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Sample records for alcohol fuel plant

  1. 27 CFR 19.902 - Waiver for alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Waiver for alcohol fuel plants. 19.902 Section 19.902 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE....902 Waiver for alcohol fuel plants. All provisions of subparts A through X of this part and...

  2. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... between alcohol fuel plants. 19.733 Section 19.733 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel...

  3. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... between alcohol fuel plants. 19.733 Section 19.733 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel...

  4. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits Between Alcohol Fuel Plants § 19.733 Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. A proprietor may remove spirits from the bonded premises of an alcohol fuel plant, including the premises of a small plant, for transfer in bond to another alcohol fuel plant. A proprietor...

  5. 27 CFR 19.990 - Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. 19.990 Section 19.990 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.990 Redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol received on the plant premises. (a) Receipts for redistillation. Proprietors of alcohol fuel plants...

  6. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  7. Economic analysis of small-scale fuel alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Schafer, J.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    To plan Department of Energy support programs, it is essential to understand the fundamental economics of both the large industrial size plants and the small on-farm size alcohol plants. EG and G Idaho, Inc., has designed a 25 gallon per hour anhydrous ethanol plant for the Department of Energy's Alcohol Fuels Office. This is a state-of-the-art reference plant, which will demonstrate the cost and performance of currently available equipment. The objective of this report is to examine the economics of the EG and G small-scale alcohol plant design and to determine the conditions under which a farm plant is a financially sound investment. The reference EG and G Small-Scale Plant is estimated to cost $400,000. Given the baseline conditions defined in this report, it is calculated that this plant will provide an annual after-tax of return on equity of 15%, with alcohol selling at $1.62 per gallon. It is concluded that this plant is an excellent investment in today's market, where 200 proof ethanol sells for between $1.80 and $2.00 per gallon. The baseline conditions which have a significant effect on the economics include plant design parameters, cost estimates, financial assumptions and economic forecasts. Uncertainty associated with operational variables will be eliminated when EG and G's reference plant begins operation in the fall of 1980. Plant operation will verify alcohol yield per bushel of corn, labor costs, maintenance costs, plant availability and by-product value.

  8. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  9. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Changes to Permit Information § 19.685 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If...

  10. 27 CFR 19.685 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. 19.685 Section 19.685 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel...

  11. 27 CFR 19.921 - Change in type of alcohol fuel plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Changes Affecting Applications and Permits § 19.921 Change in type of alcohol fuel plant. (a) Small plants. If the proprietor of a small plant wishes to increase production (including receipts) to a level in... fuel plant. 19.921 Section 19.921 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX...

  12. 27 CFR 19.733 - Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Authorized transfers between alcohol fuel plants. 19.733 Section 19.733 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...

  13. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  14. On-farm anaerobic digester and fuel alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    An anaerobic digestion system was constructed and set up on a southern Illinois farm. The anaerobic digestion system was designed to be coupled with a fuel alcohol plant constructed by the farm family as part of an integrated farm energy system. The digester heating can be done using waste hot water from the alcohol plant and biogas from the digester can be used as fuel for the alcohol production. The anaerobic digestion system is made up of the following components. A hog finishing house, which already had a slotted floor and manure pit beneath it, was fitted with a system to scrape the manure into a feed slurry pit constructed at one end of the hog house. A solids handling pump feeds the manure from the feed slurry pit into the digester, a 13,000 gallon tank car body which has been insulated with styrofoam and buried underground. Another pump transfers effluent (digested manure) from the digester to a 150,000 gallon storage tank. The digested manure is then applied to cropland at appropriate times of the year. The digester temperature is maintained at the required level by automated hot water circulation through an internal heat exchanger. The biogas produced in the digester is pumped into a 32,000 gallon gas storage tank.

  15. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    The API publication 4312 reports a detailed study carried out by Battelle on the energy balances for five alcohol-fuel-producing technologies. The results indicate that processes for producing ethanol from corn are net consumers of energy while ethanol from sugar cane and methanol from wood are net energy producers.

  16. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc., Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains a summary of the environmental, health, safety, and socioeconomic factors involved in the siting, construction and operation of the plant.

  17. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  18. Small-scale alcohol fuel plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzcharles, III, H M

    1983-01-01

    The objective to decrease the cost of distillation by the use of solar heat and a vacuum system combined was achieved. My original design of a single pot type still was altered during construction by dividing the distillation tank into three sections with a condenser coil after each section so that 160+ proof alcohol can be acquired without extensive reflux. However, some reflux will still be necessary to extract the most alcohol possible from the mash. This proto-type still could be reproduced for use as an On the Farm Plant if the components are size matched and the modifications are incorporated as I have outlined in Conclusions and Recommendations on page No. 4 of this report.

  19. Automated small-scale fuel alcohol plant: A means to add value to food processing waste

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfram, J.H.; Keller, J.; Wernimont, L.P.

    1993-12-31

    A small scale fuel grade alcohol plant was designed, constructed and operated a decade ago. This plant design incorporated several innovative processes and features that are still on the cutting edge for small scale alcohol production. The plant design could be scaled down or up to match the needs of food processing waste streams that contain sugars or starches as BOD. The novel features include automation requiring four hours of labor per 24 hour day and a plug flow low temperature cooking system which solubilizes and liquifies the starch in one step. This plant consistently produced high yield of alcohol. Yields of 2.6 gallons of absolute alcohol were produced from a bushel of corn. Potato waste grain dust and cheese whey were also processed in this plant as well as barley. Production energy for a 190 proof gallon was approximately 32,000 BTU. This paper discusses the design, results, and applicability of this plant to food processing industries.

  20. Alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    Ethanol is an alcohol made from grain that can be blended with gasoline to extend petroleum supplies and to increase gasoline octane levels. Congressional proposals to encourage greater use of alternative fuels could increase the demand for ethanol. This report evaluates the growth potential of the ethanol industry to meet future demand increases and the impacts increased production would have on American agriculture and the federal budget. It is found that ethanol production could double or triple in the next eight years, and that American farmers could provide the corn for this production increase. While corn growers would benefit, other agricultural segments would not; soybean producers, for example could suffer for increased corn oil production (an ethanol byproduct) and cattle ranchers would be faced with higher feed costs because of higher corn prices. Poultry farmers might benefit from lower priced feed. Overall, net farm cash income should increase, and consumers would see slightly higher food prices. Federal budget impacts would include a reduction in federal farm program outlays by an annual average of between $930 million (for double current production of ethanol) to $1.421 billion (for triple production) during the eight-year growth period. However, due to an partial tax exemption for ethanol blended fuels, federal fuel tax revenues could decrease by between $442 million and $813 million.

  1. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-11-01

    Whey disposal has become a serious environmental problem and loss of revenue to the cheese industry. The U.S. Dept. of Energy has indicated that cheese whey has one of the lowest net feedstock costs per gallon of ethanol. The manufacture of ethanol is accomplished by specially selected yeast fermentation of lactose via the glycolytic pathway. Three commercial processes are described, the Milbrew process which produces single cell protein and alcohol, and the Carbery and Denmark processes which produce potable alcohol. Selected strains of Kluveromyces fragilis are used in all processes and in the latter process, effluents are treated under anaerobic conditions to produce methane, which replaces 17-20% of the fuel oil required by the distillation plant.

  2. Alcohol fuels program technical review

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    The last issue of the Alcohol Fuels Process R/D Newsletter contained a work breakdown structure (WBS) of the SERI Alcohol Fuels Program that stressed the subcontracted portion of the program and discussed the SERI biotechnology in-house program. This issue shows the WBS for the in-house programs and contains highlights for the remaining in-house tasks, that is, methanol production research, alcohol utilization research, and membrane research. The methanol production research activity consists of two elements: development of a pressurized oxygen gasifier and synthesis of catalytic materials to more efficiently convert synthesis gas to methanol and higher alcohols. A report is included (Finegold et al. 1981) that details the experimental apparatus and recent results obtained from the gasifier. The catalysis research is principally directed toward producing novel organometallic compounds for use as a homogeneous catalyst. The utilization research is directed toward the development of novel engine systems that use pure alcohol for fuel. Reforming methanol and ethanol catalytically to produce H/sub 2/ and CO gas for use as a fuel offers performance and efficiency advantages over burning alcohol directly as fuel in an engine. An application of this approach is also detailed at the end of this section. Another area of utilization is the use of fuel cells in transportation. In-house researchers investigating alternate electrolyte systems are exploring the direct and indirect use of alcohols in fuel cells. A workshop is being organized to explore potential applications of fuel cells in the transportation sector. The membrane research group is equipping to evaluate alcohol/water separation membranes and is also establishing cost estimation and energy utilization figures for use in alcohol plant design.

