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Sample records for alcohol ethoxylate ae

  1. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  2. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  3. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  4. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  5. 40 CFR 721.643 - Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.643 Ethoxylated alcohol, phosphated, amine salt. (a) Chemical substance... alcohol, phosphated, amine salt (PMN P-96-1478) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  6. Fate of free and linear alcohol-ethoxylate-derived fatty alcohols in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Federle, Thomas W; Itrich, Nina R

    2006-05-01

    Pure homologues of [1-14C] C12, C14, and C16 alcohols and the linear alcohol ethoxylates, AE [1-14C alkyl] C13E9 and C16E9 were tested in a batch-activated sludge die-away system to assess their biodegradation kinetics and to predict levels of free alcohol derived from AE biodegradation in treated effluent. First-order rates for primary biodegradation were similar for all alcohols (86-113 h(-1)) and were used to predict removal under typical treatment conditions. Predicted removals of fatty alcohols ranged from 99.76% to 99.85%, consistent with published field data. During the biodegradation of the AE homologues, lower than expected levels of fatty alcohol based upon the assumption that biodegradation occurs through central fission were observed. Rather than fatty alcohols, the major metabolites were polar materials resulting from omega oxidation of the alkyl chain prior to or concurrent with central cleavage. The amounts of free fatty alcohols that were formed from AEs in influent and escape into effluent were negligible due both to their rapid degradation and to the finding that formation of free alcohol through central cleavage is only a minor degradation pathway in activated sludge. PMID:16026837

  7. Aquatic risk assessment of alcohol ethoxylates in North America and Europe.

    PubMed

    Belanger, S E; Dorn, P B; Toy, R; Boeije, G; Marshall, S J; Wind, T; Van Compernolle, R; Zeller, D

    2006-05-01

    An environmental risk assessment for alcohol ethoxylates (AE) is presented that integrates wastewater treatment plant monitoring, fate, and ecotoxicity research with a new application of mixture toxicity theory based on simple similar concentration addition of AE homologs in a species-sensitivity distribution (SSD) context. AEs are nonionic surfactants composed of a homologous series of molecules that range in alkyl chain length from 12 to 18 carbons and ethoxylates from 0 to 18 units. Chronic ecotoxicity of AE is summarized for 17 species in 60 tests and then normalized to monitoring data for AE mixtures. To do so, chronic aquatic toxicity was first expressed as EC10 per species (the concentration predicted to cause a 10% reduction in an important ecological endpoint). Normalization integrated several new quantitative structure-activity relationships for algae, daphnids, fish, and mesocosms and provided an interpretation of toxicity test data as a function of individual homologs in an AE mixture. SSDs were constructed for each homolog and the HC5 (hazardous concentration protective of 95% of species based on a small biological effect [the chronic EC10]) was predicted. Total mass of AE in monitored effluents from 29 sites in Europe, Canada, and the United States averaged 6.8, 2.8, and 3.55 microg/L, respectively. For risk assessment purposes, correction of exposure to account for fatty alcohol derived from sources other than AE and for sorbed components based on experimental evidence was used to determine AE concentrations in undiluted (100%) effluents from North America and Europe. Exposure and effect findings were integrated in a toxic unit (TU)-based model that considers the measured distribution of individual AE homologs in effluent with their corresponding SSDs. Use of environmentally relevant exposure corrections (bioavailability and accounting for AE-derived alcohol) resulted in TUs ranging from 0.015 to 0.212. Low levels of risk are concluded for AE in the

  8. Parallel pathways of ethoxylated alcohol biodegradation under aerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Zembrzuska, Joanna; Budnik, Irena; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Non-ionic surfactants (NS) are a major component of the surfactant flux discharged into surface water, and alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are the major component of this flux. Therefore, biodegradation pathways of AE deserve more thorough investigation. The aim of this work was to investigate the stages of biodegradation of homogeneous oxyethylated dodecanol C12E9 having 9 oxyethylene subunits, under aerobic conditions. Enterobacter strain Z3 bacteria were chosen as biodegrading organisms under conditions with C12E9 as the sole source of organic carbon. Bacterial consortia of river water were used in a parallel test as an inoculum for comparison. The LC-MS technique was used to identify the products of biodegradation. Liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate was selected for the isolation of C12E9 and metabolites from the biodegradation broth. The LC-MS/MS technique operating in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used for quantitative determination of C12E9, C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6. Apart from the substrate, the homologues C12E8, C12E7 and C12E6, being metabolites of C12E9 biodegradation by shortening of the oxyethylene chain, as well as intermediate metabolites having a carboxyl end group in the oxyethylene chain (C12E8COOH, C12E7COOH, C12E6COOH and C12E5COOH), were identified. Poly(ethylene glycols) (E) having 9, 8 and 7 oxyethylene subunits were also identified, indicating parallel central fission of C12E9 and its metabolites. Similar results were obtained with river water as inoculum. It is concluded that AE, under aerobic conditions, are biodegraded via two parallel pathways: by central fission with the formation of PEG, and by Ω-oxidation of the oxyethylene chain with the formation of carboxylated AE and subsequent shortening of the oxyethylene chain by a single unit. PMID:27037882

  9. A comparison of alcohol ethoxylate environmental monitoring data using different analytical procedures.

    PubMed

    McAvoy, Drew C; Eckhoff, William S; Begley, William M; Pessler, Daniel G

    2006-05-01

    Several analytical methods have been developed for analyzing alcohol ethoxylates (AE) in aqueous environmental samples. These methods differ widely in their selectivity and sensitivity for measuring the AE components; that is, they vary in their resolution of alkyl chain length homologs and ethoxymer distributions (degree of ethoxylation for each homolog). Given these differences, AE monitoring results from different studies often are inconsistent and, sometimes, are deemed to be incomparable. To address these differences, three currently available methods for determining AE concentrations in environmental matrices were compared among a common set of wastewater treatment plant samples. These methods included the detection of hydrogen bromide-derivatized homologs by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, the detection of aqueous homologs by high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry, and the detection of pyridinium-derivatized homologs by high-pressure liquid chromatography/electrospray mass spectrometry. Results from the present study showed that all three methods responded differently in determining the complex suite of chemical species that comprise AE in the environment. The collective information, however, allowed a consistent comparison among the methods. This comparison was then used to reevaluate results from previous AE monitoring studies. Results from this reevaluation provided a more realistic profile of both historical AE removal during wastewater treatment as well as the occurrence of AE in U.S. surface waters. PMID:16704057

  10. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  11. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  12. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  13. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.524 - Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic anhydride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.524 Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product... chemical substance identified generically as alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated, reaction product with maleic... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C6-12, ethoxylated,...

  15. Bacterial strains isolated from river water having the ability to split alcohol ethoxylates by central fission.

    PubMed

    Budnik, Irena; Zembrzuska, Joanna; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol ethoxylates (AE) are a major component of the surfactant stream discharged into surface water. The "central fission" of AE with the formation of poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG) is considered to be the dominant biodegradation pathway. However, information as to which bacterial strains are able to perform this reaction is very limited. The aim of this work was to establish whether such an ability is unique or common, and which bacterial strains are able to split AE used as a sole source of organic carbon. Four bacterial strains were isolated from river water and were identified on the basis of phylogenetic trees as Enterobacter strain Z2, Enterobacter strain Z3, Citrobacter freundii strain Z4, and Stenotrophomonas strain Z5. Sterilized river water and "artificial sewage" were used for augmentation of the isolated bacteria. The test was performed in bottles filled with a mineral salt medium spiked with surfactant C12E10 (10 mg L(-1)) and an inoculating suspension of the investigated bacterial strain. Sequential extraction of the tested samples by ethyl acetate and chloroform was used for separation of PEG from the water matrix. LC-MS was used for PEG determination on the basis of single-ion chromatograms. All four selected and investigated bacterial strains exhibit the ability to split fatty alcohol ethoxylates with the production of PEG, which is evidence that this property is a common one rather than specific to certain bacterial strains. However, this ability increases in the sequence: Stenotrophomonas strain Z5 < Enterobacter strain Z2 < Enterobacter strain Z3 = Citrobacter freundii strain Z4. Graphical Abstract Biodegradation by central fission of alcohol ethoxylates by bacterial strains isolated from river water. PMID:27053052

  16. 40 CFR 721.10007 - Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alcohols, C12-14-secondary... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10007 Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated... identified as alcohols, C12-14- secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated (PMN P-00-11; CAS No. 103331-86-8)...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10245 - Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Branched and linear fatty alcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10245 Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic). (a... generically as branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (PMN P-09-207) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10245 - Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Branched and linear fatty alcohol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10245 Branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (generic). (a... generically as branched and linear fatty alcohol ethoxylate (PMN P-09-207) is subject to reporting under...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10007 - Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alcohols, C12-14-secondary... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10007 Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated... identified as alcohols, C12-14- secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated (PMN P-00-11; CAS No. 103331-86-8)...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10007 - Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohols, C12-14-secondary... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10007 Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated... identified as alcohols, C12-14- secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated (PMN P-00-11; CAS No. 103331-86-8)...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10007 - Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alcohols, C12-14-secondary... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10007 Alcohols, C12-14-secondary, ethoxylated... identified as alcohols, C12-14- secondary, ethoxylated propoxylated (PMN P-00-11; CAS No. 103331-86-8)...

  2. Analysis of freely dissolved alcohol ethoxylate homologues in various seawater matrixes using solid-phase microextraction.

    PubMed

    Droge, Steven T J; Sinnige, Theo L; Hermens, Joop L M

    2007-04-01

    Solid-phase microextraction fibers (SPME) were tested as tools to determine freely dissolved alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants in seawater matrixes. Partitioning of a wide range of AE homologues into a 35-mum polyacrylate fiber coating was linearly related to aqueous concentrations as low as submicrograms per liter, with high reproducibility. The exposure time needed to reach equilibrium between aqueous phase and the SPME fiber depended on the fiber-water partitioning coefficient (Kfw) of the AE homologue. Specific attention was given to the influence of various matrixes on the analysis via SPME. The presence of sediment increases the uptake kinetics of AE homologues for which diffusion in the aqueous phase is rate limiting. The Kfw in equilibrated systems was not affected by the presence of other homologues, micelles, or varying amounts of sediment phase. SPME is therefore a suitable tool for analysis of AE in sorption studies and sediment toxicity tests. A strong linear relation was observed between Kfw and the hydrophobicity of the AE homologue, using estimated octanol-water partition coefficients. This relation can be used to predict the partitioning coefficient of any AE homologue to the SPME fiber, which facilitates the analysis of complex mixtures. PMID:17338502

  3. Ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships for alcohol ethoxylate mixtures based on substance-specific toxicity predictions.

    PubMed

    Boeije, G M; Cano, M L; Marshall, S J; Belanger, S E; Van Compernolle, R; Dorn, P B; Gümbel, H; Toy, R; Wind, T

    2006-05-01

    Traditionally, ecotoxicity quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for alcohol ethoxylate (AE) surfactants have been developed by assigning the measured ecotoxicity for commercial products to the average structures (alkyl chain length and ethoxylate chain length) of these materials. Acute Daphnia magna toxicity tests for binary mixtures indicate that mixtures are more toxic than the individual AE substances corresponding with their average structures (due to the nonlinear relation of toxicity with structure). Consequently, the ecotoxicity value (expressed as effects concentration) attributed to the average structures that are used to develop the existing QSARs is expected to be too low. A new QSAR technique for complex substances, which interprets the mixture toxicity with regard to the "ethoxymers" distribution (i.e., the individual AE components) rather than the average structure, was developed. This new technique was then applied to develop new AE ecotoxicity QSARs for invertebrates, fish, and mesocosms. Despite the higher complexity, the fit and accuracy of the new QSARs are at least as good as those for the existing QSARs based on the same data set. As expected from typical ethoxymer distributions of commercial AEs, the new QSAR generally predicts less toxicity than the QSARs based on average structure. PMID:16256196

  4. Scattering and Spectroscopic Study on the Hydration and Phase Behavior of Aqueous Alcohol Ethoxylate and Methyl Ester Ethoxylate: Effects of Terminal Groups in Hydrophilic Chains.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takaaki; Akahane, Takesi; Amano, Kenshi; Hyodo, Ryo; Yanase, Keiichi; Ogura, Taku

    2016-06-23

    Using dielectric relaxation spectroscopy (DRS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and viscometry, we have investigated the hydration behavior, static structures, Brownian dynamics, and mechanical properties of aqueous solutions of alcohol ethoxylate (C12E15) and methyl ester ethoxylate (C12MEE), hereafter abbreviated as AE and MEE, respectively, in which we especially focus on the effects of the endcaps of these nonionic surfactants. We find that AE and MEE exhibit fairly different phase behaviors in water: AE produces liquid crystalline phases at w (surfactant weight fraction) > 0.35, whereas MEE retains a liquid phase in an extremely wide concentration range (w < 0.7) at ambient temperature. The structure factor deduced from SAXS intensities using a generalized indirect Fourier transformation technique and the effective hydration number evaluated from the negative excess bulk water relaxation amplitude revealed by DRS unambiguously demonstrate that hydration water molecules, exhibiting about 4-times-slower collective reorientational dynamics than that of bulk water, contribute to the excluded volume of the micelles. The blocked terminal hydrogen-bond donor/acceptor site of MEE leads to smaller hydration number of MEE than compared to that of AE, and consequently the lower excluded volume of the MEE micelles. The effective micellar volume fraction, ϕ(eff), should be defined by incorporating such different hydration effects. Importantly, voluminosity, defined as the micellar volume fraction per unit mass, is clearly a decreasing function of w, demonstrating progressive dehydration at a higher w. The collective diffusion constants determined by DLS for the AE and MEE micelles show a monotonous increase up to ϕ(eff) ≈ 0.5, as expected for the hard spheres. Low-shear-rate viscosities follow a Krieger-Dougherty model in the identical micellar packing fraction range. All static, dynamic, and mechanical properties of these micellar

  5. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  6. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  8. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6477 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with maleic anhydride. 721.6477 Section 721.6477... SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6477 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols, reaction products with...

  10. Determination of fatty alcohol ethoxylates and alkylether sulfates by anionic exchange separation, derivatization with a cyclic anhydride and liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Beneito-Cambra, M; Ripoll-Seguer, L; Herrero-Martínez, J M; Simó-Alfonso, E F; Ramis-Ramos, G

    2011-11-25

    A method for the separation, characterization and determination of fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAE) and alkylether sulfates (AES) in industrial and environmental samples is described. Separation of the two surfactant classes was achieved in a 50:50 methanol-water medium by retaining AES on a strong anionic exchanger (SAX) whereas most FAE were eluted. After washing the SAX cartridges to remove cations, the residual hydrophobic FAE were eluted by increasing methanol to 80%. Finally, AES were eluted using 80:20 and 95:5 methanol-concentrated aqueous HCl mixtures. Methanol and water were removed from the FAE and AES fractions, and the residues were dissolved in 1,4-dioxane. In this medium, esterification of FAE and transesterification of AES with a cyclic anhydride was performed. Phthalic and diphenic anhydrides were used to derivatizate the surfactants in industrial samples and seawater extracts, respectively. Separation of the derivatized oligomers was achieved by gradient elution on a C8 column with acetonitrile/water in the presence of 0.1% acetic acid. Good resolution between both the hydrocarbon series and the successive oligomers within the series was achieved. Cross-contamination of FAE with AES and vice versa was not observed. Using dodecyl alcohol as calibration standard, and correction of the peak areas of the derivatized oligomers by their respective UV-vis response factors, both FAE and AES were evaluated. After solid-phase extraction on C18, the proposed method was successfully applied to the characterization and determination of the two surfactant classes in industrial samples and in seawater. PMID:21993518

  11. Environmental analysis of alcohol ethoxylates and nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lara-Martín, Pablo A; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Brownawell, Bruce J

    2012-03-01

    Surfactants and their metabolites can be found in aquatic environments at relatively high concentrations compared with other micropollutants due in part to the exceptionally large volumes produced every year. We have focused our attention here on the most widely used nonionic surfactants, alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs), and on nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPEO) degradation products (short-chain nonylphenol ethoxylates, NP1-3EO, nonylphenol, NP, and nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates, NP1-2EC), which are endocrine-disrupting compounds. Our main objective in this work was to develop a methodology aimed at the extraction, isolation, and improved analysis of these analytes in environmental samples at trace levels. Extraction recoveries of target compounds were determined for sediment samples after ultrasonic extraction and purification using HLB or C18 solid-phase extraction minicolumns. Recovery percentages were usually between 61 and 102% but were lower for longer AEO ethoxymers. Identification and quantification of target compounds was carried out using a novel ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS-MS) approach, a combination that provides higher sensitivity and faster analysis than prior methods using conventional high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Limits of detection were usually below 0.5 ng/g, being higher for monoethoxylate species (>5 ng/g) because of poor ionization. The method was used for analyzing surface sediment samples collected at Jamaica Bay (NY) in 2008. The highest values (28,500 ng/g for NP, 4,200 ng/g for NP1-3EO, 22,400 ng/g for NP1-2EC, and 1,500 ng/g for AEOs) were found in a sampling station from a restricted water circulation area that is heavily impacted by wastewater discharges. PMID:22002557

  12. Rapid liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based method for the analysis of alcohol ethoxylates and alkylphenol ethoxylates in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    DeArmond, Patrick D; DiGoregorio, Amanda L

    2013-08-30

    A sensitive and selective method for the determination of alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) and alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS/MS was developed and applied to the analysis of water samples. All AEO and APEO homologues, a total of 152 analytes, were analyzed within a run time of 11min, and the MS allowed for the detection of ethoxymers containing 2-20 ethoxy units (nEO=2-20). The limits of detection (LOD) were as low as 0.1pg injected, which generally increased as nEO increased (e.g., as high as 300pg for nEO=20). Additionally, the responses of the various ethoxymers varied by orders of magnitude, with ethoxymers with nEO=3-5 being the most sensitive and those with nEO>15 producing the least response in the MS. Absolute extraction recoveries of the analytes ranged from 37% to 69% in ultrapure water (RSD≤20%), with the recovery depending on the length of the alkyl chain. Abiotic stability studies were performed, and C14-18 ethoxylates showed significant degrees of degradation. Water samples from the Colorado River were then analyzed for AEOs and APEOs, with absolute extraction recoveries ranging from 33% to 45% (RSD≤12%). The predominant species observed in most samples were the octylphenol (OP) and nonylphenol (NP) ethoxylates, which contained total concentrations that were greater than 100ng/L APEOs in a couple samples. Other AEO homologues were identified in the river water samples, including C13, C15, C16, and C18 ethoxylates, but these compounds were generally present at much lower levels (i.e., <50ng/L total concentration). PMID:23891378

  13. Biodegradation of oxo-alcohol ethoxylates in the continuous flow activated sludge simulation test.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Andrzej; Wyrwas, Bogdan; Bubien, Ewa; Kurosz, Tatiana; Hreczuch, Wieslaw; Zembrzuski, Wlodzimierz; Lukaszewski, Zenon

    2002-07-01

    Biodegradation of two alpha-methyl branched oxo-alcohol ethoxylates (OAE) of different polydispersity: LIAL 125/14 BRD (LIALB) (broad M.W. distribution) and LIAL 125/14 NRD (LIALN) (narrow M.W. distribution), both having an average of 14 oxyethylene subunits (EO) and a C(12-15) alkyl moiety were tested under the continuous flow activated sludge conditions of the classical Husmann plant. Primary biodegradation and concentration of metabolites: free oxo-alcohol fraction (FOA) and poly(ethylene glycols) (PEG), were measured. PEG were divided into two fractions: short-chained PEG (PEGshch) (1-4 EO) and long-chained PEG (PEGlch) (>4 EO). The indirect tensammetric technique combined with an adequate separation was used for analysis. Central fission was found to be a highly dominating pathway, as is the case with fatty alcohol ethoxylates. OAE are highly primarily biodegraded (above 95%). High concentrations of FOA and PEG are formed. Once formed the PEGlch are further fragmented into the PEGshch. Free alcohol fraction compounds are biodegraded sooner when alkyl moiety is shorter. OAE polydispersity has an influence on the kinetics of biodegradation; PEG formed from LIALN are biodegraded slower and to a lower degree than those from LIALB. PMID:12188138

  14. Metabolites and biodegradation pathways of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in microbial biocenoses of sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steber, J.; Wierich, P.

    1985-03-01

    The biodegradation of fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers was studied by analyzing the /sup 14/C-labeled intermediates isolated from the effluent of a model continuous-flow sewage treatment plant after dosage of either alkyl- or heptaglycol-labeled stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (SA-7EO). In each case, uncharged and carboxylated (mainly dicarboxylated) polyethylene glycols constituted the most prominent metabolites. The results indicate that there is a faster degradation of the alkyl than the polyethylene glycol moiety and that there are two distinct primary degradation mechanisms acting simultaneously in microbial biocenoses: intramolecular scission of the surfactant as well as omega- and beta-oxidation of the alkyl chain. Characterization of the bulk of /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites as a homologous series of neutral and acidic polyglycol units and identification of several C2-fragments accounted for the depolymerization of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant by stepwise cleavage of ether-bound EO units; from additional degradation studies employing either neutral or carboxylated /sup 14/C-labeled polyethylene glycols as model metabolites, it was concluded that hydrolytic as well as oxidative cleavage of C2-units is involved. The simultaneous action of different degradation mechanisms indicates the involvement of several distinct bacterial groups in the biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under environmental conditions.

  15. Quantitative determination of octylphenol, nonylphenol, alkylphenol ethoxylates and alcohol ethoxylates by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry in soils treated with sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Vicente; Ferrer, Emilia; Rubio, José Luís; Font, Guillermina; Picó, Yolanda

    2007-05-25

    Surfactants have one of the highest production rates of all organic chemicals. Non-ionic surfactants, especially alkylphenol ethoxylates, received most attention as precursors of estrogenic metabolic products generated during wastewater treatment. Alkylphenols (octyl and nonylphenol), alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEOs), and alcohol ethoxylates (AEOs) have been determined in a Mediterranean forest soil (Mediterranean Rendzic Leptosol) amended with sludges from six waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) located in the Valencian Community. These compounds were isolated from soil by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) using a mixture acetone-hexane (50:50 v/v), the extracts were cleaned up by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with C(18), and determined by liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-APCI-MS) using analytical standards for quantification. The method enabled high-reliable identification by monitoring the corresponding ammonium adduct [M+NH(3)](+) for AEOs and APEOs, and the deprotonated molecule [M-H](-) for octyl and nonylphenol. Recoveries, determined spiking soil samples at different concentrations, ranged from 89 to 94%, with limits of quantification from 1 to 100 microg kg(-1). Data obtained from a soil sample mixed with biosolids in the laboratory showed that these compounds are present at concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 5 mg kg(-1). According to these concentrations, levels of possible risk can be concluded for the presence of non-ionic surfactants in soil. However, further assessment will be necessary to establish the relationship between exposure and effect findings. PMID:17306341

  16. Acute aquatic toxicity of nine alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to fathead minnow and Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Chai, E.Y.

    1995-12-31

    The aquatic toxicity of nine commercial-grade alcohol ethoxylate surfactants was studied in acute exposures to fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and Daphnia magna. All studies were conducted in accordance with USEPA TSCA Good Laboratory Practice Standards. Mean measured surfactant concentrations in exposure solutions showed good agreement with nominal concentrations for both fathead minnow and daphnid tests. Surfactant recoveries ranged from 59 to 97% and 67 to 106% in the fathead minnow and daphnid solutions, respectively. The response of both species to the surfactants was generally similar with the daphnids being slightly more sensitive to a few surfactants. Surfactant toxicity tended to increase with increasing alkyl chain lengths. The effect of low average EO groups on increased surfactant toxicity was more evident in the daphnid exposures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed form the data which relates surfactant structure to toxicity. The models predict increasing toxicity with decreasing EO number and increasing alkyl chain length. The models also indicate that alkyl chain length has a greater effect on toxicity than EO groups. Further, the models indicate that both species did not differ markedly in their sensitivity to alkyl chain length effects, while the number of EO groups had a stronger effect on daphnids than fathead minnow. Good agreement was found between QSAR model-predicted toxicity and reported toxicity values from the literature for several surfactants previously studied.

  17. Phase Separation Kinetics in Isopycnic Mixtures of H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesemann, Markus; Paulaitis, Michael E.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1999-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(sub i)E(sub j)) surfactants form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have equal densities (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6 surfactants, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or C8E3 surfactants. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. Measurements of the microstructure in H2O/CO2/C12E6 mixtures as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%) have also been carried out to show that while micellar structure remains essentially un-changed, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached. In this report, we present our first measurements of the kinetics of isopycnic phase separation for ternary mixtures of H2O/CO2/C8E5.

  18. Isopycnic Phases and Structures in H2O/CO2/Ethoxylated Alcohol Surfactant Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulaitis, Michael E.; Zielinski, Richard G.; Kaler, Eric W.

    1996-01-01

    Ternary mixtures of H2O and CO2 with ethoxylated alcohol (C(i)E(j)) surfactants can form three coexisting liquid phases at conditions where two of the phases have the same density (isopycnic phases). Isopycnic phase behavior has been observed for mixtures containing the surfactants C8E5, C10E6, and C12E6, but not for those mixtures containing either C4E1 or CgE3. Pressure-temperature (PT) projections for this isopycnic three-phase equilibrium were determined for H2O/CO2/C8E5 and H2O/CO2/C10E6 mixtures at temperatures from approximately 25 to 33 C and pressures between 90 and 350 bar. As a preliminary to measuring the microstructure in isopycnic three component mixtures, phase behavior and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed on mixtures of D2O/CO2/ n-hexaethyleneglycol monododecyl ether (C12E6) as a function of temperature (25-31 C), pressure (63.1-90.7 bar), and CO2 composition (0-3.9 wt%). Parameters extracted from model fits of the SANS spectra indicate that, while micellar structure remains essentially unchanged, critical concentration fluctuations increase as the phase boundary and plait point are approached.

  19. Chronic toxicity of a homologous series of alcohol ethoxylate surfactants to Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, W.B. Jr.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.; Wong, D.C.L.; Dorn, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of three homologous nonionic surfactants were evaluated in a series of 21 d Daphnia magna flow-through laboratory experiments. No observed effects concentrations and effects concentrations for survival and reproduction were determined for three linear alcohol ethoxylate (LAE) surfactants with average carbon chain lengths of 10, 12.5, and 14.5 and average ethylene oxide units/mole of 6, 6.5, and 7, respectively. Mean measured concentrations of LAE in laboratory experiments ranged from 0.91 to 16.91 mg/L, 0.38 to 5.21 mg/L and 0.31 to 1.83 mg/L for C{sub 10}, C{sub 12.5}, and C{sub 14.5} LAEs, respectively. Daphnid survival NOECs were 2.8 mg/L (C{sub 10}), 1.8 mg/L (C{sub 12.5}), and 0.79 mg/L (C{sub 14.5}). Daphnid survival and reproduction were equally sensitive to the C{sub 10} and C{sub 14.5} surfactants, however, reproduction was more sensitive than survival for the C{sub 12.5} surfactant. Reproduction NOECs were 2.8, 0.77, and 0.79 mg/L for the C{sub 10}, C{sub 12.5}, and C{sub 14.5} LAEs, respectively. The 21 d chronic survival NOECs for daphnids were similar to NOECs for cladoceran densities obtained in outdoor stream mesocosm studies conducted at the University of Mississippi Field Station. These results indicate a relationship of approximately 1:1 between the chronic laboratory and field results.

  20. Study of adjuvant effect of model surfactants from the groups of alkyl sulfates, alkylbenzene sulfonates, alcohol ethoxylates and soaps.

    PubMed

    Clausen, S K; Sobhani, S; Poulsen, O M; Poulsen, L K; Nielsen, G D

    2000-11-01

    The sodium salts of representatives of anionic surfactants, dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS), dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and coconut oil fatty acids, and a nonionic surfactant, dodecyl alcohol ethoxylate, were studied for adjuvant effect on the production of specific IgE antibodies in mice. The surfactants were injected subcutaneously (sc) in concentrations of 1000, 100, 10 or 1 mg/l, respectively, together with 1 microg of ovalbumin (OVA). In addition, groups of mice received OVA in saline (control group) or in Al(OH)(3) (positive adjuvant control group). After the primary immunization the mice were boosted up to three times with OVA (0.1 microg sc) in saline. OVA-specific IgE antibodies were determined by the heterologous mouse rat passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test. The results were confirmed by a specific ELISA method. After the first booster, the Al(OH)(3) group and the 10 mg/l SDS group showed a statistically significant increase in OVA specific IgE levels. After two boosters, a statistically significant suppression in OVA-specific IgE production occurred with SDS (1000 mg/l), SDBS (1000 and 100 mg/l), coconut soap (1000 mg/l) and the alcohol ethoxylate (10 mg/l). This study suggests that a limited number of surfactants possess an adjuvant effect whereas all surfactants at certain levels can suppress specific IgE production. PMID:11038243

  1. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  2. 40 CFR 721.6475 - Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated fatty alcohols.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6475 Alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with... chemical substances identified generically as alkyl polycarboxylic acids, esters with ethoxylated...

  3. Determination of fatty alcohol ethoxylates by derivatization with phthalic anhydride followed by liquid chromatography with UV-vis detection.

    PubMed

    Micó-Tormos, A; Simó-Alfonso, E F; Ramis-Ramos, G

    2008-08-29

    The esterification of fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAEs) with phthalic anhydride in 1,4-dioxane was studied. At 110 degrees C and in the presence of urea, which increased the reaction rate, esterification was completed in 60 min. The reaction yield did not decrease when the sample contained up to 50% water. For the non-ethoxylated alcohols, the UV-vis response factors of the derivatives were not significantly different from each other (f=1 for C12E0 as reference). The response factors decreased when the number of ethylene oxide units, m, increased, reaching constant values of ca. 0.40 and 0.65 for the n=8 and 18 series, respectively, when m>or=3. Using a C8 column and gradient elution with acetonitrile/water plus 0.1% acetic acid, FAEs in industrial mixtures and cleaning products were characterized. At column temperatures of 25 and 35 degrees C, homologous series with even values of n from 8 up to 20, were resolved up to m=14 and 18, respectively, and at 25 degrees C, series with consecutive even and odd values of n were resolved up to m=7. Within the series, superior resolution of the ethoxymers with large values of m was achieved; however, the elution order was reversed for the m=1 and 0 ethoxymers, which produced overlapping of a few peaks within the series. A simple procedure for the accurate prediction of the concentrations of all the ethoxymers in industrial samples was described. After preconcentration with C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges, FAEs were also characterized and quantified in environmental samples (river and sea water). The LODs were ca. 2 microM (S/N=3) in the injected solutions. PMID:18649884

  4. Chemical monitoring and occurrence of alkylphenols, alkylphenol ethoxylates, alcohol ethoxylates, phthalates and benzothiazoles in sewage treatment plants and receiving waters along the Ter River basin (Catalonia, N. E. Spain).

    PubMed

    Céspedes, Raquel; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antonio; Barceló, Damià

    2006-07-01

    This study presents a quantitative estimation of the analysis and fate of several emerging pollutants, some of them endocrine-disrupting compounds, in surface water samples collected at several locations along the Ter River and two of its tributaries. Influent and effluent waters and particulate matter from five sewage treatment plants (STP) that discharge into these rivers were also studied. The target compounds analyzed were: nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), bisphenol A (BPA), phthalates, alcohol ethoxylates (AEO) and benzothiazoles. Chemical analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry using an electrospray interface (LC-ESI-MS) revealed the presence of low amounts (between 0.06 and 17.5 microg L(-1)) of the target compounds NPE(1+2)O and NP, which were detected in 100% and 84% of the samples respectively. Maximum concentrations occurred in the STPs associated with the municipalities of Vic and Girona. From the fate and behavior data obtained for the various compounds analyzed in the STP influent and effluent, we can conclude that the STPs are effective at removing large amounts (more than 70%) of the compounds studied from the water. PMID:16794817

  5. Effects of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents on the development of pasture bloat in cattle and sheep.

    PubMed

    Stanford, K; Wang, Y; Berg, B P; Majak, W; McCartney, D H; Baron, V; McAllister, T A

    2001-01-01

    A series of studies was conducted to determine the efficacy and possible modes of action of a water-soluble mixture of alcohol ethoxylate and pluronic detergents (AEPD; Blocare 4511, ANCARE, Auckland, NZ) in preventing pasture bloat in ruminants grazing or fed freshly harvested alfalfa. Ten cannulated Suffolk wethers were offered freshly harvested alfalfa; five were given a daily intraruminal dose of 40 ml of 50% AEPD (vol/vol) 1 h before feeding, and five (controls) were dosed with water. Viscosity of ruminal fluid was reduced (P < 0.001) in AEPD-treated wethers, relative to the controls, for the first 2 h after feeding but not at 4 h after feeding and beyond. Treatment with AEPD did not affect dry matter (DM) intake, digestibility of DM, acid detergent fiber, or neutral detergent fiber, or N digestion and retention, implying that AEPD likely would not affect milk production. In a crossover grazing study, five of the wethers were given AEPD in drinking water (0.1%, vol/vol); treatment with AEPD was 100% effective for preventing bloat in sheep grazing early-bloom alfalfa for 4 h daily. Replicate grazing studies were conducted with cattle in Lethbridge, AB; Lacombe, AB; and Kamloops, BC. Treated animals received AEPD in the water (0.06%, vol/vol) and grazed vegetative alfalfa for 6 h daily. As it did with sheep, AEPD treatment effectively precluded the bloat observed in control animals. Consequently, AEPD may be a valuable tool for alfalfa pasture-based dairy production although further study is required to develop an integrated model for optimal administration under a variety of climatic conditions. PMID:11210030

  6. Anaerobic degradation of alcohol ethoxylates and polyethylene glycols in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Traverso-Soto, Juan M; Rojas-Ojeda, Patricia; Sanz, José Luis; González-Mazo, Eduardo; Lara-Martín, Pablo A

    2016-02-15

    This research is focused on alcohol polyethoxylates (AEOs), nonionic surfactants used in a wide variety of products such as household cleaners and detergents. Our main objective in this work was to study the anaerobic degradation of these compounds and their main aerobic degradation products and precursors (polyethylene glycols, PEGs, which are also used for many other applications) in marine sediments, providing the first data available on this topic. First, we observed that average AEO sediment-water partition coefficients (Kd) increased towards those homologs having longer alkyl chains (from 257 L/kg for C12 to 5772 L/kg for C18),which were less susceptible to undergo biodegradation. Overall, AEO and PEG removal percentages reached up to 99.7 and 93%, respectively, after 169 days of incubation using anaerobic conditions in sediments ([O2] = 0 ppm, Eh = -170 to -380 mV and T = 30 °C). Average half-life was estimated to be in a range from 10 to 15 days for AEO homologs (C12AEO8-C18AEO8), and 18 days for PEGEO8.Methanogenic activity proved to be intense during the experiment, confirming the occurrence of anaerobic conditions. This is the first study showing that AEOs and PEGs can be degraded in absence of oxygen in marine sediments, so this new information should be taken into account for future environmental risk assessments on these chemicals. PMID:26657255

  7. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-07-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  8. Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates by Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01.

    PubMed Central

    Maki, H; Masuda, N; Fujiwara, Y; Ike, M; Fujita, M

    1994-01-01

    An alkylphenol ethoxylate-degrading bacterium was isolated from activated sludge of a municipal sewage treatment plant by enrichment culture. This organism was found to belong to the genus Pseudomonas; since no corresponding species was identified, we designated it as Pseudomonas sp. strain TR01. This strain had an optimal temperature and pH of 30 degrees C and 7, respectively, for both growth and the degradation of Triton N-101 (a nonylphenol ethoxylate in which the average number of ethylene oxide [EO] units is 9.5). The strain was unable to mineralize Triton N-101 but was able to degrade its EO chain exclusively. The resulting dominant intermediate was identified by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as a nonylphenol ethoxylate with 2 mol of EO units. A carboxylated metabolite, [(nonylphenoxy)ethoxy]acetic acid, was detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. This bacterium also metabolized alcohol ethoxylates with various numbers of EO units but not polyethylene glycols whatever their degree of polymerization. By oxygen consumption assay, the alkyl group or arene corresponding to the hydrophobic part of alcohol ethoxylates or alkylphenol ethoxylates was shown to contribute to the induction of the metabolic system of the EO chain of Triton N-101, instead of the EO chain itself, which corresponds to its hydrophilic part. Thus, the isolated pseudomonad bacterium has unique substrate assimilability: it metabolizes the EO chain only when the chain linked to bulky hydrophobic groups. PMID:8074508

  9. AE 941.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    AE 941 [Arthrovas, Neoretna, Psovascar] is shark cartilage extract that inhibits angiogenesis. AE 941 acts by blocking the two main pathways that contribute to the process of angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteases and the vascular endothelial growth factor signalling pathway. When initial development of AE 941 was being conducted, AEterna assigned the various indications different trademarks. Neovastat was used for oncology, Psovascar was used for dermatology, Neoretna was used for ophthalmology and Arthrovas was used for rheumatology. However, it is unclear if these trademarks will be used in the future and AEterna appears to only be using the Neovastat trademark in its current publications regardless of the indication. AEterna Laboratories signed commercialisation agreements with Grupo Ferrer Internacional SA of Spain and Medac GmbH of Germany in February 2001. Under the terms of the agreement, AEterna has granted exclusive commercialisation and distribution rights to AE 941 in oncology to Grupo Ferrer Internacional for the Southern European countries of France, Belgium, Spain, Greece, Portugal and Italy. It also has rights in Central and South America. Medac GmbH will have marketing rights in Germany, the UK, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Austria, Ireland, the Netherlands and Eastern Europe. In October 2002, AEterna Laboratories announced that it had signed an agreement with Australian healthcare products and services company Mayne Group for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and Mexico. In March 2003, AEterna Laboratories announced it has signed an agreement with Korean based LG Life Sciences Ltd for marketing AE 941 (as Neovastat) in South Korea. The agreement provides AEterna with upfront and milestone payments, as well as a return on manufacturing and sales of AE 941. AEterna Laboratories had granted Alcon Laboratories an exclusive worldwide licence for AE 941 for ophthalmic products. However, this licence has been terminated. In

  10. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  15. Nonylphenol ethoxylates and other additives in aircraft deicers, antiicers, and waters receiving airport runoff.

    PubMed

    Corsi, Steven R; Zitomer, Daniel H; Field, Jennifer A; Cancilla, Devon A

    2003-09-15

    Samples of nine different formulations of aircraft deicer and antiicer fluids (ADAF) were screened for the presence of selected surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO) were identified in three ADAF formulations, octylphenol ethoxylates were identified in two formulations, and six formulations contained alcohol ethoxylates. A preliminary field study was conducted at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, WI, to quantify NPnEO (n = 1-15) and one of its byproducts, nonylphenol (NP), in airport runoff. Samples were collected from two airport outfalls, from the receiving stream, and from an upstream reference site during intensive ADAF application events. NPnEO was measured at concentrations up to 1190microg/L in airport outfall samples, up to 77 ug/L in samples from the receiving stream and less than 5.0 microg/L from the upstream reference. Concentrations of glycol and other ADAF-related constituents, including NPnEO, were reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude between the outfall sites and the receiving stream site; however, concentrations of NP in the receiving stream remained similar to those from the outfalls (< 0.04 microg/L at the upstream reference, 0.98 and 7.67 microg/L at outfalls, and 3.89 microg/L in the receiving stream). The field data suggest that NP is generated through degradation of NPnEO from airport runoff. PMID:14524432

  16. Nonylphenol ethoxylates and other additives in aircraft deicers, antiicers, and waters receiving airport runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, Steven R.; Zitomer, Daniel H.; Field, Jennifer A.; Cancilla, Devon A.

    2003-01-01

    Samples of nine different formulations of aircraft deicer and antiicer fluids (ADAF) were screened for the presence of selected surfactants. Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPnEO) were identified in three ADAF formulations, octylphenol ethoxylates were identified in two formulations, and six formulations contained alcohol ethoxylates. A preliminary field study was conducted at General Mitchell International Airport, Milwaukee, WI, to quantify NPnEO (n = 1-15) and one of its byproducts, nonylphenol (NP), in airport runoff. Samples were collected from two airport outfalls, from the receiving stream, and from an upstream reference site during intensive ADAF application events. NPnEO was measured at concentrations up to 1190microg/L in airport outfall samples, up to 77 ug/L in samples from the receiving stream and less than 5.0 microg/L from the upstream reference. Concentrations of glycol and other ADAF-related constituents, including NPnEO, were reduced by approximately 1 order of magnitude between the outfall sites and the receiving stream site; however, concentrations of NP in the receiving stream remained similar to those from the outfalls (< 0.04 microg/L at the upstream reference, 0.98 and 7.67 microg/L at outfalls, and 3.89 microg/L in the receiving stream). The field data suggest that NP is generated through degradation of NPnEO from airport runoff.

  17. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  18. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  19. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  1. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  2. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5970 - Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., potassium salt. 721.5970 Section 721.5970 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5970 Phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt. (a) Chemical... as phosphated polyarylphenol ethoxylate, potassium salt (PMN P-93-1222) is subject to reporting...

  7. Partitioning behavior of an acid-cleavable, 1,3-dioxolane alkyl ethoxylate, surfactant in single and binary surfactant mixtures for 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems according to ethoxylate head group size

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez Del Rio, Javier A; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S

    2010-01-01

    Partition coefficients for a pH-degradable 1,3-dioxolane alkyl ethoxylate surfactant, 4-CH{sub 3}O (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 5.6}-CH{sub 2}, 2,2-(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}CH{sub 3}, 2-(CH{sub 2}) CH{sub 3}, 1,3-dioxolane or ''cyclic ketal'' surfactant, CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave}, between isooctane- and water-rich phases of 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems (K{sub n}) were determined as functions of the ethoxylate size, n, and temperature for the neat surfactant and its binary surfactant mixtures, to understand the partitioning of alkyl ethoxylates possessing a broad distribution of ethoxylate size and to determine conditions required for formation of 3-phase microemulsion systems at an optimal temperature where phase separation occurs rapidly, important for protein purification via proteins selective partitioning to the middle phase, driven by affinity to the second surfactant of the binary mixture. A semi-empirical thermodynamic mathematical model described the partitioning data well, provided optimal temperature values consistent with phase diagrams and theory, and demonstrated that the tail region of CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave} is more polar than the hydrophobes of fatty alcohol ethoxylates. The addition of Aerosol-OT (AOT) removed the temperature sensitivity of CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave}s partitioning, producing 3-phase microemulsion systems between 20 C and 40 C. Analysis of the bottom phases of the 2- and 3-phase microemulsion systems formed by CK-2,13-E{sub 5.6,ave} via small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated the presence of spherical, monodisperse oil-in-water microemulsions.

