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Sample records for alcohol exposure leads

  1. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed Central

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-01-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility. PMID:1390270

  2. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    PubMed

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-09-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility.

  3. Developmental alcohol exposure leads to a persistent change on astrocyte secretome.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Pablo; Hampton, Brian; Manhães, Alex C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-06-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder is the most common cause of mental disabilities in the western world. It has been quite established that acute alcohol exposure can dramatically affect astrocyte function. Because the effects of early alcohol exposure on cell physiology can persist into adulthood, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol exposure in ferrets during a period equivalent to the last months of human gestation leads to persistent changes in astrocyte secretome in vitro. Animals were treated with ethanol (3.5 g/kg) or saline between postnatal day (P)10-30. At P31, astrocyte cultures were made and cells were submitted to stable isotope labeling by amino acids. Twenty-four hour conditioned media of cells obtained from ethanol- or saline-treated animals (ET-CM or SAL-CM) were collected and analyzed by quantitative mass spectrometry in tandem with liquid chromatography. Here, we show that 65 out of 280 quantifiable proteins displayed significant differences comparing ET-CM to SAL-CM. Among the 59 proteins that were found to be reduced in ET-CM we observed components of the extracellular matrix such as laminin subunits α2, α4, β1, β2, and γ1 and the proteoglycans biglycan, heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2, and lumican. Proteins with trophic function such as insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4, pigment epithelium-derived factor, and clusterin as well as proteins involved on modulation of proteolysis such as metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were also reduced. In contrast, pro-synaptogeneic proteins like thrombospondin-1, hevin as well as the modulator of extracelular matrix expression, angiotensinogen, were found increased in ET-CM. The analysis of interactome maps through ingenuity pathway analysis demonstrated that the amyloid beta A4 protein precursor, which was found reduced in ET-CM, was previously shown to interact with ten other proteins that exhibited significant changes in the ET-CM. Taken together our results

  4. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  5. Alcohol exposure leads to unrecoverable cardiovascular defects along with edema and motor function changes in developing zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Gao, Aiai; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Man; Peng, Jun; Yan, Huaying; Zhao, Xin; Feng, Xizeng; Chen, Dongyan

    2016-01-01

    Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy can cause a series of developmental disorders in the fetus called FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome). In the present study we exposed zebrafish embryos to 1% and 2% alcohol and observed the morphology of heart and blood vessels during and after exposure to investigate motor function alterations, and damage and recovery to the cardiovascular system. The results showed that alcohol exposure could induce heart deformation, slower heart rate, and incomplete blood vessels and pericardium. After stopping exposure, larvae exposed to 1% alcohol could recover only in heart morphology, but larvae in 2% alcohol could not recover either morphology or function of cardiovascular system. The edema-like characteristics in the 2% alcohol group became more conspicuous afterwards, with destruction in the dorsal aorta, coarctation in segmental arteries and a decrease in motor function, implying more serious unrecoverable cardiovascular defects in the 2% group. The damaged blood vessels in the 2% alcohol group resulted in an alteration in permeability and a decrease of blood volume, which were the causes of edema in pathology. These findings contribute towards a better understanding of ethanol-induced cardiovascular abnormalities and co-syndrome in patients with FAS, and warns against excessive maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. PMID:27422904

  6. Exposure to Alcohol Advertisements and Teenage Alcohol-Related Problems

    PubMed Central

    Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study used prospective data to test the hypothesis that exposure to alcohol advertising contributes to an increase in underage drinking and that an increase in underage drinking then leads to problems associated with drinking alcohol. METHODS: A total of 3890 students were surveyed once per year across 4 years from the 7th through the 10th grades. Assessments included several measures of exposure to alcohol advertising, alcohol use, problems related to alcohol use, and a range of covariates, such as age, drinking by peers, drinking by close adults, playing sports, general TV watching, acculturation, parents’ jobs, and parents’ education. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling of alcohol consumption showed that exposure to alcohol ads and/or liking of those ads in seventh grade were predictive of the latent growth factors for alcohol use (past 30 days and past 6 months) after controlling for covariates. In addition, there was a significant total effect for boys and a significant mediated effect for girls of exposure to alcohol ads and liking of those ads in 7th grade through latent growth factors for alcohol use on alcohol-related problems in 10th grade. CONCLUSIONS: Younger adolescents appear to be susceptible to the persuasive messages contained in alcohol commercials broadcast on TV, which sometimes results in a positive affective reaction to the ads. Alcohol ad exposure and the affective reaction to those ads influence some youth to drink more and experience drinking-related problems later in adolescence. PMID:23359585

  7. Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... childhood and last a lifetime. The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments ... these individuals. Risk Factors 9 The severity of alcohol’s effects on a fetus primarily depends on the following: » ...

  8. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  9. Exposures to lead.

    PubMed

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  10. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Decreases 53BP1 Protein Levels Leading to a Defective DNA Repair in Cultured Primary Cortical Neurons.

    PubMed

    Romero, Ana M; Palanca, Ana; Ruiz-Soto, Maria; Llorca, Javier; Marín, María P; Renau-Piqueras, Jaime; Berciano, Maria T; Lafarga, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption may cause neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Alcohol neurotoxicity is associated with the production of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen species that induce oxidative DNA damage. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ethanol disturbs the DNA damage response (DDR), resulting in a defective DNA repair, remain unknown. Here, we have used cultured primary cortical neurons exposed to 50 or 100 mM ethanol for 7 days to analyze the ethanol-induced DDR. Ethanol exposure produced a dose-dependent generation of double strand breaks and the formation of DNA damage foci immunoreactive for the histone γH2AX, a DNA damage marker, and for the ubiquitylated H2A, which is involved in chromatin remodeling at DNA damage sites. Importantly, these DNA damage foci failed to recruit the protein 53BP1, a crucial DNA repair factor. This effect was associated with a drop in 53BP1 mRNA and protein levels and with an inhibition of global transcription. Moreover, ethanol-exposed neurons treated with ionizing radiation (2 Gy) also failed to recruit 53BP1 at DNA damage foci and exhibited a greater vulnerability to DNA lesions than irradiated control neurons. Our results support that defective DNA repair, mediated by the deficient expression and recruitment of 53BP1 to DNA damage sites, represents a novel mechanism involved in ethanol neurotoxicity. The design of therapeutic strategies that increase or stabilize 53BP1 levels might potentially promote DNA repair and partially compensate alcohol neurotoxicity.

  11. Potential lead exposures from lead crystal decanters.

    PubMed Central

    Appel, B R; Kahlon, J K; Ferguson, J; Quattrone, A J; Book, S A

    1992-01-01

    We measured the concentrations of lead leached into 4% acetic acid, white port, and a synthetic alcoholic beverage that were stored in lead crystal decanters for 1-, 2-, and 10-day periods at room temperature. In decanters from 14 different manufacturers, measured lead concentrations ranged from 100 to 1800 micrograms/L. The pH of the leaching medium is probably the dominant factor determining the extent of lead leached, with greater leaching occurring at lower pH values. The consumption of alcoholic beverages stored in lead crystal decanters is judged to pose a hazard. PMID:1456345

  12. Fetal alcohol exposure: consequences, diagnosis, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Pruett, Dawn; Waterman, Emily Hubbard; Caughey, Aaron B

    2013-01-01

    Maternal alcohol use during pregnancy is prevalent, with as many as 12% of pregnant women consuming alcohol. Alcohol intake may vary from an occasional drink, to weekly binge drinking, to chronic alcohol use throughout pregnancy. Whereas there are certain known consequences from fetal alcohol exposure, such as fetal alcohol syndrome, other effects are less well defined. Craniofacial dysmorphologies, abnormalities of organ systems, behavioral and intellectual deficits, and fetal death have all been attributed to maternal alcohol consumption. This review article considers the theoretical mechanisms of how alcohol affects the fetus, including the variable susceptibility to fetal alcohol exposure and the implications of ethanol dose and timing of exposure. Criteria for diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome are discussed, as well as new methods for early detection of maternal alcohol use and fetal alcohol exposure, such as the use of fatty acid ethyl esters. Finally, current and novel treatment strategies, both in utero and post utero, are reviewed.

  13. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline, and the accompanying decrease in lead emissions, resulted in a dramatic decline in mean blood lead levels from the late 1970s through the early 1990s. Nonetheless, lead exposures remain a public health concern. Long-term exposures to even low...

  14. Fetal lead exposure: antenatal factors

    SciTech Connect

    Ernhart, C.B.; Wolf, A.W.; Sokol, R.J.; Brittenham, G.M.; Erhard, P.

    1985-10-01

    It was hypothesized that maternal blood lead level at delivery and cord blood lead level of the neonate would be affected by maternal use of alcohol, history of alcohol abuse, and smoking. The possibility that iron status, as reflected in maternal serum ferritin, would be related to lead level was also explored. The maternal history of alcohol abuse was unrelated to lead level in 208 samples of maternal blood and 178 samples of cord blood. However, alcohol use during pregnancy was related in a dose-response fashion to maternal and to cord blood lead level. This effect was significant with and without control of maternal smoking. The effect of maternal smoking and serum thiocyanate on maternal and cord blood lead level were also highly significant with and without control of the maternal drinking variable. Serum ferritin was marginally related to lead level for white women and for black infants, but tests of the dichotomized maternal ferritin variable did not yield a significant linkage with maternal or cord blood lead level. The results further support recommendations that women abstain from alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking in pregnancy.

  15. International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1993-01-01

    Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8247415

  16. Lead Exposure and Child Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarillo, William G.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Provides evidence of detrimental effects of lead exposure on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. Behavior and lead-blood level were examined for 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. A standardized parent report measure and consideration of maternal morale are features of study methodology. (SLD)

  17. Psychiatric Conditions Associated with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary J.; Paley, Blair

    2009-01-01

    Since the identification of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) over 35 years ago, mounting evidence about the impact of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy has prompted increased attention to the link between prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and a constellation of developmental disabilities that are characterized by physical, cognitive, and…

  18. Human lead exposure: Some recent research findings

    SciTech Connect

    Saryan, L.A.

    1999-09-01

    One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.

  19. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Selectively Enhances Young Adult Perceived Pleasantness of Alcohol Odors

    PubMed Central

    Hannigan, John H.; Chiodo, Lisa M.; Sokol, Robert J.; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal Alcohol Exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., “pleasantness”) to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  20. Prenatal alcohol exposure selectively enhances young adult perceived pleasantness of alcohol odors.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, John H; Chiodo, Lisa M; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) can lead to life-long neurobehavioral and social problems that can include a greater likelihood of early use and/or abuse of alcohol compared to older teens and young adults without PAE. Basic research in animals demonstrates that PAE influences later postnatal responses to chemosensory cues (i.e., odor & taste) associated with alcohol. We hypothesized that PAE would be related to poorer abilities to identify odors of alcohol-containing beverages, and would alter perceived alcohol odor intensity and pleasantness. To address this hypothesis we examined responses to alcohol and other odors in a small sample of young adults with detailed prenatal histories of exposure to alcohol and other drugs. The key finding from our controlled analyses is that higher levels of PAE were related to higher relative ratings of pleasantness for alcohol odors. As far as we are aware, this is the first published study to report the influence of PAE on responses to alcohol beverage odors in young adults. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that positive associations (i.e., "pleasantness") to the chemosensory properties of alcohol (i.e., odor) are acquired prenatally and are retained for many years despite myriad interceding postnatal experiences. Alternate hypotheses may also be supported by the results. There are potential implications of altered alcohol odor responses for understanding individual differences in initiation of drinking, and alcohol seeking and high-risk alcohol-related behaviors in young adults. PMID:25600468

  1. Lead exposure and child behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Sciarillo, W G; Alexander, G; Farrell, K P

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Unlike cognitive impairments associated with lead exposure, lead-associated child behavior problems have been difficult to specify, particularly in young children. METHODS. The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale were used as the outcome and confounding variables, respectively, of major interest. These measures were examined with respect to blood lead levels of 201 African-American children aged 2 through 5 years. RESULTS. In comparison with the low exposed group, the high exposed group (two consecutive blood lead levels greater than or equal to 15 micrograms/dL) had a significantly higher mean CBCL Total Behavior Problem Score (TBPS) and Internalizing and Externalizing scores; when other factors, including maternal depressive symptomatology, were controlled for, regression procedures indicated a .18-point TBPS increase for each unit increase in lead and a 5.1-point higher TBPS in the high exposed group; children in this group were 2.7 times more likely to have a TBPS in the clinical range. CONCLUSIONS. Through its use of a standardized parent-report measure of behavior and its consideration of maternal morale in multiple linear and logistic regression procedures, this study provides further evidence of lead's detrimental effect on child behavior at levels typical of present-day exposure. PMID:1415859

  2. Chronic alcohol exposure renders epithelial cells vulnerable to bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Wood, Stephen; Pithadia, Ravi; Rehman, Tooba; Zhang, Lijuan; Plichta, Jennifer; Radek, Katherine A; Forsyth, Christopher; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shafikhani, Sasha H

    2013-01-01

    Despite two centuries of reports linking alcohol consumption with enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections and in particular gut-derived bacteria, there have been no studies or model systems to assess the impact of long-term alcohol exposure on the ability of the epithelial barrier to withstand bacterial infection. It is well established that acute alcohol exposure leads to reduction in tight and adherens junctions, which in turn leads to increases in epithelial cellular permeability to bacterial products, leading to endotoxemia and a variety of deleterious effects in both rodents and human. We hypothesized that reduced fortification at junctional structures should also reduce the epithelial barrier's capacity to maintain its integrity in the face of bacterial challenge thus rendering epithelial cells more vulnerable to infection. In this study, we established a cell-culture based model system for long-term alcohol exposure to assess the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the ability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells to withstand infection when facing pathogenic bacteria under the intact or wounded conditions. We report that daily treatment with 0.2% ethanol for two months rendered Caco-2 cells far more susceptible to wound damage and cytotoxicity caused by most but not all bacterial pathogens tested in our studies. Consistent with acute alcohol exposure, long-term ethanol exposure also adversely impacted tight junction structures, but in contrast, it did not affect the adherens junction. Finally, alcohol-treated cells partially regained their ability to withstand infection when ethanol treatment was ceased for two weeks, indicating that alcohol's deleterious effects on cells may be reversible. PMID:23358457

  3. Chronic Alcohol Exposure Renders Epithelial Cells Vulnerable to Bacterial Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Stephen; Pithadia, Ravi; Rehman, Tooba; Zhang, Lijuan; Plichta, Jennifer; Radek, Katherine A.; Forsyth, Christopher; Keshavarzian, Ali; Shafikhani, Sasha H.

    2013-01-01

    Despite two centuries of reports linking alcohol consumption with enhanced susceptibility to bacterial infections and in particular gut-derived bacteria, there have been no studies or model systems to assess the impact of long-term alcohol exposure on the ability of the epithelial barrier to withstand bacterial infection. It is well established that acute alcohol exposure leads to reduction in tight and adherens junctions, which in turn leads to increases in epithelial cellular permeability to bacterial products, leading to endotoxemia and a variety of deleterious effects in both rodents and human. We hypothesized that reduced fortification at junctional structures should also reduce the epithelial barrier’s capacity to maintain its integrity in the face of bacterial challenge thus rendering epithelial cells more vulnerable to infection. In this study, we established a cell-culture based model system for long-term alcohol exposure to assess the impact of chronic alcohol exposure on the ability of Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells to withstand infection when facing pathogenic bacteria under the intact or wounded conditions. We report that daily treatment with 0.2% ethanol for two months rendered Caco-2 cells far more susceptible to wound damage and cytotoxicity caused by most but not all bacterial pathogens tested in our studies. Consistent with acute alcohol exposure, long-term ethanol exposure also adversely impacted tight junction structures, but in contrast, it did not affect the adherens junction. Finally, alcohol-treated cells partially regained their ability to withstand infection when ethanol treatment was ceased for two weeks, indicating that alcohol’s deleterious effects on cells may be reversible. PMID:23358457

  4. Exposure to Alcohol Outlets in Rural Towns

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower income populations are exposed to excess risks related to the presence of greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in their communities. Theory from economic geography suggests this is due to dynamic processes that shape urban retail markets (as outlets are attracted to areas of higher population density due to the increased demand but are excluded from higher income areas due to land and structure rents). This mechanism may explain increased exposure to alcohol outlets for lower income populations in rural areas. This study tests the hypothesis that the distribution of outlets between rural towns will reflect these market dynamics, such that outlets are concentrated in towns with (i) greater resident and temporary populations, (ii) lower income, and (iii) are adjacent to towns with higher income. Method Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models examined counts of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets within 353 discrete towns of rural Victoria, Australia (mean population = 4,326.0, SD = 15,754.1). Independent variables were each town’s total resident population, net changes to population (due to commuter flow, visitors, and the flow of local residents to other towns (spatial interaction)), and income for the local and adjacent towns. Results Lower local income and increased income in adjacent towns were associated with more outlets of all types. Greater resident populations and greater net population due to commuters also predicted greater numbers of all outlets. Bars and restaurants were positively related to greater net population due to visitors, and negatively related to spatial interaction. Conclusions The economic geographic processes that lead to greater concentrations of alcohol outlets in lower income areas are common to all retail markets. Lower income populations are exposed to increased risk associated with the presence of additional outlets that service demand from non-residents. In rural areas these processes appear

  5. Effects of occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y L; Lu, P K; Chen, Z Q; Liang, Y X; Lu, Q M; Pan, Z Q; Shao, M

    1985-01-01

    Fifty-three workers in a battery factory, 52 solderers in a television factory, and 50 embroidery workers (a reference group) were studied. The average air lead levels of the three workplaces were 0.578 mg/m3, 0.002 mg/m3, and 0.001 mg/m3, respectively. Adverse effects in terms of clinical manifestations and biochemical criteria were evident among the battery factory workers. A significant dose-response relationship existed between the toxic effects and the air lead levels. The solderers showed no apparent abnormalities in comparison with the embroidery workers. The early clinical manifestations were dysfunction of the central nervous system, indigestion, arthralgia, and myalgia in the extremities. A positive association was observed between the prevalence of fatigue, mild abdominal pain, and arthralgia and the blood lead (PbB), urinary lead (PbU), and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels. The symptomatic threshold values of PbB, PbU, and ZPP were 30 micrograms/dl (1.5 mumol/l), 0.045 mg/l (0.2 mumol/l), and 40 micrograms/dl (0.7 mumol/l), respectively. The PbB, PbU, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and ZPP levels and the blood aminolevulinic dehydratase ratio could be used as indicators of lead exposure, although ZPP is preferred for a preventive monitoring program. The motor and sensory conduction velocities of the median nerve were slower in the exposed groups than in the reference group. No effects on behavioral function were observed among the solderers. PMID:3832431

  6. Lead exposure at uncovered outdoor firing ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberg, R.L.; Hicks, A.M.; O'Leary, L.M.; London, S. )

    1991-06-01

    Excessive lead exposure in shooting instructors at indoor firing ranges and covered outdoor firing ranges has been documented. The City of Los Angeles assessed exposure of its full-time shooting instructors at uncovered outdoor ranges via air monitoring and blood lead-level measurements. Results of these tests revealed that significant lead exposure and absorption can occur at outdoor firing ranges. The use of copper-jacketed ammunition may decrease air lead levels and decrease lead absorption by range instructors.

  7. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    PubMed

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  8. Prenatal alcohol exposure and long-term developmental consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Spohr, H.L.; Willms, J. . Dept. of Pediatrics); Steinhausen, H.C. . Dept. of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry)

    1993-04-10

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of congenital mental retardation but little is known about the long-term development and adolescent outcome of children with FAS. In a 10-year follow-up study of 60 patients diagnosed as having FAS in infancy and childhood, the authors investigated the long-term sequelae of intrauterine alcohol exposure. The authors found that the characteristic craniofacial malformations of FAS diminish with time, but microcephaly and, to a lesser degree, short stature and underweight (in boys) persist; in female adolescents body weight normalizes. Persistent mental retardation is the major sequela of intrauterine alcohol exposure in many cases, and environmental and educational factors do not have strong compensatory effects on the intellectual development of affected children.

  9. Developmental Effects of Lead Exposure in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesman, Johanna Rich; Hills, Amanda

    1994-01-01

    This report presents an overview of research on childhood lead exposure and poisoning, and the related social issues. The report first summarizes the history of lead poisoning and its prevalence in the United States, and discusses the basis for recent changes in guidelines for lead exposure by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC). The report then…

  10. Renal effects of environmental and occupational lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Loghman-Adham, M

    1997-01-01

    Environmental and industrial lead exposures continue to pose major public health problems in children and in adults. Acute exposure to high concentrations of lead can result in proximal tubular damage with characteristic histologic features and manifested by glycosuria and aminoaciduria. Chronic occupational exposure to lead, or consumption of illicit alcohol adulterated with lead, has also been linked to a high incidence of renal dysfunction, which is characterized by glomerular and tubulointerstitial changes resulting in chronic renal failure, hypertension, hyperuricemia, and gout. A high incidence of nephropathy was reported during the early part of this century from Queensland, Australia, in persons with a history of childhood lead poisoning. No such sequela has been found in studies of three cohorts of lead-poisoned children from the United States. Studies in individuals with low-level lead exposure have shown a correlation between blood lead levels and serum creatinine or creatinine clearance. Chronic low-level exposure to lead is also associated with increased urinary excretion of low molecular weight proteins and lysosomal enzymes. The relationship between renal dysfunction detected by these sensitive tests and the future development of chronic renal disease remains uncertain. Epidemiologic studies have shown an association between blood lead levels and blood pressure, and hypertension is a cardinal feature of lead nephropathy. Evidence for increased body lead burden is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of lead nephropathy. Blood lead levels are a poor indicator of body lead burden and reflect recent exposure. The EDTA lead mobilization test has been used extensively in the past to assess body lead burden. It is now replaced by the less invasive in vivo X-ray fluorescence for determination of bone lead content. Images p928-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 2. Figure 3. PMID:9300927

  11. Neuroimmune Function and the Consequences of Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Fulton T.; Sarkar, Dipak K.; Qin, Liya; Zou, Jian; Boyadjieva, Nadka; Vetreno, Ryan P.

    2015-01-01

    Induction of neuroimmune genes by binge drinking increases neuronal excitability and oxidative stress, contributing to the neurobiology of alcohol dependence and causing neurodegeneration. Ethanol exposure activates signaling pathways featuring high-mobility group box 1 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), resulting in induction of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, which regulates expression of several cytokine genes involved in innate immunity, and its target genes. This leads to persistent neuroimmune responses to ethanol that stimulate TLRs and/or certain glutamate receptors (i.e., N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors). Alcohol also alters stress responses, causing elevation of peripheral cytokines, which further sensitize neuroimmune responses to ethanol. Neuroimmune signaling and glutamate excitotoxicity are linked to alcoholic neurodegeneration. Models of alcohol abuse have identified significant frontal cortical degeneration and loss of hippocampal neurogenesis, consistent with neuroimmune activation pathology contributing to these alcohol-induced, long-lasting changes in the brain. These alcohol-induced long-lasting increases in brain neuroimmune-gene expression also may contribute to the neurobiology of alcohol use disorder. PMID:26695754

  12. Women and Alcohol Use Disorders: Factors That Lead to Harm.

    PubMed

    Brighton, Renee; Moxham, Lorna; Traynor, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Women, alcohol, and alcohol use disorders are underresearched topics when compared with the plethora of literature exploring male alcohol consumption and its related harms. It is time to change the fact that women are underrepresented in research and programs targeting alcohol use disorders. Given the changing patterns of alcohol consumption by women, coupled with the fact that women experience a telescoping effect in alcohol-related harms, it is time that increasing attention be paid to the way gender influences the experience of alcohol-related harms, including the development of alcohol use disorders. Recovery-orientated systems are not possible without the voices of the consumers being heard. With this in mind, the purposes of this article are to explore factors that lead to alcohol-related harm in women and to highlight the gender-specific barriers to service engagement. PMID:27580194

  13. Alcohol Exposure In Utero and Child Academic Achievement*

    PubMed Central

    von Hinke Kessler Scholder, Stephanie; Wehby, George L; Lewis, Sarah; Zuccolo, Luisa

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on child academic achievement. We use a genetic variant in the maternal alcohol-metabolism gene ADH1B to instrument for alcohol exposure, whilst controlling for the child's genotype on the same variant. We show that the instrument is unrelated to an extensive range of parental characteristics and behaviour. OLS regressions suggest an ambiguous association between alcohol exposure and attainment but there is a strong social gradient in drinking, with mothers in higher socio-economic groups more likely to drink. In contrast to the OLS, the IV estimates show clear negative effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:25431500

  14. Exposure to Televised Alcohol Ads and Subsequent Adolescent Alcohol Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacy, Alan W.; Zogg, Jennifer B.; Unger, Jennifer B.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2004-01-01

    Objective : To assess the impact of televised alcohol commercials on adolescents' alcohol use. Methods : Adolescents completed questionnaires about alcohol commercials and alcohol use in a prospective study. Results : A one standard deviation increase in viewing television programs containing alcohol commercials in seventh grade was associated…

  15. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Kyzar, Evan J; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L; Pandey, Subhash C

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  16. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure: Burden of Epigenetic Reprogramming, Synaptic Remodeling, and Adult Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Kyzar, Evan J.; Floreani, Christina; Teppen, Tara L.; Pandey, Subhash C.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence represents a crucial phase of synaptic maturation characterized by molecular changes in the developing brain that shape normal behavioral patterns. Epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in these neuromaturation processes. Perturbations of normal epigenetic programming during adolescence by ethanol can disrupt these molecular events, leading to synaptic remodeling and abnormal adult behaviors. Repeated exposure to binge levels of alcohol increases the risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD) and comorbid psychopathology including anxiety in adulthood. Recent studies in the field clearly suggest that adolescent alcohol exposure causes widespread and persistent changes in epigenetic, neurotrophic, and neuroimmune pathways in the brain. These changes are manifested by altered synaptic remodeling and neurogenesis in key brain regions leading to adult psychopathology such as anxiety and alcoholism. This review details the molecular mechanisms underlying adolescent alcohol exposure-induced changes in synaptic plasticity and the development of alcohol addiction-related phenotypes in adulthood. PMID:27303256

  17. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN TO LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because 1) they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, 2) lead adsorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult, and 3) the child's development is more vulnerable ...

  18. Socioeconomic Determinants of Exposure to Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Christopher; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Ponicki, William R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol outlets tend to be located in lower income areas, exposing lower income populations to excess risks associated with alcohol sales through these establishments. The objective of this study was to test two hypotheses about the etiology of these differential exposures based on theories of the economic geography of retail markets: (a) outlets will locate within or near areas of high alcohol demand, and (b) outlets will be excluded from areas with high land and structure rents. Method: Data from the 2010 National Drug Strategy Household Survey were used to develop a surrogate for alcohol demand (i.e., market potential) at two census geographies for the city of Melbourne, Australia. Bayesian conditional autoregressive Poisson models estimated multilevel spatial relationships between counts of bars, restaurants, and off-premise outlets and market potential, income, and zoning ordinances (Level 1: n = 8,914). Results: Market potentials were greatest in areas with larger older age, male, English-speaking, high-income populations. Independent of zoning characteristics, greater numbers of outlets appeared in areas with greater market potentials and the immediately surrounding areas. Greater income excluded outlets in local and surrounding areas. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that alcohol outlets are located in areas with high demand and are excluded from high-income areas. These processes appear to take place at relatively small geographic scales, encourage the concentration of outlets in specific low-income areas, and represent a very general economic process likely to take place in communities throughout the world. PMID:25978830

  19. Reversible loss of reproductive fitness in zebrafish on chronic alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Dewari, Pooran Singh; Ajani, Funmilola; Kushawah, Gopal; Kumar, Damera Santhosh; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2016-02-01

    Alcoholism is one of the most prevalent diseases in society and causes significant health and social problems. Alcohol consumption by pregnant women is reported to cause adverse effects on the physical and psychological growth of the fetus. However, the direct effect of chronic alcohol consumption on reproductive fitness has not been tested. In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a versatile model system to study the effects of alcohol on behavior and embryonic development. We utilized the zebrafish model system to address the effect of chronic alcohol exposure (0.5% alcohol in the holding tank for 9 weeks) on reproductive capacity. We found a dramatic decrease in fecundity, measured by counting the number of eggs laid, when at least one of the parents is subject to chronic alcohol exposure. Interestingly, a 9-week alcohol withdrawal program completely restored the reproductive capacity of the treated subjects. In agreement with observations on fecundity, the chronic alcohol exposure leads to increased anxiety, as measured by the novel-tank diving assay. Conversely, the withdrawal program diminished heightened anxiety in alcohol-exposed subjects. Our results highlight the adverse effects of chronic alcohol exposure on the reproductive capacity of both males and females, and underscore the utility of the zebrafish model system to understand the biology of chronic alcoholism. PMID:26781213

  20. Does Unemployment Lead to Greater Alcohol Consumption?

    PubMed

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2013-04-01

    Using panel data from Waves 1 and 2 of the NESARC, we estimate gender-specific effects of changes in employment status on overall alcohol consumption, binge drinking episodes, and a diagnosis of alcohol abuse and/or dependence. We employ various fixed-effects models to address potential bias from unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity. All results show a positive and significant effect of unemployment on drinking behaviors and the findings are robust to numerous sensitivity tests. Perhaps macroeconomic policy decisions intended to stimulate the economy during economic downturns should also consider the avoided personal costs and externalities associated with alcohol misuse.

  1. Occupational lead exposure aboard a tall ship

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J.; Straub, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposures to lead in shipfitters cutting and riveting lead-painted iron plates aboard an iron-hulled sailing vessel, the authors conducted an environmental and medical survey. Lead exposures in seven personal (breathing zone) air samples ranged from 108 to 500 micrograms/mT (mean 257 micrograms/mT); all were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard of 50 micrograms/mT. In two short-term air samples obtained while exhaust ventilation was temporarily disconnected, mean lead exposure rose to 547 micrograms/mT. Blood lead levels in ten shipfitters ranged from 25 to 53 micrograms/dl. Blood lead levels in shipfitters were significantly higher than in other shipyard workers. Smoking shipfitters had significantly higher lead levels than nonsmokers. Lead levels in shipfitters who wore respirators were not lower than in those who wore no protective gear. Four shipfitters had erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) concentrations above the adult upper normal limit of 50 micrograms/dl. A close correlation was found between blood lead and EP levels. Prevalence of lead-related symptoms was no higher in shipfitters than in other workers. These data indicate that serious occupational exposure to lead can occur in a relatively small boatyard.

  2. Societal benefits of reducing lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, J. )

    1994-07-01

    While sophistication in public health research has been increasing substantially in the past few decades, sophistication in decision making about public health and environmental issues has not been increasing in parallel. Measures that are inexpensive tend to be implemented and measures that are expensive tend not to be implemented by makers of public policy. That is often independent of the degree of public health protection afforded by the measures. Understanding and addressing this pattern is crucial to the control of lead exposure of critical populations. People are still exposed to lead in our society not because anyone believes that exposure is good, but because reducing exposure costs money. Maintaining exposure also has its costs, however. It is more difficult to measure them, and they are often ignored in decision making - but they are not small, and attempts to measure them have been made. The high cost of reducing lead exposure of critical populations is the reason that progress in reducing lead-paint exposure has been minimal in the 18 years since the passage of the Lead-Based Paint Poisoning Prevention Act and that it took from the time of the initial proposal in 1973 until 1986 before lead was substantially eliminated from gasoline. In its 1986 rule making, the EPA estimated that the elimination of lead from gasoline would cost more than $500 million per year. Removing leaded paint is estimated to cost billions of dollars. The difference is that the EPA promulgated its rule of removing lead from gasoline, whereas HUD has had little success in removing leaded paint from housing. One reason that the EPA was successful in implementing such an expensive regulation was that it provided detailed estimates of the health and welfare benefits that would accrue and the monetary value of some of the benefits. The EPA cost-benefit analysis demonstrated that the monetary benefits of its regulation far exceeded the costs.

  3. Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination rates for the mother, fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K

    2012-09-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) are a common cause of intellectual impairment and birth defects. More recently, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) has been found to be a risk factor for fetal mortality, stillbirth and infant and child mortality. This has led to increased concern about detection and management of PAE. One to 2 h after maternal ingestion, fetal blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) reach levels nearly equivalent to maternal levels. Ethanol elimination by the fetus is impaired because of reduced metabolic capacity. Fetal exposure time is prolonged owing to the reuptake of amniotic-fluid containing ethanol by the fetus. Alcohol elimination from the fetus relies on the mother's metabolic capacity. Metabolic capacity among pregnant women varies eightfold (from 0.0025 to 0.02 g dl(-1)  h(-1)), which may help explain how similar amounts of ethanol consumption during pregnancy results in widely varying phenotypic presentations of FASD. At birth physiological changes alter the neonate's metabolic capacity and it rapidly rises to a mean value of 83.5% of the mother's capacity. FASDs are highly recurrent and younger siblings have increased risk. Detection of prenatal alcohol use offers an important opportunity for office-based interventions to decrease exposure for the remainder of pregnancy and identification of women who need substance abuse treatment. Mothers of children with FAS have been found to drink faster, get drunk quicker and to have higher BACs. A modest increase in the prevalence of a polymorphism of alcohol dehydrogenase, which increases susceptibility to adverse outcomes from PAE has been reported. Lastly, detection of alcohol use and appropriate management would decrease risk from PAE for subsequent pregnancies.

  4. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    PubMed

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (p<0.05) on floors and reduced most airborne lead exposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures. PMID:22494405

  5. Lead exposure in outdoor firearm instructors

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, R.K.; Sherertz, P.C.; Llewellyn, G.C.; Armstrong, C.W. )

    1991-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine lead exposure of firearm instructors at an outdoor firing range, while cadets were firing nonjacketed and jacketed lead ammunitions. The breathing zone air for lead exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard of 50 micrograms/m3 for two instructors during firing exercises using nonjacketed bullets. The use of totally copper-jacketed bullets reduced the breathing zone lead levels by 92 percent for instructor {number sign}1 and by 96 percent for instructor {number sign}2; subsequent blood lead levels showed a significant decline in both instructors.

  6. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  7. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-01-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed. Images Figure 1. PMID:7523102

  8. Sources of lead exposure in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Palazuelos, E; Hernandez Avila, M; Rios, C; Muñoz, I; Jimenez, C; Cahero, G

    1994-04-01

    Many countries, including Mexico, are facing a largely unrecognized epidemic of low-level lead poisoning. Mexico is the sixth largest lead-producing country in the world, and 40% of its production is used locally in different industrial processes that cause lead contamination of the environment. The major sources and pathways of lead exposure among the Mexican population are gasoline emissions, lead-glazed ceramics, leaded paint, and lead in canned foods and beverages. In this paper we present evidence for the presence of lead in different environmental media and its impact on blood lead levels of the Mexican population. Although during the last few years important measures have been implemented to decrease lead exposure, our findings suggest that lead poisoning is still an important problem in Mexico. There is an urgent need for regulatory policies that implement stricter control to protect the Mexican population. There is also a need to develop adequate programs to reduce the lead burden and the associated health effects in the population that has been chronically exposed.

  9. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  10. Effects of methylmercury and alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster: Potential risks in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ved; Chauhan, Abha

    2016-06-01

    Extensive evidence suggests the role of oxidative stress in autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. In this study, we investigated whether methylmercury (MeHg) and/or alcohol exposure has deleterious effects in Drosophila melanogaster (fruit flies). A diet containing different concentrations of MeHg in Drosophila induced free radical generation and increased lipid peroxidation (markers of oxidative stress) in a dose-dependent manner. This effect of MeHg on oxidative stress was enhanced by further exposure to alcohol. It was observed that alcohol alone could also induce free radical generation in flies. After alcohol exposure, MeHg did not affect the immobilization of flies, but it increased the recovery time in a concentration-dependent manner. MeHg significantly inhibited the activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in a dose-dependent manner. Linear regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between ADH activity and recovery time upon alcohol exposure in the flies fed a diet with MeHg. This relationship between ADH activity and recovery time after alcohol exposure was confirmed by adding 4-methyl pyrazole (an inhibitor of ADH) to the diet for the flies. These results suggest that consumption of alcohol by pregnant mothers who are exposed to MeHg may lead to increased oxidative stress and to increased length of time for alcohol clearance, which may have a direct impact on the development of the fetus, thereby increasing the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:27151262

  11. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries. PMID:2773946

  12. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  13. Transcriptional response to alcohol exposure in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Morozova, Tatiana V; Anholt, Robert RH; Mackay, Trudy FC

    2006-01-01

    Background Alcoholism presents widespread social and human health problems. Alcohol sensitivity, the development of tolerance to alcohol and susceptibility to addiction vary in the population. Genetic factors that predispose to alcoholism remain largely unknown due to extensive genetic and environmental variation in human populations. Drosophila, however, allows studies on genetically identical individuals in controlled environments. Although addiction to alcohol has not been demonstrated in Drosophila, flies show responses to alcohol exposure that resemble human intoxication, including hyperactivity, loss of postural control, sedation, and exposure-dependent development of tolerance. Results We assessed whole-genome transcriptional responses following alcohol exposure and demonstrate immediate down-regulation of genes affecting olfaction, rapid upregulation of biotransformation enzymes and, concomitant with development of tolerance, altered transcription of transcriptional regulators, proteases and metabolic enzymes, including biotransformation enzymes and enzymes associated with fatty acid biosynthesis. Functional tests of P-element disrupted alleles corresponding to genes with altered transcription implicated 75% of these in the response to alcohol, two-thirds of which have human orthologues. Conclusion Expression microarray analysis is an efficient method for identifying candidate genes affecting complex behavioral and physiological traits, including alcohol abuse. Drosophila provides a valuable genetic model for comparative genomic analysis, which can inform subsequent studies in human populations. Transcriptional analyses following alcohol exposure in Drosophila implicate biotransformation pathways, transcriptional regulators, proteolysis and enzymes that act as metabolic switches in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism as important targets for future studies of the physiological consequences of human alcohol abuse. PMID:17054780

  14. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D; Kobunski, Peter A; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (<1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. PMID:25087065

  15. Middle and high school students' exposure to alcohol- and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B Lynette; Shadel, William G

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors.

  16. Lead exposure and radiator repair work.

    PubMed

    Lussenhop, D H; Parker, D L; Barklind, A; McJilton, C

    1989-11-01

    In 1986, the ambient air for lead in radiator repair shops in the Minneapolis-St. Paul metropolitan area exceeded the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) action level in nine of 12 shops sampled by Minnesota OSHA. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence of lead exposure/toxicity in this industry. Thirty-five radiator shops were identified, 30 were visited, and 53 workers were studied. The mean blood lead level was 1.53 (range 0.24-2.80). Seventeen individuals had blood lead levels greater than or equal to 1.93 mumol/L (40 micrograms/dl). The mean zinc protoporphyrin level (ZPP) was 0.55 mumol/L (range 0.16-1.43). No single worksite or personal characteristic was a strong determinant of either blood lead or ZPP level.

  17. Communication Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1992-01-01

    This literature review addresses studies of speech, language, and communication skills evidenced by children diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. Concomitant physical, behavioral, intellectual, and learning patterns are reviewed, and symptoms presented by alcohol-exposed children are compared to those seen in other…

  18. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue.

  19. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on radio--United States, June-August 2004.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    In the United States, more underage youth drink alcohol than smoke tobacco or use illicit drugs. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to many adverse health and social consequences and results in approximately 4,500 deaths among underage youth each year. Recent studies have emphasized the contribution of alcohol marketing to underage drinking and have demonstrated that a substantial proportion of alcohol advertising appears in media for which the audience composition is youth-oriented (i.e., composed disproportionately of persons aged 12-20 years). To determine the proportion of radio advertisements that occurred on radio programs with audiences composed disproportionately of underage youth and the proportion of total youth exposure to alcohol advertising that occurs as a result of such advertising, researchers at the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth (Health Policy Institute, Georgetown University, District of Columbia) evaluated the placement of individual radio advertisements for the most advertised U.S. alcohol brands and the composition of audiences in the largest 104 markets in the United States. This report summarizes the results of that study, which indicate that alcohol advertising is common on radio programs which have disproportionately large youth audiences and that this advertising accounts for a substantial proportion of all alcohol radio advertising heard by underage youth. These results further indicate that 1) the current voluntary standards limiting alcohol marketing to youth should be enforced and ultimately strengthened, and 2) ongoing monitoring of youth exposure to alcohol advertising should continue. PMID:16943763

  20. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and the Developing Immune System.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Theresa W

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from research in humans and animals suggest that ingesting alcohol during pregnancy can disrupt the fetal immune system and result in an increased risk of infections and disease in newborns that may persist throughout life. Alcohol may have indirect effects on the immune system by increasing the risk of premature birth, which itself is a risk factor for immune-related problems. Animal studies suggest that alcohol exposure directly disrupts the developing immune system. A comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying alcohol's effects on the developing immune system only will become clear once researchers establish improved methods for identifying newborns exposed to alcohol in utero.

  1. Lead exposure, lead poisoning, and lead regulatory standards in China, 1990-2005.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xibiao; Wong, Otto

    2006-11-01

    This article presents a summary of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning at workplaces in China reported in the Chinese medical literature between 1990 and 2005. A comprehensive literature search identified 618 papers reporting lead exposure and lead poisoning data. The data were analyzed in terms of time period, type of industry, size of factory, and task or process. In 2002 the new Occupational Diseases Prevention and Control Act was passed in China, with new provisions specifically for regulatory enforcement. Therefore, a comparison of lead exposure levels and lead poisoning rates before and after the 2002 Act will shed some light on the effectiveness of the new regulation. The reported lead exposure levels covered a wide range; some measurements were in excess of 250 mg/m(3), which was orders-of-magnitude higher than the occupational exposure levels (OELs) for lead in China. The overall arithmetic mean, median, and geometric mean were 0.92, 0.25, and 0.24 mg/m(3), respectively. Approximately 53.7% of the averages reported in the papers were above the national OELs. The data demonstrated that many facilities in the lead industries reported in the literature were not in compliance with the OELs. Similarly, there appeared to be only a minor impact of the 2002 Act on the reduction of occupational lead poisoning in China. The lead poisoning rates reported in the literature were well above 30%. Judging by the lead exposure levels and the lead poisoning rates, the current overall occupational health monitoring system appears inadequate, lacking the necessary enforcement. The 2002 Act, without the necessary enforcement, did not appear to have a major impact on either lead exposures or lead poisoning in China. Much work in enforcing the 2002 Act remains to be done.

  2. Transient increase in alcohol self-administration following a period of chronic exposure to corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Besheer, Joyce; Fisher, Kristen R; Lindsay, Tessa G; Cannady, Reginald

    2013-09-01

    Stressful life events and chronic stressors have been associated with escalations in alcohol drinking. Stress exposure leads to the secretion of glucocorticoids (cortisol in the human; corticosterone (CORT) in the rodent). To model a period of heightened elevations in CORT, the present work assessed the effects of chronic exposure to the stress hormone CORT on alcohol self-administration. Male Long Evans rats were trained to self-administer a sweetened alcohol solution (2% sucrose/15% alcohol) resulting in moderate levels of daily alcohol intake (0.5-0.7 g/kg). Following stable baseline operant self-administration, rats received CORT in the drinking water for 7 days. A transient increase in alcohol self-administration was observed on the first self-administration session following CORT exposure, and behavior returned to control levels by the second session. Control experiments determined that this increase in alcohol self-administration was specific to alcohol, unrelated to general motor activation, and functionally dissociated from decreased CORT levels at the time of testing. These results indicate that repeated exposure to heightened levels of stress hormone (e.g., as may be experienced during stressful episodes) has the potential to lead to exacerbated alcohol intake in low to moderate drinkers. Given that maladaptive drinking patterns, such as escalated alcohol drinking following stressful episodes, have the potential to put an individual at risk for future drinking disorders, utilization of this model will be important for examination of neuroadaptations that occur as a consequence of CORT exposure in order to better understand escalated drinking following stressful episodes in nondependent individuals. PMID:23643750

  3. Movie Exposure to Alcohol Cues and Adolescent Alcohol Problems: A Longitudinal Analysis in a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother’s responsiveness and for adolescent’s school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:19290687

  4. Movie exposure to alcohol cues and adolescent alcohol problems: a longitudinal analysis in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Wills, Thomas A; Sargent, James D; Gibbons, Frederick X; Gerrard, Meg; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2009-03-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model of how exposure to alcohol cues in movies predicts level of alcohol use (ever use plus ever and recent binge drinking) and alcohol-related problems. A national sample of younger adolescents was interviewed by telephone with 4 repeated assessments spaced at 8-month intervals. A structural equation modeling analysis performed for ever-drinkers at Time 3 (N = 961) indicated that, controlling for a number of covariates, movie alcohol exposure at Time 1 was related to increases in peer alcohol use and adolescent alcohol use at Time 2. Movie exposure had indirect effects to alcohol use and problems at Times 3 and 4 through these pathways, with direct effects to problems from Time 1 rebelliousness and Time 2 movie exposure also found. Prospective risk-promoting effects were also found for alcohol expectancies, peer alcohol use, and availability of alcohol in the home; protective effects were found for mother's responsiveness and for adolescent's school performance and self-control. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:19290687

  5. Alcohol exposure after mild focal traumatic brain injury impairs neurological recovery and exacerbates localized neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Teng, Sophie X; Katz, Paige S; Maxi, John K; Mayeux, Jacques P; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Molina, Patricia E

    2015-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor associated with increased TBI incidence. In addition, up to 26% of TBI patients engage in alcohol consumption after TBI. Limited preclinical studies have examined the impact of post-injury alcohol exposure on TBI recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the isolated and combined effects of TBI and alcohol on cognitive, behavioral, and physical recovery, as well as on associated neuroinflammatory changes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼300g) were subjected to a mild focal TBI by lateral fluid percussion (∼30PSI, ∼25ms) under isoflurane anesthesia. On day 4 after TBI, animals were exposed to either sub-chronic intermittent alcohol vapor (95% ethanol 14h on/10h off; BAL∼200mg/dL) or room air for 10days. TBI induced neurological dysfunction reflected by an increased neurological severity score (NSS) showed progressive improvement in injured animals exposed to room air (TBI/air). In contrast, TBI animals exposed to alcohol vapor (TBI/alcohol) showed impaired NSS recovery throughout the 10-day period of alcohol exposure. Open-field exploration test revealed an increased anxiety-like behavior in TBI/alcohol group compared to TBI/air group. Additionally, alcohol-exposed animals showed decreased locomotion and impaired novel object recognition. Immunofluorescence showed enhanced reactive astrocytes, microglial activation, and HMGB1 expression localized to the injured cortex of TBI/alcohol as compared to TBI/air animals. The expression of neuroinflammatory markers showed significant positive correlation with NSS. These findings indicated a close relationship between accentuated neuroinflammation and impaired neurological recovery from post-TBI alcohol exposure. The clinical implications of long-term consequences in TBI patients exposed to alcohol during recovery warrant further investigation.