  3. Brown's second alcohol fuel cookbook

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    Instructions are given for making and using various types of alcohol fuels in internal combustion engines. The distillation column is treated at some length as well as stripper columns for sugar substances, reflux ratio and proof concentration, condensers, and junkyard steam boilers. Safety features are stressed as well as plant layout. Enzymes for alcohol production and starch fermentation are described as well as commercial enzyme production, continuous fermentation, distillation of crude oil, alcohol production from cellulose (sawdust), and preparation of alcohol fuel and other products (butanol, acetone, ether) without distillation. Production of dry ice (solidified CO/sub 2/) is described. The conversion of carburetor jets in auto engines for different fuel blends, and the use of heat risers and pre-heaters to facilitate engine starting are discussed at length. In an appendix, a patent for production of acetone and alcohol by bacteriological action is included as well as congressional testimony on a hearing dealing with biomass, renewable fuel sources, fuel economy of engines and related topics. (MJJ)

  4. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for...

  5. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  6. Alcohol Fuel By-Product Utilization and Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerboom, Jim

    Ten lessons comprise this curriculum intended to assist vocational teachers in establishing and conducting an alcohol fuels workshop on engine modification and plant design. A glossary is provided first. The 10 lessons cover these topics: the alcohol fuel plant, feedstock preparation lab, distillation lab, fuel plant processes, plant design lab,…

  7. Feasibility study for an alcohol-fuels plant for Buffalo, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A Feasibility Study has been conducted of a 15,000,000 gal per y anhydrous ethanol plant to be located in the Buffalo area. The Feasibility Study has investigated all major aspects of the construction and operation of the plant. The following has been concluded: (1) the volatile energy situation presents too much of a risk for bankers and investors unless the Department of Energy guarantees that they will purchase any alcohol not sold on the open market at a guaranteed price formula; (2) the complete plant design has been prepared and it appears that there is very little technological risk in the process; (3) a suitable plant site is available with all necessary utilities and the plant equipment has been laid out for this site; (4) the plant easily complies with environmental, health, safety and socioeconomic requirements; (5) raw materials consisting of corn and coal are readily available in adequate quantity and at reasonable prices in the Buffalo area; (6) the distillers dried grains and the carbon dioxide can both be sold in their entirety at reasonable prices; (7) capital cost and operating cost are such that the alcohol plant makes an attractive investment with reasonable payout and profit potential; (8) the Financial community has made it exceedingly clear that no loan is available nor is equity capital available unless an 81% of total plant investment loan guarantee is provided by the Department of Energy and further that a product purchase and price guarantee agreement must be supplied by the Department of Energy for any alcohol produced not sold through the local market; and (9) it is recommended that the Department of Energy extend the required loan guarantee and product purchase and price guarantees so that the plant can be put into operation in early 1982.

  8. Alcohol fuel from sugarbeets

    SciTech Connect

    Doney, D.L.; Theurer, J.C.

    1980-05-01

    Sugarbeets are a prime candidate for alcohol fuel production because they store their energy and much of their biomass as sucrose, a fermentable sugar. At the present time, it is uneconomical to produce alcohol from sugarbeets and the balance is marginal. A number of approaches could improve both the economic and the energy situation: 1) increasing production per acre; 2) reducing conversion costs; 3) integrating sugarbeet - sweet sorghum crops; and 4) utilizing low priority sources such as geothermal, coal, bagasse and solar for the energy of conversion.

  9. 27 CFR 19.722 - General rules for redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol. 19.722 Section 19.722 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... alcohol. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive and redistill spirits. The proprietor may also receive fuel alcohol for redistillation and recovery of the spirits contained in the fuel......

  10. 27 CFR 19.722 - General rules for redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol. 19.722 Section 19.722 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... alcohol. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive and redistill spirits. The proprietor may also receive fuel alcohol for redistillation and recovery of the spirits contained in the fuel......

  11. 27 CFR 19.722 - General rules for redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol. 19.722 Section 19.722 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... alcohol. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive and redistill spirits. The proprietor may also receive fuel alcohol for redistillation and recovery of the spirits contained in the fuel......

  12. 27 CFR 19.722 - General rules for redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... redistillation of spirits or fuel alcohol. 19.722 Section 19.722 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL... alcohol. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive and redistill spirits. The proprietor may also receive fuel alcohol for redistillation and recovery of the spirits contained in the fuel......

  13. Fuel alcohol from whey

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, T.P.; Cunningham, J.D.

    1980-01-01

    According to the 'Report on alcohol fuels policy review', published in 1979 by the US Department of Energy, cheese whey had a very low net feedstock cost/gal of ethanol produced ($0.22) and the production potential in the USA is 90 million gal ethanol/yr. Three processes are described, i.e. the Milbrew whey fermentation process using Kluyveromyces fragilis with whey of 10-15% TS under sterile or non-sterile conditions and in batch, semi-continuous or continuous operation (primarily, designed for the production of single-cell protein), the continuous Carbery process in commercial operation in Ireland (DSA 42, 7856) and the Danish process (Dansk Gaerings-industri, Copenhagen) producing edible alcohol from whey permeate, and methane from distillation wastes for use as fuel for heating the distillation units.

  14. Feasibility study for a 40-MGY/80-MGY fuel-alcohol production plant. Equipment data, vendor correspondence and catalog cuts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of construction and operation of a 40 to 80 million gallon per year (MGY) fuel alcohol production plant at a site along the Coosa River in Talladega County, Alabama, about 50 miles from Birmingham. This volume contains a compilation of vendor's quotes and catalog cuts pertaining to equipment selected for the process. The information is presented under the following headings: corn storage and milling; cooking and saccharification; fermentation; fungal amylase production; distillation; evaporator system and solids removal; and grain drying. (DMC)

  15. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Rules for Use, Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  16. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  17. Alcohol fuels tax incentives. A summary: alcohol fuels provisions of the Crude Oil Windfall Profit Tax Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This document presents tax incentive information pertaining to alcohol fuels production as provided by the Crude Oil Windfall Profits Tax Act of 1980. Significant tax incentives for producers, blenders, marketers, and users of alcohol fuels are included. Discussed are: the 4% excise taxes exemption; income tax credits; energy investment tax credit for biomass; alcohol fuel plant operating permits; tax exempt bonds for alcohol fuel from solid wastes; state financing of renewable energy property; the study of imported alcohol; and annual reports on alcohol fuels.

  18. Grain production for alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Lockeretz, W.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides primarily an assessment of the resource base for producing alcohol fuel from grain. The effect of different levels of alcohol production are discussed with respect to farm income, land conservation practices, food prices, and exports. The economics of ethanol production from the standpoint of feedstock availability and price are comprehensively examined.

  19. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-01-01

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii's Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  20. Biomass resources for alcohol fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDowell, J. E.

    The production of alcohol fuel from biomass represents a fast and practical means of adding to the dwindling petroleum supply. The biomass feed-stocks which will feed the alcohol distilleries must be carefully selected. Using food chain biomass crops for conversion to alcohol will cause a reduction in the amount of food available and increase the cost of food and alcohol feedstocks. The food chains should not be drastically interrupted, and agricultural economic balances should not be altered. Various alternatives to alcohol production are presented, which lie within the confines of selected biomass feedstocks and will not interrupt normal agricultural activities. A corn processing and distillation process is shown graphically as an example; the biomass to alcohol conversion potential of feedstocks is given, and the potential cropland for conversion in the U.S.A. is shown as a percentage of the nation's total land area.

  1. Sugar crops for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Irvine, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The use of alcohol rather than petroleum as a fuel source would require a large amount of land and suitable crops. Acerage now in use for food crops and animal production in the USA is given. The author presents alternatives to present land use in order to free acreage for energy crops such as sorghum, sugar beets, and sugar cane. (DC)

  2. Why are alcohol fuels still alternate fuels?

    SciTech Connect

    Bata, R.M.