  8. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  10. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic). 721.10038 Section 721.10038... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10443 - Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10443 Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt... identified generically as ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (PMN P-01-470) is subject to... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkylphenol...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10624 - Dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). 721.10624 Section 721.10624 Protection of...,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (PMN P-12-326) is subject...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10624 - Dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). 721.10624 Section 721.10624 Protection of...,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (generic). (a) Chemical substance... dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate, polymer with ethoxylated, propoxylated polyethers (PMN P-12-326) is subject...

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  18. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  19. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  20. METHODS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF ALKYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES AND DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates and their derivatives are well known for their harmful impact in wildlife. These compounds are being phased-out and banned in most European Countries. Their use has increased in the U.S. resulting in their addition to the Priority Testing List, TSCA (1...

  1. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  2. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  3. 21 CFR 172.834 - Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethoxylated mono- and diglycerides. 172.834 Section 172.834 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives...

  4. Anarchy in AE Aquarii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, W. F.

    Interest in AE Aqr remains high, as evidenced by the lively discussion that took place during the workshop. In this contribution I briefly remark on the results I presented at the workshop, then address topics that were raised during the discussion. I attempt to preserve the spirit and flavor of that discussion.

  5. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  6. Advanced oxidation of alkylphenol ethoxylates in aqueous systems.

    PubMed

    Nagarnaik, Pranav M; Boulanger, Bryan

    2011-10-01

    Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates are ubiquitous wastewater contaminants. In this study the oxidation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEO) by oxidant systems generating hydroxide radicals was evaluated. The reaction of each oxidant with a technical mixture of NPEO (Tergitol™) and OPEO (Triton X-100™) in ultrapure laboratory water and four aqueous environmental matrices was carried out in order to develop an understanding of reaction kinetics. The oxidation of APEOs was evaluated by hydroxyl radical generated by (1) hydrogen peroxide in the presence of ultraviolet light, (2) Fenton's reagent, and (3) a photo-Fenton's process. The second order kinetic rate constant for both NPEO and OPEO with hydroxyl radical was calculated to be 1.1×10¹⁰ M⁻¹ s⁻¹. The efficacy of the AOPs within an aqueous environmental matrix was dependent on the rate of formation of hydroxyl radical and the scavenging capacity of the matrix. A model based on the hydroxyl radical formation, scavenging capacity and the kinetic rate constant of target APEO was developed from the existing literature and applied to predict the concentration of APEOs in solution during advanced oxidation in different aqueous environmental matrices. PMID:21784502

  7. Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Carboxylates in Wastewater and Sediments by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work presents an LC-MS-MS-based method for the quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter, and three of their carboxylated derivatives in water. The alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) were analyzed using...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10443 - Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., ammonium salt (generic). 721.10443 Section 721.10443 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10443 Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt... identified generically as ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (PMN P-01-470) is subject...

  9. Fenton Oxidation Kinetics and Intermediates of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Kai; Yi, Hao; Zhou, Zi-jian; Zhuo, Qiong-fang; Bing, Yong-xin; Guo, Qing-wei; Xu, Zhen-cheng

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Removal of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) in aqueous solution by Fenton oxidation process was studied in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. Operating parameters, including initial pH temperature, hydrogen peroxide, and ferrous ion dosage, were thoroughly investigated. Maximum NPEOs reduction of 84% was achieved within 6 min, under an initial pH of 3.0, 25°C, an H2O2 dosage of 9.74×10−3 M, and a molar ratio of [H2O2]/[Fe2+] of 3. A modified pseudo-first-order kinetic model was found to well represent experimental results. Correlations of reaction rate constants and operational parameters were established based on experimental data. Results indicated that the Fenton oxidation rate and removal efficiency were more dependent on the dosage of H2O2 than Fe2+, and the apparent activation energy (ΔE) was 17.5 kJ/mol. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatograph mass spectrometer analytical results indicated degradation of NPEOs obtained within the first 2 min stepwise occurred by ethoxyl (EO) unit shortening. Long-chain NPEOs mixture demonstrated a higher degradation rate than shorter-chain ones. Nonylphenol (NP), short-chain NPEOs, and NP carboxyethoxylates were identified as the primary intermediates, which were mostly further degraded. PMID:24868141

  10. Comparative toxicity of nonylphenol, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate to wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingming; Wang, Feifei; Xue, Changhui; Wang, Caixia; Chi, Shengqi; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2016-09-01

    Nonylphenol polyethoxylates (NPEOs) are a group of surfactants that are widely used in industrial and household products and often detected in the environment. The metabolite of NPEOs, named nonylphenol (NP), has proven to be an endocrine disruptor, and its environmental behavior and eco-toxicity have been widely investigated in previous studies. However, to the best of our knowledge, insight into the toxicity differences of NP and NPEOs on important crops remains limited. Therefore, this study investigated the comparative toxicity of NP, nonylphenol-4-ethoxylate (NP4EO), and nonylphenol-10-ethoxylate (NP10EO) on wheat seedlings using hydroponic experiments. The results indicated that NP is most toxic to wheat followed by NP4EO, and NP10EO is the least toxic to wheat. The adverse effects of NP on wheat were observed for all the tested parameters including germination, shoot length, root length, chlorophyll, lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic activities. To gain insight into the molecular response, we analyzed the transcript abundance of SOD-Cu/Zn and CAT with NP, NP4EO, and NP10EO exposure using quantitative real-time PCR. The data revealed that both genes exhibited up- or down-regulated expression patterns that were consistent with the activities of the two enzymes. This result further conformed that NP is most toxic to wheat plants. PMID:27162129

  11. Determination of nonylphenol ethoxylate and octylphenol ethoxylate surfactants in beehive samples by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Mullin, Christopher A

    2014-09-01

    Nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates (NP(EO)n and OP(EO)n) are major toxicants in agrochemicals used around beehives. Here we developed a LC-MS method for analysis of NP(EO)3-13 and OP(EO)3-13 oligomers in bee hive matrices. Less than 2 g of honey, pollen or wax were extracted using the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) approach. Recoveries for each oligomer in all matrices are between 75% and 111% at three spiked concentrations. The method proved to be rapid, precise and sensitive. Five honey, 10 pollen and 12 wax samples were collected and analysed. NP(EO)n was detected in every sample with concentrations ranging from 26 ppb to 10,239 ppb. Much higher NP(EO)n residues levels were found in wax followed by pollen than in honey. OP(EO)n concentrations on average were more than 10 times lower in pollen and wax. This method demonstrates a probable wide occurrence of alkylphenol ethoxylates in USA beehives. PMID:24731372

  12. Lights, camera, A&E.

    PubMed

    Gould, Mark

    Channel 4 series 24 Hours in A&E was one of the television highlights of 2011. Filmed at King's College Hospital in London, it showed the reality of life in an A&E department and may have improved the public's understanding of nursing. PMID:22324233

  13. Selecting Surrogates for an Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Analytical Method in Sewage and Soil Matrices

    EPA Science Inventory

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are nonionic surfactants commonly used in industrial detergents. These products contain complex mixtures of branched and linear chains. APEs and their degradation products, alkylphenols, are highly toxic to aquatic organisms, potentially estrogeni...

  14. (abstract) Airborne Emission Spectrometer (AES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beer, Reinhard

    1994-01-01

    AES is a low-cost analog of the TES downlooking modes. Because AES operates at ambient temperature, limb-viewing is not possible. The first flight of AES took place in April 1994 on the NASA P3B aircraft out of Wallops Island, VA. While planned as an engineering test flight, spectra were successfully acquired both over the Atlantic Ocean and the area of the Great Dismal Swamp on the Virginia-North Carolina border. At this writing (July 1994), a second series of flights on the NASA DC8 aircraft out of Ames RC,CA is in progress. By the time of the workshop, a third series using the NASA C130 should have been accomplished.

  15. Production of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols as a factor obstacle to the successful ozonation-assisted biodegradation of ethoxylated compounds.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Satoshi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2015-10-01

    Ozonation is believed to improve the biodegradability of organic compounds. In the present study, degradation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) was monitored in hybrid treatment systems consisting of ozonation and microbial degradation processes. We found that ozonation of NPEOs decreased, rather than increased, the biodegradability under certain conditions. The timing of ozonation was a definitive factor in determining whether ozonation increased or decreased the biodegradation rates of NPEOs. Initial ozonation of NPEOs prior to biodegradation reduced the rate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal during the subsequent 14 d of biodegradation, whereas intermediate ozonation at the 9th day of biodegradation improved subsequent DOC removal during 14 d of NPEO biodegradation. Furthermore, reduction of DOC removal was also observed, when initial ozonation prior to biodegradation was subjected to cetyl alcohol ethoxylates. The production of less biodegradable intermediates, such as mono- and dicarboxylated polyethylene glycols (MCPEGs and DCPEGs), was responsible for the negative effect of ozonation on biodegradability of NPEOs. DCPEGs and MCPEGs were produced by biodegradation of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) that were ozonolysis products of the NPEOs, and the biodegradability of DCPEGs and MCPEGs was less than that of the precursor PEGs. The results indicate that, if the target chemicals contain ethoxy chains, production of PEGs may be one of the important factors when ozonation is considered. PMID:25985303

  16. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  17. Environmental fate of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates--a review.

    PubMed

    Ying, Guang-Guo; Williams, Brian; Kookana, Rai

    2002-07-01

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) are widely used surfactants in domestic and industrial products, which are commonly found in wastewater discharges and in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents. Degradation of APEs in wastewater treatment plants or in the environment generates more persistent shorter-chain APEs and alkylphenols (APs) such as nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP) and AP mono- to triethoxylates (NPE1, NPE2 and NPE3). There is concern that APE metabolites (NP, OP, NPE1-3) can mimic natural hormones and that the levels present in the environment may be sufficient to disrupt endocrine function in wildlife and humans. The physicochemical properties of the APE metabolites (NP, NPE1-4, OP, OPE1-4), in particular the high K(ow) values, indicate that they will partition effectively into sediments following discharge from STPs. The aqueous solubility data for the APE metabolites indicate that the concentration in water combined with the high partition coefficients will provide a significant reservoir (load) in various environmental compartments. Data from studies conducted in many regions across the world have shown significant levels in samples of every environmental compartment examined. In the US, levels of NP in air ranged from 0.01 to 81 ng/m3, with seasonal trends observed. Concentrations of APE metabolites in treated wastewater effluents in the US ranged from < 0.1 to 369 microg/l, in Spain they were between 6 and 343 microg/l and concentrations up to 330 microg/l were found in the UK. Levels in sediments reflected the high partition coefficients with concentrations reported ranging from < 0.1 to 13,700 microg/kg for sediments in the US. Fish in the UK were found to contain up to 0.8 microg/kg NP in muscle tissue. APEs degraded faster in the water column than in sediment. Aerobic conditions facilitate easier further biotransformation of APE metabolites than anaerobic conditions. PMID:12222618

  18. 77 FR 75085 - Proposed Significant New Use Rule on Ethoxylated, Propoxylated Diamine Diaryl Substituted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... (77 FR 23236) (FRL-9343- 4), EPA issued a direct final rule which established a SNUR for ethoxylated... direct final SNUR in the Federal Register of July 25, 2012 (77 FR 43520) (FRL-9356-1), and is now issuing..., (55 FR 17376), EPA has decided that the intent of TSCA section 5(a)(1)(B) is best served...

  19. Mass spectrometric behaviour of carboxylated polyethylene glycols and carboxylated octylphenol ethoxylates.

    PubMed

    Frańska, Magdalena; Zgoła, Agnieszka; Rychłowska, Joanna; Szymański, Andrzej; Łukaszewski, Zenon; Frański, Rafał

    2003-01-01

    Mass spectrometric behaviour of mono- and di-carboxylated polyethylene glycols (PEGCs and CPEGCs) and carboxylated octylphenol ethoxylates (OPECs) are discussed. The tendency for ionisation (deprotonation, protonation and cationisation by alkali metal cations) of carboxylated PEGs was compared with that of non-carboxylated correspondents by using both secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and electrospray ionisation (ESI). The fragmentation of the PEGCs and CPEGCs is discussed and also compared with their neutral correspondents, PEGs. The B/E mass spectra were recorded, using secondary ion mass spectrometry as a method for generation, for deprotonated and protonated molecules and molecules cationised by alkali metal cations. The fragmentation behaviour of PEGs is found to be different from that of CPEGCs, The presence of carboxylic groups may be confirmed not only by the determination of molecular weights of the ethoxylates studied, but also on the basis of the fragment ions formed. The metastable decomposition of the [OPEC-H](-) ions proceed through the cleavage of the bond between the octylphenol moiety and the ethoxylene chain leading to the octylphenoxy anions. It permits determination of the mass of the hydrophobic moiety of the studied carboxylated alkylphenol ethoxylate. ESI mass spectra recorded in the negative ion mode were found to be more suitable for the determination of the average molecular weight of carboxylated ethoxylates than SI mass spectra. PMID:12939494

  20. SEPARATION OF T-MAZ ETHOXYLATED SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTERS BY SUPERCRITICAL FLUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) to the analysis of T-MAZ ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters is described. FC separation methods utilize a density programming technique and a 50 um I.D. capillary column. his work demonstrates that capillary column S...

  1. SEPARATION OF T-MAZ ETHOXYLATED SORBITAN FATTY ACID ESTERS BY REVERSE PHASE CHROMATOGRAPHY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The method for determination of T-MAZ ethoxylated sorbitan fatty acid esters is described. This work demonstrates that with a less retentive C8 alkyl bonded phase packing, reverse phase chromatography can be used to analyze nonionic polymer mixtures with a molecular weight range ...

  2. ITC-CMA partnership and data needs for alkylphenols and ethoxylates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Rice, C.P.; Walker, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The ITC has been an independent advisory committee to the EPA Administrator since enactment of the Toxics Substances Control Act (TSCA) in 1976. The ITC identifies and coordinates U.S. Government data needs for TSCA-regulable chemicals, and makes recommendations to the Administrator for priority testing consideration. Chemicals recommended by the ITC are added to the TSCA Priority Testing List that is revised semi-annually in Reports to the Administrator. In recent Reports, the ITC added alkylphenols (APs) and ethoxylates to the Priority Testing List. About 500 million pounds are produced annually for industrial processing, cleaning and personal care products. APs have been detected in the tissues of fish from the Great Lakes, and one AP (nonylphenol) causes vitellogenin gene expression in trout hepatocytes. Numerous APs and ethoxylates were recommended by the ITC because data are needed on: (1) chemical composition, (2) environmental fate of parent chemicals and impurities, and (3) health and ecological effects (including toxicokinetics and endocrine-modulating effects). In response to the ITC's recommendations, two activities have ensued. First, the EPA promulgated rules requiring manufacturers, importers and processors of APs and ethoxylates to submit production and exposure reports, and unpublished health and safety studies, for review. Second, the Alkylphenols and Ethoxylates Panel of Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA) and the ITC formed a Dialogue Group to discuss the data needs. Data needs and activities initiated by the Dialogue Group will be presented.

  3. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  4. Fate of Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Some Carboxylated Derivatives in Three American Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fate of a comprehensive group of nonylphenol and octylphenol ethoxylates and several of their carboxylated derivatives was studied in three American wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), two of which included advanced treatment. In spite of being located in three different metropolitan areas, wa...

  5. Blend of alkyl phenol ethoxylates and alkyl phenol glycoxylates and their use as surfactants

    SciTech Connect

    Grolitzer, M. A.

    1985-11-12

    Nonionic surfactant compositions useful in forming stable emulsions with oil in saline solutions comprising a blend of: at least one alkyl phenol ethoxylate and at least one alkyl phenol glycoxylate. These surfactant compositions may be employed in enhanced oil recovery processes and other applications where good emulsification and high salinity tolerances are required such as textiles, leather, dairy, concrete grinding aids and drilling muds.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10027 - Ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkylamine salt (generic). 721.10027 Section 721.10027 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as ethoxylated alkylsulfate, substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-01-862)...

  11. Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Their Transformation Products in the Back River, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Back River is a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay that receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and urban runoff from the metropolitan area of Baltimore, MD. In order to study the fate of the alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their transformation products, including those th...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10038 - Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with... Trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols and ethoxylated nonylphenol (generic... identified generically as trimellitic anhydride, polymer with substituted glycol, alkyl phenols...

  13. Transport activity of chimaeric AE2-AE3 chloride/bicarbonate anion exchange proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Fujinaga, Jocelyne; Loiselle, Frederick B; Casey, Joseph R

    2003-01-01

    Chloride/bicarbonate anion exchangers (AEs), found in the plasma membrane of most mammalian cells, are involved in pH regulation and bicarbonate metabolism. Although AE2 and AE3 are highly similar in sequence, AE2-transport activity was 10-fold higher than AE3 (41 versus 4 mM x min(-1) respectively), when expressed by transient transfection of HEK-293 cells. AE2-AE3 chimaeras were constructed to define the region responsible for differences in transport activity. The level of AE2 expression was approx. 30% higher than that of AE3. Processing to the cell surface, studied by chemical labelling and confocal microscopy, showed that AE2 is processed to the cell surface approx. 8-fold more efficiently than AE3. The efficiency of cell-surface processing was dependent on the cytoplasmic domain, since the AE2 domain conferred efficient processing upon the AE3 membrane domain, with a predominant role for amino acids 322-677 of AE2. AE2 that was expressed in HEK-293 cells was glycosylated, but little of AE3 was. However, AE2 expressed in the presence of the glycosylation inhibitor, tunicamycin, was not glycosylated, yet retained 85 +/- 8% of anion-transport activity. Therefore glycosylation has little, if any, role in the cell-surface processing or activity of AE2 or AE3. We conclude that the low anion-transport activity of AE3 in HEK-293 cells is due to low level processing to the plasma membrane, possibly owing to protein interactions with the AE3 cytoplasmic domain. PMID:12578559

  14. Acoustic emission characterization using AE (parameter) delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.

    1983-01-01

    The acoustic emission (AE) parameter delay concept is defined as that particular measured value of a parameter at which a specified baseline level of cumulative AE activity is reached. The parameter can be from any of a broad range of elastic, plastic, viscoelastic, and fracture mechanics parameters, as well as their combinations. Such parameters include stress, load, strain, displacement, time, temperature, loading cycle, unloading stress, stress intensity factor, strain energy release rate, and crack tip plasticity zone size, while the AE activity may be AE event counts, ringdown counts, energy, event duration, etc., as well as their combinations. Attention is given to examples for the AE parameter delay concept, together with various correlations.

  15. Infrared observations of AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanzi, E. G.; Chincarini, G.; Tarenghi, M.

    1981-01-01

    Broadband infrared observations of the cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii are reported. The observations were obtained in the J, H, K and L filters with the InSb photometer attached to the 1-m telescope of the European Southern Observatory. The infrared energy distribution observed from 0.35 to 3.5 microns for phase 0.5 suggests a spectral type of K5 V for the secondary and a distance to the system of approximately 70 pc if an absolute magnitude of 7.3 is assumed. Monitoring of the flux at 2.2 microns reveals a variability with an amplitude of approximately 0.3 magnitude over one third of the orbital period, the nature of which is under investigation.

  16. Concentrations and mass loadings of hormones, alkylphenols, and alkylphenol ethoxylates in healthcare facility wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Nagarnaik, P M; Mills, M A; Boulanger, B

    2010-02-01

    Healthcare facility wastewaters are an anticipated source of known endocrine disrupting chemicals to the environment. In this study, the composition and magnitude of eight steroid hormones, octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), 16 nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs), and 10 octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in wastewater from a(n) hospital, nursing facility, assisted living facility, and independent living facility are presented. Steroid hormone concentrations were variable for each sampling location, ranging from a non-detectable concentration of 17beta-ethynylestradiol in all samples to 127ngL(-1) androstenedione in the hospital's wastewater composite. OP and NP were not detected in any site's samples. However, NPEOs were found at each sampling location with a maximum combined concentration of 260microgL(-1) for NPEOs with a chain length between 3 and 18 units in the assisted living facility composite sample. OPEOs were only found in the hospital and nursing facilities samples with a maximum combined OPEO concentration of 13microgL(-1) for OPEOs with a chain length between 2 and 12 units in hospital wastewater. The total mass loading of hormones to the municipal sewer system from each facility ranged from 2.5mgd(-1) at the assisted living facility to 138mgd(-1) at the hospital. The total mass loading of the alklyphenol ethoxylates (NPEO+OPEO) is considerably higher than the estimated hormone mass loadings, ranging from 1.8gd(-1) at the independent living facility to 54gd(-1) at the hospital facility. PMID:20079514

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  18. The AE-8 trapped electron model environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, James I.

    1991-01-01

    The machine sensible version of the AE-8 electron model environment was completed in December 1983. It has been sent to users on the model environment distribution list and is made available to new users by the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). AE-8 is the last in a series of terrestrial trapped radiation models that includes eight proton and eight electron versions. With the exception of AE-8, all these models were documented in formal reports as well as being available in a machine sensible form. The purpose of this report is to complete the documentation, finally, for AE-8 so that users can understand its construction and see the comparison of the model with the new data used, as well as with the AE-4 model.

  19. AES analysis of barium fluoride thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashin, G. N.; Makhnjuk, V. I.; Rumjantseva, S. M.; Shchekochihin, Ju. M.

    1993-06-01

    AES analysis of thin films of metal fluorides is a difficult problem due to charging and decomposition of such films under electron bombardment. We have developed a simple algorithm for a reliable quantitative AES analysis of metal fluoride thin films (BaF 2 in our work). The relative AES sensitivity factors for barium and fluorine were determined from BaF 2 single-crystal samples. We have investigated the dependence of composition and stability of barium fluoride films on the substrate temperature during film growth. We found that the instability of BaF 2 films grown on GaAs substrates at high temperatures (> 525°C) is due to a loss of fluorine. Our results show that, under the optimal electron exposure conditions, AES can be used for a quantitative analysis of metal fluoride thin films.

  20. Determination of ethylene oxide in ethoxylated surfactants and demulsifiers by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Dahlgran, J R; Shingleton, C R

    1987-01-01

    A headspace gas chromatographic method for the determination of traces of ethylene oxide in ethoxylated surfactants and demulsifiers was developed. Samples are analyzed directly by the technique to a 1.0 ppm (w/w) quantitation limit. The procedure also performs well for propylene oxide, acetaldehyde, and 1,4-dioxane. It is simple, sensitive, and linear. The percent relative standard deviations for 0.5 and 30 ppm ethylene oxide in the surfactant were 2.8 and 8.3%, respectively. PMID:3680111

  1. Analysis of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced waters using accurate mass: identification of ethoxylated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Thurman, E Michael; Ferrer, Imma; Blotevogel, Jens; Borch, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Two series of ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants, polyethylene glycols (PEGs from EO3 to EO33) and linear alkyl ethoxylates (LAEs C-9 to C-15 with EO3-EO28), were identified in hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water using a new application of the Kendrick mass defect and liquid chromatography/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The Kendrick mass defect differentiates the proton, ammonium, and sodium adducts in both singly and doubly charged forms. A structural model of adduct formation is presented, and binding constants are calculated, which is based on a spherical cagelike conformation, where the central cation (NH4(+) or Na(+)) is coordinated with ether oxygens. A major purpose of the study was the identification of the ethylene oxide (EO) surfactants and the construction of a database with accurate masses and retention times in order to unravel the mass spectral complexity of surfactant mixtures used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. For example, over 500 accurate mass assignments are made in a few seconds of computer time, which then is used as a fingerprint chromatogram of the water samples. This technique is applied to a series of flowback and produced water samples to illustrate the usefulness of ethoxylate "fingerprinting", in a first application to monitor water quality that results from fluids used in hydraulic fracturing. PMID:25164376

  2. Alkylphenol ethoxylate degradation products in land-applied sewage sludge (biosolids).

    PubMed

    La Guardia, M J; Hale, R C; Harvey, E; Mainor, T M

    2001-12-15

    Alkylphenol ethoxylates, widely used in commercial and household detergents in the United States, can degrade during the wastewater treatment process to more toxic, estrogenic, and lipophilic compounds. These include octylphenol (OP), nonylphenols (NPs), nonylphenol monoethoxylates (NP1EOs), and nonylphenol diethoxylates (NP2EOs). These compounds have received considerable attention due to their acute toxicity and ability to disrupt the endocrine system. In Europe, regulations have been established to control their impact on the environment. In this study, biosolids derived from all 11 U.S. wastewater treatment plants examined contained detectable levels of OP, NPs, NP1EOs, and NP2EOs. Nine exceeded the current Danish land application limit (30 mg/kg; sum of NPs, NP1EOs, and NP2EOs) by 6-33x. NPs were the major component, and their concentrations therein ranged from 5.4 to 887 mg/kg (dry weight). OP, reportedly 10-20x more estrogenic than NP, was detected in these same nine biosolids at levels up to 12.6 mg/kg. Three biosolids were also subjected to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure Method 1311. NPs and NP1EOs were both detected in the leachate; the former at concentrations from 9.4 to 309 microg/L. On the basis of effect levels published in the literature, alkylphenol ethoxylate degradates in U.S. biosolids may cause adverse environmental impacts. PMID:11775155

  3. The case of the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates in the Mediterranean Sea region: is there a problem?

    PubMed

    Zoller, U; Plaut, I; Hushan, M

    2004-01-01

    The concentration profiles of the potential endocrine disrupting nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants in Israel's rivers, groundwaters and coastal water of the eastern Mediterranean Sea, were found to be within the range of 12.5-74.6, trace - 20.2 and 4.2-25.0 microg/L respectively. Determination of the APEO's homologic distribution revealed "skewing" towards the more toxic shorter-chain ethoxylates. Egg production of zebrafish, Danio rerio, exposed to these actually found the environmental concentrations range of the APEOs decreased, after 20 days, to 89.6+/-2.1, 84.7+/-3.9 and 76.9+/-2.2% of the baseline levels, compared with control, in concentrations of 10, 25 and 75 microg/L respectively. These results suggest that, (a) there is a potential health problem, particularly in countries in which the "hard"/environmentally persistent APEOs are still in use; and (b) the related health-risk is seasonally-dependent, particularly in semi-arid regions where the fluctuations in the water quantities in surface- and groundwater are substantial. PMID:15497833

  4. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future. PMID:26346900

  5. 40 CFR 721.10440 - Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized tetrafluoroethylene. 721.10440 Section 721.10440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10440 - Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diphosphoric acid, polymers with ethoxylated reduced Me esters of reduced polymd. oxidized tetrafluoroethylene. 721.10440 Section 721.10440 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL...

  7. AN LC/ESI-MS/MS METHOD FOR THE DETECTION OF ALKYLPHENOL ETHOXYLATES IN WATER AND SEDIMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interest in substances suspected of causing endocrine disruption effects in biota has increased over the last few years. Nonyl- and octylphenol (NP and OP) and degradation products of their respective alkylphenol ethoxylates (APnEOs) are considered potential endocrine disrupters. These effects and...

  8. Occurrence and Distribution Pattern of Alkylphenol Ethoxylates and Brominated Flame Retardants in Sediment Samples from Vaal River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chokwe, T B; Okonkwo, O J; Sibali, L L; Mporetji, S M

    2016-09-01

    High environmental concentrations for alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) have been observed near cities than in rural environment. This is due, in part, to sewage systems receiving effluents from many industrial processes along with domestic wastewater. While these classes of compounds are being phased out in most developed countries, there is still widespread use in low to middle income countries. To better understand the extent of APEs and BFRs contamination in the environment, this study reports on the concentration and distribution of APEs and BFRs in sediments samples collected from Vaal River, South Africa. Measurable concentrations of these contaminants were obtained using GC-MS after heptafluorobutyric derivatization. The concentrations range (ng g(-1)) for these pollutants were as follows: nd-46, 20-127, 24-38, 3-5, 14-28, 16-54 for octylphenol penta ethoxylates, nonylphenol ethoxylates (mono- di), nonylphenol penta ethoxylates, PBB101, PBDEs, and HBCD; respectively. The distribution observed in this study indicated higher levels of sediment contamination by APEs relative to BFRs. These results underline the need to further investigate the burden and risks associated with chemical contamination in developing countries. PMID:27443342

  9. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9280 - Reaction product of ethoxylated fatty acid oils and a phenolic pentaerythritol tetraester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9280 Reaction product of... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a reaction product... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reaction product of ethoxylated...

  14. Fate and Distribution of the Octyl- and Nonylphenol Ethoxylates and Some Carboxylated Transformation Products in the Back River, Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Back River is a sub-estuary of the Chesapeake Bay that receives effluent from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and urban runoff from the metropolitan area of Baltimore, MD. In order to study the fate of the alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) and their transformation products, including those th...

  15. The accretion column of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Claudia; Costa, D. Joaquim; Luna, Gerardo; Lima, Isabel J.; Silva, Karleyne M. G.; De Araujo, Jose Carlos N.; Coelho, Jaziel

    2016-07-01

    AE Aqr is a magnetic cataclysmic variable, whose white dwarf rotates at the very fast rate of 33 s modulating the flux from high-energies to optical wavelengths. There are many studies of the origin of its emission, which consider emission from a rotating magnetic field or from an accretion column. Recently, MAGIC observations have discarded AE Aqr emission in very high energy gamma-rays discarding non-thermal emission. Furthermore, soft and hard X-ray data from Swift and NuSTAR were fitted using thermal models. Here we present the modelling of AE Aqr X-ray spectra and light curve considering the emission of a magnetic accretion column using the Cyclops code. The model takes into consideration the 3D geometry of the system, allowing to properly represent the white-dwarf auto eclipse, the pre-shock column absorption, and the varying density and temperature of a tall accretion column.

  16. Differential attack on mini-AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajeng Gemellia, Asadini Dwi; Indarjani, Santi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents the results of differential attack on Mini-AES algorithm. The differential trails are constructed using all combinations of propagation ratio without repetition. To give practical results, we implement the key extraction for differential characteristics which have the highest and lowest probability as a comparison. Based on total propagation ratio and complexity resulted, Mini-AES algorithms are vulnerable to differential attack. The best differential characteristic is the differential characteristic using a single active s-box with the propagation ratio of 8 / 16.

  17. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    PubMed

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed. PMID:22531053

  18. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, Matt

    2010-01-01

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  19. Matt Rogers on AES Energy Storage

    ScienceCinema

    Rogers, Matt

    2013-05-29

    The Department of Energy and AES Energy Storage recently agreed to a $17.1M conditional loan guarantee commitment. This project will develop the first battery-based energy storage system to provide a more stable and efficient electrical grid for New York State's high-voltage transmission network. Matt Rogers is the Senior Advisor to the Secretary for Recovery Act Implementation.

  20. Adsorption at air-water and oil-water interfaces and self-assembly in aqueous solution of ethoxylated polysorbate nonionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Penfold, Jeffrey; Thomas, Robert K; Li, Peixun X; Petkov, Jordan T; Tucker, Ian; Webster, John R P; Terry, Ann E

    2015-03-17

    The Tween nonionic surfactants are ethoxylated sorbitan esters, which have 20 ethylene oxide groups attached to the sorbitan headgroup and a single alkyl chain, lauryl, palmityl, stearyl, or oleyl. They are an important class of surfactants that are extensively used in emulsion and foam stabilization and in applications associated with foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. A range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants, with differing degrees of ethoxylation from 3 to 50 ethylene oxide groups, have been synthesized and characterized by neutron reflection, small-angle neutron scattering, and surface tension. In conjunction with different alkyl chain groups, this provides the opportunity to modify their surface properties, their self-assembly in solution, and their interaction with macromolecules, such as proteins. Adsorption at the air-water and oil-water interfaces and solution self-assembly of the range of ethoxylated polysorbate surfactants synthesized are presented and discussed. PMID:25697294

  1. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  2. Magnetic fields in Herbig Ae stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Schöller, M.; Yudin, R. V.

    2004-12-01

    Herbig Ae stars are young A-type stars in the pre-main sequence evolutionary phase with masses of ˜1.5-3 M⊙. They show rather intense surface activity (Dunkin et al. \\cite{Du97}, MNRAS, 290, 165) and infrared excess related to the presence of circumstellar disks. Because of their youth, primordial magnetic fields inherited from the parent molecular cloud may be expected, but no direct evidence for the presence of magnetic fields on their surface, except in one case (Donati et al. \\cite{Do97}, MNRAS, 291, 658), has been found until now. Here we report observations of optical circular polarization with FORS 1 at the VLT in the three Herbig Ae stars HD 139614, HD 144432 and HD 144668. A definite longitudinal magnetic field at 4.8 σ level, =-450±93 G, has been detected in the Herbig Ae star HD 139614. This is the largest magnetic field ever diagnosed for a Herbig Ae star. A hint of a weak magnetic field is found in the other two Herbig Ae stars, HD 144432 and HD 144668, for which magnetic fields are measured at the ˜1.6 σ and ˜2.5 σ level respectively. Further, we report the presence of circular polarization signatures in the Ca II K line in the V Stokes spectra of HD 139614 and HD 144432, which appear unresolved at the low spectral resolution achievable with FORS 1. We suggest that models involving accretion of matter from the disk to the star along a global stellar magnetic field of a specific geometry can account for the observed Zeeman signatures. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programme No. 072.D-0377).

  3. Extraction and clean-up procedure for analysis of organochlorine pesticide residues in ethoxylated lanolin.

    PubMed

    Polese, L; Sannomiya, M; de Olivera Sader, A P; Lúcia Ribeiro, M

    2000-01-01

    In the present study an evaluation was made of a method for the determination of organochlorine pesticide residues in ethoxylated lanolin. Samples were homogenized with Celite, transferred to chromatographic columns, prepacked with silica gel deactivated to 10%. The pesticide elution was processed with n-hexane-dichloromethane and the concentrated eluate was analyzed using gas-liquid chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD). The composition of the elution solvent was a significant factor for the recovery of the pesticides. Mean recoveries obtained for fortified samples ranged from 87 to 94% for p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, endrin, p,p'-DDD and p,p'-DDT. Optimization of the experimental conditions resulted in a small-scale method that combines extraction and cleanup in a single step. PMID:11152246

  4. Electronic structure and mesoscopic simulations of nonylphenol ethoxylate surfactants. a combined DFT and DPD study.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Diego; Aburto, Jorge; García-Cruz, Isidoro

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of ethylene oxide (EO) chains on the properties of a series of nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPE) surfactants. We performed a theoretical study of NPE surfactants by means of density functional theory (DFT) and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD). Both approximations were used separately to obtain different properties. Four NPEs were selected for this purpose (EO = 4, 7, 11 and 15 length chains). DFT methods provided some electronic properties that are related to the EO units. One of them is the solvation Gibbs energy, which exhibited a linear trend with EO chain length. DPD calculations allow us to observe the dynamic behavior in water of the NPE surfactants. We propose a coarse-grained model which properly simulates the mesophases of each surfactant. This model can be used in other NPEs applications. PMID:23966071

  5. Alcohol Expectancies Mediate and Moderate the Associations between Big Five Personality Traits and Adolescent Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Camacho, Laura; Mezquita, Laura; Villa, Helena; Moya-Higueras, Jorge; Ortet, Generós

    2015-01-01

    Personality and expectancies are relevant psychological factors for the development of adolescent alcohol use and misuse. The present study examined their direct, mediated and moderated effects on different drinking behaviors in adolescence. Personality domains of the five-factor model, positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AEs), alcohol use during the week and the weekend, and alcohol-related problems were assessed in a sample of 361 adolescents. Different personality dimensions were directly associated with specific alcohol outcomes: Extraversion, low Conscientiousness and low Openness were associated with weekend alcohol use; low Agreeableness was related to weekday use; whereas low Agreeableness, low Conscientiousness and Extraversion were associated with alcohol-related problems. In addition, positive AEs mediated the relationship between Extraversion and alcohol use, whereas both positive and negative expectancies mediated the association between Neuroticism and alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Finally, both types of expectancies interacted with Extraversion to predict alcohol problems. Our results highlight the importance of examining the complex interplay of comprehensive personality models and AEs to gain a better understanding of the development of different alcohol use and misuse patterns in adolescence. PMID:26635714

  6. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  7. AES Water Architecture Study Interim Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarguisingh, Miriam J.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the Advanced Exploration System (AES) Water Recovery Project (WRP) is to develop advanced water recovery systems in order to enable NASA human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO). The primary objective of the AES WRP is to develop water recovery technologies critical to near term missions beyond LEO. The secondary objective is to continue to advance mid-readiness level technologies to support future NASA missions. An effort is being undertaken to establish the architecture for the AES Water Recovery System (WRS) that meets both near and long term objectives. The resultant architecture will be used to guide future technical planning, establish a baseline development roadmap for technology infusion, and establish baseline assumptions for integrated ground and on-orbit environmental control and life support systems (ECLSS) definition. This study is being performed in three phases. Phase I of this study established the scope of the study through definition of the mission requirements and constraints, as well as indentifying all possible WRS configurations that meet the mission requirements. Phase II of this study focused on the near term space exploration objectives by establishing an ISS-derived reference schematic for long-duration (>180 day) in-space habitation. Phase III will focus on the long term space exploration objectives, trading the viable WRS configurations identified in Phase I to identify the ideal exploration WRS. The results of Phases I and II are discussed in this paper.

  8. The Cloud Point of Alkyl Ethoxylates and Its Prediction with the Hydrophilic-Lipophilic Difference (HLD) Framework.

    PubMed

    Zarate-Muñoz, Silvia; Boza Troncoso, Americo; Acosta, Edgar

    2015-11-10

    The hydrophobicity of surfactants has been described through different concepts used to guide the formulation of surfactant-water (SW) and surfactant-oil-water (SOW) systems. An integrated framework of hydrophobicity indicators could provide a complete tool for surfactant characterization, and insights on how their relationship may influence the overall phase behavior of the system. The hydrophilic-lipophilic difference (HLD) and the characteristic curvature (Cc) parameter, included in the HLD, have been shown to correlate with different hydrophobicity indicators including the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB), packing factor (Pf), phase inversion temperature (PIT), spontaneous curvature (Ho), surfactant partition (K(o-w)), and the critical micelle concentration (CMC). This work aims to investigate whether the HLD can further describe a concomitant hydrophobicity parameter, the cloud point (CP) of alkyl ethoxylates. After applying group contribution models to calculate the Cc of monodisperse (pure) nonionic alkyl ethoxylates, a linear correlation between the calculated Cc and the CP was observed for pure surfactants with 8 ethylene oxide (EO) units or less. Furthermore, using an apparent equivalent alkane carbon number (EACN) to represent the hydrophobicity of the micelle core, the HLD equation was capable of predicting cloud point temperatures of pure alkyl ethoxylates, typically within 5 °C. Polydisperse surfactants did not follow the linear CP-Cc correlation found for pure surfactants. After treating polydisperse samples using a liquid-liquid extraction procedure used to remove the most hydrophobic components in the mixture, the resulting treated surfactants fell in the correlation line of pure alkyl ethoxylates. A closer look at the partition behavior of these treated surfactants showed that their partition, Cc and cloud point are dominated by the most abundant ethoxymers in the treated surfactant. The HLD also predicted the cloud point depression of

  9. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  10. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  11. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  12. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  13. 22 CFR 120.30 - The Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Automated Export System (AES). 120.30... DEFINITIONS § 120.30 The Automated Export System (AES). The Automated Export System (AES) is the Department of... data and defense services shall be reported directly to the Directorate of Defense Trade Controls...

  14. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  15. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  16. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  17. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  19. Monitoring of Temperature Fatigue Failure Mechanism for Polyvinyl Alcohol Fiber Concrete Using Acoustic Emission Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongsheng; Cao, Hai

    2012-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission (AE) techniques to monitor the mechanism of evolution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber concrete damage under temperature fatigue loading is investigated. Using the temperature fatigue test, real-time AE monitoring data of PVA fiber concrete is achieved. Based on the AE signal characteristics of the whole test process and comparison of AE signals of PVA fiber concretes with different fiber contents, the damage evolution process of PVA fiber concrete is analyzed. Finally, a qualitative evaluation of the damage degree is obtained using the kurtosis index and b-value of AE characteristic parameters. The results obtained using both methods are discussed. PMID:23012555

  20. Reverse aqueous emulsions and microemulsions in HFA227 propellant stabilized by non-ionic ethoxylated amphiphiles.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Udayan; Selvam, Parthiban; Porcar, Lionel; da Rocha, Sandro R P

    2009-03-18

    In this work we use in situ high-pressure tensiometry to screen non-ionic ethoxylated surfactants at the 1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane (HFA227) propellant|Water (HFA227|W) interface. The EO(n)PO( approximately )(30)EO(n) series, where EO stands for ethylene oxide and PO for propylene oxide, and n the number of repeat EO units, was selected for this study based on the favorable interactions reported between HFA propellants and the PO moiety. The surfactants used in FDA-approved pressurized metered-dose inhaler formulations were also investigated. Tension measurements provide not only information on the relative activity of the different surfactants in the series, but they also serve as a guide for selecting an appropriate candidate for the formation of reverse aggregates based on the surfactant natural curvature. Moreover, the effect of ethanol and the chemistry of the surfactant tail group on the surfactant activity were also investigated. Surfactants with hydrogenated tails are not capable of forming stable water-in-HFA227 microemulsions. This is true even at very low tensions observed when in the presence of ethanol, indicating the lack of affinity between HFA227 and hydrogenated moieties-the surfactant does not tend to curve about water. On the other hand, PO-based amphiphiles can significantly reduce the tension of the HFA227|W interface. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) and UV-vis spectroscopy results also reveal that a selected ethoxylated amphiphile (EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) at 1mM concentration), when in the presence of ethanol, is capable of forming stable cylindrical reverse aqueous microemulsions. EO(13)PO(30)EO(13) is also capable of forming emulsions of water-in-HFA227 that are fairly stable against coalescence. Such dispersions are potential candidates for the delivery of small polar solutes and larger therapeutic biomolecules to and through the lungs in the form of pMDI formulations, and in other medical sprays. PMID:19028557

  1. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  2. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  3. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  4. Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and ADHD on Adaptive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Ashley L.; Glass, Leila; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are associated with adaptive behavior deficits. The present study examined the interaction between these two factors on parent ratings of adaptive behavior. Methods As part of a multisite study, primary caregivers of 317 children (8–16y, M=12.38) completed the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II). Four groups of subjects were included: children with prenatal alcohol exposure with (AE+, n = 82) and without ADHD (AE−, n = 34), children with ADHD (ADHD, n = 71), and control children (CON, n = 130). VABS-II domain scores (Communication, Daily Living Skills, Socialization) were examined using separate 2 (Alcohol Exposure [AE]) × 2 (ADHD diagnosis) between-subjects ANCOVAs. Results There were significant main effects of AE (p < .001) and ADHD (p < .001) on all VABS-II domains; alcohol-exposed children had lower scores than children without prenatal alcohol exposure and children with ADHD had lower scores than those without ADHD. There was a significant AE × ADHD interaction effect for Communication [F (1, 308) = 7.49, p = .007, partial η2 =.024], but not Daily Living Skills or Socialization domains (ps > .27). Follow up analyses in the Communication domain indicated the effects of ADHD were stronger in comparison subjects (ADHD vs. CON) than exposed subjects (AE+ vs. AE−) and the effects of alcohol exposure were stronger in subjects without ADHD (AE− vs. CON) than in subjects with ADHD (AE+ vs. ADHD). Conclusion As found previously, both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD increase adaptive behavior deficits in all domains. However, these two factors interact to cause the greatest impairment in children with both prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD for communication abilities. These results further demonstrate the deleterious effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and broadens our understanding of how ADHD exacerbates behavioral outcomes in this population

  5. The inner zone electron model AE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teague, M. J.; Vette, J. I.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the work performed in the development of the inner radiation zone electron model, AE-5. A complete description of the omnidirectional flux model is given for energy thresholds E sub T in the range 4.0 E sub T/(MeV) 0.04 and for L values in the range 2.8 L 1.2 for an epoch of October 1967. Confidence codes for certain regions of B-L space and certain energies are given based on data coverage and the assumptions made in the analysis. The electron model programs that can be supplied to a user are referred to. One of these, a program for accessing the model flux at arbitrary points in B-L space and arbitrary energies, includes the latest outer zone electron model and proton model. The model AE-5, is based on data from five satellites, OGO 1, OGO 3, 1963-38C, OV3-3, and Explorer 26, spanning the period December 1964 to December 1967.