  6. Alcohol Exposure after Mild Focal Traumatic Brain Injury Impairs Neurological Recovery and Exacerbates Localized Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Sophie X; Katz, Paige S; Maxi, John K; Mayeux, Jacques P; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Molina, Patricia E

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals. Alcohol abuse is a risk factor associated with increased TBI incidence. In addition, up to 26% of TBI patients engage in alcohol consumption after TBI. Limited preclinical studies have examined the impact of post-injury alcohol exposure on TBI recovery. The aim of this study was to determine the isolated and combined effects of TBI and alcohol on cognitive, behavioral, and physical recovery, as well as on associated neuroinflammatory changes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (~300 g) were subjected to a mild focal TBI by lateral fluid percussion (~30 PSI, ~25 ms) under isoflurane anesthesia. On day 4 after TBI, animals were exposed to either sub-chronic intermittent alcohol vapor (95% ethanol 14h on /10h off; BAL~200 mg/dL) or room air for 10 days. TBI induced neurological dysfunction reflected by an increased neurological severity score (NSS) showed progressive improvement in injured animals exposed to room air (TBI/air). In contrast, TBI animals exposed to alcohol vapor (TBI/alcohol) showed impaired NSS recovery throughout the 10-day period of alcohol exposure. Open-field exploration test revealed an increased anxiety-like behavior in TBI/alcohol group compared to TBI/air group. Additionally, alcohol-exposed animals showed decreased locomotion and impaired novel object recognition. Immunofluorescence showed enhanced reactive astrocytes, microglial activation, and HMGB1 expression localized to the injured cortex of TBI/alcohol as compared to TBI/air animals. The expression of neuroinflammatory markers showed significant positive correlation with NSS. These findings indicated a close relationship between accentuated neuroinflammation and impaired neurological recovery from post-TBI alcohol exposure. The clinical implications of long-term consequences in TBI patients exposed to alcohol during recovery warrant further investigation. PMID:25489880

  7. A neurotoxic alcohol exposure paradigm does not induce hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Joel G; Wiren, Kristine M; Wilhelm, Clare J

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is associated with neurological dysfunction, brain morphological deficits and frank neurotoxicity. Although these disruptions may be a secondary effect due to hepatic encephalopathy, no clear evidence of causality is available. This study examined whether a 72h period of alcohol intoxication known to induce physical dependence, followed by a single withdrawal, was sufficient to induce signs of hepatic encephalopathy in male and female mice. Animals were continuously intoxicated via alcohol vapor inhalation, a procedure previously shown to induce significant neurotoxicity in female mice. At peak synchronized withdrawal (8h following the end of alcohol exposure), blood samples were taken and levels of several liver-regulated markers and brain swelling were characterized. Glutathione levels were also determined in the medial frontal cortex (mFC) and hippocampus. Results revealed elevated levels of cholesterol, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and decreased levels of blood urea nitrogen and total bilirubin in alcohol-exposed male and female groups compared to controls. Brain water weight was not affected by alcohol exposure, though males tended to have slightly more water weight overall. Alcohol exposure led to reductions in tissue levels of glutathione in both the hippocampus and mFC which may indicate increased oxidative stress. Combined, these results suggest that hepatic encephalopathy does not appear to play a significant role in the neurotoxicity observed following alcohol exposure in this model. PMID:27268733

  8. Alcohol exposure during development: Impact on the epigenome.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Amy; Lehmann, Claudia; Lawrence, R Charles; Kelly, Sandra J

    2013-10-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders represent a wide range of symptoms associated with in utero alcohol exposure. Animal models of FASD have been useful in determining the specific neurological consequences of developmental alcohol exposure, but the mechanisms of those consequences are unclear. Long-lasting changes to the epigenome are proposed as a mechanism of alcohol-induced teratogenesis in the hippocampus. The current study utilized a three-trimester rodent model of FASD to examine changes to some of the enzymatic regulators of the epigenome in adolescence. Combined pre- and post-natal alcohol exposureresulted in a significant increase in DNA methyltransferase activity (DNMT), without affecting histone deacetylase activity (HDAC). Developmental alcohol exposure also caused a change in gene expression of regulators of the epigenome, in particular, DNMT1, DNMT3a, and methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2). The modifications of the activity and expression of epigenetic regulators in the hippocampus of rodents perinatally exposed to alcohol suggest that alcohol's impact on the epigenome and its regulators may be one of the underlying mechanisms of alcohol teratogenesis.

  9. Chronic alcohol exposure is associated with decreased neurogenesis, aberrant integration of newborn neurons, and cognitive dysfunction in female mice

    PubMed Central

    Golub, Haleigh M.; Zhou, Qi-Gang; Zucker, Hannah; McMullen, Megan R.; Kokiko-Cochran, Olga Nicole; Ro, Eun Jeoung; Nagy, Laura E.; Suh, Hoonkyo

    2015-01-01

    Background Neurological deficits of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have been attributed to dysfunctions of specific brain structures. Studies of alcoholic patients and chronic alcohol exposure animal models consistently identify reduced hippocampal mass and cogntive dysfunctions as a key alcohol-induced brain adaptation. However, the precise substrate of chronic alcohol exposure that leads to structural and functional impairments of the hippocampus is largely unknown. Methods Using a calorie-matched alcohol feeding method, we tested whether chronic alcohol exposure targets neural stem cells and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. The effect of alcohol on proliferation of neural stem cells as well as cell fate determination and survival of newborn cells was evaluated via BrdU pulse and chase methods. A retrovirus-mediated single-cell labeling method was used to determine the effect of alcohol on the morphological development and circuitry incorporation of individual hippocampal newborn neurons. Finally, Novel Object Recognition and Y-maze tests were performed to examine whether disrupted neurogenesis is associated with hippocampus-dependent functional deficits in alcohol-fed mice. Results Chronic alcohol exposure reduced proliferation of neural stem cells and survival rate of newborn neurons; however, the fate determination of newborn cells remained unaltered. Moreover, the dendritic spine density of newborn neurons significantly decreased in alcohol-fed mice. Impaired spine formation indicates that alcohol interfered the synaptic connectivity of newborn neurons with excitatory neurons originating from a various areas of the brain. In the Novel Object Recognition test, alcohol-fed mice displayed deficits in the ability to discriminate the novel object. Conclusions Our study revealed that chronic alcohol exposure disrupted multiple steps of neurogenesis, including the production and development of newborn neurons. In addition, chronic alcohol exposure altered

  10. The incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Janine R; Magri, Raquel; Gareri, Joey N; Koren, Gideon

    2010-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a wide range of deficits known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. Epidemiologic studies regarding alcohol consumption in pregnancy have concentrated on North America, but recent reports have suggested that consumption is significant in many parts of the world. In Uruguay, alcohol consumption has changed into more risky and dangerous patterns and thus has a theoretical risk of having a high rate of prenatal alcohol exposure. This study characterizes the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Montevideo, Uruguay, using a novel biomarker, fatty acid ethyl esters, in meconium as well as a survey to mothers. Nine hundred five meconium samples were collected from Hospital Pereira Rossell and Hospital de Clínicas in Montevideo, Uruguay. A maternal questionnaire was also completed. Meconium was analyzed for fatty acid ethyl esters using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction with gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Meconium was also analyzed for other drugs of abuse using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-four percent of meconium samples were above the positive cutoff for fatty acid ethyl esters and represent those newborns with risky prenatal exposure during the final two trimesters of pregnancy. Infants with prenatal alcohol exposure were more likely to have prenatal exposure to tobacco (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-2.20) or any illicit drug (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-5.31). Ethyl linoleate was a significant predictor of infant birth weight along with prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal body mass index, and infant sex. This study highlights a 44% incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure. PMID:20445483

  11. Can Intensive Use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs Lead to Passive Alcoholization?

    PubMed Central

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Clément, Michel; Thomas, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    Hand disinfection with alcohols-based hand rubs (ABHRs) are known to be the most effective measure to prevent nosocomial infections in healthcare. ABHRs contain on average 70% by weight of one or more alcohols. During the hand rubbing procedure, users are exposed to these alcohols not only through dermal contact, but also via inhalation, due to the physical and chemical properties of alcohols volatilizing from alcoholic solutions or gels into the air. Ethanol ingestion is well known to increase risks of several diseases (affecting the pancreas, liver, cardiovascular system…), but there is a lack of knowledge about the effects of exposure to other alcohols (including n- or isopropanol) via inhalation and dermal contact, despite the worldwide use of ABHRs. This work aims at discussing possible health effects related to unintentional alcoholization (via inhalation and dermal contact) from professional ABHR usage to suggest the need for more research in this area (but not to question the value of ABHRs). Based upon an average of 30 hand rubbings per healthcare professional per day, it can be assumed that a healthcare worker may be exposed to a maximum 5,500 mg/m3 per work shift, five times above the recommended occupational time weighted average limit. Thus, in order to answer the question posed in the title, studies on spatial and temporal variability of alcohol emission from ABHRs in real world situations and studies on certain high risk individuals are needed. PMID:20948945

  12. Reproductive toxicity of low-level lead exposure in men

    SciTech Connect

    Telisman, Spomenka Colak, Bozo; Pizent, Alica; Jurasovic, Jasna; Cvitkovic, Petar

    2007-10-15

    Parameters of semen quality, seminal plasma indicators of secretory function of the prostate and seminal vesicles, sex hormones in serum, and biomarkers of lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and selenium body burden were measured in 240 Croatian men 19-52 years of age. The subjects had no occupational exposure to metals and no known other reasons suspected of influencing male reproductive function or metal metabolism. After adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, blood cadmium, and serum copper, zinc, and selenium by multiple regression, significant (P<0.05) associations of blood lead (BPb), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and/or erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EP) with reproductive parameters indicated a lead-related increase in immature sperm concentration, in percentages of pathologic sperm, wide sperm, round sperm, and short sperm, in serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, and a decrease in seminal plasma zinc and in serum prolactin. These reproductive effects were observed at low-level lead exposure (BPb median 49 {mu}g/L, range 11-149 {mu}g/L in the 240 subjects) common for general populations worldwide. The observed significant synergistic effect of BPb and blood cadmium on increasing serum testosterone, and additive effect of a decrease in serum selenium on increasing serum testosterone, may have implications on the initiation and development of prostate cancer because testosterone augments the progress of prostate cancer in its early stages.

  13. Operant Responding for Alcohol Following Alcohol Cue Exposure in Social Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyke, Nicholas; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cue reactivity paradigms have found that alcohol-related cues increase alcohol consumption in heavy drinkers and alcoholics. However, evidence of this relationship among non-alcohol dependent “social” drinkers is mixed, suggesting that individual differences must be considered when examining cue-induced drinking behavior. One important individual difference factor that might contribute to cue-induced drinking in the laboratory is the amount of alcohol that participants typically drink during occasions outside the laboratory. That is, those who typically consume more alcohol per occasion could display greater cue-induced drinking than those who typically drink less. The present study examined this hypothesis in healthy, non-dependent beer drinkers. Methods The drinkers were exposed to either a series of beer images intended to prime their motivation to drink beer or to a series of non-alcoholic images of food items that served as a control condition. Following cue exposure, motivation to drink was measured by giving participants an opportunity to work for glasses of beer by performing an operant response task. Results Results indicated that drinkers exposed to alcohol cues displayed greater operant responding for alcohol and earned more drinks compared with those exposed to non-alcohol (i.e., food) cues. Moreover, individual differences in drinking habits predicted subjects’ responding for alcohol following exposure to the alcohol cues, but not following exposure to food cues. Conclusions The findings suggest that cue-induced drinking in non-dependent drinkers likely results in consumption levels commensurate with their typical consumption outside the laboratory, but not excessive consumption that is sometimes observed in alcohol-dependent samples. PMID:25841089

  14. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  15. Chronic lead exposure: a problem for minority workers

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.L.

    1989-03-01

    1. Despite regulatory and case identification efforts, lead exposure continues to pose a major health problem for minority workers. 2. Minority workers are overrepresented in lead industries such as lead smelting, lead storage batteries, lead pigment production and pottery. 3. Preliminary data from recently instituted lead registries in California and Texas suggest that minority workers continue to be overexposed to lead. 4. A federal policy that strengthens enforcement of the OSHA lead standard is needed to reduce lead exposure among minority workers.

  16. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL ADVERTISING IN STORES, OWNING ALCOHOL PROMOTIONAL ITEMS, AND ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL USE

    PubMed Central

    HURTZ, SHANNON Q.; HENRIKSEN, LISA; WANG, YUN; FEIGHERY, ELLEN C.; FORTMANN, STEPHEN P.

    2014-01-01

    Aim This paper describes adolescents’ exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and to alcohol-branded promotional items and their association with self-reported drinking. Methods A cross-sectional survey was administered in non-tracked required courses to sixth, seventh, and eighth graders (n = 2125) in three California middle schools. Logistic regressions compared the odds of ever (vs. never) drinking and current (vs. ever) drinking after controlling for psychosocial and other risk factors for adolescent alcohol use. Results Two-thirds of middle school students reported at least weekly visits to liquor, convenience, or small grocery stores where alcohol advertising is widespread. Such exposure was associated with higher odds of ever drinking, but was not associated with current drinking. One-fifth of students reported owning at least one alcohol promotional item. These students were three times more likely to have ever tried drinking and 1.5 times more likely to report current drinking than students without such items. Conclusions This study provides clear evidence of an association of adolescent drinking with weekly exposure to alcohol advertising in stores and with ownership of alcohol promotional items. Given their potential influence on adolescent drinking behaviour, retail ads, and promotional items for alcohol deserve further study. PMID:17218364

  17. Influence of abatement of lead exposure in Croatia on blood lead and ALAD activity.

    PubMed

    Zorana, Kljaković-Gašpić; Alica, Pizent; Jasna, Jurasović

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of lead (Pb) abatement measures in Croatia on blood lead (BPb) concentrations, and delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in blood, as a sensitive indicator of early Pb effect. Data on BPb and ALAD activity were obtained from 829 Croatian men (19-64 years of age), with no known occupational exposure to metals. Data obtained in 2008-2009, after the ban of leaded gasoline in Croatia in 2006, were compared with similar data collected in 1981 and 1989, when the concentration of Pb in gasoline was 0.6 g/L. Our results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001) decrease in median BPb from 114.5 (range, 46.0-275.0) μg/L in 1981/1989 to 30.3 (range, 3.2-140.8) μg/L in 2008-2009 and an increase in median ALAD activity from 49.8 (range, 24.9-79.4) EU in 1981/1989 to 60.9 (range, 35.8-84.0) EU in 2008-2009. Individual factors influencing BPb values were, in the order of decreasing importance, Pb in ambient air (APb), alcohol consumption, age, and smoking. Increased ALAD activity was significantly associated with the decrease of APb, alcohol consumption, and smoking. These results show that lead abatement measures had a positive impact on both BPb concentrations (73.5% decrease) and the activity of ALAD (22.1% increase) in general population. Our results contribute to growing evidence that ALAD activity may be used as one of the earliest and sensitive diagnostic biomarkers of low-level Pb exposure.

  18. The margin of exposure to formaldehyde in alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Monakhova, Yulia B; Jendral, Julien A; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2012-06-01

    Formaldehyde has been classified as carcinogenic to humans (WHO IARC group 1). It causes leukaemia and nasopharyngeal cancer, and was described to regularly occur in alcoholic beverages. However, its risk associated with consumption of alcohol has not been systematically studied, so this study will provide the first risk assessment of formaldehyde for consumers of alcoholic beverages.Human dietary intake of formaldehyde via alcoholic beverages in the European Union was estimated based on WHO alcohol consumption data and literature on formaldehyde contents of different beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits, and unrecorded alcohol). The risk assessment was conducted using the margin of exposure (MOE) approach with benchmark doses (BMD) for 10 % effect obtained from dose-response modelling of animal experiments.For tumours in male rats, a BMD of 30 mg kg(-1) body weight per day and a "BMD lower confidence limit" (BMDL) of 23 mg kg(-1) d(-1) were calculated from available long-term animal experiments. The average human exposure to formaldehyde from alcoholic beverages was estimated at 8·10(-5) mg kg(-1) d(-1). Comparing the human exposure with BMDL, the resulting MOE was above 200,000 for average scenarios. Even in the worst-case scenarios, the MOE was never below 10,000, which is considered to be the threshold for public health concerns.The risk assessment shows that the cancer risk from formaldehyde to the alcohol-consuming population is negligible and the priority for risk management (e.g. to reduce the contamination) is very low. The major risk in alcoholic beverages derives from ethanol and acetaldehyde.

  19. Alcohol exposure in utero perturbs retinoid homeostasis in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youn-Kyung; Zuccaro, Michael V.; Zhang, Changqing; Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol exposure and adult alcohol intake have been shown to perturb the metabolism of various micro- and macro-nutrients, including vitamin A and its derivatives (retinoids). Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the well-known detrimental consequences of alcohol consumption may be due to deregulations of the metabolism of such nutrients rather than to a direct effect of alcohol. Alcohol exposure in utero also has long-term harmful consequences on the health of the offspring with mechanisms that have not been fully clarified. Disruption of tissue retinoid homeostasis has been linked not only to abnormal embryonic development, but also to various adult pathological conditions, including cancer, metabolic disorders and abnormal lung function. We hypothesized that prenatal alcohol exposure may permanently perturb tissue retinoid metabolism, predisposing the offspring to adult chronic diseases. Methods Serum and tissues (liver, lung and prostate from males; liver and lung from females) were collected from 60-75 day-old sprague dawley rats born from dams that were: (I) fed a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol between gestational day 7 and 21; or (II) pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet during the same gestational window; or (III) fed ad libitum with regular rat chow diet throughout pregnancy. Serum and tissue retinoid levels were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Serum retinol-binding protein (RBP) levels were measured by western blot analysis, and liver, lung and prostate mRNA levels of lecithin-retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) were measured by qPCR. Results Retinyl ester levels were significantly reduced in the lung of both males and females, as well as in the liver and ventral prostate of males born from alcohol-fed dams. Tissue LRAT mRNA levels remained unchanged upon maternal alcohol treatment. Conclusions Prenatal alcohol exposure in rats affects retinoid metabolism in adult life, in a tissue- and sex

  20. SOURCES AND PATHWAYS OF LEAD EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure is defined here as the amount of a substance that comes into contact with an absorbing surface during a specified period of time. The normal units of exposure are expressed as micrograms per day. The two components of exposure are the concentration of the substance in ...

  1. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers. PMID:21477057

  2. Exposure to alcohol commercials in movie theaters affects actual alcohol consumption in young adult high weekly drinkers: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-01-01

    The present pilot study examined the effects of alcohol commercials shown in movie theaters on the alcohol consumption of young adults who see these commercials. A two (alcohol commercials vs. nonalcohol commercials) by two (high weekly alcohol consumption vs. low weekly alcohol consumption) between-participant design was used, in which 184 young adults (age: 16-28 years) were exposed to a movie that was preceded by either alcohol commercials or nonalcohol commercials. Participants' actual alcohol consumption while watching the movie ("Watchmen") was examined. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted to examine the effects of the commercial condition on alcohol consumption. An interaction effect was found between commercial condition and weekly alcohol consumption (p < .001). Alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol drinkers was higher in the alcohol commercial condition than in the nonalcohol commercial condition, whereas no differences were found in alcohol consumption between commercial conditions among low weekly alcohol drinkers. No gender differences were found in the association between exposure to alcohol commercials, weekly drinking, and alcohol use. Thus, exposure to alcohol commercials prior to a movie in a movie theater can directly influence alcohol consumption among high weekly alcohol consumers.

  3. Embryonic alcohol exposure: Towards the development of a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Gerlai, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a devastating disease of the brain caused by exposure to alcohol during prenatal development. Its prevalence exceeds 1%. The majority of FASD cases represent the milder forms of the disease which often remain undiagnosed, and even when diagnosed treatment options for the patient are limited due to lack of information about the mechanisms that underlie the disease. The zebrafish has been proposed as a model organism for exploring the mechanisms of FASD. Our laboratory has been studying the effects of low doses of alcohol during embryonic development in the zebrafish. This review discusses the methods of alcohol exposure, its effects on behavioral performance including social behavior and learning, and the potential underlying biological mechanisms in zebrafish. It is based upon a recent keynote address delivered by the author, and it focuses on findings obtained mainly in his own laboratory. It paints a promising future of this small vertebrate in FASD research.

  4. Conditioned learning in alcohol dependence: implications for cue exposure treatment.

    PubMed

    Drummond, D C; Cooper, T; Glautier, S P

    1990-06-01

    A review of the literature pertinent to cue exposure treatment in alcohol dependence is presented. Psychological models of relapse, based on conditioning and social learning theories, are critically evaluated. In particular, attention is drawn to the potential implications for cue exposure research and treatment of an interaction between Pavlovian and operant conditioning, problems with the application of the concepts of arousal and craving and the importance of a systems model to understand physiological responses. It is concluded that no study has so far demonstrated a link between conditioned responses to alcohol-related cues and relapse, an assumption on which cue exposure treatment is based. Further, the evidence for the effectiveness of cue exposure as a treatment is lacking. Promising research directions are identified.

  5. Lead exposure in US worksites: A literature review and development of an occupational lead exposure database from the published literature

    PubMed Central

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Locke, Sarah J.; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Purdue, Mark P.; Friesen, Melissa C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Retrospective exposure assessment of occupational lead exposure in population-based studies requires historical exposure information from many occupations and industries. Methods We reviewed published US exposure monitoring studies to identify lead exposure measurement data. We developed an occupational lead exposure database from the 175 identified papers containing 1,111 sets of lead concentration summary statistics (21% area air, 47% personal air, 32% blood). We also extracted ancillary exposure-related information, including job, industry, task/location, year collected, sampling strategy, control measures in place, and sampling and analytical methods. Results Measurements were published between 1940 and 2010 and represented 27 2-digit standardized industry classification codes. The majority of the measurements were related to lead-based paint work, joining or cutting metal using heat, primary and secondary metal manufacturing, and lead acid battery manufacturing. Conclusions This database can be used in future statistical analyses to characterize differences in lead exposure across time, jobs, and industries. PMID:25968240

  6. Prenatal choline supplementation mitigates the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on development in rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer D; Abou, Elizabeth J; Dominguez, Hector D

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of physical, neurological, and behavioral alterations referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Variability in outcome observed among children with FASD is likely related to various pre- and postnatal factors, including nutritional variables. Choline is an essential nutrient that influences brain and behavioral development. Recent animal research indicates that prenatal choline supplementation leads to long-lasting cognitive enhancement, as well as changes in brain morphology, electrophysiology and neurochemistry. The present study examined whether choline supplementation during ethanol exposure effectively reduces fetal alcohol effects. Pregnant dams were exposed to 6.0g/kg/day ethanol via intubation from gestational days (GD) 5-20; pair-fed and lab chow controls were included. During treatment, subjects from each group received choline chloride (250mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Physical development and behavioral development (righting reflex, geotactic reflex, cliff avoidance, reflex suspension and hindlimb coordination) were examined. Subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol exhibited reduced birth weight and brain weight, delays in eye opening and incisor emergence, and alterations in the development of all behaviors. Choline supplementation significantly attenuated ethanol's effects on birth and brain weight, incisor emergence, and most behavioral measures. In fact, behavioral performance of ethanol-exposed subjects treated with choline did not differ from that of controls. Importantly, choline supplementation did not influence peak blood alcohol level or metabolism, indicating that choline's effects were not due to differential alcohol exposure. These data indicate early dietary supplements may reduce the severity of some fetal alcohol effects, findings with important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  7. Biological tests of lead absorption following a brief massive exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.K.

    1984-07-01

    A contractor's man suffered a brief, massive exposure to lead fume by contaminating and then smoking hand-rolled cigarettes. His blood lead concentration rose very rapidly to very high levels, but zinc erythrocyte protoporphyrin, urinary lead, and urinary coproporphyrin did not. It is possible that only the blood lead concentration is of value in detecting brief massive exposure.

  8. Effects of developmental alcohol and valproic acid exposure on play behavior of ferrets.

    PubMed

    Krahe, Thomas E; Filgueiras, Claudio C; Medina, Alexandre E

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to alcohol and valproic acid (VPA) during pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal valproate syndrome, respectively. Altered social behavior is a hallmark of both these conditions and there is ample evidence showing that developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA affect social behavior in rodents. However, results from rodent models are somewhat difficult to translate to humans owing to the substantial differences in brain development, morphology, and connectivity. Since the cortex folding pattern is closely related to its specialization and that social behavior is strongly influenced by cortical structures, here we studied the effects of developmental alcohol and VPA exposure on the play behavior of the ferret, a gyrencephalic animal known for its playful nature. Animals were injected with alcohol (3.5g/kg, i.p.), VPA (200mg/kg, i.p.) or saline (i.p) every other day during the brain growth spurt period, between postnatal days 10 and 30. The play behavior of pairs of the same experimental group was evaluated 3 weeks later. Both treatments induced significant behavioral differences compared to controls. Alcohol and VPA exposed ferrets played less than saline treated ones, but while animals from the alcohol group displayed a delay in start playing with each other, VPA treated ones spent most of the time close to one another without playing. These findings not only extend previous results on the effects of developmental exposure to alcohol and VPA on social behavior, but make the ferret a great model to study the underlying mechanisms of social interaction. PMID:27208641

  9. [Exposure to phtalates and their presence in alcoholic beverages].

    PubMed

    Jurica, Karlo; Uršulin-Trstenjak, Natalija; Vukić Lušić, Darija; Lušić, Dražen; Smit, Zdenko

    2013-06-01

    Phthalates are phthalic acid and aliphatic alcohol esters used as additives to plastic in order to improve its softness, flexibility, and elongation. Phthalates are highly mobile and migrate easily from plastic products into the environment due to their physical and chemical properties. This study briefly describes the characteristics and distribution of phthalates in the environment, their toxic effects on human health, the legislation regarding the maximum allowed concentration of phthalates in drinking water and products intended for infants, as well as the tolerable daily intake. Special attention is given to the methods of determining phthalates and their levels in alcoholic beverages, with an overview of phthalate occurrences and concentrations in plum brandy made in Croatia. A segment on denatured alcohol and illegally marketed alcohol is also included, as well as guidelines for the effective monitoring of the routes of human exposure to phthalates.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Adult Brain Plasticity. Science Briefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2007

    2007-01-01

    "Science Briefs" summarize the findings and implications of a recent study in basic science or clinical research. This Brief summarizes the findings and implications of "Moderate Fetal Alcohol Exposure Impairs the Neurogenic Response to an Enriched Environment in Adult Mice" (I. Y. Choi; A. M. Allan; and L. A. Cunningham). Observations of mice…

  11. Renal insufficiency associated with excessive lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, B C; Beattie, A D; Moore, M R; Goldberg, A; Reid, A G

    1977-01-01

    Water lead concentrations were measured in 970 households throughout Scotland. Blood lead concentrations were measured in 283 people living in houses with water lead levels of over 0-48 mumol/l (100 mug/l). A highly significant correlation was found between lead concentrations in water and blood. Raised blood lead concentrations were associated with renal insufficiency, reflected in raised serum urea concentrations, and with hyperuricaemia, although there was no evidence of clinical disease in any of the affected people. This is further evidence that excessive lead in domestic water supplies has a harmful effect on the community's health. PMID:837171

  12. Racial differences in Urban children's environmental exposures to lead.

    PubMed Central

    Lanphear, B P; Weitzman, M; Eberly, S

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study explored whether differences in environmental lead exposures explain the racial disparity in children's blood lead levels. METHODS: Environmental sources of lead were identified for a random sample of 172 urban children. RESULTS: Blood lead levels were significantly higher among Black children. Lead-contamination of dust was higher in Black children's homes, and the condition of floors and interior paint was generally poorer. White children were more likely to put soil in their mouths and to suck their fingers, whereas Black children were more likely to put their mouths on window sills and to use a bottle. Major contributors to blood lead were interior lead exposures for Black children and exterior lead exposures for White children. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in housing conditions and exposures to lead-contaminated house dust contribute strongly to the racial disparity in urban children's blood lead levels. PMID:8876521

  13. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to <2% at Lac Qui Parle WMA, Minnesota, a steel shot zone since 1980. On the wintering grounds at Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  14. Incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island: a population-based descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    Bryanton, Janet; Boswall, Diane; McCarthy, Mary Jean; Fraser, Bonnie; Walsh, Donna; Freeman, Bridget; Koren, Gideon; Bigsby, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    Background Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a leading preventable cause of neurodevelopmental disability in North America. The stigma associated with alcohol use and abuse during pregnancy makes it difficult to obtain information on prenatal alcohol use through self-reporting. We assessed the incidence of prenatal alcohol exposure in Prince Edward Island to facilitate future public health initiatives addressing FASD. Methods Prenatal alcohol exposure was examined via population-based collection of meconium and analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). Fatty acid ethyl esters are nonoxidative metabolites of ethanol that are produced in the fetus. Meconium FAEE concentrations of 2.0 nmol/g or greater are indicative of frequent prenatal alcohol exposure during the last 2 trimesters of pregnancy. Samples were collected from 1307 neonates between Nov. 8, 2010, and Nov. 8, 2011, in hospitals in PEI, or from those born to mothers who resided in PEI but gave birth in Halifax, Nova Scotia. Samples were frozen and shipped for analysis. Fatty acid ethyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry and quantified by means of deuterated internal standards. Results Of the 1307 samples collected, 1271 samples were successfully analyzed. Positive results for FAEEs were obtained in 3.1% (n = 39) of samples collected within the first 24 hours after birth. Interpretation Not all neonates exposed to heavy prenatal alcohol in utero will exhibit FASD; based on current estimates of predictive value for disease by exposure, our findings suggest that 1.3% of neonates born in PEI during this 1-year period will have FASD. In its application to an entire provincial birth cohort, this study successfully implemented a public health–centred approach for evaluating population-based risk of FASD, with implications for practice across Canada. PMID:25077128

  15. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 3. Lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Sanborn, Margaret D.; Abelsohn, Alan; Campbell, Monica; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    LEAD LEVELS IN NORTH AMERICAN CHILDREN AND ADULTS have declined in the past 3 decades, but lead persists in the environment in lead paint, old plumbing and contaminated soil. There are also a number of occupations and hobbies that carry a high risk of lead exposure. There is no evidence for a threshold below which lead has no adverse health effects. Blood lead levels previously considered safe are now known to cause subtle, chronic health effects. The health effects of lead exposure include developmental neurotoxicity, reproductive dysfunction and toxicity to the kidneys, blood and endocrine systems. Most lead exposures are preventable, and diagnosing lead poisoning is relatively simple compared with diagnosing health effects of exposures to other environmental toxins. Accurate assessment of lead poisoning requires specific knowledge of the sources, high-risk groups and relevant laboratory tests. In this article we review the multiple, systemic toxic effects of lead and provide current information on groups at risk, prevention, diagnosis and clinical treatment. We illustrate how the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) and specific screening questions are useful tools for physicians to quickly obtain an environmental exposure history and identify patients at high risk of lead exposure. By applying effective primary prevention, case-finding and treatment interventions for lead exposure, both the individual patient and the larger community reap the benefits of better health. PMID:12041847

  16. Alcohol Environment, Perceived Safety, and Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Bradshaw, CP; Webster, DW; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between the count of alcohol outlets around children's homes and opportunities to use alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) during pre-adolescence. Data were collected in 2007 from 394 Baltimore City children aged 8-13 (86% African American). Participants' residential address and alcohol outlet data were geocoded with quarter mile (i.e., walking distance) buffers placed around each participant's home to determine the number of outlets within walking distance. The unadjusted logistic regression models revealed that each unit increase in the number of alcohol outlets was associated with a 14% increase in the likelihood of children seeing people selling drugs (OR=1.14, p=.04) and a 15% increase in the likelihood of seeing people smoking marijuana (OR=1.15, p<.01). After adjusting for neighborhood physical disorder, the relationship between alcohol outlets and seeing people selling drugs and seeing people smoking marijuana was fully attenuated. These results suggest that alcohol outlets are one aspect of the larger environmental context that is related to ATOD exposure in children. Future studies should examine the complex relationship between neighborhood physical disorder and the presence of alcohol outlets. PMID:25125766

  17. Developmental ethanol exposure leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L

    2014-11-11

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD.

  18. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  19. Developmental ethanol exposure leads to dysregulation of lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  20. Occupational and environmental human lead exposure in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Paoliello, M.M.B. . E-mail: monibas@sercomtel.com.br; De Capitani, E.M.

    2007-02-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present a review of data on assessment of exposure and adverse effects due to environmental and occupational lead exposure in Brazil. Epidemiological investigations on children lead exposure around industrial and mining areas have shown that lead contamination is an actual source of concern. Lead in gasoline has been phasing out since the 1980s, and it is now completely discontinued. The last lead mining and lead refining plant was closed in 1995, leaving residual environmental lead contamination which has recently been investigated using a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, there are hundreds of small battery recycling plants and secondary smelting facilities all over the country, which produce focal urban areas of lead contamination. Current regulatory limits for workplace lead exposure have shown to be inadequate as safety limits according to a few studies carried out lately.

  1. Soil is an important pathway of human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mielke, H W; Reagan, P L

    1998-01-01

    This review shows the equal or greater importance of leaded gasoline-contaminated dust compared to lead-based paint to the child lead problem, and that soil lead, resulting from leaded gasoline and pulverized lead-based paint, is at least or more important than lead-based paint (intact and not pulverized) as a pathway of human lead exposure. Because lead-based paint is a high-dose source, the biologically relevant dosage is similar to lead in soil. Both lead-based paint and soil lead are associated with severe lead poisoning. Leaded gasoline and lead in food, but not lead-based paint, are strongly associated with population blood lead levels in both young children and adults. Soil lead and house dust, but not lead-based paint, are associated with population blood lead levels in children. Most soil lead and house dust are associated with leaded gasoline. Lead-based paint dust is associated with cases of renovation of either exterior or interior environments in which the paint was pulverized. Based upon the limited data to date, abatement of soil lead is more effective than abatement of lead-based paint in reducing blood lead levels of young children. About equal numbers of children under 7 years of age are exposed to soil lead and lead-based paint. Seasonality studies point to soil lead as the main source of population blood lead levels. Soil lead is a greater risk factor than lead-based paint to children engaged in hand-to-mouth and pica behavior. In summary, soil lead is important for addressing the population of children at risk of lead poisoning. When soil lead is acknowledged by regulators and the public health community as an important pathway of human lead exposure, then more effective opportunities for improving primary lead prevention can become a reality. Images Figure 1 PMID:9539015

  2. Decrements in neurobehavioral performance associated with mixed exposure to organic and inorganic lead.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Bolla, K I; Stewart, W; Ford, D P; Agnew, J; Frumkin, H

    1993-05-01

    In 1990, 222 current employees of a chemical facility in the eastern United States that manufactured tetraethyl lead were administered a neurobehavioral test battery, tests of olfactory function and peripheral vibration threshold, and questionnaires that assessed neuropsychiatric symptoms. A cumulative variable of exposure to inorganic and organic lead was derived from 12 years of personal industrial hygiene sampling data and an occupational history interview that assessed work in each of 29 exposure zones in the lead area. The range of assigned exposure intensities in these 29 zones was 4-119 micrograms/m3 for organic lead and 1-56 micrograms/m3 for inorganic lead. Cumulative lead exposure and exposure duration were defined as categorical variables (four groups) in multiple linear regression models. The adjusted mean differences in neurobehavioral test scores were estimated by comparing the average scores of the moderate, high, and highest exposure groups with the low exposure (reference) group. After adjustment for premorbid intellectual ability, age, race, and alcohol consumption, neurobehavioral test scores were poorer as measures of both cumulative lead exposure and exposure duration increased; many of the associations evidenced dose-response relations. Associations were observed in most cognitive and functional domains tested, but were most common in two domains: manual dexterity and verbal memory/learning. On the affected neuropsychologic measures, the groups with the highest exposure averaged scores 5-22% lower than those of the reference groups. Overall, the data revealed generally consistent and coherent associations between two measures of lead exposure and poorer neurobehavioral test performance. PMID:8317446

  3. Lead Exposure and Cardiovascular Disease—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Navas-Acien, Ana; Guallar, Eliseo; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Rothenberg, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective This systematic review evaluates the evidence on the association between lead exposure and cardiovascular end points in human populations. Methods We reviewed all observational studies from database searches and citations regarding lead and cardiovascular end points. Results A positive association of lead exposure with blood pressure has been identified in numerous studies in different settings, including prospective studies and in relatively homogeneous socioeconomic status groups. Several studies have identified a dose–response relationship. Although the magnitude of this association is modest, it may be underestimated by measurement error. The hypertensive effects of lead have been confirmed in experimental models. Beyond hypertension, studies in general populations have identified a positive association of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes (cardiovascular, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality; and peripheral arterial disease), but the number of studies is small. In some studies these associations were observed at blood lead levels < 5 μg/dL. Conclusions We conclude that the evidence is sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with hypertension. We conclude that the evidence is suggestive but not sufficient to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with clinical cardiovascular outcomes. There is also suggestive but insufficient evidence to infer a causal relationship of lead exposure with heart rate variability. Public Health Implications These findings have immediate public health implications. Current occupational safety standards for blood lead must be lowered and a criterion for screening elevated lead exposure needs to be established in adults. Risk assessment and economic analyses of lead exposure impact must include the cardiovascular effects of lead. Finally, regulatory and public health interventions must be developed and implemented to further prevent and reduce lead exposure. PMID:17431501

  4. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    PubMed

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead.

  5. Health hazards by lead exposure: evaluation using ASV and XRF.

    PubMed

    Herman, D'Souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; Scott, Clark C; Venkatesh, Thuppil

    2006-07-01

    Globally, of many toxic heavy metals, lead is the most widely used for various purposes, resulting in a variety of health hazards due to environmental contamination. Lead in the workplace enters the workers through inhalation of lead-contaminated air, by ingestion, and sometimes through dermal exposure. Furthermore, exposure outside the workplace can occur from inhalation of lead-contaminated air, ingestion of lead-contaminated dust and soil, consumption of lead polluted water, lead adulterated food and lead supplemented medicine. In the present study, an evaluation of blood lead was carried out with the aid of a 3010 B lead analyser, based on the principle of anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), and environmental lead in paint, soil and dust samples by a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. This revealed a high incidence of lead toxicity in most of the lead-based industrial workers in the four facilities tested in India and high levels of lead in the environmental samples. Developed countries have complied with the global standards for regulating environmental lead poisoning in the workplace, eliminating to some degree excessive exposure to lead. A developing country, such as India, can tackle this problem by implementing national and international policies. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, which are of prime importance, or similar regulations, can be adapted for use in India and implemented to minimize lead exposure and to reduce the resultant health hazards.

  6. ADOLESCENT ALCOHOL EXPOSURE: ARE THERE SEPARABLE VULNERABLE PERIODS WITHIN ADOLESCENCE?

    PubMed Central

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-01-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  7. Adolescent alcohol exposure: Are there separable vulnerable periods within adolescence?

    PubMed

    Spear, Linda Patia

    2015-09-01

    There are two key alcohol use patterns among human adolescents that confer increased vulnerability for later alcohol abuse/dependence, along with neurocognitive alterations: (a) early initiation of use during adolescence, and (b) high rates of binge drinking that are particularly prevalent late in adolescence. The central thesis of this review is that lasting neurobehavioral outcomes of these two adolescent exposure patterns may differ. Although it is difficult to disentangle consequences of early use from later binge drinking in human studies given the substantial overlap between groups, these two types of problematic adolescent use are differentially heritable and hence separable to some extent. Although few studies using animal models have manipulated alcohol exposure age, those studies that have have typically observed timing-specific exposure effects, with more marked (or at least different patterns of) lasting consequences evident after exposures during early-mid adolescence than late-adolescence/emerging adulthood, and effects often restricted to male rats in those few instances where sex differences have been explored. As one example, adult male rats exposed to ethanol during early-mid adolescence (postnatal days [P] 25-45) were found to be socially anxious and to retain adolescent-typical ethanol-induced social facilitation into adulthood, effects that were not evident after exposure during late-adolescence/emerging adulthood (P45-65); exposure at the later interval, however, induced lasting tolerance to ethanol's social inhibitory effects that was not evident after exposure early in adolescence. Females, in contrast, were little influenced by ethanol exposure at either interval. Exposure timing effects have likewise been reported following social isolation as well as after repeated exposure to other drugs such as nicotine (and cannabinoids), with effects often, although not always, more pronounced in males where studied. Consistent with these timing

  8. Fetal alcohol exposure and mammary tumorigenesis in offspring: role of the estrogen and insulin-like growth factor systems.

    PubMed

    Cohick, Wendie S; Crismale-Gann, Catina; Stires, Hillary; Katz, Tiffany A

    2015-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders affect a significant number of live births each year, indicating that alcohol consumption during pregnancy is an important public health issue. Environmental exposures and lifestyle choices during pregnancy may affect the offspring's risk of disease in adulthood, leading to the idea that a woman's risk of breast cancer may be pre-programmed prior to birth. Exposure of pregnant rats to alcohol increases tumorigenesis in the adult offspring in response to mammary carcinogens. The estrogen and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) axes occupy central roles in normal mammary gland development and breast cancer. 17-β estradiol (E2) and IGF-I synergize to regulate formation of terminal end buds and ductal elongation during pubertal development. The intracellular signaling pathways mediated by the estrogen and IGF-I receptors cross-talk at multiple levels through both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms. Several components of the E2 and IGF-I systems are altered in early development in rat offspring exposed to alcohol in utero, therefore, these changes may play a role in the enhanced susceptibility to mammary carcinogens observed in adulthood. Alcohol exposure in utero induces a number of epigenetic alterations in non-mammary tissues in the offspring and other adverse in utero exposures induce epigenetic modifications in the mammary gland. Future studies will determine if fetal alcohol exposure can induce epigenetic modifications in genes that regulate E2/IGF action at key phases of mammary development, ultimately leading to changes in susceptibility to carcinogens.

  9. Lead exposures in the human environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Humans consume lead by inhaling air, drinking beverages, eating food and ingesting dust. The natural source of this lead is primarily soil. Anthropogenic sources are lead in gasoline, fossil fuels and industrial products and processes. Lead is ubiquitous in the human environment, and pinpointing the primary sources of lead in any particular environmental component is difficult. Nevertheless, our purpose is to describe the total exposure of humans to environmental lead and to determine the sources of lead contributing to this exposure. The total exposure is the total amount of lead consumed by ingestion and inhalation. Excluding lead exposure from choice or circumstance, a baseline level of potential human exposure can be defined for a normal individual eating a typical diet and living in a non-urban community remote from industrial sources of lead in a house without lead-based paints. Beyond this level, additive exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational and smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g. pica, smoking, drinking and hobbies), with variation for age, sex or socioeconomic status.

  10. Comparative risk assessment of carcinogens in alcoholic beverages using the margin of exposure approach.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Przybylski, Maria C; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-09-15

    Alcoholic beverages have been classified as carcinogenic to humans. As alcoholic beverages are multicomponent mixtures containing several carcinogenic compounds, a quantitative approach is necessary to compare the risks. Fifteen known and suspected human carcinogens (acetaldehyde, acrylamide, aflatoxins, arsenic, benzene, cadmium, ethanol, ethyl carbamate, formaldehyde, furan, lead, 4-methylimidazole, N-nitrosodimethylamine, ochratoxin A and safrole) occurring in alcoholic beverages were identified based on monograph reviews by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach was used for comparative risk assessment. MOE compares a toxicological threshold with the exposure. MOEs above 10,000 are judged as low priority for risk management action. MOEs were calculated for different drinking scenarios (low risk and heavy drinking) and different levels of contamination for four beverage groups (beer, wine, spirits and unrecorded alcohol). The lowest MOEs were found for ethanol (3.1 for low risk and 0.8 for heavy drinking). Inorganic lead and arsenic have average MOEs between 10 and 300, followed by acetaldehyde, cadmium and ethyl carbamate between 1,000 and 10,000. All other compounds had average MOEs above 10,000 independent of beverage type. Ethanol was identified as the most important carcinogen in alcoholic beverages, with clear dose response. Some other compounds (lead, arsenic, ethyl carbamate, acetaldehyde) may pose risks below thresholds normally tolerated for food contaminants, but from a cost-effectiveness point of view, the focus should be on reducing alcohol consumption in general rather than on mitigative measures for some contaminants that contribute only to a limited extent (if at all) to the total health risk.

  11. Is It Important to Prevent Early Exposure to Drugs and Alcohol Among Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Odgers, Candice L.; Caspi, Avshalom; Nagin, Daniel S.; Piquero, Alex R.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Milne, Barry J.; Dickson, Nigel; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to alcohol and illicit drugs during early adolescence has been associated with poor outcomes in adulthood. However, many adolescents with exposure to these substances also have a history of conduct problems, which raises the question of whether early exposure to alcohol and drugs leads to poor outcomes only for those adolescents who are already at risk. In a 30-year prospective study, we tested whether there was evidence that early substance exposure can be a causal factor for adolescents’ future lives. After propensity-score matching, early-exposed adolescents remained at an increased risk for a number of poor outcomes. Approximately 50% of adolescents exposed to alcohol and illicit drugs prior to age 15 had no conduct-problem history, yet were still at an increased risk for adult substance dependence, herpes infection, early pregnancy, and crime. Efforts to reduce or delay early substance exposure may prevent a wide range of adult health problems and should not be restricted to adolescents who are already at risk. PMID:19000215

  12. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

  13. Neurotoxicity and biomarkers of lead exposure: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kang-sheng; Hao, Jia-hu; Zeng, Yu; Dai, Fan-chun; Gu, Ping-qing

    2013-09-01

    Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Lead is one of the neurotoxicants that seems to be involved in the etiology of psychologies. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.The main body compartments that store lead are the blood, soft tissues, and bone; the half-life of lead in these tissues is measured in weeks for blood, months for soft tissues, and years for bone. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer's disease, Parkinsons disease, and schizophrenia. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children and adults.

  14. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Persistently Impacts Adult Neurobiology and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Vetreno, Ryan P.; Broadwater, Margaret A.; Robinson, Donita L.

    2016-01-01

    to alcohol into adulthood. Together, these findings support the hypothesis that adolescent binge drinking leads to long-lasting changes in the adult brain that increase risks of adult psychopathology, particularly for alcohol dependence. PMID:27677720

  15. Lead exposure increases blood pressure by increasing angiotensinogen expression.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jiandong; Wang, Miaomiao; Wang, Yiqing; Sun, Na; Li, Chunping

    2016-01-01

    Lead exposure can induce increased blood pressure. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain lead-induced hypertension. Changes in angiotensinogen (AGT) expression levels or gene variants may also influence blood pressure. In this study, we hypothesized that AGT expression levels or gene variants contribute to lead-induced hypertension. A preliminary HEK293 cell model experiment was performed to analyze the association between AGT expression and lead exposure. In a population-based study, serum AGT level was measured in both lead-exposed and control populations. To further detect the influence of AGT gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in lead-induced hypertension, two SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) were genotyped in a case-control study including 219 lead-exposed subjects and 393 controls. Lead exposure caused an increase in AGT expression level in HEK 293 cell models (P < 0.001) compared to lead-free cells, and individuals exposed to lead had higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Lead-exposed individuals had higher serum AGT levels compared to controls (P < 0.001). However, no association was found between AGT gene SNPs (rs699 and rs4762) and lead exposure. Nevertheless, the change in AGT expression level may play an important role in the development of lead-induced hypertension.