    1994-12-31

    The enthusiasm for using alcohols as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines (ICE) has been accelerating since the middle of 1970 and reached its peak by the middle of 1980. This was due to the serious effect of the exhaust emissions from automotive engines powered with oil-derived fuels coupled with a market rise in the cost of oil-derived fuels. Since then, the cost of oil has been decreasing and the need for alternate fuels has begun to slow down due to this economical reason. Alcohols are excellent fuels since they can be produced from renewable resources and their impact on health and the environment is limited. They are favorable for IC engines because of their high octane rating, burning velocities, and wider flammability limits. Experimental research and in-use applications showed drastic reduction in carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and moderate reduction in hydrocarbon (HC). Adverse effects on nitrogen (NO{sub x}) and aldehyde (CHO) were also noticed.

  3. Alcohol fuels in Illinois: prospects and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.; Walzer, N.

    1981-10-01

    Because of the importance of corn to the Illinois economy, the use of corn in the production of fuel alcohol offered major economic benefits for the state. One of the advantages to Illinois resulting from the use of corn to produce ethanol was increased employment. Expansion of the alcohol fuels industry meant greater employment in the alcohol industry directly as well as increased employment in the industries indirectly involved in alcohol production. Finally, the increased income generated by the greater employment would create additional jobs throughout the economy. The increased employment which could result from an expansion of the alcohol fuels industry was estimated. The employment is estimated by first estimating the demand for gasoline and gasoline-alcohols fuels based on population and income trends. After the demand for gasoline-alcohol fuels has been estimated, the direct, indirect, and induced employment resulting from various market shares are determined.

  4. Alcohol fuel research in Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Isigiguer-Erguedenler, A.; Aksoy, H.A.

    1998-12-01

    Turkey, like most of the developing countries of the world, has vast agricultural potential, yet the country is highly dependent on oil imports, which satisfy 90% of its crude oil demand. Since Turkey had an economy based on agriculture, the usage of national resources in the energy field is extremely important. In the first years of the Turkish Republic, in 1931, the usage of national resources as an alternative to conventional fuels became a subject of increasing interest. Since then a lot of research has been conducted, but only a limited amount of application has been realized. Alcohol has always occupied an important place among the alternative fuel studies. The subject has been the scope of some research institute projects and university and government development planning studies. In Turkey, one of the most important studies in this area has been undertaken by the authors` research group in their university. This study is a general review of alcohol usage as an alternative automotive fuel in Turkey. This review includes a short history of the subject, the approach of the government, the research results, possible developments on the subject in the near future, and finally, it concludes with proposals.

  5. Cold starting system for alcohol fueled engine

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, T.M.

    1983-04-26

    To restart an alcohol fueled engine at low temperatures, a quantity of liquid ethanol is supplied to a vaporizing chamber before the engine is stopped. When restarting the engine, some of the alcohol in the vaporizing chamber is delivered to an igniter, and the hot gases resulting from the burning alcohol are conducted past the vaporizing chamber to evaporate the liquid alcohol remaining in the vaporizing chamber. The alcohol vapor thus generated is conducted to the engine induction system to start the engine.

  6. Ethyl-alcohol-fuel production from the Jerusalem artichoke. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, P.R.

    1983-03-01

    The project objective is to evaluate the commercial feasibility for production of fuel alcohol by fermentation of the carbohydrates in the tops of the Jerusalem artichoke. The maximum top biomass yields of the mammoth French white variety of Jerusalem artichoke was obtained at 119 days after plant emergence and maximum fresh weight of the tops was 31.6 tons per acre. During rapid growth the fresh stalks had 2% to 4% carbohydrate. After the plant reached a maximum height of 168 inches, and started to bud the stalk had a maximum of 4% carbohydrate. During blossoming the stalk carbohydrates rapidly translocated to the tuber. Single versus multiple cuttings demonstrated the maximum carbohydrate was obtained with a single harvest of the mature plants immediately following bud formation. The total carbohydrate yield from the top biomass was 1.26 tons per acre. The equivalent yield of fermentation alcohol is 180.6 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. The tuber yield at both Mesa and Toppenish, WA, was 14 to 15 tons of fresh tubers with 18% total carbohydrates. The carbohydrate yield was 2.52 tons per acre. This is equivalent to a yield of 360 gallons of anhydrous ethanol per acre. Commercial scale fuel alcohol equipment was used to hammer mill and batch ferment tops and tubers. The steps for commercial processing of the biomass tops and tubers was discussed including extracting and fermentation of the carbohydrates to ethanol and their concentration by distillation and dehydration by molecular sieves to anhydrous fuel alcohol. The use of molecular sieves reduced the energy for dehydration of 95% ethanol to 5000 Btu per gallon. The economic feasibility and energy requirement for commercial processing was discussed.

  7. Alcohol based fuels for automotive engines

    SciTech Connect

    Menrad, H.K.

    1980-02-01

    The effects of methanol and/or ethanol additions on various properties of gasolines are discussed. Both advantages and disadvantages of such mixtures are set forth. The necessary changes in engine design to accommodate such fuel mixtures are described. Successful use of blended fuels in diesel engines is described. The current status of alcohol fuels in actual use is also reported. (BLM)

  8. 27 CFR 19.997 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.997 Section 19.997 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... and Transfers § 19.997 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. For each shipment or other removal of fuel...

  9. Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Kinoshita, C.M.

    1990-12-31

    Hawaii has abundant natural energy resources, especially biomass, that could be used to produce alternative fuels for ground transportation and electricity. This report summarizes activities performed during 1988 to June 1991 in the first phase of the Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program. The Alcohol Transportation Fuels Demonstration Program was funded initially by the Energy Division of the State of Hawaii`s Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, and then by the US Department of Energy. This program was intended to support the transition to an altemative transportation fuel, methanol, by demonstrating the use of methanol fuel and methanol-fueled vehicles, and solving the problems associated with that fuel. Specific objectives include surveying renewable energy resources and ground transportation in Hawaii; installing a model methanol fueling station; demonstrating a methanol-fueled fleet of (spark-ignition engine) vehicles; evaluating modification strategies for methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel additives; and investigating the transition to methanol fueling. All major objectives of Phase I were met (survey of local renewable resources and ground transportation, installation of methanol refueling station, fleet demonstration, diesel engine modification and additive evaluation, and dissemination of information on alternative fueling), and some specific problems (e.g., relating to methanol fuel contamination during handling and refueling) were identified and solved. Several key issues emerging from Phase I (e.g., methanol corrosion, flame luminosity, and methanol-transition technoeconomics) were recommended as topics for follow-on research in subsequent phases of this program.

  10. 27 CFR 19.729 - Withdrawal of fuel alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. 19.729 Section 19.729 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU..., Withdrawal, and Transfer of Spirits § 19.729 Withdrawal of fuel alcohol. (a) For each shipment or...

  11. Third international symposium on alcohol fuels technology

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    At the opening of the Symposium, Dr. Sharrah, Senior Vice President of Continental Oil Company, addressed the attendees, and his remarks are included in this volume. The Symposium was concluded by workshops which addressed specific topics. The topical titles are as follows: alcohol uses; production; environment and safety; and socio-economic. The workshops reflected a growing confidence among the attendees that the alcohols from coal, remote natural gas and biomass do offer alternatives to petroleum fuels. Further, they may, in the long run, prove to be equal or superior to the petroleum fuels when the aspects of performance, environment, health and safety are combined with the renewable aspect of the biomass derived alcohols. Although considerable activity in the production and use of alcohols is now appearing in many parts of the world, the absence of strong, broad scale assessment and support for these fuels by the United States Federal Government was a noted point of concern by the attendees. The environmental consequence of using alcohols continues to be more benign in general than the petroleum based fuels. The exception is the family of aldehydes. Although the aldehydes are easily suppressed by catalysts, it is important to understand their production in the combustion process. Progress is being made in this regard. Of course, the goal is to burn the alcohols so cleanly that catalytic equipment can be eliminated. Separate abstracts are prepared for the Energy Data Base for individual presentations.