  6. Degradation of the commercial surfactant nonylphenol ethoxylate by advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Salatiel Wohlmuth; Klauck, Cláudia Regina; Siqueira, Marco Antônio; Bernardes, Andréa Moura

    2015-01-23

    Four different oxidation process, namely direct photolysis (DP) and three advanced oxidation processes (heterogeneous photocatalysis - HP, eletrochemical oxidation - EO and photo-assisted electrochemical oxidation - PEO) were applied in the treatment of wastewater containing nonylphenol ethoxylate (NPnEO). The objective of this work was to determine which treatment would be the best option in terms of degradation of NPnEO without the subsequent generation of toxic compounds. In order to investigate the degradation of the surfactant, the processes were compared in terms of UV/Vis spectrum, mineralization (total organic carbon), reaction kinetics, energy efficiency and phytotoxicity. A solution containing NPnEO was prepared as a surrogate of the degreasing wastewater, was used in the processes. The results showed that the photo-assisted processes degrade the surfactant, producing biodegradable intermediates in the reaction. On the other hand, the electrochemical process influences the mineralization of the surfactant. The process of PEO carried out with a 250W lamp and a current density of 10mA/cm(2) showed the best results in terms of degradation, mineralization, reaction kinetics and energy consumption, in addition to not presenting phytotoxicity. Based on this information, this process can be a viable alternative for treating wastewater containing NPnEO, avoiding the contamination of water resources. PMID:25262384

  7. Determination of alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates in sewage sludge: effect of sample pre-treatment.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanjuan, María; Rigol, Anna; Sahuquillo, Angels; Rodríguez-Cruz, Sonia; Lacorte, Silvia

    2009-07-01

    A complete characterization of sewage sludge collected from five biological waste water treatment plants was done to determine physico-chemical parameters, heavy metals and alkylphenols, making special emphasis on sampling, homogenization, and sample pre-treatment. Ultrasonic extraction followed by gas chromatrography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to evaluate the effect of sample pre-treatment (untreated sample, freeze-drying, drying at 40 degrees C or drying at 100 degrees C) on the concentration of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ethoxylates (NP1EO, NP2EO). Untreated samples and samples dried at 100 degrees C gave concentration levels up to 62% and 89% lower, respectively, than freeze-dried samples. In 50% of cases, freeze-dried samples led to significantly higher concentrations than those obtained by drying at 40 degrees C. Thus, freeze-drying is the recommended sample pre-treatment to prevent possible losses of OP, NP, and NP1EO. Using this methodology, concentrations detected were from 3.2 to 199 mg kg(-1) being NP followed by NP1EO found in highest concentration. The total concentration of NP and NP1EO exceeded the limit of 50 mg kg(-1) proposed by the draft European directive on sewage sludge in three out of five samples studied. Contrarily, heavy metals were below the legislated values. PMID:19305980

  8. Modeling bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol and its ethoxylates in estuarine-marine food chains.

    PubMed

    Korsman, John C; Schipper, Aafke M; de Vos, Martine G; van den Heuvel-Greve, Martine J; Vethaak, A Dick; de Voogt, Pim; Hendriks, A Jan

    2015-11-01

    There are several studies on bioaccumulation and biomagnification of nonylphenol (NP) and its ethoxylates (NPEOs), but their toxico-kinetic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present investigation, we explored the accumulation of NP and NPEOs in estuarine-marine food chains with a bioaccumulation model comprising five trophic levels. Using this model, we estimated uptake and elimination rate constants for NPEOs based on the organisms' weight and lipid content and the chemicals' Kow. Further, we calculated accumulation factors for NP and NPEOs, including biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAF) and biomagnification factors (BMF), and compared these to independent field measurements collected in the Western Scheldt estuary in The Netherlands and field data reported in the literature. The estimated BSAF values for NP and total NPEOs were below 1 for all trophic levels. The estimated BMF values were around 1 for all trophic levels except for the highest level (carnivorous mammals and birds). For this trophic level, the estimated BMF value varied between 0.1 and 2.4, depending on the biotransformation capacity. For all trophic levels, except primary producers, the accumulation estimates that accounted for biotransformation of NPEOs into NP were closer to the field data than model estimates that did not include biotransformation, indicating that NP formation by biotransformation of NPEOs might occur in organisms. PMID:26026901

  9. AE measurements for evaluation of defects in FRP pressure vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Masanori; Takatsu, Takashi

    1995-11-01

    AE (acoustic emission) measurement was conducted in a series of pressuring tests of FRP pressure vessels in order to examine its applicability to the safety evaluation of vessels. Tested vessels were commercial FRP pressure vessels fabricated by filament winding of high strength glass fibers, impregnated epoxy resin, on a Al alloy liner. At the final stage of fabrication, they were subjected to autofrettage, an overpressuring treatment to produce compressive residual stresses in metal liner. AE measurement results showed a strong Kaiser`s effect and high felicity ratios. In a virgin vessel, very few AE signals were detected below the autofrettage pressure. Vessels containing artificial defects showed distinct increase in AE signals at the level of test pressure. AE origin map were obtained by triangular-zone calculation. Discussions are directed, in particular, to the selection of threshold and to the applicability of AE measurement to the in-service inspection of FRP pressure vessel.

  10. Interactive association of dopamine receptor (DRD4) genotype and ADHD on alcohol expectancies in children

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Steve S.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Positive and negative alcohol expectancies (AE) are beliefs about the consequences of alcohol use (e.g., happy, sad, lazy) and they predict patterns of adolescent and adult alcohol engagement in clinical and non-clinical samples. However, significantly less is known about predictors of AE in children, despite significant variability in AE early in and across development. To identify temporally-ordered risk factors that precede AE, we evaluated the independent and interactive association of the functional 7-repeat polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) genotype and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with respect to individual differences in positive-social, negative-arousal, sedative/impaired, and wild/crazy AE in school-age children (N = 149) followed prospectively from 6-9 years to 8-13 years. Controlling for age, sex, and wave, DRD4 7+ carriers reported more wild/crazy AE, but DRD4 was unrelated to the remaining AE domains. ADHD symptoms independently predicted higher negative-arousal, sedative/impaired, and wild/crazy AE, but not positive-social. We also observed a significant interaction where ADHD symptoms positively predicted wild/crazy AE only in youth with the 7-repeat DRD4 genotype; the same interaction marginally predicted sedative/impaired AE. No interactive effects were observed for the remaining AE domains. These preliminary results suggest that among 7+ DRD4 youth, early ADHD symptoms predicted children's expectations that alcohol would have wild/crazy effects. We consider these results within a developmental framework to better understand pathways to and from youth alcohol problems. PMID:24611835

  11. Energy efficiency analysis and implementation of AES on an FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenney, David

    The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) was developed by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rjimen and endorsed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in 2001. It was designed to replace the aging Data Encryption Standard (DES) and be useful for a wide range of applications with varying throughput, area, power dissipation and energy consumption requirements. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are flexible and reconfigurable integrated circuits that are useful for many different applications including the implementation of AES. Though they are highly flexible, FPGAs are often less efficient than Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs); they tend to operate slower, take up more space and dissipate more power. There have been many FPGA AES implementations that focus on obtaining high throughput or low area usage, but very little research done in the area of low power or energy efficient FPGA based AES; in fact, it is rare for estimates on power dissipation to be made at all. This thesis presents a methodology to evaluate the energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs and proposes a novel FPGA AES implementation which is highly flexible and energy efficient. The proposed methodology is implemented as part of a novel scripting tool, the AES Energy Analyzer, which is able to fully characterize the power dissipation and energy efficiency of FPGA based AES designs. Additionally, this thesis introduces a new FPGA power reduction technique called Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating (OCOG) which is used in the proposed energy efficient implementation. The AES Energy Analyzer was able to estimate the power dissipation and energy efficiency of the proposed AES design during its most commonly performed operations. It was found that the proposed implementation consumes less energy per operation than any previous FPGA based AES implementations that included power estimations. Finally, the use of Opportunistic Combinational Operand Gating on an AES cipher

  12. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  13. Discovery of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    SciTech Connect

    Bookbinder, J.A.; Lamb, D.Q.

    1987-12-01

    VLA 1.4-GHz and 4.9-GHz observations of six DQ Her cataclysmic variables, obtained in the C/D hybrid configuration with 50-MHz bandwidth, 7-sec time resolution, and limiting flux density about 200 microJy on July 21, 1984, are reported. Variable radio emission with time scale less than 5 min, circular polarization less than 15 percent, and flux density 3-5 mJy at 1.4 GHz and 8-16 mJy at 4.9 GHz is detected from AE Aqr. This emission is tentatively attributed to synchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons, powered by the MHD torque coupling the magnetic white dwarf to either (1) a secondary with a strong magnetic field or (2) an accretion disk. 20 references.

  14. Discovery of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, J. A.; Lamb, D. Q.

    1987-01-01

    VLA 1.4-GHz and 4.9-GHz observations of six DQ Her cataclysmic variables, obtained in the C/D hybrid configuration with 50-MHz bandwidth, 7-sec time resolution, and limiting flux density about 200 microJy on July 21, 1984, are reported. Variable radio emission with time scale less than 5 min, circular polarization less than 15 percent, and flux density 3-5 mJy at 1.4 GHz and 8-16 mJy at 4.9 GHz is detected from AE Aqr. This emission is tentatively attributed to synchrotron emission from mildly relativistic electrons, powered by the MHD torque coupling the magnetic white dwarf to either (1) a secondary with a strong magnetic field or (2) an accretion disk.

  15. Multiple Lookup Table-Based AES Encryption Algorithm Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Jin; Liu, Wenyi; Zhang, Huixin

    Anew AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption algorithm implementation was proposed in this paper. It is based on five lookup tables, which are generated from S-box(the substitution table in AES). The obvious advantages are reducing the code-size, improving the implementation efficiency, and helping new learners to understand the AES encryption algorithm and GF(28) multiplication which are necessary to correctly implement AES[1]. This method can be applied on processors with word length 32 or above, FPGA and others. And correspondingly we can implement it by VHDL, Verilog, VB and other languages.

  16. Octyl and nonylphenol ethoxylates and carboxylates in wastewater and sediments by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E; Rice, Clifford P; Torrents, Alba

    2007-08-01

    This work presents an LC-MS-MS-based method for the quantitation of nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) and octylphenol ethoxylates (OPEOs) in water, sediment, and suspended particulate matter, and three of their carboxylated derivatives in water. The alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs) were analyzed using isotope dilution mass spectrometry with [(13)C(6)]-labeled analogues, whereas the carboxylated derivatives were determined by external standard quantitation followed by confirmation using standard additions. The method was used to study APEO's behavior in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), where total dissolved NP0-16EO concentration was reduced by approximately 99% from influent (390 microg l(-1)) to final effluent (4 microg l(-1)), and total OP0-5EO concentration decreased by 94% from 3.1 to 0.2 microg l(-1). In contrast, the carboxylated derivatives were formed during the process with NP0-1EC concentrations increasing from 1.4 to 24 microg l(-1). Short-chain APEOs were present in higher proportions in particulate matter, presumably due to greater affinity for solids compared to the long-chain homologues. NP (0.49 microg l(-1)) and NP0-1EC (4.8 microg l(-1)) were the only APEO-related compounds detected in a surface water sample from a WWTP-impacted estuary; implying that 90% of the mass was in the form of carboxylated derivatives. Sediment analysis showed nonylphenol to be the single most abundant compound in sediments from the Baltimore Harbor area, where differences in homologue distribution suggested the presence of treated effluent in some of the sites and non-treated sources in the rest. PMID:17395243

  17. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... attention improves the overall outlook. How severe the alcoholism is, and the presence of liver disease or ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  18. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... counseling to discuss the long-term issue of alcoholism Testing and treatment for other medical problems linked ... following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism: Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- ...

  19. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... objects in the shoes Guarding the extremities to prevent injury from pressure Alcohol must be stopped to prevent the damage from ... The only way to prevent alcoholic neuropathy is not to drink excessive amounts of alcohol.

  20. PDS 144: THE FIRST CONFIRMED Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae WIDE BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Grogin, N. A.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Bonfield, D. G.; Daly, B.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.''35 on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83 Degree-Sign inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N-the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch Hubble Space Telescope imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 year baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N and S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 {+-} 2 pc with an age of 5-10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of Herbig-Haro knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7 Degree-Sign {+-} 6 Degree-Sign on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73 Degree-Sign {+-} 7 Degree-Sign . The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N and S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25 Degree-Sign {+-} 9 Degree-Sign . This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T Tauri wide binaries.

  1. PDS 144: The First Confirmed Herbig Ae-Herbig Ae Wide Binary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornbeck, J. B.; Grady, C. A.; Perrin, M. D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Tofflemire, B. M.; Brown, A.; Holtzman, J. A.; Arraki, K.; Hamaguchi, K.; Woodgate, B.; Petre, R.; Daly, B.; Grogin, N. A.; Bonfield, D. G.; Williger, G. M.; Lauroesch, J. T.

    2012-01-01

    PDS 144 is a pair of Herbig Ae stars that are separated by 5.35" on the sky. It has previously been shown to have an A2Ve Herbig Ae star viewed at 83 deg inclination as its northern member and an A5Ve Herbig Ae star as its southern member. Direct imagery revealed a disk occulting PDS 144 N - the first edge-on disk observed around a Herbig Ae star. The lack of an obvious disk in direct imagery suggested PDS 144 S might be viewed face-on or not physically associated with PDS 144 N. Multi-epoch HST imagery of PDS 144 with a 5 yr baseline demonstrates PDS 144 N & S are comoving and have a common proper motion with TYC 6782-878-1. TYC 6782-878-1 has previously been identified as a member of Upper Sco sub-association A at d = 145 +/- 2 pc with an age of 5 - 10 Myr. Ground-based imagery reveals jets and a string of HH knots extending 13' (possibly further) which are aligned to within 7 deg +/- 6 deg on the sky. By combining proper motion data and the absence of a dark mid-plane with radial velocity data, we measure the inclination of PDS 144 S to be i = 73 deg +/- 7 deg. The radial velocity of the jets from PDS 144 N & S indicates they, and therefore their disks, are misaligned by 25 deg +/- 9 deg.. This degree of misalignment is similar to that seen in T-Tauri wide binaries.

  2. Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, R; Bernay, B; Séralini, G-E

    2013-11-16

    Pesticides are always used in formulations as mixtures of an active principle with adjuvants. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of the major pesticide in the world, is an herbicide supposed to be specific on plant metabolism. Its adjuvants are generally considered as inert diluents. Since side effects for all these compounds have been claimed, we studied potential active principles for toxicity on human cells for 9 glyphosate-based formulations. For this we detailed their compositions and toxicities, and as controls we used a major adjuvant (the polyethoxylated tallowamine POE-15), glyphosate alone, and a total formulation without glyphosate. This was performed after 24h exposures on hepatic (HepG2), embryonic (HEK293) and placental (JEG3) cell lines. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. The compositions in adjuvants were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that all formulations are more toxic than glyphosate, and we separated experimentally three groups of formulations differentially toxic according to their concentrations in ethoxylated adjuvants. Among them, POE-15 clearly appears to be the most toxic principle against human cells, even if others are not excluded. It begins to be active with negative dose-dependent effects on cellular respiration and membrane integrity between 1 and 3ppm, at environmental/occupational doses. We demonstrate in addition that POE-15 induces necrosis when its first micellization process occurs, by contrast to glyphosate which is known to promote endocrine disrupting effects after entering cells. Altogether, these results challenge the establishment of guidance values such as the acceptable daily intake of glyphosate, when these are mostly based on a long term in vivo test of glyphosate alone. Since pesticides are always used with adjuvants that could change their toxicity, the necessity to assess their whole formulations as mixtures becomes obvious. This challenges

  3. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  4. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  5. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  6. 15 CFR 758.2 - Automated Export System (AES).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Automated Export System (AES). 758.2... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.2 Automated Export System (AES). The Census Bureau's Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) (15 CFR Part 30) contain provisions for filing Shipper's Export Declarations...

  7. A Grammar Sketch of the Kaki Ae Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifton, John M.

    Kaki Ae is a non-Austronesian language spoken by about 300 people on the south coast of Papua New Guinea, at best distantly related to any other language in that area. A brief grammar sketch of the language is presented, including discussion of the phonology, sentences, phrases, words, and morpheme categories. Kaki Ae phonemics include 11…

  8. The global compendium of Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Kraemer, Moritz U. G.; Sinka, Marianne E.; Duda, Kirsten A.; Mylne, Adrian; Shearer, Freya M.; Brady, Oliver J.; Messina, Jane P.; Barker, Christopher M.; Moore, Chester G.; Carvalho, Roberta G.; Coelho, Giovanini E.; Van Bortel, Wim; Hendrickx, Guy; Schaffner, Francis; Wint, G. R. William; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Teng, Hwa-Jen; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are the main vectors transmitting dengue and chikungunya viruses. Despite being pathogens of global public health importance, knowledge of their vectors’ global distribution remains patchy and sparse. A global geographic database of known occurrences of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus between 1960 and 2014 was compiled. Herein we present the database, which comprises occurrence data linked to point or polygon locations, derived from peer-reviewed literature and unpublished studies including national entomological surveys and expert networks. We describe all data collection processes, as well as geo-positioning methods, database management and quality-control procedures. This is the first comprehensive global database of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus occurrence, consisting of 19,930 and 22,137 geo-positioned occurrence records respectively. Both datasets can be used for a variety of mapping and spatial analyses of the vectors and, by inference, the diseases they transmit. PMID:26175912

  9. Estuarine and coastal zone marine pollution by the nonionic alkylphenol ethoxylates endocrine disrupters: is there a potential ecotoxicological problem?

    PubMed

    Zoller, Uri

    2006-02-01

    The nonionic biodegradation-resistant ("hard") alkylphenol ethoxylate (APEO) surfactants and their degradation products are known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). We report here the findings concerning the APEOs concentrations and homologic distribution profiles in Israel's estuarine and coastal zone seawater to serve as a case study. The concentrations in sewage-containing rivers, estuaries and 50-60-m offshore sea (Mediterranean) water were found to be 12.5-75.1, 4.2-25.0 and 0.9-2.6 microg/L, respectively. The corresponding homologic distribution profiles were found to be within the range of 1-10% each, somewhat skewing, as expected, towards the more toxic shorter-chain ethoxylates. Egg production by zebrafish, exposed to 75, 25 and 10 microg/L of a typical industrial APEOs was reduced up to 89.6%, 84.7% and 76.9%, respectively, between the 8th and 28th days of exposure. Apparently, there is a potential APEOs-related ecotoxicological health risk problem. PMID:16225920

  10. National Inventory of Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Compounds in U.S. Sewage Sludges and Chemical Fate in Outdoor Soil Mesocosms

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Arjun K.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2012-01-01

    We determined the first nationwide inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS) using samples from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 national SS survey. Additionally, analysis of archived 3-year outdoor mesocosm samples served to determine chemical fates in SS-amended soil. Nonylphenol (NP) was the most abundant analyte (534±192 mg/kg) in SS composites, followed by its mono- and di-ethoxylates (62.1±28 and 59.5±52 mg/kg, respectively). The mean annual load of NP and its ethoxylates in SS was estimated at 2408–7149 metric tonnes, of which 1204–4289 is applied on U.S. land. NP compounds showed observable loss from SS/soil mixtures (1:2), with mean half-lives ranging from 301 to 495 days. Surfactant levels in U.S. SS ten-times in excess of European regulations, substantial releases to U.S. soils, and prolonged half-lives found under field conditions, all argue for the U.S. to follow Europe's move from 20 years ago to regulate these chemicals. PMID:23274446

  11. National inventory of alkylphenol ethoxylate compounds in U.S. sewage sludges and chemical fate in outdoor soil mesocosms.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Arjun K; Halden, Rolf U

    2013-03-01

    We determined the first nationwide inventories of alkylphenol surfactants in U.S. sewage sludges (SS) using samples from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2001 national SS survey. Additionally, analysis of archived 3-year outdoor mesocosm samples served to determine chemical fates in SS-amended soil. Nonylphenol (NP) was the most abundant analyte (534 ± 192 mg/kg) in SS composites, followed by its mono- and di-ethoxylates (62.1 ± 28 and 59.5 ± 52 mg/kg, respectively). The mean annual load of NP and its ethoxylates in SS was estimated at 2408-7149 metric tonnes, of which 1204-4289 is applied on U.S. land. NP compounds showed observable loss from SS/soil mixtures (1:2), with mean half-lives ranging from 301 to 495 days. Surfactant levels in U.S. SS ten-times in excess of European regulations, substantial releases to U.S. soils, and prolonged half-lives found under field conditions, all argue for the U.S. to follow Europe's move from 20 years ago to regulate these chemicals. PMID:23274446

  12. Tandem Extraction/Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Protocol for the Analysis of Acrylamide and Surfactant-Related Compounds in Complex Matrix Environmental Water Samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethoxylated alcohols, alkylphenols, and acrylamide are emerging contaminants with many different routes into the environment. Ethoxylated alcohols are used ubiquitously as surfactants in both industrial and household products. The use of ethoxylated alcohols and alkylphenols as s...

  13. Association between alcohol consumption and serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities: a cross-sectional study within the Bavarian population.

    PubMed

    Schwedhelm, Carolina; Nimptsch, Katharina; Bub, Achim; Pischon, Tobias; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-02-28

    High alcohol consumption is an important risk factor for chronic disease and liver degeneration. Paraoxonase (PON1) and arylesterase (AE) are functions of the enzyme paraoxonase, which is synthesised by the liver. Paraoxonase circulates in plasma bound to HDL and hydrolyses lipid peroxides, protecting lipoproteins against oxidative modification. It has been shown that excessive alcohol consumption leads to a reduction of serum PON1 and AE activities; however, studies investigating the association with low and moderate alcohol consumption are scarce. We investigated the cross-sectional association between alcohol consumption and serum activities of PON1 and AE using data from the population-based Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II survey. PON1 and AE activities were quantified in serum samples of 566 male and female study participants (aged 18-80 years), and dietary intake including alcohol consumption was estimated from three 24-h dietary recalls. The association between alcohol consumption and PON1 and AE activities was analysed using linear regression, adjusted for age, sex and socio-economic status. There was no strong association between alcohol consumption and enzymatic activities of PON1 and AE in the Bavarian population. PON1 activity was seen to be lowest in non-drinkers (0 g/d) and highest in people who consumed 15·1-30 g of alcohol/d. AE activity increased across alcohol consumption categories, with a mean maximum difference of 14 U/ml (P for linear trend 0·04). These associations were attenuated after adjustment for blood concentrations of HDL. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption is related to important alterations in PON1 and AE activities. PMID:26769660

  14. Gene flow between wheat and wild relatives: empirical evidence from Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, Nils; Guadagnuolo, Roberto; Lappe, Sylvain; Pasche, Sophie; Parisod, Christian; Felber, François

    2011-01-01

    Gene flow between domesticated species and their wild relatives is receiving growing attention. This study addressed introgression between wheat and natural populations of its wild relatives (Aegilops species). The sampling included 472 individuals, collected from 32 Mediterranean populations of three widespread Aegilops species (Aegilops geniculata, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis) and compared wheat field borders to areas isolated from agriculture. Individuals were characterized with amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting, analysed through two computational approaches (i.e. Bayesian estimations of admixture and fuzzy clustering), and sequences marking wheat-specific insertions of transposable elements. With this combined approach, we detected substantial gene flow between wheat and Aegilops species. Specifically, Ae. neglecta and Ae. triuncialis showed significantly more admixed individuals close to wheat fields than in locations isolated from agriculture. In contrast, little evidence of gene flow was found in Ae. geniculata. Our results indicated that reproductive barriers have been regularly bypassed during the long history of sympatry between wheat and Aegilops. PMID:25568015

  15. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase the risk of certain cancers. It can cause damage to the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of death from car crashes, injuries, homicide, and suicide. If you want to stop drinking, there is ...

  16. Characterization of Aes nuclear foci in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Itatani, Yoshiro; Sonoshita, Masahiro; Kakizaki, Fumihiko; Okawa, Katsuya; Stifani, Stefano; Itoh, Hideaki; Sakai, Yoshiharu; Taketo, M Mark

    2016-01-01

    Amino-terminal enhancer of split (Aes) is a member of Groucho/Transducin-like enhancer (TLE) family. Aes is a recently found metastasis suppressor of colorectal cancer (CRC) that inhibits Notch signalling, and forms nuclear foci together with TLE1. Although some Notch-associated proteins are known to form subnuclear bodies, little is known regarding the dynamics or functions of these structures. Here, we show that Aes nuclear foci in CRC observed under an electron microscope are in a rather amorphous structure, lacking surrounding membrane. Investigation of their behaviour during the cell cycle by time-lapse cinematography showed that Aes nuclear foci dissolve during mitosis and reassemble after completion of cytokinesis. We have also found that heat shock cognate 70 (HSC70) is an essential component of Aes foci. Pharmacological inhibition of the HSC70 ATPase activity with VER155008 reduces Aes focus formation. These results provide insight into the understanding of Aes-mediated inhibition of Notch signalling. PMID:26229111

  17. Cause of the exceptionally high AE average for 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestes, A.

    2012-04-01

    In this work we focus on the year of 2003 when the AE index was extremely high (AE=341nT, with peak intensity more than 2200nT), this value is almost 100 nT higher when compared with others years of the cycle 23. Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and plasma data are compared with geomagnetic AE and Dst indices to determine the causes of exceptionally high AE average value. Analyzing the solar wind parameters we found that the annual average speed value was extremely high, approximately 542 km/s (peak value ~1074 km/s). These values were due to recurrent high-speed solar streams from large coronal holes, which stretch to the solar equator, and low-latitude coronal holes, which exist for many solar rotations. AE was found to increase with increasing solar wind speed and decrease when solar wind speed decrease. The cause of the high AE activity during 2003 is the presence of the high-speed corotating streams that contain large-amplitude Alfvén waves throughout the streams, which resulted in a large number of HILDCAAs events. When plasma and field of solar wind impinge on Earth's magnetosphere, the southward field turnings associated with the wave fluctuations cause magnetic reconnection and consequential high levels of AE activity and very long recovery phases on Dst, sometimes lasting until the next stream arrives.

  18. Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5. 1, User's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  19. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Weekly Total 0 Calories Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and ... Calories College Alcohol Policies Interactive Body Calculators Alcohol Calorie Calculator Alcohol Cost Calculator Alcohol BAC Calculator Alcohol ...

  20. 15 CFR Appendix B to Part 30 - AES Filing Codes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false AES Filing Codes B Appendix B to Part 30 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Pt. 30, App. B Appendix B to Part 30—AES Filing Codes Part I—Method of Transportation...

  1. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Rubbing alcohol Alcohol swabs Skin and hair products Nail polish remover Note: This list may not be all ... number will let you talk to experts in poisoning. They will give you further instructions. This is ...

  2. Alcoholic hallucinosis.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Pookala S; Ryali, Vssr; Srivastava, Kalpana; Kumar, Shashi R; Prakash, Jyoti; Singal, Ankit

    2012-07-01

    Alcoholic hallucinosis is a rare complication of chronic alcohol abuse characterized by predominantly auditory hallucinations that occur either during or after a period of heavy alcohol consumption. Bleuler (1916) termed the condition as alcohol hallucinosis and differentiated it from Delirium Tremens. Usually it presents with acoustic verbal hallucinations, delusions and mood disturbances arising in clear consciousness and sometimes may progress to a chronic form mimicking schizophrenia. One such case with multimodal hallucinations in a Defence Service Corps soldier is presented here. PMID:24250051

  3. Modeling the Adsorption of Hydrophobic Ethoxylated Urethane (HEUR) Thickeners onto Latex Surfaces using Self-Consistent Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Valeriy; van Dyk, Antony; Chatterjee, Tirtha; Wang, Shihu; Larson, Ronald

    2015-03-01

    Hydrophobic Ethoxylated Urethane (HEUR) polymers are widely used as rheology modifiers (thickeners) in waterborne latex paints. Recently, it has been shown that the thickening effect of HEURs in paints is largely determined by their adsorption onto latex surfaces, this adsorption being a function of polymer structure, latex surface chemistry, and total available latex surface. Here, we describe the application of Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) to calculate adsorption isotherms of several model HEURs onto ideal hydrophobic latex surfaces. Unlike earlier SCFT studies of adsorption, we explicitly take into account the role of HEUR micelles and competition between adsorption and micellization. The results are compared with experimental data and coarse-grained molecular dynamic (CG-MD) simulations, and good qualitative and semi-quantitative agreement is found. This work was supported by The Dow Chemical Company.

  4. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  5. Characterization of Microemulsion Systems Formed by a Mixed 1,3-Dioxolane Ethoxylate / Octyl Glucoside Surfactant System

    SciTech Connect

    Alkhatib, Mayson H; Hayes, Douglas G; Urban, Volker S

    2009-01-01

    The phase behavior of microemulsion systems containing water (or 1.0 wt% NaCl{sub aq}), isooctane, and the binary surfactant system consisting of n-octyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, and the acid-cleavable alkyl ethoxylate, 4-CH{sub 3}O (CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O){sub 7.2}, 2-(CH{sub 2}){sub 12}CH{sub 3}, 2-(CH{sub 2})CH{sub 3}, 1,3-dioxolane, or 'cyclic ketal' ('CK-2,13'), was determined. Large temperature-insensitive one, two, and three-phase microemulsion-phase regions were obtained when equal masses of the two surfactants were employed, suggesting that C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} reduces the temperature sensitivity of CK-2,13's ethoxylate group. Addition of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} to CK-2,13 greatly improves the latter's low efficiency, evidenced by the formation of a three-phase microemulsion system for surfactant concentrations at low fractions of total surfactants for systems with equal mass ratios of water to oil and CK-2,13 to C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}. Analysis of the phase diagrams also suggests that CK-2,13 and C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1} impart hydrophobic and hydrophilic character, respectively, to the surfactant mixture, and that addition of salt further increases the hydrophilicity of C{sub 8}{beta}G{sub 1}, presumably because of the salting-in of the latter. Analysis of small-angle neutron scattering data revealed that the mixed surfactant system formed spherical oil-in-water microemulsions, and that increasing the CK-2,13 fraction among the surfactants reduced the critical microemulsion concentration but slightly increased the nanodroplet size.

  6. Facts about Alcohol and Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Leonard C.

    Recognition of alcoholism as a treatable illness is a result of public education based on scientific facts. This publication, a digest of a more detailed survey of research about drinking and alcoholism, presents information about alcohol and its effects on individuals and society. It provides facts about the short-term and long-term effects of…

  7. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Guzzo-Merello, Gonzalo; Cobo-Marcos, Marta; Gallego-Delgado, Maria; Garcia-Pavia, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is the most frequently consumed toxic substance in the world. Low to moderate daily intake of alcohol has been shown to have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system. In contrast, exposure to high levels of alcohol for a long period could lead to progressive cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction associated with chronic and excessive alcohol intake is a specific cardiac disease known as alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM). In spite of its clinical importance, data on ACM and how alcohol damages the heart are limited. In this review, we evaluate available evidence linking excessive alcohol consumption with heart failure and dilated cardiomyopathy. Additionally, we discuss the clinical presentation, prognosis and treatment of ACM. PMID:25228956

  8. Overview of Alcohol Consumption

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Alcohol & Your Health Overview of Alcohol Consumption Alcohol's Effects on the Body Alcohol Use Disorder Fetal Alcohol ... other questions about alcohol. Here’s what we know: Alcohol’s effects vary from person to person, depending on a ...

  9. A scaling relationship between AE and natural earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimitsu, N.; Kawakata, H.; Takahashi, N.

    2013-12-01

    Micro fracture which occurs during rock fracture experiments are called acoustic emission (AE), and it help us to understand detailed processes of fault growth. However, it was unclear whether AE can be considered as a small earthquake or not. Usually, the seismic moment and the corner frequency are used for characterizing source property. It has been reported that the seismic moment is inversely proportional to the cube of corner frequency for natural earthquakes (with magnitude higher than ~ -4). In this study, we examine continuity of this relationship toward smaller magnitude of AE (around magnitude -8), estimating the source parameters of AE. Previously, it was impossible to record AE waveforms by broadband transducers under tri-axial conditions due to lack of pressure seal mechanism. Here we achieved protection of broadband transducers to use them under high pressure environments. This achievement enabled us to do spectral analysis of AE. At the same time, we also achieved multi-channel continuous recording with a high sampling rate, so as not to miss some events smaller than threshold or hide some events behind the mask times by triggered recording. We prepared a cylindrical Westerly granite sample, 50 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height. Sealed nine broadband transducers (sensitive range; 100 kHz - 2000 kHz) were attached on the sample surface. High sampling recording as 20 MS/s per channel was continued, during tri-axial loading (confining pressure: 10 MPa) which was continued to be controlled even after the peak strength. More than 6000 hypocenters were estimated from all pick data during the experiment. We clustered events around the peak strength, so that their differences of hypocenter locations were shorter than 2 mm and their cross correlation values for more than four channels were higher than 0.8. Then, we analyzed two of the largest clusters. After calibrating transducer response, we obtained displacement spectra for S waves, and estimated their

  10. Acoustic emissions (AE) during failure of granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michlmayr, Gernot; Or, Dani

    2014-05-01

    The release of shallow landslides and other geological mass movements is the result of progressive failure accumulation. Mechanical failure in disordered geologic materials occurs in intermittent breakage episodes marking the disintegration or rearrangement of load-bearing elements. Abrupt strain energy release in such breakage episodes is associated with generation of elastic waves measurable as high-frequency (kHz range) acoustic emissions (AE). The close association of AE with progressive failure events hold a promise for using such noninvasive methods to assess the mechanical state of granular Earth materials or for the development early warning methods for shallow landslides. We present numerical simulations that incorporate damage accumulation and associated stress redistribution using a fiber-bundle model. The stress released from element failure (fibers) is redistributed to the surrounding elements and eventually triggers larger failure avalanches. AE signals generated from such events and eventually hitting a virtual sensor are modeled using visco-elastic wave propagation laws. The model captures the characteristic saw-tooth shape of the observed stress-strain curves obtained from strain-controlled experiments with glass beads, including large intermittent stress release events that stem from cascading failure avalanches. The model also reproduces characteristics of AE signatures and yield a good agreement between simulation results and experimental data. Linking mechanical and AE information in the proposed modeling framework offer a solid basis for interpretation of measured field data.

  11. Simultaneous determination of halogenated derivatives of alkylphenol ethoxylates and their metabolites in sludges, river sediments, and surface, drinking, and wastewaters by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, M; Diaz, A; Ventura, F; Barceló, D

    2001-12-15

    A quantitative solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPE-LC/MS) method is described for the simultaneous analysis of halogenated byproducts of alkylphenolic compounds and their degradation products formed during chlorine disinfection in the presence of bromide ions. Compounds analyzed include brominated and chlorinated nonylphenol ethoxylates (XN-PEOs); octylphenol ethoxylates (XOPEOs); nonylphenols (XNP); nonylphenoxycarboxylates (XNPECs) and their precursors nonionic surfactants, alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs); and their metabolites formed during sewage treatment, alkylphenoxycarboxylates (APECs) and alkylphenols (APs). Target compounds were concentrated from water samples using a C18 SPE procedure. Extracts were analyzed using reversed phase LC/MS. The performances of both atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and electrospray (ESI) interfaces were compared. ESI offered better sensitivity and specificity for a higher range of oligomers. Detection limits (LODs) for water samples were from 20 to 100 ng/L; and for sediment samples, from 2 to 10 microg/kg. Slightly higher LODs were obtained for sludge samples (5-25 microg/kg). Halogenated byproducts were found in sludge from Barcelona drinking water treatment plant in concentrations of 220 microg/kg for BrNP, 430 microg/kg for BrNPEOs (nEO = 1 - 2), and 1600 microg/kg for BrNPEOs (nEO = 3 - 15). The concentration of ClNPEOs was estimated to be in the order of 660 microg/kg (assuming the same response as BrNPEOs). Halogenated OPEOs were also identified, and their concentration was approximately 50 times lower than the concentration of NPEOs analogues. To our knowledge, this is the first method described that allows simultaneous determination of alkyphenol ethoxylates and halogenated derivatives, including degradation products. PMID:11791557

  12. Determination of AES Orbit Elements Using Mixed Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Strakhova, S. L.

    An algorithm is worked out and a program is compiled for a determination of AES (artificial Earth satellite) orbit elements using both goniometrical and range-finder observations of different precision. The observations of one or several passages carried out from one or several stations can be used. A number of observational stations and a number of observations are not limited in principle. When solving this task the AES ephemerides on the moments of observations are calculated for different sets of orbit elements. A parameter F is considered which is a function of orbit elements. The parameter presents a square-mean deviation of AES ephemeris position on the moments {J;} from its observed one. The determination of real orbit elements comes to minimizing of parameter F by orbit elements using a method of deformed polyhedron. When calculating the ephemeris the amendments for 2-d, 3-d, 4-th geopotential zone harmonics are considered.

  13. An Improved Recovery Algorithm for Decayed AES Key Schedule Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsow, Alex

    A practical algorithm that recovers AES key schedules from decayed memory images is presented. Halderman et al. [1] established this recovery capability, dubbed the cold-boot attack, as a serious vulnerability for several widespread software-based encryption packages. Our algorithm recovers AES-128 key schedules tens of millions of times faster than the original proof-of-concept release. In practice, it enables reliable recovery of key schedules at 70% decay, well over twice the decay capacity of previous methods. The algorithm is generalized to AES-256 and is empirically shown to recover 256-bit key schedules that have suffered 65% decay. When solutions are unique, the algorithm efficiently validates this property and outputs the solution for memory images decayed up to 60%.

  14. A high performance hardware implementation image encryption with AES algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmani, Ali; Jafari, Mohamad; Miremadi, Seyed Sohrab

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes implementation of a high-speed encryption algorithm with high throughput for encrypting the image. Therefore, we select a highly secured symmetric key encryption algorithm AES(Advanced Encryption Standard), in order to increase the speed and throughput using pipeline technique in four stages, control unit based on logic gates, optimal design of multiplier blocks in mixcolumn phase and simultaneous production keys and rounds. Such procedure makes AES suitable for fast image encryption. Implementation of a 128-bit AES on FPGA of Altra company has been done and the results are as follow: throughput, 6 Gbps in 471MHz. The time of encrypting in tested image with 32*32 size is 1.15ms.

  15. Summary of detection, location, and characterization capabilities of AE for continuous monitoring of cracks in reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hutton, P.H.; Kurtz, R.J.; Friesel, M.A.; Pappas, R.A.; Skorpik, J.R.; Dawson, J.F.

    1984-10-01

    The objective of the program is to develop acoustic emission (AE) methods for continuous monitoring of reactor pressure boundaries to detect and evaluate crack growth. The approach involves three phases: develop relationships to identify crack growth AE signals and to use identified crack growth AE data to estimate flaw severity; evaluate and refine AE/flaw relationships through fatigue testing a heavy section vessel under simulated reactor conditions; and demonstrate continuous AE monitoring on a nuclear power reactor system.

  16. Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2003-10-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IICP AES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples. During the experiment the sample-preparation techniques and digestion procedures involved in elemental analysis of solid organic samples are introduced and the optimization of the ICP AES is explored. The method detailed can easily be adapted for the analysis of a wider range of elements. The laboratory experiment may also be undertaken using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with only minor modifications in the sample-preparation procedure.

  17. NHEXAS PHASE I REGION 5 STUDY--STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE FOR METTLER AE163 AND AE240 ELECTRONIC BALANCE (NHX/SOP-160-008)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This procedure describes the process of calibrating the Mettler AE 163 and AE 240 electronic, dual range analytical balances each having an enclosed weighing pan. Weight ranges for the AE 163 are 0-30 g (0.01 mg readability) and 0-160 g (0.1 mg readability). Weight ranges for the...

  18. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  19. Gravity waves in the thermosphere observed by the AE satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S. H.; Reber, C. A.; Huang, F. T.

