic differentiation in vivo, they compared oxidase and elastase activities of PMN's in male alcoholics on a binge (ethanol > 200 mg/dl.). In 29 patients an average of 872 (+/- 237) (SD) ng./10/sup 6/ PMN's of active NE was found compared to 1571 (+/- 177) in 13 controls. Patients admitted for treatment of alcoholism had similar NE activity in 3-4 days, showed a slight increase in activity within one week and had NE activity comparable to controls within 2-3 weeks. These findings support the previous observation that smoking related emphysema is less prevalent and severe in patients who regularly consume alcohol. They conclude that ethanol may visibly alter responsiveness of promyelocytic precursors to regulatory differentiating factors.

  12. Effects of ampicillin, cefazolin and cefoperazone treatments on GLT-1 expressions in the mesocorticolimbic system and ethanol intake in alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, P S S; Goodwani, S; Bell, R L; Wei, Y; Boddu, S H S; Sari, Y

    2015-06-04

    Chronic ethanol consumption is known to downregulate expression of the major glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1), which increases extracellular glutamate concentrations in subregions of the mesocorticolimbic reward pathway. While β-lactam antibiotics were initially identified as potent upregulators of GLT-1 expression, only ceftriaxone has been extensively studied in various drug addiction models. Therefore, in this study, adult male alcohol-preferring (P) rats exposed chronically to ethanol were treated with other β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone (100mg/kg) once daily for five consecutive days to assess their effects on ethanol consumption. The results demonstrated that each compound significantly reduced ethanol intake compared to the saline-treated control group. Importantly, each compound significantly upregulated both GLT-1 and pAKT expressions in the nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex compared to saline-treated control group. In addition, only cefoperazone significantly inhibited hepatic aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 enzyme activity. Moreover, these β-lactams exerted only a transient effect on sucrose drinking, suggesting specificity for chronically inhibiting ethanol reward in adult male P rats. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of ampicillin, cefazolin or cefoperazone have been confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography. These findings demonstrate that multiple β-lactam antibiotics demonstrate efficacy in reducing alcohol consumption and appear to be potential therapeutic compounds for treating alcohol abuse and/or dependence. In addition, these results suggest that pAKT may be an important player in this effect, possibly through increased transcription of GLT-1.

  13. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Chemo-Biology and OMICS: Ethanol Effects on Vitamin Metabolism During Neurodevelopment as Measured by Systems Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feltes, Bruno César; de Faria Poloni, Joice; Nunes, Itamar José Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a prenatal disease characterized by fetal morphological and neurological abnormalities originating from exposure to alcohol. Although FAS is a well-described pathology, the molecular mechanisms underlying its progression are virtually unknown. Moreover, alcohol abuse can affect vitamin metabolism and absorption, although how alcohol impairs such biochemical pathways remains to be elucidated. We employed a variety of systems chemo-biology tools to understand the interplay between ethanol metabolism and vitamins during mouse neurodevelopment. For this purpose, we designed interactomes and employed transcriptomic dat