  12. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  13. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  14. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  15. 26 CFR 48.4041-18 - Fuels containing alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Fuels containing alcohol. 48.4041-18 Section 48... EXCISE TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-18 Fuels containing alcohol..., of any liquid fuel described in section 4041(a) (1) or (2) which consists of at least 10% alcohol...

  16. Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

  17. Fuel alcohol extraction technology commercialization conference

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A. L.; Griffith, W. L.; Googin, J. M.

    1980-12-01

    The fualex, or fuel alcohol extraction process, uses a combination of hydrocarbon and surfactant to remove neutral solvents, such as butanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and acetone, from aqueous solution. The hydrocarbon extractants use may be fuels, such as gasoline, furnace oil, and diesel fuel. Surfactant concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 g/liter and hydrocarbon raning from 0.01 to 1 liter per liter aqueous alcohols solution have been investigated. The fualex process was tested on solutions which contain 5% w/v total neutral solvents, since this is near maximum for the fermentation product stream. The neutral solvents are removed in the form of an emulsion which is white to light bluish in the visible range. The emulsion has potential for direct use in fuels or as an intermediate for obtaining purified solvents.

  18. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual fuel, and natural gas dual fuel vehicle configurations. 600.206-93 Section 600.206-93 Protection of... gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual fuel,...

  19. Production of fuel alcohol from Jerusalem artichoke tops

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this research program is to demonstrate fuel alcohol production in New Mexico using the Jerusalem artichoke and local resources. This final report summarizes progress made during the course of the project. The planting and cultivation of the tubers are described as well as the construction of the ethanol plant. During the grinding of the tubers, the Bowie gear pump failed and a larger Mayo pump was purchased. Results indicate that Jerusalem artichokes will grow well in this area of New Mexico; water requirements are about the same as for corn and cultivation is only necessary until plant height is 18 inches. (DMC)

  20. 40 CFR 600.206-93 - Calculation and use of fuel economy values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... values for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual fuel, and natural gas dual fuel vehicle configurations. 600.206-93 Section 600.206-93 Protection of... for gasoline-fueled, diesel-fueled, electric, alcohol-fueled, natural gas-fueled, alcohol dual...

  1. Alcohol Fuels Program technical review, Spring 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-10-01

    The alcohol fuels program consists of in-house and subcontracted research for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel alcohols via thermoconversion and bioconversion technologies. In the thermoconversion area, the SERI gasifier has been operated on a one-ton per day scale and produces a clean, medium-Btu gas that can be used to manufacture methanol with a relatively small gas-water shift reaction requirement. Recent research has produced catalysts that make methanol and a mixture of higher alcohols from the biomass-derived synthetic gas. Three hydrolysis processes have emerged as candidates for more focused research. They are: a high-temperature, dilute-acid, plug-flow approach based on the Dartmouth reactor; steam explosion pretreatment followed by hydrolysis using the RUT-C30 fungal organism; and direct microbial conversion of the cellulose to ethanol using bacteria in a single or mixed culture. Modeling studies, including parametric and sensitivity analyses, have recently been completed. The results of these studies will lead to a better definition of the present state-of-the-art for these processes and provide a framework for establishing the research and process engineering issues that still need resolution. In addition to these modeling studies, economic feasibility studies are being carried out by commercial engineering firms. Their results will supplement and add commercial validity to the program results. The feasibility contractors will provide input at two levels: Technical and economic assessment of the current state-of-the-art in alcohol production from lignocellulosic biomass via thermoconversion to produce methanol and higher alcohol mixtures and bioconversion to produce ethanol; and identification of research areas having the potential to significantly reduce the cost of production of alcohols.

  2. Developing alternative feedstocks for fuel alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Verma, V.K.

    1982-06-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent research to examine the viability of energy sorghum as a feedstock for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum is the name given to any sweet sorghum shown to be feasible for producing fuel alcohol. Energy sorghum can grow on a variety of soils, in 90 day cycles, with up to three crops a year. Crop rotation is rarely needed; most of the nitrogen and potassium returns to the soil. Harmon Engineering and Testing initiated an inhouse program to research sweet sorghum development. Equipment specifications and preliminary results are given. An ''energy farm'' process is explained step by step. Stalk juice, grain, and stalk fiber yields are listed. The use of bagasse and carbon dioxide is also considered.

  3. Alcohol fuel conversion apparatus for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, B.I.

    1987-01-13

    An alcohol fuel conversion apparatus is described for internal combustion engines comprising: fuel storage means containing an alcohol fuel; primary heat exchanger means in fluid communication with the fuel storage means for transferring heat to pressurized alcohol contained within the heat exchanger means; a heat source for heating the heat exchange means; pressure relief valve means, in closed fluid communication with the primary heat exchange means, operable to release heated pressurized alcohol into an expansion chamber; converter means, including the expansion chamber, in fluid communication with the pressure relief valve means for receiving the heated pressurized alcohol and for the vaporization of the alcohol; carburetor means in fluid communication with the converter means for metering and mixing vaporized alcohol with air for proper combustion and for feeding the mixture to an internal combustion engine; and pump means for pressurized pumping of alcohol from the fuel storage means to the heat exchanger means, converter means, carburetor means, and to the engine.

  4. Alcohol Fuel Production for Vocational Students: Secondary, Postsecondary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, C. Paul; Burkhalter, Wayne

    In order to help bring about the potential for alcohol production by the farming community, Navarro College (Texas) has developed this curriculum for secondary and postsecondary levels in alcohol fuel production. The alcohol fuel curriculum consists of five modules for use in practical hands-on vocational programs. The curriculum is designed to…

  5. Brewing industry potential for the immediate and near-term production of fuel-grade ethyl alcohol. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mulloney, J.A. Jr.

    1980-04-15

    The brewing industry is described as it relates to productive facilities and potential for fuel grade ethyl alcohol production. The brewing process is compared to the fuel grade ethyl alcohol process in a brewery. A description is given for retrofitting a brewery as a distilled spirits plant. The following are included: estimated capital requirements and alcohol costs, targets of opportunity, barriers and actions affecting brewery production of ethyl alcohol, suggested action programs, and recommended program activities. (MHR)

  6. Syngas Conversion to Hydrocarbon Fuels through Mixed Alcohol Intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa M.; Albrecht, Karl O.; Li, Jinjing; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2013-05-13

    Synthesis gas (syngas) can be used to synthesize a variety of fuels and chemicals. Domestic transportation and military operational interests have driven continued focus on domestic syngas-based fuels production. Liquid transportation fuels may be made from syngas via four basic processes: 1) higher alcohols, 2) Fischer-Tropsch (FT), 3) methanol-to-gasoline (MTG), and 4) methanol-to-olefins (MTO) and olefins-to-gasoline/distillate (MOGD). Compared to FT and higher alcohols, MTG and MTO-MOGD have received less attention in recent years. Due to the high capital cost of these synthetic fuel plants, the production cost of the finished fuel cannot compete with petroleum-derived fuel. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently evaluated one way to potentially reduce capital cost and overall production cost for MTG by combining the methanol and MTG syntheses in a single reactor. The concept consists of mixing the conventional MTG catalyst (i.e. HZSM-5) with an alcohol synthesis catalyst. It was found that a methanol synthesis catalyst, stable at high temperature (i.e. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3) [1], when mixed with ZSM-5, was active for syngas conversion. Relatively high syngas conversion can be achieved as the equilibrium-driven conversion limitations for methanol and dimethyl ether are removed as they are intermediates to the final hydrocarbon product. However, selectivity control was difficult to achieve as formation of undesirable durene and light hydrocarbons was problematic [2]. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate other potential composite catalyst systems and optimize the reactions conditions for the conversion of syngas to hydrocarbon fuels, through the use of mixed alcohol intermediates. Mixed alcohols are of interest as they have recently been reported to produce higher yields of gasoline compared to methanol [3]. 1. Lebarbier, V.M., Dagle, R.A., Kovarik, L., Lizarazo-Adarme, J.A., King, D.L., Palo, D.R., Catalyst Science & Technology, 2012, 2

  7. Minimally refined biomass fuel. [carbohydrate-water-alcohol mixture

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, R.K.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1981-03-26

    A minimally refined fluid composition, suitable as a fuel mixture and derived from biomass material, is comprised of one or more water-soluble carbohydrates such as sucrose, one or more alcohols having less than four carbons, and water. The carbohydrate provides the fuel source; water-solubilizes the carbohydrate; and the alcohol aids in the combustion of the carbohydrate and reduces the viscosity of the carbohydrate/water solution. Because less energy is required to obtain the carbohydrate from the raw biomass than alcohol, an overall energy savings is realized compared to fuels employing alcohol as the primary fuel.