    1983-01-01

    Atmospheric Explorer (AE) satellite data were used to investigate the spectra characteristics of wave-like structure observed in the neutral and ionized components of the thermosphere. Power spectral analysis derived by the maximum entropy method indicate the existence of a broad spectrum of scale sizes for the fluctuations ranging from tens to thousands of kilometers.

  20. Supraphysiologic levels of the AML1-ETO isoform AE9a are essential for transformation.

    PubMed

    Link, Kevin A; Lin, Shan; Shrestha, Mahesh; Bowman, Melissa; Wunderlich, Mark; Bloomfield, Clara D; Huang, Gang; Mulloy, James C

    2016-08-01

    Chromosomal translocation 8;21 is found in 40% of the FAB M2 subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The resultant in-frame fusion protein AML1-ETO (AE) acts as an initiating oncogene for leukemia development. AE immortalizes human CD34(+) cord blood cells in long-term culture. We assessed the transforming properties of the alternatively spliced AE isoform AE9a (or alternative splicing at exon 9), which is fully transforming in a murine retroviral model, in human cord blood cells. Full activity was realized only upon increased fusion protein expression. This effect was recapitulated in the AE9a murine AML model. Cotransduction of AE and AE9a resulted in a strong selective pressure for AE-expressing cells. In the context of AE, AE9a did not show selection for increased expression, affirming observations of human t(8;21) patient samples where full-length AE is the dominant protein detected. Mechanistically, AE9a showed defective transcriptional regulation of AE target genes that was partially corrected at high expression. Together, these results bring an additional perspective to our understanding of AE function and highlight the contribution of oncogene expression level in t(8;21) experimental models. PMID:27457952

  1. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 14635 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  2. Alcohol Energy Drinks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / About Addiction / Alcohol / Alcohol Energy Drinks Alcohol Energy Drinks Read 17728 times font size decrease font size increase font size Print Email Alcohol energy drinks (AEDs) or Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (CABs) are ...

  3. Alcohol during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Alcohol during pregnancy Alcohol during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. How does drinking alcohol during pregnancy affect your baby's health? Drinking alcohol ...

  4. Regioselective synthesis of ethoxylated glycoside esters using beta-glucosidase in supersaturated solutions and lipases in organic solvents

    PubMed

    Millqvist-Fureby; Gao; Vulfson

    1998-09-20

    Three ethoxylated glycosides, tetraethylene glycol beta-D-glucoside, tetraethylene glycol beta-D-xyloside, and methoxy triethyleneglycol beta-D-glucoside, were prepared via almond beta-glucoside-catalyzed (trans)glycosylation carried out in supersaturated solutions of glucose or p-nitrophenyl beta-D-xyloside and the respective polyethylene glycols. The products were isolated and further modified by enzymatic esterification with Candida antarctica and Mucor miehei lipases. The latter enzyme showed a much greater selectivity for the primary hydroxyl group on the polyethylene glycol chain of the glucoside substrate, thus enabling us to obtain exclusively the corresponding monoester, omega-O-oleoyl tetraethylene glycol beta-D-glucoside. Novozyme was used for the preparative synthesis of two other monoesters, 6-O-oleoyl (methoxy triethyleneglycol) beta-D-glucoside and omega-O-oleoyl tetraethylene glycol beta-D-xyloside. Two diesters, di-oleoyl tetraethylene glycol beta-D-glucoside and tetraethylene-bis(6-0-oleoyl glucoside) were also synthesized in good yields using this lipase. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:10099395

  5. Occurrence and fate of pharmaceuticals and alkylphenol ethoxylate metabolites in an effluent-dominated river and wetland.

    PubMed

    Gross, Birgit; Montgomery-Brown, John; Naumann, Anneke; Reinhard, Martin

    2004-09-01

    The occurrence of pharmaceuticals, nonylphenol ethoxylate metabolites, and other wastewater-derived contaminants in surface waters is a potential environmental concern, especially since the discovery of contaminants with endocrine-disrupting properties. The present study investigated the discharge of emerging contaminants into the Santa Ana River (CA, USA) and their attenuation during river transport and passage through a constructed wetland. Contaminants studied included pharmaceuticals (gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen, and carbamazepine) and their metabolites, hormones, the metabolites of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APEMs), N-butyl benzenesulfonamide (NBBS), and chlorinated tris-propylphosphates (TCPPs). The APEMs included alkylphenols (APs), short-chain AP polyethoxylates (APEOs), AP polyethoxycarboxylates (APECs), and carboxylated APECs (CAPECs). In wastewater treatment plant effluent, APECs and CAPECs represented the dominant APEM fraction (1.8-18.7 microg/L), whereas APEOs and APs contributed only small amounts to the overall APEM concentrations (0.10-0.92 and < or =0.1 microg/L, respectively) except where the effluent was infiltrated into soil (5.2 microg/L). In effluents, ibuprofen and its metabolites, TCPPs, and NBBS were detected regularly (<0.5 microg/L), and the other pharmaceuticals were detected occasionally. Transport in the Santa Ana River for 11 km resulted in the significant attenuation of all contaminants, from 67% for gemfibrozil to 100% for others. Wetland treatment (residence time, 2-4 d) resulted in partial removal of ibuprofen, gemfibrozil, and TCPPs and transformed APEOs to APECs. PMID:15378981

  6. ABC triblock surface active block copolymer with grafted ethoxylated fluoroalkyl amphiphilic side chains for marine antifouling/fouling-release applications.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Craig J; Finlay, John A; Park, Daewon; Paik, Marvin Y; Krishnan, Sitaraman; Sundaram, Harihara S; Dimitriou, Michael; Sohn, Karen E; Callow, Maureen E; Callow, James A; Handlin, Dale L; Willis, Carl L; Kramer, Edward J; Ober, Christopher K

    2009-10-20

    An amphiphilic triblock surface-active block copolymer (SABC) possessing ethoxylated fluoroalkyl side chains was synthesized through the chemical modification of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polyisoprene polymer precursor. Bilayer coatings on glass slides consisting of a thin layer of the amphiphilic SABC spray coated on a thick layer of a polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SEBS) thermoplastic elastomer were prepared for biofouling assays with the green alga Ulva and the diatom Navicula. Dynamic water contact angle analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize the surfaces. Additionally, the effect of the Young's modulus of the coating on the release properties of sporelings (young plants) of the green alga Ulva was examined through the use of two different SEBS thermoplastic elastomers possessing modulus values of an order of magnitude in difference. The amphiphilic SABC was found to reduce the settlement density of zoospores of Ulva as well as the strength of attachment of sporelings. The attachment strength of the sporelings was further reduced for the amphiphilic SABC on the "low"-modulus SEBS base layer. The weaker adhesion of diatoms, relative to a PDMS standard, further highlights the antifouling potential of this amphiphilic triblock hybrid copolymer. PMID:19821626

  7. Alcohol conversion

    DOEpatents

    Wachs, Israel E.; Cai, Yeping

    2002-01-01

    Preparing an aldehyde from an alcohol by contacting the alcohol in the presence of oxygen with a catalyst prepared by contacting an intimate mixture containing metal oxide support particles and particles of a catalytically active metal oxide from Groups VA, VIA, or VIIA, with a gaseous stream containing an alcohol to cause metal oxide from the discrete catalytically active metal oxide particles to migrate to the metal oxide support particles and to form a monolayer of catalytically active metal oxide on said metal oxide support particles.

  8. "Storms of crustal stress" and AE earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.; Ventrice, G.

    2010-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) displays violent paroxysms preceding strong earthquakes, observed within some large area (several hundred kilometres wide) around the epicentre. We call them "storms of crustal stress" or, briefly "crustal storms". A few case histories are discussed, all dealing with the Italian peninsula, and with the different behaviour shown by the AE records in the Cephalonia island (Greece), which is characterized by a different tectonic setting. AE is an effective tool for diagnosing the state of some wide slab of the Earth's crust, and for monitoring its evolution, by means of AE of different frequencies. The same effect ought to be detected being time-delayed, when referring to progressively lower frequencies. This results to be an effective check for validating the physical interpretation. Unlike a seismic event, which involves a much limited focal volume and therefore affects a restricted area on the Earth's surface, a "crustal storm" typically involves some large slab of lithosphere and crust. In general, it cannot be easily reckoned to any specific seismic event. An earthquake responds to strictly local rheological features of the crust, which are eventually activated, and become crucial, on the occasion of a "crustal storm". A "crustal storm" lasts typically few years, eventually involving several destructive earthquakes that hit at different times, at different sites, within that given lithospheric slab. Concerning the case histories that are here discussed, the lithospheric slab is identified with the Italian peninsula. During 1996-1997 a "crustal storm" was on, maybe elapsing until 2002 (we lack information for the period 1998-2001). Then, a quiet period occurred from 2002 until 26 May 2008, when a new "crustal storm" started, and by the end of 2009 it is still on. During the 1996-1997 "storm" two strong earthquakes occurred (Potenza and Colfiorito) - and (maybe) in 2002 also the Molise earthquake can be reckoned to this "storm". During the

  9. Alcohol withdrawal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Seeing or feeling things that aren't there (hallucinations) Seizures Severe confusion ... alcohol withdrawal. You will be watched closely for hallucinations and other signs of delirium tremens. Treatment may ...

  10. Alcoholism (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... that interferes with physical or mental health, and social, family or job responsibilities. This addiction can lead to liver, circulatory and neurological problems. Pregnant women who drink alcohol in any amount ...

  11. Differential inhibition of AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers by oxonol dyes and by novel polyaminosterol analogs of the shark antibiotic squalamine.

    PubMed

    Alper, S L; Chernova, M N; Williams, J; Zasloff, M; Law, F Y; Knauf, P A

    1998-01-01

    Oxonol and polyaminosterol drugs were examined as inhibitors of recombinant mouse AE1 and AE2 anion exchangers expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and were compared as inhibitors of AE1-mediated anion flux in red cells and in HL-60 cells that express AE2. The oxonols WW-781, diBA(5)C4, and diBA(3)C4 inhibited HL-60 cell Cl-/Cl- exchange with IC50 values from 1 to 7 microM, 100-1000 times less potent than their IC50 values for red cell Cl-/anion exchange. In Xenopus oocytes, diBA(5)C4 inhibited AE1-mediated Cl- efflux several hundred times more potently than that mediated by AE2. Several novel squalamine-related polyaminosterols were also evaluated as anion exchange inhibitors. In contrast to diBA(5)C4, polyaminosterol 1361 inhibited oocyte-expressed AE2 8-fold more potently than AE1 (IC50 0.6 versus 5.2 microM). The 3-fold less potent desulfo-analog, 1360, showed similar preference for AE2. It was found that 1361 also partially inhibited Cl- efflux from red cells, whereas neither polyaminosterol inhibited Cl efflux from HL60 cells. Thus, the oxonol diBA(5)C4 is >100-fold more potent as an inhibitor of AE1 than of AE2, whereas the polyaminosterols 1360 and 1361 are 8-fold more potent as inhibitors of AE2 than of AE1. Assay conditions and cell type influenced IC50 values for both classes of compounds. PMID:10353714

  12. A Novel Byte-Substitution Architecture for the AES Cryptosystem

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Fakir Sharif; Ali, Md. Liakot

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) mainly depends on speed, area and power. The S-box represents an important factor that affects the performance of AES on each of these factors. A number of techniques have been presented in the literature, which have attempted to improve the performance of the S-box byte-substitution. This paper proposes a new S-box architecture, defining it as ultra low power, robustly parallel and highly efficient in terms of area. The architecture is discussed for both CMOS and FPGA platforms, and the pipelined architecture of the proposed S-box is presented for further time savings and higher throughput along with higher hardware resources utilization. A performance analysis and comparison of the proposed architecture is also conducted with those achieved by the existing techniques. The results of the comparison verify the outperformance of the proposed architecture in terms of power, delay and size. PMID:26491967

  13. Paediatric unplanned reattendance rate: A&E clinical quality indicators.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Kate; Hacking, Katie A; Simmons, Naomi; Christian, William; Syahanee, R; Shamekh, Ahmed; Prince, Nicholas J

    2013-03-01

    The new accident and emergency (A&E) unplanned reattendance rate clinical quality indicator is intended to drive reduction of avoidable reattendances. Validation data for reattendance rates in children are awaited. The aim of this three site observational study is to establish the rate and reasons for unplanned reattendance to UK paediatric A&Es. Each centre undertook retrospective case note review of children attending at least twice within 7 days. Unplanned reattendance rates at the three centres were 5.1%, 5.2% and 4.4%. Reducing unnecessary unplanned reattendances is beneficial for patients, service capacity and efficacy. This study has identified two groups for targeting reattendance reduction: parents of children returning with the same diagnosis, severity unchanged and parents who bypass primary care resources. Clear communication and early involvement of experienced clinicians are paramount. This study has indicated that a 1%-5% unplanned reattendance rate is realistic, achievable and can drive improvement in children's services. PMID:23287643

  14. A Novel Byte-Substitution Architecture for the AES Cryptosystem.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Fakir Sharif; Ali, Md Liakot

    2015-01-01

    The performance of Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) mainly depends on speed, area and power. The S-box represents an important factor that affects the performance of AES on each of these factors. A number of techniques have been presented in the literature, which have attempted to improve the performance of the S-box byte-substitution. This paper proposes a new S-box architecture, defining it as ultra low power, robustly parallel and highly efficient in terms of area. The architecture is discussed for both CMOS and FPGA platforms, and the pipelined architecture of the proposed S-box is presented for further time savings and higher throughput along with higher hardware resources utilization. A performance analysis and comparison of the proposed architecture is also conducted with those achieved by the existing techniques. The results of the comparison verify the outperformance of the proposed architecture in terms of power, delay and size. PMID:26491967

  15. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments.

    PubMed

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-04-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  16. Alcohol screening for older adults in an acute general hospital: FAST v. MAST-G assessments

    PubMed Central

    Knightly, Rachel; Tadros, George; Sharma, Juhi; Duffield, Peter; Carnall, Emma; Fisher, Jacqui; Salman, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Aims and method Documented prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adult patients at Birmingham Heartlands Hospital is significantly lower than the national prevalence. We aimed to evaluate our alcohol misuse screening protocol for older adults to identify possible shortcomings. Hospital protocol is to screen all adults for alcohol misuse in the accident and emergency (A&E) department using the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). One hundred consecutive consenting in-patients aged 65-94 admitted via A&E subsequently undertook an additional alcohol screening test (Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test-Geriatric version; MAST-G). Results of the two tests were compared. Results FAST screening was completed for 71 patients and none were FAST-positive for alcohol misuse, yet using MAST-G, 18 patients scored positively for alcohol misuse. FAST screening failed to identify 8 patients with a documented history of alcohol misuse. Clinical implications Older adult alcohol misuse prevalence is significantly underreported using FAST. Screening older adults for alcohol problems requires a different approach to screening the general population. PMID:27087989

  17. Petchienes A-E, Meroterpenoids from Ganoderma petchii.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qin-Lei; Guo, Ping-Xia; Luo, Qi; Yan, Hui; Cheng, Yong-Xian

    2015-12-01

    Petchienes A-E (1-5), five new meroterpenoids, were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma petchii. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and computational methods. Compound 4 was isolated as a racemic mixture, which was finally purified by chiral HPLC to yield individual (-) and (+)-antipodes. Biological evaluation showed that compounds 2 and (-)-4 could increase intracellular free calcium concentration at 10 μM in HEK-293 cells. PMID:26882654

  18. HARPS spectropolarimetry of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubrig, S.; Ilyin, I.; Schöller, M.; Lo Curto, G.

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of the presence and the strength of magnetic fields in intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars remains very poor. We present new magnetic field measurements in six Herbig Ae/Be stars observed with HARPS in spectropolarimetric mode. We downloaded from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) archive the publically available HARPS spectra for six Herbig Ae/Be stars. Wavelength shifts between right- and left-hand side circularly polarised spectra were interpreted in terms of a longitudinal magnetic field , using the moment technique introduced by Mathys. The application of the moment technique to the HARPS spectra allowed us in addition to study the presence of the crossover effect and quadratic magnetic fields. Our search for longitudinal magnetic fields resulted in first detections of weak magnetic fields in the Herbig Ae/Be stars HD 58647 and HD 98922. Further, we confirm the previous tentative detection of a weak magnetic field in HD 104237 by Donati et al. and confirm the previous detection of a magnetic field in the Herbig Ae star HD 190073. Surprisingly, the measured longitudinal magnetic field of HD 190073, < Bz >=91±18 G at a significance level of 5σ is not in agreement with the measurement results of Alecian et al. (2013), < Bz >=-10±20 G, who applied the LSD method to exactly the same data. No crossover effect was detected for any star in the sample. Only for HD 98922 the crossover effect was found to be close to 3σ with a measured value of -4228±1443 km s-1 G. A quadratic magnetic field of the order of 10 kG was detected in HD 98922, and of ˜3.5 kG in HD 104237. Based on data obtained from the ESO Science Archive Facility under requests MSCHOELLER 51301, 51324, 36608-36611.

  19. ASASSN-14ae: a tidal disruption event at 200 Mpc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holoien, T. W.-S.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Kochanek, C. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Shappee, B. J.; Grupe, D.; Basu, U.; Beacom, J. F.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Davis, A. B.; Jencson, J.; Pojmanski, G.; Szczygieł, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    ASASSN-14ae is a candidate tidal disruption event (TDE) found at the centre of SDSS J110840.11+340552.2 (d ≃ 200 Mpc) by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN). We present ground-based and Swift follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations of the source, finding that the transient had a peak luminosity of L ≃ 8 × 1043 erg s-1 and a total integrated energy of E ≃ 1.7 × 1050 erg radiated over the ˜5 months of observations presented. The blackbody temperature of the transient remains roughly constant at T ˜ 20 000 K while the luminosity declines by nearly 1.5 orders of magnitude during this time, a drop that is most consistent with an exponential, L ∝ e-t/t 0 with t0 ≃ 39 d. The source has broad Balmer lines in emission at all epochs as well as a broad He II feature emerging in later epochs. We compare the colour and spectral evolution to both supernovae and normal AGN to show that ASASSN-14ae does not resemble either type of object and conclude that a TDE is the most likely explanation for our observations. At z = 0.0436, ASASSN-14ae is the lowest-redshift TDE candidate discovered at optical/UV wavelengths to date, and we estimate that ASAS-SN may discover 0.1-3 of these events every year in the future.

  20. Compact and Secure Design of Masked AES S-Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakeri, Babak; Salmasizadeh, Mahmoud; Moradi, Amir; Tabandeh, Mahmoud; Shalmani, Mohammad T. Manzuri

    Composite field arithmetic is known as an alternative method for lookup tables in implementation of S-box block of AES algorithm. The idea is to breakdown the computations to lower order fields and compute the inverse there. Recently this idea have been used both for reducing the area in implementation of S-boxes and masking implementations of AES algorithm. The most compact design using this technique is presented by Canright using only 92 gates for an S-box block. In another approach, IAIK laboratory has presented a masked implementation of AES algorithm with higher security comparing common masking methods using Composite field arithmetic. Our work in this paper is to use basic ideas of the two approaches above to get a compact masked S-box. We shall use the idea of masking inversion of IAIK's masked S-box but we will rewrite the equations using normal basis. We arrange the terms in these equations in a way that the optimized functions in Canright's compact S-box can be used for our design. An implementation of IAIK's masked S-box is also presented using Canright's polynomial functions to have a fair comparison between our design and IAIK's design. Moreover, we show that this design which uses two special normal basis for GF(16) and GF(4) is the smallest. We shall also prove the security of this design using some lemmas.

  1. Why does A&E attract newly qualified registered nurses?

    PubMed

    Cronin, Gerard; Cronin, Camille

    2006-04-01

    Workforce planning is a particular buzzword that nurse managers must grapple with and now must understand. They must develop strategies to ensure the life and growth of a department while incorporating numerous government targets to ensure the service reaches quality, achieves and meets predetermined goals. To do all this that manager needs a workforce. The recruitment of nursing staff to a specialist area such as Accident & Emergency (A&E) requires a level of creativity and sustained effort. Newly qualified registered nurse working in A&E have, in the past, been considered to be an unusual group of staff to apply to work in A&E. However, many health service managers receive applications from staff in this category and are often encouraged to recruit newly qualified registered nurse's rather than pay for agency workers. Using a qualitative approach this paper explores the key reasons why newly qualified registered nurses choose to work in an Accident & Emergency environment. Data was collected from a sample of 25 newly qualified registered nurses and analysed thematically. Five themes are presented: challenge, teamwork, diversity, support, and learning. These themes have implications for Accident and Emergency units and human resource and workforce planning departments. PMID:16464593

  2. Alcohol Abuse: Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they quit drinking. What are the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal syndrome? Symptoms can be mild or severe, and may include: Shakiness Sweats Anxiety Irritability Fatigue Depression Headaches Insomnia Nightmares Decreased appetite More severe withdrawal symptoms ...

  3. An ethoxylated alkyl phosphate (anionic surfactant) for the promotion of activities of proteases and its potential use in the enzymatic processing of wool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qinghua; Smith, Edward; Shen, Jinsong; Bishop, David

    2006-05-01

    Pretreatments of wool fabrics with cationic, anionic or non-ionic surfactants were investigated to reduce surface tension and improve the wettability of the fibres in order to promote protease activity on the fibres in subsequent processes. Results showed that an ethoxylated alkyl phosphate (specific anionic surfactant) as well as the widely used non-ionic surfactant was compatible with proteases in the enzymatic treatment of wool. There is therefore a potential for using specific anionic surfactants to achieve efficient enzymatic scouring processes. PMID:16791726

  4. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  5. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CLEARANCE REQUIREMENTS § 758.1 The Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated... AES record requirements. When an exemption from filing the Shipper's Export Declaration or...

  6. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  7. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  8. 76 FR 4089 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Automated Export System (AES) Program... INFORMATION: I. Abstract The Automated Export System (AES), is the instrument used for collecting export trade... provisions for preparing and filing the AES record. These data are used in the development of U.S....

  9. 15 CFR 758.1 - The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) or Automated Export System (AES) record. 758.1 Section 758.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations... (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. (a) The Shipper's Export Declaration (SED) or Automated Export System (AES) record. The SED (Form 7525-V, Form 7525-V-Alt, or Automated Export System record)...

  10. Hyperbranched exopolysaccharide-enhanced foam properties of sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Quanhua; Li, Haiping; Sun, Haoyang; Sun, Yange; Li, Ying

    2016-05-01

    The foam properties, such as the foamability, foam stability, drainage, coalescence and bulk rheology, of aqueous solutions containing an eco-friendly exopolysaccharide (EPS) secreted by a deep-sea mesophilic bacterium, Wangia profunda SM-A87, and an anionic surfactant, sodium fatty alcohol polyoxyethylene ether sulfate (AES), were studied. Both the foamability and foam stability of the EPS/AES solutions are considerably higher than those of single AES solutions, even at very low AES concentrations, although pure EPS solutions cannot foam. The improved foamability and foam stability arise from the formation of the EPS/AES complex via hydrogen bonds at the interfaces. The synergism between the EPS and AES decreases the surface tension, increases the interfacial elasticity and water-carrying capacity, and suppresses the coalescence and collapse of the foams. The EPS/AES foams are more salt-resistant than the AES foams. This work provides not only a new eco-friendly foam with great potential for use in enhanced oil recovery and health-care products but also useful guidance for designing other environmentally friendly foam systems that exhibit high performance. PMID:26852104

  11. TURBO-AE: An Aeroelastic Code for Propulsion Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakhle, Milind A.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program is developing new technologies to increase the fuel efficiency of commercial aircraft engines, improve the safety of engine operation, and reduce engine emissions and noise. With the development of new designs for ducted fans, compressors, and turbines to achieve these goals, a basic aeroelastic requirement is that there should be no flutter or high resonant blade stresses in the operating regime. To verify the aeroelastic soundness of these designs, we need an accurate prediction and analysis code. Such a two-dimensional viscous propulsion aeroelastic code, named TURBO-AE, is being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The TURBO-AE aeroelastic code is based on a three-dimensional unsteady aerodynamic Euler/Navier-Stokes turbomachinery code TURBO, developed under a grant from NASA Lewis. TURBO-AE can model viscous flow effects that play an important role in certain aeroelastic problems, such as flutter with flow separation (or stall flutter) and flutter in the presence of shock and boundary-layer interaction. The structural dynamics representation of the blade in the TURBO-AE code is based on a normal mode representation. A finite element analysis code, such as NASTRAN, is used to calculate in-vacuum vibration modes and the associated natural frequency. A work-per-cycle approach is used to determine aeroelastic (flutter) stability. With this approach, the motion of the blade is prescribed to be a harmonic vibration in a specified in vacuum normal mode. The aerodynamic forces acting on the vibrating blade and the work done by these forces on the vibrating blade during a cycle of vibration are calculated. If positive work is being done on the blade by the aerodynamic forces, the blade is dynamically unstable, since it will extract energy from the flow, leading to an increase in the amplitude of the blade's oscillation. Initial calculations have been done for a configuration representative of the Energy

  12. Evaluation of the levels of alcohol sulfates and ethoxysulfates in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of Tenerife Island.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Ramos, C; Ballesteros, O; Zafra-Gómez, A; Camino-Sánchez, F J; Blanc, R; Navalón, A; Pérez-Trujillo, J P; Vílchez, J L

    2014-02-15

    Alcohol sulfates (AS) and alcohol ethoxysulfates (AES) are all High Production Volume and 'down-the-drain' chemicals used globally in detergent and personal care products, resulting in low levels ultimately released to the environment via wastewater treatment plant effluents. They have a strong affinity for sorption to sediments. Almost 50% of Tenerife Island surface area is environmentally protected. Therefore, determination of concentration levels of AS/AES in marine sediments near wastewater discharge points along the coast of the Island is of interest. These data were obtained after pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Short chains of AES and especially of AS dominated the homologue distribution for AES. The Principal Components Analysis was used. The results showed that the sources of AS and AES were the same and that both compounds exhibit similar behavior. Three different patterns in the distribution for homologues and ethoxymers were found. PMID:24398419

  13. Polyethylenimine Interfacial Layers in Inverted Organic Photovoltaic Devices: Effects of Ethoxylation and Molecular Weight on Efficiency and Temporal Stability.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Brett A E; Jenekhe, Samson A

    2015-12-01

    We report a comparative study of polyethylenimine (PEI) and ethoxylated-polyethylenimine (PEIE) cathode buffer layers in high performance inverted organic photovoltaic devices. The work function of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/zinc oxide (ZnO) cathode was reduced substantially (Δφ = 0.73-1.09 eV) as the molecular weight of PEI was varied from 800 g mol(-1) to 750 000 g mol(-1) compared with the observed much smaller reduction when using a PEIE thin film (Δφ = 0.56 eV). The reference inverted polymer solar cells based on the small band gap polymer PBDTT-FTTE (ITO/ZnO/PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM/MoO3/Ag), without a cathode buffer layer, had an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 6.06 ± 0.22%. Incorporation of a PEIE cathode buffer layer in the same PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM blend devices gave an enhanced performance with a PCE of 7.37 ± 0.53%. In contrast, an even greater photovoltaic efficiency with a PCE of 8.22 ± 0.10% was obtained in similar PBDTT-FTTE:PC70BM blend solar cells containing a PEI cathode buffer layer. The temporal stability of the inverted polymer solar cells was found to increase with increasing molecular weight of the cathode buffer layer. The results show that PEI is superior to PEIE as a cathode buffer layer in high performance organic photovoltaic devices and that the highest molecular weight PEI interlayer provides the highest temporal stability. PMID:26550983

  14. Application of the GREAT-ER model for environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol and nonylphenol ethoxylates in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lai; Cao, Yan; Hao, Xuewen; Zhang, Yongyong; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-12-01

    The environmental risk presented by "down-the-drain" chemicals to receiving rivers in large urban areas has received increasing attention in recent years. Geo-referenced Regional Environmental Assessment Tool for European Rivers (GREAT-ER) is a typical river catchment model that has been specifically developed for the risk assessment of these chemicals and applied in many European rivers. By utilizing the new version of the model, GREAT-ER 3.0, which is the first completely open source software for worldwide application, this study represents the first attempt to conduct an application of GREAT-ER in the Wenyu River of China. Aquatic exposure simulation and an environmental risk assessment of nonylphenol (NP) and its environmental precursor nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEOs) were conducted effectively by GREAT-ER model, since NP is one of typical endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and its environmental precursor NPEOs as a "down-the-drain" chemical are extensively used in China. In the result, the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of NP and NPEOs in the water of Wenyu River were 538 and 4320 ng/L, respectively, at the regional scale, and 1210 and 8990 ng/L, respectively, at the local scale. From the results profile of the RCR, the combination of high emissions from large STPs with insufficient dilution of the river caused the high RCR. The PECs of NP in the sediment were in the range of 216.8-8218.3 ng/g (dry weight), which was consistent with the available monitoring data. The study showed the worldwide applicability and reliability of GREAT-ER as a river catchment model for the risk assessment of these chemicals and also revealed the general environmental risks presented by NP and NPEOs in the Wenyu River catchment in Beijing due to the extensive use of these chemicals. The results suggest that specific control or treatment measures are probably warranted for these chemicals to reduce their discharge in major cities. PMID:26358209

  15. Alcohol withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Manasco, Anton; Chang, Shannon; Larriviere, Joseph; Hamm, L Lee; Glass, Marcia

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol withdrawal is a common clinical condition that has a variety of complications and morbidities. The manifestations can range from mild agitation to withdrawal seizures and delirium tremens. The treatments for alcohol withdrawal include benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, beta-blockers and antihypertensives. Although benzodiazepines are presently a first-line therapy, there is controversy regarding the efficacies of these medications compared with others. Treatment protocols often involve one of two contrasting approaches: symptom-triggered versus fixed-schedule dosing of benzodiazepines. We describe these protocols in our review and examine the data supporting symptom-triggered dosing as the preferred method for most patients in withdrawal.The Clinical Institute Withdrawal Assessment for Alcohol scoring system for alcohol withdrawal streamlines care, optimizes patient management, and is the best scale available for withdrawal assessment. Quality improvement implications for inpatient management of alcohol withdrawal include increasing training for signs of withdrawal and symptom recognition, adding new hospital protocols to employee curricula, and ensuring manageable patient-to-physician and patient-to-nurse ratios. PMID:23128805

  16. Naltrexone for Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Naltrexone for Alcoholism Naltrexone for Alcoholism Is alcoholism a disease? Yes. Most experts agree that alcoholism is a disease, just as high blood pressure, diabetes and ...

  17. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol can cause a group of conditions called fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). Effects can include physical and behavioral problems such ... alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, ...

  18. Mutation Conferring Apical-Targeting Motif on AE1 Exchanger Causes Autosomal Dominant Distal RTA

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Andrew C.; Su, Ya; Yiu, Vivian; Cuthbert, Alan W.; Trachtman, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the α-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1. PMID:22518001

  19. Mutation conferring apical-targeting motif on AE1 exchanger causes autosomal dominant distal RTA.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew C; Su, Ya; Yiu, Vivian; Cuthbert, Alan W; Trachtman, Howard; Karet Frankl, Fiona E

    2012-07-01

    Mutations in SLC4A1 that mislocalize its product, the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger AE1, away from its normal position on the basolateral membrane of the α-intercalated cell cause autosomal dominant distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). We studied a family exhibiting dominant inheritance and defined a mutation (AE1-M909T) that affects the C terminus of AE1, a region rich in potential targeting motifs that are incompletely characterized. Expression of AE1-M909T in Xenopus oocytes confirmed preservation of its anion exchange function. Wild-type GFP-tagged AE1 localized to the basolateral membrane of polarized MDCK cells, but AE1-M909T localized to both the apical and basolateral membranes. Wild-type AE1 trafficked directly to the basolateral membrane without apical passage, whereas AE1-M909T trafficked to both cell surfaces, implying the gain of an apical-targeting signal. We found that AE1-M909T acquired class 1 PDZ ligand activity that the wild type did not possess. In summary, the AE1-M909T mutation illustrates the role of abnormal targeting in dRTA and provides insight into C-terminal motifs that govern normal trafficking of AE1. PMID:22518001

  20. Mid-IR Spectra Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooden, Diane; Witteborn, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Herbig Ae/Be stars are intermediate mass pre-main sequence stars, the higher mass analogues to the T Tauri stars. Because of their higher mass, they are expected form more rapidly than the T Tauri stars. Whether the Herbig Ae/Be stars accrete only from collapsing infalling envelopes or whether accrete through geometrically flattened viscous accretion disks is of current debate. When the Herbig Ae/Be stars reach the main sequence they form a class called Vega-like stars which are known from their IR excesses to have debris disks, such as the famous beta Pictoris. The evolutionary scenario between the pre-main sequence Herbig Ae/Be stars and the main sequence Vega-like stars is not yet revealed and it bears on the possibility of the presence of Habitable Zone planets around the A stars. Photometric studies of Herbig Ae/Be stars have revealed that most are variable in the optical, and a subset of stars show non-periodic drops of about 2 magnitudes. These drops in visible light are accompanied by changes in their colors: at first the starlight becomes reddened, and then it becomes bluer, the polarization goes from less than 0.1 % to roughly 1% during these minima. The theory postulated by V. Grinnin is that large cometary bodies on highly eccentric orbits occult the star on their way to being sublimed, for systems that are viewed edge-on. This theory is one of several controversial theories about the nature of Herbig Ae/Be stars. A 5 year mid-IR spectrophotometric monitoring campaign was begun by Wooden and Butner in 1992 to look for correlations between the variations in visible photometry and mid-IR dust emission features. Generally the approximately 20 stars that have been observed by the NASA Ames HIFOGS spectrometer have been steady at 10 microns. There are a handful, however, that have shown variable mid-IR spectra, with 2 showing variations in both the continuum and features anti-correlated with visual photometry, and 3 showing variations in the emission

  1. Physicochemical Characterization of a Thermostable Alcohol Dehydrogenase from Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    PubMed Central

    Vitale, Annalisa; Thorne, Natasha; Lovell, Scott; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hu, Xin; Shen, Min; D'Auria, Sabato; Auld, Douglas S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we characterize an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum (PyAeADHII). We have previously found that PyAeADHII has no activity when standard ADH substrates are used but is active when α-tetralone is used as substrate. Here, to gain insights into enzyme function, we screened several chemical libraries for enzymatic modulators using an assay employing α-tetralone. The results indicate that PyAeADHII activity in the presence of α-tetralone was inhibited by compounds such as flunarizine. We also examined metal coordination of the enzyme in solution by performing metal substitution of the enzyme-bound zinc (Zn2+) with cobalt. The solution-based absorption spectra for cobalt substituted PyAeADHII supports substitution at the structural Zn2+ site. To gain structural insight, we obtained the crystal structure of both wild-type and cobalt-substituted PyAeADHII at 1.75 Å and 2.20 Å resolution, respectively. The X-ray data confirmed one metal ion per monomer present only at the structural site with otherwise close conservation to other ADH enzymes. We next determined the co-crystal structure of the NADPH-bound form of the enzyme at 2.35 Å resolution to help define the active site region of the enzyme and this data shows close structural conservation with horse ADH, despite the lack of a catalytic Zn2+ ion in PyAeADHII. Modeling of α-tetralone into the NADPH bound structure suggests an arginine as a possible catalytic residue. The data presented here can yield a better understanding of alcohol dehydrogenases lacking the catalytic zinc as well as the structural features inherent to thermostable enzymes. PMID:23755111

  2. Numerical and experimental characterizations of low frequency MEMS AE sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Ozevin, Didem

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, new MEMS Acoustic Emission (AE) sensors are introduced. The transduction principle of the sensors is capacitance due to gap change. The sensors are numerically modeled using COMSOL Multiphysics software in order to estimate the resonant frequencies and capacitance values, and manufactured using MetalMUMPS process. The process includes thick metal layer (20 μm) made of nickel for freely vibration layer and polysilicon layer as the stationary layer. The metal layer provides a relatively heavy mass so that the spring constant can be designed high for low frequency sensor designs in order to increase the collapse voltage level (proportional to the stiffness), which increases the sensor sensitivity. An insulator layer is deposited between stationary layer and freely vibration layer, which significantly reduces the potential of stiction as a failure mode. As conventional AE sensors made of piezoelectric materials cannot be designed for low frequencies (<300 kHz) with miniature size, the MEMS sensor frequencies are tuned to 50 kHz and 200 kHz. The each sensor contained several parallel-connected cells with an overall size of approximately 250μm × 500 μm. The electromechanical characterizations are performed using high precision impedance analyzer and compared with the numerical results, which indicate a good fit. The initial mechanical characterization tests in atmospheric pressure are conducted using pencil lead break simulations. The proper sensor design reduces the squeeze film damping so that it does not require any vacuum packaging. The MEMS sensor responses are compared with similar frequency piezoelectric AE sensors.

  3. Allyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Allyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Isobutyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Isobutyl alcohol ; CASRN 78 - 83 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  5. Propargyl alcohol

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Propargyl alcohol ; CASRN 107 - 19 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  6. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  7. Using patient passports to improve A&E asthma care.

    PubMed

    Newell, Karen; Bunce, Rebecca; Hume, Shenagh

    The asthma patient passport (APP) is a patient-specific asthma plan that details what to do when asthma is out of control. It helps patients who have severe, difficult-to-manage asthma, and health professionals when these patients present at accident and emergency. This article shows that, while the APP acts as a patient's advocate, it also facilitates accessing emergency care by making it more streamlined. Case studies explore why people with asthma have avoided going to A&E, putting their lives at risk, and provide an insight into how difficult it can be for people to navigate the healthcare system when they are at their most vulnerable. PMID:26021030

  8. AES XPS study of chromium carbides and chromium iron carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detroye, M.; Reniers, F.; Buess-Herman, C.; Vereecken, J.

    1999-04-01

    The nature of chromium rich carbides which precipitate at grain boundaries in steels is still not perfectly understood. We performed a multitechnique approach on model chromium carbide and chromium-iron carbide samples: Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and High Energy Electron Diffraction (HEED) were used to characterise the samples. Significant chemical shifts were observed for the Cr, Fe and C XPS peaks in the M 7C 3 compound (M stands for metal), indicating unambiguously that the compound formed is a mixed iron-chromium carbide.

  9. Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorish, John F.

    2006-09-01

    There are several research projects going on around the world, which are attempting to develop a prosthetic device to restore sight to the blind. This paper describes the efforts of Second Sight of New York, Inc. The device being developed is called an Artificial epi-Retinal Prosthesis (AeRP), which is basically a small optical computer that fits into the intraocular space of the eye. The AeRP is designed to draw light into the device by specially designed fibre optics. The light is ‘digitized’ by the fibre optic system and then directed to individual photodiode cells making up concentric cylinders thus providing several hundred photodiode cells in the device. The produced electrical stimulation from each cell is then delivered to the retinal ganglion cells by a specially designed delivery system utilizing electrically conducting polymer strands (ECP), which sit on an ‘umbrella’ at the back of the device. The retinal ganglion cells receive the electrical stimulation, which would then be transmitted through the visual system of the brain. There are several innovations in this approach as compared to the other projects. They include, first the design, which will allow for a high number of PC to produce electrical stimulation that will stimulate multiple RGC per PC; the use of the ECP strands has not been used in such an approach before this. Tests have revealed that nerve cells have a good affinity for the material of the ECP. The use of the ECP as well as the fact that the AeRP is completely photovoltaic, with no external power sources, implies that there will not be high heat build-up in the back of the eye, which might damage RGC. A smaller version of the AeRP called the Mini epi-Retinal Prosthesis (MeRP) is the subject of a complimentary paper. It is being built now and will be tested in cell culture studies to determine the efficacy of the design and materials. No actual implants have been performed yet.

  10. Determination of the AES attitude from the angular velocity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliasberg, P. E.; Pivovarov, M. L.

    1984-10-01

    A nonlinear algorithm that could be used for the AES satellite to determine its motions relative to its mass center using rate sensor data is presented. The calculations are performed relative to absolute geocentric and satellite body coordinate systems. A transfer matrix of cosines relates positions and velocities in one system to positions and velocities in the other. The orientation algorithm is obtained with a matrix kinematic equation solved by a least squares technique. Sample calculations for the Intercosmos 17 satellite, employing sun sensor and magnetometer data, show the algorithm's capabilities for generating the satellite variations in the orbital coordinate system. Yaw, roll and pitch data are obtained.

  11. Alcoholism and Minority Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Briefly discusses some aspects of the role of the state and the position of minorities in respect to alcoholism policies and services. Includes case study of a Black alcoholic. Refers readers to studies on Black alcoholism, Native American alcoholism, Hispanic alcoholism, and Asian-American alcoholism. (Author/NB)

  12. Decryption-decompression of AES protected ZIP files on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Tan Nhat; Pham, Phong Hong; Nguyen, Duc Huu; Nguyen, Thuy Thanh; Le, Hung Duc

    2011-10-01

    AES is a strong encryption system, so decryption-decompression of AES encrypted ZIP files requires very large computing power and techniques of reducing the password space. This makes implementations of techniques on common computing system not practical. In [1], we reduced the original very large password search space to a much smaller one which surely containing the correct password. Based on reduced set of passwords, in this paper, we parallel decryption, decompression and plain text recognition for encrypted ZIP files by using CUDA computing technology on graphics cards GeForce GTX295 of NVIDIA, to find out the correct password. The experimental results have shown that the speed of decrypting, decompressing, recognizing plain text and finding out the original password increases about from 45 to 180 times (depends on the number of GPUs) compared to sequential execution on the Intel Core 2 Quad Q8400 2.66 GHz. These results have demonstrated the potential applicability of GPUs in this cryptanalysis field.

  13. Quantification of AES depth profiles by the MRI model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovač, Janez; Zalar, Anton; Praček, Borut

    2003-02-01

    The main physical effects that contribute to interface broadening in the sputter depth profiles of polycrystalline metallic multilayer structures were studied by comparison of measured and simulated AES depth profiles. An algorithm based on the so-called mixing-roughness-information depth (MRI) model was used to simulate AES depth profiles of Ni/Cr multilayer structures with different roughnesses of the initial surfaces. The simulated depth profiles were compared with measurements performed at two different depth profiling parameters on the Ni/Cr and Al/Ni/Cr multilayer structures with an initial surface roughness of about 1.0 and 21.5 nm, respectively. The comparison of simulated and measured depth profiles enabled us to separate and estimate different contributions to the interface broadening, as well as their dependence on the sputter depth. We found that roughness was the dominant factor related to depth resolution with respect to the information depth and atomic mixing contribution. The values of roughness introduced into the simulation algorithm coincided well with the values measured by AFM at the initial surface and after depth profiling. The results showed the capability of the simulation procedure based on the MRI model to separate and evaluate different contributions to the depth resolution.