  16. Association of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Gestational Alcohol Exposure: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatara, Vinod; Loudenberg, Roland; Ellis, Roland

    2006-01-01

    Objective and methods: To explore association between prevalence of ADHD and levels of risk for gestational alcohol exposure, the authors reviewed the charts of 2,231 youth referred for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Participants were categorized into four groups by different levels of risk for gestational alcohol exposure. For each group, the…

  17. Chronic Ethanol Exposure Effects on Vitamin D Levels Among Subjects with Alcohol Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Ogunsakin, Olalekan; Hottor, Tete; Mehta, Ashish; Lichtveld, Maureen; McCaskill, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37. Alcohol-mediated reduction of LL-37 may be partly responsible for increased incidence of more frequent and severe respiratory infections among subjects with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which alcohol exerts its influence on vitamin D metabolism. In addition, the aim was to establish associations between chronic alcohol exposures, levels of pulmonary vitamin D, and cathelicidin/LL-37 using broncho-alveolar lavage fluid samples of subjects with AUD and healthy controls. Findings from the experiment showed that levels of inactive vitamin D (25(OH)D3), active vitamin D (1, 25(OH)2D3), cathelicidin/LL-37, and CYP27B1 proteins were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) when compared with the matched healthy control group. However, CYP2E1 was elevated in all the samples examined. Chronic exposure to alcohol has the potential to reduce the levels of pulmonary vitamin D and results in subsequent downregulation of the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, in the human pulmonary system. PMID:27795667

  18. The management of lead exposure in pediatric populations

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, P.O.; Lewis, D.A. )

    1990-12-01

    Chronically elevated lead levels are a common problem affecting children. Although this problem occurs most frequently in the inner city, no community is safe from excessive pediatric lead exposure. Screening by erythrocyte protoporphyrin is a sensitive early indicator of rising lead levels. A Centers for Disease Control report recommends that all children be screened starting at 9 to 12 months. A classification system of various lead levels helps determine proper treatment. Health care practitioners need to be well-informed about lead exposure and how it occurs in order to educate parents. 10 refs.

  19. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors; they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities, lead absorption occurs more readily in a child compared to an adult, and the child's development i...

  20. DIETARY EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN LEAD-LADEN ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Children are the most susceptible population to lead exposure because of three interacting factors: they have more opportunity for contact with lead sources due to their activities; lead absorption occurs more readily in a child as compared to an adult; and the child's developmen...

  1. Prenatal alcohol exposure: An assessment strategy for the legal context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie Novick; Burd, Larry; Grant, Therese; Edwards, William; Adler, Richard; Streissguth, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have shown that people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have the kind of brain damage that increases risk of criminal behavior. Thus, it is generally accepted that FASD is likely to affect a sizable minority of individuals involved in the justice system. Most of these defendants have never been diagnosed because they lack the facial abnormalities and severe intellectual deficiency that would have improved identification and diagnosis in childhood. Despite the fact that an FASD diagnosis and associated cognitive deficits may be directly relevant to offense conduct and post-arrest capacities, screening for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by legal teams remains relatively rare. This article addresses the relatively straightforward screening process with strategies that may be used singly or in combination to produce information that can establish PAE and provide a foundation for diagnostic assessment by medical and mental health experts. PMID:26338492

  2. Prenatal alcohol exposure: An assessment strategy for the legal context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Natalie Novick; Burd, Larry; Grant, Therese; Edwards, William; Adler, Richard; Streissguth, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Studies over the last two decades have shown that people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) have the kind of brain damage that increases risk of criminal behavior. Thus, it is generally accepted that FASD is likely to affect a sizable minority of individuals involved in the justice system. Most of these defendants have never been diagnosed because they lack the facial abnormalities and severe intellectual deficiency that would have improved identification and diagnosis in childhood. Despite the fact that an FASD diagnosis and associated cognitive deficits may be directly relevant to offense conduct and post-arrest capacities, screening for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) by legal teams remains relatively rare. This article addresses the relatively straightforward screening process with strategies that may be used singly or in combination to produce information that can establish PAE and provide a foundation for diagnostic assessment by medical and mental health experts.

  3. Biological monitoring of child lead exposure in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed Central

    Cikrt, M; Smerhovsky, Z; Blaha, K; Nerudova, J; Sediva, V; Fornuskova, H; Knotkova, J; Roth, Z; Kodl, M; Fitzgerald, E

    1997-01-01

    The area around the Pribram lead smelter has been recognized to be heavily contaminated by lead (Pb). In the early 1970s, several episodes of livestock lead intoxication were reported in this area; thereafter, several epidemiological and ecological studies focused on exposure of children. In contrast to earlier studies, the recent investigation (1992-1994) revealed significantly lower exposure to lead. From 1986-1990, recorded average blood lead levels were about 37.2 micrograms lead (Pb)/100 ml in an elementary school population living in a neighborhood close to the smelter (within 3 km of the plant). The present study, however, has found mean blood lead levels of 11.35 micrograms/100 ml (95% CI = 9.32; 13.82) among a comparable group of children. In addition to blood lead, tooth lead was used to assess exposure among children. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between the geometric mean tooth lead level of 6.44 micrograms Pb/g (n = 13; 95% CI = 3.95; 10.50) in the most contaminated zone and 1.43 micrograms Pb/g (n = 35; 95% CI = 1.11; 1.84) in zones farther away from the point source. Both biomarkers, blood and tooth lead levels, reflect a similar pattern of lead exposure in children. This study has attempted a quantitative assessment of risk factors associated with elevated lead exposure in the Czech Republic. Content of lead in soil, residential distance from the smelter, consumption of locally grown vegetables or fruits, drinking water from local wells, the mother's educational level, cigarette consumption among family members, and the number of children in the family were factors positively related (p < 0.05) to blood lead levels. The resulting blood lead level was found to be inversely proportional to the child's age. Images Figure 1. PMID:9189705

  4. Childhood Lead Exposure from Battery Recycling in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Daniell, William E.; Van Tung, Lo; Wallace, Ryan M.; Havens, Deborah J.; Karr, Catherine J.; Bich Diep, Nguyen; Croteau, Gerry A.; Beaudet, Nancy J.; Duy Bao, Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Background. Battery recycling facilities in developing countries can cause community lead exposure. Objective. To evaluate child lead exposure in a Vietnam battery recycling craft village after efforts to shift home-based recycling outside the village. Methods. This cross-sectional study evaluated 109 children in Dong Mai village, using blood lead level (BLL) measurement, parent interview, and household observation. Blood samples were analyzed with a LeadCare II field instrument; highest BLLs (≥45 μg/dL) were retested by laboratory analysis. Surface and soil lead were measured at 11 households and a school with X-ray fluorescence analyzer. Results. All children had high BLLs; 28% had BLL ≥45 μg/dL. Younger age, family recycling, and outside brick surfaces were associated with higher BLL. Surface and soil lead levels were high at all tested homes, even with no recycling history. Laboratory BLLs were lower than LeadCare BLLs, in 24 retested children. Discussion. In spite of improvements, lead exposure was still substantial and probably associated with continued home-based recycling, legacy contamination, and workplace take-home exposure pathways. There is a need for effective strategies to manage lead exposure from battery recycling in craft villages. These reported BLL values should be interpreted cautiously, although the observed field-laboratory discordance may reflect bias in laboratory results. PMID:26587532

  5. Lead exposure causes thyroid abnormalities in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zadjali, Salah Al; Nemmar, Abderrahim; Fahim, Mohamed Abdelmonem Ay; Azimullah, Sheikh; Subramanian, Dhanasekaran; Yasin, Javed; Amir, Naheed; Hasan, Mohammed Yousif; Adem, Abdu

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a widely-spread environmental pollutant and a commonly-used industrial chemical that can cause multisystemic adverse health effects. However, the effects of lead exposure on diabetic animals have not been reported so far. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of lead exposure on thyroid, renal and oxidative stress markers in diabetic Wistar rats. Diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of streptozocin (STZ). Six weeks later, rats were exposed i.p. to either distilled water (control group) or 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg of lead acetate (treatment groups). We found a positive relationship between the administered doses of lead acetate and its measured levels in blood samples (P < 0.01). Treatment of diabetic animals with lead acetate resulted in significant weight loss (P < 0.001). It also caused an increase in thyroid stimulating hormone levels (P < 0.05) and reductions in thyroxine (P < 0.05) and triiodothyronine levels (P < 0.01), a clinical picture consistent with hypothyroidism. Lead acetate exposure increased urea levels (P < 0.05) and caused a significant decrease in creatinine (P < 0.05). Besides, while the concentrations of malondialdehyde were not affected, glutathione stores were depleted (P < 0.01); in response to lead exposure. In conclusion, exposure of diabetic rats to lead acetate resulted in weight loss, clinical hypothyroidism, renal damage and oxidative stress. PMID:26221254

  6. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons. PMID:24411572

  7. Occupational exposure to airborne lead in Brazilian police officers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ernesto Díaz; Sarkis, Jorge E Souza; Carvalho, Maria de Fátima H; Santos, Gerson Vechio Dos; Canesso, Claudemir

    2014-07-01

    Shooting with lead-containing ammunition in indoor firing ranges is a known source of lead exposure in adults. Police officers may be at risk of lead intoxication when regular training shooting exercises are yearly mandatory to law enforcement officers. Effects on health must be documented, even when low-level elemental (inorganic) lead exposure is detected. Forty police officers (nineteen cadets and twenty-one instructors) responded to a questionnaire about health, shooting habits, and potential lead exposure before a training curse. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for blood lead level (BLL) before and after a three days training curse. The mean BLL for the instructors' group was 5.5 μg/dL ± 0.6. The mean BLL for the cadets' group before the training was 3.3 μg/dL ± 0.15 and after the training the main BLL was 18.2 μg/d L± 1.5. Samples were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). All the participants in the training curse had significantly increased BLL (mean increment about 15 μg/dL) after the three days indoor shooting season. In conclusion, occupational lead exposure in indoor firing ranges is a source of lead exposure in Brazilian police officers, and appears to be a health risk, especially when heavy weapons with lead-containing ammunition are used in indoor environments during the firing training seasons.

  8. Roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Kwon, Oh Sang; Song, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the roles of alcohol and tobacco exposure in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Chronic heavy alcohol exposure is a major risk factor for HCC, which is the most frequent type of liver cancer. Alcohol ingestion may initiate and or promote the development of HCC by: 1) acetaldehyde-DNA adduct formation; 2) cytochrome P4502E1-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and conversion of pro-carcinogens to carcinogens; 3) iron accumulation that leads to ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, p53 mutation, and initiation of inflammatory cascade via nuclear factor-KappaB (NF-kB) activation; 4) glutathione depletion leading to oxidative stress; 5) s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) depletion and associated DNA hypomethylation of oncogenes ; 6) retinoic acid depletion and resultant hepatocyte proliferation via up-regulation of activator protein-1 (AP-1); 7) initiating an inflammatory cascade through increased transfer of endotoxin from intestine to liver, Kupffer cell activation via CD14/toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4), oxidative stress, NF-kB or early growth response-1(Egr-1) activation, and generation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines; 8) induction of liver fibrosis; and 9) decreasing the number and/or function of Natural Killer cells. Tobacco exposure is also a risk factor for HCC. It may contribute to the initiation and promotion of HCC due the presence of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds as well as by causing oxidative stress due to generation of ROS and depletion of endogenous antioxidants. Simultaneous exposure to alcohol and tobacco is expected to promote the development of HCC in an additive and/or synergistic manner. PMID:23123447

  9. The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Factor-Litvak, P; Wasserman, G; Kline, J K; Graziano, J

    1999-01-01

    The Yugoslavia Prospective Study of environmental lead exposure has studied the associations between exposure to lead and pregnancy outcomes; childhood neuropsychological, behavioral, and physical development; and hematologic, renal, and cardiovascular function. The cohort comprises 577 children born to women recruited at midpregnancy in two towns in Kosovo, Yugoslavia; one town is the site of a lead smelter, refinery, and battery plant and the other is 25 miles away and relatively unexposed. A sample of these children has been followed at 6-month intervals through 7.5 years of age. Blood lead concentrations ranged from 1 to 70 microg/dl. Exposure to lead was not associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Exposure was associated with modest decrements in intelligence, small increases in blood pressure, higher risks of proteinuria, small increases in behavior problems, and perturbed hematopoiesis. Only at low level exposures (i.e., <16 microg/dl) were small associations with decreased height found. We discuss methodological problems that may hinder causal interpretation of these data, namely, use of blood lead concentration as an exposure measure, confounding, and town-specific associations. We conclude that while reported associations are small, collectively they lend support to the notion that lead is a toxicant with numerous adverse health effects. Images Figure 1 PMID:9872712

  10. Neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure elicits long-term changes to gene expression that alter distinct molecular pathways dependent on timing of exposure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maternal alcohol consumption is known to adversely affect fetal neurodevelopment. While it is known that alcohol dose and timing play a role in the cognitive and behavioral changes associated with prenatal alcohol exposure, it is unclear what developmental processes are disrupted that may lead to these phenotypes. Methods Mice (n=6 per treatment per developmental time) were exposed to two acute doses of alcohol (5 g/kg) at neurodevelopmental times representing the human first, second, or third trimester equivalent. Mice were reared to adulthood and changes to their adult brain transcriptome were assessed using expression arrays. These were then categorized based on Gene Ontology annotations, canonical pathway associations, and relationships to interacting molecules. Results The results suggest that ethanol disrupts biological processes that are actively occurring at the time of exposure. These include cell proliferation during trimester one, cell migration and differentiation during trimester two, and cellular communication and neurotransmission during trimester three. Further, although ethanol altered a distinct set of genes depending on developmental timing, many of these show interrelatedness and can be associated with one another via ‘hub’ molecules and pathways such as those related to huntingtin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Conclusions These changes to brain gene expression represent a ‘molecular footprint’ of neurodevelopmental alcohol exposure that is long-lasting and correlates with active processes disrupted at the time of exposure. This study provides further support that there is no neurodevelopmental time when alcohol cannot adversely affect the developing brain. PMID:23497526

  11. Chinese talismans as a source of lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Chan, C K; Ching, C K; Lau, F L; Lee, H K

    2014-08-01

    We describe a case of lead exposure after prolonged intake of ashes from burnt Chinese talismans. A 41-year-old woman presented with elevated blood lead level during screening for treatable causes of progressive weakness in her four limbs, clinically compatible with motor neuron disease. The source of lead exposure was confirmed to be Chinese talismans obtained from a religious practitioner in China. The patient was instructed to burn the Chinese talismans to ashes, and ingest the ashes dissolved in water, daily for about 1 month. Analysis of the Chinese talismans revealed a lead concentration of 17 342 µg/g (ppm). PMID:25104009

  12. Neuroplasticity of A-type potassium channel complexes induced by chronic alcohol exposure enhances dendritic calcium transients in hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Spencer, Kathryn B.; Hu, Wei; Kroener, Sven; Chandler, L. Judson

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Chronic alcohol-induced cognitive impairments and maladaptive plasticity of glutamatergic synapses are well-documented. However, it is unknown if prolonged alcohol exposure affects dendritic signaling that may underlie hippocampal dysfunction in alcoholics. Back-propagation of action potentials (bAPs) into apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons provides distance-dependent signals that modulate dendritic and synaptic plasticity. The amplitude of bAPs decreases with distance from the soma that is thought to reflect an increase in the density of Kv4.2 channels toward distal dendrites. Objective The aim of this study was to quantify changes in hippocampal Kv4.2 channel function and expression using electrophysiology, Ca2+ imaging, and western blot analyses in a well-characterized in-vitro model of chronic alcohol exposure. Results Chronic alcohol exposure significantly decreased expression of Kv4.2 channels and KChIP3 in hippocampus. This reduction was associated with an attenuation of macroscopic A-type K+ currents in CA1 neurons. Chronic alcohol exposure increased bAP-evoked Ca2+ transients in the distal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons. The enhanced bAP-evoked Ca2+ transients induced by chronic alcohol exposure were not related to alteration of synaptic targeting of NMDA receptors or morphological adaptations in apical dendritic arborization. Conclusions These data suggest that chronic alcohol-induced decreases in Kv4.2 channel function possibly mediated by a down-regulation of KChIP3, drive the elevated bAP-associated Ca2+ transients in distal apical dendrites. Alcohol-induced enhancement of bAPs may affect metaplasticity and signal integration in apical dendrites of hippocampal neurons leading to alterations in hippocampal function. PMID:25510858

  13. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p<0.05) positive correlations for (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb, and a significant negative correlation for (208)Pb/(206)Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  14. Control of excessive lead exposure in radiator repair workers.

    PubMed

    1991-03-01

    In 1988, 83 automotive repair workers with blood lead levels (BLLs) greater than 25 micrograms/dL were reported to state health departments in the seven states that collaborated with CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in maintaining registries of elevated BLLs in adults. In 18 (22%) of these 83 persons, BLLs were greater than 50 micrograms/dL. Among automotive repair workers for whom a job category was specified, radiator repair work was the principal source of lead exposure. The major sources of exposure for radiator repair workers are lead fumes generated during soldering and lead dust produced during radiator cleaning. This report summarizes current BLL surveillance data for radiator repair workers and describes three control technologies that are effective in reducing lead exposures in radiator repair shops.

  15. Study and models of total lead exposures of battery workers.

    PubMed

    Chavalitnitikul, C; Levin, L; Chen, L C

    1984-12-01

    In an attempt to establish a more realistic and reliable model for relating environmental exposure measurements to the biological indices of exposure, a study was undertaken to quantify the total sources of lead exposure among lead storage battery workers. In addition to the usual personal and area lead air sampling, quantitative and repeatable measurements of removable lead from work surfaces and the workers' hands and faces were obtained daily for ten consecutive work days in the pasting and battery assembly departments. Mathematical correlations of blood lead and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels as the dependent variable with the lead exposure sources were derived and demonstrated most strongly as log-log relationships. Statistical analyses by computer programming indicated that the airborne, hand, facial and work surface levels have a high degree of inter-correlation with a very significant positive individual correlation with blood lead levels and a somewhat lower correlation with ZPP. The results suggest that contaminated personal and work surfaces may play a more significant role in toxic occupational and environmental exposures, generally, than had heretofore been demonstrated or suspected. PMID:6517025

  16. Maternal L-glutamine supplementation prevents prenatal alcohol exposure-induced fetal growth restriction in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Onkar B; Wu, Guoyao; Washburn, Shannon E

    2015-06-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is known to cause fetal growth restriction and disturbances in amino acid bioavailability. Alterations in these parameters can persist into adulthood and low birth weight can lead to altered fetal programming. Glutamine has been associated with the synthesis of other amino acids, an increase in protein synthesis and it is used clinically as a nutrient supplement for low birth weight infants. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of repeated maternal alcohol exposure and L-glutamine supplementation on fetal growth and amino acid bioavailability during the third trimester-equivalent period in an ovine model. Pregnant sheep were randomly assigned to four groups, saline control, alcohol (1.75-2.5 g/kg), glutamine (100 mg/kg, three times daily) or alcohol + glutamine. In this study, a weekend binge drinking model was followed where treatment was done 3 days per week in succession from gestational day (GD) 109-132 (normal term ~147). Maternal alcohol exposure significantly reduced fetal body weight, height, length, thoracic girth and brain weight, and resulted in decreased amino acid bioavailability in fetal plasma and placental fluids. Maternal glutamine supplementation successfully mitigated alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction and improved the bioavailability of glutamine and glutamine-related amino acids such as glycine, arginine, and asparagine in the fetal compartment. All together, these findings show that L-glutamine supplementation enhances amino acid availability in the fetus and prevents alcohol-induced fetal growth restriction.

  17. Early childhood lead exposure and exceptionality designations for students

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Maxson, Pamela; Kim, Dohyeong

    2009-01-01

    The achievement gap continues to be an important educational issue, with disadvantaged groups exhibiting poorer school performance. Recently, literature has shown that even very low levels of early lead exposure affect cognitive and academic performance. As individuals at the lower end of the socioeconomic spectrum are more likely to be exposed to lead, this exposure may be an important contributor to the achievement gap. In this paper, we explore whether early childhood blood lead levels are associated with membership in exceptionality designation groups. In addition, we examine the racial and socioeconomic composition of these exceptional groups. Data from the North Carolina Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program surveillance registry were linked at the individual child level to educational outcomes available through the North Carolina Education Research Data Center. Designation into exceptionality groups was obtained from the end-of-grade (EOG) data. Both standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were employed. Bivariate analyses indicate that blood lead levels and reading EOG scores differ by exceptionality, as well as by race and enrollment in free/reduced lunch. Logistic regression confirmed the relationship between blood lead levels and likelihood of exceptionality. Contextual factors – enrollment in the free/reduced lunch program, race, and parental education – are also significant with regard to exceptionality. This study demonstrates that early childhood lead exposure significantly influences the likelihood of being designated exceptional. These results provide additional evidence that early childhood lead exposure is a significant explanator of the achievement gap. PMID:21533004

  18. Artificial Christmas trees: how real are the lead exposure risks?

    PubMed

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Pandolfo, Tamara J

    2004-12-01

    Exposure to lead has long been recognized as a major public health issue in the United States and other industrialized nations. The health risks associated with low lead levels mean that consumer products (such as those made from polyvinyl chloride [PVC] plastic, which often incorporates lead as a stabilizer) with even moderate lead exposure risks could be dangerous. The purpose of the experiments reported in this article was to test for lead exposure from artificial Christmas trees made of PVC, which are now present in an estimated 50 million U.S. households. The first phase of experimentation tested artificial Christmas trees in the laboratory for lead content in branches, lead transfer from hand contact, and lead dust levels under the tree. The second phase was based on a field-testing survey of households with artificial Christmas trees. Results from these experiments show that, while the average artificial Christmas tree does not present a significant exposure risk, in the worst-case scenarios a substantial health risk to young children is quite possible.

  19. Inhalation exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols yield perfluorocarboxylates in human blood?

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Helena; Kärrman, Anna; Rotander, Anna; van Bavel, Bert; Lindström, Gunilla; Westberg, Håkan

    2010-10-01

    Levels of perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) in different environmental and biological compartments have been known for some time, but the routes of exposure still remain unclear. The opinions are divergent whether the exposure to general populations occurs mainly indirect through precursor compounds or direct via PFCAs. Previous results showed elevated blood levels of PFCAs in ski wax technicians compared to a general population. The objective of this follow-up study was to determine concentrations of PFCAs, perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs), and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), precursor compounds that are known to degrade to PFCAs, in air collected in the breathing zone of ski wax technicians during work. We collected air samples by using ISOLUTE ENV+ cartridges connected to portable air pumps with an air flow of 2.0 L min(-1). PFCAs C5-C11 and PFSAs C4, C6, C8, and C10 were analyzed using LC-MS/MS and FTOHs 6:2, 8:2, and 10:2 with GC-MS/MS. The results show daily inhalation exposure of 8:2 FTOH in μg/m(3) air which is up to 800 times higher than levels of PFOA with individual levels ranging between 830-255000 ng/m(3) air. This suggests internal exposure of PFOA through biotransformation of 8:2 FTOH to PFOA and PFNA in humans.

  20. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P < 0.005) in P8 (43.8%), the wetland with the highest density of spent lead pellets (>2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  1. Lead exposure in Nunavik: from research to action

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Ariane; Levesque, Benoît; Dewailly, Éric; Muckle, Gina; Déry, Serge; Proulx, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background In 1999, the Government of Canada regulated the use of lead shot for hunting. Concurrently, the Nunavik Regional Board of Health and Social Services (NRBHSS) was informed of the results of an isotope study that pointed to lead ammunition as a likely source of lead exposure in Nunavik. Rapidly thereafter, a coalition for the banning of lead shot was implemented by the NRBHSS as well as by regional/local partners and by Inuit hunters in order to disseminate this information to the public. Objectives The purpose of this article is to describe the intervention conducted in the winter of 1999 by the NRBHSS and to assess the combined impact of national legislation and an awareness campaign on blood lead levels in Nunavik. Study design Impact assessment of the intervention for the banning of lead shot conducted in 1999 in Nunavik using blood lead levels data before and after the intervention. Methods Data on blood lead levels in Nunavik describing foetal exposure as well as during childhood and in adults published between 1992 and 2009 were compiled. Blood lead levels in Nunavik prior to and after the interventions were compared. To assess the current situation, the most recent blood lead levels were compared with those from surveys conducted during the same period in North America. Results Analysis of blood samples collected from umbilical cord and from adults show that blood lead levels in Nunavik significantly declined between 1992 and 2004. Nevertheless, lead exposure in Nunavik still remains higher in comparison to that observed in other North American surveys. Conclusions The current situation regarding lead exposure in Nunavik has significantly improved as a result of the implemented intervention. However, according to recent data, a gap still subsists relative to other North American populations. PMID:22818717

  2. Parental occupational lead exposure and lead concentration of newborn cord blood

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.D.; Shy, W.Y.; Chen, J.S.; Yang, K.H.; Hwang, Y.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of parental occupational lead exposure on the lead levels of newborn cord blood in the Taipei area. From September 1984 to June 1985, 5,000 pregnant women voluntarily participated in the study at the Taipei Municipal Maternal and Child Hospital. Each woman was interviewed regarding her and her husband's occupational exposures; 2,948 successfully delivered healthy newborns, and cord blood samples were obtained using Terumo Venoject, and 242 samples were analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry using an Instrumentation Laboratory 251 instrument. Nine cord blood samples were from newborns with both parents exposed, 26 samples had maternal exposure only, 105 samples had paternal exposure only, and 102 were nonexposed. The results showed that the average lead level of cord blood with both parents exposed was 8.9 +/- 2.9 micrograms%, maternal exposure 9.0 +/- 3.8 micrograms%, paternal exposure 8.3 +/- 3.4 micrograms%, and 6.9 +/- 3.2 micrograms% in the nonexposed group. There were significant differences between the nonexposed and the maternal exposure groups, and also between the nonexposed and paternal exposure groups. All 26 maternal exposures were from lead soldering operations. Multivariate analysis revealed that, after control of father's exposure status, newborn cord blood lead level increased 0.27 micrograms% for each hour the mother spent on lead soldering during a normal working day, thus suggesting that soldering during pregnancy may be hazardous to newborns. Paternal contribution to the cord blood lead levels seemed to be through either working at home with the pregnant mother also at home or bringing work clothes home for laundering.

  3. Environmental lead exposure: a public health problem of global dimensions.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, S.; von Schirnding, Y. E.; Prapamontol, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lead is the most abundant of the heavy metals in the Earth's crust. It has been used since prehistoric times, and has become widely distributed and mobilized in the environment. Exposure to and uptake of this non-essential element have consequently increased. Both occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a serious problem in many developing and industrializing countries, as well as in some developed countries. In most developed countries, however, introduction of lead into the human environment has decreased in recent years, largely due to public health campaigns and a decline in its commercial usage, particularly in petrol. Acute lead poisoning has become rare in such countries, but chronic exposure to low levels of the metal is still a public health issue, especially among some minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. In developing countries, awareness of the public health impact of exposure to lead is growing but relatively few of these countries have introduced policies and regulations for significantly combating the problem. This article reviews the nature and importance of environmental exposure to lead in developing and developed countries, outlining past actions, and indicating requirements for future policy responses and interventions. PMID:11019456

  4. Environmental lead exposure to toll booth workers in Hong Kong

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, T.C.; Wong, L.T.L.; Lam, C.W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A survey of workers in the Lion Rock Tunnel toll booths was conducted, as they were regarded as a high risk group in lead exposure due to high density of vehicular traffic. The exposure of the workers to lead was determined by continuous sapling of air around the breathing zone of workers inside the booths. Blood lead concentration of 50 workers showed a mean of 0.65 {mu}mol/L and the mean urine lead concentration was 0.14 {mu}mol/L. Other tests, such as urinary amino-levulinic acid (ALA), erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) and hemoglobin concentration (Hb), were also preformed. The blood lead concentrations and other biological parameters of the toll-booth workers were acceptable and may be attributed to the recent legislation to lower the lead content in petrol and to the good preventive measures taken by the management.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Drugs/Alcohol: Characteristics and Educational Implications of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and Cocaine/Polydrug Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soby, Jeanette M.

    This book presents the characteristics of children affected by prenatal drug exposure, fetal alcohol syndrome, fetal alcohol effects, and fetal cocaine/polydrug effects. It outlines incidence, service needs, prevention, and identification. The medical literature on the physical, cognitive, and behavioral characteristics of this population is…

  6. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  7. Environmental exposure to lead in a population of adults living in northern France: lead burden levels and their determinants.

    PubMed

    Leroyer, A; Hemon, D; Nisse, C; Bazerques, J; Salomez, J L; Haguenoer, J M

    2001-02-21

    As part of the assessment of a site in northern France polluted by metals from two smelters (in particular, lead, cadmium and mercury), a cross-sectional study was carried out which intended to estimate the levels of the lead burden of the adult population living on the site and the factors associated with these levels. The exposed zone included 10 municipalities in the Nord-Pas de Calais region, located in the vicinity of two non-ferrous metal smelters. The soils in these municipalities contained between 100 and 1700 ppm of lead. The non-polluted zone contained 20 municipalities from the same region, drawn randomly from those in the region of comparable size but free from any industrial lead exposure. The adult study population (301 men and 300 women) was stratified according to age, sex, employment status and exposure level. The inclusion criteria required subjects who were aged between 20 and 50 years and had been living in the exposed zone for at least 8 years; the exclusion criteria were pregnancy, cancer, kidney disease and diabetes. No more than 10% of the subjects participating could work at one of the two smelters. Data collection took place at home; visiting nurses interviewed subjects to complete a questionnaire and also took blood samples. The lead assay was performed by atomic absorption spectrometry. The geometric mean of the blood-lead levels was 74 microg/l, 95% CI = 69-80 among men and 49 microg/l, 95% CI = 46-53 among women. Blood-lead levels exceeding 100 microg/l were found among 30% of men and 12% of women. Several factors were associated with variation of the mean blood-lead level: the blood-lead level was significantly higher among the men for subjects living less than 1 km from the smelters (geometric mean x 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), for those who drink alcoholic beverages (x 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.2 for consumption of 30 g/day), those who smoke (x 1.2, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3 for 20 cigarettes/day), and for subjects with occupational exposure; among

  8. Alarming prevalence of fetal alcohol exposure in a Mediterranean city.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Algar, Oscar; Kulaga, Vivan; Gareri, Joey; Koren, Gideon; Vall, Oriol; Zuccaro, Piergiorgio; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2008-04-01

    The prevalence of gestational ethanol exposure and subsequent fetal exposure has been assessed in a cohort of mother-infant dyads in a Mediterranean city (Barcelona, Spain) by meconium analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) after showing in this population a high prevalence of meconium opiates (8.7%), cocaine (4.4%), and cannabis (5.3%). Of the 353 meconium samples analyzed for FAEEs, 159 (45%) contained a total amount of seven FAEEs equal or above 2 nmol/g meconium, the cutoff internationally accepted to differentiate heavy maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy from occasional use or no use at all. No parental sociodemographic differences or maternal features differentiated exposed from unexposed newborns. The prevalence of gestational consumption of ethanol was similar between women using and not using drugs of abuse during pregnancy (45.7% and 44.7% of samples with total FAEEs equal or higher than 2 nmol/g meconium, respectively). Meconium samples from newborns exposed in utero to ethanol, and positive for at least one illicit drug (cocaine, opiates, or cannabis), had total FAEEs and five of nine individual FAEEs statistically higher than the meconium samples that were negative for the most frequently used illicit drugs of abuse. Among the most prevalent FAEEs, oleic acid ethyl ester showed the best correlation to total FAEE concentration followed by palmitoleic acid ethyl ester . This study, which highlights a 45% ethanol consumption during pregnancy in a low socioeconomic status cohort, may serve as an eye opener for Europeans that gestational alcohol exposure is not endemic only in areas outside of Europe.

  9. The association between caries and childhood lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, J R; Moss, M E; Raubertas, R F

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest an association between lead exposure and caries. Our objective was to establish whether children with a higher lead exposure as toddlers had more caries at school age than children with a lower lead exposure. We used a retrospective cohort design. A sample of children who attended second and fifth grades in the Rochester, New York, public schools during the 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 school years were examined for caries through a dental screening program. For each child we assessed the number of decayed, missing, or filled surfaces on permanent teeth (DMFS), and the number of decayed or filled surfaces on deciduous teeth (dfs); the number of surfaces at risk (SAR) was also recorded. Lead exposure was defined as the mean of all blood lead levels collected between 18 and 37 months of age by fingerstick [provided the blood lead level was [less than/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] or venipuncture. A total of 248 children (197 second graders and 51 fifth graders) were examined for caries and had a record of blood lead levels to define lead exposure. The mean dfs was 3.4 (range 0-29); the mean DMFS was 0.5 (range 0-8). Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of children with DMFS [Greater/equal to] 1, and the proportion with dfs [Greater/equal to] 1, and lead exposure [< 0.48 micromol/L vs. [Greater/equal to] 0.48 micromol/L (< 10 microg/dL vs. [Greater/equal to] 10 microg/dL)] while controlling for SAR, age at examination, and grade in school. For DMFS, the adjusted odds ratio was 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.43-2.09; p = 0.89); for dfs, the odds ratio was 1.77 (95% CI, 0.97-3.24; p = 0.07). This study did not demonstrate that lead exposure > 10 microg/dL as a toddler was a strong predictor of caries among school-age children. However, the results should be interpreted cautiously because of limitations in the assessment of lead exposure and limited statistical power. PMID:11102303

  10. Alcohol Used as Disinfectant before Venipuncture does not Lead to Sample Haemolysis or Sample Dilution

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Booloo; Sharma, Dilutpal; Mathew, Sheeja

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sample haemolysis is often the leading cause of sample rejections in clinical laboratory. Isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol, used as disinfectant during sample collection is often considered an important cause of sample haemolysis or sample dilution; although there is a paucity of scientific documentation verifying the same. Aim To verify whether avoidance to wipe out alcohol from the venipuncture site, before sample collection leads to sample haemolysis; or leads to sample dilution. Materials and Methods This was a prospective randomized study, where every second patient coming to the phlebotomist during the study period, in the age group of 20 to 50 years, was considered for the study. A total of 60 patients were considered for the study. For unbiased comparison sample were collected from both left upper limb (alcohol dry) and right upper limb (alcohol wet) of all the patients. Visual inspection for haemolysis was done, and serum potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALKP) and Glucose were estimated in both the set. Also experiences of patients in both limb collections were considered. Results On visual inspection none of the sample was haemolysed. 51.67% of the patients experienced same level of discomfort in both limbs (alcohol dry and alcohol wet) during venipuncture. While 28.3% experienced burning sensation in alcohol wet limb, another 20% experienced a more soothing sensation in the alcohol wet limb during venipuncture. There is no statistically significant difference in the measured value of serum K, LDH, Ca, AST, ALT and ALKP and Glucose between the two sets of sample - alcohol dry and alcohol wet. Conclusion The study concludes that avoidance to wipe alcohol before venipuncture does not lead to sample haemolysis or sample dilution. Also most patient experienced same or more soothing sensation in alcohol wet limb. Therefore sample can be

  11. Are You Insulting Me? Exposure to Alcohol Primes Increases Aggression Following Ambiguous Provocation

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, William C.; Vasquez, Eduardo A.; Bartholow, Bruce D.; Grosvenor, Marianne; Truong, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable research has shown that alcohol consumption can increase aggression and produce extremes in other social behaviors. Although most theories posit that such effects are caused by pharmacological impairment of cognitive processes, recent research indicates that exposure to alcohol-related constructs, in the absence of consumption, can produce similar effects. Here we tested the hypothesis that alcohol priming is most likely to affect aggression in the context of ambiguous provocation. Experiment 1 showed that exposure to alcohol primes increased aggressive retaliation but only when an initial provocation was ambiguous; unambiguous provocation elicited highly aggressive responses regardless of prime exposure. Experiment 2 showed that alcohol prime exposure effects are relatively short-lived and that perceptions of the provocateur's hostility mediated effects of prime exposure on aggression. These findings suggest modification and extension of existing models of alcohol-induced aggression. PMID:24854477

  12. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from < 0.01 to 0.585 microgram ml-1, while those of nestling eagles from a reference site indicated normal or background exposure (< 0.01 microgram ml-1). No differences in the prevalence of elevated exposure were detected among genders or age classes (0.5- and > or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  13. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics. PMID:8605853

  14. Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Romieu, I; Carreon, T; Lopez, L; Palazuelos, E; Rios, C; Manuel, Y; Hernandez-Avila, M

    1995-11-01

    Lead contamination is now a leading public health problem in Mexico. However, there are few data on the lead content of various environmental sources, and little is known about the contribution of these sources to the total lead exposure in the population of children residing in Mexico City. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a random sample of 200 children younger than 5 years of age who lived in one of two areas of Mexico City. Environmental samples of floor, window, and street dust, paint, soil, water, and glazed ceramics were obtained from the participants' households, as well as blood samples and dirt from the hands of the children. Blood lead levels ranged from 1 to 31 micrograms/dl with a mean of 9.9 micrograms/dl (SD 5.8 micrograms/dl). Forty-four percent of the children 18 months of age or older had blood lead levels exceeding 10 micrograms/dl. The lead content of environmental samples was low, except in glazed ceramic. The major predictors of blood lead levels were the lead content of the glazed ceramics used to prepare children's food, exposure to airborne lead due to vehicular emission, and the lead content of the dirt from the children's hands. We conclude that the major sources of lead exposure in Mexico City could be controlled by adequate public health programs to reinforce the use of unleaded gasoline and to encourage production and use of unleaded cookware instead of lead-glazed ceramics.

  15. Lead level in seminal plasma may affect semen quality for men without occupational exposure to lead

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Infertility affects approximately 10–15% of reproductive-age couples. Poor semen quality contributes to about 25% of infertile cases. Resulting from the direct effect on testicular function or hormonal alterations, heavy metals exposure has been related to impaired semen quality. The objective of this study was to assess the level of lead in the seminal plasma in men without occupational exposure to lead, and to determine the relationship between semen quality and lead concentration in the semen. Methods This is a prospective and nonrandomized clinical study conducted in University infertility clinic and academic research laboratory. Three hundred and forty-one male partners of infertile couples undergoing infertility evaluation and management were recruited to the study. Semen samples collected for the analyses of semen quality were also used for the measurement of lead concentrations. Semen samples were evaluated according to the WHO standards. Results All subjects were married and from infertile couples without occupational exposure to lead. There is a significant inverse correlation between the lead concentration in seminal plasma and sperm count. A higher semen lead concentration was correlated with lower sperm count, but not with semen volume, sperm motility or sperm morphology as assessed by simple linear regression. Conclusions We found that semen lead concentration was significantly higher among the patients with lower sperm count. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a high level of lead accumulation in semen may reduce the sperm count contributing to infertility of men without occupational exposure to lead. PMID:23137356

  16. Early behavioral effects of lead perinatal exposure in rat pups.

    PubMed

    De Marco, Marion; Halpern, Ricardo; Barros, Helena M T

    2005-07-01

    Acoustic analysis of infants crying, a sensitive and selective index for measuring the effect of pre and perinatal lead exposure, may provide an early marker for central nervous system damage produced by the toxic. The present study evaluated the effects of exposure to low lead levels during perinatal and early postnatal periods on ultrasonic vocalization (USV), an early behavior of rat pups essential to their development. Non-sexually experienced females were gavaged daily with 8, 16 or 24 mg/kg of lead acetate or the control solution (1 ml/kg) for 30 days prior to breeding and until their pups were weaned. After crossover of dams, pups had been exposed to lead during pregnancy+lactation, pregnancy or lactation. The physiological variables measured on postnatal days 7 or 14 were USV, locomotion, rectal temperature, body weight and blood lead levels. Lead exposition during pregnancy+lactation, pregnancy or lactation induced a significant dose-dependent decrease of USV of 7-day-old pups. On the contrary, lead exposition during the different phases of pregnancy induced a significant dose-dependent increase of USV in 14-day-old rat pups. Blood lead levels varied from 5.7 to 36.5 microg/dl in pups. Body weight and temperature were not influenced by lead exposition. Lead-exposed 14-day-old pups were significantly more active. This study provides evidence of developmental changes in USV emission in rat pups exposed with low lead levels.

  17. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    PubMed

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  18. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    PubMed

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  19. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    PubMed

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  20. Tremor secondary to neurotoxic exposure: mercury, lead, solvents, pesticides.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, Roberto G; Hashim, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Lead, mercury, solvents, and pesticide exposures are common in certain occupations and may cause nervous system dysfunction. Tremors may be the herald manifestation among a constellation of acute toxicity signs and symptoms. However, since tremors may also be the only sign on clinical presentation and since tremors also occur in other diseases, relating tremors to a specific occupational exposure can be challenging. Diagnosis of tremor etiology must be based on other findings on physical exam, laboratory results, and/or imaging. Discerning whether the tremor resulted from the occupational environment versus other etiologies requires knowledge of potential exposure sources, additional detail in history taking, and support of other health and industrial professionals. Reduction or removal from the exposure source remains the key first step in treating patients suffering from tremor that had resulted from occupational exposure toxicity. PMID:26563793

  1. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  2. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    PubMed

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  3. Negative Evaluations of Negative Alcohol Consequences Lead to Subsequent Reductions in Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Nancy P.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Colby, Suzanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. Objective To examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Method Students at three colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for two academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year also were evaluated. Results Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one’s average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Conclusions Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol. PMID:26168225

  4. Negative evaluations of negative alcohol consequences lead to subsequent reductions in alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Merrill, Jennifer E; Kahler, Christopher W; Colby, Suzanne M

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use during young adulthood may reflect a learning process whereby positive and negative alcohol-related experiences and interpretations of those experiences drive subsequent behavior. Understanding the effect of consequences and the evaluation of consequences could be informative for intervention approaches. The objective of this study was to examine the extent to which the number of positive and negative alcohol consequences experienced and the evaluation of those consequences predict subsequent alcohol use and consequences in college students. Students at 3 colleges (N = 679) completed biweekly web-based surveys on alcohol use, positive and negative consequences, and consequence evaluations for 2 academic years. Hierarchical linear modeling tested whether consequences and evaluations in a given week predicted changes in alcohol use and consequences at the next assessment. Moderation by gender and class year were also evaluated. Evaluating past-week negative consequences more negatively than one's average resulted in decreases in alcohol use at the next assessment. More negative evaluation of negative consequences was followed in the subsequent observation by a higher number of positive consequences for females but not for males. A higher number of positive consequences in a given week was followed by a higher number of both positive and negative consequences in the subsequent observation. Number of negative consequences experienced and evaluation of positive consequences had no effect on later behavior. Salient negative consequences may drive naturalistic reductions in alcohol use, suggesting the possible efficacy of programs designed to increase the salience of the negative effects of alcohol.

  5. Effects of Developmental Lead Exposure on the Hippocampal Transcriptome: Influences of Sex, Developmental Period, and Lead Exposure Level

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jay S

    2012-01-01

    Developmental lead (Pb) exposure has profound effects on cognition and behavior. Much is known about effects of Pb on hippocampal-mediated behaviors, but little is known about the molecular consequences of Pb exposure and the influences of developmental timing of exposure, level of exposure, and sex as effect modifiers of Pb exposure on the brain. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of different levels of Pb exposure (250 and 750 ppm Pb acetate) during perinatal (gestation/lactation) and postnatal (through postnatal day 45) periods on the hippocampal transcriptome in male and female Long Evans rats. Total RNA was extracted from hippocampus from four animals per experimental condition. RNA was hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Gene RNA Arrays using standard methods. Pb exposure per se influenced the expression of 717 transcripts (328 unique annotated genes), with many influenced in a sex-independent manner. Significant differences in gene expression patterns were also influenced by timing and level of exposure, with generally larger effects at the lower level of exposure across all groups. Statistically enriched biological functions included ion binding, regulation of RNA metabolic processes, and positive regulation of macromolecule biosynthetic processes. Processes of regulation of transcription and regulation of gene expression were preferentially enriched in males, regardless of timing or amount of Pb exposure. The effect on transcription factors and the diverse pathways or networks affected by Pb suggest a substantial effect of developmental Pb exposure on plasticity and adaptability, with these effects significantly modified by sex, developmental window of exposure, and level of Pb exposure. PMID:22641619

  6. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories.

  7. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Increases Postnatal Acceptability of Nicotine Odor and Taste in Adolescent Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mantella, Nicole M.; Youngentob, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Human studies indicate that alcohol exposure during gestation not only increases the chance for later alcohol abuse, but also nicotine dependence. The flavor attributes of both alcohol and nicotine can be important determinants of their initial acceptance and they both share the component chemosensory qualities of an aversive odor, bitter taste and oral irritation. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating epigenetic chemosensory mechanisms through which fetal alcohol exposure increases adolescent alcohol acceptance, in part, by decreasing the aversion to alcohol's bitter and oral irritation qualities, as well as its odor. Given that alcohol and nicotine have noteworthy chemosensory qualities in common, we investigated whether fetal exposure to alcohol increased the acceptability of nicotine's odor and taste in adolescent rats. Study rats were alcohol-exposed during fetal development via the dams' liquid diet. Control animals received ad lib access to an iso-caloric, iso-nutritive diet throughout gestation. Odorant-induced innate behavioral responses to nicotine odor (Experiment 1) or orosensory-mediated responses to nicotine solutions (Experiment 2) were obtained, using whole-body plethysmography and brief access lick tests, respectively. Compared to controls, rats exposed to fetal alcohol showed an enhanced nicotine odor response that was paralleled by increased oral acceptability of nicotine. Given the common aversive component qualities imbued in the flavor profiles of both drugs, our findings demonstrate that like postnatal alcohol avidity, fetal alcohol exposure also influences nicotine acceptance, at a minimum, by decreasing the aversion of both its smell and taste. Moreover, they highlight potential chemosensory-based mechanism(s) by which fetal alcohol exposure increases the later initial risk for nicotine use, thereby contributing to the co-morbid expression with enhanced alcohol avidity. Where common chemosensory mechanisms are at play, our

  8. Social Information Processing Skills in Children with Histories of Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Christie L.; Bjorkquist, Olivia A.; Price, Joseph M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2009-01-01

    Based on caregiver report, children with prenatal alcohol exposure have difficulty with social functioning, but little is known about their social cognition. The current study assessed the social information processing patterns of school-age children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure using a paradigm based on Crick and Dodge's reformulated…

  9. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  10. Neurotoxic Effects and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Talia; Liu, Yiming; Buchner, Virginia; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2010-01-01

    Biological monitoring techniques are useful for risk assessment of toxic agents in the field of environmental health. Lead, a systemic toxicant affecting virtually every organ system, primarily affects the central nervous system, particularly the developing brain. Consequently, children are at a greater risk than adults of suffering from the neurotoxic effects of lead. The ability of lead to pass through the blood-brain barrier is due in large part to its ability to substitute for calcium ions. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. At the molecular level, lead interferes with the regulatory action of calcium on cell functions and disrupts many intracellular biological activities. Experimental studies have also shown that lead exposure may have genotoxic effects, especially in the brain, bone marrow, liver, and lung cells. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children, adults, and experimental animals, updated to January 2009. PMID:19476290

  11. Effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol preference in two BALB substrains.

    PubMed

    Blizard, David A; Vandenbergh, David J; Jefferson, Akilah L; Chatlos, Cynthia D; Vogler, George P; McClearn, Gerald E

    2004-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during adolescence is a rite of passage in many societies, but only a subset of individuals exposed to ethanol becomes dependent on alcohol. To explore individual differences in response to ethanol exposure, we compared the effects of periadolescent ethanol exposure on alcohol drinking in an animal model. Male and female mice of two BALB substrains were exposed to ethanol in one of three forms--choice [water vs. 10% (volume/volume) ethanol], forced (10% ethanol in a single bottle), or gradual (single bottle exposure, starting with 0.5% ethanol and increasing at 2-day intervals to 10% ethanol)--from the 6th through the 12th week of age and administered two-bottle alcohol preference tests (10% ethanol vs. water) for 15 days immediately thereafter. All three forms of ethanol exposure increased alcohol preference in male and female BALB/cByJ mice, relative to findings for ethanol-naive control animals. Only gradual ethanol exposure produced an increase in alcohol preference in BALB/cJ mice. During extended alcohol preference testing (for a total of 39 days) of mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group, the higher alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cByJ male mice persisted, but alcohol preference of control group female mice in this strain--formerly ethanol naive, but at this point having received 10% ethanol in the two-bottle paradigm for 15 days--rose to the level of alcohol preference of female mice in the gradual ethanol exposure group. This finding demonstrated that both adolescent and adult ethanol exposure stimulated alcohol preference in female mice of this strain. Across days of testing in adulthood, alcohol preference of the gradual ethanol-exposed BALB/cJ mice decreased, resulting in a lack of effect of gradual exposure to ethanol on alcohol preference in both male and female mice of this strain during the period of extended testing. These strain differences support a genetic basis for the effects of ethanol exposure on

  12. What Research Is Being Done on Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in the Russian Research Community?