  8. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav R.; Marinkovic, Nebojsa S.

    2001-01-01

    Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

  9. Papua New Guinea to emphasize alcohol fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-09

    It is reported that Australia's Davy McKee Pacific is to build the first of nine proposed ethanol plants in Papua New Guinea in a bid to produce 50% of the country's transport fuels by 1990. The first $4 million facility, on the Baiyer River, will yield 2 million liters of ethanol a year from the cassava root.

  10. Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Tough Economy, Alcohol Fuels Suicide Risk in Men: Study But similar link not seen for women ... drinking may fuel the risk of suicide among men when the economy is sinking, new research suggests. ...

  11. Tiger Tail Distillery alcohol plant starts up

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-05

    Tiger Tail Distillery plans to start construction in Jan. 1981 of an $89.9 million ethanol plant that would produce 50 million gal/yr of alcohol from 19 million bushels of corn. A $66.8 million loan guarantee from the U.S. Farmers Home Administration will aid the construction of the plant, which will be located on the Mississippi River west of Dyersburg, Tenn. The plant is scheduled for completion eight months after the start of construction. The production and marketing of the alcohol would cost an estimated $1.80/gal, and the cost of barging the alcohol to New Orleans and Memphis would be $0.01/gal and $0.0025/gal, respectively.

  12. Office of Alcohol Fuels Program plan, FY 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The goal of the Office of Alcohol Fuels is to promote the production, distribution, and use of alcohol fuels. The program objectives are defined and the strategy for implementation is described. An organizational model of the operation is included. The roles of the 3 program offices and various field offices are described. (DMC)

  13. Alcohol fuels in Illinois: prospects and implications. [Monograph

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, V.; Walzer, N.

    1981-01-01

    The use of corn to produce fuel alcohol offered major economic benefits for Illinois in the early 1970s. One of the advantages was increased employment in the alcohol-fuels industry and in the industries indirectly involved in alcohol production. The increased income generated by higher employment creates additional jobs throughout the economy. This report evaluates the employment increase by estimating the demand for gasoline and gasoline-alcohol fuels based on population and income trends - then determines the direct, indirect, and induced employment resulting from various market shares. Three appendices include an annotated bibliography of 21 references, a report on Brazilian experiences with alcohol fuels production, and a general bibliography. 128 references, 15 figures, 35 tables.

  14. Melvin Calvin: Fuels from Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, S.E.; Otvos, J.W.

    1998-11-24

    A logical extension of his early work on the path of carbon during photosynthesis, Calvin's studies on the production of hydrocarbons by plants introduced many in the scientific and agricultural worlds to the potential of renewable fuel and chemical feedstocks. He and his co-workers identified numerous candidate compounds from plants found in tropical and temperate climates from around the world. His travels and lectures concerning the development of alternative fuel supplies inspired laboratories worldwide to take up the investigation of plant-derived energy sources as an alternative to fossil fuels.

  15. Comparing liquid-fuel costs: grain alcohol versus sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Reining, R.C.; Tyner, W.E.

    1983-08-01

    This paper compares the technical and economic feasibility of small-scale production of fuel grade grain alcohol with sunflower oil. Three scales of ethanol and sunflower oil production are modeled, and sensitivity analysis is conducted for various operating conditions and costs. The general conclusion is that sunflower oil costs lass to produce than 'Lcohol. Government subsidies for alcohol, but not sunflower oil, could cause adoption of more expensive alcohol in place of cheaper sunflower oil. However, neither sunflower oil nor alcohol are competitive with diesel fuel. 7 references, 6 tables

  16. Sensor for measuring alcohol content of alcohol/gasoline fuel mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.J.; Swarin, S.J.; Sultan, M.F.; Lambert, D.K.; Jack, M.D.

    1993-08-31

    A sensing device is described for determining the alcohol content of an alcohol/gasoline mixture comprising: a light source emitting a light beam containing at least a first and a second wavelengths within the near-infrared spectrum, said light beam being transmitted through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture; means for switching the current through said light source between at least two fixed values, so as to correspondingly switch the light intensity at said first and second wavelengths which is emitted by said light source; first and second detectors which are disposed so as to receive said emitted light beam after its transmission through the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture, said first detector determines a first amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first wavelength for each of said fixed values of current, and said second detector determines a second amount of absorption by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said second wavelength for each of said fixed values of current; means for separately measuring the output voltage from said first and second detectors for each of said power settings; and computational means for determining, from said output voltages, the ratio of said first and second absorbances by the alcohol/gasoline fuel mixture at said first and said second wavelengths for each of said fixed values of current such that said ratio of absorbances provide an output indicative of the alcohol content within the alcohol/gasoline mixture.

  17. High-alcohol microemulsion fuel performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    West, B.H.; Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.

    1990-01-01

    Incidence of methanol use in diesel engines is increasing rapidly due to the potential to reduce both diesel particulate emissions and petroleum consumption. Because simple alcohols and conventional diesel fuel are normally immiscible, most tests to date have used neat to near-neat alcohol, or blends incorporating surfactants or other alcohols. Alcohol's poor ignition quality usually necssitates the use of often expensive cetane enhancers, full-time glow plugs, or spark assist. Reported herein are results of screening tests of clear microemulsion and micellar fuels which contain 10 to 65% C{sub 1}--C{sub 4} alcohol. Ignition performance and NO emissions were measured for clear, stable fuel blends containing alcohols, diesel fuel and additives such as alkyl nitrates, acrylic acids, and several vegetable oil derivatives. Using a diesel engine calibrated with reference fuels, cetane numbers for fifty four blends were estimated. The apparent cetane numbers ranged from around 20 to above 50 with the majority between 30 and 45. Emissions of nitric oxide were measured for a few select fuels and were found to be 10 to 20% lower than No. 2 diesel fuel. 36 refs., 87 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  19. Fuel oils from higher plants

    SciTech Connect

    Calvin, M.

    1985-03-01

    A summary of the types of plants available for converting solar energy to fuel and materials on an annually renewable basis is presented. Sugar cane, seed oils, herbaceous plants (Hevea, Euphorbia, Asclepias), hydrocarbon producing trees (Eucalystus globulus, Pittosporum, Copaifera), and algae are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the development of ''energy agriculture'' and the use of plants to synthesize hydrocarbon-like materials especially in the less developed areas of the world. (DMC)

  20. Formation and control of aldehydes in alcohol fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ayyasamy, R.; Nagalingam, B.; Ganesan, V.; Gopalakrishnan, K.V.; Murthy, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    Aldehyde formation and emissions from alcohol fueled engines are presented in this paper. Several chemical kinetic models on the mechanism leading to aldehyde formation have been examined to explore the appropriate control methods to reduce exhaust aldehyde emissions. Control of aldehydes in exhaust emissions by suitable alteration of engine operating parameters, by in cylinder treatment with additives like aniline and water, by external treatment like airpreheating, secondary air injection cooling water rate and exhaust treatment are examined. The concept of surface ignition for alcohol fuels is briefly presented as a long range objective for using alcohols with minimal aldehyde emissions. 27 refs.

  1. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  2. Utilization of Alcohol Fuel in Spark Ignition and Diesel Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berndt, Don; Stengel, Ron

    These five units comprise a course intended to prepare and train students to conduct alcohol fuel utilization seminars in spark ignition and diesel engines. Introductory materials include objectives and a list of instructor requirements. The first four units cover these topics: ethanol as an alternative fuel (technical and economic advantages,…

  3. Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an anion exchange membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuoka, Koji; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Abe, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Masao; Ogumi, Zempachi

    Alkaline direct alcohol fuel cells using an OH-form anion exchange membrane and polyhydric alcohols were studied. A high open circuit voltage of ca. 800 mV was obtained for a cell using Pt-Ru/C (anode) and Pt/C (cathode) at 323 K, which was about 100-200 mV higher than that for a DMFC using Nafion ®. The maximum power densities were in the order of ethylene glycol > glycerol > methanol > erythritol > xylitol. Silver catalysts were used as a cathode catalyst to fabricate alkaline fuel cells, since silver catalyst is almost inactive in the oxidation of polyhydric alcohols. Alkaline direct ethylene glycol fuel cells using silver as a cathode catalyst gave excellent performance because higher concentrations of fuel could be supplied to the anode.