  14. The spectrum and variability of radio emission from AE Aquarii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abada-Simon, Meil; Lecacheux, Alain; Bastian, Tim S.; Bookbinder, Jay A.; Dulk, George A.

    1993-01-01

    The first detections of the magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii at millimeter wavelengths are reported. AE Aqr was detected at wavelengths of 3.4 and 1.25 mm. These data are used to show that the time-averaged spectrum is generally well fitted by a power law S(nu) varies as nu exp alpha, where alpha is approximately equal to 0.35-0.60, and that the power law extends to millimeter wavelengths, i.e., the spectral turnover is at a frequency higher than 240 GHz. It is suggested that the spectrum is consistent with that expected from a superposition of flarelike events where the frequency distribution of the initial flux density is a power law f (S0) varies as S0 exp -epsilon, with index epsilon approximately equal to 1.8. Within the context of this model, the high turnover frequency of the radio spectrum implies magnetic field strengths in excess of 250 G in the source.

  15. Effect of O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin on advanced hepatoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Bai-Jun; Yu, Mei-Li; Yang, Shao-Guang; Liao, Lian-Ming; Liu, Jie-Wen; Zhao, Robert -C-H

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the synergistic effects of calmodulin (CaM) antagonist O-4-ethoxyl-butyl-berbamine (EBB) and pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) on hepatoma-22 (H22) in vivo. METHODS: Hepatoma model was established in 50 Balb/c mice by inoculating H22 cells (2.5 × 106) subcutaneously into the right backs of the mice. These mice were divided into 5 groups, and treated with saline only, PLD only, doxorubicin (Dox) only, PLD plus EBB and Dox plus EBB, respectively. In the treatment groups, mice were given 5 intravenous of PLD or Dox on days 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12. The first dosage of PLD or Dox was 4.5 mg/kg, the other 4 injections was 1 mg/kg. EBB (5 mg/kg) was coadministered with PLD or Dox in the corresponding groups. The effect of drugs on the life spans of hepatoma-bearing mice and tumor response to the drugs were recorded. Dox levels in the hepatoma cells were measured by a fluorescence assay. Light microscopy was performed to determine the histopathological changes in the major organs of these tumor-bearing mice. The MTT method was used to analyze the effect of Dox or PLD alone, Dox in combination with EBB, or PLD in combination with EBB on the growth of H22 cells in an in vitro experiment. RESULTS: EBB (5 mg/kg) significantly augmented the antitumor activity of Dox or PLD, remarkably prolonged the median survival time. The median survival time was 18.2 d for control group, but 89.2 d for PLD + EBB group and 70.1 d for Dox + EBB group, respectively. However, Dox alone did not show any remarkable antitumor activity, and the median survival time was just 29.7 d. Addition of EBB to Dox or PLD significantly increased the level of Dox in H22 cells in vivo. Moreover, EBB diminished liver toxicity of Dox and PLD. In vitro, EBB reduced the IC50 value of Dox or PLD on H22 cells from 0.050 ± 0.006 mg/L and 0.054 ± 0.004 mg/L to 0.012 ± 0.002 mg/L and 0.013 ± 0.002 mg/L, respectively (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: EBB and liposomization could improve the therapeutic efficacy of

  16. Interstellar Alcohols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charnley, S. B.; Kress, M. E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Millar, T. J.

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the gas-phase chemistry in dense cores where ice mantles containing ethanol and other alcohols have been evaporated. Model calculations show that methanol, ethanol, propanol, and butanol drive a chemistry leading to the formation of several large ethers and esters. Of these molecules, methyl ethyl ether (CH3OC2H5) and diethyl ether (C2H5)2O attain the highest abundances and should be present in detectable quantities within cores rich in ethanol and methanol. Gas-phase reactions act to destroy evaporated ethanol and a low observed abundance of gas-phase C,H,OH does not rule out a high solid-phase abundance. Grain surface formation mechanisms and other possible gas-phase reactions driven by alcohols are discussed, as are observing strategies for the detection of these large interstellar molecules.

  17. Transformation of AeIn4 Indides (Ae = Ba, Sr) into an AeAu2In2 Structure Type Through Gold Substitution

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jing-Cao; Corbett, John D.

    2007-04-17

    The title compounds were prepared from the elements by high-temperature solid-state synthesis techniques. X-ray structural analyses shows that BaAu{sub 2}In{sub 2} (1) and SrAu{sub 2}In{sub 2} (2) crystallize in a new orthorhombic structure, Pnma, Z = 4 (a = 8.755(2), 8.530(2) {angstrom}; b = 4.712(1), 4.598(1) {angstrom}; c = 12.368(3), 12.283(4) {angstrom}, respectively). Gold substitutes for 50% of the indium atoms in the tetragonal BaIn{sub 4} and monoclinic SrIn{sub 4} parents to give this new and more flexible orthorhombic structure. The Ae atoms in this structure are contained within chains of hexagonal prisms built of alternating In and Au that have additional augmenting atoms around their waists from further condensation of parallel displaced chains. The driving forces for these structural changes are in part the shorter Au-In distances (2.72 and 2.69 {angstrom}) relative to d(In-In) in the parents, presumably because of relativistic contractions with Au. Generalities about such centered prismatic building blocks and their condensation modes in these and related phases are described. Band structure calculations (EHTB) demonstrate that the two compounds are metallic, which is confirmed by measurements of the resistivity of 1 and the magnetic susceptibilities of both.

  18. Alcohol and metal determination in alcoholic beverages through high-temperature liquid-chromatography coupled to an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Terol, Amanda; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E; Prats, Soledad; Todolí, José L

    2011-06-01

    In the present work, an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) system was used as a high temperature liquid chromatography (HTLC) detector for the determination of alcohols and metals in beverages. For the sake of comparison, a refractive index (RI) detector was also employed for the first time to detect alcohols with HTLC. The organic compounds studied were methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol (in the 10-125 mg/L concentration range) and the elements tested were magnesium, aluminum, copper, manganese and barium at concentrations included between roughly 0.01 and 80 mg/L. Column heating temperatures ranged from 80 to 175 °C and the optimum ones in terms of peak resolution, sensitivity and column lifetime were 125 and 100 °C for the HTLC-RI and HTLC-ICP-AES couplings, respectively. The HTLC-ICP-AES interface design (i.e., spray chamber design and nebulizer type used) was studied and it was found that a single pass spray chamber provided about 2 times higher sensitivities than a cyclonic conventional design. Comparatively speaking, limits of detection for alcohols were of the same order for the two evaluated detection systems (from 5 to 25 mg/L). In contrast, unlike RI, ICP-AES provided information about the content of both organic and inorganic species. Furthermore, temperature programming was applied to shorten the analysis time and it was verified that ICP-AES was less sensitive to temperature changes and modifications in the analyte chemical nature than the RI detector. Both detectors were successfully applied to the determination of short chain alcohols in several beverages such as muscatel, pacharan, punch, vermouth and two different brands of whiskeys (from 10 to 40 g of ethanol/100 g of sample). The results of the inorganic elements studied by HTLC-ICP-AES were compared with those obtained using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) obtaining good agreement between them. Recoveries found for spiked samples

  19. Latitudinal variation of thermospheric hydrogen near solstice from AE-D observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanatani, S.; Breig, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    Variations of thermospheric neutral atomic hydrogen with latitude during a solstice season near solar minimum were investigated using data acquired with the polar-orbiting AE-D satellite. Hydrogen concentrations at low latitude were found to be comparable to those found from observations with the AE-E satellite, but were slightly higher than concentrations derived from the 1983 mass spectrometer incoherent scatter atmospheric model. Results confirm the general summer-to-winter density increase, large latitudinal gradients in the summer hemisphere, and the winter enhancement of hydrogen observed in AE-C nighttime measurements. The AE-D data, however, show a small polar depression in hydrogen concentration at high winter latitudes, attributed to atmospheric dynamics following auroral heating. The density gradients observed by AE-D in the summer hemisphere were in sharp contrast to the more constant horizontal daytime profiles reported from OGO-6 and previous AE-C measurements, indicating the possibility of local time effects.

  20. A high voltage power supply for the AE-C and D low energy electron experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    A description is given of the electrical and mechanical design and operation of high voltage power supplies for space flight use. The supply was used to generate the spiraltron high voltage for low energy electron experiment on AE-C and D. Two versions of the supply were designed and built; one design is referred to as the low power version (AE-C) and the other as the high power version (AE-D). Performance is discussed under all operating conditions.

  1. NPS alternate techsat satellite, design project for AE-4871

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This project was completed as part of AE-4871, Advanced Spacecraft Design. The intent of the course is to provide experience in the design of all the major components in a spacecraft system. Team members were given responsibility for the design of one of the six primary subsystems: power, structures, propulsion, attitude control, telemetry, tracking and control (TT&C), and thermal control. In addition, a single member worked on configuration control, launch vehicle integration, and a spacecraft test plan. Given an eleven week time constraint, a preliminary design of each subsystem was completed. Where possible, possible component selections were also made. Assistance for this project came principally from the Naval Research Laboratory's Spacecraft Technology Branch. Specific information on components was solicited from representatives in industry. The design project centers on a general purpose satellite bus that is currently being sought by the Strategic Defense Initiative.

  2. Effects of Auger electron elastic scattering in quantitative AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    1987-09-01

    The Monte Carlo algorithm was developed for simulating the trajectories of electrons elastically scattered in the solid. The distribution of scattering angles was determined using the partial wave expansion method. This algorithm was used to establish the influence of Auger electron elastic collisions on the results of quantitative AES analysis. The calculations were performed for the most pronounced KLL, L 3 MM and M 5NN Auger transitions. It turned out that due to the elastic collisions the Auger electron signal is decreased by up to 10%. The corresponding decreased of the escape depth of Auger electrons reaches 30% as compared with the value derived from the inelastic mean free path. The values of the inelastic mean free path resulting from the overalyer method may be strongly affected by elastic scattering of Auger electrons.

  3. Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES).

    PubMed

    Nechvatal, J; Barker, E; Bassham, L; Burr, W; Dworkin, M; Foti, J; Roback, E

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST's statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report. PMID:27500035

  4. STS-80 Payload WSF-3 in Hanger AE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In NASA's Building AE on Cape Canaveral Air Station, preparation of the Wake Shield Facility-3 (WSF-3) continues as workers install Get Away Special canisters for ballast on the spacecraft. The WSF-3 represents the third flight since 1994 of the disk- shaped satellite primarily designed to generate an ultravacuum in space in which to grow advanced semiconductor high-purity thin films. The WSF-3 is one of the primary payloads scheduled to fly aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on Mission STS-80, targeted to lift off around Nov. 8. On this mission, the WSF-3 will fly free of the orbiter for about three days. It will be deployed from the orbiter and retrieved using the Remote Manipulator System robotic arm.

  5. Report on the Development of the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

    PubMed Central

    Nechvatal, James; Barker, Elaine; Bassham, Lawrence; Burr, William; Dworkin, Morris; Foti, James; Roback, Edward

    2001-01-01

    In 1997, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) initiated a process to select a symmetric-key encryption algorithm to be used to protect sensitive (unclassified) Federal information in furtherance of NIST’s statutory responsibilities. In 1998, NIST announced the acceptance of 15 candidate algorithms and requested the assistance of the cryptographic research community in analyzing the candidates. This analysis included an initial examination of the security and efficiency characteristics for each algorithm. NIST reviewed the results of this preliminary research and selected MARS, RC™, Rijndael, Serpent and Twofish as finalists. Having reviewed further public analysis of the finalists, NIST has decided to propose Rijndael as the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). The research results and rationale for this selection are documented in this report.

  6. Optical Mass Flow Diagnostics in Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cauley, P. Wilson; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.

    2015-09-01

    We examine a broad range of mass flow diagnostics in a large sample of Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAEBES) using high resolution optical spectra. The Hβ and He i 5876 Å lines show the highest incidence of P Cygni (30%) and inverse P Cygni (14%) morphologies, respectively. The Fe ii 4924 Å line also shows a large incidence of P Cygni profiles (11%). We find support for many of the conclusions reached in a study based on the analysis of the He i λ10830 line in a large sample of HAEBES. Namely, HAEBES exhibit smaller fractions of both blueshifted absorption (i.e., mass outflow) and redshifted absorption (i.e., mass infall or accretion) than their lower mass cousins, the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). In particular, the optical data supports the conclusion that HAEBES displaying redshifted absorption, in general, show maximum redshifted absorption velocities that are smaller fractions of their stellar escape velocities than is found for CTTSs. This suggests that HAEBE accretion flows are originating deeper in the gravitational potentials of their stars than in CTTS systems. In addition, we find a lack of inner disk wind signatures in the blueshifted absorption objects; only stellar wind signatures are clearly observed. These findings, along with the lack of detected magnetic fields around HAEBES, support the idea that large magnetospheres are not prevalent around HAEBES and that accretion flows are instead mediated by significantly smaller magnetospheres with relatively smaller truncation radii (e.g., 1-2 R*). Redshifted absorption is much more common around Herbig Ae stars than Be stars, suggesting that Herbig Be stars may accrete via a boundary layer rather than along magnetic field lines.

  7. Evaluation of the Surface Roughness using AE method with Air Blowing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, T.; Takata, S.; Hino, T.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to find the development for the evaluation of the surface roughness by the Acoustic Emission (AE) method with air blowing. We paid attention to the AE wave due to air blowing on the specimen plate with different surface roughness. The relationship between the AE wave and surface roughness of specimen plates was investigated. As the result, there is large and continuous difference in the Root Mean Square (RMS) value of their AE waveform. The RMS value decreases by increasing of the surface roughness of specimen plates. It suggested that this characteristic has the possibility to establish a new method of nondestructive surface roughness testing.

  8. [Alcoholism and aging. 2. Alcoholic dementia or alcoholic cognitive impairment?].

    PubMed

    Pierucci-Lagha, Amira; Derouesné, Christian

    2003-12-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in considerable damage to many of the body's organs, and particularly to the brain. Beyond the confusional state occurring with acute intoxication or withdrawal, alcohol abuse is responsible of a constellation of neuropsychiatric syndromes including cognitive dysfunction, Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, alcoholic cerebellar degeneration, Marchiafava-Bignami disease and alcohol-related dementia, ARD. ARD would account for nearly 20% of all admissions to state mental hospitals in the United-States. According to the DSM-IV, ARD is defined by a dementia associated with alcohol abuse. However, the concept of a dementia directly related to the neurotoxicity of alcohol for brain neurons is still a matter of debate. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the mechanisms of cognitive deficits related to chronic alcohol intoxication. This paper presents the epidemiological, neuropathological, neurochemical and clinical data on ARD. Alcoholism is responsible for cognitive deficits of various severity, which could be reversible or not with alcohol abstinence, but can also participate to the cognitive impairment related to other pathologies, such as Alzheimer disease. On account of this review, it is suggested that the term alcohol-related cognitive impairment should be more convenient than that of ARD, more restrictive and more confusing. Presently, there are no established treatment for alcohol-related cognitive impairment. Alcohol abstinence is a most important step. Psychosocial interventions are essential to support the patients in the daily life. PMID:15683959

  9. Invited commentary on Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnostic guidelines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The publication of Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic guidelines marks an important step forward in Australia’s efforts to prevent FASD. But do we need yet another set of FASD guidelines? At the 5th International FASD Conference, the ever growing number of FASD diagnostic guidelines was identified as a core area of concern by leaders in FASD worldwide. All agreed we need to strive to adopt a single set of guidelines. It is essential that FASD diagnosis advance to incorporate new knowledge and technology. But to date, the field of FASD has seen multiple sets of guidelines published that do not address the important question-How is the performance of these new guidelines superior to the performance of existing guidelines to warrant/justify their introduction into the medical literature? The Australian guidelines include FAS, PFAS and Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Alcohol Exposed (ND-AE). This latter group includes individuals with severe CNS abnormalities without the physical features of FAS. This is the group the 4-Digit-Code calls Static-Encephalopathy-Alcohol-Exposed (SE-AE). The criteria for FAS, PFAS, and ND-AE (or what the 4-Digit-Code calls SE-AE) are identical between the Australian and 4-Digit-Code guidelines with the exception of one very small, but very consequential difference in facial criteria for PFAS. The 4-Digit-Code requires a Rank 3 FAS facial phenotype for PFAS (J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol20(3):e416–e467, 2013); the Australian guidelines relax the criteria to include the Rank 2 FAS facial phenotype. This relaxation of the criteria renders the facial phenotype NOT specific to prenatal alcohol exposure as confirmed in published empirical studies. If the facial phenotype is not specific to (caused only by) prenatal alcohol exposure one can no longer validly call the outcome PFAS. When one makes a diagnosis of FAS (full or partial), one is stating explicitly that the individual has a syndrome caused by prenatal alcohol

  10. Invited commentary on Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder diagnostic guidelines.

    PubMed

    Astley, Susan J

    2014-01-01

    The publication of Australian fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) diagnostic guidelines marks an important step forward in Australia's efforts to prevent FASD. But do we need yet another set of FASD guidelines? At the 5th International FASD Conference, the ever growing number of FASD diagnostic guidelines was identified as a core area of concern by leaders in FASD worldwide. All agreed we need to strive to adopt a single set of guidelines. It is essential that FASD diagnosis advance to incorporate new knowledge and technology. But to date, the field of FASD has seen multiple sets of guidelines published that do not address the important question-How is the performance of these new guidelines superior to the performance of existing guidelines to warrant/justify their introduction into the medical literature?The Australian guidelines include FAS, PFAS and Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Alcohol Exposed (ND-AE). This latter group includes individuals with severe CNS abnormalities without the physical features of FAS. This is the group the 4-Digit-Code calls Static-Encephalopathy-Alcohol-Exposed (SE-AE). The criteria for FAS, PFAS, and ND-AE (or what the 4-Digit-Code calls SE-AE) are identical between the Australian and 4-Digit-Code guidelines with the exception of one very small, but very consequential difference in facial criteria for PFAS. The 4-Digit-Code requires a Rank 3 FAS facial phenotype for PFAS (J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol20(3):e416-e467, 2013); the Australian guidelines relax the criteria to include the Rank 2 FAS facial phenotype. This relaxation of the criteria renders the facial phenotype NOT specific to prenatal alcohol exposure as confirmed in published empirical studies. If the facial phenotype is not specific to (caused only by) prenatal alcohol exposure one can no longer validly call the outcome PFAS. When one makes a diagnosis of FAS (full or partial), one is stating explicitly that the individual has a syndrome caused by prenatal alcohol exposure

  11. Insomnia, alcoholism and relapse.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2003-12-01

    Insomnia and alcoholism are significantly associated in community surveys and patient samples. Insomnia occurs in 36-72% of alcoholic patients and may last for weeks to months after initiating abstinence from alcohol. Some correlates of insomnia in alcoholic patients are identical to those observed in non-alcoholic insomniacs, including anxiety and depression, tobacco smoking, and the use of alcohol to aid sleep. Other studies suggest that as the severity of alcoholism increases, so does the likelihood of insomnia in alcoholic patients. In the sleep laboratory, alcoholic patients who complain of insomnia have disrupted sleep continuity when compared to alcoholic patients without insomnia complaints. Recently sober alcoholics are also more likely than non-alcoholics to have sleep-disordered breathing and increased periodic leg movements, which might contribute to insomnia in some alcoholic patients. The co-occurrence of insomnia and alcoholism is clinically significant because alcoholism can exacerbate the adverse consequences of insomnia (e.g. mood changes and performance decrements) and because insomnia among patients entering treatment for alcoholism has been significantly associated with subsequent alcoholic relapse. Baseline polysomnographic correlates of subsequent relapse include prolonged sleep latency, decreased sleep efficiency and total sleep time, increased rapid eye movement sleep pressure, and decreased slow wave sleep. Whether treatment of insomnia in alcoholic patients reduces relapse rates is unknown, but preliminary treatment guidelines that accommodate the special characteristics of alcoholic patients are provided, with a goal to reduce daytime impairment and psychological distress. PMID:15018094

  12. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol in pregnancy; Alcohol-related birth defects; Fetal alcohol effects; FAS ... the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle tone and ... Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial ...

  13. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol test - breath ... There are various brands of breath alcohol tests. Each one uses a different method to test the level of alcohol in the breath. The machine may be electronic or manual. One ...

  14. Alcohol use disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... who are dealing with alcohol use. ALCOHOLICS ANONYMOUS (AA) Alcoholics Anonymous is a self-help group of ... approach. There are local chapters throughout the U.S. AA offers help 24 hours a day. AL-ANON ...

  15. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Read in Chinese What is Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)? Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) describes changes in ...

  16. Alcoholic liver disease

    MedlinePlus

    Liver disease due to alcohol; Cirrhosis or hepatitis - alcoholic; Laennec's cirrhosis ... Alcoholic liver disease occurs after years of heavy drinking. Over time, scarring and cirrhosis can occur. Cirrhosis is the ...

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela; Rosen, Barry

    2015-04-16

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8.

  18. Phylogenetic and temporal dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 CRF01_AE in China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jingrong; Xin, Ruolei; Yu, Shuangqing; Bai, Lishi; Wang, Weishi; Wu, Tingchen; Su, Xueli; Lu, Hongyan; Pang, Xinghuo; Yan, Hong; Feng, Xia; He, Xiong; Zeng, Yi

    2013-01-01

    To explore the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China, 408 fragments of gag gene sequences of CRF01_AE sampled in 2002-2010 were determined from different geographical regions and risk populations in China. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the CRF01_AE sequences can be grouped into four clusters, suggesting that at least four genetically independent CRF01_AE descendants are circulating in China, of which two were closely related to the isolates from Thailand and Vietnam. Cluster 1 has the most extensive distribution in China. In North China, cluster 1 and cluster 4 were mainly transmitted through homosexuality.The real substance of the recent HIV-1 epidemic in men who have sex with men(MSM) of North China is a rapid spread of CRF01_AE, or rather two distinctive natives CRF01_AE.The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of four CRF01_AE clusters ranged from the years 1990.9 to 2003.8 in different regions of China. This is the first phylogenetic and temporal dynamics study of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in China. PMID:23365653

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M.; Brown, Steven D.; Ferrero, Marcela A.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  20. Genetic effect of the Aegilops caudata plasmon on the manifestation of the Ae. cylindrica genome.

    PubMed

    Tsunewaki, Koichiro; Mori, Naoki; Takumi, Shigeo

    2014-01-01

    In the course of reconstructing Aegilops caudata from its own genome (CC) and its plasmon, which had passed half a century in common wheat (genome AABBDD), we produced alloplasmic Ae. cylindrica (genome CCDD) with the plasmon of Ae. caudata. This line, designated (caudata)-CCDD, was found to express male sterility in its second substitution backcross generation (SB2) of (caudata)-AABBCCDD pollinated three times with the Ae. cylindrica pollen. We repeatedly backcrossed these SB2 plants with the Ae. cylindrica pollen until the SB5 generation, and SB5F2 progeny were produced by self-pollination of the SB5 plants. Thirteen morphological and physiological characters, including pollen and seed fertilities, of the (caudata)-CCDD SB5F2 were compared with those of the euplasmic Ae. cylindrica. The results indicated that the male sterility expressed by (caudata)-CCDD was due to genetic incompatibility between the Ae. cylindrica genome and Ae. caudata plasmon that did not affect any other characters of Ae. cylindrica. Also, we report that the genome integrity functions in keeping the univalent transmission rate high. PMID:25832746

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Brevibacterium linens AE038-8, an Extremely Arsenic-Resistant Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Maizel, Daniela; Utturkar, Sagar M; Brown, Steven D; Ferrero, Marcela A; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-01-01

    To understand the arsenic biogeocycles in the groundwaters at Tucumán, Argentina, we isolated Brevibacterium linens sp. strain AE38-8, obtained from arsenic-contaminated well water. This strain is extremely resistant to arsenicals and has arsenic resistance (ars) genes in its genome. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of B. linens AE38-8. PMID:25883298

  2. BAC libraries of Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii, the diploid ancestors of polyploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Akhunov, E D; Akhunova, A R; Dvorák, J

    2005-11-01

    Triticum urartu, Aegilops speltoides and Ae. tauschii are respectively the immediate diploid sources, or their closest relatives, of the A, B and D genomes of polyploid wheats. Here we report the construction and characterization of arrayed large-insert libraries in a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector, one for each of these diploid species. The libraries are equivalent to 3.7, 5.4 and 4.1 of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides, Ae. tauschii genomes, respectively. The predicted levels of genome coverage were confirmed by library hybridization with single-copy genes. The libraries were used to estimate the proportion of known repeated nucleotide sequences and gene content in each genome by BAC-end sequencing. Repeated sequence families previously detected in Triticeae accounted for 57, 61 and 57% of the T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii genomes, and coding regions accounted for 5.8, 4.5 and 4.8%, respectively. PMID:16177898

  3. Experimental study on AE characteristics of three-point-bending concrete beams

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Bing; Liu Juanyu

    2004-03-01

    In this research, acoustic emission (AE) characteristics of three-point-bending concrete beams were investigated during the entire loading period. It was found that the relative notch depth significantly influenced AE characteristics. The occurrence of AE events decreased greatly with an increase of the relative notch depth. The influences of different fibers in concrete on AE characteristics were investigated as well. The experimental results indicated that the Weibull function can be used to describe quantitatively the influences of the relative notch depth and fibers on AE characteristics, fracture characteristics, and brittleness of concrete. The two parameters, {theta} and m, of the Weibull function depended on the geometry of the concrete specimens and the brittleness of concrete, respectively.

  4. Spectral Analysis and Classification of Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández, Jesús; Calvet, Nuria; Briceño, César; Hartmann, Lee; Berlind, Perry

    2004-03-01

    We present an analysis of the optical spectra of 75 early-type emission-line stars, many of which have been classified previously as Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars. Accurate spectral types were derived for 58 members of the sample; high continuum veiling, contamination by nonphotospheric absorption features, or a composite binary spectrum prevented accurate spectral typing for the rest. Approximately half of our sample exhibited [O I] λ6300 forbidden-line emission down to our detection limit of 0.1 Å equivalent width; a third of the sample exhibited Fe II emission (multiplet 42). A subset of 11 of the HAeBe sample showed abnormally strong Fe II absorption; 75% of this subset are confirmed UX Ori objects. Combining our spectral typing results with photometry from the literature, we confirm previous findings of high values of total-to-selective extinction (RV~5) in our larger sample, suggesting significant grain growth in the environments of HAeBe stars. With this high value of RV, the vast majority of HAeBe stars appear younger than with the standard RV=3.1 extinction law and are more consistent with being pre-main-sequence objects.

  5. Universal quantification of elastic scattering effects in AES and XPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    1996-09-01

    Elastic scattering of photoelectrons in a solid can be accounted for in the common formalism of XPS by introducing two correction factors, βeff and Qx. In the case of AES, only one correction factor, QA, is required. As recently shown, relatively simple analytical expressions for the correction factors can be derived from the kinetic Boltzmann equation within the so-called "transport approximation". The corrections are expressed here in terms of the ratio of the transport mean free path (TRMFP) to the inelastic mean free path (IMFP). Since the available data for the TRMFP are rather limited, it was decided to complete an extensive database of these values. They were calculated in the present work for the same elements and energies as in the IMFP tabulation published by Tanuma et al. An attempt has been made to derive a predictive formula providing the ratios of the TRMFP to the IMFP. Consequently, a very simple and accurate algorithm for calculating the correction factors βeff, Qx and QA has been developed. This algorithm can easily be generalized to multicomponent solids. The resulting values of the correction factors were found to compare very well with published values resulting from Monte Carlo calculations.

  6. Remarks on the definition of the backscattering factor in AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, Aleksander

    2002-03-01

    It has been shown that the backscattering factor in AES can be defined as an integral of the product of the excitation depth distribution function and the emission depth distribution function. First function describes the number of ionizations as a function of depth while the second function describes the escape probability of Auger electrons created at different depths. The backscattering factor calculated from such definition is found to depend on the Auger electron emission angle. For emission angles up to 40° with respect to surface normal, this dependence is not pronounced. However, influence of the emission angle on the backscattering factor may be substantial at glancing emission angles. Values of the backscattering factor calculated from the proposed algorithm assuming the emission angle equal to 40° differ noticeably from values resulting from the Shimizu expression. The deviation may reach 18% at primary electron energy of 2000 eV. Furthermore, the backscattering factor may become smaller than unity at primary energies close to the ionization energy. This effect has been suggested in earlier studies.

  7. AES based secure low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy for WSNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishore, K. R.; Sarma, N. V. S. N.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) provide a low cost solution in diversified application areas. The wireless sensor nodes are inexpensive tiny devices with limited storage, computational capability and power. They are being deployed in large scale in both military and civilian applications. Security of the data is one of the key concerns where large numbers of nodes are deployed. Here, an energy-efficient secure routing protocol, secure-LEACH (Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy) for WSNs based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) is being proposed. This crypto system is a session based one and a new session key is assigned for each new session. The network (WSN) is divided into number of groups or clusters and a cluster head (CH) is selected among the member nodes of each cluster. The measured data from the nodes is aggregated by the respective CH's and then each CH relays this data to another CH towards the gateway node in the WSN which in turn sends the same to the Base station (BS). In order to maintain confidentiality of data while being transmitted, it is necessary to encrypt the data before sending at every hop, from a node to the CH and from the CH to another CH or to the gateway node.

  8. The (BETA) Pictoris Phenomenon Among Herbig Ae/Be Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Perez, M. R.; Talavera, A.; Bjorkman, K. S.; deWinter, D.; The, P.-S.; Molster, F. J.; vandenAncker, M. E.; Sitko, M. L.; Morrison, N. D.; Beaver, M. L.; McCollum, B.; Castelaz, M. W.

    1996-01-01

    We present a survey of high dispersion UV and optical spectra of Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) and related stars. We find accreting, circumstellar gas over the velocity range +100 to +400 km/s, and absorption profiles similar to those seen toward Beta Pic, in 36% of the 33 HAeBe stars with IUE data as well as in 3 non-emission B stars. We also find evidence of accretion in 7 HAeBe stars with optical data only. Line profile variability appears ubiquitous. As a group, the stars with accreting gas signatures have higher v sin i than the stars with outflowing material, and tend to exhibit large amplitude (greater than or equal to 1(sup m)) optical light variations. All of the program stars with polarimetric variations that are anti-correlated with the optical light, previously interpreted as the signature of a dust disk viewed close to equator-on, also show spectral signatures of accreting gas. These data imply that accretion activity in HAeBe stars is preferentially observed when the line of sight transits the circumstellar dust disk. Our data imply that the spectroscopic signatures of accreting circumstellar material seen in Beta Pic are not unique to that object, but instead are consistent with interpretation of Beta Pic as a comparatively young A star with its associated circumstellar disk.

  9. A Selective Encryption Algorithm Based on AES for Medical Information

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ju-Young; Chon, Ki-Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The transmission of medical information is currently a daily routine. Medical information needs efficient, robust and secure encryption modes, but cryptography is primarily a computationally intensive process. Towards this direction, we design a selective encryption scheme for critical data transmission. Methods We expand the advandced encrytion stanard (AES)-Rijndael with five criteria: the first is the compression of plain data, the second is the variable size of the block, the third is the selectable round, the fourth is the optimization of software implementation and the fifth is the selective function of the whole routine. We have tested our selective encryption scheme by C++ and it was compiled with Code::Blocks using a MinGW GCC compiler. Results The experimental results showed that our selective encryption scheme achieves a faster execution speed of encryption/decryption. In future work, we intend to use resource optimization to enhance the round operations, such as SubByte/InvSubByte, by exploiting similarities between encryption and decryption. Conclusions As encryption schemes become more widely used, the concept of hardware and software co-design is also a growing new area of interest. PMID:21818420

  10. Aquatic toxicity of nine aircraft deicer and anti-icer formulations and relative toxicity of additive package ingredients alkylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corsi, S.R.; Geis, S.W.; Loyo-Rosales, J. E.; Rice, C.P.

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of the effects of aircraft deicer and anti-icer fluid (ADAF) runoff on aquatic organisms in receiving streams is a complex issue because the identities of numerous toxic additives are proprietary and not publicly available. Most potentially toxic and endocrine disrupting effects caused by ADAF are due to the numerous additive package ingredients which vary among manufacturers and types of ADAF formulation. Toxicity investigations of nine ADAF formulations indicate that endpoint concentrations for formulations of different manufacturers are widely variable. Type IV ADAF (anti-icers) are more toxic than Type I (deicers) for the four organisms tested (Vibrio fischeri, Pimephales promelas, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Selenastrum capricornutum). Acute toxicity endpoint concentrations ranged from 347 to 7700 mg/L as ADAF for Type IV and from 1550 to 45 100 mg/L for Type I formulations. Chronic endpoint concentrations ranged from 70 to 1300 mg/L for Type IV and from 37 to 18 400 mg/L for Type I formulations. Alkylphenol ethoxylates and tolyltriazoles are two known classes of additives. Nonylphenol, nonylphenol ethoxylates, octylphenol, octylphenol ethoxylates, and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles were quantified in the nine ADAF formulations, and toxicity tests were conducted with nonylphenol ethoxylates and 4,5-methyl-1H-benzotriazoles. Toxicity units computed for glycol and these additives, with respect to toxicity of the ADAF formulations, indicate that a portion of ADAF toxicity can be explained by the known additives and glycols, but much of the toxicity is due to unidentified additives. ?? 2006 American Chemical Society.

  11. Application of nicotin amide-adenine dinucleotide analogs for clinical enzymology: alcohol dehydrogenase activity in liver injury.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, K; Kimura, A; Minato, S; Tamaoki, H; Mizushima, H

    1976-06-01

    The activities of alcohol dehydrogease(ADH) in serum and in the subcellular fractions of rat liver were determined with n-amyl alcohol or ethanol as substrate and thionicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide as coenzyme. It was found that the enzyme's activity ratio on the amyl alcohol and ethanol(A/E value) of serum and on the particulate fractions of the liver were different, but the A/E value of the soluble fraction was similar to that of serum. The A/E value of the particulate fractions were higher than that of the soluble fraction. From the results of experimental liver damage in the rat, it seems that estimation of the A/E value of ADH activity in serum is a useful parameter for the diagnosis of active liver injury. Since the A/E values of patients' sera differed from those of the normal subjects, the estimation of the A/E value of serum may give diagnostic information on liver injury, especially in chronic liver injury. PMID:179739

  12. Alcohol in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorabaugh, W. J.

    1991-01-01

    Traces the history of alcohol use in the United States from the colonial period to the present. Discusses changes in public attitudes toward drinking. Explores attempts at prohibition, alcohol preferences, the relationship between alcohol consumption and economic prosperity, and the dichotomy of alcohol as a part of a European heritage that is…

  13. Nurses' Attitudes towards Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speer, Rita D.

    Nurses' attitudes toward the alcoholic can have a profound impact on the person suffering from alcoholism. These attitudes can affect the alcoholic's care and even whether the alcoholic chooses to recover. This study investigated attitudes of approximately 68 nurses employed in hospitals, 49 nurses in treatment facilities, 58 nursing students, and…

  14. Alcoholic metabolic emergencies.

    PubMed

    Allison, Michael G; McCurdy, Michael T

    2014-05-01

    Ethanol intoxication and ethanol use are associated with a variety of metabolic derangements encountered in the Emergency Department. In this article, the authors discuss alcohol intoxication and its treatment, dispel the myth that alcohol intoxication is associated with hypoglycemia, comment on electrolyte derangements and their management, review alcoholic ketoacidosis, and end with a section on alcoholic encephalopathy. PMID:24766933

  15. Internet Alcohol Marketing and Underage Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    McClure, Auden C.; Tanski, Susanne E.; Li, Zhigang; Jackson, Kristina; Morgenstern, Matthis; Li, Zhongze; Sargent, James D.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE Internet alcohol marketing is not well studied despite its prevalence and potential accessibility and attractiveness to youth. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations between self-reported engagement with Internet alcohol marketing and alcohol use transitions in youth. METHODS A US sample of 2012 youths aged 15 to 20 was surveyed in 2011. An Internet alcohol marketing receptivity score was developed, based on number of positive responses to seeing alcohol advertising on the Internet, visiting alcohol brand Web sites, being an online alcohol brand fan, and cued recall of alcohol brand home page images. We assessed the association between baseline marketing receptivity and both ever drinking and binge drinking (≥6 drinks per occasion) at 1-year follow-up with multiple logistic regression, controlling for baseline drinking status, Internet use, sociodemographics, personality characteristics, and peer or parent drinking. RESULTS At baseline, ever-drinking and binge-drinking prevalence was 55% and 27%, respectively. Many (59%) reported seeing Internet alcohol advertising, but few reported going to an alcohol Web site (6%) or being an online fan (3%). Higher Internet use, sensation seeking, having family or peers who drank, and past alcohol use were associated with Internet alcohol marketing receptivity, and a score of 1 or 2 was independently associated with greater adjusted odds of initiating binge drinking (odds ratio 1.77; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.78 and odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.06–4.37 respectively) but not with initiation of ever drinking. CONCLUSIONS Although high levels of engagement with Internet alcohol marketing were uncommon, most underage youths reported seeing it, and we found a prospective association between receptivity to this type of alcohol marketing and future problem drinking, making additional research and ongoing surveillance important. PMID:26738886

  16. [Alcohol and psychiatric disorders].

    PubMed

    Bouzyk-Szutkiewicz, Joanna; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Szulc, Agata

    2012-09-01

    Alcohol dependence and abuse is one of the most costly health problems in the world from both a social and an economic point of view. It is a widespread problem, focusing attention not only psychiatrists but also doctors of other specialties. Patterns of drinking appear to be changing throughout the world, with more women and young people drinking heavily. Even risky drinking is a potential health risk, while chronic alcohol abuse contribute to the serious physical and mental complications. Alcohol used disorders associated with alcohol-induced brain damage include: withdrawal state, delirium tremens, alcoholic hallucinosis, alcoholic paranoia, Korsakoffs psychosis, alcoholic dementia, alcoholic depression. On the other hand, mental disorders as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, personality disorder most frequently comorbid with alcohol abuse or they trigger alcohol. PMID:23157139

  17. [Alcohol and arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Jurisch, D; Neef, M; Hagendorff, A

    2016-09-01

    The effects of alcohol on induction of arrhythmias is dose-dependent, independent of preexisting cardiovascular diseases or heart failure and can affect otherwise healthy subjects. While the probability of atrial fibrillation increases with the alcohol dosage, events of sudden cardiac death are less frequent with low and moderate consumption but occur more often in heavy drinkers with alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Men are first affected at higher dosages of alcohol but women can suffer from arrhythmias at lower dosages. Thromboembolisms and ischemic stroke can occur less often at lower dosages of alcohol; however, hemorrhagic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage are increased with higher alcohol dosages. Recognizable protective mechanisms of alcohol with respect to cardiovascular diseases only occur with lower amounts of alcohol of less than 10 g per day. Underlying mechanisms explain these controversial effects. Specific therapeutic options for alcohol-related arrhythmias apart from abstinence from alcohol consumption are not known. PMID:27582366

  18. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  19. High-dispersion absorption-line spectroscopy of AE Aqr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echevarría, J.; Smith, Robert Connon; Costero, R.; Zharikov, S.; Michel, R.

    2008-07-01

    High-dispersion time-resolved spectroscopy of the unique magnetic cataclysmic variable AE Aqr is presented. A radial velocity analysis of the absorption lines yields K2 = 168.7 +/- 1kms-1. Substantial deviations of the radial velocity curve from a sinusoid are interpreted in terms of intensity variations over the secondary star's surface. A complex rotational velocity curve as a function of orbital phase is detected which has a modulation frequency of twice the orbital frequency, leading to an estimate of the binary inclination angle that is close to 70°. The minimum and maximum rotational velocities are used to indirectly derive a mass ratio of q = 0.6 and a radial velocity semi-amplitude of the white dwarf of K1 = 101 +/- 3kms-1. We present an atmospheric temperature indicator, based on the absorption-line ratio of FeI and CrI lines, whose variation indicates that the secondary star varies from K0 to K4 as a function of orbital phase. The ephemeris of the system has been revised, using more than 1000 radial velocity measurements, published over nearly five decades. From the derived radial velocity semi-amplitudes and the estimated inclination angle, we calculate that the masses of the stars are M1 = 0.63 +/- 0.05Msolar M2 = 0.37 +/- 0.04Msolar, and their separation is a = 2.33 +/- 0.02Rsolar. Our analysis indicates the presence of a late-type star whose radius is larger, by a factor of nearly 2, than the radius of a normal main-sequence star of the same mass. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the measured variations in the rotational velocity, temperature and spectral type of the secondary star as functions of orbital phase may, like the radial velocity variations, be attributable to regions of enhanced absorption on the star's surface.

  20. Photometric variability of the Herbig Ae star HD 37806

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, S. M.; Zwintz, K.; Hareter, M.; Pojmański, G.; Kuschnig, R.; Matthews, J. M.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-11-01

    Context. The more massive counterparts of T Tauri stars, the Herbig Ae/Be stars, are known to vary in a complex way with no variability mechanism clearly identified. Aims: We attempt to characterize the optical variability of HD 37806 (MWC 120) on time scales ranging between minutes and several years. Methods: A continuous, one-minute resolution, 21 day-long sequence of MOST (Microvariability & Oscillations of STars) satellite observations has been analyzed using wavelet, scalegram and dispersion analysis tools. The MOST data have been augmented by sparse observations over 9 seasons from ASAS (All Sky Automated Survey), by previously non-analyzed ESO (European Southern Observatory) data partly covering 3 seasons and by archival measurements dating back half a century ago. Results: Mutually superimposed flares or accretion instabilities grow in size from about 0.0003 of the mean flux on a time scale of minutes to a peak-to-peak range of <0.05 on a time scale of a few years. The resulting variability has properties of stochastic “red” noise, whose self-similar characteristics are very similar to those observed in cataclysmic binary stars, but with much longer characteristic time scales of hours to days (rather than minutes) and with amplitudes which appear to cease growing in size on time scales of tens of years. In addition to chaotic brightness variations combined with stochastic noise, the MOST data show a weakly defined cyclic signal with a period of about 1.5 days, which may correspond to the rotation of the star. Based on data from the MOST satellite, a Canadian Space Agency mission jointly operated by Dynacon Inc., the University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies and the University of British Columbia, with the assistance of the University of Vienna, and on data from the All Sky Automated Survey (ASAS) conducted by the Warsaw University Observatory, Warsaw, Poland at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  1. Application of Normal Mode Expansion to AE Waves in Finite Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorman, M. R.; Prosser, W. H.