    PubMed Central

    Popova, Svetlana; Yaltonskaya, Aleksandra; Yaltonsky, Vladimir; Kolpakov, Yaroslav; Abrosimov, Ilya; Pervakov, Kristina; Tanner, Valeria; Rehm, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Although Russia has one of the highest rates of alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable burden of disease, little is known about the existing research on prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) in this country. The objective of this study was to locate and review published and unpublished studies related to any aspect of PAE and FASD conducted in or using study populations from Russia. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in multiple English and Russian electronic bibliographic databases. In addition, a manual search was conducted in several major libraries in Moscow. Results: The search revealed a small pool of existing research studies related to PAE and/or FASD in Russia (126: 22 in English and 104 in Russian). Existing epidemiological data indicate a high prevalence of PAE and FASD, which underlines the strong negative impact that alcohol has on mortality, morbidity and disability in Russia. High levels of alcohol consumption by women of childbearing age, low levels of contraception use, and low levels of knowledge by health and other professionals regarding the harmful effects of PAE put this country at great risk of further alcohol-affected pregnancies. Conclusions: Alcohol preventive measures in Russia warrant immediate attention. More research focused on alcohol prevention and policy is needed in order to reduce alcohol-related harm, especially in the field of FASD. PMID:24158024

  13. Brief and Extended Alcohol Cue Exposure Effects on Craving and Attentional Bias

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Jason J.; Monti, Peter M.; Colwill, Ruth M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that underage college student drinkers (UCSDs) report increased subjective craving and exhibit stronger attentional biases to alcohol following alcohol cue exposure. To date, less research has examined whether momentary decreases in alcohol craving are associated with reductions in attentional bias. One experimental manipulation that has been used to produce within-session decreases in alcohol craving is to extend the duration of laboratory-based alcohol cue exposure protocols. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both brief and extended alcohol cue exposure on subjective craving and attentional bias among UCSDs. Eighty participants were randomized either to a group that received a short in vivo alcohol cue exposure period (Group Short Exposure [SE], two 3-min blocks) or to a group that received a long exposure period (Group Long Exposure [LE], six 3-min blocks). Both groups completed a visual probe task before and after cue exposure to assess changes in attentional bias. Analyses revealed no group differences in mean craving or mean attentional bias before or after cue exposure. Further, exploratory analyses revealed no sex differences in our measures of craving or attentional bias. For Group LE, but not Group SE, within-session changes in craving positively predicted within-session changes in attentional bias. However, further analyses revealed that this relationship was significant only for female participants in the LE Group. Implications for treatments that aim to reduce craving or attentional bias are discussed. PMID:26053323

  14. Brief and extended alcohol-cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    Past research has shown that underage college-student drinkers (UCSDs) report increased subjective craving and exhibit stronger attentional biases to alcohol following alcohol-cue exposure. To date, less research has examined whether momentary decreases in alcohol craving are associated with reductions in attentional bias. One experimental manipulation that has been used to produce within-session decreases in alcohol craving is to extend the duration of laboratory-based alcohol-cue exposure protocols. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of both brief and extended alcohol-cue exposure on subjective craving and attentional bias among UCSDs. Eighty participants were randomized either to a group that received a short, in vivo, alcohol-cue-exposure period (short-exposure group [SE], 2 3-min blocks) or to a group that received a long-exposure period (long-exposure group [LE], 6 3-min blocks). Both groups completed a visual probe task before and after cue exposure to assess changes in attentional bias. Analyses revealed no group differences in mean craving or mean attentional bias before or after cue exposure. Further, exploratory analyses revealed no sex differences in our measures of craving or attentional bias. For Group LE, but not Group SE, within-session changes in craving positively predicted within-session changes in attentional bias. However, further analyses revealed that this relationship was significant only for women in the LE group. Implications for treatments that aim to reduce craving and/or attentional bias are discussed.

  15. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias in underage college-student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jason J; Monti, Peter M; Colwill, Ruth M

    2015-06-01

    The effect of alcohol-cue exposure on eliciting craving has been well documented, and numerous theoretical models assert that craving is a clinically significant construct central to the motivation and maintenance of alcohol-seeking behavior. Furthermore, some theories propose a relationship between craving and attention, such that cue-induced increases in craving bias attention toward alcohol cues, which, in turn, perpetuates craving. This study examined the extent to which alcohol cues induce craving and bias attention toward alcohol cues among underage college-student drinkers. We designed within-subject cue-reactivity and visual-probe tasks to assess in vivo alcohol-cue exposure effects on craving and attentional bias on 39 undergraduate college drinkers (ages 18-20). Participants expressed greater subjective craving to drink alcohol following in vivo cue exposure to a commonly consumed beer compared with water exposure. Furthermore, following alcohol-cue exposure, participants exhibited greater attentional biases toward alcohol cues as measured by a visual-probe task. In addition to the cue-exposure effects on craving and attentional bias, within-subject differences in craving across sessions marginally predicted within-subject differences in attentional bias. Implications for both theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:25243832

  17. Hypertension`s lead connection: Does low-level exposure to lead cause high blood pressure?

    SciTech Connect

    Fackelmann, K.

    1996-06-15

    {open_quotes}Paying for the sins of the past.{close_quotes} is how researcher Howard Hu describes a proposed disease process in which lead stored for decades in the skeleton puts people at risk of high blood pressure. Previous research has linked this silvery white, poisonous metal to a host of ill effects in children, including learning disabilities, behavior problems, and brain damage. Now, Hu`s study indicates that past exposure may be causing today`s high blood pressure. If he`s right, the public health impact would be significant. {open_quotes}Tens of millions of Americans have been exposed over the years to lead,{close_quotes} says Philip J. Landrigan of Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York. {open_quotes}Adults today grew up at a time when we were still putting several hundred thousand tons of lead into gasoline each year.{close_quotes} Indeed, the men who developed high blood pressure during the recent study had in their bones lead concentrations, or lead burdens, that came from decades of everyday exposure. Such exposures resulted principally from breathing in fumes from leaded gasoline, drinking tap water from lead pipes or pipes soldered with lead, and inhaling or ingesting lead-laced paint dust or chips. This article goes on to discuss other studies and questions which still need to be answered.

  18. CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    CHRONIC DEVELOPMENTAL LEAD EXPOSURE REDUCES NEUROGENESIS IN ADULT HIPPOCAMPUS. ME Gilbert1, ME Kelly2, S. Salant3, T Shafer1, J Goodman3 1Neurotoxicology Div, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711, 2Children's Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 19104, 3Helen Hayes Hospital, Haverstraw, NY, 10993.
    ...

  19. Improving Recognition of Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: Detection of Exposure in Pediatric Care

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Ami C.; Geurts, Carrie D.; Balachova, Tatiana N.

    2015-01-01

    Early identification of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is important for providing services and preventing secondary disabilities. Recent studies indicate that many FASDs are undiagnosed, partly because there is a need to improve detection of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). The aims of this review are to characterize existing practices for assessing PAE in pediatric care, identify the most efficient, promising methods of detecting PAE, and recognize the knowledge and practice gaps. This review indicates that maternal self-reports remain the most common method utilized in routine clinical practice and highlights promising methods of PAE identification, including a single binge drinking question. The review yields few studies describing existing strategies to assess PAE in pediatric practice and identifies knowledge gaps that need to be addressed for improving recognition of FASDs in pediatric practice. PMID:26317063

  20. Assessment of exposure to alcohol vapor from alcohol-based hand rubs.

    PubMed

    Bessonneau, Vincent; Thomas, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This study assessed the inhaled dose of alcohol during hand disinfection. Experiments were conducted with two types of hand rub using two hand disinfection procedures. Air samples were collected every 10 s from the breathing zone, by bubbling through a mixture of K(2)Cr(2)O(7) and H(2)SO(4). The reduction of dichromate ions in the presence of alcohols was followed by UV-vis spectrophotometry. The difference in intensity of the dichromate absorption peak was used to quantify the alcohol concentration expressed in ethanol equivalent. During hygienic hand disinfection, the mean ethanol equivalent concentrations peaked at around 20-30 s for both hand rubs (14.3 ± 1.4 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 13.2 ± 0.7 mg/L for hand rub 2). During surgical hand disinfection, two peaks were found at the same time (40 and 80 s) for both hand rubs. The highest mean concentrations were 20.2 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 1 and 18.1 ± 0.9 mg/L for hand rub 2. For hand rub 1, the total absorbed doses, calculated from ethanol with an inhalation flow of 24 L/min and an absorption rate of 62%, were 46.5 mg after one hygienic hand disinfection and 203.9 mg after one surgical hand disinfection. Although the use of ABHRs leads to the absorption of very low doses, sudden, repeated inhalation of high alcohol concentrations raises the question of possible adverse health effects. PMID:22690169

  1. Lead Exposure Induces Telomere Instability in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pottier, Géraldine; Viau, Muriel; Ricoul, Michelle; Shim, Grace; Bellamy, Marion; Cuceu, Corina; Hempel, William M.; Sabatier, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is an important environmental contaminant due to its widespread use over many centuries. While it affects primarily every organ system of the body, the most pernicious effects of Pb are on the central nervous system leading to cognitive and behavioral modification. Despite decades of research, the mechanisms responsible for Pb toxicity remain poorly understood. Recent work has suggested that Pb exposure may have consequences on chromosomal integrity as it was shown that Pb exposure leads to the generation of γH2Ax foci, a well-established biomarker for DNA double stranded break (DSB formation). As the chromosomal localization of γH2Ax foci plays an important role in determining the molecular mechanism responsible for their formation, we examined the localization of Pb-induced foci with respect to telomeres. Indeed, short or dysfunctional telomeres (uncapped or damaged telomeres) may be recognized as DSB by the DNA repair machinery, leading to “telomere-Induced Foci” (TIFs). In the current study, we show that while Pb exposure did not increase intra-chromosomal foci, it significantly induced TIFs, leading in some cases, to chromosomal abnormalities including telomere loss. The evidence suggests that these chromosomal abnormalities are likely due to perturbation of telomere replication, in particular on the lagging DNA strand. We propose a mechanism by which Pb exposure leads to the loss of telomere maintenance. As numerous studies have demonstrated a role for telomere maintenance in brain development and tissue homeostasis, our results suggest a possible mechanism for lead-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23840724

  2. Impairment of social behaviour persists two years after embryonic alcohol exposure in zebrafish: A model of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Yohaan; Rampersad, Mindy; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish naturally form social groups called shoals. Previously, we have shown that submerging zebrafish eggs into low concentrations of alcohol (0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 vol/vol% external bath concentration) during development (24h post-fertilization) for two hours resulted in impaired shoaling response in seven month old young adult zebrafish. Here we investigate whether this embryonic alcohol exposure induced behavioural deficit persists to older age. Zebrafish embryos were exposed either to fresh system water (control) or to 1% alcohol for two hours, 24h after fertilization, and were raised in a high-density tank system. Social behaviour was tested by presenting the experimental fish with a computer animated group of zebrafish images, while automated tracking software measured their behaviour. Control fish were found to respond strongly to animated conspecific images by reducing their distanceand remaining close to the images during image presentation, embryonic alcohol treated fish did not. Our results suggest that the impaired shoaling response of the alcohol exposed fish was not due to altered motor function or visual perception, but likely to a central nervous system alteration affecting social behaviour itself. We found the effects of embryonic alcohol exposure on social behaviour not to diminish with age, a result that demonstrates the deleterious and potentially life-long consequences of exposure to even small amount of alcohol during embryonic development in vertebrates.

  3. Census tract analysis of lead exposure in Rhode Island children.

    PubMed

    Sargent, J D; Bailey, A; Simon, P; Blake, M; Dalton, M A

    1997-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in a targeted approach to the screening and prevention of lead exposure in children. Targeted screening requires an understanding of variation in lead exposure in individual children or by region. In order to better understand variation by region, we studied Rhode Island lead poisoning screening data, examining average lead exposure to children living in 136 Providence County census tracts (CTs). The study population included 17,956 children aged 59 months and under, who were screened between May 1, 1992, and April 30, 1993. We evaluated the relationship between the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 micrograms/dL (pe10) and sociodemographic and housing characteristics, derived from United States 1990 Census data, of these CTs. CT descriptors included population density, percentage of households receiving public assistance income, median per capita income, percentage of households female headed, percentage of houses owner occupied, percentage of houses built before 1950, percentage of houses vacant, percentage of population Black, percentage of recent immigrants, and intraurban mobility. On average, 109 children were screened in each census tract; mean screening rate was 44%. There was wide variation in average lead exposure among census tracts, with pe10 ranging from 3 to 60% of screened children (mean 27%). Individual census variables explained between 24 and 67% of the variance in pe10 among CTs. A multiple regression model including percentage screened, percentage of households receiving public assistance, percentage of houses built before 1950, In (percentage of houses vacant), and percentage of recent immigrants explained 83% of variance in pe10. The percentage of houses built before 1950, a variable which models the presence of lead paint in old houses, displayed the largest adjusted effect on pe10 over the range observed for that variable in RI CTs. The percentage of houses vacant was also a highly

  4. Leaded crystal as a source of dietary lead: An exposure assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Shorten, C.V.; Glowacki, M.L.

    1995-12-31

    Lead is a potent systemic toxic with many environmental sources. It can enter the body through a number of pathways, the most significant is ingestion. While many investigators of lead ingestion have focused on paint and dust sources, the authors examined food contaminated with lead from crystal ware. The rates and amounts of lead leached into vinegar stored in leaded crystal cruets were measured over the course of a 42-day laboratory study. Replicate lead oxide (PbO, 24%) crystal cruets (N = 13) were filled with vinegar, and sample aliquots were periodically removed for analysis. Lead leaching rates were determined by fitting a two-stage, non-linear model to the data, and observed rate coefficients were 0.066 hr{sup {minus}1} and 0.0019{sup {minus}1} for the first and second stages of leaching, respectively (R{sup 2} = 0.9680). Average lead concentrations in the stored vinegar range from 118 {micro}g/L at 8 parameters (ingestion rate, exposure frequency and duration, body weight, and averaging time) was generated to characterize the realm of potential intake estimates. Lead concentrations were input using the fitted model. Results indicated that a worst case lead intake estimate from this source could be as high as 420 {micro}g/kg/yr for a child. Crystal ware can be considered to be a potentially significant dietary source of lead, and risk characterizations cannot ignore this potential avenue when combining risks across all exposure pathways.

  5. Mechanisms of Behavior Change in Alcoholics Anonymous: Does AA lead to better alcohol use outcomes by reducing depression symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, John F.; Stout, Robert L.; Magill, Molly; Tonigan, J. Scott; Pagano, Maria E.

    2009-01-01

    Rationale Indices of negative affect, such as depression, have been implicated in stress-induced pathways to alcohol relapse. Empirically-supported continuing care resources, such as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), emphasize reducing negative affect to reduce relapse risk, but little research has been conducted to examine putative affective mechanisms of AA’s effects. Method Using lagged, controlled, hierarchical linear modeling and mediational analyses this study investigated whether AA participation mobilized changes in depression symptoms and whether such changes explained subsequent reductions in alcohol use. Alcohol dependent adults (N = 1,706), receiving treatment as part of a clinical trial, were assessed at intake, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months. Results Findings revealed elevated levels of depression compared to the general population, which decreased during treatment and then remained stable over follow-up. Greater AA attendance was associated with better subsequent alcohol use outcomes and decreased depression. Greater depression was associated with heavier and more frequent drinking. Lagged, mediation analyses revealed that the effects of AA on alcohol use was partially mediated by reductions in depression symptoms. However, this salutary effect on depression itself appeared to be explained by AA’s proximal effect on reducing concurrent drinking. Conclusions AA attendance was both concurrently and predictively associated with improved alcohol outcomes. Although AA attendance was additionally associated with subsequent improvements in depression, it did not predict such improvements over and above concurrent alcohol use. AA appears to lead both to improvements in alcohol use and psychological and emotional well-being, which, in turn, may reinforce further abstinence and recovery-related change. PMID:20102345

  6. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  7. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  8. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2

    PubMed Central

    Graw, Jan A.; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D.

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  9. Chronic Alcohol Consumption Leads to a Tissue Specific Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2.

    PubMed

    Graw, Jan A; von Haefen, Clarissa; Poyraz, Deniz; Möbius, Nadine; Sifringer, Marco; Spies, Claudia D

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are anion channels that can decouple the mitochondrial respiratory chain. "Mild uncoupling" of internal respiration reduces free radical production and oxidative cell stress. Chronic alcohol consumption is a potent inducer of oxidative stress in multiple tissues and regulates UCP-2 and -4 expression in the brain. To analyse the impact of chronic alcohol intake on UCP-2 expression in tissues with high endogenous UCP-2 contents, male Wistar rats (n=34) were treated with a 12-week 5% alcohol diet. In the lungs and the spleen of rats with a chronic alcohol diet cytochrome c release from mitochondria was significantly increased. Both organs did not show any altered gene and protein expression of UCP-2. Different to cerebral tissue chronic alcohol consumption has no regulatory effect on UCP-2 gene and protein expression in organs with a high endogenous UCP-2 content. Therefore, chronic alcohol consumption leads to a tissue specific expression of UCP-2. PMID:26664262

  10. Occupational lead exposure in Denmark: screening with the haematofluorometer.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P

    1979-02-01

    The zinc protoporphyrin/haemoglobin (ZPP/Hb) ratio was measured in the field with a haematofluorometer. A significant increase in ZPP/Hb ratio with advancing age was found in 1295 men who denied any excess exposure to lead. Ninety-seven per cent of the results were below 110 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (4.4 microgram ZPP/g Hb). The ZPP/Hb ratio was determined in a lead-exposed population of 2275 men, and in 305 a blood lead analysis was also performed. A blood lead limit of 2.9 mumol/l (60 microgram/100 ml) corresponds to about 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (20 microgram/g). This limit was exceeded in workers engaged in secondary lead smelting, storage battery manufacture, car radiator repair, crystal glass manufacture, storage battery repair, ship breaking, metal foundries, the ceramic industry, scrap metal handling, and PVC plastic manufacture. Other occupations caused lower lead exposures with ZPP/Hb ratios between 110 and 500 mumol ZPP/mol Hb(Fe): such ratios were found in men from shooting ranges, in leaded pane manufacturers, gunsmiths, car paint sprayers, type setters, steel rolling mill workers, shipbuilders and welders, car mechanics, lead pigment handlers, and solderers. Increased ZPP/Hb ratios and blood lead levels in 210 workers were associated with a decrease in haemoglobin concentration in the blood. Thus, the haematofluorometer has proved to be very useful for screening purposes. A blood lead determination should be performed if the ZPP/Hb ratio exceeds 300 microgram ZPP/mol Hb(Fe) (12 microgram/g).

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure inducing the apoptosis of mossy cells in hippocampus of SMS2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Wu, Lin; Wang, Xiaoqing; Deng, Jiexin; Ma, Zhanyou; Fan, Wenjuan; He, Weiya; Deng, Jinbo

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms of alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis through the ceramide pathway, sphingomyelin synthase 2 knockout (SMS2-/-) mice were used to make the prenatal alcohol exposure model, and the role of ceramide regulation on alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis was studied in the offspring. Initially the levels of serum sphingomyelin (SM) were detected with enzymatic method in P0 pups after alcohol exposure in parents. Then the apoptosis of mossy cells in the offspring hippocampus was investigated after prenatal alcohol exposure with immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assay. Finally the expression of activated Caspase 8 and activated Caspase 3 in the offspring hippocampus was detected with Western blot analysis. Our results showed that SM levels were down-regulated in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05) after prenatal alcohol exposure in wild-type (WT) and SMS2-/- pups. However, SM levels of serum in SMS2-/- pups were significantly lower than that in WT pups (p<0.01). Furthermore, we found that mossy cells were very sensitive to alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis. In both WT pups and SMS2-/- pups, the number of apoptotic mossy cells in the hippocampus increased after prenatal alcohol exposure in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05) and decreased with the growing age. Compared with WT pups, the number of apoptotic mossy cells in the hippocampus of SMS2-/- pups increased (p<0.05). Western blotting showed that the expression of activated Caspase 8 and activated Caspase 3 of hippocampal tissue in WT pups and SMS2-/- pups increases after prenatal alcohol exposure, consistent with results from TUNEL assay and immunocytochemistry. Our study suggests that mossy cells may be the easily attacked cells for fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), and ceramide is involved in the alcohol-induced neural apoptosis. The mechanism probably lies in the accumulated ceramide in SMS2 mice, and the increase of activated Caspase 8 and Caspase 3 promotes alcohol-induced neuroapoptosis.

  12. Type of alcohol drink and exposure to violence: an emergency department study.

    PubMed

    Chavira, Cynthia; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Lin, Johnny; del Pino, Homero E; Bazargan, Mohsen

    2011-08-01

    We compared the prevalence of exposure to violence across different types of alcohol consumed and the association between the type of alcohol consumed and exposure to violence. A cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a sample of 295 Emergency Department (ED) patients identified as having an alcohol problem. Outcome measure include exposure to violence, and the main study predictor was "type of alcoholic drink" including: malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, wine cooler, wine, fortified wine or hard liquor. Using logistic regression analysis, ED patients who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol increased their odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 8.5 compared to ED patients who drank other types of alcohol. Being female increased the odds of being both threatened and physically attacked by 2.5 and using illicit drugs increased the odds by 3.8. Analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means revealed that ED patients who only drank MLB had a higher exposure to violence compared to non-MLB drinkers, and that female illicit drug users who drank MLB in combination with other types of alcohol had the highest exposure to violence. MLB was identified as a predictor of the amount of exposure to violence and in particular, that the use of malt liquor beer in combination with other types of alcohol increased the risk of being both threatened and physically attacked. Implications for ED and community interventions are suggested.

  13. Environmental Lead Exposure in Polish Children: Blood Lead Levels, Major Sources and Principles of the Lead Poisoning Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Muszyńska-Graca, Maja; Dąbkowska, Beata; Kasznia-Kocot, Joanna; Sakowska-Maliszewska, lwona; Woźniakowa, Yvonna

    2003-01-01

    In Poland, children are exposed to lead from the combustion of leaded gasoline and industrial processes. Since the early 1990s, emission levels have declined, and a ban on leaded petrol is anticipated in 2005. Major industrial sources are located in Silesia Province and the copper mining centre (Legnica region). Concerns about, lead exposure in children date back to the 1980s; mean blood lead levels (BILL)reported in children living near lead smelters in Silesia exceeded 20ug/dl. in the 1990s, mean BLLs were decreasing, both in urban children and those living near lead industry. Lower than the CDC action level of 101ug/dl, they were however higher than mean values in children from the other countries, where leaded gasoline had already been banned. Childhood lead poisoning prevention requires a comprehensive approach, involving different sectors. Medical prevention focuses on the early detection of exposed child by the blood lead testing and individual case management. An increasing body of evidence, indicating adverse effects even below the current “safe” level of 101ug/dl, argues for intensification of the primary prevention, which requires legal, economic and technical measures. Public health efforts should contribute to the reduction and elimination of sources of exposure in child’s environment and public education campaigns. PMID:18365064

  14. Environmental lead exposure risks associated with children's outdoor playgrounds.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Camenzuli, Danielle; Kristensen, Louise Jane; Forbes, Miriam; Zahran, Sammy

    2013-07-01

    This study examines exposure risks associated with lead smelter emissions at children's public playgrounds in Port Pirie, South Australia. Lead and other metal values were measured in air, soil, surface dust and on pre- and post-play hand wipes. Playgrounds closest to the smelter were significantly more lead contaminated compared to those further away (t(27.545) = 3.76; p = .001). Port Pirie post-play hand wipes contained significantly higher lead loadings (maximum hand lead value of 49,432 μg/m(2)) than pre-play hand wipes (t(27) = 3.57, p = .001). A 1% increase in air lead (μg/m(3)) was related to a 0.713% increase in lead dust on play surfaces (95% CI, 0.253-1.174), and a 0.612% increase in post-play wipe lead (95% CI, 0.257-0.970). Contaminated dust from smelter emissions is determined as the source and cause of childhood lead poisoning at a rate of approximately one child every third day.

  15. Early maternal deprivation enhances voluntary alcohol intake induced by exposure to stressful events later in life.

    PubMed

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake.

  16. Early Maternal Deprivation Enhances Voluntary Alcohol Intake Induced by Exposure to Stressful Events Later in Life

    PubMed Central

    Peñasco, Sara; Mela, Virginia; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio; Viveros, María-Paz; Marco, Eva M.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we aimed to assess the impact of early life stress, in the form of early maternal deprivation (MD, 24 h on postnatal day, pnd, 9), on voluntary alcohol intake in adolescent male and female Wistar rats. During adolescence, from pnd 28 to pnd 50, voluntary ethanol intake (20%, v/v) was investigated using the two-bottle free choice paradigm. To better understand the relationship between stress and alcohol consumption, voluntary alcohol intake was also evaluated following additional stressful events later in life, that is, a week of alcohol cessation and a week of alcohol cessation combined with exposure to restraint stress. Female animals consumed more alcohol than males only after a second episode of alcohol cessation combined with restraint stress. MD did not affect baseline voluntary alcohol intake but increased voluntary alcohol intake after stress exposure, indicating that MD may render animals more vulnerable to the effects of stress on alcohol intake. During adolescence, when animals had free access to alcohol, MD animals showed lower body weight gain but a higher growth rate than control animals. Moreover, the higher growth rate was accompanied by a decrease in food intake, suggesting an altered metabolic regulation in MD animals that may interact with alcohol intake. PMID:25821601

  17. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters expression of neurogenesis-related genes in an ex vivo cell culture model.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christina R; Allan, Andrea M

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to long-lasting changes in functional and genetic programs of the brain, which may underlie behavioral alterations seen in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). Aberrant fetal programming during gestational alcohol exposure is a possible mechanism by which alcohol imparts teratogenic effects on the brain; however, current methods used to investigate the effects of alcohol on development often rely on either direct application of alcohol in vitro or acute high doses in vivo. In this study, we used our established moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) model, resulting in maternal blood alcohol content of approximately 20 mM, and subsequent ex vivo cell culture to assess expression of genes related to neurogenesis. Proliferating and differentiating neural progenitor cell culture conditions were established from telencephalic tissue derived from embryonic day (E) 15-17 tissue exposed to alcohol via maternal drinking throughout pregnancy. Gene expression analysis on mRNA derived in vitro was performed using a microarray, and quantitative PCR was conducted for genes to validate the microarray. Student's t tests were performed for statistical comparison of each exposure under each culture condition using a 95% confidence interval. Eleven percent of genes on the array had significantly altered mRNA expression in the prenatal alcohol-exposed neural progenitor culture under proliferating conditions. These include reduced expression of Adora2a, Cxcl1, Dlg4, Hes1, Nptx1, and Vegfa and increased expression of Fgf13, Ndn, and Sox3; bioinformatics analysis indicated that these genes are involved in cell growth and proliferation. Decreased levels of Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a were also found under proliferating conditions. Under differentiating conditions, 7.3% of genes had decreased mRNA expression; these include Cdk5rap3, Gdnf, Hey2, Heyl, Pard6b, and Ptn, which are associated with survival and differentiation as indicated by bioinformatics analysis

  18. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  19. Evaluation of Furfuryl Alcohol Sensitization Potential Following Dermal and Pulmonary Exposure: Enhancement of Airway Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Franko, Jennifer; Jackson, Laurel G.; Hubbs, Ann; Kashon, Michael; Meade, B. J.; Anderson, Stacey E.

    2015-01-01

    Furfuryl alcohol is considered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to be a high volume production chemical, with over 1 million pounds produced annually. Due to its high production volume and its numerous industrial and consumer uses, there is considerable potential for work-related exposure, as well as exposure to the general population, through pulmonary, oral, and dermal routes of exposure. Human exposure data report a high incidence of asthma in foundry mold workers exposed to furan resins, suggesting potential immunologic effects. Although furfuryl alcohol was nominated and evaluated for its carcinogenic potential by the National Toxicology Program, studies evaluating its immunotoxicity are lacking. The studies presented here evaluated the immunotoxic potential of furfuryl alcohol following exposure by the dermal and pulmonary routes using a murine model. When tested in a combined irritancy local lymph node assay, furfuryl alcohol was identified to be an irritant and mild sensitizer (EC3 = 25.6%). Pulmonary exposure to 2% furfuryl alcohol resulted in enhanced airway hyperreactivity, eosinophilic infiltration into the lungs, and enhanced cytokine production (IL-4, IL-5, and interferon-γ) by ex vivo stimulated lung-associated draining lymphoid cells. Airway hyperreactivity and eosinophilic lung infiltration were augmented by prior dermal exposure to furfuryl alcohol. These results suggest that furfuryl alcohol may play a role in the development of allergic airway disease and encourage the need for additional investigation. PMID:22003193

  20. “Queasy does it”: False alcohol beliefs and memories may lead to diminished alcohol preferences

    PubMed Central

    Clifasefi, Seema L.; Bernstein, Daniel M.; Mantonakis, Antonia; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown that false memories can be implanted via innocuous suggestions, and that these memories can play a role in shaping people’s subsequent attitudes and preferences. The current study explored whether participants (N=147) who received a false suggestion that they had become ill drinking a particular type of alcohol would increase their confidence that the event had occurred, and whether their new-found belief would subsequently affect their alcohol preferences. Results indicated that participants who received a suggestion that they had gotten sick drinking rum or vodka before the age of 16 reported increased confidence that the suggested experience had occurred. Moreover, participants who received a false alcohol suggestion also showed a strong trend to report diminished preference for the specified type of alcohol after the false suggestion. Implantation of a false memory related to one’s past drinking experiences may influence current drink preferences and could be an important avenue for further exploration in the development of alcohol interventions. PMID:23500110

  1. Lead exposure and eclampsia in Britain, 1883-1934.

    PubMed

    Troesken, Werner

    2006-07-01

    Eclampsia refers to a coma or seizure activity in a pregnant woman with no prior history of such activity. This paper presents a mix of historical and epidemiological evidence consistent with the hypothesis that chronic lead exposure is a predisposing factor for eclampsia. The historical evidence is based on research conducted by British physicians around 1900 showing that the geographic variation in eclampsia across England and Wales was correlated with lead levels in local drinking water supplies. A formal epidemiological analysis based on a data set of English and Welsh counties observed in 1883 corroborates the evidence presented by historical observers. In particular, the statistical results show that the death rate from eclampsia in counties with high-water-lead levels exceeded the death rate in counties with low-water-lead levels by a factor of 2.34 (95% CI: 1.54-3.14).

  2. Elevated blood lead levels from exposure via a radiator workshop.

    PubMed

    Treble, R G; Thompson, T S; Morton, D N

    1998-04-01

    Elevated lead levels were discovered in blood samples collected from family members where both the father and the mother worked in a radiator repair workshop. The father and mother were found to have blood lead levels of 2.0 and 0.5 mumol/L (41.7 and 10.4 micrograms/dL), respectively. The father's blood lead level was just below the Canadian occupational health and safety intervention level (2.5 mumol/L or 52.1 micrograms/dL). The two children had blood lead levels of 1.0 and 0.8 mumol/L (20.8 and 16.7 micrograms/dL), both of which are in excess of the recommended guideline for intervention in the case of children (0.5 mumol/L or 10.4 micrograms/dL). The exposure of the two children was possibly due to a combination of pathways including exposure at the workshop itself during visits and also the transportation of lead-containing dust to the home environment.

  3. ADOLESCENT BINGE ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ALTERS HIPPOCAMPAL PROGENITOR CELL PROLIFERATION IN RATS: EFFECTS ON CELL CYCLE KINETICS

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Justin A.; Hayes, Dayna M.; Morris, Stephanie A.; Nixon, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Binge alcohol exposure in adolescent rats potently inhibits adult hippocampal neurogenesis by altering neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation and survival; however, it is not clear whether alcohol results in an increase or decrease in net proliferation. Thus, the effects of alcohol on hippocampal NPC cell cycle phase distribution and kinetics were assessed in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Cell cycle distribution was measured using a combination of markers (Ki-67, bromo-deoxy-uridine incorporation, and phospho-histone H3) to determine the proportion of NPCs within G1, S, and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics were calculated using a cumulative bromo-deoxy-uridine injection protocol to determine the effect of alcohol on cell cycle length and S-phase duration. Binge alcohol exposure reduced the proportion of NPCs in S-phase, but had no effect on G1 or G2/M phases, indicating that alcohol specifically targets S-phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle kinetics studies revealed that alcohol reduced NPC cell cycle duration by 36% and shortened S-phase by 62%, suggesting that binge alcohol exposure accelerates progression through the cell cycle. This effect would be expected to increase NPC proliferation, which was supported by a slight, but significant increase in the number of Sox-2+ NPCs residing in the hippocampal subgranular zone following binge alcohol exposure. These studies suggest the mechanism of alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis but also reveal the earliest evidence of the compensatory neurogenesis reaction that has been observed a week after binge alcohol exposure. PMID:21484803

  4. The Relationship of Liver Function Tests to Mixed Exposure to Lead and Organic Solvents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aims to compare liver function indices (aspartate aminotransferase [AST], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], and gamma glutamyl transferase [GGT]) among males who work with lead, organic solvents, or both lead and organic solvents, under the permissible exposure limit (PEL). Methods A total of 593 (out of 2,218) male workers who agreed to share their personal health information for medical research were selected for this study. Those excluded were hepatitis B carriers, individuals exposed to occupational risk factors other than lead and organic solvents, and individuals without liver function results. The 593 were divided into five groups: a lead-exposed group, an organic solvent-exposed group exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE co-exposed solvent group), an organic solvent-exposed group not exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE non-exposed solvent group), a lead and organic solvent-exposed group (mixed exposure group), and a non-exposed group (control group). We performed a one way-analysis of variance (one way-ANOVA) test to compare the geometric means of liver function indices among the groups, using a general linear model (GLM) to adjust for age, work duration, body mass index (BMI), smoking, and alcohol intake. In addition, we performed a binary logistic regression analysis to compare the odds ratios among groups with an abnormal liver function index, according to a cut-off value. Results The ALT and AST of the mixed exposure group were higher than those of the other groups. The GGT of the mixed exposure group was higher than the TCE co-exposed solvent group, but there was no difference among the control group, TCE non-exposed solvent group, lead-exposed group, and mixed exposure group. The same result was evident after adjusting by GLM for age, work duration, BMI, smoking, and alcohol intake, except that ALT from the mixed exposure group showed no difference from the TCE co-exposed solvent group. When the cut-off values of the AST, ALT, and GGT

  5. Lead exposure from tourist earthenware: a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Seldén, Anders I; Bergström, Bernt E O; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2008-10-01

    Lead from glazed earthenware used for food storage is a well-known health hazard sporadically causing lead intoxication and may be a source of disseminating lead exposure in specific population groups. To obtain a contemporary scope of the problem a pilot survey was conducted in a random sample of 2000 households with Swedish charter tourists to Greece in 2003. Response was obtained from 214 (10.7%). From these households blood samples were obtained from 33 potentially lead exposed subjects and 33 controls (participation rate among selected participants of each category was 66% and 33%, respectively). No statistically significant difference in mean blood lead was found between groups (arithmetic mean 0.13 and 0.10micromol/l for exposed and controls, respectively; p>0.05), but increased lead levels for two exposed subjects (1.0 and 0.77micromol/l) were associated with their Hellenic earthenware (tea mugs). This pilot survey, probably the first epidemiological study of the current problem, did not indicate that earthenware purchased in Greece by Swedish tourists and used for food storage is a widespread source of lead, but limitations with regard to statistical power preclude definite conclusions.

  6. College Students' Perceptions about Alcohol and Consensual Sexual Behavior: Alcohol Leads to Sex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindgren, Kristen P.; Pantalone, David W.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenology of college students' conceptualization of the relations between alcohol and sex are surprisingly understudied. Undergraduates rank among the most-studied populations, yet extant research largely relies on quantitative methods, which are constrained in their ability to give participants a "voice." The current study used focus…

  7. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices.

  8. Measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing on social networking sites: challenges and prospects.

    PubMed

    Jernigan, David H; Rushman, Anne E

    2014-02-01

    Youth exposure to alcohol marketing has been linked to increased alcohol consumption and problems. On relatively new and highly interactive social networking sites (SNS) that are popular with youth, tools for measuring youth exposure to alcohol marketing in traditional media are inadequate. We critically review the existing policies of Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube designed to keep branded alcohol content away from underage youth. Looking at brand and user activity on Facebook for the 15 alcohol brands most popular among US youth, we found activity has grown dramatically in the past 3 years, and underage users may be accounting for some of this activity. Surveys of youth and adult participation in alcohol marketing on SNS will be needed to inform debate over these marketing practices. PMID:24284473

  9. Insulin-like growth factor-I mitigates motor coordination deficits associated with neonatal alcohol exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    McGough, Nancy N H; Thomas, Jennifer D; Dominguez, Hector D; Riley, Edward P

    2009-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to behavioral problems, including overactivity, motor dysfunction and learning deficits. Despite warnings about the effects of drinking during pregnancy, rates of fetal alcohol syndrome remain unchanged and thus, there is an urgent need to identify interventions that reduce the severity of alcohol's teratogenic effects. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is neuroprotective against ethanol-related toxicity and promotes white matter production following a number of insults. Given that prenatal alcohol leads to cell death and white matter deficits, the present study examined whether IGF-I could reduce the severity of behavioral deficits associated with developmental alcohol exposure. Sprague-Dawley rat pups received ethanol intubations (5.25 g/kg/day) or sham intubations on postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development equivalent to the third trimester. On PD 10-13, subjects from each treatment received 0 or 10 microg IGF-I intranasally each day. Subjects were then tested on a series of behavioral tasks including open field activity (PD 18-21), parallel bar motor coordination (PD 30-32) and Morris maze spatial learning (PD 45-52). Ethanol exposure produced overactivity, motor coordination impairments, and spatial learning deficits. IGF-I treatment significantly mitigated ethanol's effects on motor coordination, but not on the other two behavioral tasks. These data indicate that IGF-I may be a potential treatment for some of ethanol's damaging effects, a finding that has important implications for children of women who drink alcohol during pregnancy.

  10. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Understanding the Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure and Supporting Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jennifer H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) affect a significant number of children in this country. This article addresses diagnostic issues related to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other alcohol-related disabilities, discusses associated features and behaviors of FASD, and introduces interventions to support children with FASD in…

  11. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  12. Prenatal Alcohol and Cocaine Exposure: Influences on Cognition, Speech, Language, and Hearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone-Wesson, B.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the consequences of prenatal exposure to alcohol and cocaine on children's speech, language, hearing, and cognitive development. The review shows that cognitive impairment, learning disabilities, and behavioral disorders are the central nervous system manifestations of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and cranio-facial…

  13. Effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol plus caffeine in rats: pregnancy outcome and early offspring development.

    PubMed

    Hannigan, J H

    1995-02-01

    The factors determining susceptibility to fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) are not fully understood. We used an animal model of alcohol-related birth defects to assess the coteratogenic potential of caffeine as a risk factor in FAS. Rats were exposed prenatally to alcohol (approximately 15 g/kg/day) with or without caffeine (approximately 84 mg/kg/day) from gestation days 6 through 20 via liquid diet. All control groups were pair-fed to the alcohol-exposed groups. In addition, some controls had free access to lab chow and water. Prenatal exposure to alcohol or caffeine reduced both maternal weight gain during pregnancy and birth-weight of offspring. The combination of alcohol plus caffeine produced an additive effect in reducing birthweight and synergistic effects in increasing postnatal offspring mortality. Prenatal alcohol exposure had a significant negative impact on several developmental indices, including grip strength and negative geotaxis. Prenatal caffeine exposure did not affect maturational measures and did reduce offspring serum levels of the zinc-dependent enzyme alkaline phosphatase. This study in rats demonstrated that caffeine can exacerbate some of the effects of alcohol on prenatal development, specifically reduced birthweight, litter size, and postnatal survival, but that caffeine does not appear to alter prenatal alcohol-induced delays in early postnatal maturation of survivors. The relative impact of intralitter birthweight rank on developmental outcome was also assessed.

  14. An examination of sex differences in the effects of early-life opiate and alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Terasaki, Laurne S; Gomez, Julie; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2016-02-19

    Early-life exposure to drugs and alcohol is one of the most preventable causes of developmental, behavioural and learning disorders in children. Thus a significant amount of basic, animal and human research has focused on understanding the behavioural consequences and the associated neural effects of exposure to drugs and alcohol during early brain development. Despite this, much of the previous research that has been done on this topic has used predominantly male subjects or rodents. While many of the findings from these male-specific studies may ultimately apply to females, the purpose of this review is to highlight the research that has also examined sex as a factor and found striking differences between the sexes in their response to early-life opiate and alcohol exposure. Finally, we will also provide a framework for scientists interested in examining sex as a factor in future experiments that specifically examine the consequences of early-life drug and alcohol exposure. PMID:26833841

  15. Identifying sources of lead exposure for children, with lead concentrations and isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Glorennec, P; Peyr, C; Poupon, J; Oulhote, Y; Le Bot, B

    2010-05-01

    Despite a dramatic decrease in children's blood lead levels (BLL), lead exposure remains a public health concern because increasing evidence shows effects at very low doses. Lowering BLL still further requires the identification of lead sources and, therefore, new tools to investigate and thus prevent exposure. We describe a procedure that uses both lead concentrations and isotope ratios (IRs) to identify sources of overexposure in homes. Water, dust, and paint chips were sampled from the homes of 21 children with elevated BLL from Aubervilliers (Paris metropolitan area). Lead concentrations of concern were calculated from reverse physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling for water and dust. Isotope ratio matching of blood and environmental samples (with a lead content above the concentration of concern) was performed by computation of the distance between their IRs. When the IR of the source did not match that of the blood, the source was eliminated as a source of lead intoxication. The number of sources eliminated (per child) due to lead concentration ranged from 14% to 86% (mean 66%) for dust, and 100% for water samples. The number of remaining potential sources eliminated by IR interpretation varied from 0% to 100% for both dust and paint chips (mean 63% and 58%, respectively). IRs made it possible to eliminate at least one source in 20 of 21 cases and identified a single source in 11 of 21. The number of dust and paint sources not eliminated by concentration or IR varied from 8% to 45% (median 18%). The pilot study supports the usefulness of these procedures and the added value of IRs for identifying sources of lead poisoning. However, systematic use should be supported by cost-effectiveness analysis on a larger and more representative population of elevated BLL.

  16. Alcohol exposure alters mouse lung inflammation in response to inhaled dust.

    PubMed

    McCaskill, Michael L; Romberger, Debra J; DeVasure, Jane; Boten, Jessica; Sisson, Joseph H; Bailey, Kristina L; Poole, Jill A; Wyatt, Todd A

    2012-07-01

    Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE) collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2-4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon) activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability of the lung to activate PKCε

  17. Alcohol Exposure Alters Mouse Lung Inflammation in Response to Inhaled Dust

    PubMed Central

    McCaskill, Michael L.; Romberger, Debra J.; DeVasure, Jane; Boten, Jessica; Sisson, Joseph H.; Bailey, Kristina L.; Poole, Jill A.; Wyatt, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol exposure is associated with increased lung infections and decreased mucociliary clearance. Occupational workers exposed to dusts from concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) are at risk for developing chronic inflammatory lung diseases. Agricultural worker co-exposure to alcohol and organic dust has been established, although little research has been conducted on the combination effects of alcohol and organic dusts on the lung. Previously, we have shown in a mouse model that exposure to hog dust extract (HDE) collected from a CAFO results in the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), elevated lavage fluid cytokines/chemokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the development of significant lung pathology. Because alcohol blocks airway epithelial cell release of IL-6 in vitro, we hypothesized that alcohol exposure would alter mouse lung inflammatory responses to HDE. To test this hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed 20% alcohol or water ad libitum for 6 weeks and treated with 12.5% HDE by intranasal inhalation method daily during the final three weeks. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), tracheas and lungs were collected. HDE stimulated a 2–4 fold increase in lung and tracheal PKCε (epsilon) activity in mice, but no such increase in PKCε activity was observed in dust-exposed mice fed alcohol. Similarly, alcohol-fed mice demonstrated significantly less IL-6 in lung lavage in response to dust than that observed in control mice instilled with HDE. TNFα levels were also inhibited in the alcohol and HDE-exposed mouse lung tissue as compared to the HDE only exposed group. HDE-induced lung inflammatory aggregates clearly present in the tissue from HDE only exposed animals were not visually detectable in the HDE/alcohol co-exposure group. Statistically significant weight reductions and 20% mortality were also observed in the mice co-exposed to HDE and alcohol. These data suggest that alcohol exposure depresses the ability of the lung to activate PKCε

  18. MATERNAL SELF-ESTEEM, EXPOSURE TO LEAD, AND CHILD NEURODEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Surkan, Pamela J.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Wright, Rosalind J.; Téllez-Rojo, Martha M.; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, E. Mauricio; Bellinger, David C.; Schwartz, Joel; Perroni, Estela; Wright, Robert O.