  4. Alcohol fuels. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning alcohol and alcohol-containing fuels for use in internal combustion engines. Methanol-fueled diesel engines and fuel systems are discussed. Citations also cover alcohol-gasoline mixtures, gasoline-blended methanol, fuel component sensors, injectors, air-fuel ratio control, fuel evaporation control, and fuel contamination. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Modeling and cold start in alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Markel, A.J.; Bailey, B.K.

    1998-05-01

    Neat alcohol fuels offer several benefits over conventional gasoline in automotive applications. However, their low vapor pressure and high heat of vaporization make it difficult to produce a flammable vapor composition from a neat alcohol fuel during a start under cold ambient conditions. Various methods have been introduced to compensate for this deficiency. In this study, the authors applied computer modeling and simulation to evaluate the potential of four cold-start technologies for engines fueled by near-neat alcohol. The four technologies were a rich combustor device, a partial oxidation reactor, a catalytic reformer, and an enhanced ignition system. The authors ranked the competing technologies by their ability to meet two primary criteria for cold starting an engine at {minus}25 deg C and also by several secondary parameters related to commercialization. Their analysis results suggest that of the four technologies evaluated, the enhanced ignition system is the best option for further development.

  6. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  7. Energy and precious fuels requirements of fuel alcohol production. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Weinblatt, H.; Lawrence, M.F.; Jenkins, D.

    1982-12-01

    In this study, energy requirements for producing alcohol fuels are estimated and are compared to the energy content of the alcohol produced. The comparisons are developed for three alcohol production alternatives: ethanol from grain, methanol from cellulose, and methanol from coal. In the analysis, alcohol fuel and all nonrenewable fuels are valued on the basis of their higher heating value (in Btu), while byproducts and grain and cellulose feedstocks are valued on the basis of the effect their production would have on the consumption of nonrenewable fuels. The effects of changes in agricultural production were analyzed on the basis of their effects on overall agricultural energy consumption (not on average energy consumption associated with present production). All three alcohol production alternatives were found to be effective means of increasing supplies of liquid fuels. The cellulose-to-methanol alternative, however, produces more energy than it consumes. (The favorable energy balance for this feedstock results largely from the use of cellulose as a boiler fuel as well as a feedstock.) The grain-to-ethanol alternative yields a slightly negative energy balance, while the coal-to-methanol alternative (which uses a nonrenewable fuel as both feedstock and boiler fuel) results in a substantially negative energy balance. The report is presented in four volumes. Volume I (NASA CR-168090) contains the main body of the report, and the other three volumes contain appendices.

  8. Alcohol fuels bibliography, 1901-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    This annotated bibliography is subdivided by subjects, as follows: general; feedstocks-general; feedstocks-sugar; feedstocks-starch; feedstocks-cellulose crops and residues; production; coproducts; economics; use as vehicle fuel; government policies; and environmental effects and safety. (MHR)

  9. Optimum catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-04-28

    The objectives of this contract are to discover and evaluate the catalytic properties of novel homogeneous, heterogeneous, or combination catalytic systems for the production of alcohol fuel extenders from syngas, to evaluate analytically and on the bench scale novel reactor concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products, and to develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for conversion of syngas to liquid fuel products. Methanol production and heterogeneous catalysis utilizing transition elements supported on metal oxides with spinel structure are discussed. 12 figs., 16 tabs.

  10. Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

    DOEpatents

    Adzic, Radoslav; Kowal, Andrzej

    2011-11-02

    In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

  11. A novel alcohol/iron (III) fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Liu, Xiaoping; Xu, Guorong; Nie, Huidong; Zhou, Xiulin

    2016-07-01

    A novel alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using Fe3+ as the oxidation agent instead of the conventional O2. Various alcohols as the fuels are tested, including methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol. In this fuel cell, the anode catalysts tested are PdSn/β-cd-CNT, PdSn/CNT, Pd/β-cd-CNT, Pd/CNT and Pd/β-cd-C, prepared by using multi-walled carbon nanotube (CNT) and carbon powder (C), as well as β-cyclodexdrin (β-cd) modified CNT (β-cd-CNT) and β-cd modified C (β-cd-C), as the substrates to immobilize PdSn and Pd nanoparticles in glycol solvent. The as-synthesized PdSn/β-cd-CNT catalyst presents significantly higher electroactivity for alcohol oxidation than the conventional Pd/C catalyst. Fe3+ reduction reaction is carried out on the cathode made of carbon powder. The anolyte (alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH) and catholyte (Fe3+ in 0.5 mol L-1 NaCl) are separated with a Nafion 117 membrane. Open circuit voltage (OCV) of the cell with the anode PdSn/β-cd-CNT is 1.14-1.22 V, depending upon the used alcohol. The maximum power densities with methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and iso-propanol fuels are 15.2, 16.1, 19.9 and 12.2 mW cm-2, respectively.

  12. Alcohol fuel anti-wear additive

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, R. L.

    1985-11-05

    A novel fuel composition contains methanol or methanol/gasoline blends plus, as a wear-inhibiting additive, a reaction product of an aldehyde, e.g., paraformaldehyde, and N-alkyl-alkylene diamine, e.g., N-alkyl-1,3-propane diamine with a salicylic acid ester of a polyol, e.g., alpha-hydroxy-omega hydroxy-poly (oxyethylene) poly (oxypropylene) poly (oxyethylene) block copolymer.

  13. A polymer of caffeyl alcohol in plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Havkin-Frenkel, Daphna; Dixon, Richard A.; Ralph, John

    2012-01-01

    Lignins are complex phenylpropanoid polymers mostly associated with plant secondary cell walls. Lignins arise primarily via oxidative polymerization of the three monolignols, p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Of the two hydroxycinnamyl alcohols that represent incompletely methylated biosynthetic products (and are not usually considered to be monolignols), 5-hydroxyconiferyl alcohol is now well established as incorporating into angiosperm lignins, but incorporation of caffeyl alcohol has not been shown. We report here the presence of a homopolymer of caffeyl alcohol in the seed coats of both monocot and dicot plants. This polymer (C-lignin) is deposited to high concentrations in the seed coat during the early stages of seed development in the vanilla orchid (Vanilla planifolia), and in several members of the Cactaceae. The lignin in other parts of the Vanilla plant is conventionally biosynthesized from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols. Some species of cacti contain only C-lignin in their seeds, whereas others contain only classical guaiacyl/syringyl lignin (derived from coniferyl and sinapyl alcohols). NMR spectroscopic analysis revealed that the Vanilla seed-coat polymer was massively comprised of benzodioxane units and was structurally similar to the polymer synthesized in vitro by peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization of caffeyl alcohol. CD spectroscopy did not detect any optical activity in the seed polymer. These data support the contention that the C-lignin polymer is produced in vivo via combinatorial oxidative radical coupling that is under simple chemical control, a mechanism analogous to that theorized for classical lignin biosynthesis. PMID:22307645

  14. Internal combustion engines for alcohol motor fuels: a compilation of background technical information

    SciTech Connect

    Blaser, Richard

    1980-11-01

    This compilation, a draft training manual containing technical background information on internal combustion engines and alcohol motor fuel technologies, is presented in 3 parts. The first is a compilation of facts from the state of the art on internal combustion engine fuels and their characteristics and requisites and provides an overview of fuel sources, fuels technology and future projections for availability and alternatives. Part two compiles facts about alcohol chemistry, alcohol identification, production, and use, examines ethanol as spirit and as fuel, and provides an overview of modern evaluation of alcohols as motor fuels and of the characteristics of alcohol fuels. The final section compiles cross references on the handling and combustion of fuels for I.C. engines, presents basic evaluations of events leading to the use of alcohols as motor fuels, reviews current applications of alcohols as motor fuels, describes the formulation of alcohol fuels for engines and engine and fuel handling hardware modifications for using alcohol fuels, and introduces the multifuel engines concept. (LCL)

  15. The Brazilian fuel-alcohol program

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, L.C.; Macedo, I.C.; Goldemberg, J.