    1997-01-01

    Breckenridge et al. (1975), Hsu (1985) and Pao (1978) adapted approaches from seismology to calculate the response at the surface of an infinite half-space and an infinite plate. These approaches have found use in calibrating acoustic emission (AE) transducers. However, it is difficult to extend this theoretical approach to AE testing of practical structures. Weaver and Pao (1982) considered a normal mode solution to the Lamb equations. Hutchinson (1983) pointed out the potential relevance of Mindlin's plate theory (1951) to AE. Pao (1982) reviewed Medick s (1961) classical plate theory for a point source, but rejected it as useful for AE and no one seems to have investigated its relevance to AE any further. Herein, a normal mode solution to the classical plate bending equation was investigated for its applicability to AE. The same source-time function chosen by Weaver and Pao is considered. However, arbitrary source and receiver positions are chosen relative to the boundaries of the plate. This is another advantage of the plate theory treatment in addition to its simplicity. The source does not have to be at the center of the plate as in the axisymmetric treatment. The plate is allowed to remain finite and reflections are predicted. The importance of this theory to AE is that it can handle finite plates, realistic boundary conditions, and can be extended to composite materials.

  2. Phylodynamic analysis of the dissemination of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Liao, Huanan; Tee, Kok Keng; Hase, Saiki; Uenishi, Rie; Li, Xiao-Jie; Kusagawa, Shigeru; Thang, Pham Hong; Hien, Nguyen Tran; Pybus, Oliver G; Takebe, Yutaka

    2009-08-15

    To estimate the epidemic history of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Vietnam and adjacent Guangxi, China, we determined near full-length nucleotide sequences of CRF01_AE from a total of 33 specimens collected in 1997-1998 from different geographic regions and risk populations in Vietnam. Phylogenetic and Bayesian molecular clock analyses were performed to estimate the date of origin of CRF01_AE lineages. Our study reconstructs the timescale of CRF01_AE expansion in Vietnam and neighboring regions and suggests that the series of CRF01_AE epidemics in Vietnam arose by the sequential introduction of founder strains into new locations and risk groups. CRF01_AE appears to have been present among heterosexuals in South-Vietnam for more than a decade prior to its epidemic spread in the early 1990s. In the late 1980s, the virus spread to IDUs in Southern Vietnam and subsequently in the mid-1990s to IDUs further north. Our results indicate the northward dissemination of CRF01_AE during this time. PMID:19540543

  3. The clinical utility and specificity of parent report of executive function among children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tanya T; Glass, Leila; Coles, Claire D; Kable, Julie A; May, Philip A; Kalberg, Wendy O; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Jones, Kenneth L; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) result in behavioral issues related to poor executive function (EF). This overlap may hinder clinical identification of alcohol-exposed children. This study examined the relation between parent and neuropsychological measures of EF and whether parent ratings aid in differential diagnosis. Neuropsychological measures of EF, including the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS), were administered to four groups of children (8-16 years): alcohol-exposed with ADHD (AE+, n=80), alcohol-exposed without ADHD (AE-, n=36), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=93), and controls (CON, n=167). Primary caregivers completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). For parent ratings, multivariate analyses of variance revealed main effects of Exposure and ADHD and an interaction between these factors, with significant differences between all groups on nearly all BRIEF scales. For neuropsychological measures, results indicated main effects of Exposure and ADHD, but no interaction. Discriminant function analysis indicated the BRIEF accurately classifies groups. These findings confirm compounded behavioral, but not neuropsychological, effects in the AE+ group over the other clinical groups. Parent-report was not correlated with neuropsychological performance in the clinical groups and may provide unique information about neurobehavior. Parent-report measures are clinically useful in predicting alcohol exposure regardless of ADHD. Results contribute to a neurobehavioral profile of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25033032

  4. Global temperature constraints on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dengue is a disease that has undergone significant expansion over the past hundred years. Understanding what factors limit the distribution of transmission can be used to predict current and future limits to further dengue expansion. While not the only factor, temperature plays an important role in defining these limits. Previous attempts to analyse the effect of temperature on the geographic distribution of dengue have not considered its dynamic intra-annual and diurnal change and its cumulative effects on mosquito and virus populations. Methods Here we expand an existing modelling framework with new temperature-based relationships to model an index proportional to the basic reproductive number of the dengue virus. This model framework is combined with high spatial and temporal resolution global temperature data to model the effects of temperature on Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus persistence and competence for dengue virus transmission. Results Our model predicted areas where temperature is not expected to permit transmission and/or Aedes persistence throughout the year. By reanalysing existing experimental data our analysis indicates that Ae. albopictus, often considered a minor vector of dengue, has comparable rates of virus dissemination to its primary vector, Ae. aegypti, and when the longer lifespan of Ae. albopictus is considered its competence for dengue virus transmission far exceeds that of Ae. aegypti. Conclusions These results can be used to analyse the effects of temperature and other contributing factors on the expansion of dengue or its Aedes vectors. Our finding that Ae. albopictus has a greater capacity for dengue transmission than Ae. aegypti is contrary to current explanations for the comparative rarity of dengue transmission in established Ae. albopictus populations. This suggests that the limited capacity of Ae. albopictus to transmit DENV is more dependent on its ecology than vector competence. The recommendations, which we

  5. Exercise and Environment as an Intervention for Neonatal Alcohol Effects on Hippocampal Adult Neurogenesis and Learning

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, G.F.; Jablonski, S.A.; Schiffino, F.L.; St. Cyr, S.A.; Stanton, M.E.; Klintsova, A.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal alcohol exposure impairs cognition and learning in adulthood and permanently damages the hippocampus. Wheel running (WR) improves hippocampus-associated learning and memory and increases the genesis and survival of newly generated neurons in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. WR significantly increases proliferation of newly generated dentate granule cells in alcohol-exposed (AE) and control rats on Postnatal Day (PD) 42 but only control rats show an increased number of surviving cells thirty days after WR (Helfer et al., 2009b). The present studies examined whether proliferation-promoting WR followed by survival-enhancing environmental complexity (EC) during adolescence could increase survival of new neurons in AE rats. On PD4–9, pups were intubated with alcohol in a binge-like manner (5.25g/kg/day, AE), were sham-intubated (SI), or were reared normally (suckle control, SC). On PD30 animals were assigned to WR (PD30–42) followed by EC (PD42–72; WR/EC) or were socially housed (SH/SH) for the duration of the experiment. All animals were injected with 200 mg/kg BrdU on PD41. In Experiment 1, survival of newly generated cells was significantly enhanced in the AE-WR/EC group in comparison with AE-SH/SH group. Experiment 2A examined trace eyeblink conditioning. In the SH/SH condition, AE impaired trace eyeblink conditioning relative to SI and SC controls. In the WR/EC condition, AE rats performed as well as controls. In Experiment 2B, the same intervention was examined using the context preexposure facilitation effect (CPFE); a hippocampus-dependent variant of contextual fear conditioning. Again, the WR/EC intervention reversed the deficit in conditioned fear to the context that was evident in the SH/SH condition. Post-weaning environmental manipulations promote cell survival and reverse learning deficits in rats that were exposed to alcohol during development. These manipulations may provide a basis for developing interventions that ameliorate learning

  6. Automated Estimating System (AES), Version 5.1, User`s manual. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1992-08-01

    This document describes Version 5.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user though the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  7. Automated Estimating System (AES): Version 6.1: User`s manual. Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1996-03-01

    This document describes Version 6.1 of the Automated Estimating System (AES), a personal computer-based software package. The AES is designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates for the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of Central Engineering Services of Lockheed Martin Energy Systems,Inc. AES provides formatted input screens to guide the user through the estimate creation/update process and provides several standardized reports that allow cost to be sorted and summarized in many different formats and at several levels of aggregation.

  8. Application of TURBO-AE to Flutter Prediction: Aeroelastic Code Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyniak, Daniel; Simons, Todd A.; Stefko, George (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The TURBO-AE program has been evaluated by comparing the obtained results to cascade rig data and to prediction made from various in-house programs. A high-speed fan cascade, a turbine cascade, a turbine cascade and a fan geometry that shower flutter in torsion mode were analyzed. The steady predictions for the high-speed fan cascade showed the TURBO-AE predictions to match in-house codes. However, the predictions did not match the measured blade surface data. Other researchers also reported similar disagreement with these data set. Unsteady runs for the fan configuration were not successful using TURBO-AE .

  9. Cross-correlation analysis of the AE index and the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, C.-I.; Tsurutani, B.; Kawasaki, K.; Akasofu, S.-I.

    1973-01-01

    A cross-correlation study between magnetospheric activity (the AE index) and the southward-directed component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is made for a total of 792 hours (33 days) with a time resolution of about 5.5 min. The peak correlation tends to occur when the interplanetary data are shifted approximately 40 min later with respect to the AE index data. Cross-correlation analysis is conducted on some idealized wave forms to illustrate that this delay between southward turning of the IMF and the AE index should not be interpreted as being the duration of the growth phase.

  10. Alcoholic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Damgaard Sandahl, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute inflammatory syndrome causing significant morbidity and mortality. The prognosis is strongly dependent on disease severity, as assessed by clinical scoring systems. Reliable epidemiological data as well as knowledge of the clinical course of AH are essential for planning and resource allocation within the health care system. Likewise, individual evaluation of risk is desirable in the clinical handling of patients with AH as it can guide treatment, improve patient information, and serve as strata in clinical trials. The present PhD thesis is based on three studies using a cohort of nearly 2000 patients diagnosed with AH in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 as a cohort, in a population-based study design. The aims of this thesis were as follows. (1) To describe the incidence and short- and long-term mortality, of AH in Denmark (Study I). (2) To validate and compare the ability of the currently available prognostic scores to predict mortality in AH (Study II). (3) To investigate the short- and long-term causes of death of patients with AH (Study III). During the study decade, the annual incidence rate in the Danish population rose from 37 to 46 per 106 for men and from 24 to 34 per 106 for women. Both short- and long-term mortality rose for men and women, and the increase in short-term mortality was attributable to increasing patient age and prevalence of cirrhosis. Our evaluation of the most commonly used prognostic scores for predicting the mortality of patients with AH showed that all scores performed similarly, with Area under the Receiver Operator Characteristics curves giving values between 0.74 and 0.78 for 28-day mortality assessed on admission. Our study on causes of death showed that in the short-term (< 84 days after diagnosis), patients with AH were likely to die from liver-related events and infections. In the long-term (≥ 84 days after diagnosis), those who developed cirrhosis mainly died from liver-related causes, and

  11. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; temporary exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food commodities of cotton, cotton; cotton,...

  12. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  13. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  14. 40 CFR 174.530 - Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein... Cry2Ae protein in cotton; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Residues of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2Ae protein in or on the food and feed commodities of cotton; cotton, undelinted seed;...

  15. Polar herbicides, pharmaceutical products, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates in surface and tap waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Wollgast, Jan; Huber, Tania; Hanke, Georg

    2007-02-01

    A survey of contamination of surface and drinking waters around Lake Maggiore in Northern Italy with polar anthropogenic environmental pollutants has been conducted. The target analytes were polar herbicides, pharmaceuticals (including antibiotics), steroid estrogens, perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (including perfluorooctanoate PFOA), nonylphenol and its carboxylates and ethoxylates (NPEO surfactants), and triclosan, a bactericide used in personal-care products. Analysis of water samples was performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) then liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). By extraction of 1-L water samples and concentration of the extract to 100 microL, method detection limits (MDLs) as low as 0.05-0.1 ng L(-1) were achieved for most compounds. Lake-water samples from seven different locations in the Southern part of Lake Maggiore and eleven samples from different tributary rivers and creeks were investigated. Rain water was also analyzed to investigate atmospheric input of the contaminants. Compounds regularly detected at very low concentrations in the lake water included: caffeine (max. concentration 124 ng L(-1)), the herbicides terbutylazine (7 ng L(-1)), atrazine (5 ng L(-1)), simazine (16 ng L(-1)), diuron (11 ng L(-1)), and atrazine-desethyl (11 ng L(-1)), the pharmaceuticals carbamazepine (9 ng L(-1)), sulfamethoxazole (10 ng L(-1)), gemfibrozil (1.7 ng L(-1)), and benzafibrate (1.2 ng L(-1)), the surfactant metabolite nonylphenol (15 ng L(-1)), its carboxylates (NPE(1)C 120 ng L(-1), NPE(2)C 7 ng L(-1), NPE(3)C 15 ng L(-1)) and ethoxylates (NPE( n )Os, n = 3-17; 300 ng L(-1)), perfluorinated surfactants (PFOS 9 ng L(-1), PFOA 3 ng L(-1)), and estrone (0.4 ng L(-1)). Levels of these compounds in drinking water produced from Lake Maggiore were almost identical with those found in the lake itself, revealing the poor performance of sand filtration and chlorination applied by the local

  16. Perillyl Alcohol (Monoterpene Alcohol), Limonene.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Shahla; Kiumarsi, Amir; Moghadam, Adel Rezaei; Alizadeh, Javad; Marzban, Hassan; Ghavami, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have a long history of use in traditional medicines and their activities against different diseases have been the focus of many basic and clinical researches in past few decades. The essential oils, volatile liquid containing aroma compound from plants, are known as active ingredients in the herbal medicine. Perillyl alcohol (POH) is usually available through dietary sources and is being explored for its cancer chemoprevention, tumor growth suppression, and regression. Citrus peels are the waste product of juice manufacturing industries and have been considered as a critical problem for environmental green ecology policies for years. One of the most well-known approaches to overcome this problem is transformation of these monoterpene by the use of specific strains of bacteria or yeasts. Limonene (1-methyl-4-isopropyl-cyclohexene) is a monoterpene, as other monoterpenes consists of two isoprene units, that comprises more than 90% of citrus essential oil and it exists in many fruits and vegetables. Although, the anticancer activity of d-limonene has identified nearly two decades ago, it has recently attracted much more attention in translational medicine. In this chapter, we will overview the anticancer effects of POH and d-limonene. Later, we will address the pharmacokinetics of these compounds, highlight the signaling pathways which are targeted by these proteins, review the clinical trials which have been done for these compounds in different cancer models, and finally discuss the future directions of the research in this field that might be more applicable in future cancer therapy strategies. PMID:27102697

  17. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking - risks ... sleep problems or make them worse Increase the risk of suicide Families are often affected when someone ...

  18. ISO spectroscopy of disks around Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acke, B.; van den Ancker, M. E.

    2004-10-01

    We have investigated the infrared spectra of all 46 Herbig Ae/Be stars for which spectroscopic data are available in the ISO data archive. Our quantitative analysis of these spectra focuses on the emission bands at 3.3, 6.2, ``7.7'', 8.6 and 11.2 micron, linked to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the nanodiamond-related features at 3.4 and 3.5 micron, the amorphous 10 micron silicate band and the crystalline silicate band at 11.3 micron. We have detected PAH emission in 57% of the Herbig stars in our sample. Although for most of these sources the PAH spectra are similar, there are clear examples of differences in the PAH spectra within our sample which can be explained by differences in PAH size, chemistry and/or ionization. Amorphous silicate emission was detected in the spectra of 52% of the sample stars, amorphous silicate absorption in 13%. We have detected crystalline silicate emission in 11 stars (24% of our sample), of which four (9%) also display strong PAH emission. We have classified the sample sources according to the strength of their mid-IR energy distribution. The systems with stronger mid-infared (20-100 μm) excesses relative to their near-infrared (1-5 μm) excess display significantly more PAH emission than those with weaker mid-infrared excesses. There are no pronounced differences in the behaviour of the silicate feature between the two groups. This provides strong observational support for the disk models by \\citet{dullemond01}, in which systems with a flaring disk geometry display a strong mid-infrared excess, whereas those with disks that are strongly shadowed by the puffed-up inner rim of the disk only display modest amounts of mid-infrared emission. Since the silicates are expected to be produced mainly in the warm inner disk regions, no large differences in silicate behaviour are expected between the two groups. In contrast to this, the PAH emission is expected to be produced mainly in the part of the disk atmosphere that is

  19. Characterization of Maize Amylose-extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part II: Structures and Properties of Starch Residues Remaining After Enzymatic Hydrolyis at Boiling-water Temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    GEMS-0067 maize ae-line starch developed by Truman State University and the Germplasm Enhancement of Maize (GEM) Project consisted of 39.4%-43.2% resistant-starch (RS), which was larger than the existing ae-line starches of H99ae, OH43ae, B89ae, and B84ae (11.5%-19.1%) as reported in part I of the s...

  20. Atypical cortical gyrification in adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Migliorini, Robyn; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can adversely affect brain development, although little is known about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on gyrification. Gyrification reflects cortical folding complexity and is a process by which the surface of the brain creates sulci and gyri. Prior studies have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with reduced gyrification in childhood, but no studies have examined adolescents. Subjects (12-16 years) comprised two age-equivalent groups: 30 adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and 19 non-exposed controls (CON). A T1-weighted image was obtained for all participants. Local gyrification index (LGI) was estimated using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to determine between group differences in LGI controlling for age and sex. Age-by-group interactions were also investigated while controlling for sex. The AE group displayed reduced LGI relative to CON in the bilateral superior parietal region, right postcentral region, and left precentral and lateral occipital regions (ps<.001). Significant age-by-group interactions were observed in the right precentral and lateral occipital regions, and in the left pars opercularis and inferior parietal regions (ps<.01). The AE group showed age-related reductions in gyrification in all regions whereas the CON group showed increased gyrification with age in the lateral occipital region only. While cross-sectional, the age-related reduction in gyrification observed in the AE group suggests alterations in cortical development throughout adolescence and provides further insight into the pathophysiology and brain maturation of adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:26275919

  1. Neurologic effects of alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, I; Messing, R O

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism, a worldwide disorder, is the cause of a variety of neurologic disorders. In this article we discuss the cellular pathophysiology of ethanol addition and abuse as well as evidence supporting and refuting the role of inheritance in alcoholism. A genetic marker for alcoholism has not been identified, but neurophysiologic studies may be promising. Some neurologic disorders related to longterm alcoholism are due predominantly to inadequate nutrition (the thiamine deficiency that causes Wernicke's encephalopathy), but others appear to involve the neurotoxicity of ethanol on brain (alcohol withdrawal syndrome and dementia) and peripheral nerves (alcoholic neuropathy and myopathy). Images PMID:7975567

  2. Using a Delphi approach to develop a strategy for A&E in defence nursing.

    PubMed

    Kenward, Gary; Berry, Andy; Despres, Julian; McLeod, Judith

    The Armed Forces has seen an increase in the number of operational deployments overseas and a greater demand for Accident and Emergency (A&E) trained nurses. This article describes a modified Delphi study used to contribute to the development of a strategy for emergency nursing in the Defence Nursing Services. Twenty-eight A&E specialists took part and the key issues raised were recruitment and retention, staff development, new roles, research priorities, increased internal recruitment of A&E nurses to meet operational demands, and the need for a structured career pathway to help retention. The most pressing areas requiring research were evaluation of the nurse practitioner role, clinical competencies and managing heat injuries in the operational setting. The modified Delphi study provided a valuable and detailed insight into the challenges and aspirations of the military A&E nursing cadre and has assisted in developing a strategy for emergency nursing. PMID:17353829

  3. 12. PWD Drawing 10,0005(463AE1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' Mare ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. PWD Drawing 10,000-5(463A-E-1)(1936), 'Electrical Lighting and Power' - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Battery Test Office & Storage Facility, California Avenue & E Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Spectral Characteristics of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data from Laboratory Rock Deformation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J. William; Goodfellow, Sebastian; Reyes-Montes, Juan; Nasseri, Farzine; Young, R. Paul

    2016-04-01

    Continuous acoustic emission (AE) data recorded during rock deformation tests facilitates the monitoring of fracture initiation and propagation due to applied stress changes. Changes in the frequency and energy content of AE waveforms have been previously observed and were associated with microcrack coalescence and the induction or mobilisation of large fractures which are naturally associated with larger amplitude AE events and lower-frequency components. The shift from high to low dominant frequency components during the late stages of the deformation experiment, as the rate of AE events increases and the sample approaches failure, indicates a transition from the micro-cracking to macro-cracking regime, where large cracks generated result in material failure. The objective of this study is to extract information on the fracturing process from the acoustic records around sample failure, where the fast occurrence of AE events does not allow for identification of individual AE events and phase arrivals. Standard AE event processing techniques are not suitable for extracting this information at these stages. Instead the observed changes in the frequency content of the continuous record can be used to characterise and investigate the fracture process at the stage of microcrack coalescence and sample failure. To analyse and characterise these changes, a detailed non-linear and non-stationary time-frequency analysis of the continuous waveform data is required. Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are two of the techniques used in this paper to analyse the acoustic records which provide a high-resolution temporal frequency distribution of the data. In this paper we present the results from our analysis of continuous AE data recorded during a laboratory triaxial deformation experiment using the combined EMD and HSA method.

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  6. Ae Behavior of Smart Stress Memory Patch after Variable Amplitude Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Y.; Nambu, S.; Enoki, M.

    Recently, the structural health monitoring becomes increasingly great important to assure the ease and safety of our life, and it is required significantly to develop non-destructive evaluation for structures such as bridges and tunnels. Some sacrificed specimens have been developed to evaluate the fatigue damage of structures such as fatigue cycles and residual lifetime, but it can be applied only when the stress history is known beforehand. These fatigue sensors need no cable and can be used at low cost in contrast to strain gage. In previous study, a smart stress memory patch was developed as a new fatigue sensor. The patch can measure simultaneously the maximum stress, stress amplitude and the number of fatigue cycles by crack length measurement and Kaiser effect of Acoustic Emission (AE). The crack growth behavior under constant amplitude (CA) loading has been investigated, and AE behavior also has been evaluated only after CA loading. However, AE characteristics after variable amplitude (VA) loading in service are extremely important. Moreover, it is very important to control AE behavior of the smart patch in order to evaluate the applied stress using Kaiser effect. In this study, fatigue test with single overload was investigated to evaluate its influence. Moreover, effect of crack length and heat treatment on AE behavior was also investigated. Finally, AE behavior of the patch was evaluated after fatigue CA loading with overload or VA loading with log-normal distribution and overload.

  7. The structure and organization of the human erythroid anion exchanger (AE1) gene

    SciTech Connect

    Sahr, K.E.; Taylor, W.M.; Daniels, B.P.

    1994-12-01

    The AE1 (anion exchanger, band 3) protein is expressed in erythrocytes and in the A-type intercalated cells of the kidney distal collecting tubule. In both cell types it mediates the electroneutral transport of chloride and bicarbonate ions across the lipid bilayer, and, in erythrocytes, it also serves as the critical attachment site of the peripheral membrane skeleton. We have characterized the human AE1 gene using overlapping clones isolated from a phage library of human genomic DNA. The gene spans {approximately}20 kb and consists of 20 exons separated by 19 introns. The structure of the human AE1 gene corresponds closely with that of the previously characterized mouse AE1 gene, with a high degree of conservation of exon/intron junctions, as well as exon and intron nucleotide sequences. The putative upstream and internal promoter sequences of the human AE1 gene used in erythroid and kidney cells, respectively, are described. We also report the nucleotide sequence of the entire 3{prime} noncoding region of exon 20, which was lacking in the published cDNA sequences. In addition, we have characterized 9 Alu repeat elements found within the body of the human AE1 gene that are members of 4 related subfamilies that appear to have entered the genome at different times during primate evolution. 59 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. AE Geomagnetic Index Predictability for High Speed Solar Wind Streams: A Wavelet Decomposition Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guarnieri, Fernando L.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; Hajra, Rajkumar; Echer, Ezequiel; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    High speed solar wind streams cause geomagnetic activity at Earth. In this study we have applied a wavelet interactive filtering and reconstruction technique on the solar wind magnetic field components and AE index series to allowed us to investigate the relationship between the two. The IMF Bz component was found as the most significant solar wind parameter responsible by the control of the AE activity. Assuming magnetic reconnection associated to southward directed Bz is the main mechanism transferring energy into the magnetosphere, we adjust parameters to forecast the AE index. The adjusted routine is able to forecast AE, based only on the Bz measured at the L1 Lagrangian point. This gives a prediction approximately 30-70 minutes in advance of the actual geomagnetic activity. The correlation coefficient between the observed AE data and the forecasted series reached values higher than 0.90. In some cases the forecast reproduced particularities observed in the signal very well.The high correlation values observed and the high efficacy of the forecasting can be taken as a confirmation that reconnection is the main physical mechanism responsible for the energy transfer during HILDCAAs. The study also shows that the IMF Bz component low frequencies are most important for AE prediction.

  9. Thermomechanical and shape-memory properties of epoxy-based shape-memory polymer using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Mengjin; Yu, Heng; Li, Xiangyuan; Cheng, Jue; Zhang, Junying

    2013-05-01

    A series of epoxy-based shape-memory polymers (SMPs) was prepared by using diglycidyl ether of ethoxylated bisphenol-A containing two oxyethylene units and the curing agents iso-phorone diamine and Jeffamine D230. The thermal properties, dynamic mechanical properties, mechanical properties and shape-memory properties of the epoxy-based SMPs were systematically studied by DSC, DMTA, universal tester and fold-deploy experiments, respectively. The results showed that as the content of D230 increased, the glass transition temperature of the SMPs decreased from 77.5 ± 1.1 to 40 ± 0.7 °C according to DSC, the rubber modulus decreased gradually according to DMTA, and the tensile strength at room temperature (RT) decreased from 58.5 ± 0.3 to 27.0 ± 3.3 MPa according to tensile tests. Tensile tests above RT showed that the tensile stress and elongation at break depended heavily on the experimental temperature, and fold-deploy experiments showed that these SMPs had shape retention ratios higher than 95% and shape recovery ratios close to 100%.

  10. Degradation of chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, two representative textile chemicals, in water by advanced oxidation processes: the state of the art on transformation products and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Karci, Akin

    2014-03-01

    Advanced oxidation processes based on the generation of reactive species including hydroxyl radicals are viable options in eliminating a wide array of refractory organic contaminants in industrial effluents. The assessment of transformation products and toxicity should be, however, the critical point that would allow the overall efficiency of advanced oxidation processes to be better understood and evaluated since some transformation products could have an inhibitory effect on certain organisms. This article reviews the most recent studies on transformation products and toxicity for evaluating advanced oxidation processes in eliminating classes of compounds described as "textile chemicals" from aqueous matrices and poses questions in need of further investigation. The scope of this paper is limited to the scientific studies with two classes of textile chemicals, namely chlorophenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates, whose use in textile industry is a matter of debate due to health risks to humans and harm to the environment. The article also raises the critical question: What is the state of the art knowledge on relationships between transformation products and toxicity? PMID:24216260

  11. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e.,more » P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.« less

  12. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) interacts with human kidney isoform of anion exchanger 1 (kAE1).

    PubMed

    Nuiplot, Nalin-On; Junking, Mutita; Duangtum, Natapol; Khunchai, Sasiprapa; Sawasdee, Nunghathai; Yenchitsomanus, Pa-Thai; Akkarapatumwong, Varaporn

    2015-08-01

    Human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) mediates Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchanges at the basolateral membrane of the acid-secreting α-intercalated cells. Mutations in SLC4A1 gene encoding kAE1 are associated with distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Several studies have shown that impaired trafficking of the mutant kAE1 is an important molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of dRTA. Proteins involved in kAE1 trafficking were identified but the mechanism resulting in dRTA remained unclear. Thus, this study attempted to search for additional proteins interacting with C-terminal of kAE1 (Ct-kAE1) and involved in kAE1 trafficking to cell membrane. Transmembrane protein 139 (TMEM139) was identified as a protein interacting with Ct-kAE1 by yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction between kAE1 and TMEM139 was confirmed by affinity co-purification, co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP)-based protein fragment complementation assay (PCA). In addition, flow cytometry results showed that suppression of endogenous TMEM139 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and over-expression of TMEM139 in HEK293T cells could reduce and increase membrane localization of kAE1, respectively. The presented data demonstrate that TMEM139 interacts with kAE1 and promotes its intracellular trafficking. PMID:26049106

  13. Novel AE1 mutations in recessive distal renal tubular acidosis. Loss-of-function is rescued by glycophorin A.

    PubMed

    Tanphaichitr, V S; Sumboonnanonda, A; Ideguchi, H; Shayakul, C; Brugnara, C; Takao, M; Veerakul, G; Alper, S L

    1998-12-15

    The AE1 gene encodes band 3 Cl-/HCO3- exchangers that are expressed both in the erythrocyte and in the acid-secreting, type A intercalated cells of the kidney. Kidney AE1 contributes to urinary acidification by providing the major exit route for HCO3- across the basolateral membrane. Several AE1 mutations cosegregate with dominantly transmitted nonsyndromic renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). However, the modest degree of in vitro hypofunction exhibited by these dRTA-associated mutations fails to explain the disease phenotype in light of the normal urinary acidification associated with the complete loss-of-function exhibited by AE1 mutations linked to dominant spherocytosis. We report here novel AE1 mutations linked to a recessive syndrome of dRTA and hemolytic anemia in which red cell anion transport is normal. Both affected individuals were triply homozygous for two benign mutations M31T and K56E and for the loss-of-function mutation, G701D. AE1 G701D loss-of-function was accompanied by impaired trafficking to the Xenopus oocyte surface. Coexpression with AE1 G701D of the erythroid AE1 chaperonin, glycophorin A, rescued both AE1-mediated Cl- transport and AE1 surface expression in oocytes. The genetic and functional data both suggest that the homozygous AE1 G701D mutation causes recessively transmitted dRTA in this kindred with apparently normal erythroid anion transport. PMID:9854053

  14. THE ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOL PROBLEMS SCIENCE DATABASE (ETOH)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Alcohol and Alcohol Problems Science Database, commonly referred to as ETOH, is the most comprehensive online resource covering all aspects of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Produced by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), ETOH contains over 110,000 ...

  15. Deciding to quit drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    Alcohol use disorder - quitting drinking; Alcohol abuse - quitting drinking; Quitting drinking; Quitting alcohol ... a drinking problem when your body depends on alcohol to function and your drinking is causing problems ...

  16. Alcohol Use and Older Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Alcohol Use and Older Adults Alcohol and Aging Adults of any age can have ... Escape (Esc) button on your keyboard.) What Is Alcohol? Alcohol, also known as ethanol, is a chemical ...

  17. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heavy drinkers (those who drink more than 2 alcoholic beverages a day) are at greater risk of giving ... the healthier your baby will be. Choose non-alcoholic versions of beverages you like. If you cannot control your drinking, ...

  18. Benzyl Alcohol Topical

    MedlinePlus

    Benzyl alcohol lotion is used to treat head lice (small insects that attach themselves to the skin) in adults and children ... It works by killing the lice. Benzyl alcohol lotion will not kill lice eggs, so the medication ...

  19. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Rethinking Drinking Women and Alcohol Past Issues / Spring 2014 Table of Contents Women react differently than men to alcohol and face higher risks from it. Pound for ...

  20. Alcohol and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Cancer Prevention Overview–for health professionals Research Alcohol and Cancer Risk On This Page What is ... in the risk of colorectal cancer. Research on alcohol consumption and other cancers: Numerous studies have examined ...

  1. Myths about drinking alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000856.htm Myths about drinking alcohol To use the sharing features on this page, ... We know much more about the effects of alcohol today than in the past. Yet, myths remain ...

  2. Alcohol and Migraine

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Alcohol and Migraine Abuse, Maltreatment, and PTSD and Their ... to Migraine Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache Alcohol and Migraine Anxiety and Depression Caffeine and Migraine ...

  3. Alcohol and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... developing some kinds of cancer. The way alcohol causes cancer isn’t completely understood. In fact, there might ... For example, it could be that alcohol itself causes cancer by increasing hormone levels, or it may be ...

  4. Alcohol and pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... group of defects in the baby known as fetal alcohol syndrome. Symptoms can include: Behavior and attention problems Heart ... risk of giving birth to a child with fetal alcohol syndrome . The more you drink, the more you raise ...

  5. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daily life skills, such as feeding and bathing Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most serious type of FASD. People with fetal alcohol syndrome have facial abnormalities, including wide-set and narrow ...

  6. Alcohol Calorie Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alcohol Calorie Calculator Find out the number of beer and hard alcohol calories you are consuming. Simply ... calories) Average Drinks Per Week Monthly Subtotal Calories Beer Regular 12 149 Regular Beer Light 12 110 ...

  7. Alcohol advertising and alcohol consumption by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saffer, Henry; Dave, Dhaval

    2006-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of alcohol advertising on adolescent alcohol consumption. The theory of an industry response function and evidence from prior studies indicate the importance of maximizing the variance in advertising measures. Monitoring the Future (MTF) and National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) data are augmented with alcohol advertising, originating on the market level, for five media. The large sample of the MTF allows estimation of race and gender-specific models. The longitudinal nature of the NLSY97 allows controls for unobserved heterogeneity with state-level and individual fixed effects. Price and advertising effects are generally larger for females relative to males. Controls for individual heterogeneity yield larger advertising effects, implying that the MTF results may understate the effects of alcohol advertising. Results from the NLSY97 suggest that a 28% reduction in alcohol advertising would reduce adolescent monthly alcohol participation from 25% to between 24 and 21%. For binge participation, the reduction would be from 12% to between 11 and 8%. The past month price-participation elasticity is estimated at -0.26, consistent with prior studies. The results show that reduction of alcohol advertising can produce a modest decline in adolescent alcohol consumption, though effects may vary by race and gender. PMID:16475245

  8. In Focus: Alcohol and Alcoholism Audiovisual Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    This guide reviews audiovisual materials currently available on alcohol abuse and alcoholism. An alphabetical index of audiovisual materials is followed by synopses of the indexed materials. Information about the intended audience, price, rental fee, and distributor is included. This guide also provides a list of publications related to media…

  9. Alcohol and motorcycle fatalities.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, S P; Fisher, R S

    1977-01-01

    A series of 99 fatal motorcycle crashes in Maryland was studied retrospectively, using police and medical examiner records. Blood alcohol concentrations were determined for 62 motorcycle drivers; measurable amounts of alcohol were found in two-thirds (41), and one-half (31) had illegally high concentrations of 100 mg/100 ml or more. The police report mentioned alcohol in only 9 instances. High blood alcohol concentrations were found most commonly among drivers age 20-34. PMID:842762

  10. Controlling the phase structures of polymer/surfactant complexes by changing macromolecular architecture and adding n-alcohols.

    PubMed

    Percebom, Ana Maria; Loh, Watson

    2016-03-15

    Phase behavior of complex salts formed by a cationic surfactant and different ethoxylated polyions was investigated in water and with addition of two n-alcohols of different chain lengths: n-butanol and n-decanol. The polyion possesses a main chain of methacrylic acid randomly grafted with oligo(ethylene oxide) chains. Strong electrostatic interaction between the anionic main chain and the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium (C16TA) leads to the formation of C16TAP(MA-MAEO(n)) x:y complex salts. Modifications in polyion structure, such as changes in the proportion of grafted comonomers and in the side chain length caused differences in the overall balance of interactions with water and n-alcohols, altering the complex salt solubility and, consequently, the formed liquid-crystalline structures. The role of n-decanol as a cosurfactant was verified, but the hydrophilic side chains expanded the capacity of the formed liquid crystalline phases to incorporate water. Additionally, a novel structure, probably cubic bicontinuous (Pn3m), was observed coexisting with lamellar phases at low water concentration. Because n-butanol is known for being a good solvent for poly(ethylene oxide), these side chains intensified the role of this short chain n-alcohol as cosolvent for C16TAP(MA-MAEO(n)) x:y complex salts, favoring the formation of disordered solutions, including a bicontinuous microemulsion. PMID:26752433

  11. Alcohol Use among Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Paula; Friedman, Lora

    1987-01-01

    States that adolescents begin to drink alcohol at ever younger ages, partly because they receive mixed messages from the media. Argues that drug prevention groups must project accurate, consistent, and effective messages about alcohol for youth and that schools must provide education about the specific health risks of alcohol beginning in grade…

  12. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cantrell, Leslie A., Comp.

    This document reports on the relationship between alcohol abuse and battering. Several theories, e.g., the disinhibition, disavowal, and learned behavior theories concerning the relationship between alcohol abuse and family violence are discussed. Literature on the relationship between alcohol and family violence is reviewed. Five intervention and…

  13. Biological Vulnerability to Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the role of biological factors in the risk for alcoholism. Notes the importance of the definition of primary alcoholism and highlights data indicating that this disorder is genetically influenced. In studies of men at high risk for the future development of alcoholism, vulnerability shows up in reactions to ethanol brain wave amplitude and…

  14. Television: Alcohol's Vast Adland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    Concern about how much television alcohol advertising reaches underage youth and how the advertising influences their attitudes and decisions about alcohol use has been widespread for many years. Lacking in the policy debate has been solid, reliable information about the extent of youth exposure to television alcohol advertising. To address this…

  15. Alcoholism and Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gedro, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explores the issues involved in the relationship between lesbianism and alcoholism. It examines the constellation of health and related problems created by alcoholism, and it critically interrogates the societal factors that contribute to the disproportionately high rates of alcoholism among lesbians by exploring the antecedents and…

  16. Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Ronald W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents analysis of adult children of alcoholics, their experience and adjustment in relation to the severity and type of alcoholism, age considerations and perceptions as a child, and existence and nature of significant others. Discusses alcoholics' and others' family issues, focusing on roles taken, and personality characteristics. Emphasizes…

  17. Alcohol on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACU-I Bulletin, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol use on campus and strategies colleges are using to educate students about alcohol are considered in two articles. In "When Alternatives Aren't," Ruth Bradford Burnham and Stephen J. Nelson explore the role alcoholic beverages play in young people's social lives and some of the implications for planning social events. They offer a balanced…

  18. Alcoholism's Hidden Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gress, James R.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses children of alcoholics as victims of fetal alcohol syndrome, family violence, retarded social development, and severe emotional scars. These children bring family roles to school that allow survival in the alcoholic home but are dysfunctional outside it. Educators can take certain steps to address these students' problems. Includes six…

  19. Alcohol and the law.

    PubMed

    Karasov, Ariela O; Ostacher, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Society has had an interest in controlling the production, distribution, and use of alcohol for millennia. The use of alcohol has always had consequences, be they positive or negative, and the role of government in the regulation of alcohol is now universal. This is accomplished at several levels, first through controls on production, importation, distribution, and use of alcoholic beverages, and second, through criminal laws, the aim of which is to address the behavior of users themselves. A number of interventions and policies reduce alcohol-related consequences to society by regulating alcohol pricing, targeting alcohol-impaired driving, and limiting alcohol availability. The legal system defines criminal responsibility in the context of alcohol use, as an enormous percentage of violent crime and motor death is associated with alcohol intoxication. In recent years, recovery-oriented policies have aimed to expand social supports for recovery and to improve access to treatment for substance use disorders within the criminal justice system. The Affordable Care Act, also know as "ObamaCare," made substantial changes to access to substance abuse treatment by mandating that health insurance include services for substance use disorders comparable to coverage for medical and surgical treatments. Rather than a simplified "war on drugs" approach, there appears to be an increasing emphasis on evidence-based policy development that approaches alcohol use disorders with hope for treatment and prevention. This chapter focuses on alcohol and the law in the United States. PMID:25307602

  20. Women and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... alcohol, which is found in: »» 12 ounces of beer with 5 percent alcohol content »» 5 ounces of wine with 12 percent alcohol content »» 1.5 ounces ... reflect customary serving sizes. A large cup of beer, an overpoured glass of wine, or a single ...

  1. Alcohol and Minority Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Roosevelt, Jr.; Watts, Thomas D.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that minority youth who use (or abuse) alcohol in American society deal with using alcohol, being minority, and being young, three dimensions viewed by society with mixed, sometimes hostile and/or fearful reactions. Suggests that examining alcoholism among minority youth involves coming to grips with poverty, education, income, and life…

  2. Terpolymers of ethyl acrylate/methacrylic acid/unsaturated acid ester of alcohols and acids as anti-settling agents in coal water slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Savoly, A.; Villa, J.L.; Grinstein, R.H.; Nachfolger, S.J.

    1988-05-17

    This patent describes a pumpable stabilized coal water slurry, having a coal content of at least about 50% by weight wherein at least 80% of the coal particles are about 200 mesh or finer, containing from about 0.01% to about 1% by weight of the slurry of a water soluble terpolymer of ethylacrylate (A), metacrylic acid (B) and a third monomer (C) selected from the group consisting of an unsaturated carboxylic acid ester of an alcohol and an ethoxylated carboxylic acid. The unsaturated carboxylic acid is a mono- or di- basic unsaturated carboxylic acid of 3 to 10 carbon atoms selected from the group consisting of acrylic acid, methacrylic acid, itaconic acid, fumaric acid, and maleic acid.

  3. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices.

    PubMed

    Boeck, Lucas; Soriano, Joan B; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J; de-Torres, Juan P; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R; Tamm, Michael; Stolz, Daiana

    2016-06-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function.The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988).Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer-Lemeshow test all p>0.05).The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  4. Reduced DIDS-sensitive chloride conductance in Ae1-/- mouse erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Alper, Seth L.; Vandorpe, David H.; Peters, Luanne L.; Brugnara, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The resting membrane potential of the human erythrocyte is largely determined by a constitutive Cl- conductance ∼100-fold greater than the resting cation conductance. The 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)-sensitive electroneutral Cl- transport mediated by the human erythroid Cl-/HCO3- exchanger, AE1 (SLC4A1, band 3) is ≥10,000-fold greater than can be accounted for by the Cl- conductance of the red cell. The molecular identities of conductive anion pathways across the red cell membrane remain poorly defined. We have examined red cell Cl- conductance in the Ae1-/- mouse as a genetic test of the hypothesis that Ae1 mediates DIDS-sensitive Cl- conductance in mouse red cells. We report here that wildtype mouse red cell membrane potential resembles that of human red cells in the predominance of its Cl- conductance. We show with four technical approaches that the DIDS-sensitive component of erythroid Cl- conductance is reduced or absent from Ae1-/- red cells. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the Ae1 anion exchanger polypeptide can operate infrequently in a conductive mode. However, the fragile red cell membrane of the Ae1-/- mouse red cell exhibits reduced abundance or loss of multiple polypeptides. Thus, loss of one or more distinct, DIDS-sensitive anion channel polypeptide(s) from the Ae1-/- red cell membrane cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the reduced DIDS-sensitive anion conductance. PMID:18329299

  5. Crustal stress, seismicity, acoustic emission (AE), and tectonics: the Kefallinì;a (Greece) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregori, G. P.; Poscolieri, M.; Paparo, G.; Ventrice, G.; de Simone, S.; Rafanelli, C.