    2008-01-01

    The notion that maternal personality characteristics influence cognitive development in their children has been grounded in stress moderation theory. Maternal personality traits, such as self-esteem, may buffer maternal stressors or lead to improved maternal-child interactions that directly impact neurodevelopment. This can be extended to suggest that maternal personality may serve to attenuate or exacerbate the effects of other neurotoxicants, although this has not been studied directly. We examined whether mothers’ self-esteem had a direct or main effect on their children's cognitive outcomes. We also explored the modifying effects of maternal self-esteem on the association between exposure to lead and neurodevelopment in these children. Study participants included 379 mother-child pairs from Mexico City. Data included the Coopersmith self-esteem scale in mothers, children's Bayley's Scale of Infant Development (BSID) scores, and sociodemographic information. Linear regression was used to model the relationship between maternal self-esteem and the Bayley's Mental Development Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) scores at age 24 months using regression models stratified by levels of maternal self-esteem. In adjusted models, each point increase in maternal self-esteem was associated with children having 0.2 higher score on the Bayley's MDI (p=0.04). Similar results were observed using the PDI outcome. Moreover, there was evidence that maternal self-esteem attenuated the negative effects of lead exposure, although the interaction fell short of conventional levels of statistical significance. PMID:18261800

  19. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies. PMID:26793211

  20. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure.

    PubMed

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  1. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  2. Relationships between blood lead concentration and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in alcoholics and workers industrially exposed to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Bortoli, A.; Fazzin, G.; Marin, V.; Trabuio, G.; Zotti, S.

    1986-07-01

    Blood lead concentration (Pb-B), aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), and gamma-GT were measured in 265 workers industrially exposed to lead and in 184 patients with liver disease resulting from alcohol consumption. The first group was divided according to alcohol use, i.e., nondrinkers, moderate drinkers, and heavy drinkers. The second group was divided according to the following criteria: hepatopatic without cirrhosis, hepatopatic with compensated cirrhosis, and hepatopatic with decompensated cirrhosis. Heavy drinkers who were industrially exposed had the highest Pb-B (40.4 +/- 14.6 micrograms/dl) and the lowest ALAD (22.2 +/- 9.1 U/L). The correlations between Pb-B and ALAD show no significant change with the increase of Pb-B. In the alcoholic group, 76 patients with alcoholic liver disease without cirrhosis had the highest Pb-B (40.3-9.1 micrograms/dl) and ALAD the lowest (18.6 +/- 7.7 U/L). The negative correlation between Pb-B and log ALAD disappeared completely in individuals with Pb-B that exceeded 50 micrograms/dl, independent from the seriousness of illness.

  3. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  4. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  5. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations.

  6. Neonatal binge alcohol exposure increases microglial activation in the developing rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Boschen, K E; Ruggiero, M J; Klintsova, A Y

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant activation of the developing immune system can have long-term negative consequences on cognition and behavior. Teratogens, such as alcohol, activate microglia, the brain's resident immune cells, which could contribute to the lifelong deficits in learning and memory observed in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in rodent models of FASD. The current study investigates the microglial response of the brain 24 h following neonatal alcohol exposure (postnatal days (PDs) 4-9, 5.25 g/kg/day). On PD10, microglial cell counts and area of cell territory were assessed using unbiased stereology in the hippocampal subfields CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and hippocampal expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes was analyzed. A significant decrease in microglial cell counts in CA1 and DG was found in alcohol-exposed and sham-intubated (SI) animals compared to undisturbed suckle controls (SCs), suggesting overlapping effects of alcohol exposure and intubation alone on the neuroimmune response. Cell territory was decreased in alcohol-exposed animals in CA1, CA3, and DG compared to controls, suggesting the microglia have shifted to a more activated state following alcohol treatment. Furthermore, both alcohol-exposed and SI animals had increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α, CD11b, and CCL4; in addition, CCL4 was significantly increased in alcohol-exposed animals compared to SI as well. Alcohol-exposed animals also showed increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-β compared to both SI and SCs. In summary, the number and activation of microglia in the neonatal hippocampus are both affected in a rat model of FASD, along with increased gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study shows that alcohol exposure during development induces a neuroimmune response, potentially contributing to long-term alcohol-related changes to cognition, behavior and immune function. PMID:26996510

  7. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  8. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

    PubMed

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5-19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  9. Relationships between Head Circumference, Brain Volume and Cognition in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Treit, Sarah; Zhou, Dongming; Chudley, Albert E.; Andrew, Gail; Rasmussen, Carmen; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Samdup, Dawa; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Loock, Christine; Beaulieu, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Head circumference is used together with other measures as a proxy for central nervous system damage in the diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders, yet the relationship between head circumference and brain volume has not been investigated in this population. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between head circumference, brain volume and cognitive performance in a large sample of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (n = 144) and healthy controls (n = 145), aged 5–19 years. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging to yield brain volumes and head circumference, normalized to control for age and sex. Mean head circumference, brain volume, and cognitive scores were significantly reduced in the prenatal alcohol exposure group relative to controls, albeit with considerable overlap between groups. Males with prenatal alcohol exposure had reductions in all three measures, whereas females with prenatal alcohol exposure had reduced brain volumes and cognitive scores, but no difference in head circumference relative to controls. Microcephaly (defined here as head circumference ≤ 3rd percentile) occurred more often in prenatal alcohol exposed participants than controls, but 90% of the exposed sample had head circumferences above this clinical cutoff indicating that head circumference is not a sensitive marker of prenatal alcohol exposure. Normalized head circumference and brain volume were positively correlated in both groups, and subjects with very low head circumference typically had below-average brain volumes. Conversely, over half of the subjects with very low brain volumes had normal head circumferences, which may stem from differential effects of alcohol on the skeletal and nervous systems. There were no significant correlations between head circumference and any cognitive score. These findings confirm group-level reductions in head circumference and increased rates of microcephaly in children with prenatal alcohol

  10. Abnormal brain activation during working memory in children with prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse: the effects of methamphetamine, alcohol, and polydrug exposure.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Bramen, Jennifer E; Nunez, S Christopher; Quandt, Lorna C; Smith, Lynne; O'Connor, Mary J; Bookheimer, Susan Y; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2011-02-14

    Structural and metabolic abnormalities in fronto-striatal structures have been reported in children with prenatal methamphetamine (MA) exposure. The current study was designed to quantify functional alterations to the fronto-striatal circuit in children with prenatal MA exposure using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Because many women who use MA during pregnancy also use alcohol, a known teratogen, we examined 50 children (age range 7-15), 19 with prenatal MA exposure, 15 of whom had concomitant prenatal alcohol exposure (the MAA group), 13 with heavy prenatal alcohol but no MA exposure (ALC group), and 18 unexposed controls (CON group). We hypothesized that MA exposed children would demonstrate abnormal brain activation during a visuospatial working memory (WM) "N-Back" task. As predicted, the MAA group showed less activation than the CON group in many brain areas, including the striatum and frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. The ALC group showed less activation than the MAA group in several regions, including the right striatum. We found an inverse correlation between performance and activity in the striatum in both the CON and MAA groups. However, this relationship was significant in the caudate of the CON group but not the MAA group, and in the putamen of the MAA group but not the CON group. These findings suggest that structural damage in the fronto-striatal circuit after prenatal MA exposure leads to decreased recruitment of this circuit during a WM challenge, and raise the possibility that a rewiring of cortico-striatal networks may occur in children with prenatal MA exposure.

  11. Prenatal alcohol exposure: foetal programming, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sex differences in outcome.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, J; Sliwowska, J H; Lan, N; Hellemans, K G C

    2008-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has adverse effects on offspring neuroendocrine and behavioural functions. Alcohol readily crosses the placenta, thus directly affecting developing foetal endocrine organs. In addition, alcohol-induced changes in maternal endocrine function can disrupt the normal hormonal interactions between the pregnant female and foetal systems, altering the normal hormone balance and, indirectly, affecting the development of foetal metabolic, physiological and endocrine functions. The present review focuses on the adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on offspring neuroendocrine function, with particular emphasis on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, a key player in the stress response. The HPA axis is highly susceptible to programming during foetal and neonatal development. Here, we review data demonstrating that alcohol exposure in utero programmes the foetal HPA axis such that HPA tone is increased throughout life. Importantly, we show that, although alterations in HPA responsiveness and regulation are robust phenomena, occurring in both male and female offspring, sexually dimorphic effects of alcohol are frequently observed. We present updated findings on possible mechanisms underlying differential effects of alcohol on male and female offspring, with special emphasis on effects at different levels of the HPA axis, and on modulatory influences of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormones and serotonin. Finally, possible mechanisms underlying foetal programming of the HPA axis, and the long-term implications of increased exposure to endogenous glucocorticoids for offspring vulnerability to illnesses or disorders later in life are discussed.

  12. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume.

  13. Hippocampal neuron populations are reduced in vervet monkeys with fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-05-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65-70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume. PMID:25913787

  14. Prenatal alcohol exposure reduces mandibular calcium and phosphorus concentrations in newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Isabel C S; Martinelli, Carolina da S M; Milhan, Noala V M; Marchini, Adriana M P da S; Dutra, Tamires P; de Souza, Daniela M; da Rocha, Rosilene F

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that prenatal alcohol exposure affects fetal bone development, including bone quality. This study evaluated the chemical composition of mandibles from newborn rats after maternal 20% alcohol consumption before and throughout gestation. Nine rats were initially distributed into three groups: an Alcohol group, Pair-fed group, and Control group. The groups were fed prespecified diets for 8 weeks before and the 3 weeks during pregnancy. At age 5 days, eight newborns from each group were euthanized (total, n = 24). Using energy dispersive spectrometry, we evaluated samples of mandibles from newborns to identify changes in bone mineralization, specifically Ca and P concentrations. Ca and P concentrations were lower in the Alcohol group than in the Control and Pair-fed groups (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). In summary, alcohol exposure before and throughout gestation reduces mandibular Ca and P concentrations in newborn rats. (J Oral Sci 58, 439-444, 2016). PMID:27665985

  15. Potential Mechanism Leading to Impaired Thermoregulation Following Microgravity Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Etzel, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity or its analogues impairs thermoregulation in humans evidenced by higher internal temperatures following the exposure during a thermal challenge. Although the mechanism leading to this response has not been clearly delineated, we identified that prolonged head-down tilt (HDT) markedly impairs thermoregulatory reflex control of skin blood flow, as demonstrated by an increased internal temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation, and by a reduced slope of the relationship between the elevation in skin blood flow relative to the elevation in internal temperature. Recently, Fortney et al. identified similar responses in two individuals following 115 days of microgravity exposure. One possible mechanism leading to altered cutaneous vasodilation during a thermal challenge following actual or simulated microgravity exposure may be associated with baroreflex-mediated attenuation in the elevation of skin blood flow. During a heat stress the elevation in skin blood flow is accomplished through a combination of increased cutaneous vascular conductance and cardiac output, both of which result in central venous pressure (CVP) decreasing 2-6 mmHg. Reductions in CVP of this magnitude in normothermia decrease muscle blood flow and skin blood flow presumably through unloading the cardiopulmonary baroreceptors. It is unclear whether the reduction in CVP, and accompanying cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading, during passive heating buffers the elevation in skin blood flow. That is, would the elevation in skin blood flow be greater if CVP did not decrease, or decreased to a lesser extent during the heat stress? Conversely, if CVP decreased to a greater extend during a thermal challenge following a perturbation such as prolonged HDT, would the elevation in skin blood flow be attenuated during that thermal challenge? Given that prolonged HDT decreases plasma volume and central venous pressure, such a finding would provide a plausible hypothesis

  16. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    SciTech Connect

    Hinwood, A.L.; Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M.; Heyworth, J.; McCafferty, P.; Odland, J.Ø.

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  17. Low Dose Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Does Not Impair Spatial Learning and Memory in Two Tests in Adult and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Carlie L.; Burne, Thomas H. J.; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; Moritz, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can have detrimental impacts on the developing hippocampus, which can lead to deficits in learning and memory function. Although high levels of alcohol exposure can lead to severe deficits, there is a lack of research examining the effects of low levels of exposure. This study used a rat model to determine if prenatal exposure to chronic low dose ethanol would result in deficits in learning and memory performance and if this was associated with morphological changes within the hippocampus. Sprague Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 6% (vol/vol) ethanol (EtOH) or an isocaloric control diet throughout gestation. Male and Female offspring underwent behavioural testing at 8 (Adult) or 15 months (Aged) of age. Brains from these animals were collected for stereological analysis of pyramidal neuron number and dendritic morphology within the CA1 and CA3 regions of the dorsal hippocampus. Prenatal ethanol exposed animals did not differ in spatial learning or memory performance in the Morris water maze or Y maze tasks compared to Control offspring. There was no effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on pyramidal cell number or density within the dorsal hippocampus. Overall, this study indicates that chronic low dose prenatal ethanol exposure in this model does not have long term detrimental effects on pyramidal cells within the dorsal hippocampus or impair spatial learning and memory performance. PMID:24978807

  18. Lead exposure in indigenous communities of the Amazon basin, Peru.

    PubMed

    Anticona, Cynthia; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Lundh, Thomas; Alegre, Yuri; Sebastian, Miguel San

    2011-12-01

    Since 2006, three studies have reported elevated levels of lead (Pb) among the indigenous population of the Corrientes river, in the Amazon basin of Peru. Due to the large evidence of environmental pollution related to oil exploitation in the area, this activity has been suggested as the source of exposure. This study aimed to evaluate Pb levels in the population and environment of two communities exposed and one community non-exposed to the oil exploitation activity. Blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by the instrument Leadcare. A comparison with the graphite furnace atomic absorption technique was performed in order to validate the Leadcare results. Environmental samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Among 361 capillary samples, the mean BLL was 9.4 μg/dl. Mean BLL of the communities exposed (n=171, x¯=9.5 μg/dl) and non-exposed (n=190, x¯=9.2 μg/dl) to the oil activity were not significantly different. Pb levels in environmental samples were below the maximum permissible levels. The sources of exposure could not be identified. Elevated levels of Pb in the oil-non-exposed community pointed out at other sources not yet clarified.

  19. Developmental lead exposure causes startle response deficits in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Rice, Clinton; Ghorai, Jugal K; Zalewski, Kathryn; Weber, Daniel N

    2011-10-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be an important concern for fish populations. Research is required to assess the long-term behavioral effects of low-level concentrations of Pb(2+) and the physiological mechanisms that control those behaviors. Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos (<2h post fertilization; hpf) were exposed to one of three concentrations of lead (as PbCl(2)): 0, 10, or 30 nM until 24 hpf. (1) Response to a mechanosensory stimulus: Individual larvae (168 hpf) were tested for response to a directional, mechanical stimulus. The tap frequency was adjusted to either 1 or 4 taps/s. Startle response was recorded at 1000 fps. Larvae responded in a concentration-dependent pattern for latency to reaction, maximum turn velocity, time to reach V(max) and escape time. With increasing exposure concentrations, a larger number of larvae failed to respond to even the initial tap and, for those that did respond, ceased responding earlier than control larvae. These differences were more pronounced at a frequency of 4 taps/s. (2) Response to a visual stimulus: Fish, exposed as embryos (2-24 hpf) to Pb(2+) (0-10 μM) were tested as adults under low light conditions (≈ 60 μW/m(2)) for visual responses to a rotating black bar. Visual responses were significantly degraded at Pb(2+) concentrations of 30 nM. These data suggest that zebrafish are viable models for short- and long-term sensorimotor deficits induced by acute, low-level developmental Pb(2+) exposures.

  20. Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Peter F; Materna, Barbara L; Harrington, David; Uratsu, Connie

    2002-01-01

    The California Painters Project was a 2-year intervention research project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among a group of residential and commercial painters in San Francisco, Calif. As part of this project 12 contractors invited project staff to conduct employee exposure monitoring. Twenty-five full-shift samples were collected, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550 microg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57 microg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit; all of these involved dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. Fifty-eight 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The arithmetic mean concentration results for heat gun use, wet sanding, and open flame burning were all under 10 microg/m3; the mean concentration for HEPA-exhausted power sanding was 33 microg/m3; dry manual scraping, 71 microg/m3; dry manual sanding, 420 microg/m3; and uncontrolled power sanding, 580 microg/m3. Analysis and modeling based on the 30-min results for dry manual sanding and uncontrolled power sanding indicate that painters' full-shift exposures often exceed 500 microg/m3 and the OSHA assigned level of protection for a half-mask air-purifying respirator. These results are cause for concern because both of these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing half-mask respirators. The data show that HEPA-exhausted power sanding reduces paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method. PMID:11843421

  1. Early adolescent, multi-ethnic, urban youth's exposure to patterns of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tobler, Amy L; Komro, Kelli A; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred M

    2009-10-01

    This study identified heterogeneous classes of alcohol-related neighborhood characteristics to which multi-ethnic, early adolescents in urban communities are exposed. The sample comprised 4,215 youth from 42 community areas in Chicago, Illinois who completed surveys at the beginning of 6th grade (2002). Neighborhood measures included: (1) mean number of alcohol outlets per 1,000 population per community area; (2) alcohol purchase attempt rate by pseudo-underage youth; (3) average number of alcohol advertisements within 1,500 feet of each school per community; and (4) a Census 2000-based deprivation index. Parents and community leaders provided data on perceived neighborhood problems and parental prevention actions, and neighborhood strength and preventive action by communities, law enforcement, and community organizations, respectively. Multilevel latent class analysis identified the number and characteristics of heterogeneous latent neighborhood classes in which these youth are exposed. Five classes best described the heterogeneity among the sample: (1) Low social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (19.8%), (2) Low social capital/low exposure/low access to alcohol (24.5%), (3) Moderate social capital/low exposure/high access to alcohol (30.0%), (4) Moderate social capital/moderate exposure/low access to alcohol (20.1%), and (5) High social capital/moderate exposure/high access to alcohol (5.6%). The racial/ethnic distribution among the classes varied considerably. Results suggest there is substantive heterogeneity among this seemingly homogeneous urban population. Further, they highlight the socioeconomic disadvantage of these inner-city communities and the resource disparity across the racial/ethnic groups. Understanding the nuances among communities may lend to development of more efficacious preventive interventions and policy initiatives, inform theory, and help prioritize limited resources.

  2. Relative contribution of lead from anthropogenic sources to the total human lead exposure in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, R.W.

    1986-08-01

    The paper evaluates human exposure to lead at a baseline level for persons living in non-urban communities away from stationary or mobile sources of lead, eating typical diets, and engaging in no lead-related occupational or avocational activities. Relative contributions of atmospheric and metallic lead are evaluated for each exposure pathway. For this baseline situation, perhaps 40 to 55% of the total human exposure to lead is of atmospheric origin. Beyond the baseline level, additional exposure factors can be determined for other environments (e.g. urban, occupational, smelter communities) and for certain habits and activities (e.g., pica, smoking, drinking, and various hobbies), with variations for age, sex, or socioeconomic status. Although quantification of these factors is uncertain, they provide guidelines in determining relative exposures under differing environmental conditions. The added exposure factors can also be partitioned into atmospheric, metallic, and pigment lead.

  3. Binge-like ingestion of a combination of an energy drink and alcohol leads to cognitive deficits and motivational changes.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2015-09-01

    The combination of alcohol with an energy drink (ED) is believed to contribute to risky alcohol-drinking behaviors, such as binge drinking. However, the long-term effects on cognition and reward function that are caused by the repeated binge-like ingestion of alcohol and EDs are still poorly known. The present study examined the effects of a history of repeated exposure to alcohol and/or an ED on short-term memory and alcohol-seeking behavior. Male Wistar rats were given daily intragastric administration of alcohol (3.4g/kg) combined or not with an ED (10.71ml/kg) for 6 consecutive days. The rats were tested for locomotion 15min after the first intragastric treatment. Short-term memory was assessed in the novel object recognition and social discrimination tests 2-3days after the last intragastric administration. The rewarding effect of alcohol was tested 1-3weeks following the last intragastric administration in a conditioned place preference paradigm. The acute binge-like ingestion of alcohol decreased locomotor activity, whereas the combination of alcohol and an ED increased locomotion in the first minutes of assessment. Alcohol exposure produced cognitive deficits in both the object recognition and social discrimination tests, and adding the ED to the alcohol solution did not modify these effects. The combination of alcohol and the ED increased alcohol-induced conditioned place preference. Thus, a history of binge-like alcohol exposure combined with the ED caused subsequent cognitive deficits and increased alcohol seeking behavior, and such behavioral effects might contribute to the progression to alcohol abuse disorders.

  4. Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R

    2010-04-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning. PMID:20199067

  5. The Influence of Lead Exposure and Toxicity to Children's Neurological Development and School Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Sarah L.

    This report discusses the effects of lead exposure and toxicity on children's cognitive development and school performance and addresses the role of schools in prevention of lead poisoning. Sources of lead exposure include mining, smelting and refining activities, lead paint, leaded gasoline, and industrial emissions. The results of lead poisoning…

  6. Adoption and Prenatal Alcohol and Drug Exposure: Research, Policy, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Richard P., Ed.; Freundlich, Madelyn, Ed.; Brodzinsky, David, Ed.

    As child welfare professionals have become aware of the impact of prenatal substance exposure on children in the adoption process or who are available for adoption, there is a heightened need for understanding a range of issues connected with prenatal alcohol and drug exposure. This book addresses many of these issues, including the impact of…

  7. Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Simon Alex; Geil, Chelsea Rhea; Nixon, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption results in neurodegeneration which some hypothesize is caused by neuroinflammation. One characteristic of neuroinflammation is microglial activation, but it is now well accepted that microglial activation may be pro- or anti-inflammatory. Recent work indicates that the Majchrowicz model of alcohol-induced neurodegeneration results in anti-inflammatory microglia, while intermittent exposure models with lower doses and blood alcohol levels produce microglia with a pro-inflammatory phenotype. To determine the effect of a repeated binge alcohol exposure, rats received two cycles of the four-day Majchrowicz model. One hemisphere was then used to assess microglia via immunohistochemistry and while the other was used for ELISAs of cytokines and growth factors. A single binge ethanol exposure resulted in low-level of microglial activation; however, a second binge potentiated the microglial response. Specifically, double binge rats had greater OX-42 immunoreactivity, increased ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1+) cells, and upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) compared with the single binge ethanol group. These data indicate that prior ethanol exposure potentiates a subsequent microglia response, which suggests that the initial exposure to alcohol primes microglia. In summary, repeated ethanol exposure, independent of other immune modulatory events, potentiates microglial activity. PMID:27240410

  8. Adolescent vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure: findings from rodent models.

    PubMed

    Barron, Susan; White, Aaron; Swartzwelder, H Scott; Bell, Richard L; Rodd, Zachary A; Slawecki, Craig J; Ehlers, Cindy L; Levin, Edward D; Rezvani, Amir H; Spear, Linda P

    2005-09-01

    This article presents an overview of the proceedings from a symposium entitled "Is adolescence special? Possible age-related vulnerabilities to chronic alcohol or nicotine exposure," organized by Susan Barron and Linda Spear and held at the 2004 Research Society on Alcoholism Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia. This symposium, co-sponsored by the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Study Group and the Neurobehavioral Teratology Society, focused on our current knowledge regarding the long-term consequences of ethanol and/or nicotine exposure during adolescence with the emphasis on data from rodent models. The support from these two societies represents the understanding by these research groups that adolescence represents a unique developmental stage for the effects of chronic drug exposure and also marks an age in which many risky behaviors including alcohol consumption and smoking typically begin. The speakers included (1) Aaron White, who presented data on the effects of adolescent ethanol exposure on subsequent motor or cognitive response to an ethanol challenge in adulthood; (2) Richard Bell, who presented data suggesting that genetic differences could play a role in adolescent vulnerability to ethanol; (3) Craig Slawecki, who presented data looking at the effects of chronic exposure to alcohol or nicotine on neurophysiologic and behavioral end points; and (4) Ed Levin, who presented data on acute and long-term consequences of adolescent nicotine exposure. Finally, Linda Spear provided some summary points and recommendations regarding unresolved issues and future directions.

  9. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure as they described the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, this model, ln PbB = ln (..beta../sub 0/ + B/sub 1/ PbA + B/sub 2/ PbS + ..beta../sub 3/ PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 ..mu..g/dl as PbA increases 1.0 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/.

  11. Omaha childhood blood lead and environmental lead: a linear total exposure model

    SciTech Connect

    Angle, C.R.; Marcus, A.; Cheng, I.H.; McIntire, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    The majority of experimental and population studies of blood lead (PbB) and environmental lead, including the Omaha study, have utilized the Goldsmith-Hexter log-log or power function model. Comparison was made of the log-log model and a linear model of total exposure to describe the Omaha Study of 1074 PbBs from children ages 1-18 years as related to air (PbA), soil (PbS), and housedust (PbHD) lead. The data fit of the linear model was statistically equivalent to the power model and the predicted curves were biologically more plausible. The linear model avoids the mathematical limitations of the power model which predicts PbB zero at PbA zero. From the Omaha data, the model, ln PbB = ln (Bo + B1 PbA + B2 PbS + B3 PbHD) predicts that PbB increases 1.92 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m. Since PbS and PbHD increase with PbA, however, the increases in total exposure predict a PbB increase of 4-5 micrograms/dl as PbA increases 1.0 micrograms/cu. m.

  12. Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developmental pattern of temperature preference in a thermocline.

    PubMed

    Zimmerberg, B; Tomlinson, T M; Glaser, J; Beckstead, J W

    1993-01-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with a variety of impairments in neonatal state regulatory systems. Since prenatal alcohol exposure causes thermoregulatory deficits in response to both heat and cold stress in rats, body temperature set-point might be altered in alcohol-exposed offspring. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on behavior in a thermocline was investigated in 10-, 15-, and 125-day-old male and female rats from three prenatal treatment conditions: alcohol liquid diet, pair-fed liquid diet control, or standard control. Subjects were placed in the thermocline in the cold, hot, or middle start positions and observed for 60 min. Subjects exposed to alcohol prenatally had a wider "preference zone" than control subjects at 10 and 15 days of age, but did not as adults. This widening of the temperature set-point in young subjects prenatally exposed to alcohol may represent a developmental lag in the development of body temperature set-point or a central compensatory process allowing the animal to adapt to alternating experiences of heat and cold stress.

  13. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged <21 years each year during 2001-2005. Exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged <21 years. However, the National Research Council/Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) proposed in 2003 that "the industry standard should move toward a 15% threshold for television advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions.

  14. Youth exposure to alcohol advertising on television--25 markets, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    2013-11-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption accounted for an estimated 4,700 deaths and 280,000 years of potential life lost among youths aged <21 years each year during 2001-2005. Exposure to alcohol marketing increases the likelihood to varying degrees that youths will initiate drinking and drink at higher levels. By 2003, the alcohol industry voluntarily agreed not to advertise on television programs where >30% of the audience is reasonably expected to be aged <21 years. However, the National Research Council/Institute of Medicine (NRC/IOM) proposed in 2003 that "the industry standard should move toward a 15% threshold for television advertising". Because local media markets might have different age distributions, the Center on Alcohol Marketing and Youth, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, evaluated the proportion of advertisements that appeared on television programs in 25 local television markets* and resulting youth exposure that exceeded the industry standard (i.e., >30% aged 2-20 years) or the proposed NRC/IOM standard (i.e., >15% aged 12-20 years). Among national television programs with alcohol advertising, placements were assessed for the 10 programs with the largest number of youth viewers within each of four program categories: network sports, network nonsports, cable sports, and cable nonsports (40 total). Of the 196,494 alcohol advertisements that aired on television programs with the largest number of youth viewers in these local markets, placement of 23.7% exceeded the industry threshold and 35.4% exceeded the NRC/IOM threshold. These results indicate that the alcohol industry's self-regulation of its advertising could be improved, and youth exposure to alcohol advertising could be further reduced by adopting and complying with the NRC/IOM standard. In addition, continued public health surveillance would allow for sustained assessment of youth exposure to alcohol advertising and inform future interventions. PMID:24196664

  15. Effects of pre-natal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity: Sex, age and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Christine J; Patten, Anna R; Sickmann, Helle M; Helfer, Jennifer L; Christie, Brian R

    2016-05-01

    The consumption of alcohol during gestation is detrimental to the developing central nervous system (CNS). The severity of structural and functional brain alterations associated with alcohol intake depends on many factors including the timing and duration of alcohol consumption. The hippocampal formation, a brain region implicated in learning and memory, is highly susceptible to the effects of developmental alcohol exposure. Some of the observed effects of alcohol on learning and memory may be due to changes at the synaptic level, as this teratogen has been repeatedly shown to interfere with hippocampal synaptic plasticity. At the molecular level alcohol interferes with receptor proteins and can disrupt hormones that are important for neuronal signaling and synaptic plasticity. In this review we examine the consequences of prenatal and early postnatal alcohol exposure on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and highlight the numerous factors that can modulate the effects of alcohol. We also discuss some potential mechanisms responsible for these changes as well as emerging therapeutic avenues that are beginning to be explored. PMID:26906760

  16. Ethanol exposure alters zebrafish development: a novel model of fetal alcohol syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bilotta, Joseph; Barnett, Jalynn A; Hancock, Laura; Saszik, Shannon

    2004-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol has been shown to produce the overt physical and behavioral symptoms known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in humans. Also, it is believed that low concentrations and/or short durations of alcohol exposure can produce more subtle effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of embryonic ethanol exposure on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) in order to determine whether this species is a viable animal model for studying FAS. Fertilized embryos were reared in varying concentrations of ethanol (1.5% and 2.9%) and exposure times (e.g., 0-8, 6-24, 12-24, and 48-72 h postfertilization; hpf); anatomical measures including eye diameter and heart rate were compared across groups. Results found that at the highest concentration of ethanol (2.9%), there were more abnormal physical distortions and significantly higher mortality rates than any other group. Embryos exposed to ethanol for a shorter duration period (0-8 hpf) at a concentration of 1.5% exhibited more subtle effects such as significantly smaller eye diameter and lower heart rate than controls. These results indicate that embryonic alcohol exposure affects external and internal physical development and that the severity of these effects is a function of both the amount of ethanol and the timing of ethanol exposure. Thus, the zebrafish represents a useful model for examining basic questions about the effects of embryonic exposure to ethanol on development.

  17. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  18. Early Adolescent Exposure to Alcohol Advertising and Its Relationship to Underage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Ellickson, Phyllis L.; McCaffrey, Daniel; Hambarsoomians, Katrin

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether early adolescents who are exposed to alcohol marketing are subsequently more likely to drink. Recent studies suggest that exposure to alcohol ads has a limited influence on drinking in mid-adolescence. Early adolescents may be more vulnerable to alcohol advertising effects. Methods Two in-school surveys of 1,786 South Dakota youth measured exposure to television beer advertisements, alcohol ads in magazines, in-store beer displays and beer concessions, radio-listening time, and ownership of beer promotional items during sixth grade, and drinking intentions and behavior at seventh grade. Multivariate regression equations predicted the two drinking outcomes using the advertising exposure variables and controlling for psychosocial factors and prior drinking. Results After adjusting for covariates, the joint effect of exposure to advertising from all six sources at Grade 6 was strongly predictive of Grade 7 drinking and Grade 7 intentions to drink. Youth in the 75th percentile of alcohol marketing exposure had a predicted probability of drinking that was 50% greater than that of youth in the 25th percentile. Conclusions Although causal effects are uncertain, policy makers should consider limiting a variety of marketing practices that could contribute to drinking in early adolescence. PMID:17531759

  19. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Norman; Zhang, Zhong-Fa; Sun, Jiayang; Ketterer, Michael E; Lalumandier, James A; Shulze, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48microg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter

  20. Effect of alcohol exposure on fetal brain development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2013-02-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy can be severely damage to the brain development in fetuses. This study investigates the effects of maternal ethanol consumption on brain development in mice embryos. Pregnant mice at gestational day 12.5 were intragastrically gavaged with ethanol (3g/Kg bwt) twice daily for three consecutive days. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and imaged using a swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system. 3D images of the mice embryo brain were obtained and the volumes of the left and right ventricles of the brain were measured. The average volumes of the left and the right volumes of 5 embryos each alcohol-exposed and control embryos were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3, respectively. The results suggest that the left and right ventricle volumes of brain are much larger in the alcohol-exposed embryos as compared to control embryos indicating alcohol-induced developmental delay.

  1. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Gu, K D; Zhang, Y Z; Zhu, Y X; Zhou, Y K; Ye, L X

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 microg/L (1.56), 11.7 microg/g (1.75), 12.5 microg/g (2.82), and 25.3 microg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of > or =100 microg/L. Boys, 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements revealed areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  2. Protein binding associated with exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) in rats.

    PubMed

    Rand, Amy A; Mabury, Scott A

    2014-02-18

    The biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds such as fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) are sources of exposure to perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs), leading in part to the observation of significant concentrations of PFCAs in human blood. The biotransformation of FTOHs and PAPs yield intermediate metabolites that have been observed to covalently modify proteins. In the current investigation, the extent of covalent protein binding in Sprague-Dawley rats upon exposure to 8:2 FTOH and the 6:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (6:2 diPAP) was quantified. The animals were administered a single dose of 8:2 FTOH or 6:2 diPAP at 100 mg/kg by oral gavage to monitor biotransformation and extent of protein binding within the liver, kidney, and plasma. In the 8:2 FTOH-dosed animals, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was produced as the primary PFCA, at 623.13 ± 59.3, 459.5 ± 171.8, and 397.3 ± 133.0 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. For the animals exposed to 6:2 diPAPs, perfluorohexanoate (PFHxA) was the primary PFCA produced, with maximum concentrations of 57.4 ± 6.5, 9.0 ± 1.2, and 25.3 ± 1.2 ng/g in the plasma, liver, and kidney, respectively. Protein binding was observed in the plasma, liver, and kidney after 8:2 FTOH and 6:2 diPAP exposure, with the most significant binding occurring in the liver (>100 nmol/g protein). This is the first study to link the exposure and in vivo biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based compounds to covalent protein binding.

  3. Central and Peripheral Timing Variability in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Roger W.; Levy, Susan S.; Riley, Edward P.; Madra, Naju M.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The study examined whether prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with increased motor timing variability when the timing response is partitioned into central clock variability, which indexes information processing at the central nervous system (CNS) level and motor delay variability, which reflects timing processes at the level of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Methods Eighteen children with histories of prenatal alcohol exposure and 22 control children were assigned to young (7–11 years) or older (12–17 years) groups. Children tapped a single response key with the index finger in synchrony with a series of externally generated tones (the paced phase). At the conclusion of these tones, children continued tapping (the continuation phase) while attempting to maintain the same rate of tapping imposed by the paced phase. Two blocks of tapping were completed with inter-tone-intervals set at either 400 or 900 ms. Inter-response interval, central clock variability, and motor delay variability produced during the continuation phase were the dependent variables. Results Mean inter-response interval for the four groups did not differ for either time interval. Central clock variability produced by the young alcohol-exposed group was significantly greater than the two older groups for the 400 ms interval and all other groups for the 900 ms interval. Motor delay variability produced by the young alcohol-exposed group was significantly greater than the other three groups for both time intervals. Central and motor delay variability in children with and without alcohol exposure was directly related to the duration of the interval to be reproduced. Conclusions Central and peripheral timing variability was significantly greater for the young alcohol-exposed children. This atypical timing may be related to the teratogenic effects of alcohol, although the negative effects are limited to younger alcohol-exposed children since there were no differences in central

  4. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4 weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6 months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p < 0.001). Subcortical gray matter regions that were significantly different between groups after correcting for overall gray matter volume included left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus (p < 0.01). These findings persisted even when correcting for infant age, gender, ethnicity and maternal smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6 months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs. PMID:26616173

  5. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4 weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6 months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p < 0.001). Subcortical gray matter regions that were significantly different between groups after correcting for overall gray matter volume included left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus (p < 0.01). These findings persisted even when correcting for infant age, gender, ethnicity and maternal smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6 months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs.

  6. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure is Associated with Regionally Thinner Cortex During the Preadolescent Period.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Frances C; Narr, Katherine L; Molteno, Christopher D; Jacobson, Joseph L; Jacobson, Sandra W; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-07-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) may exhibit craniofacial dysmorphology, neurobehavioral deficits, and reduced brain volume. Studies of cortical thickness in FASD have yielded contradictory findings, with 3 reporting thicker cerebral cortex in frontal and temporal brain regions and 2 showing thinner cortex across multiple regions. All 5 studies included subjects spanning a broad age range, and none have examined continuous measures of prenatal alcohol exposure. We investigated the relation of extent of in utero alcohol exposure to cortical thickness in 78 preadolescent children with FASD and controls within a narrow age range. A whole-brain analysis using FreeSurfer revealed no significant clusters where cortical thickness differed by FASD diagnostic group. However, alcohol dose/occasion during pregnancy was inversely related to cortical thickness in 3 regions-right cuneus/pericalcarine/superior parietal lobe, fusiform/lingual gyrus, and supramarginal/postcentral gyrus. The effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on IQ was mediated by cortical thickness in the right occipitotemporal region. It is noteworthy that a continuous measure of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was more sensitive than FASD diagnosis and that the effect on cortical thickness was most evident in relation to a measure of maternal binge drinking. PMID:26088967

  7. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role.

  8. Exposure to alcohol among adolescent students and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Mascarenhas, Márcio Dênis Medeiros; Porto, Denise Lopes; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; de Morais, Otaliba Libânio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the prevalence of alcohol consumption among adolescent school students and identify its individual and contextual associated factors. METHODS The present research used data from the 2009 National School Health Survey (PeNSE), which included a sample of 59,699 9th grade students in Brazilian capitals and the Federal District. The association between regular alcohol consumption and independent explanatory variables was measured by means of the Pearson’s Chi-square test, with a 0.05 significance level. The explanatory variables were divided into four groups based on affinity (sociodemographic; school and family context; risk factors; and protection factors). A multivariate analysis was carried out for each group, always adjusting for age and sex. Variables with p < 0.10 were used in the final multivariate analysis model. RESULTS The highest alcohol consumption in the preceding 30 days was independently associated with pupils aged 15 years (OR = 1.46) and over, female (OR = 1.72), white, children of mothers with higher education, studying in private school, students who had tried smoking (OR = 1.72) and drug use (OR = 1.81), with regular tobacco consumption (OR = 2.16) and those who have had sexual intercourse (OR = 2.37). The factors related to family were skipping school without parental knowledge (OR = 1.49), parents not knowing what children do in their free time (OR = 1.34), having fewer meals with their parents (OR = 1.22), reporting that parents do not care (OR = 3.05), or care little (OR = 3.39) if they go home drunk, and having suffered domestic violence (OR = 1.36). CONCLUSIONS The results reinforce the importance of viewing alcohol consumption among adolescents as a complex, multifactorial and socially determined phenomenon. PMID:24789637

  9. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  10. Were our forebears aware of prenatal alcohol exposure and its effects? A review of the history of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sanders, James L

    2009-01-01

    Many historical records have been taken out of context when reviewing the history of prenatal alcohol exposure, and the impacts of these histories on modern-day FASD research have been overestimated. Historical records, as early as biblical times, do suggest at least a working awareness of an interaction between alcohol and reproduction of some kind. Contrary to assertions made in some fetal alcohol research, these records do not suggest an ancient awareness of the deleterious effects of alcohol on the developing fetus. Historical records regarding alcoholism and reproduction need to be interpreted critically, in context, and in consideration of the Zeitgeist, or the Spirit of the Times.

  11. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus.

  12. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Smith, Vincent C

    2015-11-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol can damage the developing fetus and is the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities. In 1973, fetal alcohol syndrome was first described as a specific cluster of birth defects resulting from alcohol exposure in utero. Subsequently, research unequivocally revealed that prenatal alcohol exposure causes a broad range of adverse developmental effects. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is the general term that encompasses the range of adverse effects associated with prenatal alcohol exposure. The diagnostic criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome are specific, and comprehensive efforts are ongoing to establish definitive criteria for diagnosing the other FASDs. A large and growing body of research has led to evidence-based FASD education of professionals and the public, broader prevention initiatives, and recommended treatment approaches based on the following premises:▪ Alcohol-related birth defects and developmental disabilities are completely preventable when pregnant women abstain from alcohol use.▪ Neurocognitive and behavioral problems resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong.▪ Early recognition, diagnosis, and therapy for any condition along the FASD continuum can result in improved outcomes.▪ During pregnancy:◦no amount of alcohol intake should be considered safe;◦there is no safe trimester to drink alcohol;◦all forms of alcohol, such as beer, wine, and liquor, pose similar risk; and◦binge drinking poses dose-related risk to the developing fetus. PMID:26482673

  13. Childhood lead exposure in an industrial town in China: coupling stable isotope ratios with bioaccessible lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kai; Juhasz, Albert L; Huang, Lei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-04-21

    Fingerprinting based on stable isotopes of lead (Pb) in blood and environmental media helps to identify Pb exposure pathways in children. However, previous studies used stable isotopes of total Pb in media. In this study, a wire rope production town in China (Zhuhang) was selected for investigating the effectiveness of using isotope ratios in bioaccessible Pb to identify childhood Pb exposure pathways. Blood Pb levels of 115 children in Zhuhang were 1.7-20.4 μg dL(-1), averaging 6.1 ± 3.2 μg dL(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), and were ∼1.6 times the national average in China (3.9 ± 1.8 μg dL(-1)). Among different environmental media (housedust, soil, PM10, vegetables, rice, and drinking water), housedust (695 ± 495 mg kg(-1)) and vegetables [0.36 ± 0.40 mg (kg of fresh weight)(-1)] contained elevated Pb concentrations. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) of total Pb were the highest in housedust (0.8587 ± 0.0039 and 2.1049 ± 0.0087) but lower than blood Pb ratios (0.8634 ± 0.0027 and 2.1244 ± 0.0061). When using bioaccessible Pb in housedust (0.8639 ± 0.0018 and 2.1171 ± 0.0036), the isotope ratios overlapped with blood Pb ratios, suggesting that incidental ingestion of housedust was the predominant contributor to children's blood Pb. Coupling the stable isotope technique with bioaccessible Pb is more reliable for identifying Pb exposure pathways than total Pb determinations.

  14. Childhood lead exposure in an industrial town in China: coupling stable isotope ratios with bioaccessible lead.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Bo; Chen, Kai; Juhasz, Albert L; Huang, Lei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-04-21

    Fingerprinting based on stable isotopes of lead (Pb) in blood and environmental media helps to identify Pb exposure pathways in children. However, previous studies used stable isotopes of total Pb in media. In this study, a wire rope production town in China (Zhuhang) was selected for investigating the effectiveness of using isotope ratios in bioaccessible Pb to identify childhood Pb exposure pathways. Blood Pb levels of 115 children in Zhuhang were 1.7-20.4 μg dL(-1), averaging 6.1 ± 3.2 μg dL(-1) (mean ± standard deviation), and were ∼1.6 times the national average in China (3.9 ± 1.8 μg dL(-1)). Among different environmental media (housedust, soil, PM10, vegetables, rice, and drinking water), housedust (695 ± 495 mg kg(-1)) and vegetables [0.36 ± 0.40 mg (kg of fresh weight)(-1)] contained elevated Pb concentrations. The isotope ratios ((207)Pb/(206)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb) of total Pb were the highest in housedust (0.8587 ± 0.0039 and 2.1049 ± 0.0087) but lower than blood Pb ratios (0.8634 ± 0.0027 and 2.1244 ± 0.0061). When using bioaccessible Pb in housedust (0.8639 ± 0.0018 and 2.1171 ± 0.0036), the isotope ratios overlapped with blood Pb ratios, suggesting that incidental ingestion of housedust was the predominant contributor to children's blood Pb. Coupling the stable isotope technique with bioaccessible Pb is more reliable for identifying Pb exposure pathways than total Pb determinations. PMID:25803404

  15. Mechanisms involved in the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on pancreatic acinar thiamin uptake.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Subramanian, Veedamali S; Said, Hamid M

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells (PAC) obtain thiamin from the circulation via a carrier-mediated process that involves thiamin transporters 1 and 2 (THTR-1 and THTR-2; products of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3, respectively). Chronic alcohol exposure of PAC inhibits thiamin uptake, and, on the basis of in vitro studies, this inhibition appears to be transcriptionally mediated. The aim of this study was to confirm the involvement of a transcriptional mechanism in mediating the chronic alcohol effect in in vivo settings and to delineate the molecular mechanisms involved. Using transgenic mice carrying full-length SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters, we found that chronic alcohol feeding led to a significant reduction in the activity of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters (as well as in thiamin uptake and expression of THTR-1 and -2). Similar findings were seen in 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol in vitro. In the latter studies, the alcohol inhibitory effect was found to be mediated via the minimal SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters and involved the cis-regulatory elements stimulating protein 1 (SP1)/gut-enriched Kruppel-like factor and SP1-GG-box and SP1/GC, respectively. Chronic alcohol exposure of PAC also led to a significant reduction in the expression of the SP1 transcription factor, which upon correction (via expression) led to the prevention of alcohol inhibitory effects on not only the activity of SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 promoters but also on the expression of THTR-1 and -2 mRNA and thiamin uptake. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of chronic alcohol exposure on physiological/molecular parameters of thiamin uptake by PAC is mediated via specific cis-regulatory elements in SLC19A2 and SLC19A3 minimal promoters.

  16. Effects of developmental alcohol exposure on potentiation and depression of visual cortex responses

    PubMed Central

    Lantz, Crystal L.; Sipe, Grayson O.; Wong, Elissa L.; Majewska, Ania K.; Medina, Alexandre E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuronal plasticity deficits are thought to underlie abnormal neurodevelopment in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) and in animal models of this condition. Previously, we found that alcohol exposure during a period that is similar to the last months of gestation in humans disrupts ocular dominance plasticity (ODP), as measured in superficial cortical layers. We hypothesize that exposure to alcohol can differentially affect the potentiation and depression of responses that are necessary for activity dependent sprouting and pruning of neuronal networks. ODP is an established paradigm that allows the assessment of activity-dependent depression and potentiation of responses in vivo. Methods Mouse pups were exposed to 3.6 – 5g/kg of ethanol in saline daily or every other day between postnatal days 4 and 9. Visual cortex plasticity was then assessed during the critical period for ODP using two techniques that separately record in layers 4 (visual evoked potentials, VEPs) and 2/3 (optical imaging of intrinsic signals, OI). Results We discovered a layer-specific effect of early alcohol exposure. Recording of VEPs, from layer 4, showed that while the potentiation component of ODP (Pc-ODP) was disrupted in animals treated with alcohol when compared to saline controls, the depression component of ODP (Dc-ODP) was unaltered. In contrast, OI, from layers 2/3, showed that Dc-ODP was markedly disrupted in alcohol treated animals when compared to controls. Conclusions Combined with our previous work, these findings strongly suggest that developmental alcohol exposure has a distinct and layer-specific effect on the potentiation and depression of cortical responses after monocular deprivation. PMID:26108422

  17. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis.