    1993-12-31

    The substitution of ethanol for gasoline in passenger cars and light vehicles in Brazil is one of the largest commercial biomass-to-energy programs in existence today. Engines that run strictly on gasoline are no longer available in the country, having been replaced by neat-ethanol engines and by gasohol engines that burn a mixture of 78 percent gasoline and 22 percent ethanol, by volume. Technological advances, including more efficient production and processing of sugarcane, are responsible for the availability and low price of ethanol. The transition to ethanol fuel has reduced Brazil`s dependence on foreign oil (thus lowering its import-export ratio), created significant employment opportunities, and greatly enhanced urban air quality. In addition, because sugarcane-derived ethanol is a renewable resource (the cane is replanted at the same rate it is harvested), the combustion of ethanol adds virtually no net carbon dioxide to the atmosphere and so helps reduce the threat of global warming.

  16. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Alcohol fuels: Production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  18. Alcohol Fuels Production, Manpower, and Education: Where Do Two-Year Colleges Fit?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, James R.

    The Energy Communications Center (ECC) has sponsored a number of alcohol fuels activities designed to share information about alcohol fuels with two-year college faculty and administrators and to clarify the manpower and curriculum issues related to fuel production. This paper is the result of the last of these activities, a one-day meeting of…

  19. 27 CFR 19.672 - Types of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.672 Types of plants. There are three types of alcohol fuel plants: Small plants, medium plants, and large plants. All alcohol fuel plants are classified according to the amount of spirits that...

  20. 27 CFR 19.672 - Types of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 19.672 Types of plants. There are three types of alcohol fuel plants: Small plants, medium plants, and large plants. All alcohol fuel plants are classified according to the amount of spirits that they... apply for the type of permit that fits the applicant's needs based on the type of alcohol fuel plant...

  1. A novel membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Qingfeng; Chen, Qinghua; Yang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    Membrane-less fuel cell possesses such advantages as simplified design and lower cost. In this paper, a membrane-less direct alcohol fuel cell is constructed by using multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) supported Pd and ternary PdSnNi composites as the anode catalysts and Fe/C-PANI composite, produced by direct pyrolysis of Fe-doped polyaniline precursor, as the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst. The alcohols investigated in the present study are methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, iso-propanol, n-butanol, iso-butanol and sec-butanol. The cathode catalyst Fe/C-PANI is electrochemically inactive to oxidation of the alcohols. The performance of the cell with various alcohols in 1 mol L-1 NaOH solution on either Pd/MWCNT or PdSnNi/MWCNT catalyst has been evaluated. In any case, the performance of the cell using the anode catalyst PdSnNi/MWCNT is considerably better than Pd/MWCNT. For the PdSnNi/MWCNT, the maximum power densities of the cell using methanol (0.5 mol L-1), ethanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), iso-propanol (0.5 mol L-1), n-butanol (0.2 mol L-1), iso-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) and sec-butanol (0.2 mol L-1) are 0.34, 1.03, 1.07, 0.44, 0.50, 0.31 and 0.15 mW cm-2, respectively.

  2. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  3. 27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount. The redistillation of spirits at an alcohol fuel plant may affect the alcohol fuel plant size... originally produced by the alcohol fuel plant and subsequently recovered by redistillation are not includable... subsequently recovered by redistillation at the alcohol fuel plant are includable in the determination of...

  4. 27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount. The redistillation of spirits at an alcohol fuel plant may affect the alcohol fuel plant size... originally produced by the alcohol fuel plant and subsequently recovered by redistillation are not includable... subsequently recovered by redistillation at the alcohol fuel plant are includable in the determination of...

  5. 27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount. The redistillation of spirits at an alcohol fuel plant may affect the alcohol fuel plant size... originally produced by the alcohol fuel plant and subsequently recovered by redistillation are not includable... subsequently recovered by redistillation at the alcohol fuel plant are includable in the determination of...

  6. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Minahan, D.M.; Nagaki, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    This project is focused on the discovery and evaluation of novel heterogeneous catalyst for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Catalysts have been studied and optimized for the production of methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. Higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) from syngas was studied; the alcohols that are produced in this process may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. This work has resulted in the discovery of a catalyst system that is highly selective for isobutanol compared with the prior art. The catalysts operate at high temperature (400{degrees}C), and consist of a spinel oxide support (general formula AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}, where A=M{sup 2+} and B = M{sup 3+}), promoted with various other elements. These catalysts operate by what is believed to be an aldol condensation mechanism, giving a product mix of mainly methanol and isobutanol. In this study, the effect of product feed/recycle (methanol, ethanol. n-propanol, isopropanol, carbon dioxide and water) on the performance of 10-DAN-55 (spinel oxide based catalyst) at 400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, GHSV = 12,000 and syngas (H{sub 2}/CO) ratio = 1:2 (alcohol addition) and 1:1 (carbon dioxide and water addition) was studied. The effect of operation at high temperatures and pressures on the performance of an improved catalyst formulation was also examined.

  7. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  8. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. The operation of sub-MW hybrid Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant test facility with a Capstone C60 microturbine was initiated in March 2003. The inclusion of the C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in previous tests using a 30kW microturbine. The design of multi-MW DFC/T hybrid systems, approaching 75% efficiency on natural gas, was initiated. A new concept was developed based on clusters of One-MW fuel cell modules as the building blocks. System analyses were performed, including systems for near-term deployment and power plants with long-term ultra high efficiency objectives. Preliminary assessment of the fuel cell cluster concept, including power plant layout for a 14MW power plant, was performed.

  9. Addendum: Tenth International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels, The road to commercialization

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Tenth International Symposium on ALCOHOL FUELS ``THE ROAD TO COMMERCIALIZATION`` was held at the Broadmoor Hotel, Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA November 7--10, 1993. Twenty-seven papers on the production of alcohol fuels, specifications, their use in automobiles, buses and trucks, emission control, and government policies were presented. Individual papers have been processed separately for entry into the data base.

  10. 78 FR 9938 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... recent previous determination for the 2012 amount in the Federal Register on December 30, 2011 (76 FR... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United States... is equal to 7 percent of the U.S. domestic market for fuel ethyl alcohol during the 12-month...

  11. Cold starting an alcohol-fueled engine with ultrasonic fuel atomization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruetsch, R. I.; Hamady, F. J.

    1993-03-01

    A test program was devised at EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory to evaluate a Tonen ultrasonic fuel atomizer system on a Honda B20 engine using both M85 (85% methanol, 15% hydrocarbons) and M100 (neat methanol) fuels to determine whether cold starting a premixed-charge port injected engine on alcohol fuels at low ambient temperatures can be improved. Modification to the engine's intake manifold was performed at the Japanese Automotive Research Institute (JARI) in cooperation with the New Energy Development Organization (NEDO) to install heated injectors in close proximity to the ultrasonic atomizers. The engine is also equipped with the stock port injector system intact and functional. Successful M100 cold starts were obtained down to 20 F (-7 C).

  12. First annual report to Congress on the use of alcohol in motor fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    This is the first annual report, submitted to Congress under the provisions of Section 221 of the Energy Tax Act of 1978, PL 95-618, which was signed into law on November 9, 1978. The intent of the Act is clear: to provide a simplified regulatory climate for the production and use of non-fossil alcohol fuels, and to extend to producers and end-users an economic incentive that would increase the rate of penetration of alcohol fuels into the motor-fuel markets. The primary impact of Sec. 221 lies in the exemption of the Federal excise tax on that gasoline and special fuel which contains at least 10% alcohol; including methanol and ethanol not derived from petroleum, natural gas, or coal. This report first describes the technical and regulatory context in which the Act operated during 1979, then presents the specific information required by the Act, namely: (1) a description of the firms engaged in the alcohol fuel industry; (2) the amount of alcohol fuels sold in each State and the amount of gasoline saved in each State by reason of the use of alcohol fuels; (3) the revenue loss resulting from the exemptions from tax for alcohol fuels under sections 4041(k) and 4081(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954; and (4) the cost of production and the retail cost of alcohol fuels as compared to gasoline and special fuels before the imposition of any Federal excise tax. During 1979, a rapid increase in marketing of alcohol fuel, specifically the 10% blend known as gasohol, has caused a significant gap between the motor fuel-marketplace and the information system(s) that compile a consistent data base for domestic energy production and consumption.