    2009-04-01

    New inferences - confirming previous results (see references)- are presented dealing with a few years Acoustic Emission (AE) records collected at Kefallinìa (Ionian Islands, Greece). A physical distinction between HF (high frequency) vs. LF (low frequency) AE is required. Step-wise changes of the AE underground conductivity are evidenced, and can be suitably handled. "Smooth" results concern (i) the annual variation, (ii) some long-lasting stress "solitons" crossing through the area, and (iii) tidal effects. In particular, every AE station can be operated like a monitoring station both for Earth's tides and for the free oscillations of the Earth. In addition, Kefallinìa exhibits a much peculiar groundwater circulation, in which conduit flow is dominant, that originates a specific (and unique) AE effect. By means of AE time-series analysis, "extreme" or "catastrophic" events can be also monitored and possibly related to relevant tectonic occurrences (either earthquakes, or maybe other occasional phenomena). They can be investigated, and have a regional - rather than local - character. Therefore, every interpretation based on a single station record - being biased by some arbitrariness - can only result indicative. A standardized procedure and software is proposed for routine AE data handling and analysis. References.: Lagios et al., 2004. In Proc. SCI 2004 (The 8th World Multi-Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatic), Orlando, Florida, July 1004, 6 pp. Poscolieri et al., 2006. In. G. Cello and B. D. Malamud, (eds), 2006. Geol. Soc. London, Special Publ., 261, 63-78. Poscolieri et al., 2006a. Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 6, 961-971.

  6. Locating the Accretion Footprint on a Herbig Ae Star: MWC 480

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, C. A.; Hamaguchi, K.; Schneider, G.; Stecklum, B.; Woodgate, B. E.; McCleary, J. E.; Williger, G. M.; Sitko, M. L.; Menard, F.; Henning, Th.; Brittain, S.; Troutmann, M.; Donehew, B.; Hines, D.; Wisniewski, J. P.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.; Rudy, R. J.; Day, A. M.; Shenoy, A.; Wilner, D.; Silverston, M.; Bouret, J.-C.; Clampin, M.; Petre, R.

    2011-01-01

    Accretion is a fundamental process which establishes the dynamics of the protoplanetary disk and the final properties of the forming star. In solar-type stars, the star-disk coupling is determined by the magnetic field structure, which is responsible for funneling material from the disk midplane to higher latitudes on the star. Here, we use pan-chromatic data for the Herbig Ae star MWC 480 to address whether similar processes occur in intermediate-mass stars. MWC 480 has X-ray emission typical of actively accreting Herbig Ae stars, but with 5-9 x more photoelectric absorption than expected from optical and FUV data. We consider 3 sources for the absorption: the disk absorption in a wind or jet, and accretion. While we detect the disk in scattered light in are-analysis of archival HST data. the data are consistent with grazing illumination of the dust disk. We find that MWC 480's disk is stratified, geometrically thin, and is not responsible for the observed photoelectric absorption. MWC 480 drives a bipolar jet, but with a mass loss rate which is low compared to other Herbig Ae stars, where the outflow is more favorably oriented and enhanced photoelectric absorption is not seen. This excludes a jet or wind origin for the enhanced photoelectric absorption. We compare MWC 480's 0 VI emission with other Herbig Ae stars. The distribution of the emission in inclination, and lack of a correlation of profile shape and system inclination excludes equatorially-confined accretion for the FUSE Herbig Ae stars. The photoelectric absorption data further suggest that the accretion footprint on MWC 480 and other Herbig Ae stars is located at high temperate, rather than polar, latitudes. These findings support the presence of funneled accretion in MWC 480 and Herbig Ae stars, strengthening the parallel to T Tauri stars.

  7. Prognostic assessment in COPD without lung function: the B-AE-D indices

    PubMed Central

    Boeck, Lucas; Blasi, Francesco; Kostikas, Konstantinos; Boersma, Wim; Milenkovic, Branislava; Louis, Renaud; Lacoma, Alicia; Djamin, Remco; Aerts, Joachim; Torres, Antoni; Rohde, Gernot; Welte, Tobias; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Rakic, Janko; Scherr, Andreas; Koller, Michael; van der Palen, Job; Marin, Jose M.; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Almagro, Pere; Casanova, Ciro; Esteban, Cristobal; Soler-Cataluña, Juan J.; de-Torres, Juan P.; Miravitlles, Marc; Celli, Bartolome R.; Tamm, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several composite markers have been proposed for risk assessment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, choice of parameters and score complexity restrict clinical applicability. Our aim was to provide and validate a simplified COPD risk index independent of lung function. The PROMISE study (n=530) was used to develop a novel prognostic index. Index performance was assessed regarding 2-year COPD-related mortality and all-cause mortality. External validity was tested in stable and exacerbated COPD patients in the ProCOLD, COCOMICS and COMIC cohorts (total n=2988). Using a mixed clinical and statistical approach, body mass index (B), severe acute exacerbations of COPD frequency (AE), modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea severity (D) and copeptin (C) were identified as the most suitable simplified marker combination. 0, 1 or 2 points were assigned to each parameter and totalled to B-AE-D or B-AE-D-C. It was observed that B-AE-D and B-AE-D-C were at least as good as BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea, exercise capacity), ADO (age, dyspnoea, airflow obstruction) and DOSE (dyspnoea, obstruction, smoking, exacerbation) indices for predicting 2-year all-cause mortality (c-statistic: 0.74, 0.77, 0.69, 0.72 and 0.63, respectively; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). Both indices were COPD specific (c-statistic for predicting COPD-related 2-year mortality: 0.87 and 0.89, respectively). External validation of B-AE-D was performed in COCOMICS and COMIC (c-statistic for 1-year all-cause mortality: 0.68 and 0.74; c-statistic for 2-year all-cause mortality: 0.65 and 0.67; Hosmer–Lemeshow test all p>0.05). The B-AE-D index, plus copeptin if available, allows a simple and accurate assessment of COPD-related risk. PMID:27103389

  8. Alcohol and the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Sheena; Behara, Rama; Swanson, Garth R.; Forsyth, Christopher B.; Voigt, Robin M.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease and can lead to tissue damage and organ dysfunction in a subset of alcoholics. However, a subset of alcoholics without any of these predisposing factors can develop alcohol-mediated organ injury. The gastrointestinal tract (GI) could be an important source of inflammation in alcohol-mediated organ damage. The purpose of review was to evaluate mechanisms of alcohol-induced endotoxemia (including dysbiosis and gut leakiness), and highlight the predisposing factors for alcohol-induced dysbiosis and gut leakiness to endotoxins. Barriers, including immunologic, physical, and biochemical can regulate the passage of toxins into the portal and systemic circulation. In addition, a host of environmental interactions including those influenced by circadian rhythms can impact alcohol-induced organ pathology. There appears to be a role for therapeutic measures to mitigate alcohol-induced organ damage by normalizing intestinal dysbiosis and/or improving intestinal barrier integrity. Ultimately, the inflammatory process that drives progression into organ damage from alcohol appears to be multifactorial. Understanding the role of the intestine in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver disease can pose further avenues for pathogenic and treatment approaches. PMID:26501334

  9. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  10. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Manuela G; French, Samuel W; French, Barbara A; Seitz, Helmut K; Cohen, Lawrence B; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J; McKillop, Iain H; Kirpich, Irina A; McClain, Craig J; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomes, Paul G; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2014-12-01

    This paper is based upon the "Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia" organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its co-morbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human immunodeficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  11. Alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Manuela G.; French, Samuel W.; French, Barbara A.; Seitz, Helmut K.; Cohen, Lawrence B.; Mueller, Sebastian; Osna, Natalia A.; Kharbanda, Kusum K.; Seth, Devanshi; Bautista, Abraham; Thompson, Kyle J.; McKillop, Iain H.; Kirpich, Irina A.; McClain, Craig J.; Bataller, Ramon; Nanau, Radu M.; Voiculescu, Mihai; Opris, Mihai; Shen, Hong; Tillman, Brittany; Li, Jun; Liu, Hui; Thomas, Paul G.; Ganesan, Murali; Malnick, Steve

    2015-01-01

    This paper is based upon the “Charles Lieber Satellite Symposia” organized by Manuela G. Neuman at the Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Annual Meetings, 2013 and 2014. The present review includes pre-clinical, translational and clinical research that characterize alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In addition, a literature search in the discussed area was performed. Strong clinical and experimental evidence lead to recognition of the key toxic role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of ALD. The liver biopsy can confirm the etiology of NASH or alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and assess structural alterations of cells, their organelles, as well as inflammatory activity. Three histological stages of ALD are simple steatosis, ASH, and chronic hepatitis with hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. These latter stages may also be associated with a number of cellular and histological changes, including the presence of Mallory's hyaline, megamitochondria, or perivenular and perisinusoidal fibrosis. Genetic polymorphisms of ethanol metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome p450 (CYP) 2E1 activation may change the severity of ASH and NASH. Alcohol mediated hepatocarcinogenesis, immune response to alcohol in ASH, as well as the role of other risk factors such as its comorbidities with chronic viral hepatitis in the presence or absence of human deficiency virus are discussed. Dysregulation of hepatic methylation, as result of ethanol exposure, in hepatocytes transfected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), illustrates an impaired interferon signaling. The hepatotoxic effects of ethanol undermine the contribution of malnutrition to the liver injury. Dietary interventions such as micro and macronutrients, as well as changes to the microbiota are suggested. The clinical aspects of NASH, as part of metabolic syndrome in the aging population, are offered. The integrative symposia investigate different aspects of alcohol-induced liver damage and possible

  12. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Thakkar, Mahesh M; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2015-06-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used "over the counter" sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to unravel the mechanism of alcohol-induced sleep disruptions. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models. We performed microdialysis, immunohistochemical, pharmacological, sleep deprivation and lesion studies which suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol's action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern of alcohol consumption and disrupts sleep, we examined the effects of binge drinking on sleep-wakefulness. Our results suggest that disrupted sleep homeostasis may be the primary cause of sleep disruption observed following binge drinking. Finally, we have also shown that sleep disruptions observed during acute withdrawal, are caused due to impaired

  13. AE sources of droplet SCC testing in type 304 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiwa, Mitsuharu; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Yamawaki, Hisashi; Ito, Kaita; Enoki, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) and optical video microscope (VMS) monitoring was proposed to investigate the stress corrosion cracking of type 304 stainless steels of work-hardened (WH) and solution heat treatment (ST) specimen caused by a small magnesium-chloride droplet. The crack propagation length could measure clearly under the droplet with coved glass by VMS. The cracks velocities of WH were 3.2-5.2 ×10 μm/ks and it propagated almost continuously. That of ST were 2.1-3.8 ×10 μm/ks and it propagated similar to WH. AE signals were generated at early stage of SCC testing, after that they were generated discontinuously in WH. None of AE signals were detected in ST. The detected AE signals were synchronized with bubbling from pitting and on the crack in a droplet observed by high magnification VMS. With the SEM observations, cracking bottom of pitting and small pitting on the crack were observed at the bubbling position. It could be concluded that the detected AE signals were mainly attributed to the bubbling from the pitting.

  14. Assimilation and implications of AE-9/AP-9 in the design process of JPL missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Soria-Santacruz Pich, M.; Jun, I.

    2015-12-01

    The NASA AE-8/AP-8 has been the standard geospace environment specification for decades. This model describes the energetic particle environment around the Earth and is currently the default model used in the design of space missions at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Moreover, the model plays a critical role in the determination of the shielding and survivability of the satellites orbiting our planet. A recent update supported by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), the AE-9/AP-9 model, was released in September 2012 and included many improvements like increased spatial resolution and the specification of the uncertainty due to instrument errors or space weather variability. A current effort at JPL is in place with the objective of making a decision within the Laboratory on the transition from AE-8/AP-8 to the new AE-9/AP-9. In this study we present the results of this effort, which involves the comparison between both versions of the model for different satellite orbits, the comparison between AE-9/AP-9 and in-situ satellite data from the Van Allen Probes and the OSTM/Jason 2 satellite, and the implications of adopting the new model for spacecraft design in terms of survivability, shielding, single event effects, and spacecraft charging.

  15. MEASURING THE STELLAR ACCRETION RATES OF HERBIG Ae/Be STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Donehew, Brian; Brittain, Sean E-mail: sbritt@clemson.edu

    2011-02-15

    The accretion rate of young stars is a fundamental characteristic of these systems. While accretion onto T Tauri stars has been studied extensively, little work has been done on measuring the accretion rate of their intermediate-mass analogs, the Herbig Ae/Be stars. Measuring the stellar accretion rate of Herbig Ae/Bes is not straightforward both because of the dearth of metal absorption lines available for veiling measurements and the intrinsic brightness of Herbig Ae/Be stars at ultraviolet wavelengths where the brightness of the accretion shock peaks. Alternative approaches to measuring the accretion rate of young stars by measuring the luminosity of proxies such as the Br {gamma} emission line have not been calibrated. A promising approach is the measurement of the veiling of the Balmer discontinuity. We present measurements of this veiling as well as the luminosity of Br {gamma}. We show that the relationship between the luminosity of Br {gamma} and the stellar accretion rate for classical T Tauri stars is consistent with Herbig Ae stars but not Herbig Be stars. We discuss the implications of this finding for understanding the interaction of the star and disk for Herbig Ae/Be stars.

  16. Search for gamma-ray emissions from AE Aquarii with Fermi LAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Rea, Nanda; De Ona Wilhelmi, Emma; Torres, Diego F.; Hou, Xian

    2016-07-01

    AE Aquarii is a cataclysmic variable with the fastest known rotating magnetized white dwarf (P_{spin} = 33.08 s). We report on deep searches for gamma-ray emission and pulsations from AE Aquarii in seven years of Fermi-LAT Pass 8 data. Using different X-ray observations spanning 20 years, we substantially extended the timing ephemeris of AE Aquarii. A spin phase jump was discovered between MJD 55122.5 - 56078.64 by X-ray timing analysis. Using the extended timing ephemeris, we searched for gamma-ray pulsations at the spin period and its first harmonic. No gamma-ray pulsation were detected above 3 sigma significance. Neither steady gamma-ray emission nor gamma-ray variability of AE Aquarii were detected by Fermi-LAT. We impose the most restrictive upper limit on the gamma-ray emission from AE Aquarii to date, as 1.23×10^{-12} erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} in 0.1-300 GeV range providing constrains on models.

  17. Women's alcohol use and alcoholism in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooksoo; Kim, Sungjae

    2008-07-01

    Recently South Korean society has experienced an increase in alcohol use related problems, as well as alcohol use among women. The purpose of this paper is to describe the cultural context of and to summarize the current state of knowledge of women's drinking in South Korea. Subscribing to Confucian principles, traditional Korean society has allowed drinking for men, but not for women. However, as society has changed, contemporary women drink at a younger age and consume larger amounts of alcohol than their prior generations. The current trends suggest an urgent need for research on the etiology and trajectory of women's alcohol use among various populations and the need to develop intervention programs tailored to the specific needs of women. PMID:18649231

  18. Optimization and Simultaneous Determination of Alkyl Phenol Ethoxylates and Brominated Flame Retardants in Water after SPE and Heptafluorobutyric Anhydride Derivatization followed by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Chokwe, Tlou B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O; Sibali, Linda L; Ncube, Esper J

    2012-10-01

    A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was investigated for the simultaneous analysis of two types of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs), i.e., alkylphenol ethoxylates and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), by extraction and derivatization followed by GC-MS. Different solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges (Cleanert PestiCarb, C18, Cleanert-SAX and Florosil), solvents (toluene, tetrahydrofuran, acetone, acetonitrile and ethyl acetate) and bases (NaHCO3, triethylamine and pyridine) were tested and the best chromatographic analysis was achieved by extraction with Strata-X (33 μm, Reverse Phase) cartridge and derivatization with heptafluorobutyric anhydride at 55 °C under Na2CO3 base in hexane. It was observed that APE together with lower substituted PBBs (PBB1, PBB10, PBB18 and PBB49), HBCD and TBBPA can be determined simultaneously under the same GC conditions. This simple and reliable analytical method was applied to determining trace amounts of these compounds from wastewater treatment plant samples. The recoveries of the target compounds from simulated water were above 60 %. The limit of detection ranged from 0.01 to 0.15 μg L(-1) and the limit of quantification ranged from 0.05 to 0.66 μg L(-1). There were no appreciable differences between filtered and unfiltered wastewater samples from Leeuwkil treatment plant although concentration of target analytes in filtered influent was slightly lower than the concentration of target analytes in unfiltered influent water. The concentrations of the target compounds from the wastewater treatment were determined from LOQ upwards. PMID:23864736

  19. Polymer monolith microextraction using poly(butyl methacrylate-co-1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate) monolithic sorbent for determination of phenylurea herbicides in water samples.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shu-Ling; Wu, Yu-Ru; Fuh, Ming-Ren

    2016-01-15

    In this study, recently developed 1,6-hexanediol ethoxylate diacrylate (HEDA)-based polymeric monoliths were utilized as sorbents for efficient extraction of phenylurea herbicides (PUHs) from water samples. The HEDA-based monolithic sorbents were prepared in a fused silica capillary (0.7mm i.d., 4.5-cm long) for polymer monolith microextraction (PMME). The experimental parameters of PMME microextraction including sample loading speed, pH of sample solution, composition of elution solvent, and addition of salt were optimized to efficiently extract PUHs from environmental water samples. The extracted PUHs were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) with UV-photodiode array detection. The extraction recoveries for PUHs-spiked water samples were 91.1-108.1% with relative standard deviations lower than 5%. The linearity range was 0.025-25ngmL(-1) for each PUH and the detection limits of PUHs were estimated at 0.006-0.019ng mL(-1). In addition, good intra-day/inter-day precision (0.1-8.7%/0.2-8.9%) and accuracy (92.0-108.0%/96.5-105.2%) of the proposed method were obtained. The extraction capacity of the monolith-filled capillary was also determined to be approximately 1μg. Moreover, each monolith-filled capillary could be reused up to 8 times without carry-over. According to the European Union regulations, the allowed permissible limit of any single herbicide in drinking water is 0.1ng mL(-1). This permissible level fell in the linear range examined in this study. In addition, the proposed method provided detection limits lower than the allowed permissible level, which demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing the HEDA-based monolithic sorbent to perform PMME for determining contaminants, such as PUHs, in environmental application. PMID:26592596

  20. Development of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for trace analysis of trisiloxane surfactants in the aqueous environment: an alternative strategy for quantification of ethoxylated surfactants.

    PubMed

    Michel, Amandine; Brauch, Heinz-Jürgen; Worch, Eckhard; Lange, Frank T

    2012-07-01

    Trisiloxane surfactants, often referred to as superspreaders or superwetters, are added to pesticides to enhance the activity and the rainfastness of the active substance by promoting rapid spreading over hydrophobic surfaces. To fill the lack of data on the environmental occurrence of these compounds, we have developed and validated a method for their trace analysis in the aqueous environment. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The oligomeric distribution of trisiloxane surfactant in a reference solution was determined by a theoretical calculation and by experimental measurements. Based on these results, the quantification was performed by comparison with a calibration made with a single homologue instead of a mixture of homologues. This approach avoids a time-consuming synthesis of pure homologues and reduces the risk of wrong estimation of the concentration because of different response factors of the sample and the standard. Such an approach could be applied to the quantification of other ethoxylated surfactants following a similar distribution. The validation was performed from 2 to 250 ng/L (total surfactant concentration) in deionized water, tap water, and river water (Rhine water). Knowing the oligomeric distribution of the polymer in the reference solution, the corresponding calibration ranges were estimated for individual homologues. Limits of quantification were found to be between 0.37 ng/L and 15 ng/L. The total recovery of sample preparation was between 77% and 116%. Matrix effects were lower than 10% with river water and the relative standard deviation evaluated over ten identical samples of spiked river water was below 12%. PMID:22658138

  1. Neurobiology of Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcoholism is a debilitating disorder for the individual and very costly for society. A major goal of alcohol research is to understand the neural underpinnings associated with the transition from alcohol use to alcohol dependence. Positive reinforcement is important in the early stages of alcohol use and abuse. Negative reinforcement can be important early in alcohol use by people self-medicating coexisting affective disorders, but its role likely increases following the transition to dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol induces changes in neural circuits that control motivational processes, including arousal, reward, and stress. These changes affect systems utilizing the signaling molecules dopamine, opioid peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid, glutamate, and serotonin, as well as systems modulating the brain’s stress response. These neuroadaptations produce changes in sensitivity to alcohol’s effects following repeated exposure (i.e., sensitization and tolerance) and a withdrawal state following discontinuation of alcohol use. Chronic alcohol exposure also results in persistent neural deficits, some of which may fully recover following extended periods of abstinence. However, the organism remains susceptible to relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. Recent research focusing on brain arousal, reward, and stress systems is accelerating our understanding of the components of alcohol dependence and contributing to the development of new treatment strategies. PMID:19881886

  2. ADOLESCENTS AND ALCOHOL

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2014-01-01

    The high levels of alcohol consumption characteristic of adolescence may be in part biologically based, given that elevated consumption levels are also evident during this developmental transition in other mammalian species as well. Studies conducted using a simple animal model of adolescence in the rat has shown adolescents to be more sensitive than adults to social facilitatory and rewarding effects of alcohol, but less sensitive to numerous alcohol effects that may serve as cues to limit intake. These age-specific alcohol sensitivities appear related to differential rates of development of neural systems underlying different alcohol effects as well as to an ontogenetic decline in rapid brain compensations to alcohol, termed “acute tolerance”. In contrast, these adolescent-typical sensitivities to alcohol do not appear to be notably influenced by pubertally-related increases in gonadal hormones. Although data are sparse, there are hints that similar alcohol sensitivities may also be seen in human adolescents, with this developmentally decreased sensitivity to alcohol’s intoxicating effects possibly exacerbated by genetic vulnerabilities also characterized by an insensitivity to alcohol intoxication, thereby perhaps permitting especially high levels of alcohol consumption among vulnerable youth. PMID:25309054

  3. Synthesis, Crystal and Electronic Structures of the Pnictides AE3TrPn3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga; Pn = P, As)

    SciTech Connect

    Stoyko, Stanislav; Voss, Leonard; He, Hua; Bobev, Svilen

    2015-09-24

    New ternary arsenides AE3TrAs3 (AE = Sr, Ba; Tr = Al, Ga) and their phosphide analogs Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3 have been prepared by reactions of the respective elements at high temperatures. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies reveal that Sr3AlAs3 and Ba3AlAs3 adopt the Ba3AlSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oC56, space group Cmce, Z = 8). This structure is also realized for Sr3GaP3 and Ba3AlP3. Likewise, the compounds Sr3GaAs3 and Ba3GaAs3 crystallize with the Ba3GaSb3-type structure (Pearson symbol oP56, space group Pnma, Z = 8). Both structures are made up of isolated pairs of edge-shared AlPn4 and GaPn4 tetrahedra (Pn = pnictogen, i.e., P or As), separated by the alkaline-earth Sr2+ and Ba2+ cations. In both cases, there are no homoatomic bonds, hence, regardless of the slightly different atomic arrangements, both structures can be rationalized as valence-precise [AE2+]3[Tr3+][Pn3-]3, or rather [AE2+]6[Tr2Pn6]12-, i.e., as Zintl phases.

  4. Neuropharmacology of alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, V; Bilbao, A; Molander, A; Spanagel, R

    2008-05-01

    Despite the generally held view that alcohol is an unspecific pharmacological agent, recent molecular pharmacology studies demonstrated that alcohol has only a few known primary targets. These are the NMDA, GABA(A), glycine, 5-hydroxytryptamine 3 (serotonin) and nicotinic ACh receptors as well as L-type Ca(2+) channels and G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Following this first hit of alcohol on specific targets in the brain, a second wave of indirect effects on a variety of neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems is initiated that leads subsequently to the typical acute behavioural effects of alcohol, ranging from disinhibition to sedation and even hypnosis, with increasing concentrations of alcohol. Besides these acute pharmacodynamic aspects of alcohol, we discuss the neurochemical substrates that are involved in the initiation and maintenance phase of an alcohol drinking behaviour. Finally, addictive behaviour towards alcohol as measured by alcohol-seeking and relapse behaviour is reviewed in the context of specific neurotransmitter/neuropeptide systems and their signalling pathways. The activity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system plays a crucial role during the initiation phase of alcohol consumption. Following long-term, chronic alcohol consumption virtually all brain neurotransmission seems to be affected, making it difficult to define which of the systems contributes the most to the transition from controlled to compulsive alcohol use. However, compulsive alcohol drinking is characterized by a decrease in the function of the reward neurocircuitry and a recruitment of antireward/stress mechanisms comes into place, with a hypertrophic corticotropin-releasing factor system and a hyperfunctional glutamatergic system being the most important ones. PMID:18311194

  5. In situ mapping of the effect of additional mutations on starch granule structure in amylose-extender (ae) maize kernels.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongli; Wellner, Nikolaus; Parker, Mary L; Morris, Victor J; Cheng, Fang

    2015-03-15

    Optical (KI/I2-staining, polarised) and FTIR microscopy has been used to monitor starch granule structure within wild-type (wt), GEMS-0067 and waxy-amylose-extender (wx-ae) maize mutant kernels. In the GEMS-0067 mutant containing the high amylose modifier (HAM) gene(s) plus the recessive ae gene, structural heterogeneity characteristic of the ae mutation was reduced markedly. However, enhanced variation in granule shape and size was observed distributed spatially within the kernel, which appears to be related to new heterogeneity in internal starch granule structure. In wx-ae starch mutants the ae gene led to heterogeneity of starch granule structure equivalent to that in single ae mutants, plus new structural heterogeneity coincident with novel induced variation in granule size and shape. PMID:25542125

  6. Dust emission features in 3-micron spectra of Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooke, T. Y.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Strom, S. E.

    1993-01-01

    Attention is given to low- and medium-resolution spectra in the 3-micron region of 24 Herbig Ae/Be stars obtained in a search for organic features from the dust around young stars. The 3.29-micron emission feature from aromatic hydrocarbons was detected in three objects: Lk H-alpha 25, XY Per, and AS 310. Two other stars, HD 245185 and HK Ori, may have weak features. About 20 percent of the Herbig Ae/Be surveyed to date have firmly detected 3.29-micron features. The available data indicate that the 3.29-micron feature is more extended around Herbig Ae/Be stars of earlier spectral type, possibly due to dehydrogenization or destruction of the aromatics near these stars. It is suggested that the total number of aromatics excited by the stars is also greater around the earlier-type objects.

  7. Winter Refuge for Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes in Hanoi during Winter

    PubMed Central

    Tsunoda, Takashi; Cuong, Tran Chi; Dong, Tran Duc; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Le, Nguyen Hoang; Phong, Tran Vu; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Dengue occurs throughout the year in Hanoi, Vietnam, despite winter low temperatures <10°C. During July 2010 to March 2012, we surveyed monthly for Aedes larvae and pupae in 120 houses in 8 Hanoi districts. Aedes albopictus preferred discarded containers in summer and pupal density drastically decreased in winter. Aedes aegypti preferred concrete tanks and this preference increased in winter. Even in winter, the lowest water temperature found in concrete tanks was >14°C, exceeding the developmental zero point of Ae. aegypti. Although jars, drums and concrete tanks were the dominant containers previously (1994–97) in Hanoi, currently the percentage of residences with concrete tanks was still high while jars and drums were quite low. Our study showed that concrete tanks with broken lids allowing mosquitoes access were important winter refuge for Ae. aegypti. We also indicate a concern about concrete tanks serving as foci for Ae. aegypti to expand their distribution in cooler regions. PMID:24752230

  8. Alcohol Expectancies in Young Adult Sons of Alcoholics and Controls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.; And Others

    Adolescent offspring of alcoholics have been found to have higher alcohol reinforcement expectancies than do teenagers from nonalcoholic families. In particular, those with a positive family history of alcoholism expect more cognitive and motor enhancement with alcohol consumption. This study examined the alcohol expectancies of 58 matched pairs…

  9. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  10. Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Criss, K J; Klintsova, A Y

    2015-08-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1) day(-1)) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC. PMID:25967699

  11. Trends of investigations on atomic analytical emission spectrometry (AES) in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salkauskas, Julius

    2003-11-01

    The main trends, results and methods of the investigations in AES are reviewed. The majority of the papers were devoted to the regularities and processes in electric discharges applied as spectra excitation sources. For this task the methods of plasma diagnostics, computer simulation, Fourier analysis of the noises, fluctuation as well as the correlation methods were developed and applied in AES. Lately much attention was paid to the metrological problems in spectrochemistry and analytical chemistry. At present the methods of inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy are implemented.

  12. Automated Estimating System (AES), Standard Value Update Program, user`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, R.K.; Holder, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    This manual contains instructions for operating the Standard Value Update Program. This program is operated and controlled by selected individuals in the Estimating and Scheduling Engineering Department of the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Engineering Division. It is used to control and standardized input into the Automated Estimating System (AES) Estimating program, a person computer-based software package designed to aid in the creation, updating, and reporting of project cost estimates. The AES Estimating program is documented in a separate user`s manual.

  13. Abscisic acid influx into human nucleated cells occurs through the anion exchanger AE2.

    PubMed

    Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Zocchi, Elena; Fresia, Chiara; Booz, Valeria; Guida, Lucrezia

    2016-06-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is a hormone conserved from cyanobacteria to higher plants, where it regulates responses to environmental stimuli. ABA also plays a role in mammalian physiology, pointedly in inflammatory responses and in glycemic control. As the animal ABA receptor is on the intracellular side of the plasma membrane, a transporter is required for the hormone's action. Here we demonstrate that ABA transport in human nucleated cells occurs via the anion exchanger AE2. Together with the recent demonstration that ABA influx into human erythrocytes occurs via Band 3, this result identifies the AE family members as the mammalian ABA transporters. PMID:27015766

  14. AES-128 Bit Algorithm Using Fully Pipelined Architecture for Secret Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanambika, M.; Adilakshmi, S.; Noorbasha, Fazal

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an efficient method for high speed hardware implementation of AES algorithm is presented. So far, many implementations of AES have been proposed, for various goals that effect the Sub Byte transformation in various ways. These methods of implementation are based on combinational logic and are done in polynomial bases. In the proposed architecture, it is done by using composite field arithmetic in normal bases. In addition, efficient key expansion architecture suitable for 6 sub pipelined round units is also presented. These designs were described using VerilogHDL, simulated using Modelsim.

  15. [Application of ICP-AES to the chemical speciation of heavy metals in flyash].

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu-Wen; Pu, Li-Mei; Qiao, Wei; Wang, Wei; Wan, Xiao; Zhang, Xin-Rong

    2006-08-01

    Chemical speciation of seven heavy metals of flyashes in incinerator was quantitatively tested using ICP-AES. Results showed that ICP-AES procedure could carry out quick, exact and high precision experiments. RSD ratio for most detected metals was lower than 3% while few metals present a comparatively high RSD when whose content was near the detection limits. The recovery ratio was 85.7%-100.63% flyashes were found to have high content of Zn, Pb. Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn existed mostly as carbonates and were leachable, while Cr and Ni were combined to metal oxides substrates and present immobilization characteristics. PMID:17058967

  16. [Accidental methyl alcohol poisoning].

    PubMed

    Xiao, J H

    1990-05-01

    An accidental poisoning due to drinking methyl alcohol in Chaoyang county is reported, analysing the accident. The poison came from the "retail white spirit" which was contaminated with methyl alcohol. Twenty-nine persons drank the wine, fourteen of them died, two of them became blind. After drinking this "retail white spirit" the drinkers showed symptoms of vertigo, headache, weakness, vomiting, night sweat, dyspnea and blurring of vision etc. within 6-120 hours. On examining the remaining spirit, we found the content of methyl alcohol to be between 16.6 and 40.69 g/100 ml. Some of the patients' urine and blood also contained methyl alcohol. We reckoned that each one of the twenty patients had taken more than 27 g of methyl alcohol and each of the ten dead drank more than 40 ml of the alcohol. PMID:2253526

  17. [Upgrade on alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Bordini, L; Riboldi, L

    2010-01-01

    Problematic use of alcohol configures an element of interest in the context of preventive interventions aimed to ensuring the performance of any work in safety conditions. To contrast the acute alcohol abuse in the workplace the existing legislation provides alcoholimeters controls and prohibition of recruitment and administration of alcohol. Recent legislation (D.Lgs. 81/08) establishes health surveillance for alcohol dependence and appears still incomplete and difficult to apply. Clinical diagnostic tools available to the physician for alcohol dependence identification are well-defined and recently improved thanks to new laboratory markers with high sensitivity and specificity (CDT) and self-administered questionnaires. In this contest we are awaiting for legislative action to specify conditions and procedures for inspections in the workplace in order to face the problem of alcohol dependence without excessive bureaucracy and with more attention to preventive aspects. PMID:21438261

  18. Update on Alcoholic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Torok, Natalie J.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholic liver disease is one of the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Alcoholic hepatitis is a severe form of liver injury in patients with alcohol abuse, can present as an acute on chronic liver failure associated with a rapid decline in liver synthetic function, and consequent increase in mortality. Despite therapy, about 30%–50% of patients with severe alcoholic hepatitis eventually die. The pathogenic pathways that lead to the development of alcoholic hepatitis are complex and involve oxidative stress, gut dysbiosis, and dysregulation of the innate and adaptive immune system with injury to the parenchymal cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells. As accepted treatment approaches are currently limited, a better understanding of the pathophysiology would be required to generate new approaches that improve outcomes. This review focuses on recent advances in the diagnosis, pathogenesis of alcoholic hepatitis and novel treatment strategies. PMID:26540078

  19. Alcoholic liver disease: Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Suk, Ki Tae; Kim, Moon Young; Baik, Soon Koo

    2014-01-01

    The excess consumption of alcohol is associated with alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). ALD is a major healthcare problem, personal and social burden, and significant reason for economic loss worldwide. The ALD spectrum includes alcoholic fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The diagnosis of ALD is based on a combination of clinical features, including a history of significant alcohol intake, evidence of liver disease, and laboratory findings. Abstinence is the most important treatment for ALD and the treatment plan varies according to the stage of the disease. Various treatments including abstinence, nutritional therapy, pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy, and surgery are currently available. For severe alcoholic hepatitis, corticosteroid or pentoxifylline are recommended based on the guidelines. In addition, new therapeutic targets are being under investigation. PMID:25278689

  20. Mice with a Targeted Disruption of the Cl−/HCO3− Exchanger AE3 Display a Reduced Seizure Threshold

    PubMed Central

    Hentschke, Moritz; Wiemann, Martin; Hentschke, Suna; Kurth, Ingo; Hermans-Borgmeyer, Irm; Seidenbecher, Thomas; Jentsch, Thomas J.; Gal, Andreas; Hübner, Christian A.

    2006-01-01

    Neuronal activity results in significant pH shifts in neurons, glia, and interstitial space. Several transport mechanisms are involved in the fine-tuning and regulation of extra- and intracellular pH. The sodium-independent electroneutral anion exchangers (AEs) exchange intracellular bicarbonate for extracellular chloride and thereby lower the intracellular pH. Recently, a significant association was found with the variant Ala867Asp of the anion exchanger AE3, which is predominantly expressed in brain and heart, in a large cohort of patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsy. To analyze a possible involvement of AE3 dysfunction in the pathogenesis of seizures, we generated an AE3-knockout mouse model by targeted disruption of Slc4a3. AE3-knockout mice were apparently healthy, and neither displayed gross histological and behavioral abnormalities nor spontaneous seizures or spike wave complexes in electrocorticograms. However, the seizure threshold of AE3-knockout mice exposed to bicuculline, pentylenetetrazole, or pilocarpine was reduced, and seizure-induced mortality was significantly increased compared to wild-type littermates. In the pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampal CA3 region, where AE3 is strongly expressed, disruption of AE3 abolished sodium-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchange. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that AE3 modulates seizure susceptibility and, therefore, are of significance for understanding the role of intracellular pH in epilepsy. PMID:16354689

  1. Gastrin inhibits a novel, pathological colon cancer signaling pathway involving EGR1, AE2 and P-ERK

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ling-Jun; Liu, Rui-Jun; Zeng, Zhi; Alper, Seth L.; Cui, Heng-Jing; Lu, Yang; Zheng, Lin; Yan, Zhao-Wen; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Human anion exchanger 2 (AE2) is a plasma membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH and cell volume. AE2 contributes to transepithelial transport of chloride and bicarbonate in normal colon and other epithelial tissues. We now report that AE2 overexpression in colon cancer cells is correlated with expression of the nuclear proliferation marker, Ki67. Survival analysis of 24 patients with colon cancer in early stage or 33 patients with tubular adenocarcinoma demonstrated that expression of AE2 is correlated with poor prognosis. Cellular and molecular experiments indicated that AE2 expression promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. In addition, we found that transcription factor EGR1 underlies AE2 upregulation, and the AE2 sequester p16INK4a (P16) in the cytoplasm of colon cancer cells. Cytoplasmic P16 enhanced ERK phosphorylation and promoted proliferation of colon cancer cells. Gastrin inhibited proliferation of colon cancer cells by suppressing expression of EGR1 and AE2 and by blocking ERK phosphorylation. Taken together, our data describe a novel EGR1/AE2/P16/P-ERK signaling pathway in colon carcinogenesis, with implications for pathologic prognosis and for novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22228178

  2. [Biological markers of alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Marcos Martín, M; Pastor Encinas, I; Laso Guzmán, F J

    2005-09-01

    Diagnosis of alcoholism is very important, given its high prevalence and possibility of influencing the disease course. For this reason, the so-called biological markers of alcoholism are useful. These are analytic parameters that alter in the presence of excessive alcohol consumption. The two most relevant markers are the gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase and carbohydrate deficient transferrin. With this clinical comment, we aim to contribute to the knowledge of these tests and promote its use in the clinical practice. PMID:16194480

  3. Effects of Idazoxan on Alcohol Pharmacokinetics and Intoxication: A Preliminary Human Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Haass-Koffler, Carolina L.; Leggio, Lorenzo; Davidson, Dena; Swift, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preliminary basic and human studies suggest that the α2-adrenergic antagonist idazoxan may represent a novel medication for alcohol dependence (AD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the co-administration of idazoxan with alcohol and explore whether pharmacokinetics (PK) and biobehavioral (Pharmacodynamics, PD) mechanisms of idazoxan may alter alcohol's effects. Methods This was a preliminary double-blind, single-dose, placebo-controlled, cross-over, randomized human laboratory study. Ten social drinkers were dosed, in two different alcohol challenge sessions (ACS), with a single oral dose of idazoxan (40-mg) or placebo, followed by a fixed alcohol dose 60 minutes later. Participants returned after a one-week wash-out and they were crossed over to the opposite medication condition. Results There were no significant differences in adverse events (AEs) between idazoxan and placebo. Moreover, during the ACS paradigm, 40-mg idazoxan was well tolerated with no significant autonomic effects compared to placebo; idazoxan reduced the peak blood alcohol level (Cmax) (p<.01) and time to peak (tmax) (p<.05) compared to placebo. A PK/PD model aligned the biobehavioral effects, demonstrating that the co-administration of 40-mg idazoxan with alcohol, decreased alcohol-related stimulation (p<.05) and increased alcohol-related sedation (p<.05). Conclusions This study supports the safety and tolerability of 40-mg idazoxan when co-administered with alcohol. Additionally, this study suggests that idazoxan may alter the biphasic effects of alcohol by decreasing stimulation and increasing sedation. These findings have implications for further investigation of using idazoxan as a probe to develop potential novel medications to treat alcoholic patients. PMID:25833022

  4. Attendance at Alcohol-Free and Alcohol-Service Parties and Alcohol Consumption among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jill; Barnett, Nancy P.; Clark, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine attendance at alcohol-service and alcohol-free parties among college students, and to compare alcohol consumption on nights of these parties. Method A random sample of 556 students (38.6% male) completed a web survey that measured past-semester alcohol use, alcohol-service party attendance, alcohol-free party attendance, and alcohol consumed on the nights of recent parties. Results Participants were twice as likely to attend alcohol-service parties as they were to attend alcohol-free parties (90% vs. 44%). First-year students and Black students were more likely than other students to attend alcohol-free parties. Alcohol use was higher in students who attended alcohol-service parties but there were no differences in levels of alcohol use between students who attended alcohol-free parties and those who did not. Pre-gaming was more prevalent, but number of drinks and intoxication were lower on nights of alcohol-free parties than on nights of alcohol-service parties. Conclusions The lack of association between attendance at alcohol-free parties and alcohol use indicates both heavy and light drinkers attend these parties. The lower drinking and intoxication on alcohol-free party nights suggests alcohol-free programming should be investigated to determine if it may reduce alcohol use on college campuses. PMID:20188482

  5. Three Aspects of Alcoholism: The Recovering Alcoholic, Adult Child of an Alcoholic, and Mother of an Alcoholic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briles, Amanda

    This paper focuses on shedding light on three aspects--or faces--of alcoholism. The paper, in an interview format, presents the perspectives of the recovering alcoholic, a mother of the recovering alcoholic, and the adult child of an alcoholic. It also provides brief medical definitions of the various types of alcoholism. The paper points out that…

  6. Tobacco, Alcohol, Drugs, and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... What are fetal alcohol spectrum disorders? • What is fetal alcohol syndrome? • What amounts of alcohol can cause FAS? • Is ... disabilities that can last a lifetime. What is fetal alcohol syndrome? Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is the most severe ...

  7. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  8. Affordability of alcohol and alcohol-related mortality in Belarus.