  18. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    PubMed

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  19. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  20. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  1. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  2. Effects of intermittent binge alcohol exposure on long-term motor function in young rats.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Ashley; Cooze, Jared; Malone, Craig; French, Vanessa; Weber, John T

    2013-03-01

    Ethanol has well described acute effects on motor function, and chronic alcoholism can damage the cerebellum, which is associated with motor coordination, as well as motor learning. Binge drinking is common among preadolescents and adolescents, and this type of ethanol exposure may lead to long-term nervous system damage. In the current study, we analyzed the effects of periadolsecent/adolescent ethanol exposure on motor function in both male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. To simulate binge drinking, animals received an intraperitoneal injection of 25% (v/v) ethanol (3 g/kg) on postnatal days (PND) 25, 26, 29, 30, 33, 34, 37 and 38. On PND 42 and PND 61 animals were tested on their ability to traverse both square and round beams. There were no significant differences in the time to traverse the beams, or the amount of foot slips, between treated and untreated animals. On PND 48 and PND 62, animals were tested using a horizontal ladder walking apparatus. On PND 48 there were no differences in the ability of treated and untreated animals to traverse the ladder. On PND 62, there were no differences in the time to traverse the ladder, but ethanol treated animals had more foot slips than controls. On PND 43, we conducted footprint analysis of control and treated animals, which included measurements of stride length, paw overlap, and angle of foot placement. There was a significant difference in the angle of foot placement between treated and control animals, and this finding was significant for both male and female animals. There was also a significant overall difference in paw overlap between treatment groups. Although this effect was manifested in male animals there was no significant difference in females. These findings suggest that adolescent ethanol exposure can produce long-lasting effects on motor coordination, and that overall, effects are similar in males and females. In a second set of experiments, male rats received i.p. ethanol (3 g/kg) for 7 days (P31

  3. NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL DEFICITS ASSOCIATED WITH HEAVY PRENATAL ALCOHOL EXPOSURE ARE NOT EXACERBATED BY COMORBID ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Ware, Ashley L.; Crocker, Nicole; Deweese, Benjamin N.; Coles, Claire D.; Kable, Julie A.; May, Philip A.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Jones, Kenneth Lyons; Riley, Edward P.; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neuropsychological functioning of individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or heavy prenatal alcohol exposure has been well documented independently. This study examined the interaction between both factors on cognitive performance in children. Method: As part of a multisite study, 344 children (8-16y, M=12.28, SD=2.52) completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Four subject groups were tested: children with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and ADHD (AE+, n=90), alcohol-exposed without ADHD, (AE−, n=38), non-exposed with ADHD (ADHD, n=80), and non-exposed without ADHD (CON, n=136). Results: Separate 2(AE) × 2(ADHD) MANCOVAs revealed significant main and interactive effects of ADHD and AE on overall WISC-IV, D-KEFS, and CANTAB performance. Individual ANOVAs revealed significant interactions on 2 WISC-IV indices [Verbal Comprehension (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning (PRI)], and four D-KEFS and CANTAB subtests [Design Fluency, Verbal Fluency, Trail Making, Spatial Working Memory]. Follow-up analyses demonstrated no difference between AE+ and AE− groups on any measures. The combined AE+/− group demonstrated more severe impairment than the ADHD group on VCI and PRI, but there were no other differences between clinical groups. Conclusions: These results support a combined AE+/− group for neuropsychological research and indicate that, in some cases, the neuropsychological effects seen in ADHD are altered by prenatal alcohol exposure. The effects of alcohol exposure on verbal comprehension and perceptual reasoning were greater than those related to having ADHD without alcohol exposure, although both conditions independently resulted in cognitive impairment compared to controls. Clinically, these findings demonstrate task-dependent patterns of impairment across clinical disorders. PMID:24040921

  4. Prospective associations between childhood low-level lead exposure and adult mental health problems: the Port Pirie cohort study.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Alexander C; Searle, Amelia K; Van Hooff, Miranda; Baghurst, Peter A; Sawyer, Michael G; Galletly, Cherrie; Sim, Malcolm R; Clark, Levina S

    2013-12-01

    Low-level environmental lead exposure during childhood is associated with poorer emotional/behavioural functioning in later childhood and adolescence. Scarce research has examined whether these apparent effects persist into adulthood. This study is the first to examine prospective associations between lead exposure across early childhood and several common adult mental health problems. Childhood data (including blood lead concentrations) and adult data (from mental health questionnaires and psychiatric interviews) were available for 210 participants (44% males, mean age=26.3 years) from the Port Pirie cohort study (1979-1982 birth cohort). Participants had a mean childhood (to 7 years) average blood lead concentration of 17.2μg/dL. Among females, childhood blood lead showed small significant positive associations with lifetime diagnoses of drug and alcohol abuse and social phobia, and with anxiety, somatic and antisocial personality problems. For example: for a 10μg/dL blood lead increase, females were 2.84 times (95% CI 1.10, 7.30) more likely to have an alcohol abuse diagnosis. However, adjustment for childhood covariates - particularly stimulation within the home environment - rendered these associations non-significant. No significant or sizeable unadjusted or adjusted associations were seen for males. The associations between early lead exposure and emotional/behavioural functioning in children might persist into adulthood, at least for females. However, it is unclear whether such results arise from residual confounding, or other mechanisms. Interventions that focus on improving the childhood home environment may have a long-term positive impact on adult mental health outcomes. However, more prospective research using large and representative samples is needed to substantiate these results. PMID:23958641

  5. Prenatal alcohol exposure alters the cerebral cortex proteome in weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Canales, Lorena; Gambrell, Caitlin; Chen, Jing; Neal, Rachel E

    2013-08-01

    Maternal consumption of alcohol during pregnancy impairs neurodevelopment in offspring. Utilizing a rodent model of continuous moderate dose alcohol exposure throughout gestation [gestation day 1 (GD1)-GD22; BAC ~70 mg/dL], the impact of developmental alcohol exposure on juvenile cerebral cortex protein abundances was determined. At weaning, cerebral cortex tissue was collected from pups for 2D SDS-PAGE based proteome analysis with statistical analysis by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA). Gestational alcohol exposure increased the abundance of post-translationally modified forms of cytoskeletal proteins and the abundance of proteins within the small molecule biochemistry (includes glucose metabolism) pathway and proteosome processing pathways though ubiquitin conjugating enzymes and chaperones were decreased in abundance. In weanling offspring exposed prenatally to alcohol, alterations in cytoskeletal protein post-translational modifications were noted. Increased abundance of proteins from the small molecule biochemistry pathway, which includes glucose metabolism, and proteosome processing pathways were also noted. Decreased abundances of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme and chaperone protein were noted in the cerebral cortex of these offspring.

  6. Impulsive Choice, Alcohol Consumption, and Pre-Exposure to Delayed Rewards: II. Potential Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jeffrey S.; Renda, C. Renee; Hinnenkamp, Jay E.; Madden, Gregory J.

    2014-01-01

    In a prior study (Stein et al., 2013), we reported that rats pre-exposed to delayed rewards made fewer impulsive choices, but consumed more alcohol (12% wt/vol), than rats pre-exposed to immediate rewards. To understand the mechanisms that produced these findings, we again pre-exposed rats to either delayed (17.5 s; n = 32) or immediate (n = 30) rewards. In post-tests, delay-exposed rats made significantly fewer impulsive choices at both 15- and 30-s delays to a larger, later food reward than the immediacy-exposed comparison group. Behavior in an open-field test provided little evidence of differential stress exposure between groups. Further, consumption of either 12% alcohol or isocaloric sucrose in subsequent tests did not differ between groups. Because Stein et al. introduced alcohol concentration gradually (3–12%), we speculate that their group differences in 12% alcohol consumption were not determined by alcohol’s pharmacological effects, but by another variable (e.g., taste) that was preserved as an artifact from lower concentrations. We conclude that pre-exposure to delayed rewards generalizes beyond the pre-exposure delay; however, this same experimental variable does not robustly influence alcohol consumption. PMID:25418607

  7. Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure and quantification of social behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Derek A; Magcalas, Christy M; Barto, Daniel; Bird, Clark W; Rodriguez, Carlos I; Fink, Brandi C; Pellis, Sergio M; Davies, Suzy; Savage, Daniel D

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in social behavior are among the major negative consequences observed in children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs). Several independent laboratories have demonstrated robust alterations in the social behavior of rodents exposed to alcohol during brain development across a wide range of exposure durations, timing, doses, and ages at the time of behavioral quantification. Prior work from this laboratory has identified reliable alterations in specific forms of social interaction following moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in the rat that persist well into adulthood, including increased wrestling and decreased investigation. These behavioral alterations have been useful in identifying neural circuits altered by moderate PAE(1), and may hold importance for progressing toward a more complete understanding of the neural bases of PAE-related alterations in social behavior. This paper describes procedures for performing moderate PAE in which rat dams voluntarily consume ethanol or saccharin (control) throughout gestation, and measurement of social behaviors in adult offspring. PMID:25549080

  8. The CRHR1 gene, trauma exposure, and alcoholism risk: a test of G × E effects.

    PubMed

    Ray, L A; Sehl, M; Bujarski, S; Hutchison, K; Blaine, S; Enoch, M-A

    2013-06-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone type I receptor (CRHR1) gene has been implicated in the liability for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly under conditions of stress. On the basis of the hypothesized effects of CRHR1 variation on stress reactivity, measures of adulthood traumatic stress exposure were analyzed for their interaction with CRHR1 haplotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting the risk for alcoholism. Phenotypic data on 2533 non-related Caucasian individuals (1167 alcoholics and 1366 controls) were culled from the publically available Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment genome-wide association study. Genotypes were available for 19 tag SNPs. Logistic regression models examined the interaction between CRHR1 haplotypes/SNPs and adulthood traumatic stress exposure in predicting alcoholism risk. Two haplotype blocks spanned CRHR1. Haplotype analyses identified one haplotype in the proximal block 1 (P = 0.029) and two haplotypes in the distal block 2 (P = 0.026, 0.042) that showed nominally significant (corrected P < 0.025) genotype × traumatic stress interactive effects on the likelihood of developing alcoholism. The block 1 haplotype effect was driven by SNPs rs110402 (P = 0.019) and rs242924 (P = 0.019). In block 2, rs17689966 (P = 0.018) showed significant and rs173365 (P = 0.026) showed nominally significant, gene × environment (G × E) effects on alcoholism status. This study extends the literature on the interplay between CRHR1 variation and alcoholism, in the context of exposure to traumatic stress. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of the extra hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor system dysregulation in the initiation and maintenance of alcoholism. Molecular and experimental studies are needed to more fully understand the mechanisms of risk and protection conferred by genetic variation at the identified loci.

  9. Alcohol exposure in utero increases susceptibility to prostate tumorigenesis in rat offspring

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Sengottuvelan; Zhang, Changqing; Mojtahedzadeh, Sepideh; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prenatal alcohol exposure has been shown to increase offspring susceptibility to some chemical carcinogens. Whether prenatal exposure to alcohol makes the offspring more susceptible to the development of prostate cancer is not known. Therefore, we determined if any functional abnormalities and increased cancer susceptibility exist in the prostate of fetal alcohol exposed male rats during the adult period. Methods Pregnant rats were fed with a liquid diet containing alcohol (alcohol-fed), pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet (pair-fed), or ad libitum fed with rat chow (ad lib-fed). Male offspring of these rats were given N-Nitroso-N-methylurea and testosterone to induce prostate neoplasia or left untreated. Around 6 to 8 months of age, the prostate of these animals were processed for determination of biochemical changes and histopathologies. Results Prostates of non-carcinogen treated animals which were alcohol exposed during the prenatal period demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration and epithelial atypia and increased number of proliferative cells in the ventral lobe of this gland, but the prostate of control animal showed normal cytoarchitecture. In addition, prenatally alcohol-exposed rats showed decreased levels of cell-cell adhesion marker and increased estrogenic activity in the ventral prostate. Prenatally ethanol-exposed rats, when treated with carcinogen and testosterone, showed histological evidence for high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia primarily in the ventral prostate, whereas control animals showed only low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Prenatally ethanol-exposed rats treated with carcinogen and testosterone also showed increased number of proliferative cells and androgen receptor with concomitant decreased levels of tumor suppressor proteins in the ventral prostate. Conclusions These results suggest for the first time that prenatal ethanol exposures induces histophysiological changes in the prostate as well as

  10. Regulation of Milk Intake After Exposure to Alcohol in Mothers’ Milk

    PubMed Central

    Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Contrary to the folklore which claims that drinking alcohol during lactation benefits both mother and infant, previous research in our laboratory revealed that breastfed infants consumed significantly less milk during the immediate hours after their mothers’ consumption of an alcoholic beverage. Because breastfed infants are clearly capable of regulating milk intake, the present study tested the hypothesis that infants would compensate for the diminished milk intake if their mothers then refrained from drinking alcohol. Methods A within-subjects design that controlled for time of day was implemented because of the great individual and daily variation in both milk composition and intake. To this end, 12 exclusively breastfed infants and their mothers were tested on 2 days separated by 1 week. Each woman drank a 0.3 g/kg dose of alcohol in orange juice on one testing day and orange juice alone on the other; the order was counterbalanced. The infants’ behaviors were monitored for the next 16 hr, the first 4 hr of monitoring on each test day occurred at the Monell Center. The infants fed on demand and immediately before and after each feeding, infants were weighed without a change in clothing. Results Consistent with previous findings, infants consumed significantly less milk during the 4 hr immediately after exposure to alcohol in mothers’ milk compared with the control condition. Compensatory increases in intake were then observed during the 8 to 16 hr after exposure when mothers refrained from drinking alcohol. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that short-term exposure to small amounts of alcohol in mothers’ milk produces distinctive changes in the infants’ patterns of feeding. PMID:11329500

  11. Chronic alcohol exposure inhibits biotin uptake by pancreatic acinar cells: possible involvement of epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Padmanabhan; Kapadia, Rubina; Biswas, Arundhati; Said, Hamid M

    2014-11-01

    Chronic exposure to alcohol affects different physiological aspects of pancreatic acinar cells (PAC), but its effect on the uptake process of biotin is not known. We addressed this issue using mouse-derived pancreatic acinar 266-6 cells chronically exposed to alcohol and wild-type and transgenic mice (carrying the human SLC5A6 5'-promoter) fed alcohol chronically. First we established that biotin uptake by PAC is Na(+) dependent and carrier mediated and involves sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter (SMVT). Chronic exposure of 266-6 cells to alcohol led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake, expression of SMVT protein, and mRNA as well as in the activity of the SLC5A6 promoter. Similarly, chronic alcohol feeding of wild-type and transgenic mice carrying the SLC5A6 promoter led to a significant inhibition in biotin uptake by PAC, as well as in the expression of SMVT protein and mRNA and the activity of the SLC5A6 promoters expressed in the transgenic mice. We also found that chronic alcohol feeding of mice is associated with a significant increase in the methylation status of CpG islands predicted to be in the mouse Slc5a6 promoters and a decrease in the level of expression of transcription factor KLF-4, which plays an important role in regulating SLC5A6 promoter activity. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that chronic alcohol exposure negatively impacts biotin uptake in PAC and that this effect is exerted (at least in part) at the level of transcription of the SLC5A6 gene and may involve epigenetic/molecular mechanisms.

  12. Alcohol Advertising at Boston Subway Stations: An Assessment of Exposure by Race and Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    Poirier, Katie; Wilkinson, Tiana; Nhean, Siphannay; Nyborn, Justin; Siegel, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the frequency of alcohol ads at all 113 subway and streetcar stations in Boston and the patterns of community exposure stratified by race, socioeconomic status, and age. Methods. We assessed the extent of alcohol advertising at each station in May 2009. We measured gross impressions and gross rating points (GRPs) for the entire Greater Boston population and for Boston public school student commuters. We compared the frequency of alcohol advertising between neighborhoods with differing demographics. Results. For the Greater Boston population, alcohol advertising at subway stations generated 109 GRPs on a typical day. For Boston public school students in grades 5 to 12, alcohol advertising at stations generated 134 GRPs. Advertising at stations in low-poverty neighborhoods generated 14.1 GRPs and at stations in high-poverty areas, 63.6 GRPs. Conclusions. Alcohol ads reach the equivalent of every adult in the Greater Boston region and the equivalent of every 5th- to 12th-grade public school student each day. More alcohol ads were displayed in stations in neighborhoods with high poverty rates than in stations in neighborhoods with low poverty rates. PMID:21852632

  13. Ethanol Exposure Alters Protein Expression in a Mouse Model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mason, Stephen; Anthony, Bruce; Lai, Xianyin; Ringham, Heather N.; Wang, Mu; Witzmann, Frank A.; You, Jin-Sam; Zhou, Feng C.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol exposure during development can result in variable growth retardation and facial dysmorphology known as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Although the mechanisms underlying the disorder are not fully understood, recent progress has been made that alcohol induces aberrant changes in gene expression and in the epigenome of embryos. To inform the gene and epigenetic changes in alcohol-induced teratology, we used whole-embryo culture to identify the alcohol-signature protein profile of neurulating C6 mice. Alcohol-treated and control cultures were homogenized, isoelectrically focused, and loaded for 2D gel electrophoresis. Stained gels were cross matched with analytical software. We identified 40 differentially expressed protein spots (P < 0.01), and 9 spots were selected for LC/MS-MS identification. Misregulated proteins include serotransferrin, triosephosphate isomerase and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 N. Misregulation of serotransferrin and triosephosphate isomerase was confirmed with immunologic analysis. Alteration of proteins with roles in cellular function, cell cycle, and the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was induced by alcohol. Several misregulated proteins interact with effectors of the NF-κB and Myc transcription factor cascades. Using a whole-embryo culture, we have identified misregulated proteins known to be involved in nervous system development and function. PMID:22745907

  14. Prologue: Understanding Children Who Have Been Affected by Maltreatment and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyter, Yvette D.

    2007-01-01

    This prologue introduces an important topic for multiple disciplines involved with children and their families. This introduction includes a review of some of the current literature on the effects of maltreatment and prenatal alcohol exposure on child development, an explanation of why this topic is essential learning for communication…

  15. Assessing teratogenic changes in a zebrafish model of fetal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Evyn; Ahlgren, Sara

    2012-03-20

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a severe manifestation of embryonic exposure to ethanol. It presents with characteristic defects to the face and organs, including mental retardation due to disordered and damaged brain development. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is a term used to cover a continuum of birth defects that occur due to maternal alcohol consumption, and occurs in approximately 4% of children born in the United States. With 50% of child-bearing age women reporting consumption of alcohol, and half of all pregnancies being unplanned, unintentional exposure is a continuing issue. In order to best understand the damage produced by ethanol, plus produce a model with which to test potential interventions, we developed a model of developmental ethanol exposure using the zebrafish embryo. Zebrafish are ideal for this kind of teratogen study. Each pair lays hundreds of eggs, which can then be collected without harming the adult fish. The zebrafish embryo is transparent and can be readily imaged with any number of stains. Analysis of these embryos after exposure to ethanol at different doses and times of duration and application shows that the gross developmental defects produced by ethanol are consistent with the human birth defect. Described here are the basic techniques used to study and manipulate the zebrafish FAS model.

  16. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  17. Childhood Exposure to Lead: A Common Cause of School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needleman, Herbert L.

    1992-01-01

    According to the U.S. Public Health Service, lead poisoning remains the most common and societally devastating environmental disease of young children. About 16 percent all American children have blood lead levels in the neurotoxic range. Being poor dramatically increases this risk. The lead industry has long camouflaged lead's toxicity.…

  18. Cognitive Factors Contributing to Spelling Performance in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Leila; Graham, Diana M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Mattson, Sarah N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with impaired school functioning. Spelling performance has not been comprehensively evaluated. We examined whether children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure demonstrate deficits in spelling and related abilities, including reading, and tested whether there are unique underlying mechanisms for observed deficits in this population. Method Ninety-six school-age children comprised two groups: children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE, n=49) and control children (CON, n=47). Children completed select subtests from the WIAT-II and NEPSY-II. Group differences and relations between spelling and theoretically-related cognitive variables were evaluated using MANOVA and Pearson correlations. Hierarchical regression analyses were utilized to assess contributions of group membership and cognitive variables to spelling performance. The specificity of these deficits and underlying mechanisms was tested by examining the relations between reading ability, group membership, and cognitive variables. Results Groups differed significantly on all variables. Group membership and phonological processing significantly contributed to spelling performance. In addition, a significant group*working memory interaction revealed that working memory independently contributed significantly to spelling only for the AE group. All cognitive variables contributed to reading across groups and a group*working memory interaction revealed that working memory contributed independently to reading only for alcohol-exposed children. Conclusion Alcohol-exposed children demonstrated a unique pattern of spelling deficits. The relation of working memory to spelling and reading was specific to the AE group, suggesting that if prenatal alcohol exposure is known or suspected, working memory ability should be considered in the development and implementation of explicit instruction. PMID:25643217

  19. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  20. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  1. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p < 0.05) than those in songbirds from reference sites by factors of 8 in blood, 13 in liver, and 23 in kidney. Ranges of Pb concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  2. Experimental model of lead nephropathy. II. Effect of removal from lead exposure and chelation treatment with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA).

    PubMed

    Khalil-Manesh, F; Gonick, H C; Cohen, A; Bergamaschi, E; Mutti, A

    1992-06-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to high-dose (0.5%) lead acetate for periods ranging from 1 to 9 months; then lead exposure was discontinued, and animals were sacrificed after 12 months. Controls were pair-fed. Two additional groups of low-dose (0.01%) and high-dose (0.5%) rats were exposed to lead for 6 months, then lead was discontinued and the rats were treated with three 5-day courses of 0.5% DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) over the next 6 months. Controls were rats exposed to lead for 6 months, then removed from exposure for 6 months without receiving DMSA. Low-dose lead-treated rats showed no significant pathological changes with or without DMSA treatment, but exhibited a significant increase in GFR after DMSA. High-dose lead-treated animals showed no functional or pathological changes when lead exposure was discontinued after 1 month. However, when duration of exposure was 6 or 9 months, GFR was decreased and serum creatinine and urea nitrogen were increased as compared to controls. Tubulointerstitial disease was severe. Administration of DMSA resulted in an improvement in GFR and a decrease in albuminuria, together with a reduction in size and number of nuclear inclusion bodies in proximal tubules. However, tubulointerstitial scarring was only minimally reduced. It may be concluded that, except for brief initial exposure, discontinuation of high-dose lead exposure fails to reverse lead-induced renal damage. Treatment with the chelator, DMSA, improves renal function but has less effect on pathological alterations. As GFR improved after DMSA treatment in both low-dose and high-dose lead-treated rats, irrespective of the degree of pathological alterations, it may be concluded that the DMSA effect is most likely mediated by hemodynamic changes.

  3. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  4. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-01-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  5. Interrelations of lead levels in bone, venous blood, and umbilical cord blood with exogenous lead exposure through maternal plasma lead in peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Chuang, H Y; Schwartz, J; Gonzales-Cossio, T; Lugo, M C; Palazuelos, E; Aro, A; Hu, H; Hernandez-Avila, M

    2001-05-01

    Recent research has raised the possibility that fetal lead exposure is not estimated adequately by measuring lead content in maternal whole blood lead because of the variable partitioning of lead in whole blood between plasma and red blood cells. Lead in maternal plasma may derive in large part from maternal bone lead stores. In this study we aimed to estimate the contribution of maternal whole blood lead, maternal bone lead levels, and environmental lead to umbilical cord blood lead levels (as a measure of fetal lead exposure). In the model, we assumed that lead from all of these sources reaches the fetus through the maternal plasma lead pathway. In 1994-1995, we recruited 615 pregnant women for a study of lead exposure and reproductive outcomes in Mexico City. We gathered maternal and umbilical cord blood samples within 12 hr of each infant's delivery and measured maternal lead levels in cortical bone and trabecular bone by a K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument within 1 month after delivery. We administered a questionnaire to assess use of lead-glazed ceramics (LGC) to cook food and we obtained data on regional air lead levels during the 2 months before delivery. We used structural equation models (SEMs) to estimate plasma lead as the unmeasured (latent) variable and to quantify the interrelations of plasma lead, the other lead biomarkers, and environmental lead exposure. In the SEM analysis, a model that allowed plasma lead to vary freely from whole blood lead explained the variance of cord blood lead (as reflected by a total model R(2); R(2) = 0.79) better than did a model without plasma lead (r(2) = 0.67). Cortical bone lead, trabecular bone lead, use of LGC, and mean air lead level contributed significantly to plasma lead. The exchange of lead between plasma and red blood cells was mostly in the direction of plasma to cells. According to the final model, an increase in trabecular bone lead and cortical bone lead was associated with increases in cord blood

  6. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit.

  7. Toxic effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Scott-Goodwin, A C; Puerto, M; Moreno, I

    2016-06-01

    Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and cocaine are the most consumed psychoactive drugs throughout the population. Prenatal exposure to these drugs could alter normal foetal development and could threaten future welfare. The main changes observed in prenatal exposure to tobacco are caused by nicotine and carbon monoxide, which can impede nutrient and oxygen exchange between mother and foetus, restricting foetal growth. Memory, learning processes, hearing and behaviour can also be affected. Alcohol may cause physical and cognitive alterations in prenatally exposed infants, fundamentally caused by altered NMDAR and GABAR activity. Tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive compound of cannabis, is capable of activating CB1R, inducing connectivity deficits during the foetal brain development. This fact could be linked to behavioural and cognitive deficits. Many of the effects from prenatal cocaine exposure are caused by altered cell proliferation, migration, differentiation and dendritic growth processes. Cocaine causes long term behavioural and cognitive alterations and also affects the uteroplacental unit. PMID:27037188

  8. Hippocampal Neuron Populations Are Reduced in Vervet Monkeys With Fetal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Mark W; Ptito, Maurice; Ervin, Frank R; Palmour, Roberta M

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to beverage alcohol is a major cause of mild mental retardation and developmental delay. In nonendangered alcohol-preferring vervet monkeys, we modeled the most common nondysmorphic form of fetal alcohol syndrome disorder with voluntary drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy. Here, we report significant numerical reductions in the principal hippocampal neurons of fetal alcohol-exposed (FAE) offspring, as compared to age-matched, similarly housed conspecifics with isocaloric sucrose exposure. These deficits, particularly marked in CA1 and CA3, are present neonatally and persist through infancy (5 months) and juvenile (2 years) stages. Although the volumes of hippocampal subdivisions in FAE animals are not atypical at birth, by age 2, they are only 65–70% of those estimated in age-matched controls. These data suggest that moderate, naturalistic alcohol consumption during late pregnancy results in a stable loss of hippocampal neurons and a progressive reduction of hippocampal volume. © 2015 The Authors. Developmental Psychobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 57:470–485, 2015. PMID:25913787

  9. Low-level lead exposure, blood pressure, and calcium metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, C.; McCarron, D.A.; Bennett, W.M. )

    1990-06-01

    Previous research has shown an association of both blood lead and dietary calcium with blood pressure (BP) in populations. We examined the relationship between blood levels and BP, the effect of calcium supplementation on blood lead, and whether the reported antihypertensive effect of calcium supplementation was related to any observed change in blood lead. BP was measured on four occasions, 1 week apart in 251 subjects. During this period, blood lead and erythrocyte protoporphyrin (EPP) levels were measured, as well as markers of calcium metabolism. In an intervention period, 142 patients were assigned to receive 1 g of calcium per day as calcium carbonate for 12 weeks; at the end of this period, blood lead and EPP were remeasured. In males, blood lead levels were significantly, directly related to BP; a 0.48 mumol/dL (10 micrograms/dL) increase in blood lead concentration was associated with a 5 mm Hg increase in systolic pressure. There was no relationship of blood lead levels to BP in females. EPP was unrelated to BP. Similarly, there was no relationship of blood lead levels to markers of calcium metabolism. With calcium supplementation, blood lead and EPP levels did not change significantly. We conclude that it is unlikely that modification of lead status explains any effects of calcium supplementation on BP.

  10. Deficits in response inhibition correlate with oculomotor control in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Paolozza, Angelina; Rasmussen, Carmen; Pei, Jacqueline; Hanlon-Dearman, Ana; Nikkel, Sarah M; Andrew, Gail; McFarlane, Audrey; Samdup, Dawa; Reynolds, James N

    2014-02-01

    Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) or prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) frequently exhibit impairment on tasks measuring inhibition. The objective of this study was to determine if a performance-based relationship exists between psychometric tests and eye movement tasks in children with FASD. Participants for this dataset were aged 5-17 years and included those diagnosed with an FASD (n=72), those with PAE but no clinical FASD diagnosis (n=21), and typically developing controls (n=139). Participants completed a neurobehavioral test battery, which included the NEPSY-II subtests of auditory attention, response set, and inhibition. Each participant completed a series of saccadic eye movement tasks, which included the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Both the FASD and the PAE groups performed worse than controls on the subtest measures of attention and inhibition. Compared with controls, the FASD group made more errors on the antisaccade and memory-guided tasks. Among the combined FASD/PAE group, inhibition and switching errors were negatively correlated with direction errors on the antisaccade task but not on the memory-guided task. There were no significant correlations in the control group. These data suggests that response inhibition deficits in children with FASD/PAE are associated with difficulty controlling saccadic eye movements which may point to overlapping brain regions damaged by prenatal alcohol exposure. The results of this study demonstrate that eye movement control tasks directly relate to outcome measures obtained with psychometric tests that are used during FASD diagnosis, and may therefore help with early identification of children who would benefit from a multidisciplinary diagnostic assessment. PMID:24185031

  11. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  12. Effects of lead exposure before pregnancy and dietary calcium during pregnancy on fetal development and lead accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Han, S; Pfizenmaier, D H; Garcia, E; Eguez, M L; Ling, M; Kemp, F W; Bogden, J D

    2000-01-01

    Millions of women of child-bearing age have substantial bone lead stores due to lead exposure as children. Dietary calcium ingested simultaneously with lead exposure can reduce lead absorption and accumulation. However, the effects of dietary calcium on previously accumulated maternal lead stores and transfer to the fetus have not been investigated. We studied the effects of lead exposure of female rats at an early age on fetal development during a subsequent pregnancy. We gave 5-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats lead as the acetate in their drinking water for 5 weeks; controls received equimolar sodium acetate. This was followed by a 1-month period without lead exposure before mating. We randomly assigned pregnant rats (n = 39) to diets with a deficient (0.1%) or normal (0.5%) calcium content during pregnancy. A total of 345 pups were delivered alive. Lead-exposed dams and their pups had significantly higher blood lead concentrations than controls, but the concentrations were in the range of those found in many pregnant women. Pups born to dams fed the calcium-deficient diet during pregnancy had higher blood and organ lead concentrations than pups born to dams fed the 0. 5% calcium diet. Pups born to lead-exposed dams had significantly (p<0.0001) lower mean birth weights and birth lengths than controls. There were significant inverse univariate associations between dam or pup organ lead concentrations and birth weight or length. The 0.5% calcium diet did not increase in utero growth. Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that greater litter size and female sex were significantly associated with reduced pup birth weight and length. However, lead exposure that ended well before pregnancy was significantly (p<0.0001) associated with reduced birth weight and length, even after litter size, pup sex, and dam weight gain during pregnancy were included in the regression analysis. The data demonstrate that an increase in dietary calcium during pregnancy can reduce

  13. Atypical cortical gyrification in adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Bischoff-Grethe, Amanda; Migliorini, Robyn; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-10-22

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can adversely affect brain development, although little is known about the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on gyrification. Gyrification reflects cortical folding complexity and is a process by which the surface of the brain creates sulci and gyri. Prior studies have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with reduced gyrification in childhood, but no studies have examined adolescents. Subjects (12-16 years) comprised two age-equivalent groups: 30 adolescents with histories of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure (AE) and 19 non-exposed controls (CON). A T1-weighted image was obtained for all participants. Local gyrification index (LGI) was estimated using FreeSurfer. General linear models were used to determine between group differences in LGI controlling for age and sex. Age-by-group interactions were also investigated while controlling for sex. The AE group displayed reduced LGI relative to CON in the bilateral superior parietal region, right postcentral region, and left precentral and lateral occipital regions (ps<.001). Significant age-by-group interactions were observed in the right precentral and lateral occipital regions, and in the left pars opercularis and inferior parietal regions (ps<.01). The AE group showed age-related reductions in gyrification in all regions whereas the CON group showed increased gyrification with age in the lateral occipital region only. While cross-sectional, the age-related reduction in gyrification observed in the AE group suggests alterations in cortical development throughout adolescence and provides further insight into the pathophysiology and brain maturation of adolescents prenatally exposed to alcohol. PMID:26275919

  14. Lead exposure in Latin America and the Caribbean. Lead Research Group of the Pan-American Health Organization.

    PubMed Central

    Romieu, I; Lacasana, M; McConnell, R

    1997-01-01

    As a result of the rapid industrialization of Latin America and the Caribbean during the second half of this century, exposure to lead has become an increasingly important problem. To obtain an estimate of the magnitude of lead exposure in the region, we carried out a survey and a literature search on potential sources of lead exposure and on blood lead concentrations. Sixteen out of 18 Latin American and 2 out of 10 Caribbean countries responded to the survey. Lead in gasoline remains a major problem, although the lead content has decreased in many countries in the last few years. The impact of leaded fuel is more important in urban settings, given their high vehicular density. Seventy-five percent of the population of the region lives in urban areas, and children younger than 15 years of age, the most susceptible group, comprise 30% of the population. Other sources of lead exposure identified in the region included industrial emissions, battery recycling, paint and varnishes, and contaminated food and water. Lead is recognized as a priority problem by national authorities in 72% of the countries that responded to the survey, and in 50% of the countries some legislation exists to regulate the lead content in certain products. However, compliance is low. There is an urgent need for a broad-based coalition between policy makers, industry, workers, unions, health care providers, and the community to take actions to reduce environmental and occupational lead exposures in all the Latin American and Caribbean countries. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:9189704

  15. Effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined exposure on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Ranjan, Amita; Dumka, Vinod Kumar; Singh, Nittin Dev

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flubendiamide, lead and their combined oral administration on erythrocytic indices in water buffalo calves. Exposure to flubendiamide alone resulted in non-significant decreases in Hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count (TEC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH). Lead acetate exposure resulted in significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. Combined exposure to flubendiamide and lead resulted in declines in Hb, TEC and PCV, but values did not differ significantly from corresponding values in the group treated with lead alone. Changes in MCV, MCHC and MCH were inconsistent. Plasma calcium concentration declined on day 90 in lead-exposed animals, but increased again on day 30 post-treatment. Results of the present study indicated that flubendiamide exposure results in marginal alterations in erythrocytic indices, but lead exposure caused significant declines in Hb, PCV and TEC. No interactive effects were observed for flubendiamide and lead on changes in erythrocytic indices.

  16. Long-term genomic and epigenomic dysregulation as a consequence of prenatal alcohol exposure: a model for fetal alcohol spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kleiber, Morgan L.; Diehl, Eric J.; Laufer, Benjamin I.; Mantha, Katarzyna; Chokroborty-Hoque, Aniruddho; Alberry, Bonnie; Singh, Shiva M.

    2014-01-01

    There is abundant evidence that prenatal alcohol exposure leads to a range of behavioral and cognitive impairments, categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). These disorders are pervasive in Western cultures and represent the most common preventable source of neurodevelopmental disabilities. The genetic and epigenetic etiology of these phenotypes, including those factors that may maintain these phenotypes throughout the lifetime of an affected individual, has become a recent topic of investigation. This review integrates recent data that has progressed our understanding FASD as a continuum of molecular events, beginning with cellular stress response and ending with a long-term “footprint” of epigenetic dysregulation across the genome. It reports on data from multiple ethanol-treatment paradigms in mouse models that identify changes in gene expression that occur with respect to neurodevelopmental timing of exposure and ethanol dose. These studies have identified patterns of genomic alteration that are dependent on the biological processes occurring at the time of ethanol exposure. This review also adds to evidence that epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNA regulation may underlie long-term changes to gene expression patterns. These may be initiated by ethanol-induced alterations to DNA and histone methylation, particularly in imprinted regions of the genome, affecting transcription which is further fine-tuned by altered microRNA expression. These processes are likely complex, genome-wide, and interrelated. The proposed model suggests a potential for intervention, given that epigenetic changes are malleable and may be altered by postnatal environment. This review accentuates the value of mouse models in deciphering the molecular etiology of FASD, including those processes that may provide a target for the ammelioration of this common yet entirely preventable disorder. PMID:24917881

  17. [Lead exposure in the ceramic tile industry: time trends and current exposure levels].

    PubMed

    Candela, S; Ferri, F; Olmi, M

    1998-01-01

    There is a high density of industries for the production of ceramic tiles in the District of Scandiano (province of Reggio Emilia, Emilia Romagna region). In this area, since the beginning of 1970s, the time trend of Pb exposure in ceramic tile plants has been evaluated by means of biological monitoring (BM) data collected at the Service of Prevention and Safety in the Work Environment and its associated Toxicology Laboratory. From these data, a clear decreasing time trend of exposure levels is documented, the reduction being more evident during the seventies and in 1985-88. During the seventies BM was introduced systematically in all ceramic tile plants with the determination of delta-aminolevulinic acid in urine (ALA-U). As a consequence of the BM programme, hygienic measures for the abatement of pollution inside the plants were implemented, and a reduction, from 20.6% to 2%, of ALA-U values exceeding 10 mg/l, was observed. In 1985, the determination of lead in blood (PbB) replaced that of ALA-U in the BM programmes and highlighted the persistence of high level of exposure to Pb, which could not be outlined by means of ALA-U because of its lower sensitivity. PbB levels were 36.1 micrograms/100 ml and 25.7 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. These results required the implementation, within the plants, of additional hygienic measures and a significant reduction of PbB was obtained in the following three years. In 1988 PbB levels were 26.0 +/- 10.7 and 21.6 +/- 10.3 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively. In 1993-95 Pb levels were obtained from 1328 male and 771 female workers of 56 plants, accounting for about 40% of the total number of workers in the ceramic industry, in the zones of Sassuolo and Scandiano. Exposure levels are not different from those observed in the preceding years, with PbB levels of 25.3 +/- 11.1 and 19.1 +/- 9.2 micrograms/100 ml in male and female workers, respectively.

  18. Toxic lead exposure in the urban rock dove

    SciTech Connect

    DeMent, S.H.; Chisolm, J.J. Jr.; Eckhaus, M.A.; Strandberg, J.D.

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen adult urban rock doves (Columba livia), 12 captured alive and one found dead, were studied from the Baltimore zoo. The mean concentration of lead in the blood for the 12 live birds was 184.5 +/- 531.2 (range 10.5-1,870 micrograms/dl). Three of the 13 birds with high measured blood and tissue lead concentrations were found at necropsy with lead shot pellets in their gizzards. Correlations were not found between concentrations of lead in the blood and body weight or hematocrit. Conversely, high correlations were noted between concentrations of lead in the blood and measured liver and kidney concentrations (r = 0.946, P less than 0.01; r = 0.993, P less than 0.01, respectively). Numbers of intranuclear acid-fast inclusions per 10 consecutive fields (100x oil immersion lens) correlated well with measured kidney lead concentrations (r = 0.990, P less than 0.001).

  19. An empirical comparison of lead exposure pathway models.

    PubMed Central

    Succop, P; Bornschein, R; Brown, K; Tseng, C Y

    1998-01-01

    Structural equation modeling is a statistical method for partitioning the variance in a set of interrelated multivariate outcomes into that which is due to direct, indirect, and covariate (exogenous) effects. Despite this model's flexibility to handle different experimental designs, postulation of a causal chain among the endogenous variables and the points of influence of the covariates is required. This has motivated the researchers at the University of Cincinnati Department of Environmental Health to be guided by a theoretical model for movement of lead from distal sources (exterior soil or dust and paint lead) to proximal sources (interior dust lead) and then finally to biologic outcomes (handwipe and blood lead). The question of whether a single structural equation model built from proximity arguments can be applied to diverse populations observed in different communities with varying lead amounts, sources, and bioavailabilities is addressed in this article. This reanalysis involved data from 1855 children less than 72 months of age enrolled in 11 studies performed over approximately 15 years. Data from children residing near former ore-processing sites were included in this reanalysis. A single model adequately fit the data from these 11 studies; however, the model needs to be flexible to include pathways that are not frequently observed. As expected, the more proximal sources of interior dust lead and handwipe lead were the most important predictors of blood lead; soil lead often had a number of indirect influences. A limited number of covariates were also isolated as usually affecting the endogenous lead variables. The blood lead levels surveyed at the ore-processing sites were comparable to and actually somewhat lower than those reported in the the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Lessened bioavailability of the lead at certain of these sites is a probable reason for this finding. PMID:9860917

  20. Lead in housing paints: an exposure source still not taken seriously for children lead poisoning in China.

    PubMed

    Lin, G Z; Peng, R F; Chen, Q; Wu, Z G; Du, L

    2009-01-01

    After prohibitions on lead gasoline additives, which have proved to be a public health accomplishment world wide, many countries focus on other exposure source of children lead poisoning. Removing lead from paints is one of the important measures. Although there have been regulatory limits on lead in paints in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that lead-based paints were very common in new paints available for housing and in existing residential paints. Twenty-nine of 58 new paint samples (50%) had lead content equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including 14 (24%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest sample contained 153,000 ppm lead, about 15% of the paint weight. Thirty-two new paints (55%) contained "soluble" lead exceeding 90 ppm, the current lead limit on paints in China. Of the existing paints, 16 of 28 samples of existing paint (57%) collected from 24 kindergartens and primary schools had lead concentrations equal to or exceeding 600 ppm, including six samples (21%) equal to or exceeding 5000 ppm. The highest concentration sample contained 51,800 ppm lead, accounting for 5.2% of the paint weight. It has been shown in many areas that paint lead is a major exposure source for lead poisoning in children. This is particularly true after the phasing out of lead from gasoline. Effective limitation on lead content in new paint, and lead hazard control measures directed towards existing paint, could reduce children blood lead levels (BLLs). There has been a lead standard for paints in China since 1986 and a stricter limit was introduced in recent years. Governments should take it seriously and enforce regulations, commit a long-term challenge to eliminate paint lead as it is the threat to current and the next generation.

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  2. Childhood Lead Exposure After the Phaseout of Leaded Gasoline: An Ecological Study of School-Age Children in Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Graber, Lauren K.; Asher, Daniel; Anandaraja, Natasha; Bopp, Richard F.; Merrill, Karen; Cullen, Mark R.; Luboga, Samuel; Trasande, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Background Tetraethyl lead was phased out of gasoline in Uganda in 2005. Recent mitigation of an important source of lead exposure suggests examination and re-evaluation of the prevalence of childhood lead poisoning in this country. Ongoing concerns persist about exposure from the Kiteezi landfill in Kampala, the country’s capital. Objectives We determined blood lead distributions among Kampala schoolchildren and identified risk factors for elevated blood lead levels (EBLLs; ≥ 10 μg/dL). Analytical approach Using a stratified, cross-sectional design, we obtained blood samples, questionnaire data, and soil and dust samples from the homes and schools of 163 4- to 8-year-old children representing communities with different risks of exposure. Results The mean blood lead level (BLL) was 7.15 μg/dL; 20.5% of the children were found to have EBLL. Multivariable analysis found participants whose families owned fewer household items, ate canned food, or used the community water supply as their primary water source to have higher BLLs and likelihood of EBLLs. Distance < 0.5 mi from the landfill was the factor most strongly associated with increments in BLL (5.51 μg/dL, p < 0.0001) and likelihood of EBLL (OR = 4.71, p = 0.0093). Dust/soil lead was not significantly predictive of BLL/EBLL. Conclusions Lead poisoning remains highly prevalent among school-age children in Kampala. Confirmatory studies are needed, but further efforts are indicated to limit lead exposure from the landfill, whether through water contamination or through another mechanism. Although African nations are to be lauded for the removal of lead from gasoline, this study serves as a reminder that other sources of exposure to this potent neurotoxicant merit ongoing attention. PMID:20194080

  3. Current issues in the epidemiology and toxicology of occupational exposure to lead

    SciTech Connect

    Landrigan, P.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Occupational exposure to lead is widespread in the US. Clinically evident lead poisoning as well as subclinical toxicity occur in populations with occupational lead exposure. The focus of current research on lead toxicity in industrial populations is in the definition of dose-response relationships, particularly at low levels of exposure. Major interest surrounds the development of biochemical and physiologic markers of subclinical toxicity. Need exists to better delineate the toxicity of lead on the peripheral and central nervous system, the kidneys, the cardiovascular system, and the reproductive organs using newly developed markers. To obtain more accurate information on cumulative individual exposure to lead, future research on lead toxicity will increasingly use x-ray fluorescence analysis for determination of the lead content in bone.

  4. Method and system for producing lower alcohols. [Heteropolyatomic lead salt coated with alkali metal formate

    DOEpatents

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.; Heiberger, J.J.

    1983-09-26

    It is an object of the present invention to provide an improved catalyst for the reaction of carbon monoxide with water to produce methanol and other lower alcohols. It is a further object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol from carbon monoxide and water in which a relatively inexpensive catalyst permits the reaction at low pressures. It is also an object to provide a process for the production of methanol in which ethanol is also directly produced. It is another object to provide a process for the production of mixtures of methanol with ethanol and propanol from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. It is likewise an object to provide a system for the catalytic production of lower alcohols from the reaction of carbon monoxide and water at moderate pressure with inexpensive catalysts. In accordance with the present invention, a catalyst is provided for the reaction of carbon monoxide and water to produce lower alcohols. The catalyst includes a lead heteropolyatomic salt in mixture with a metal formate or a precursor to a metal formate.

  5. Lead exposure: Occupational health hazards. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning occupational exposure to lead and its health consequences. Foundry workers, orchard workers, mechanics, industrial workers, and lumbermen are among the workers studied. The citations explore chronic effects of lead exposure on adults and present assay methods for determining blood lead levels. Mortality studies of workers exposed to lead and other synergistic toxins such as cadmium and nickel are also cited. Lead exposure in infants and children is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 199 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  6. The different effects on cranial and trunk neural crest cell behaviour following exposure to a low concentration of alcohol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Czarnobaj, Joanna; Bagnall, Keith M; Bamforth, J Steven; Milos, Nadine C

    2014-05-01

    Embryonic neural crest cells give rise to large regions of the face and peripheral nervous system. Exposure of these cells to high alcohol concentrations leads to cell death in the craniofacial region resulting in facial defects. However, the effects of low concentrations of alcohol on neural crest cells are not clear. In this study, cranial neural crest cells from Xenopus laevis were cultured in an ethanol concentration approximately equivalent to one drink. Techniques were developed to study various aspects of neural crest cell behaviour and a number of cellular parameters were quantified. In the presence of alcohol, a significant number of cranial neural crest cells emigrated from the explant on fibronectin but the liberation of individual cells was delayed. The cells also remained close to the explant and their morphology changed. Cranial neural crest cells did not grow on Type 1 collagen. For the purposes of comparison, the behaviour of trunk neural crest cells was also studied. The presence of alcohol correlated with increased retention of single cells on fibronectin but left other parameters unchanged. The behaviour of trunk neural crest cells growing on Type 1 collagen in the presence of alcohol did not differ from controls. Low concentrations of alcohol therefore significantly affected both cranial and trunk neural crest cells, with a wider variety of effects on cells from the cranial as opposed to the trunk region. The results suggest that low concentrations of alcohol may be more detrimental to early events in organ formation than currently suspected.

  7. Neurodevelopment in Early Childhood Affected by Prenatal Lead Exposure and Iron Intake.

    PubMed

    Shah-Kulkarni, Surabhi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Byung-Mi; Kim, Eunjeong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Park, Hyesook; Kim, Yangho; Kim, Bung-Nyun; Chang, Namsoo; Oh, Se-Young; Kim, Young Ju; Kimʼs, Young Ju; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    No safe threshold level of lead exposure in children has been recognized. Also, the information on shielding effect of maternal dietary iron intake during pregnancy on the adverse effects of prenatal lead exposure on children's postnatal neurocognitive development is very limited. We examined the association of prenatal lead exposure and neurodevelopment in children at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months and the protective action of maternal dietary iron intake against the impact of lead exposure. The study participants comprise 965 pregnant women and their subsequent offspring of the total participants enrolled in the Mothers and Children's environmental health study: a prospective birth cohort study. Generalized linear model and linear mixed model analysis were performed to analyze the effect of prenatal lead exposure and mother's dietary iron intake on children's cognitive development at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months. Maternal late pregnancy lead was marginally associated with deficits in mental development index (MDI) of children at 6 months. Mothers having less than 75th percentile of dietary iron intake during pregnancy showed significant increase in the harmful effect of late pregnancy lead exposure on MDI at 6 months. Linear mixed model analyses showed the significant detrimental effect of prenatal lead exposure in late pregnancy on cognitive development up to 36 months in children of mothers having less dietary iron intake during pregnancy. Thus, our findings imply importance to reduce prenatal lead exposure and have adequate iron intake for better neurodevelopment in children.

  8. Uses and limits of empirical data in measuring and modeling human lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Mushak, P

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the uses and limits of empirical data in evaluating measurement and modeling approaches to human lead exposure. Empirical data from experiment or observation or both have been used in studies of lead exposure. For example, experimental studies have elucidated and quantified physiologic or biokinetic parameters of lead exposure under controlled conditions. Observation, i.e., epidemiology, has been widely applied to study population exposures to lead. There is growing interest in the use of lead exposure prediction models and their evaluation before use in risk assessment. Empirical studies of lead exposure must be fully understood, especially their limits, before they are applied as "standards" or reference information for evaluation of exposure models, especially the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's lead biokinetic model that is a focus of this article. Empirical and modeled datasets for lead exposure may not agree due to a) problems with the observational data or b) problems with the model; caution should be exercised before either a model or observational data are rejected. There are at least three sources of discordance in cases where there is lack of agreement: a) empirical data are accurate but the model is flawed; b) the model is valid but reference empirical data are inaccurate; or c) neither empirical data nor model is accurate, and each is inaccurate in different ways. This paper evaluates some of the critical empirical input to biokinetic models, especially lead bioavailability. Images Figure 3 PMID:9860906

  9. Lead exposure and recovery rates of black ducks banded in Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, Michael D.; Bowers, E. Frank; Franson, J. Christian

    1992-01-01

    American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in Tennessee during 1986 to 1988 were tested for exposure to lead. Twelve percent of the birds had blood lead concentrations exceeding 0.2 ppm. Significant differences in the prevalence of lead exposure were found for adults (14.4%) and juveniles (8.2%). Exposed birds had higher blood lead concentrations at one study site, corresponding with a lower survival index.

  10. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA), aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb) concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures above 100 μg/L B-Pb has

  11. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior. PMID:23947286

  12. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    PubMed

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior.

  13. Correlation between biochemical indicators of lead exposure and semen quality in a lead-poisoned firearms instructor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher-Fischbein, J.; Fischbein, A.; Melnick, H.D.; Bardin, C.W.

    1987-02-13

    Lead poisoning is a disease of great public health concern, particularly because of the hazards that lead can pose to children as a result of ingestion of lead-based paint and perhaps as a consequence of the effects of lead pollution of the ambient air. However, lead poisoning is also a common occupational disease among adults. Persons who work as instructors at indoor firing ranges are likewise at high risk for occupational lead poisoning. The typical biochemical features of lead poisoning include inhibition of heme synthesis manifested by elevated levels of erythrocyte protoporphyrin and decreased activity of sigma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Reproductive effects of lead have been reported in both men and women, but these effects rarely present themselves as practical clinical problems in occupational medicine practice. The current Department of Labor standard for occupational exposure to inorganic lead has been promulgated with special emphasis on the protection of the worker from damage to the reproductive system. The authors had the opportunity of measuring biologic indicators of lead exposure and of assessing semen quality in a firearms instructor with lead poisoning and infertility, who was treated and who fathered a child. They report herein the results of these longitudinal observations.

  14. Characterization of proteome alterations in Phanerochaete chrysosporium in response to lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Total soluble proteome alterations of white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in response to different doses (25, 50 and 100 μM) of Pb (II) were characterized by 2DE in combination with MALDI-TOF-MS. Results Dose-dependent molecular response to Pb (II) involved a total of 14 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated proteins. The induction of an isoform of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, alcohol dehydrogenase class V, mRNA splicing factor, ATP-dependent RNA helicase, thioredoxin reductase and actin required a Pb (II) dose of at least 50 μM. Analysis of the proteome dynamics of mid-exponential phase cells of P. chrysosporium subjected to 50 μM lead at exposure time intervals of 1, 2, 4 and 8 h, identified a total of 23 proteins in increased and 67 proteins in decreased amount. Overall, the newly induced/strongly up-regulated proteins involved in (i) amelioration of lipid peroxidation products, (ii) defense against oxidative damage and redox metabolism, (iii) transcription, recombination and DNA repair (iv) a yet unknown function represented by a putative protein. Conclusion The present study implicated the particular role of the elements of DNA repair, post-tanscriptional regulation and heterotrimeric G protein signaling in response to Pb (II) stress as shown for the first time for a basidiomycete. PMID:21388532

  15. Predictors of blood lead levels in organolead manufacturing workers.

    PubMed

    McGrail, M P; Stewart, W; Schwartz, B S

    1995-10-01

    The relations between recent and cumulative exposure to organic and inorganic lead and blood lead levels were examined in 222 organolead manufacturing workers. Personal monitoring data grouped by 29 exposure zones were used to derive estimates of recent and cumulative occupational exposure. Recent exposure to organic lead and recent combined exposure to organic and inorganic lead were significantly and positively associated with blood lead levels. Exposure duration was found to modify the relation between recent inorganic lead exposure and blood lead levels. Age and cigarette smoking were positively associated with blood lead levels, whereas alcohol use was associated with lower blood lead levels. This is in notable contrast to the influence of alcohol consumption on blood lead levels among inorganic lead workers or the general population. Furthermore, the data suggested that current alcohol use modified the relation between recent organic lead exposure and blood lead levels (P = .08): current alcohol users evidenced less of an increase in blood lead levels with increasing recent organic lead exposures than did workers who did not currently use alcoholic beverages. The data suggest that organic lead exposure affects blood lead levels, probably after dealkylation to inorganic lead. The associations with alcohol consumption may be evidence for differences in enzyme-mediated metabolism of organolead compounds. Finally, the data suggest that recent external lead exposure and internal lead stores both influenced blood lead levels in these workers. PMID:8542343

  16. Risk for Exposure to Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs on the Route to and from School: The Role of Alcohol Outlets

    PubMed Central

    Milam, AJ; Furr-Holden, CDM; Cooley-Strickland, MC; Bradshaw, CP; Leaf, PJ

    2013-01-01

    Despite the national push encouraging children to walk to school, little work has been done to examine what hazards children encounter on the route to school. This study examined the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on children’s route to school and perceived safety on the route to school as well as exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD). Data come from a community-based epidemiological study of 394 urban elementary school students. Participants’ residential address, school location, and alcohol outlet data were geocoded and the route to school was mapped. The route to school layer and the geocoded alcohol outlet data were joined to determine the number of alcohol outlets children pass on the route to school. Logistic regression models estimated the association between the presence of alcohol outlets on the route to school, alcohol and drug exposure, and self-reported safety. Children with an alcohol outlet on the route to school were more likely to be offered ATOD (OR= 2.20, p=.02) as well as be exposed to drug selling (OR=1.72, p=.02) and seeing people using drugs (OR=1.93, p=.02). After adjusting for individual-level variables the relationship between presence of alcohol outlets and being offered ATOD and seeing people using drugs remained significant. However, after adjusting for individual-level control variables and a proxy for the larger neighborhood context, the association between the presence of alcohol outlets and exposure to ATOD was no longer significant. As national campaigns are encouraging children to walk to school it is essential to consider what children are exposed to on the route to school. PMID:23408286

  17. Implications of new data on lead toxicity for managing and preventing exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Silbergeld, E.K. )

    1990-11-01

    Recent advances in research on low-level lead poisoning point to the need to increase efforts to prevent exposure. Current biomedical consensus accepts that blood lead levels as low as 5 to 15 mcg/dL are risky to fetuses, young children, and adults. Lead at low dose is associated with increased blood pressure in adults, and chronic exposure has been associated in cohort studies with kidney disease and cancer. Data on lead toxicokinetics also points to the hazards of low-level, chronic exposure, since the lead that is accumulated over time in bone can be released at a relatively rapid rate during pregnancy and menopause. Sources that contribute to current lead exposure of the general population include unabated lead-based paint and contaminated soils, as well as lower level but pervasive sources in drinking water, food, and consumer products.

  18. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  19. Brief alcohol exposure alters transcription in astrocytes via the heat shock pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pignataro, Leonardo; Varodayan, Florence P; Tannenholz, Lindsay E; Protiva, Petr; Harrison, Neil L

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes are critical for maintaining homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS), and also participate in the genomic response of the brain to drugs of abuse, including alcohol. In this study, we investigated ethanol regulation of gene expression in astrocytes. A microarray screen revealed that a brief exposure of cortical astrocytes to ethanol increased the expression of a large number of genes. Among the alcohol-responsive genes (ARGs) are glial-specific immune response genes, as well as genes involved in the regulation of transcription, cell proliferation, and differentiation, and genes of the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix. Genes involved in metabolism were also upregulated by alcohol exposure, including genes associated with oxidoreductase activity, insulin-like growth factor signaling, acetyl-CoA, and lipid metabolism. Previous microarray studies performed on ethanol-treated hepatocyte cultures and mouse liver tissue revealed the induction of almost identical classes of genes to those identified in our microarray experiments, suggesting that alcohol induces similar signaling mechanisms in the brain and liver. We found that acute ethanol exposure activated heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) in astrocytes, as demonstrated by the translocation of this transcription factor to the nucleus and the induction of a family of known HSF1-dependent genes, the heat shock proteins (Hsps). Transfection of a constitutively transcriptionally active Hsf1 construct into astrocytes induced many of the ARGs identified in our microarray study supporting the hypothesis that HSF1 transcriptional activity, as part of the heat shock cascade, may mediate the ethanol induction of these genes. These data indicate that acute ethanol exposure alters gene expression in astrocytes, in part via the activation of HSF1 and the heat shock cascade. PMID:23533150

  20. Youth Alcohol Brand Consumption and Exposure to Brand Advertising in Magazines

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Craig S; Ostroff, Joshua; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Recently published research has identified the alcohol brands most frequently consumed by underage youth. The present study examines alcohol magazine advertising in 2011 to report age- and sex-specific exposure to advertisements for these brands in contrast with other magazine advertising brands less popular with youth. Method: We licensed magazine advertising occurrence data from Nielsen and magazine audience data from the research company GfK MRI (Growth from Knowledge, Mediamark Research & Intelligence) for national full-run editions for 2011. We contrasted per capita advertising exposure, considering different age- and sex-specific groups, for popular youth brands versus all other magazine brands. For each brand, we reported the age group receiving the highest level of per capita advertising exposure, as well as other age groups within 10% of that peak level. Results: Underage males ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed age group for 11 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 6 brands. Underage females ages 18–20 were most heavily exposed for 16 of the top 25 brands they consumed and were within 10% of the most heavily exposed group for another 2 brands. In contrast, those ages 18–20 were the most heavily exposed group for fewer than 10% of the remaining 308 magazine advertising brands for either sex. Conclusions: These findings suggest a relationship between advertising exposure and youth alcohol brand consumption. Current alcohol industry self-regulatory codes may not be sufficiently protective of youth. PMID:24988260

  1. Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: comparison of trades, work tasks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J C; Reynolds, S J; Fuortes, L J; Clarke, W R

    2000-01-01

    Airborne and surface lead exposures were evaluated for construction trade groups at a previously deleaded bridge renovation site in the midwestern United States. Although all lead-based paint should have been removed, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections of the bridge. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188 microg/m3), followed by workers engaged in clean-up operations and paint removal (p < 0.001). Respirators were most frequently worn by workers with the greatest lead exposures; however, laborers performing clean-up operations had exposures to lead dust of 43 microg/m3 and often wore no respiratory protection. Wipe samples revealed that almost all contractor vehicles were contaminated with lead. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3,600 microg/m2). Laborers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4,766 microg/m2). Handwashing facilities were provided, but were infrequently used. No separate clothes changing facility was available at the site. The potential for "take-home" contamination was high, even though this site was thought to be relatively free of lead. Construction contractors and their workers need to be aware that previous deleading of a site may not preclude exposure to significant amounts of lead.

  2. Lead exposure in American black ducks after implementation of non-toxic shot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Samuel, M.D.; Bowers, E. Frank

    2000-01-01

    Lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent shotgun pellets has been recognized as an important disease of North American waterfowl since Bellrose's (1959) research >40 years ago. Nation-wide regulations banning the use of lead shot for waterfowl hunting were established in 1991. We compared the prevalence of lead exposure in American black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering on 2 areas in Tennessee before (1986-88) and after the ban (1997-99) to assess the effect of the ban on lead shot on this species. Prevalence of elevated blood lead in black ducks declined by 44% from before (11.7% prevalence) to after (6.5% prevalence) the implementation of non-toxic shot. The reduction in lead exposure was pronounced in adult black ducks (from 14.3% to 5.3%). However, prevalence in lead exposure remained similar in juvenile black ducks (from 8.2% to 8.3%). Additional evidence from lead ingestion and lead poisoning mortality events also indicates that lead exposure has declined in waterfowl in the Mississippi flyway. We believe that lead ingestion will continue to decline, despite the persistence of lead shot in some wetlands. The impact of reduced lead exposure on waterfowl populations needs to be assessed.

  3. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    PubMed

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children.

  4. Estimates of Ethanol Exposure in Children from Food not Labeled as Alcohol-Containing.

    PubMed

    Gorgus, Eva; Hittinger, Maike; Schrenk, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is widely used in herbal medicines, e.g., for children. Furthermore, alcohol is a constituent of fermented food such as bread or yogurt and "non-fermented" food such as fruit juices. At the same time, exposure to very low levels of ethanol in children is discussed as possibly having adverse effects on psychomotoric functions. Here, we have analyzed alcohol levels in different food products from the German market. It was found that orange, apple and grape juice contain substantial amounts of ethanol (up to 0.77 g/L). Furthermore, certain packed bakery products such as burger rolls or sweet milk rolls contained more than 1.2 g ethanol/100 g. We designed a scenario for average ethanol exposure by a 6-year-old child. Consumption data for the "categories" bananas, bread and bakery products and apple juice were derived from US and German surveys. An average daily exposure of 10.3 mg ethanol/kg body weight (b.w.) was estimated. If a high (acute) consumption level was assumed for one of the "categories," exposure rose to 12.5-23.3 mg/kg b.w. This amount is almost 2-fold (average) or up to 4-fold (high) higher than the lowest exposure from herbal medicines (6 mg/kg b.w.) suggested to require warning hints for the use in children. PMID:27405361

  5. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure: effects on neuropsychological outcomes at 10 years.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Gale A; Ryan, Christopher; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L; Goldschmidt, Lidush

    2002-01-01

    This report from a longitudinal study of the effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure investigates whether these drugs affect neuropsychological development at 10 years of age. Women were recruited from a medical assistance prenatal clinic and interviewed about their substance use at the end of each trimester of pregnancy, at 8 and 18 months, and at 3, 6, 10, 14, and 16 years. Half of the women were African American, and half were Caucasian. The women were generally from lower socioeconomic status families and had obtained high school degrees. At the 10-year follow-up, 593 children completed a neuropsychological battery, which focused on problem solving, learning and memory, mental flexibility, psychomotor speed, attention, and impulsivity. Prenatal alcohol use was found to have a significant negative impact on learning and memory skills, as measured by the WRAML. Prenatal marijuana exposure also had an effect on learning and memory, as well as on impulsivity, as measured by a continuous performance task. The effects of prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure persisted when other predictors of learning and memory were controlled. We continue to follow these offspring into the adolescent years when further neuropsychological deficits may become evident.

  6. Multicompartment kinetic models for lead. II. Linear kinetics and variable absorption in humans without excessive lead exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.H.

    1985-04-01

    Multicompartment models with constant fractional transfer rates have been fitted to experimental data on lead metabolism in four subjects studied by M.B. Rabinowitz, G.W. Wetherill, and J.D. Kopple. Long-term retention is estimated for blood, soft tissue, cortical and trabecular bone pools, and for facial hair. The absorption of lead from diet is shown to change with time, but no evidence was found for other variable or nonlinear kinetic mechanisms of lead metabolism in humans without excessive lead exposure.

  7. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  8. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  9. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations.

  10. Alcohol intoxication in road traffic accidents leads to higher impact speed difference, higher ISS and MAIS, and higher preclinical mortality.

    PubMed

    Stübig, Timo; Petri, Maximilian; Zeckey, Christian; Brand, Stephan; Müller, Christian; Otte, Dietmar; Krettek, Christian; Haasper, Carl

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol is one of the most important personal risk factors for serious and fatal injuries, contributing to approximately one third of all deaths from accidents. It is also described that alcohol intoxication leads to a higher mortality in the clinical course. In this study, we hypothesized that alcohol intoxication leads to different accident kinematics, a higher ISS (Injury Severity Score), and higher preclinical mortality compared to sober patients. A technical and medical investigation of alcohol intoxicated road users was performed on the scene of the crash and at the primary admitting hospital. Alcohol testing was performed with either breath alcohol tests or measurement of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in a standard laboratory test. Between 1999 and 2010, 37,635 road traffic accidents were evaluated by the Accident Research Unit. Overall 20,741 patients were injured, 2.3% of the patients were killed. Among the injured patients, 2.2% with negative BAC were killed, compared to 4.6% fatal injuries in patients with a positive BAC (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with a positive BAC, 8.0% were severely injured, compared to 3.6% in the BAC negative group (p < 0.0001). Regarding the relative speed at impact (Δv for motorized drivers, vehicle collision speed for pedestrians and bikers), there was a significant higher difference for BAC positive patients (30 ± 20) compared to the BAC negative patients (25 ± 19, p < 0.0001). Alcohol intoxication in trauma patients leads to higher preclinical mortality, higher impact speed difference, and higher injury severity. The subgroup analysis for different alcohol concentrations shows no difference in ISS, MAIS, and relative speed, but a correlation of increasing age of patients with higher alcohol concentrations. PMID:22819121

  11. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p<0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  12. Tracking Adolescents with GPS-enabled Cell Phones to Study Contextual Exposures and Alcohol and Marijuana Use: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Wiebe, Douglas J.; Morrison, Christopher N.; Remer, Lillian G.; Wiehe, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Measuring activity spaces, places adolescents spend time, provides information about relations between contextual exposures and risk behaviors. We studied whether contextual exposures in adolescents’ activity spaces differ from contextual risks present in residential contexts and examined relationships between contextual exposures in activity spaces and alcohol/marijuana use. Methods Adolescents (N=18) aged 16–17 carried GPS-enabled smartphones for one week, with locations tracked. Activity spaces were created by connecting GPS points sequentially and adding buffers. Contextual exposure data (e.g., alcohol outlets) were connected to routes. Adolescents completed texts regarding behaviors. Results Adolescent activity spaces intersected 24.3 census tracts and contained 9 times more alcohol outlets than residential census tracts. Outlet exposure in activity spaces was related to drinking. Low SES exposure was related to marijuana use. Conclusions Findings suggest substantial differences between activity spaces and residential contexts, and suggest that activity spaces are relevant for adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:26206448

  13. Alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Donald E.; Carlton, Bruce E.

    1978-01-01

    There are important measurements of alcoholism that are poorly understood by physicians. Professional attitudes toward alcoholic patients are often counterproductive. Americans spend about $30 billion on alcohol a year and most adults drink alcohol. Even though traditional criteria allow for recognition of the disease, diagnosis is often made late in the natural course, when intervention fails. Alcoholism is a major health problem and accounts for 10 percent of total health care costs. Still, this country's 10 million adult alcoholics come from a pool of heavy drinkers with well defined demographic characteristics. These social, cultural and familial traits, along with subtle signs of addiction, allow for earlier diagnosis. Although these factors alone do not establish a diagnosis of alcoholism, they should alert a physician that significant disease may be imminent. Focus must be directed to these aspects of alcoholism if containment of the problem is expected. PMID:685264

  14. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries.

  15. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. PMID:25086205

  16. Rape-Myth Congruent Beliefs in Women Resulting from Exposure to Violent Pornography: Effects of Alcohol and Sexual Arousal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Martell, Joel; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research findings indicate that women suffer a variety of detrimental effects from exposure to violent pornography. This study used an experimental paradigm to examine the effects of a moderate alcohol dose and alcohol expectancies on women's acute reactions to a violent pornographic stimulus. A community sample of female social drinkers…

  17. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life.

  18. Salivary cortisol levels are elevated in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Keiver, Kathy; Bertram, Chris P; Orr, Alison Pritchard; Clarren, Sterling

    2015-02-01

    Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which may underlie some of the behavioral and adaptive problems seen in individuals with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Infants prenatally exposed to alcohol show altered basal and post-stress cortisol levels, but it is unknown if this persists beyond 2 years of age. It is also unknown if cortisol levels can be normalized through intervention programs. In this study, we investigated the effects of a physical activity program for children with FASD to determine: 1) if HPA dysregulation persists in school-age children with FASD, and 2) the effect of our program on cortisol levels. Twenty six children (ages 6-14 years) with FASD participated in an 8 week motor skill development program. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in 24 children and compared at 4 time points: before, immediately after, 3 months, and 1 year after program completion. Cortisol levels were also compared to 32 control children to evaluate the long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on HPA regulation. For each time point, saliva was collected on each of 2 days at 3 times in the diurnal cycle: awakening, after school, and just before bedtime. Cortisol levels were significantly higher in the afternoon and at bedtime in children with FASD with confirmed prenatal exposure to high levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 4), compared with Control children or children with FASD with exposure to low or unknown levels of alcohol (alcohol exposure rank 3). The program did not significantly affect cortisol levels in children with FASD as a group. These results provide support for long-term effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the HPA system in humans, which could increase vulnerability to mental health issues and diseases later in life. PMID:25583378

  19. Lead concentration in meat from lead-killed moose and predicted human exposure using Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Lindboe, M; Henrichsen, E N; Høgåsen, H R; Bernhoft, A

    2012-01-01

    Lead-based hunting ammunitions are still common in most countries. On impact such ammunition releases fragments which are widely distributed within the carcass. In Norway, wild game is an important meat source for segments of the population and 95% of hunters use lead-based bullets. In this paper, we have investigated the lead content of ground meat from moose (Alces alces) intended for human consumption in Norway, and have predicted human exposure through this source. Fifty-two samples from different batches of ground meat from moose killed with lead-based bullets were randomly collected. The lead content was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The lead intake from exposure to moose meat over time, depending on the frequency of intake and portion size, was predicted using Monte Carlo simulation. In 81% of the batches, lead levels were above the limit of quantification of 0.03 mg kg(-1), ranging up to 110 mg kg(-1). The mean lead concentration was 5.6 mg kg(-1), i.e. 56 times the European Commission limit for lead in meat. For consumers eating a moderate meat serving (2 g kg(-1) bw), a single serving would give a lead intake of 11 µg kg(-1) bw on average, with maximum of 220 µg kg(-1) bw. Using Monte Carlo simulation, the median (and 97.5th percentile) predicted weekly intake of lead from moose meat was 12 µg kg(-1) bw (27 µg kg(-1) bw) for one serving per week and 25 µg kg(-1) bw (45 µg kg(-1) bw) for two servings per week. The results indicate that the intake of meat from big game shot with lead-based bullets imposes a significant contribution to the total human lead exposure. The provisional tolerable weekly intake set by the World Health Organization (WHO) of 25 µg kg(-1) bw is likely to be exceeded in people eating moose meat on a regular basis. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has recently concluded that adverse effects may be present at even lower exposure doses. Hence, even occasional consumption of big game meat with lead levels as

  20. Glutathione, glutathione-related enzymes, and oxidative stress in individuals with subacute occupational exposure to lead.

    PubMed

    Dobrakowski, Michał; Pawlas, Natalia; Hudziec, Edyta; Kozłowska, Agnieszka; Mikołajczyk, Agnieszka; Birkner, Ewa; Kasperczyk, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of subacute exposure to lead on the glutathione-related antioxidant defense and oxidative stress parameters in 36 males occupationally exposed to lead for 40±3.2days. Blood lead level in the examined population increased significantly by 359% due to lead exposure. Simultaneously, erythrocyte glutathione level decreased by 16%, whereas the activity of glutathione-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in erythrocytes and leukocytes decreased by 28% and 10%, respectively. Similarly, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase in erythrocytes decreased by 45%. However, the activity of glutathione reductase in erythrocytes and leukocytes increased by 26% and 6%, respectively, whereas the total oxidant status value in leukocytes increased by 37%. Subacute exposure to lead results in glutathione pool depletion and accumulation of lipid peroxidation products; however, it does not cause DNA damage. Besides, subacute exposure to lead modifies the activity of glutathione-related enzymes. PMID:27331344

  1. Can a father's exposure lead to illness in his children

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-10-02

    There is an urgent need for studies to elucidate mechanisms underlying evidence mechanisms underlying evidence that many different types of paternal exposure induce changes in sperm or semen that could affect children's health. Epidemiology, of course, is only half of the equation that describes male-mediated toxicity. The other half is the biological examination of mechanisms whereby damage to sperm might affect the next generation. In this area, geneticists and toxicologists have had a firm starting point: It's been known for decades that certain toxins and radiation can damage sperm. Research suggests that different chemicals exert their maximum damage on sperm at three stages of sperm production, with most chemicals tested affecting the stage during which early spermatozoa and late spermatids are formed. The problem, however, is that none of these defects has been linked specifically to certain types of birth defects or diseases.

  2. Determinants of bone and blood lead levels among teenagers living in urban areas with high lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Farias, P

    1998-01-01

    Although lead has been extensively studied in children, its sources and effects remain unclear in adolescents. This study examined the relation of blood and tibia bone lead levels to lead determinants. One hundred adolescents living in Mexico City and surrounding suburbs were studied. Blood lead was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and tibia lead was measured by a K X-ray Fluorescence (KXRF) instrument. Blood lead ranged from 1.8 to 29.2 microgram/dl, with a mean of 7.4 microgram/dl. Bone lead ranged from <1 to 44.82 microgram Pb/g bone mineral, with a mean of 4.8 microgram Pb/g. Predictors of bone lead included higher traffic density near the home, mother's smoking history, and time spent outdoors. Predictors of log-transformed blood lead included bone lead levels, male sex, use of lead-glazed ceramics, and living in Mexico City. Bone lead remained a significant predictor of blood lead after adjusting for covariates in a final multivariate regression model. In our final model, a rise in bone lead from the middle of the lowest quintile to the middle of the highest quintile (a difference of 21.6 microgram Pb/g) was associated with an increase in blood lead of 1.2 microgram/dl. Our data suggest that in addition to current sources of environmental lead exposure, bone lead accumulated over time constitutes a moderate source of circulating lead during adolescence and may account for some of the adverse health effects documented in recent studies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9799189

  3. Distinct neurobehavioral dysfunction based on the timing of developmental binge-like alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Sadrian, B; Lopez-Guzman, M; Wilson, D A; Saito, M

    2014-11-01

    Gestational exposure to alcohol can result in long-lasting behavioral deficiencies generally described as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). FASD-modeled rodent studies of acute ethanol exposure typically select one developmental window to simulate a specific context equivalent of human embryogenesis, and study consequences of ethanol exposure within that particular developmental epoch. Exposure timing is likely a large determinant in the neurobehavioral consequence of early ethanol exposure, as each brain region is variably susceptible to ethanol cytotoxicity and has unique sensitive periods in their development. We made a parallel comparison of the long-term effects of single-day binge ethanol at either embryonic day 8 (E8) or postnatal day 7 (P7) in male and female mice, and here demonstrate the differential long-term impacts on neuroanatomy, behavior and in vivo electrophysiology of two systems with very different developmental trajectories. The significant long-term differences in odor-evoked activity, local circuit inhibition, and spontaneous coherence between brain regions in the olfacto-hippocampal pathway that were found as a result of developmental ethanol exposure, varied based on insult timing. Long-term effects on cell proliferation and interneuron cell density were also found to vary by insult timing as well as by region. Finally, spatial memory performance and object exploration were affected in P7-exposed mice, but not E8-exposed mice. Our physiology and behavioral results are conceptually coherent with the neuroanatomical data attained from these same mice. Our results recognize both variable and shared effects of ethanol exposure timing on long-term circuit function and their supported behavior. PMID:25241068

  4. Rates of fetal alcohol exposure among newborns in a high-risk obstetric unit.

    PubMed

    Goh, Y Ingrid; Hutson, Janine R; Lum, Lisa; Roukema, Henry; Gareri, Joey; Lynn, Hazel; Koren, Gideon

    2010-01-01

    Meconium fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) are sensitive and specific biomarkers for prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) in pregnancy. We recently reported a 2.5% rate of FAEE positive meconium in a general population sample of infants born in the region of Grey-Bruce, Ontario. Women in this region with high-risk pregnancies are transferred to a tertiary care facility in London, Ontario. The objective of this study was to determine, in a population-based sample, whether high-risk pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of in utero alcohol exposure. Grey-Bruce residents transferred to the high-risk obstetric unit of St. Joseph's Health Care in London, Ontario were identified and consented to this anonymous prevalence study. Meconium was collected and analyzed for FAEE using gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. The prevalence of FAEE positive meconium was compared with the population-based prevalence in the Grey-Bruce. Fifty meconium specimens were collected from August 1, 2006 to July 31, 2007. Fifteen (30%) specimens tested positive for FAEE. The results indicate that infants born in the high-risk obstetric unit had a 12-fold higher risk of screening positive for second and third trimester alcohol exposure compared with infants born in the general population of Grey-Bruce (relative risk=12.04, 95% confidence interval=6.40-22.65, P<.0001). These results suggest that the high-risk pregnancies should be screened for PAE and followed-up for potential diagnosis of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:20584588

  5. Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Heather F. Hausladen, Debra M.; Brabander, Daniel J.

    2008-07-15

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 {mu}g/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150{+-}40 {mu}g/g to an average of 336 {mu}g/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 {mu}m) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 {mu}m) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  6. Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design.

    PubMed

    Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 microm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 microm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  7. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    PubMed

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  8. Lead Exposure in Adult Males in Urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the Apartheid Era

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Catherine A.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Smith, Martin J.; Trueman, Clive N.; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country’s late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g−1), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g−1) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead. PMID:23505462

  9. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health.

  10. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  11. Hepatic Steatosis in Response to Acute Alcohol Exposure in Zebrafish requires Srebp Activation

    PubMed Central

    Passeri, Michael J.; Cinaroglu, Ayca; Gao, Chuan; Sadler, Kirsten C.

    2008-01-01

    Steatosis is the most common consequence of acute alcohol abuse and may predispose to more severe hepatic disease. Increased lipogenesis driven by the sterol response element binding protein (SREBP) transcription factors is essential for steatosis associated with chronic alcohol ingestion, but the mechanisms underlying steatosis following acute alcohol exposure are unknown. Zebrafish larvae represent an attractive vertebrate model for studying alcoholic liver disease (ALD), because they possess the pathways to metabolize alcohol, the liver is mature by 4 days post-fertilization (dpf), and alcohol can be simply added to their water. Exposing 4 dpf zebrafish larvae to 2% ethanol (EtOH) for 32 hours achieves ∼80 mM intracellular EtOH and upregulation of hepatic cyp2e1, sod and bip, indicating that EtOH is metabolized and provokes oxidant stress. EtOH-treated larvae develop hepatomegaly and steatosis accompanied by changes in the expression of genes required for hepatic lipid metabolism. Based on the importance of SREPBs in chronic ALD, we explored the role of Srebps in this model of acute ALD. Srebp activation was prevented in gonzo larvae, which harbor a mutation in the membrane bound transcription factor protease 1 (mbtps1) gene, and in embryos injected with a morpholino to knock-down Srebp cleavage activating protein (scap). Both gonzo mutants and scap morphants were resistant to steatosis in response to 2% EtOH, and the expression of many Srebp target genes are down regulated in gonzo mutant livers. Conclusion Zebrafish larvae develop signs of acute ALD, including steatosis. Srebp activation is required for steatosis in this model. The tractability of zebrafish genetics provides a valuable tool for dissecting the molecular pathogenesis of acute ALD. PMID:19127516

  12. Screening for lead exposure using a geographic information system

    SciTech Connect

    Wartenberg, D. )

    1992-12-01

    Screening programs for lead overexposure typically target high-risk populations by identifying regions with common risk markers (older housing, poverty, etc.). While more useful than untargeted screening programs, targeted programs are limited by the geographic resolution of the risk-factor information. A geographic information system can make screening programs more effective and more cost-efficient by mapping cases of overexposure, identifying high-incidence neighborhoods warranting screening, and validating risk-factor-based prediction rules. 5 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Lead on Estrogen Action in the Prepubertal Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Tchernitchin, Andrei N.; Gaete, Leonardo; Bustamante, Rodrigo; Báez, Aracelly

    2011-01-01

    Lead is a widely spread environmental pollutant known to affect both male and female reproductive systems in humans and experimental animals and causes infertility and other adverse effects. The present paper investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to lead on different parameters of estrogen stimulation in the uterus of the prepubertal rat. In prenatally and perinatally exposed rats, estrogen-induced endometrial eosinophilia, endometrial stroma edema, and eosinophil migration towards the endometrium, and uterine luminal epithelial hypertrophy are enhanced while several other responses to estrogen appear unchanged. These effects may contribute to decrease in fertility following prenatal exposure to lead. The striking difference between most of these effects of prenatal exposure and the previously reported effects of chronic exposure to lead suggests that prenatal exposure to lead may neutralize the effects of chronic exposure to lead, providing partial protection of cell function against the adverse effects of chronic exposure to lead. We propose that the mechanism involved, named imprinting or cell programming, persisted through evolution as a nongenetic adaptive mechanism to provide protection against long-term environmental variations that otherwise may cause the extinction of species not displaying this kind of adaptation. PMID:22263113

  14. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  15. Lead exposure among automobile radiator repair workers and their children in New York City.

    PubMed

    Nunez, C M; Klitzman, S; Goodman, A

    1993-05-01

    Despite a comprehensive Occupational Safety and Health Administration lead standard, exposure to lead continues in many industries. This paper describes a blood lead screening and education program for automobile radiator repair workers and their families in New York City. Results showed that 67% of automobile radiator repair workers (n = 62) in 89% of the shops tested (n = 24) had blood lead levels in excess of 25 micrograms/dl. The vast majority of workers had never been tested previously, and none had received health and safety training regarding occupational lead exposure. Although none of the workers' children's blood lead levels were in excess of then-current guidelines, several had levels which may be associated with subclinical toxicity and in excess of the revised Centers for Disease Control guidelines of 10 micrograms/dl. This project demonstrates that lead exposure in the automotive radiator repair industry continues to be widespread and that local health departments can assist in hazard identification and remediation.

  16. Watching and drinking: Expectancies, prototypes, and peer affiliations mediate the effect of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent drinking

    PubMed Central

    Dal Cin, Sonya; Worth, Keilah A.; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X.; Stoolmiller, Mike; Wills, Thomas A.; Sargent, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the psychological processes that underlie the relation between exposure to alcohol use in media with adolescent alcohol use. Design Structural equation modeling analysis of data from four waves of a longitudinal, nationally-representative, random-digit dial telephone survey of adolescents in the United States. Main Outcome Measures Adolescent alcohol consumption and willingness to use alcohol. Tested mediators were alcohol-related norms, prototypes, expectancies, and friends' use. Results Alcohol prototypes, expectancies, willingness, and friends' use of alcohol (but not perceived prevalence of alcohol use among peers) were significant mediators of the relation between movie alcohol exposure and alcohol consumption, even after controlling for demographic, child, and family factors associated with both movie exposure and alcohol consumption. Conclusion Established psychological and interpersonal predictors of alcohol use mediate the effects of exposure to alcohol use in movies on adolescent alcohol consumption. The findings suggest that exposure movie portrayals may operate through similar processes as other social influences, highlighting the importance of considering these exposures in research on adolescent risk behavior. PMID:19594272

  17. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5-7 year olds: Does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Since IQ per se affects behavior, measuring lead's direct effect requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at age 2 years, or the lower blood lead measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all this information. Objective To differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ, and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Methods Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12-33 month olds with blood lead concentration of 20-44 μg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Results Blood lead concentration at age 2 years was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) scores at age 5 years or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children (BASC) scores at age 7 years. Blood lead at age 7 years had direct effects on the BASC Behavioral Symptoms Index, Externalizing, and School Problems at age 7. Conclusions Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with Externalizing and School Problems scales at age 7 years, and the effect was not entirely mediated through lead's effect on IQ. PMID:17332184

  18. Essential trace metal excretion from rats with lead exposure and during chelation therapy.

    PubMed

    Victery, W; Miller, C R; Goyer, R A

    1986-02-01

    Urinary excretion of lead, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, and potassium was measured in rats daily for 1 week after a 6-week exposure to 10,000 micrograms/ml lead in drinking water. Beginning on the third day, half of the lead-exposed and control rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) daily for 3 days. Whole blood, plasma, and kidney metal concentrations were determined from samples obtained at the end of the experiment. Exposure to lead increased urinary excretion, not only of lead, but also of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron. Excretion of sodium and potassium was not altered. Chelation therapy further increased excretion of lead, zinc, copper, and iron, but not magnesium. The increase in calcium excretion during chelation treatment (beyond that resulting from lead exposure per se) was accounted for by the Ca content of CaNa2-EDTA. EDTA treatment increased renal concentration of zinc but lowered renal concentration of lead, copper, and iron. These multimetal alterations may have implications for essential metal supplementation, particularly zinc, in persons being given chelation agents for excess lead exposure and in infants and children with low-level lead exposure not necessarily requiring chelation therapy.

  19. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke: A Source of Lead Exposure in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Apostolou, Andria; Garcia-Esquinas, Esther; Fadrowski, Jeffrey J.; McLain, RN, Pat; Weaver, Virginia M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the relationship between secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure and blood lead levels in US children and adolescents. Methods. We analyzed data from 6830 participants aged 3–19 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2004) who were not active smokers and for whom SHS exposure information and blood lead measurements were available. Results. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the highest quartile of serum cotinine (≥ 0.44 μg/L) had 28% (95% confidence interval = 21%, 36%) higher blood lead levels than had those in the lowest quartile (< 0.03 μg/L). Similarly, blood lead levels were 14% and 24% higher in children who lived with 1 or with 2 or more smokers, respectively, than they were in children living with no smokers. Among participants for whom lead dust information was available, the associations between SHS and blood lead levels were similar before and after adjustment for lead dust concentrations. Conclusions. SHS may contribute to increased blood lead levels in US children. Lead dust does not appear to mediate this association, suggesting inhalation as a major pathway of exposure. Eliminating SHS exposure could reduce lead exposure in children. PMID:21852639

  20. Impact of developmental lead exposure on splenic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Heo, Yong; Lawrence, David A.

    2010-09-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to alter the functions of numerous organ systems, including the hematopoietic and immune systems. Pb can induce anemia and can lower host resistance to bacterial and viral infections. The anemia is due to Pb's inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis and Pb's induction of membrane changes, leading to early erythrocyte senescence. Pb also increases B-cell activation/proliferation and skews T-cell help (Th) toward Th2 subset generation. The specific mechanisms for many of the Pb effects are, as yet, not completely understood. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis, via microarray, on RNA from the spleens of developmentally Pb-exposed mice, in order to gain further insight into these Pb effects. Splenic RNA microarray analysis indicated strong up-regulation of genes coding for proteolytic enzymes, lipases, amylase, and RNaseA. The data also showed that Pb affected the expression of many genes associated with innate immunity. Analysis of the microarray results via GeneSifter software indicated that Pb increased apoptosis, B-cell differentiation, and Th2 development. Direct up-regulation by Pb of expression of the gene encoding the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) suggested that Pb can decrease erythropoiesis by blocking globin mRNA translation. Pb's high elevation of digestive/catabolizing enzymes could generate immunogenic self peptides. With Pb's potential to induce new self-peptides and to enhance the expression of caspases, cytokines, and other immunomodulators, further evaluation of Pb's involvement in autoimmune phenomena, especially Th2-mediated autoantibody production, and alteration of organ system activities is warranted.

  1. White Matter Deficits Mediate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Cognitive Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Taylor, Paul A.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Dodge, Neil C.; Stanton, Mark E.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Meintjes, Ernesta M.

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ±1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. PMID:27219850

  2. White matter deficits mediate effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on cognitive development in childhood.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jia; Jacobson, Sandra W; Taylor, Paul A; Molteno, Christopher D; Dodge, Neil C; Stanton, Mark E; Jacobson, Joseph L; Meintjes, Ernesta M

    2016-08-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders comprise the spectrum of cognitive, behavioral, and neurological impairments caused by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed on 54 children (age 10.1 ± 1.0 years) from the Cape Town Longitudinal Cohort, for whom detailed drinking histories obtained during pregnancy are available: 26 with full fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial FAS (PFAS), 15 nonsyndromal heavily exposed (HE), and 13 controls. Using voxelwise analyses, children with FAS/PFAS showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy (FA) in four white matter (WM) regions and higher mean diffusivity (MD) in seven; three regions of FA and MD differences (left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), splenium, and isthmus) overlapped, and the fourth FA cluster was located in the same WM bundle (right ILF) as an MD cluster. HE children showed lower FA and higher MD in a subset of these regions. Significant correlations were observed between three continuous alcohol measures and DTI values at cluster peaks, indicating that WM damage in several regions is dose dependent. Lower FA in the regions of interest was attributable primarily to increased radial diffusivity rather than decreased axonal diffusivity, suggesting poorer axon packing density and/or myelination. Multiple regression models indicated that this cortical WM impairment partially mediated adverse effects of PAE on information processing speed and eyeblink conditioning. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2943-2958, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27219850

  3. Prenatal exposure to alcohol and marijuana: effects on motor development of preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chandler, L S; Richardson, G A; Gallagher, J D; Day, N L

    1996-05-01

    Gross motor development of preschool children prenatally exposed to alcohol and marijuana was assessed as part of a longitudinal study. Most mothers in the study were light to moderate users and discontinued or decreased use of alcohol and marijuana after the first trimester of pregnancy. The women were of lower socioeconomic status, half of the sample was African-American, and most were single. Gross motor development was evaluated with balance and ball-handling items at 3 years. Balance items included walking on a line, walking on a balance beam, standing on one foot, standing on tiptoes, and stair climbing and descent. Ball-handling items included catching, throwing, and kicking a ball. Refusal to perform items was also recorded. Prenatal alcohol and marijuana exposure did not negatively affect gross motor development. The composite score on the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, age at assessment, gender, and examiner were significant predictors of gross motor performance and of refusal to participate in the balance items. The ponderal index, number of siblings, current income, examiner, current maternal use of tranquilizers, and first trimester exposure to amphetamines were also significant predictors of balance skills. Gender and number of hospitalizations predicted refusal to participate in balance items, whereas hearing and vision problems predicted refusal on ball-handling items. The components of timing, speed, and fine motor control have not been addressed in this study, and therefore it is premature to conclude that there is no impact of prenatal substance use on motor development.

  4. A tensor-based morphometry analysis of regional differences in brain volume in relation to prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Meintjes, E M; Narr, K L; van der Kouwe, A J W; Molteno, C D; Pirnia, T; Gutman, B; Woods, R P; Thompson, P M; Jacobson, J L; Jacobson, S W

    2014-01-01

    Reductions in brain volumes represent a neurobiological signature of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Less clear is how regional brain tissue reductions differ after normalizing for brain size differences linked with FASD and whether these profiles can predict the degree of prenatal exposure to alcohol. To examine associations of regional brain tissue excesses/deficits with degree of prenatal alcohol exposure and diagnosis with and without correction for overall brain volume, tensor-based morphometry (TBM) methods were applied to structural imaging data from a well-characterized, demographically homogeneous sample of children diagnosed with FASD (n = 39, 9.6-11.0 years) and controls (n = 16, 9.5-11.0 years). Degree of prenatal alcohol exposure was significantly associated with regionally pervasive brain tissue reductions in: (1) the thalamus, midbrain, and ventromedial frontal lobe, (2) the superior cerebellum and inferior occipital lobe, (3) the dorsolateral frontal cortex, and (4) the precuneus and superior parietal lobule. When overall brain size was factored out of the analysis on a subject-by-subject basis, no regions showed significant associations with alcohol exposure. FASD diagnosis was associated with a similar deformation pattern, but few of the regions survived FDR correction. In data-driven independent component analyses (ICA) regional brain tissue deformations successfully distinguished individuals based on extent of prenatal alcohol exposure and to a lesser degree, diagnosis. The greater sensitivity of the continuous measure of alcohol exposure compared with the categorical diagnosis across diverse brain regions underscores the dose dependence of these effects. The ICA results illustrate that profiles of brain tissue alterations may be a useful indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure when reliable historical data are not available and facial features are not apparent. PMID:25057467

  5. Reducing lead exposure from drinking water: recent history and current status.

    PubMed

    Maas, Richard P; Patch, Steven C; Morgan, Diane M; Pandolfo, Tamara J

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of lead contamination of drinking water, noting the various regulatory-driven measures that have been adopted in the U.S. since 1986 to address this public health issue. The article summarizes the literature on the dynamics of tap water lead contamination and discusses this widespread source of lead exposure in the context of the latest research evidence.

  6. A task-based approach to assessing lead exposure among iron workers engaged in bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M; Levin, S M; Doucette, J T; Griffin, G

    1997-03-01

    The assessment of worker exposures to airborne contaminants in the dynamic environment present at most construction sites poses considerable challenges to the industrial hygienist. In this study, we applied a task-based approach to the assessment of lead exposure among structural steel iron workers engaged in a large, complex bridge rehabilitation project. We evaluated the usefulness of task-based exposure data for the development of worker protection programs. Task-specific and multitask samples were collected, and operation-specific and 8-hr time-weighted averages were calculated. The task-specific data showed significant differences in exposure levels among different tasks. Arithmetic mean exposures varied from 1,357 micrograms/m3 lead for torch cutting and 989 micrograms/m3 for scaling to 31 micrograms/m3 for reaming and 4 micrograms/m3 for drilling. Our task-specific data were compared with the task-based exposure levels presented by OSHA in its Lead Exposure in Construction-Interim Final Rule (29 CFR 1926). There was good general agreement between our results and OSHA's reported data. Task-based data were very useful in exposure assessment and much more precise than full-shift and operation-based measurements in guiding strategies for worker protection. These findings suggest that task-based data should routinely be collected in evaluating exposure to lead and perhaps other toxic substances in construction work.