    PubMed

    Razvodovsky, Yury E

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has numerous adverse health and social consequences. The consumer response to changes in alcohol affordability is an important issue on alcohol policy debates. Studies from many countries have shown an inverse relationship between alcohol prices and alcohol consumption in the population. There are, however, suggestions that increasing the price of alcohol by rising taxes may have limited effect on alcohol-related problems, associated with long-term heavy drinking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between alcohol affordability and alcohol-related mortality rates in post-Soviet Belarus. For this purpose trends in alcohol-related mortality rates (mortality from liver cirrhosis, pancreatitis, alcoholism and alcohol psychoses) and affordability of vodka between 1990 and 2010 were compared. The time series analysis revealed that 1% increase in vodka affordability is associated with an increase in liver cirrhosis mortality of 0,77%, an increase in pancreatitis mortality of 0.53%, an increase in mortality from alcoholism and alcohol psychoses of 0,70%. The major conclusion emerging from this study is that affordability of alcohol is one of the most important predictor of alcohol-related problems in a population. These findings provide additional evidence that decreasing in affordability of alcohol is an effective strategy for reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harm. PMID:23748944

  9. Older Adults and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disorders Publications & Multimedia Brochures & Fact Sheets NIAAA Journal Alcohol Alert Bulletin Professional Education Materials Classroom Resources Presentations & Videocasts Video Bank Publicaciones ...

  10. Alcohol and Sexual Assault

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Zawacki, Tina; Buck, Philip O.; Clinton, A. Monique; McAuslan, Pam

    2015-01-01

    Conservative estimates of sexual assault prevalence suggest that 25 percent of American women have experienced sexual assault, including rape. Approximately one-half of those cases involve alcohol consumption by the perpetrator, victim, or both. Alcohol contributes to sexual assault through multiple pathways, often exacerbating existing risk factors. Beliefs about alcohol’s effects on sexual and aggressive behavior, stereotypes about drinking women, and alcohol’s effects on cognitive and motor skills contribute to alcohol-involved sexual assault. Despite advances in researchers’ understanding of the relationships between alcohol consumption and sexual assault, many questions still need to be addressed in future studies. PMID:11496965

  11. Alcohol disrupts sleep homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Thakkar, Mahesh M.; Sharma, Rishi; Sahota, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol is a potent somnogen and one of the most commonly used “over the counter” sleep aids. In healthy non-alcoholics, acute alcohol decreases sleep latency, consolidates and increases the quality (delta power) and quantity of NREM sleep during the first half of the night. However, sleep is disrupted during the second half. Alcoholics, both during drinking periods and during abstinences, suffer from a multitude of sleep disruptions manifested by profound insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and altered sleep architecture. Furthermore, subjective and objective indicators of sleep disturbances are predictors of relapse. Finally, within the USA, it is estimated that societal costs of alcohol-related sleep disorders exceeds $18 billion. Thus, although alcohol-associated sleep problems have significant economic and clinical consequences, very little is known about how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. In this review, we have described our attempts to understand how and where alcohol acts to affect sleep. We have conducted a series of experiments using two different species, rats and mice, as animal models, and a combination of multi-disciplinary experimental methodologies to examine and understand anatomical and cellular substrates mediating the effects of acute and chronic alcohol exposure on sleep-wakefulness. The results of our studies suggest that the sleep-promoting effects of alcohol may be mediated via alcohol’s action on the mediators of sleep homeostasis: adenosine (AD) and the wake-promoting cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain (BF). Alcohol, via its action on AD uptake, increases extracellular AD resulting in the inhibition of BF wake-promoting neurons. Lesions of the BF cholinergic neurons or blockade of AD A1 receptors results in attenuation of alcohol-induced sleep promotion, suggesting that AD and BF cholinergic neurons are critical for sleep-promoting effects of alcohol. Since binge alcohol consumption is a highly prevalent pattern

  12. Alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Alraiyes, Abdul Hamid; Shaheen, Khaldoon; Alraies, M Chadi

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol abuse has been associated with an increased mortality and morbidity due to increased aspiration, delirium tremens, and seizures. The association of pneumococcal lung infections and leukopenia in the setting of alcohol abuse are rarely reported; however, when present, severe lung infections can happen with severe lung injury and poor response to conventional therapy and ultimately, death. We are reporting a case of 55-year-old-man presented with shortness of breath, cough and altered mental status and eventually found with severe pneumococcal lung infection in the setting of leukopenia and long-term alcohol abuse representing alcoholic leukopenic pneumococcal sepsis syndrome. PMID:23930244

  13. [Doctors' alcohol problems].

    PubMed

    Florkowski, Antoni; Gruszczyński, Wojciech; Gałecki, Piotr; Szubert, Sławomir; Klus, Marek; Zboralski, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    An overusing and an addiction to alcoholic drinks are important problems in a medical society. The studies made in the United States had documented that about 8-12% doctors were addicted to alcohol. In many cases the doctors are able to keep their problem as a secret and their activity is satisfied up to the moment when a decrease is noticed. Some factors--such as a high level of stress--predispose doctors to alcoholic problems especially surgeons. Alcohol problems should be identified as early as possible, and therapy ought to be given as well. There is no reason to hide the problem. PMID:19025048

  14. LC-MS-MS analysis and occurrence of octyl- and nonylphenol, their ethoxylates and their carboxylates in Belgian and Italian textile industry, waste water treatment plant effluents and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Loos, Robert; Hanke, Georg; Umlauf, Gunther; Eisenreich, Steven J

    2007-01-01

    Alkylphenols (APs), alkylphenol ethoxylates (APEOs), ethoxycarboxylate metabolites (APECs) and bisphenol A were determined in surface water using solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by triple-quadrupole LC-MS-MS. APs were separated by LC from APECs using an acetonitrile-water-gradient without the addition of any buffer. Nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (NPECs) interfere in the detection of nonylphenols (NPs) when using an acidic mobile phase, because they produce the same MS-MS fragment ions (219>133 and 147). 4n-NP shows the characteristic transition 219>106; it is well suited as internal standard. Nonylphenol ethoxylates NPE(n)Os (n=1-17) were analysed separately in a second run by positive ionization using an ammonium acetate mobile phase. Textile industry discharges, the corresponding wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and the receiving rivers in Belgium and Italy were analysed. Among the substances investigated, NPE1C and NPE2O exhibited the highest concentrations in the water samples, up to 4.5 microg l(-1) NPE1C in a WWTP effluent and 3.6 microg l(-1) NPE2O in a river. The highest NP levels were found in the receiving rivers (max. 2.5 microg l(-1)). The predicted no-effect concentration (PNEC) for NP of 0.33 microg l(-1) for water species was frequently exceeded in the surface waters investigated, suggesting potential adverse effects to the aquatic environment. PMID:16949635

  15. [Alcohol and myocarditis].

    PubMed

    Wilke, A; Kaiser, A; Ferency, I; Maisch, B

    1996-08-01

    The direct toxic effect of alcohol and its metabolite acetaldehyde has been demonstrated both in laboratory animals and in humans. Alterations in the mitochondrial ultrastructure and the dilatation of the sarcoplasmatic reticulum have been shown after an acute infusion of alcohol in the heart. These changes correlate with decreased mitochondrial function, defects in protein synthesis and the occurrence of arrhythmias. The risk of developing alcoholic cardiomyopathy is related to both the mean daily alcohol intake and the duration of drinking, but there is much individual susceptibility to the toxic effect of alcohol. Most patients, in whom alcoholic cardiomyopathy develops, have been drinking over 80 g/d for more than 5 years. The clinical diagnosis of alcoholic cardiomyopathy reflects the coexistence of global myocardial dysfunction in a heavy drinker in whom no other cause for myocardial disease was found. In studies focussing on alcoholic cardiomyopathy the surprising histologic findings in endomyocardial biopsy in about 30% of all cases was myocarditis with a lymphocytic infiltrate in association with myocyte degeneration or focal necrosis. In myocarditis, the network of microtubules and intermediate filaments is also disrupted by the inflammatory reaction which involves resident cells (myocytes, fibroblasts, endothel cells) and systemic cells (granulocytes, macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes). Changes in the cardiac cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix may affect contractile function, since the cytoskeleton organizes the intra- and intercellular architecture. After all, in patients with alcohol abuse and myocarditis the immune functioning appears to be compromised. Several studies suggest that heavy drinking alters both lymphocyte and granulocyte production and function. Alcohol consumption per se might harm the immune system. Furthermore, the myocardial damage due to alcohol consumption could initiate autoreactive mechanisms comparable to those in viral

  16. Properties of AE indices derived from real-time global simulation and their implications for solar wind-magnetosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, K.; Shimazu, H.; Fujita, S.; Watari, S.; Kunitake, M.; Shinagawa, H.; Tanaka, T.

    2008-03-01

    Real-time magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (S-M-I) coupling system was used to calculate auroral electrojet (AE) indices. This simulation reproduces the magnetic field configurations in the magnetosphere, magnetospheric convection, and field-aligned currents (FACs) using the upstream boundary conditions with the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), solar wind speed, temperature, and proton number density measured by the ACE spacecraft. The electrical potential at 3 RE (Earth radii) from the center of the Earth is mapped on the ionosphere. The ionospheric currents are deduced from Ohm's law to match the divergence of Pedersen and Hall currents from FACs. The AE indices are obtained from the magnetic field perturbation caused by the simulated ionospheric currents. We compared the simulated AE indices for 247 d with the AE indices deduced from the magnetic variations at up to 12 stations located around the auroral latitude. The results show that the simulated AE reproduces the observed AE indices well. Of the 247 d, 64% had cross-correlation coefficients of more than 0.5. We also found that the simulated AE indices do not correlate well with the observed AE indices when the standard deviations of variations in the observed AE indices are less than 100 nT. When variations in the AE indices are small, some of the short-period perturbations of the electromagnetic energy flowing from the solar wind into the magnetosphere is absorbed or filtered in the real S-M-I coupling system by some mechanism that is not included in our MHD simulation and that the resulting fluctuation in the AE indices is damped compared with the simulation.

  17. Alcohol-Related Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... to run events. Please support us. Donate | Volunteer Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Discussion on Inspire Support Community ... Liver > Liver Disease Information > Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Alcohol-Related Liver Disease Explore this section to learn ...

  18. Correlation of laser ablation plasma emission with ICP-AES signal intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, A.J.; Mao, X.L.; Shannon, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Laser ablation offers many favorable characteristics for direct solid sample chemical analysis. However, the technique usually provides poor precision in comparison to solution nebulization. The primary contributor to this imprecision is the irreproducibility of the laser material interaction. This paper describes a technique for monitoring changes in the laser material interaction directly, and using these data to improve inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Simultaneous measurements of the spectral emission intensity in the laser-induced plasma (LIP) and the ICP-AES were made under different power density conditions. The LIP spatial profile and excitation temperature was measured. The data from the LIP show a strong correlation with ICP-AES signal intensity. Both emission signals increase linearly with the laser power density (log-log) and show a change in the slope for different spot sizes and laser powers. These results support the occurrence of two different ablation mechanisms, a less efficient interaction dominating at the higher power densities (> 1 GW/cm2) and a more efficient interaction in the lower power density regimes. The benefits of using simultaneous monitoring of the laser induced plasma for chemical analysis by ICP-AES will be discussed.

  19. AE Monitoring of Microdamages in Bioceramics for Artificial Joints under Simulated Body Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakayama, Shuichi; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Oshima, Toyokatsu; Kobayashi, Satoshi

    Microfracture process of 3mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) for artificial joints was evaluated using the acoustic emission technique. In order to investigate the effects of environment and strain rate on the microfracture process, four point bending tests were carried out in air and physiological saline (P.S.) at various loading rates. From the results of AE behavior, rapid AE increasing point was observed before the final unstable fracture. It was suggested from the previous work that the AE increasing point corresponds to the maincrack formation. The critical stress for maincrack formation, σC, was determined from the bending stress at the AE increasing point. The critical stress as well as bending strength, σB, decreased in physiological saline. In particular, the decrease in critical stress was remarkable. It was then understood that stress corrosion cracking (SCC) by water in physiological saline affected maincrack formation rather than the final fracture. Consequently, it was suggested that the evaluation of σC is essential for the reliability assessment of bioceramics.

  20. Public Health Response to Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus Mosquitoes Invading California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Vicki; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Metzger, Marco; Hu, Renjie; Padgett, Kerry; Vugia, Duc J.

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, primary vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses, were recently detected in California, USA. The threat of potential local transmission of these viruses increases as more infected travelers arrive from affected areas. Public health response has included enhanced human and mosquito surveillance, education, and intensive mosquito control. PMID:26401891

  1. The Impact of Church Affiliation on Language Use in Kwara'ae (Solomon Islands).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann; Gegeo, David Welchman

    1991-01-01

    The impact of church affiliation on language use, identity, and change among Kwara'ae speakers in the Solomon Islands is examined. It was found that members of different sects signal their separate identities not only through linguistic code but also through discourse patterns and nonverbal aspects of communication. (26 references) (JL)

  2. Production and Perception of the English /ae/-/?/ Contrast in Switched-Dominance Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…

  3. Sputter-induced erosion of alkali metal surfaces - AES, XPS and SIMS studies

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper will discuss the manner in which the techniques of Auger-electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray-photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS) may be used to study the use of high secondary-ion-yield surfaces as a means of reducing plasma-impurity influx in magnetic-confinement fusion devices.

  4. Program of Aes Orbit Determination from Measurement Data of Astronomical Station ("orbita - M")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheptoon, A. D.; Kolesnik, S. Ja.; Paltsev, N. G.

    A program is developed of determining AES orbits from measurement data of one or several astronomical stations. Its algorithm is rather stable to small errors of measurements and permits to use data with low accuracy for calculations.The use of several transits data enables to increase presision of orbital semi-major axe determination by nearly 10000 times.

  5. Investigation of Participation in Adult Education in Turkey: AES Data Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dincer, N. Nergiz; Tekin-Koru, Ayca; Askar, Petek

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the determinants of participation in adult education in Turkey. The analysis is conducted using the Adult Education Survey (AES), conducted by TurkStat. The results indicate that economic growth in the sector of employment significantly and positively affects the odds for adult education participation. The data…

  6. Manadodioxans A-E: polyketide endoperoxides from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae.

    PubMed

    Gushiken, Masaki; Kagiyama, Ippei; Kato, Hikaru; Kuwana, Toshiyuki; Losung, Fitje; Mangindaan, Remy E P; de Voogd, Nicole J; Tsukamoto, Sachiko

    2015-10-01

    Five new polyketide endoperoxides, manadodioxans A-E, were isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis bergquistae. Manadodioxan E showed antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli at 10 μg/disk, while its oxo congener, manadodioxan D, was inactive. PMID:26006223

  7. A Scan-Based Attack Based on Discriminators for AES Cryptosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara, Ryuta; Togawa, Nozomu; Yanagisawa, Masao; Ohtsuki, Tatsuo

    A scan chain is one of the most important testing techniques, but it can be used as side-channel attacks against a cryptography LSI. We focus on scan-based attacks, in which scan chains are targeted for side-channel attacks. The conventional scan-based attacks only consider the scan chain composed of only the registers in a cryptography circuit. However, a cryptography LSI usually uses many circuits such as memories, micro processors and other circuits. This means that the conventional attacks cannot be applied to the practical scan chain composed of various types of registers. In this paper, a scan-based attack which enables to decipher the secret key in an AES cryptography LSI composed of an AES circuit and other circuits is proposed. By focusing on bit pattern of the specific register and monitoring its change, our scan-based attack eliminates the influence of registers included in other circuits than AES. Our attack does not depend on scan chain architecture, and it can decipher practical AES cryptography LSIs.

  8. A randomised clinical study to evaluate the efficacy of alcohol-free or alcohol-containing mouthrinses with chlorhexidine on gingival bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Jose, A.; Butler, A.; Payne, D.; Maclure, R.; Rimmer, P.; Bosma, M. L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Gingival bleeding following twice-daily use of 0.2% w/v chlorhexidine digluconate mouthrinse with and without alcohol (0.2% CHX-alcohol; 0.2% CHX-alcohol-free, respectively) and brushing with a standard fluoride toothpaste was compared to brushing alone. Methods Three hundred and nineteen subjects with mild-to-moderate gingivitis (with ≥16 gradable permanent teeth including four molars, bleeding after brushing and ≥20 bleeding sites) completed this randomised, examiner-blinded, parallel-group study. A prophylaxis was performed at baseline. Gingival Severity Index (GSI; primary objective), Gingival Index (GI) and Plaque Index (PI) were assessed at baseline and after 6 weeks of treatment. Adverse events (AEs) were recorded throughout the study. Results Between treatment differences at week 6 demonstrated significantly lower GSI for the 0.2% CHX-alcohol and 0.2% CHX-alcohol-free groups compared to brushing alone (primary endpoint; treatment difference −0.061 [95% CI −0.081, −0.041] and −0.070 [95% CI −0.090, −0.050], respectively; both p <0.0001). There were also significant reductions in GI and PI for the 0.2% CHX-alcohol and 0.2% CHX-alcohol-free groups compared to brushing alone (all p <0.0001). The proportion of subjects reporting ≥1 treatment-related adverse events (TRAEs) was 27.8% (0.2% CHX-alcohol), 24.8% (0.2% CHX-alcohol-free) and 3.7% (brushing alone). Conclusions Chlorhexidine mouthrinse with or without alcohol as an adjunct to brushing with regular fluoride toothpaste significantly reduces bleeding scores, plaque and gingival inflammation compared to brushing alone. TRAEs are characteristic of those associated with the use of chlorhexidine and are similar for both mouthrinses. PMID:26271869

  9. MAGIC search for VHE γ-ray emission from AE Aquarii in a multiwavelength context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Doert, M.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinović, N.; González Muñoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hildebrand, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Coto, R.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nowak, N.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Preziuso, S.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Storz, J.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Zanin, R.

    2014-08-01

    Context. It has been claimed that the nova-like cataclysmic variable AE Aquarii (AE Aqr) is a very-high-energy (VHE, E> 100 GeV) source both on observational and theoretical grounds. Aims: We search for VHE γ-ray emission from AE Aqr during different states of the source at several wavelengths to confirm or rule out previous claims of detection of γ-ray emission from this object. Methods: We report on observations of AE Aqr performed by MAGIC. The source was observed during 12 h as part of a multiwavelength campaign carried out between May and June 2012 covering the optical, X-ray, and γ-ray ranges. Besides MAGIC, the other facilities involved were the KVA, Skinakas, and Vidojevica telescopes in the optical and Swift in X-rays. We calculated integral upper limits coincident with different states of the source in the optical. We computed upper limits to the pulsed emission limiting the signal region to 30% of the phaseogram and we also searched for pulsed emission at different frequencies applying the Rayleigh test. Results: AE Aqr was not detected at VHEs during the multiwavelength campaign. We establish integral upper limits at the 95% confidence level for the steady emission assuming the differential flux proportional to a power-law function dφ/ dE ∝ E- Γ, with a Crab-like photon spectral index of Γ = 2.6. The upper limit above 200 GeV is 6.4 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 and above 1 TeV is 7.4 × 10-13 cm-2 s-1. We obtained an upper limit for the pulsed emission of 2.6 × 10-12 cm-2 s-1 for energies above 200 GeV. Applying the Rayleigh test for pulsed emission at different frequencies we did not find any significant signal. Conclusions: Our results indicate that AE Aqr is not a VHE γ-ray emitter at the level of emission previously claimed. We have established the most constraining upper limits for the VHE γ-ray emission of AE Aqr.

  10. Alcohol and Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraushaar, Kevin W.

    Increased constraints on access to alcohol resulted from the closure of the sole hotels in two "experimental" towns. This afforded a natural experiment to study the effects of the change in availability of alcohol on consumption. Dependent measures were derived from public records of liquor sales by all licensed premises, and from computerized…

  11. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  12. Breath alcohol test

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the tube change colors (from yellow to green), depending on the alcohol content. Carefully read the ... When 1 band is green, it means that the blood-alcohol level is 0.05% or lower. 2 green bands mean levels of 0.05% ...

  13. Alcohol on wheels.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T

    1986-01-01

    Alcohol misuse remains the single most important contributing factor to road accident deaths and injuries in Australia. The results of compulsory blood alcohol tests on road casualties have shown that probationary licensed drivers have a threefold increased risk of road accident injury compared to fully licensed drivers and are additionally over-represented in alcohol-related crashes. These findings led the Victorian Road Trauma Committee to campaign for a zero blood alcohol limit for learner and probationary drivers and motorcyclists. In May 1984, zero blood alcohol legislation was enacted in Victoria. The present legislation applies to learner and first year probationary licence holders. For the first time we have evidence of a moderate reduction in alcohol-related road trauma in Victoria. Between 1977 and 1983 there has been a significant reduction in the proportion of driver casualties admitted to hospital with illegal blood alcohol concentrations and in the number of driver fatalities with blood alcohol concentrations in excess of 0.15 g%. An evaluation of the following recommended drink driver countermeasures is presented: improved driver education, increased penalties, re-education--rehabilitation programmes for convicted drink drivers, interlock devices and an increase in the legal drinking age. PMID:3461765

  14. Occupational therapy in alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rotert, D A

    1989-01-01

    Gorski describes "abstinence plus a full return to biopsychosocial functioning as the indicator of successful recovery," and "relapse ... as the process of becoming dysfunctional in recovery." Occupational therapy supports a biopsychosocial premise in assisting the alcoholic to establish a sober lifestyle for recovery as a part of treatment. Adolph Meyer said, "If the goal of alcoholism treatment is abstinence, then the alcoholic patient must be instructed and guided to organize his time and build up habits of work and leisure which are free of alcohol." In order to attain satisfaction in recovery, the alcoholic must develop a balanced lifestyle. This balanced lifestyle will be for competent role performance in all roles. Sobriety can restore something the alcoholic has lost. The alcoholic can be a contributing member of society; have feelings of self respect; participate in relationships with family, friends, and coworkers; and return to work, social, and leisure environments. Zackon identified lifestyle rehabilitation as the second track of recovery. He also listed the key tasks of secondary recovery as deaddiction, learning new pleasures, social integration, and creating new goals. It is in these key tasks that occupational therapy can provide significant input and feedback to the alcoholic. PMID:2658155

  15. Molecular basis of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Most, Dana; Ferguson, Laura; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Acute alcohol intoxication causes cellular changes in the brain that last for hours, while chronic alcohol use induces widespread neuroadaptations in the nervous system that can last a lifetime. Chronic alcohol use and the progression into dependence involve the remodeling of synapses caused by changes in gene expression produced by alcohol. The progression of alcohol use, abuse, and dependence can be divided into stages, which include intoxication, withdrawal, and craving. Each stage is associated with specific changes in gene expression, cellular function, brain circuits, and ultimately behavior. What are the molecular mechanisms underlying the transition from recreational use (acute) to dependence (chronic)? What cellular adaptations result in drug memory retention, leading to the persistence of addictive behaviors, even after prolonged drug abstinence? Research into the neurobiology of alcoholism aims to answer these questions. This chapter will describe the molecular adaptations caused by alcohol use and dependence, and will outline key neurochemical participants in alcoholism at the molecular level, which are also potential targets for therapy. PMID:25307570

  16. Fetal alcohol syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks ... A baby with fetal alcohol syndrome may have the following symptoms: Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth Decreased muscle ...

  17. The Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umbreit, John; Ostrow, Lisa S.

    1980-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is a pattern of altered growth and morphogenesis found in about half the offspring of severely and chronically alcoholic women who continue drinking throughout their pregnancy. Of children studied, mild to moderate mental retardation was the most common disorder, occurring in 44 percent of the cases. (PHR)

  18. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zerrer, Peggy

    The paper reviews Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), a series of effects seen in children whose mothers drink alcohol to excess during pregnancy. The identification of FAS and its recognition as a major health problem in need of prevention are traced. Characteristics of children with FAS are described and resultant growth retardation, abnormal physical…

  19. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caley, Linda M.; Kramer, Charlotte; Robinson, Luther K.

    2005-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a serious and widespread problem in this country. Positioned within the community with links to children, families, and healthcare systems, school nurses are a critical element in the prevention and treatment of those affected by fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Although most school nurses are familiar…

  20. Alcoholism: A Developmental Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E.; Vanyukov, Michael

    1994-01-01

    Alcoholism etiology is discussed from developmental behavior genetic perspective. Temperament features that appear to be associated with heightened risk for alcoholism are examined. Their interactions with the environment during course of development are considered within epigenetic framework and, as discussed, have ramifications for improving…

  1. Cardiovascular effects of alcohol.

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, D M

    1989-01-01

    The effects of alcohol on the heart include modification of the risk of coronary artery disease, the development of alcoholic cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of conduction disorders, atrial and ventricular dysrhythmias, and an increased risk of hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke, infectious endocarditis, and fetal heart abnormalities. PMID:2686174

  2. Organizing for empowerment: an interview with AES's Roger Sant and Dennis Bakke. Interview by Suzy Wetlaufer.

    PubMed

    Sant, R; Bakke, D

    1999-01-01

    The topic of empowerment is receiving a lot of attention, but how many employees are truly empowered? At the global electricity giant AES Corporation, the answer is all 40,000 of them. In this interview, chairman Roger Sant and CEO Dennis Bakke reflect on their trials and triumphs in creating an exceptional company and explain how their employee-run company works. When they founded AES in 1981, Sant and Bakke set out to create a company where people could have engaging experiences on a daily basis--a company that embodied the principles of fairness, integrity, social responsibility, and fun. Putting those principles into action has created something unique--an ecosystem of real empowerment. What does that system look like? Rather than having a traditional hierarchical chain of command, AES is organized around small teams that are responsible for operations and maintenance. Moreover, AES has eliminated functional departments; there's no corporate marketing division or human resources department. For the system to work, every person must become a well-rounded generalist--a mini-CEO. That, in turn, redefines the jobs of the people at headquarters. Instead of setting strategy and making the "the big decisions," Sant and Bakke act as advisers, guardians of the principles, accountability officers, and chief encouragers. Can other companies successfully adopt the mechanics of such a system? Not unless they first adopt the shared principles that have guided AES since its inception. "Empowerment without values isn't empowerment," says Sant. "It's just technique," adds Bakke. PMID:10345387

  3. Acoustic emission (AE) health monitoring of diaphragm type couplings using neural network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godinez-Azcuaga, Valery F.; Shu, Fong; Finlayson, Richard D.; O'Donnell, Bruce

    2005-05-01

    This paper presents the latest results obtained from Acoustic Emission (AE) monitoring and detection of cracks and/or damage in diaphragm couplings, which are used in some aircraft and engine drive systems. Early detection of mechanical failure in aircraft drive train components is a key safety and economical issue with both military and civil sectors of aviation. One of these components is the diaphragm-type coupling, which has been evaluated as the ideal drive coupling for many application requirements such as high speed, high torque, and non-lubrication. Its flexible axial and angular displacement capabilities have made it indispensable for aircraft drive systems. However, diaphragm-type couplings may develop cracks during their operation. The ability to monitor, detect, identify, and isolate coupling cracks on an operational aircraft system is required in order to provide sufficient advance warning to preclude catastrophic failure. It is known that metallic structures generate characteristic Acoustic Emission (AE) during crack growth/propagation cycles. This phenomenon makes AE very attractive among various monitoring techniques for fault detection in diaphragm-type couplings. However, commercially available systems capable of automatic discrimination between signals from crack growth and normal mechanical noise are not readily available. Positive classification of signals requires experienced personnel and post-test data analysis, which tend to be a time-consuming, laborious, and expensive process. With further development of automated classifiers, AE can become a fully autonomous fault detection technique requiring no human intervention after implementation. AE has the potential to be fully integrated with automated query and response mechanisms for system/process monitoring and control.

  4. [Changing alcohol abuse patterns].

    PubMed

    Batel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    While it has been steadily declining since the 1960s, though at a slower pace over the last 5 years, the average alcohol consumption per capita and per year in France remains one of the highest in Europe. The available general population surveys reveal that the most visible change is the type of alcohol abuse. Two emerging trends have been observed over the last ten years, and seem to be worsening: the transfer from daily drinking to weekend drinking, and the increase in isolated risk-taking related to acute alcoholization associated with more-or-less conscious inebriation episodes. These changes require adapting prevention messages, the development of alcohol risk screening strategies in emergency units and the assessment of therapeutic programs aiming at reducing the risks of alcohol consumption rather than maintaining abstinence. PMID:22288346

  5. Phytotherapy of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Michał; Zovko-Koncić, Marijana; Chrostek, Lech

    2012-02-01

    Alcoholism is a medical, social, and economic problem where treatment methods mostly include difficult and long-lasting psychotherapy and, in some cases, quite controversial pharmacological approaches. A number of medicinal plants and pure natural compounds are reported to have preventive and therapeutic effects on alcoholism and alcohol dependency, but their constituents, efficacy and mechanism of action are mostly unknown so far. Recently, kudzu [Pueraria lobata (Willd.) Ohwi], St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.), danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.), ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Japanese raisin tree (Hovenia dulcis Thunb.), ibogaine (Tabernanthe iboga H. Bn.), evening primrose (Oenothera biennis L.), prickly pear fruit (Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.), purple passionflower (Passiflora incarnata L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.), ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and many others drew the attention of researchers. Can, therefore, drugs of natural origin be helpful in the treatment of alcoholism or in decreasing alcohol consumption? PMID:22474979

  6. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based...

  7. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver Valley, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  8. AE index forecast at different time scales through an ANN algorithm based on L1 IMF and plasma measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallocchia, G.; Amata, E.; Consolini, G.; Marcucci, M. F.; Bertello, I.

    2008-02-01

    The AE index is known to have two main components, one directly driven by the solar wind and the other related to the magnetotail unloading process. As regards the role played by the IMF and solar wind parameters, recently several authors used artificial neural networks (ANN) to forecast AE from solar wind data. Following this track, in this paper we present a study of the AE forecast at different time scales, from 5 min to 1 h, in order to check whether the performance of the ANN prediction varies significantly as a function of the AE time resolution.The study is based on a new ANN Elman network with Bz (in GSM) and Vx as inputs, one hidden layer containing four neurons, four context units and one output neuron. We find that the forecast AE values, during disturbed AE periods, result to be always smaller than the experimental values; on the other hand, the algorithm performance improves as the time scale increases, i.e. the total standard deviation (calculated over a test data set) between the forecast and the Kyoto AE decreases as the averaging time increases. Under the hypothesis that this decrease follows an exponential law, we find that the 1 h scale normalised standard deviation is 0.975, very close to the asymptotic value of 0.95 for an infinite averaging time. We interpret our results in the sense that the unloading component of the AE variations cannot be predicted from IMF and solar wind parameters only.

  9. Characterization of Maize Amylose-Extender (ae) Mutant Starches. Part I: Relationship Between Resistant Starch Contents and Molecular Structures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endosperm starches were isolated from kernels of seven maize amylose-extender (ae) lines. The resistant starch (RS) contents, measured using AOAC method 991.43, showed that three new ae-mutant starch lines developed by the USDA-ARS Germplasm Enhancement (GEM) and Truman State University had larger R...

  10. Production of Mucosally Transmissible SHIV Challenge Stocks from HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 01_AE env Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Tartaglia, Lawrence J.; Chang, Hui-Wen; Lee, Benjamin C.; Abbink, Peter; Ng’ang’a, David; Boyd, Michael; Lavine, Christy L.; Lim, So-Yon; Sanisetty, Srisowmya; Whitney, James B.; Seaman, Michael S.; Rolland, Morgane; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Robb, Merlin L.; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2016-01-01

    Simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge stocks are critical for preclinical testing of vaccines, antibodies, and other interventions aimed to prevent HIV-1. A major unmet need for the field has been the lack of a SHIV challenge stock expressing circulating recombinant form 01_AE (CRF01_AE) env sequences. We therefore sought to develop mucosally transmissible SHIV challenge stocks containing HIV-1 CRF01_AE env derived from acutely HIV-1 infected individuals from Thailand. SHIV-AE6, SHIV-AE6RM, and SHIV-AE16 contained env sequences that were >99% identical to the original HIV-1 isolate and did not require in vivo passaging. These viruses exhibited CCR5 tropism and displayed a tier 2 neutralization phenotype. These challenge stocks efficiently infected rhesus monkeys by the intrarectal route, replicated to high levels during acute infection, and established chronic viremia in a subset of animals. SHIV-AE16 was titrated for use in single, high dose as well as repetitive, low dose intrarectal challenge studies. These SHIV challenge stocks should facilitate the preclinical evaluation of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and other interventions targeted at preventing HIV-1 CRF01_AE infection. PMID:26849216

  11. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  12. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  13. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  14. 42 CFR 84.153 - Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE... APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.153 Airflow resistance test, Type A and Type AE supplied-air respirators; minimum requirements. (a) Airflow resistance will...

  15. Correspondence of parent report and laboratory measures of inattention and hyperactivity in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M; Deweese, Benjamin N; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P; Mattson, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice support a multi-method approach to validating behavioral problems in children. We examined whether parent-reported symptoms of hyperactivity and inattention (using the Disruptive Behavior Disorder Rating Scale) were substantiated by objective laboratory measures [hyperactivity measured by wrist-worn actigraphy (ACT) and inattention assessed using a 20-minute continuous performance task (CPT)] in three age- and demographically-matched groups of school-age children: children with prenatal alcohol exposure (AE), non-exposed children with idiopathic ADHD (ADHD), and controls (CON). Results indicated that the clinical groups (AE, ADHD) had significantly higher parent-reported levels for both domains compared to the CON group, and did not differ from each other. On the laboratory measures, the clinical groups were more inattentive than controls on the CPT, but did not differ from each other. In contrast, the ADHD group had higher objective activity on the ACT than AE and CON, which did not differ from each other. Thus, laboratory measures differentially validated parent reports in a group-dependent manner. Actigraphy substantiated parent-reported hyperactivity for children in the ADHD group but not for children in the AE group, while the CPT validated parent-reported inattention for both clinical groups. Although the majority of children in the AE group met the criteria for ADHD, objective activity levels were not different from controls, indicating that hyperactivity may be a less prominent feature in the AE group. Thus, while there is considerable overlap between the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure and ADHD, differences in behavioral profiles may be clinically useful in differential diagnosis. Further, these data indicate that objective measures should be used to validate parent reports. PMID:24512965

  16. Anterior cingulate cortex surface area relates to behavioral inhibition in adolescents with and without heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Migliorini, Robyn; Moore, Eileen M; Glass, Leila; Infante, M Alejandra; Tapert, Susan F; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with behavioral disinhibition, yet the brain structure correlates of this deficit have not been determined with sufficient detail. We examined the hypothesis that the structure of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) relates to inhibition performance in youth with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n = 32) and non-exposed controls (CON, n = 21). Adolescents (12-17 years) underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging yielding measures of gray matter volume, surface area, and thickness across four ACC subregions. A subset of subjects were administered the NEPSY-II Inhibition subtest. MANCOVA was utilized to test for group differences in ACC and inhibition performance and multiple linear regression was used to probe ACC-inhibition relationships. ACC surface area was significantly smaller in AE, though this effect was primarily driven by reduced right caudal ACC (rcACC). AE also performed significantly worse on inhibition speed but not on inhibition accuracy. Regression analyses with the rcACC revealed a significant group × ACC interaction. A smaller rcACC surface area was associated with slower inhibition completion time for AE but was not significantly associated with inhibition in CON. After accounting for processing speed, smaller rcACC surface area was associated with worse (i.e., slower) inhibition regardless of group. Examining processing speed independently, a decrease in rcACC surface area was associated with faster processing speed for CON but not significantly associated with processing speed in AE. Results support the theory that caudal ACC may monitor reaction time in addition to inhibition and highlight the possibility of delayed ACC neurodevelopment in prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:26025509

  17. The predominant cluster of CRF01_AE circulating among newly diagnosed HIV-1-positive people in Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianjun; Shen, Yuelan; Zhong, Ping; Feng, Yi; Xing, Hui; Jin, Lin; Qin, Yizu; Liu, Aiwen; Miao, Lifeng; Cui, Lili; Su, Bin; Guo, Hongxiong

    2015-09-01

    CRF01_AE, which has led a new epidemic in many provinces in China and has displayed complex characteristics, has now evolved into multiple clusters in China. Some clusters often circulate in specific regions or among specific risk populations in China. To better determine the characteristics of CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province, we analyzed CRF01_AE based on gag and pol sequences. Our results showed that CRF01_AE circulating in Anhui Province was clearly divided into three clusters. Cluster 1 covered 90% of the sequences in all CRF01_AE. Among Cluster 1, the sequences from men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexuals were interwoven. It is suggested that MSM may play a bridge role in transmitting HIV-1 among the different risk groups. PMID:26123125

  18. Realization and optimization of AES algorithm on the TMS320DM6446 based on DaVinci technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Wen-bin; Xiao, Fu-hai

    2013-03-01

    The application of AES algorithm in the digital cinema system avoids video data to be illegal theft or malicious tampering, and solves its security problems. At the same time, in order to meet the requirements of the real-time, scene and transparent encryption of high-speed data streams of audio and video in the information security field, through the in-depth analysis of AES algorithm principle, based on the hardware platform of TMS320DM6446, with the software framework structure of DaVinci, this paper proposes the specific realization methods of AES algorithm in digital video system and its optimization solutions. The test results show digital movies encrypted by AES128 can not play normally, which ensures the security of digital movies. Through the comparison of the performance of AES128 algorithm before optimization and after, the correctness and validity of improved algorithm is verified.

  19. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  20. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes...

  1. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  2. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review... Review Officer, National Institute ] on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health,...

  3. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  4. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  5. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Officer, 5635...

  6. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review...., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes...

  7. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  8. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review....D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  9. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review..., Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  10. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities,...

  11. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis... Extramural Activities, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism,...

  12. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism,...

  13. Alcohol Alert: Link Between Stress and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... people continue to try and deal with its effects by drinking alcohol. Instead of “calming your nerves,” long-term, heavy ... pleasure” systems. Researchers believe this may contribute to alcohol’s reinforcing effects, motivating the drinker to consume higher levels of ...

  14. Loss of the AE3 Anion Exchanger in a Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy Model Causes Rapid Decompensation and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Al Moamen, Nabeel J.; Prasad, Vikram; Bodi, Ilona; Miller, Marian L.; Neiman, Michelle L.; Lasko, Valerie M.; Alper, Seth L.; Wieczorek, David F.; Lorenz, John N.; Shull, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    The AE3 Cl−/HCO3− exchanger is abundantly expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes, where it mediates Cl−-uptake and HCO3−-extrusion. Inhibition of AE3-mediated Cl−/HCO3− exchange has been suggested to protect against cardiac hypertrophy; however, other studies indicate that AE3 might be necessary for optimal cardiac function. To test these hypotheses we crossed AE3-null mice, which appear phenotypically normal, with a hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mouse model carrying a Glu180Gly mutation in α–tropomyosin (TM180). Loss of AE3 had no effect on hypertrophy; however, survival of TM180/AE3 double mutants was sharply reduced compared with TM180 single mutants. Analysis of cardiac performance revealed impaired cardiac function in TM180 and TM180/AE3 mutants. TM180/AE3 double mutants were more severely affected and exhibited little response to β-adrenergic stimulation, a likely consequence of their more rapid progression to heart failure. Increased expression of calmodulin-dependent kinase II and protein phosphatase 1 and differences in methylation and localization of protein phosphatase 2A were observed, but were similar in single and double mutants. Phosphorylation of phospholamban on Ser16 was sharply increased in both single and double mutants relative to wild-type hearts under basal conditions, leading to reduced reserve capacity for β-adrenergic stimulation of phospholamban phosphorylation. Imaging analysis of isolated myocytes revealed reductions in amplitude and decay of Ca2+ transients in both mutants, with greater reductions in TM180/AE3 mutants, consistent with the greater severity of their heart failure phenotype. Thus, in the TM180 cardiomyopathy model, loss of AE3 had no apparent anti-hypertrophic effect and led to more rapid decompensation and heart failure. PMID:21056571

  15. Utilizing Alcohol Expectancies in the Treatment of Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sandra A.

    The heterogeneity of alcoholic populations may be one reason that few specific therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism have been consistently demonstrated to improve treatment outome across studies. To individualize alcoholism treatment, dimensions which are linked to drinking or relapse and along which alcoholics display significant…

  16. Supported metal catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, Stephen; Zhang, He; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-08-21

    Despite extensive studies on hydrogen production via steam reforming of alcohols and sugar alcohols, catalysts typically suffer a variety of issues from poor hydrogen selectivity to rapid deactivation. Here, we summarize recent advances in fundamental understanding of functionality and structure of catalysts for alcohol/sugar alcohol steam reforming, and provide perspectives on further development required to design highly efficient steam reforming catalysts.

  17. Does Alcohol Education Prevent Alcohol Problems?: Need for Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, A. Mitch; Sobell, Mark B.

    1979-01-01

    Examined evidence for the alleged failure of alcohol education to prevent alcohol problems among children and adolescents. Concluded that there is need for investigations of the effectiveness of alcohol education. Recommendations regarding methodological characteristics of an adequate test of effectiveness of alcohol education were presented and…

  18. Alcohol Alert: Alcohol's Damaging Effects on the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Crews, F.T. , and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003. (31) Nixon, ... Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003. (34) Oscar–Berman, ...

  19. Unhealthy Alcohol Use.

    PubMed

    Holt, Stephen; Tetrault, Jeanette

    2016-08-01

    Unhealthy alcohol use is common and routine screening is essential to identify patients and initiate appropriate treatment. At-risk or hazardous drinking is best managed with brief interventions, which can be performed by any provider and are designed to enhance patients' motivations and promote behavioral change. Alcohol withdrawal can be managed, preferably with benzodiazepines, using a symptom-triggered approach. Twelve-step programs and provider-driven behavioral therapies have robust data supporting their effectiveness and patients with alcohol use disorder should be referred for these services. Research now support the use of several FDA-approved medications that aid in promoting abstinence and reducing heavy drinking. PMID:27373607

  20. Alcohol induced liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, K A; McGee, J O

    1984-01-01

    Alcohol induces a variety of changes in the liver: fatty change, hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. The histopathological appearances of these conditions are discussed, with special attention to differential diagnosis. Many forms of alcoholic liver disease are associated with Mallory body formation and fibrosis. Mallory bodies are formed, at least in part, from intermediate filaments. Associated changes in intermediate filament organisation in alcoholic liver disease also occur. Their significance in the pathogenesis of hepatocyte death may be related to abnormalities in messenger RNA function. The mechanisms underlying hepatic fibrogenesis are also discussed. Images PMID:6086722