  7. Adolescents’ exposure to tobacco and alcohol content in YouTube music videos

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Rachael; Lewis, Sarah; Leonardi‐Bee, Jo; Dockrell, Martin; Britton, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aims To quantify tobacco and alcohol content, including branding, in popular contemporary YouTube music videos; and measure adolescent exposure to such content. Design Ten‐second interval content analysis of alcohol, tobacco or electronic cigarette imagery in all UK Top 40 YouTube music videos during a 12‐week period in 2013/14; on‐line national survey of adolescent viewing of the 32 most popular high‐content videos. Setting Great Britain. Participants A total of 2068 adolescents aged 11–18 years who completed an on‐line survey. Measurements Occurrence of alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette use, implied use, paraphernalia or branding in music videos and proportions and estimated numbers of adolescents who had watched sampled videos. Findings Alcohol imagery appeared in 45% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 33–51%] of all videos, tobacco in 22% (95% CI = 13–27%) and electronic cigarettes in 2% (95% CI = 0–4%). Alcohol branding appeared in 7% (95% CI = 2–11%) of videos, tobacco branding in 4% (95% CI = 0–7%) and electronic cigarettes in 1% (95% CI = 0–3%). The most frequently observed alcohol, tobacco and electronic cigarette brands were, respectively, Absolut Tune, Marlboro and E‐Lites. At least one of the 32 most popular music videos containing alcohol or tobacco content had been seen by 81% (95% CI = 79%, 83%) of adolescents surveyed, and of these 87% (95% CI = 85%, 89%) had re‐watched at least one video. The average number of videos seen was 7.1 (95% CI = 6.8, 7.4). Girls were more likely to watch and also re‐watch the videos than boys, P < 0.001. Conclusions Popular YouTube music videos watched by a large number of British adolescents, particularly girls, include significant tobacco and alcohol content, including branding. PMID:25516167

  8. The Association between Environmental Lead Exposure and Bone Density in Children

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, James R.; Rosier, Randy N.; Novotny, Leonore; Puzas, J. Edward

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) that predisposes individuals to fractures. Although an elderly affliction, a predisposition may develop during adolescence if a sufficient peak BMD is not achieved. Rat studies have found that lead exposure is associated with decreased BMD. However, human studies are limited. We hypothesized that the BMD of children with high lead exposure would be lower than the BMD of children with low lead exposure. We collected data on 35 subjects; 16 had low cumulative lead exposure (mean, 6.5 μg/dL), and 19 had high exposure (mean, 23.6 μg/dL). All were African American; there was no difference between the groups by sex, age, body mass index, socioeconomic status, physical activity, or calcium intake. Significant differences in BMD between low and high cumulative lead exposure were noted in the head (1.589 vs. 1.721 g/cm2), third lumbar vertebra (0.761 vs. 0.819 g/cm2), and fourth lumbar vertebra (0.712 vs. 0.789 g/cm2). Contrary to our hypothesis, subjects with high lead exposure had a significantly higher BMD than did subjects with low lead exposure. This may reflect a true phenomenon because lead exposure has been reported to accelerate bony maturation by inhibiting the effects of parathyroid hormone–related peptide. Accelerated maturation of bone may ultimately result in a lower peak BMD being achieved in young adulthood, thus predisposing to osteoporosis in later life. Future studies need to investigate this proposed model. PMID:15289167

  9. Prenatal lead exposure modifies the impact of maternal self-esteem on children's inattention behavior

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Hu, Howard; Wright, Rosalind; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Schnaas, Lourdes; Bellinger, David C.; Park, Sung Kyun; Martínez, Sandra; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Wright, Robert O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To prospectively evaluate the association of maternal self-esteem measured when their offspring were toddlers with the subsequent development of attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder (ADHD)-like behavior in their school-age offspring and the potential modifying effects of prenatal lead exposure. Study design We evaluated a subsample of 192 mother-child pairs from a long-running birth-cohort project that enrolled mothers in Mexico from 1994 to 2011. Prenatal lead exposure was assessed using cord blood lead and maternal bone lead around delivery (tibia and patella lead, measured by K-x-ray-fluorescence). When children were 2 years old, maternal self-esteem was measured using the Coopersmith-Self-esteem-Inventory. When children were 7-to-15 years old, children's blood lead levels and ADHD symptoms were assessed, and Conners’ Parental-Rating-Scales-Revised (CPRS-R) and Behavior-Rating-Inventory-of-Executive-Function-Parent Form (BRIEF-P) were used as measures of ADHD-like behavior. Results Adjusting for family economic status, marital status, maternal education and age, child's age and sex, and children's current blood lead levels, increased maternal self-esteem was associated with reduced child inattention behavior. Compared with those among high prenatal lead exposure (P25-P100), this association was stronger among low prenatal lead exposure groups (P1-P25, p-values for the interaction effects between prenatal lead exposure and maternal self-esteem levels < 0.10). Each 1-point increase in maternal self-esteem scores was associated with 0.6-to-1.3-point decrease in CPRS-R and BRIEF-P T-scores among groups with low cord blood lead and patella lead (P1-P25). Conclusions Children experiencing high maternal self-esteem during toddlerhood were less likely to develop inattention behavior at school-age. Prenatal lead exposure may play a role in attenuating this protective effect. PMID:26047683

  10. Exploring Childhood Lead Exposure through GIS: A Review of the Recent Literature

    PubMed Central

    Akkus, Cem; Ozdenerol, Esra

    2014-01-01

    Childhood exposure to lead remains a critical health control problem in the US. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into childhood lead exposure studies significantly enhanced identifying lead hazards in the environment and determining at risk children. Research indicates that the toxic threshold for lead exposure was updated three times in the last four decades: 60 to 30 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) in 1975, 25 µg/dL in 1985, and 10 µb/dL in 1991. These changes revealed the extent of lead poisoning. By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a reference value of 5 µg/dL. Review of the recent literature on GIS-based studies suggests that numerous environmental risk factors might be critical for lead exposure. New GIS-based studies are used in surveillance data management, risk analysis, lead exposure visualization, and community intervention strategies where geographically-targeted, specific intervention measures are taken. PMID:24945189

  11. Exploring childhood lead exposure through GIS: a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Akkus, Cem; Ozdenerol, Esra

    2014-06-18

    Childhood exposure to lead remains a critical health control problem in the US. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into childhood lead exposure studies significantly enhanced identifying lead hazards in the environment and determining at risk children. Research indicates that the toxic threshold for lead exposure was updated three times in the last four decades: 60 to 30 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) in 1975, 25 µg/dL in 1985, and 10 µb/dL in 1991. These changes revealed the extent of lead poisoning. By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a reference value of 5 µg/dL. Review of the recent literature on GIS-based studies suggests that numerous environmental risk factors might be critical for lead exposure. New GIS-based studies are used in surveillance data management, risk analysis, lead exposure visualization, and community intervention strategies where geographically-targeted, specific intervention measures are taken.

  12. Adolescent Alcohol Exposure Alters GABAA Receptor Subunit Expression in Adult Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, Samuel W.; Teppen, Tara; Risher, Mary-Louise; Fleming, Rebekah L.; Moss, Julia L.; Acheson, Shawn K.; Mulholland, Patrick J.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Chandler, L. Judson; Swartzwelder, H. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Background The long-term consequences of adolescent alcohol abuse that persist into adulthood are poorly understood and have not been widely investigated. We have shown that intermittent exposure to alcohol during adolescence decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated tonic currents in hippocampal dentate granule cells in adulthood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enduring effects of chronic intermittent alcohol exposure during adolescence or adulthood on the expression of hippocampal GABAA receptors (GABAARs). Methods We used a previously characterized tissue fractionation method to isolate detergent resistant membranes and soluble fractions, followed by western blots to measure GABAAR protein expression. We also measured mRNA levels of GABAAR subunits using quantitative real-time PCR. Results Although the protein levels of α1-, α4- and δ-GABAAR subunits remained stable between postnatal day (PD) 30 (early adolescence) and PD71 (adulthood), the α5-GABAAR subunit was reduced across that period. In rats that were subjected to adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure between PD30–46, there was a significant reduction in the protein levels of the δ-GABAAR, in the absence of any changes in mRNA levels, at 48 hours and 26 days after the last ethanol exposure. Protein levels of the α4-GABAAR subunit were significantly reduced, but mRNA levels were increased, 26 days (but not 48 hours) after the last AIE exposure. Protein levels of α5-GABAAR were not changed by AIE, but mRNA levels were reduced at 48hrs but normalized 26 days after AIE. In contrast to the effects of AIE, chronic intermittent exposure to ethanol during adulthood (CIE) had no effect on expression of any of the GABAAR subunits examined. Conclusions AIE produced both short- and long-term alterations of GABAAR subunits mRNA and protein expression in the hippocampus, whereas CIE produced no long lasting effects on those measures. The observed reduction of protein

  13. The conceptual structure of the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children.

    PubMed Central

    White, P D; Van Leeuwen, P; Davis, B D; Maddaloni, M; Hogan, K A; Marcus, A H; Elias, R W

    1998-01-01

    The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children was developed to provide plausible blood lead distributions corresponding to particular combinations of multimedia lead exposure. The model is based on a set of equations that convert lead exposure (expressed as micrograms per day) to blood lead concentration (expressed as micrograms per deciliter) by quantitatively mimicking the physiologic processes that determine blood lead concentration. The exposures from air, food, water, soil, and dust are modeled independently by several routes. Amounts of lead absorbed are modeled independently for air, food, water, and soil/dust, then combined as a single input to the blood plasma reservoir of the body. Lead in the blood plasma reservoir, which includes extracellular fluids, is mathematically allocated to all tissues of the body using age-specific biokinetic parameters. The model calculation provides the estimate for blood lead concentration for that age. This value is treated as the geometric mean of possible values for a single child, or the geometric mean of expected values for a population of children exposed to the same lead concentrations. The distribution of blood lead concentrations about this geometric mean is estimated using a geometric standard deviation, typically 1.6, derived from the analysis of well-conducted community blood studies. PMID:9860910

  14. Lead exposure in free-flying turkey vultures is associated with big game hunting in California.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers.

  15. Lead exposure is associated with decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and genotypes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-08-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investigate whether lead exposure has influence on serum PON1 activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers from a lead battery manufactory and lead recycling plant. Blood samples were analyzed for whole-blood lead levels, serum PON1 activity, and three common PON1 polymorphisms (Q192R, L55M, -108C/T). The mean blood lead level (+/-SD) of this cohort was 27.1+/-15 microg/dL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with decreased serum PON1 activity (p<0.001) in lead workers. This negative correlation was more evident for workers who carry the R192 allele, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the decrease in serum PON1 activity due to lead exposure may render individuals more susceptible to atherosclerosis, particularly subjects who are homozygous for the R192 allele.

  16. Lead Exposure in Free-Flying Turkey Vultures Is Associated with Big Game Hunting in California

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds are at risk of lead exposure when they feed on animals injured or killed by lead ammunition. While lead ammunition has been banned from waterfowl hunting in North America for almost two decades, lead ammunition is still widely used for hunting big game and small game animals. In this study, we evaluated the association between big game hunting and blood lead concentration in an avian scavenger species that feeds regularly on large mammals in California. We compared blood lead concentration in turkey vultures within and outside of the deer hunting season, and in areas with varying wild pig hunting intensity. Lead exposure in turkey vultures was significantly higher during the deer hunting season compared to the off-season, and blood lead concentration was positively correlated with increasing wild pig hunting intensity. Our results link lead exposure in turkey vultures to deer and wild pig hunting activity at these study sites, and we provide evidence that spent lead ammunition in carrion poses a significant risk of lead exposure to scavengers. PMID:21494326

  17. Lead in school drinking water: Canada can and should address this important ongoing exposure source.

    PubMed

    Barn, Prabjit; Kosatsky, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Reducing all preventable lead exposures in children should be a public health priority given that blood lead levels in children that were once considered "safe" have since been associated with important neuro-developmental deficits. Limited Canadian data indicate that school drinking water can be an important component of children's overall exposure to lead. Outside of Ontario, however, Canadian schools are not required to test for lead in water; in most of Canada, school testing is case by case, typically initiated by parental concerns. Provinces and territories are encouraged to follow Ontario's example by instituting a routine school water lead testing program in order to identify facilities where action can result in a decrease in students' exposure to lead. Testing and remediation frameworks developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, Health Canada, and the province of Ontario provide direction to school boards and local and provincial/territorial health authorities.

  18. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals.

  19. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  20. The effects of prenatal and postnatal (via nursing) exposure to alcohol in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nekvasil, N.; Baggio, C. )

    1992-02-26

    Pregnant and post-partum rats were given daily doses of 20% alcohol during days 13-21 gestation and postnatal days 3-12, respectively. Following exposure, all rat pups, were tested for balance, blood pressure, right and left cerebral hemisphere weights, and cerebellar weight. Results were grouped according to exposure and gender. The postnatal group was the only one to demonstrate difficulties with balance. The mean arterial pressure in males exposed postnatally was significantly lower than the control and prenatal males. Females exposed postnatally had a significantly higher blood pressure than control females. Within the postnatal group, males had a significantly lower blood pressure than the females. Prenatal and control females differed significantly for left cerebral hemisphere (LCH) weight with the prenatal weighing less. Male pups exposed prenatally had significantly heavier LCH than the postnatal and control males. For both males and females, postnatal LCH weights did not differ from those of the control pups. Within the prenatal group, the LCH weight in females was significantly lower than in males. Mean cerebellar weights were significantly lower in postnatal animals compared to control animals. A major finding of this study is that the effect of alcohol exposure on rat pups depends on gender and developmental age.

  1. Exposure to ambient air particulate matter and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Tarantino, Giovanni; Capone, Domenico; Finelli, Carmine

    2013-07-01

    The present study was designed to alert the public opinion and policy makers on the supposed enhancing effects of exposure to ambient air particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters < 2.5 mm (PM2.5) on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. For far too long literature data have been fixated on pulmonary diseases and/or cardiovascular disease, as consequence of particulate exposure, ignoring the link between the explosion of obesity with related syndromes such as NAFLD and air pollution, the worst characteristics of nowadays civilization. In order to delineate a clear picture of this major health problem, further studies should investigate whether and at what extent cigarette smoking and exposure to ambient air PM2.5 impact the natural history of patients with obesity-related NAFLD, i.e., development of non alcoholic steatohepatitis, disease characterized by a worse prognosis due its progression towards fibrosis and hepatocarcinoma. PMID:23840139

  2. Lead Exposures in U.S. Children, 2008: Implications for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Ronnie; Brown, Mary Jean; Kashtock, Michael E.; Jacobs, David E.; Whelan, Elizabeth A.; Rodman, Joanne; Schock, Michael R.; Padilla, Alma; Sinks, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Objective We reviewed the sources of lead in the environments of U.S. children, contributions to children’s blood lead levels, source elimination and control efforts, and existing federal authorities. Our context is the U.S. public health goal to eliminate pediatric elevated blood lead levels (EBLs) by 2010. Data sources National, state, and local exposure assessments over the past half century have identified risk factors for EBLs among U.S. children, including age, race, income, age and location of housing, parental occupation, and season. Data extraction and synthesis Recent national policies have greatly reduced lead exposure among U.S. children, but even very low exposure levels compromise children’s later intellectual development and lifetime achievement. No threshold for these effects has been demonstrated. Although lead paint and dust may still account for up to 70% of EBLs in U.S. children, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that ≥30% of current EBLs do not have an immediate lead paint source, and numerous studies indicate that lead exposures result from multiple sources. EBLs and even deaths have been associated with inadequately controlled sources including ethnic remedies and goods, consumer products, and food-related items such as ceramics. Lead in public drinking water and in older urban centers remain exposure sources in many areas. Conclusions Achieving the 2010 goal requires maintaining current efforts, especially programs addressing lead paint, while developing interventions that prevent exposure before children are poisoned. It also requires active collaboration across all levels of government to identify and control all potential sources of lead exposure, as well as primary prevention. PMID:18941567

  3. White lead exposure among Danish police officers employed in fingerprint detection.

    PubMed

    Rabjerg, L; Jennum, P J; Mørck, H I

    1983-12-01

    White lead exposure among Danish police officers employed in fingerprint detection. Scand j work environ health 9 (1983) 511-513. White lead is often used by police officers employed in fingerprint detection (dactylography). On the basis of a case of mild lead intoxication in a police officer all 22 exposed police officers at the Bureau of Dactylographic Identification in Copenhagen were examined. All went through a clinical examination and blood lead determination. None of the participants showed any sign of lead intoxication. The median blood lead concentration was 0.97 mumol/l (10th-90th percentiles 0.72-1.44 mumol/l), a value definitely higher than the average of the general population matched for age and sex. A correlation between the weekly white lead exposure and blood lead concentration (r = 0.87, p less than 0.0001) was found among the participants. PMID:6673108

  4. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior. PMID:25489875

  5. The relationship between exposure to alcohol-related content on Facebook and predictors of alcohol consumption among female emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2014-12-01

    Consuming an unhealthy level of alcohol is a significant problem for some young women. Potential determinants of excess consumption include perceptions of usual consumption among peers-perceptions of what is "normal." The present study examined whether perceptions of social normative endorsement of drinking, operationalized by measures of perceived alcohol consumption of close friends (proximal norms), the consumption of the "average student" (distal norms), and the extent of alcohol-related content posted by peers on Facebook were related to alcohol-related attitudes and self-reported consumption. Female university students (n=129; Mage=21.48 years, SD=3.00) completed an online questionnaire assessing Facebook use, perceived alcohol-related norms, and self-reported alcohol attitudes and consumption. Perceptions of the consumption of the average female student were a negative predictor of attitudes. Positive alcohol attitudes, extent of own alcohol-related photographic posts on Facebook, average female student alcohol consumption, and report of male close friend consumption predicted self-report of own alcohol consumption. Interestingly, female close friend norms failed to predict consumption, whereas male close friend norms predicted consumption but not attitudes, suggesting the possibility of separate cognitive pathways for alcohol-related attitudes and behavior. This study builds on existing research by casting new light on predictors of alcohol-related attitudes, as well as describing the potential role of social networking sites such as Facebook in the formation of social norms and the modulation of drinking behavior.

  6. Acute high-dose lead exposure from beverage contaminated by traditional Mexican pottery.

    PubMed

    Matte, T D; Proops, D; Palazuelos, E; Graef, J; Hernandez Avila, M

    1994-10-15

    Screening and follow-up blood lead measurements in a 7-year-old child of a US Embassy official in Mexico City revealed an increase in blood lead concentration from 1.10 to 4.60 mumol/L in less than 4 weeks. The cause was traced to fruit punch contaminated with lead leached from traditional ceramic pottery urns. Consumption of the contaminated punch at a picnic was associated with a 20% increase in blood lead concentrations among embassy staff and dependants who were tested 6 weeks after the exposure. This episode highlights the continued health risk, even from brief exposure, posed by traditional pottery in Mexico.

  7. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  8. Determination of exposure to lead of subjects from southwestern Poland by human hair analysis.

    PubMed

    Michalak, Izabela; Wołowiec, Paulina; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to lead from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from 267 young adults living in Wrocław (southwest Poland). The effect of the place of residence, diet, and lifestyle on lead content in hair was examined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Lead was determined at the wavelength 220.353 nm. These outcomes were reached by linking the results of lead level in hair with the results of questionnaire survey. The mean lead level in hair of the whole examined population was 2.01 ± 2.10 mg kg(-1). Lead can enter the human body mainly by inhalation and gastrointestinal absorption. It was found that consuming cheese, fish, and lettuce caused increased level of lead in hair. On the other hand, drinking of milk, tea, coffee, or lemon resulted in decreased content of lead in hair. Additional source of exposure to lead could be cigarette smoking, distance to the traffic road, painting the walls, amalgam filling. Based on the results, it can be concluded that exposure to lead can occur mainly from eating habits and environmental exposure. PMID:24346348

  9. Lessons from a Danish study on neuropsychological impairment related to lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Grandjean, P.; Lyngbye, T. ); Hansen, O.N. )

    1991-08-01

    Serious problems emerge when evaluating evidence on lead neurotoxicity in children. The extent of these problems and ways to control them were explored in a study of 1291 children from the first class in the schools of Aarhus municipality, Denmark. The lead retention in circumpulpal dentin in shed deciduous teeth was used as an indicator of cumulated lead exposure; it correlated most strongly with traffic density at the residence of each family and at the day-care institutions. In a nested case-control group selected on the basis of dentin lead concentrations, 29 of 200 children had encountered obstetrical complications and other medical risks for neurobehavioral dysfunction; these children primarily belonged to the low-lead group. As lead-related neurobehavioral effects are nonspecific, inclusion of these children in the data analysis would therefore have distorted the results toward the null hypothesis. Children from the high-lead group who had experienced neonatal jaundice showed impaired performance when compared to other high-lead children; this finding may suggest a synergistic effect. The Bender gestalt test scored by the Goettingen system was the test that was most sensitive to lead exposure. The conclusion that neurobehavioral effects can be caused by the relatively low lead exposures in Denmark may not be surprising, as current exposures to this toxic metal greatly exceed the prepollution levels to which the human body originally adapted.

  10. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Blendy, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation.

  11. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California.

  12. Lead Exposure Risk from Trash Ingestion by the Endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Brandt, Joseph; Sandhaus, Estelle; Grantham, Jesse; Mee, Allan; Schuppert, Patricia Jill; Smith, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Lead poisoning from ingestion of spent lead ammunition is one of the greatest threats to the recovery of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) in the wild. Trash ingestion by condors is well documented, yet the extent that trash presents a lead exposure risk is unknown. We evaluated 1,413 trash items collected from condor nest areas and nestlings in the Transverse Range of Ventura County, California, US, from 2002 to 2008, for their potential as a lead exposure risk to condors. We visually identified 71 items suspected to contain sufficient lead to be of toxicologic concern. These items were leached with weak acid and analyzed for lead. Twenty-seven of the 71 leached items (~2% of the 1,413 items) were "lead containing" based on criteria of a leachate lead concentration >1 μg/mL, with the majority of these items (22; 81% of the 27 lead items) being ammunition related (e.g., spent bullet casings and jacketed bullets). Only three of the 1,413 items collected were lead containing but were clearly not ammunition related; the other two lead-containing items were unidentified. Our results suggest that trash ingestion of nonammunition items does not pose a significant lead exposure risk to the California Condor population in California. PMID:26251991

  13. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3–24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish. PMID:27556898

  14. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish. PMID:27556898

  15. Multicompartment kinetic models for lead. 2. Linear kinetics and variable absorption in humans without excessive lead exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, A.H.

    1985-01-01

    Multicompartment models with constant fractional transfer rates were fitted to experimental data on lead metabolism in four subjects studied by M. B. Rabinowitz, G. W. Wetherill, and J. D. Kopple (Science 182, 725-727, 1973; Environ. Health Perspect. 7, 145-153, 1974; Arch. Environ. Health 31, 220-223, 1976; J. Clin. Invest. 58, 260-270, 1976; J. Lab Clin. Med. 90, 238-248, 1977). Long-term retention is estimated for blood, soft tissue, cortical and trabecular bone pools, and for facial hair. The absorption of lead from diet is shown to change with time, but no evidence was found for other variable or nonlinear kinetic mechanisms of lead metabolism in humans without excessive lead exposure.

  16. Alcohol, drugs, caffeine, tobacco, and environmental contaminant exposure: reproductive health consequences and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sadeu, J C; Hughes, Claude L; Agarwal, Sanjay; Foster, Warren G

    2010-08-01

    Reproductive function and fertility are thought to be compromised by behaviors such as cigarette smoking, substance abuse, and alcohol consumption; however, the strength of these associations are uncertain. Furthermore, the reproductive system is thought to be under attack from exposure to environmental contaminants, particularly those chemicals shown to affect endocrine homeostasis. The relationship between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse effects on human reproductive health are frequently debated in the scientific literature and these controversies have spread into the lay press drawing increased public and regulatory attention. Therefore, the objective of the present review was to critically evaluate the literature concerning the relationship between lifestyle exposures and adverse effects on fertility as well as examining the evidence for a role of environmental contaminants in the purported decline of semen quality and the pathophysiology of subfertility, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and endometriosis. The authors conclude that whereas cigarette smoking is strongly associated with adverse reproductive outcomes, high-level exposures to other lifestyle factors are only weakly linked with negative fertility impacts. Finally, there is no compelling evidence that environmental contaminants, at concentrations representative of the levels measured in contemporary biomonitoring studies, have any effect, positive or negative, on reproductive health in the general population. Further research using prospective study designs with robust sample sizes are needed to evaluate testable hypotheses that address the relationship between exposure and adverse reproductive health effects.

  17. Integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model for lead in children: empirical comparisons with epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, K; Marcus, A; Smith, R; White, P

    1998-01-01

    The concept of model validation is evolving in the scientific community. This paper addresses the comparison of observed and predicted estimates as one component of model validation as applied to the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model for lead in children. The IEUBK model is an exposure (dose)-response model that uses children's environmental lead exposures to estimate risk of elevated blood lead (typically > 10 micrograms/dl) through estimation of lead body burdens in a mass balance framework. We used residence-specific environmental lead measurements from three epidemiologic datasets as inputs for the IEUBK model to predict blood lead levels, and compared these predictions with blood lead levels of children living at these residences. When the IEUBK modeling focused on children with representative exposure measurements, that is, children who spent the bulk of their time near the locations sampled, there was reasonably close agreement between observed and predicted blood lead distributions in the three studies considered. Geometric mean observed and predicted blood lead levels were within 0.7 microgram/dl, and proportions of study populations expected to be above 10 micrograms/dl were within 4% of those observed. PMID:9860915

  18. Fetal Alcohol Exposure Reduces Dopamine Receptor D2 and Increases Pituitary Weight and Prolactin Production via Epigenetic Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Gangisetty, Omkaram; Wynne, Olivia; Jabbar, Shaima; Nasello, Cara; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicated that alcohol exposure during the fetal period increases the susceptibility to tumor development in mammary and prostate tissues. Whether fetal alcohol exposure increases the susceptibility to prolactin-producing tumor (prolactinoma) development in the pituitary was studied by employing the animal model of estradiol-induced prolactinomas in Fischer 344 female rats. We employed an animal model of fetal alcohol exposure that simulates binge alcohol drinking during the first two trimesters of human pregnancy and involves feeding pregnant rats with a liquid diet containing 6.7% alcohol during gestational day 7 to day 21. Control rats were pair-fed with isocaloric liquid diet or fed ad libitum with rat chow diet. Adult alcohol exposed and control female offspring rats were used in this study on the day of estrus or after estrogen treatment. Results show that fetal alcohol-exposed rats had increased levels of pituitary weight, pituitary prolactin (PRL) protein and mRNA, and plasma PRL. However, these rats show decreased pituitary levels of dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) mRNA and protein and increased pituitary levels of D2R promoter methylation. Also, they show elevated pituitary mRNA levels of DNA methylating genes (DNMT1, DNMT3b, MeCP2) and histone modifying genes (HDAC2, HDAC4, G9a). When fetal alcohol exposed rats were treated neonatally with a DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza deoxycytidine and/or a HDAC inhibitor trichostatin-A their pituitary D2R mRNA, pituitary weights and plasma PRL levels were normalized. These data suggest that fetal alcohol exposure programs the pituitary to increase the susceptibility to the development of prolactinomas possibly by enhancing the methylation of the D2R gene promoter and repressing the synthesis and control of D2R on PRL-producing cells. PMID:26509893

  19. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level lead exposure. This study examined the sensitivity of a novel odor recognition task to differences in pre-adolescent C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed from birth to PND 28, to 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (higher-dose) lead acetate (N=33). Blood lead levels (BLLs) determined by ICP-MS ranged from 0.02 to 20.31 μg/dL. Generalized linear mixed model analyses with litter as a random effect showed a significant interaction of BLL×sex. As BLLs increased olfactory recognition memory decreased in males. Among females, non-linear effects were observed at lower but not higher levels of lead exposure. The novel odor detection task is sensitive to effects associated with early chronic low-level lead exposure in young C57BL/6J mice.

  20. Olfactory recognition memory is disrupted in young mice with chronic low-level lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Alvarez, Juan Manuel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Chronic developmental lead exposure yielding very low blood lead burden is an unresolved child public health problem. Few studies have attempted to model neurobehavioral changes in young animals following very low level exposure, and studies are needed to identify tests that are sensitive to the neurobehavioral changes that may occur. Mechanisms of action are not yet known however results have suggested that hippocampus/dentate gyrus may be uniquely vulnerable to early chronic low-level lead exposure. This study examined the sensitivity of a novel odor recognition task to differences in pre-adolescent C57BL/6J mice chronically exposed from birth to PND 28, to 0 ppm (control), 30 ppm (low-dose), or 330 ppm (higher-dose) lead acetate (N = 33). Blood lead levels (BLLs) determined by ICP-MS ranged from 0.02 to 20.31 µg/dL. Generalized linear mixed model analyses with litter as a random effect showed a significant interaction of BLL × sex. As BLLs increased olfactory recognition memory decreased in males. Among females, non-linear effects were observed at lower but not higher levels of lead exposure. The novel odor detection task is sensitive to effects associated with early chronic low-level lead exposure in young C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25936521

  1. The effect of age of exposure on lead-induced testicular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sokol, R Z; Berman, N

    1991-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the significance of age of exposure on the expression of lead toxicity on the male gonad. Male Wistar rats, age 42 days, 52 days and 70 days were treated with lead acetate in their water for 30 days prior to sacrifice. The lead treated groups in all cases had blood lead values significantly greater than control animals. Blood lead levels in control animal groups were less than 7 micrograms/dl. Serum testosterone and sperm concentration and production rate were significantly suppressed in those animals that were exposed to lead acetate starting at age 52 days and 70 days, but not 42 days. These data indicate that prepubertal rats may be less sensitive to the toxic effects of lead than are rats whose exposure begins after puberty has been initiated. PMID:1949051

  2. Comparison of the deleterious effects of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure in adolescent and adult mice.

    PubMed

    Lacaille, Hélène; Duterte-Boucher, Dominique; Liot, Donovan; Vaudry, Hubert; Naassila, Mickael; Vaudry, David

    2015-03-01

    A major cause of alcohol toxicity is the production of reactive oxygen species generated during ethanol metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of binge drinking-like alcohol exposure on a panel of genes implicated in oxidative mechanisms in adolescent and adult mice. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in the repair and protection of oxidative DNA damage such as atr, gpx7, or nudt15 and increased the expression of proapoptotic genes such as casp3. In contrast, in the adult brain, genes activated by alcohol were mainly associated with protective mechanisms that prevent cells from oxidative damage. Whatever the age, iterative binge-like episodes provoked the same deleterious effects as those observed after a single binge episode. In adolescent mice, multiple binge ethanol exposure substantially reduced neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus and impaired short-term memory in the novel object and passive avoidance tests. Taken together, our results indicate that alcohol causes deleterious effects in the adolescent brain which are distinct from those observed in adults. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. The effects of alcohol exposure were investigated on genes involved in oxidative mechanisms. In adolescent animals, alcohol decreased the expression of genes involved in DNA repair, a potential cause of the observed decrease of neurogenesis. In contrast, in the adult brain, alcohol increased the expression of genes associated with antioxidant mechanisms. Apoptosis was increase in all groups and converged with other biochemical alterations to enhance short-term memory impairment in the adolescent brain. These data contribute to explain the greater sensitivity of the adolescent brain to alcohol toxicity. PMID:25556946

  3. An ecological risk assessment of lead shot exposure in upland game birds and raptors

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, R.I.; Lacher, T.E. Jr.; Bunck, C.

    1995-12-31

    There is concern about exposure of birds in terrestrial ecosystems to spent lead shot. Upland birds, particularly mourning doves, ingest spent lead shot; raptors ingest lead shot by consuming wounded game. Mortality, neurological dysfunction, immune suppression and reproductive impairment are effects of exposure to lead. The authors conducted an ecological risk assessment (using the new USEPA Ecological Risk Assessment Paradigm) on the impact of lead shot exposure in upland birds. Large amounts of lead shot are released into the environment each year from shooting and hunting. Doves collected from fields cultivated to attract mourning doves for hunting contain ingested spent lead shot. This might underestimate risk because doves ingesting shot may experience lead toxicosis and not be collected by hunters. Because lead can cause both acute and chronic toxicity if ingested and there is evidence of widespread liberation of lead shot in terrestrial ecosystems, concern for impacts on upland game birds and raptors is warranted. Although this ecological risk assessment does not clearly define a significant risk of upland game birds to lead shot, there is little evidence to rebut the presumption of risk. This issue merits continued scrutiny to protect upland game bird and raptor resources.

  4. Excessive ethanol consumption under exposure to lead intensifies disorders in bone metabolism: a study in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Kupraszewicz, Elżbieta; Brzóska, Malgorzata M

    2013-04-25

    It was investigated whether ethanol (Et) modifies the damaging impact of lead (Pb) on bone metabolism in a rat model reflecting excessive alcohol consumption by humans exposed to relatively high levels of this metal. For this purpose, markers of bone formation (osteocalcin, procollagen I, osteoprotegerin, alkaline phosphatase) and resorption (telopeptides of collagen I, soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand), calciotropic hormones (parathormone, calcitonin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D) in the serum, and the femur content of mineral (including calcium - Ca and inorganic phosphorus - P(i)) and organic components were estimated in the rats exposed to 500 mg Pb/l (in drinking water) or/and Et (5 g/kg b.wt./24 h, by oral gavage) for 12 weeks. Moreover, Ca and P(i) in the serum and urine, alkaline phosphatase in the bone tissue and Pb in the blood and femur were determined. The exposure to Pb or/and Et decreased bone formation and increased its resorption resulting in the bone demineralization. These effects were accompanied by destroying the hormonal regulation of mineral metabolism, and Ca and P(i) imbalance. The co-exposure to Pb and Et-induced disorders in bone metabolism were more advanced than those caused by Pb alone. Et co-administration increased Pb concentration in the blood and decreased its accumulation in the bone. This paper is the first report providing evidence that consumption of Et under exposure to Pb intensifies disorders in bone metabolism and that destroying of the receptor activator nuclear factor-κB (RANK)/RANK ligand/osteoprotegerin system is involved in the mechanisms of interactive action of these xenobiotics on the skeleton. The modifying impact of Et may be an effect of its independent osteotropic action and interaction with Pb. Based on the results it can be concluded that alcohol abuse by subjects excessively exposed to Pb considerably increases the risk of bone damage.

  5. Gestational Alcohol Exposure and Other Factors Associated With Continued Teenage Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Cornelius, Marie D.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose A longitudinal cohort of adolescents who initiated drinking before age 15 were studied to determine which factors distinguished between early initiators who continued to drink (persisters) from those who stopped drinking (desisters). There were 308 early initiators in the total sample (n = 917); 247 were persisters, and 61 were desisters. Method A stepwise discriminant analysis identified differences between the two groups. Considered risk/protective factors were parenting practices, peer drinking, child and maternal depression, child behavior, prenatal alcohol exposure, home environment, and demographic factors. Results Desistence was significantly related to African American race and more parental strictness. Exposure to ≥1 drink/day during pregnancy and high levels of autonomy from parents were significant predictors of persistent drinking. Conclusions Early initiation places adolescents at risk for continued and heavier drinking. Identifying characteristics of those who start early but do or do not continue drinking can inform education programs to better target the most appropriate adolescents. PMID:27405800

  6. Lead poisoning among young children in Russia: concurrent evaluation of childhood lead exposure in Ekaterinburg, Krasnouralsk, and Volgograd.

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Carol H; Esteban, Emilio; Reissman, Dori B; Daley, W Randolph; Noonan, Gary P; Karpati, Adam; Gurvitch, Elena; Kuzmin, Sergio V; Privalova, Larissa I; Zukov, Alexander; Zlepko, Alexander

    2002-01-01

    exposure of those evaluated in this study. Elevated lead levels found in paint samples from Volgograd may indicate old undercoats of lead-based paint that could represent a regionally rather than nationally important source of exposure. PMID:12055045

  7. Sex-based differences in gene expression in hippocampus following postnatal lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, J.S. Anderson, D.W.; Sonnenahalli, H.; Vadigepalli, R.

    2011-10-15

    The influence of sex as an effect modifier of childhood lead poisoning has received little systematic attention. Considering the paucity of information available concerning the interactive effects of lead and sex on the brain, the current study examined the interactive effects of lead and sex on gene expression patterns in the hippocampus, a structure involved in learning and memory. Male or female rats were fed either 1500 ppm lead-containing chow or control chow for 30 days beginning at weaning.Blood lead levels were 26.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}g/dl and 27.1 {+-} 1.7 {mu}g/dl for females and males, respectively. The expression of 175 unique genes was differentially regulated between control male and female rats. A total of 167 unique genes were differentially expressed in response to lead in either males or females. Lead exposure had a significant effect without a significant difference between male and female responses in 77 of these genes. In another set of 71 genes, there were significant differences in male vs. female response. A third set of 30 genes was differentially expressed in opposite directions in males vs. females, with the majority of genes expressed at a lower level in females than in males. Highly differentially expressed genes in males and females following lead exposure were associated with diverse biological pathways and functions. These results show that a brief exposure to lead produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the hippocampus and that the response of the brain to a given lead exposure may vary depending on sex. - Highlights: > Postnatal lead exposure has a significant effect on hippocampal gene expression patterns. > At least one set of genes was affected in opposite directions in males and females. > Differentially expressed genes were associated with diverse biological pathways.

  8. Simultaneous exposure to lead, arsenic and mercury from Indian ethnic remedies.

    PubMed

    Sheerin, N S; Monk, P N; Aslam, M; Thurston, H

    1994-01-01

    We report the case of an Asian woman who was exposed to toxic levels of lead, arsenic and mercury through the use of Indian ethnic remedies, and who suffered symptomatic lead poisoning. We know of no other case of exposure to such a combination of heavy metals from this source. We believe that control of the dispensing of these compounds is essential.

  9. Cognition in Children Does Not Suffer from Very Low Lead Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minder, Barbara; Das-Smaal, Edith A.; Orlebeke, Jacob F.

    1998-01-01

    A study that investigated the relationships between exposure to lead and memory and attention in 313 boys (ages 9-12) in special-education schools in the Netherlands found blood-lead levels were higher in children with lower socioeconomic status and those with more hand-to-mouth behavior but did not influence cognitive factors. (Author/CR)

  10. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1).

  11. Early chronic lead exposure reduces exploratory activity in young C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Flores-Montoya, Mayra Gisel; Sobin, Christina

    2015-07-01

    Research has suggested that chronic low-level lead exposure diminishes neurocognitive function in children. Tests that are sensitive to behavioral effects at lowest levels of lead exposure are needed for the development of animal models. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic low-level lead exposure on exploratory activity (unbaited nose poke task), exploratory ambulation (open field task) and motor coordination (Rotarod task) in pre-adolescent mice. C57BL/6J pups were exposed to 0 ppm (controls), 30 ppm (low-dose) or 230 ppm (high-dose) lead acetate via dams' drinking water administered from birth to postnatal day 28, to achieve a range of blood lead levels (BLLs) from not detectable to 14.84 µg dl(-1) ). At postnatal day 28, mice completed behavioral testing and were killed (n = 61). BLLs were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The effects of lead exposure on behavior were tested using generalized linear mixed model analyses with BLL, sex and the interaction as fixed effects, and litter as the random effect. BLL predicted decreased exploratory activity and no threshold of effect was apparent. As BLL increased, nose pokes decreased. The C57BL/6J mouse is a useful model for examining effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure on behavior. In the C57BL/6J mouse, the unbaited nose poke task is sensitive to the effects of early chronic low-level lead exposure. This is the first animal study to show behavioral effects in pre-adolescent lead-exposed mice with BLL below 5 µg dl(-1). PMID:25219894

  12. Lead exposure affects health indices in free-ranging ducks in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Hebe; Beldomenico, Pablo M; Marchese, Krysten; Romano, Marcelo; Caselli, Andrea; Correa, Ana I; Uhart, Marcela

    2015-05-01

    Numerous experiments under controlled conditions and extensive investigation of waterfowl die-offs have demonstrated that exposure to lead from spent gunshot is highly detrimental to the health of waterfowl. However, few studies have focused on examining the more subtle sub-lethal effects of lead toxicity on ducks in non-experimental settings. In our study, the health of ducks exposed to varying amounts of lead under natural conditions was assessed by correlating individual lead exposure with relevant indices of health. Based on hunter-killed wild ducks in Argentina, we measured spleen mass, body condition, examined bone marrow smears, and determined Ca and P in bone tissue. In free-ranging live-trapped ducks we determined basic hematology and aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Using multivariate analyses, we found that, when controlling for the potential confounding effect of site type, year, duck species, body mass and age, lead levels in the liver were negatively associated with body condition and spleen mass. Spleen mass was also lower in ducks with higher lead levels in their bones. In live ducks, high blood lead levels were associated with low packed cell volume and red cell morphologic abnormalities. These findings suggest that, despite the lack of recorded lead-induced mortality in the region, lead exposure results in less conspicuous but still significant impacts on the health of ducks, which could have serious implications for their conservation. Moreover, this evidence further supports the need for urgently banning lead shot in the region.

  13. Visual-spatial abilities relate to mathematics achievement in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, N.; Riley, E.P.; Mattson, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The current study examined the relationship between mathematics and attention, working memory, and visual memory in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and controls. Method Fifty-six children (29 AE, 27 CON) were administered measures of global mathematics achievement (WRAT-3 Arithmetic & WISC-III Written Arithmetic), attention, (WISC-III Digit Span forward and Spatial Span forward), working memory (WISC-III Digit Span backward and Spatial Span backward), and visual memory (CANTAB Spatial Recognition Memory and Pattern Recognition Memory). The contribution of cognitive domains to mathematics achievement was analyzed using linear regression techniques. Attention, working memory and visual memory data were entered together on step 1 followed by group on step 2, and the interaction terms on step 3. Results Model 1 accounted for a significant amount of variance in both mathematics achievement measures, however, model fit improved with the addition of group on step 2. Significant predictors of mathematics achievement were Spatial Span forward and backward and Spatial Recognition Memory. Conclusions These findings suggest that deficits in spatial processing may be related to math impairments seen in FASD. In addition, prenatal alcohol exposure was associated with deficits in mathematics achievement, above and beyond the contribution of general cognitive abilities. PMID:25000323

  14. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  15. Objective assessment of ADHD core symptoms in children with heavy prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Infante, M Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M; Nguyen, Tanya T; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N; Riley, Edward P

    2015-09-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n=43), and non-exposed children (CON, n=54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's<.05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, had longer response latencies, and increased variability in response time. Moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  16. Objective Assessment of ADHD Core Symptoms in Children with Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Nguyen, Tanya T.; Fourligas, Nikolaos; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.

    2014-01-01

    Attention deficits are often observed in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly diagnosed in this population. This study used an objective assessment tool to examine differences between alcohol-exposed and non-exposed children on core symptoms of ADHD: inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Two groups of individuals, aged 7-14 years, participated in the study: alcohol-exposed children (AE, n = 43), and non-exposed children (CON, n = 54). Subjects were evaluated with the Quotient ADHD System, which provides objective data on ADHD core symptoms by combining an infrared motion tracking system and a computerized continuous performance task. Twelve separate ANCOVAs controlling for the effects of age and sex, were conducted on attention and motion variables. Results revealed that in comparison to the CON group, the AE group was significantly (p's < .05) less accurate, made an increased number of omission errors, and had longer response latencies and increased variability in response time; moreover, the AE group spent less time staying still, and made an increased number of head movements, which traveled a larger distance, covered a greater area, and demonstrated a less complex movement pattern. No significant group differences were observed on the number of commission errors and temporal scaling. Our findings provide further support for the notion that inattention is a core deficit in children prenatally exposed to alcohol. Results from this study are also consistent with parent reports of increased hyperactivity. The Quotient ADHD System may be a useful objective measure of ADHD symptomatology in children with FASD. PMID:25447751

  17. Early lead exposure (<3 years old) prospectively predicts fourth grade school suspension in Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA).

    PubMed

    Amato, Michael S; Magzamen, Sheryl; Imm, Pamela; Havlena, Jeffrey A; Anderson, Henry A; Kanarek, Marty S; Moore, Colleen F

    2013-10-01

    School suspensions are associated with negative student outcomes. Environmental lead exposure increases hyperactivity and sensory defensiveness, two traits likely to increase classroom misbehavior and subsequent discipline. Childhood Blood Lead Level (BLL) test results categorized urban fourth graders as exposed (2687; lifetime max BLL 10-20 µg/dL) or unexposed (1076; no lifetime BLL ≥5 µg/dL). Exposed children were over twice as likely as unexposed children to be suspended (OR=2.66, 95% CI=[2.12, 3.32]), controlling for covariates. African American children were more likely to be suspended than white children, but lead exposure explained 23% of the racial discipline gap. These results suggest that different rates of environmental lead exposure may contribute to the racial discipline gap.

  18. Lead Exposure in Different Organs of Mammals and Prevention by Curcumin-Nanocurcumin: a Review.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mili; Sachdeva, Meenu; Gupta, Niharika; Mishra, Priyanka; Yadav, Mahavir; Tiwari, Archana

    2015-12-01

    Chronic lead exposure is related to many health diseases in mammals. Exposure to lead forms reactive oxygen species reducing body antioxidant enzymes inflicting injury to numerous macromolecules or cell necrosis. Recent studies have revealed oxidative stress as the vital mechanism for lead toxicity. Lead is found to be toxic to several organ systems such as hematopoietic, skeletal, renal, cardiac, hepatic, and reproductive systems and extremely toxic to the central nervous system (CNS). Curcumin, an active ingredient of the dietary spice, and nanocurcumin, a nanoform of curcumin, are found to decrease toxicity due to lead in various organ systems in mouse models. Higher bioavailability, chelating property, and retention time of nanocurcumin over bulk curcumin may pave the way to expand the utility of nanocurcumin to remove lead toxicity from various organ systems within humans.

  19. Exposure-dose-response of Tellina deltoidalis to metal contaminated estuarine sediments 2. Lead spiked sediments.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Anne M; Maher, William A

    2014-01-01

    Lead accumulation in estuarine sediments, as a result of activities such as mining and ore smelting, and through urban runoff is a continuing problem in the increasingly developed world. Marine organisms accumulate lead, which is known to be highly toxic to biological processes and to degrade organism and ecosystem health. Here the relationship between lead exposure, dose and response was investigated in the sediment dwelling, deposit feeding, marine bivalve Tellina deltoidalis. Bivalves were exposed in the laboratory to individual lead spiked sediments at < 0.01, 100 and 300 μg/g dry mass, for 28 days and accumulated total tissue lead concentrations of 4, 96 and 430 μg/g, respectively. Subcellular fractionation indicated that around 70% of the total accumulated tissue lead was detoxified, three quarters of the detoxified lead fraction was converted into metal rich granules, with the remainder in the metallothionein like protein fraction. The majority of biologically active lead was associated with the mitochondrial fraction with up to a 128 fold increase in lead burden in exposed organisms compared to controls. This indicates lead detoxification was occurring but the organism was unable to prevent lead interacting with sensitive organelles. With increased lead exposure T. deltoidalis showed a suppression in glutathione peroxidase activity, total glutathione concentration and reduced GSH:GSSG ratios, however, these differences were not significant. Lead exposed T. deltoidalis had a significantly reduced total antioxidant capacity which corresponded with increased lipid peroxidation, lysosomal destabilisation and micronuclei frequency. The exposure-dose-response relationships demonstrated for lead exposed T. deltoidalis supports its potential for the development of sublethal endpoints in lead toxicity assessment. PMID:24100051

  20. Commentary on Day and colleagues : the association between prenatal alcohol exposure and behavior at 22 years of age--adverse effects of risky patterns of drinking among low to moderate alcohol-using pregnant women.