  13. Carbon composites with metal nanoparticles for Alcohol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventrapragada, Lakshman; Siddhardha, R. S.; Podilla, Ramakrishna; Muthukumar, V. S.; Creager, Stephen; Rao, A. M.; Ramamurthy, Sai Sathish

    2015-03-01

    Graphene due to its high surface area and superior conductivity has attracted wide attention from both industrial and scientific communities. We chose graphene as a substrate for metal nanoparticle deposition for fuel cell applications. There are many chemical routes for fabrication of metal-graphene composites, but they have an inherent disadvantage of low performance due to the usage of surfactants, that adsorb on their surface. Here we present a design for one pot synthesis of gold nanoparticles and simultaneous deposition on graphene with laser ablation of gold strip and functionalized graphene. In this process there are two natural advantages, the nanoparticles are synthesized without any surfactants, therefore they are pristine and subsequent impregnation on graphene is linker free. These materials are well characterized with electron microscopy to find their morphology and spectroscopic techniques like Raman, UV-Vis. for functionality. This gold nanoparticle decorated graphene composite has been tested for its electrocatalytic oxidation of alcohols for alkaline fuel cell applications. An electrode made of this composite showed good stability for more than 200 cycles of operation and reported a low onset potential of 100 mV more negative, an important factor for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  14. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-23

    In this reporting period, a milestone was achieved by commencement of testing and operation of the sub-scale hybrid direct fuel cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant. The operation was initiated subsequent to the completion of the construction of the balance-of-plant (BOP) and implementation of process and control tests of the BOP for the subscale DFC/T hybrid system. The construction efforts consisted of finishing the power plant insulation and completion of the plant instrumentation including the wiring and tubing required for process measurement and control. The preparation work also included the development of procedures for facility shake down, conditioning and load testing of the fuel cell, integration of the microturbine, and fuel cell/gas turbine load tests. At conclusion of the construction, the process and control (PAC) tests of BOP, including the microturbine, were initiated.

  15. Enzymatic conversion of unusual cellulosic wastes to alcohol fuel. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, E.K.

    1983-02-01

    Samples of unusual cellulosic wastes from a Sulfite pulp mill, spent mushroom compost and wastes from a cellophane manufacturing plant were collected and analyzed for saccharide content. This analysis showed that the pulp mill wastes (fines) had the greatest cellulose content (approx. 78%), while the cellophane wastes contained up to 40% cellulose and the mushroom compost only 20 to 25% cellulose. The mushroom compost could not be used both technically and economically as a substrate for ethanol production. The cellulose in the pulp mill waste was readily hydrolyzed to cellobiose by the extracellular enzymes of Thermomonospora fusca YX but required substantial quantities of ..beta..-glucosidase activity in order to generate glucose. The glucose produced could be easily fermented by both Saccharmoyces yeast and Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus. The use of T. ethanolicus eliminated the need for ..beta..-glucosidase additions but gave low yields and low conversions. Under the best of circumstances, 60 to 70% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed and converted to ethanol. However, ethanol concentrations greater than 1% w/v were rarely achieved, thus leading to high recovery costs for ethanol. To overcome these problems two process recommendations have been made. One is a novel design for high temperature enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in a countercurrent tower design, followed by fermentation of the sugar stream in a thermophilic fermentation in a packed bed containing immobilized Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus. This design should reduce the need for costly enzyme and provide a continuous process. The second design is more conventional and uses a sulfur dioxide catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose followed by yeast fermentation.

  16. Enzymatic conversion of unusual cellulosic wastes to alcohol fuel. Alcohol-Fuels Grant Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pye, E.K.

    1983-02-01

    Samples of unusual cellulosic wastes from a Sulfite pulp mill, spent mushroom compost and wastes from a cellophane manufacturing plant were collected and analyzed for saccharide content. This analysis showed that the pulp mill wastes (fines) had the greatest cellulose content (78%), while the cellophane wastes contained up to 40% cellulose. The mushroom compost could not be used as a substrate for ethanol production and was removed from the study after preliminary saccharification studies. The cellulose in the pulp mill waste was readily hydrolyzed to cellobiose by the extracellular enzymes of Thermomonospora fusca YX but required substantial quantities of ..beta..-glucosidase activity in order to generate glucose. Under the best of circumstances 60 to 70% of the cellulose was hydrolyzed and converted to ethanol. However, ethanol concentrations greater than 1% w/v were rarely achieved, thus leading to high recovery costs for ethanol. To overcome these problems two process recommendations have been made. One is a novel design for high temperature enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in a countercurrent tower design, followed by fermentation of the sugar stream in a thermophilic fermentation in a packed bed containing immobilized Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus. This design should reduce the need for costly enzyme and provide a continuous process. The second design is more conventional and uses a sulfur dioxide catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose followed by yeast fermentation. The projected economics for this process seems to be attractive. Although the cellophane wastes were less susceptible to enzymatic saccharification than the pulp mill wastes, both materials could prove to be suitable substrates for the above processes.

  17. Holdup measurement for nuclear fuel manufacturing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, M.S.; Degen, M.; Cohen, I.; Gody, A.; Summers, R.; Bisset, P.; Shaub, E.; Holody, D.

    1981-07-13

    The assay of nuclear material holdup in fuel manufacturing plants is a laborious but often necessary part of completing the material balance. A range of instruments, standards, and a methodology for assaying holdup has been developed. The objectives of holdup measurement are ascertaining the amount, distribution, and how firmly fixed the SNM is. The purposes are reconciliation of material unbalance during or after a manufacturing campaign or plant decommissioning, to decide security requirements, or whether further recovery efforts are justified.

  18. Fuel cell power plants for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Huff, J.R.

    1991-12-31

    Over the past 35 years, the transportation sector has accounted fr approximately 25% of the total gross energy consumption in the United States. As the largest energy user in the United States, transportation accounts for approximately 66% of the country`s current petroleum consumption. Fuel cell power plants using nonpetroleum fuels such as methanol could significantly reduce US dependency on petroleum resources. They offer the additional advantage of minimal air pollution thereby addressing another issue of major concern in the US fuel cell power plant use in city buses and other vehicles is being explored in a number of US Department of Energy and industrial programs that will be described in this paper. 5 refs.

  19. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  20. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  1. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-27

    The subMW hybrid DFC/T power plant facility was upgraded with a Capstone C60 microturbine and a state-of-the-art full size fuel cell stack. The integration of the larger microturbine extended the capability of the hybrid power plant to operate at high power ratings with a single gas turbine without the need for supplementary air. The objectives of this phase of subMW hybrid power plant tests are to support the development of process and control and to provide the insight for the design of the packaged subMW hybrid demonstration units. The development of the ultra high efficiency multi-MW power plants was focused on the design of 40 MW power plants with efficiencies approaching 75% (LHV of natural gas). The design efforts included thermodynamic cycle analysis of key gas turbine parameters such as compression ratio.

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply to the

  3. High pressure combustion of liquid fuels. [alcohol and n-paraffin fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canada, G. S.

    1974-01-01

    Measurements were made of the burning rates and liquid surface temperatures for a number of alcohol and n-paraffin fuels under natural and forced convection conditions. Porous spheres ranging in size from 0.64-1.9 cm O.D. were emloyed to simulate the fuel droplets. The natural convection cold gas tests considered the combustion in air of methanol, ethanol, propanol-1, n-pentane, n-heptane, and n-decane droplets at pressures up to 78 atmospheres. The pressure levels of the natural convection tests were high enough so that near critical combustion was observed for methanol and ethanol vaporization rates and liquid surface temperature measurements were made of droplets burning in a simulated combustion chamber environment. Ambient oxygen molar concentrations included 13%, 9.5% and pure evaporation. Fuels used in the forced convection atmospheric tests included those listed above for the natural convection tests. The ambient gas temperature ranged from 600 to 1500 K and the Reynolds number varied from 30 to 300. The high pressure forced convection tests employed ethanol and n-heptane as fuels over a pressure range of one to 40 atmospheres. The ambient gas temperature was 1145 K for the two combustion cases and 1255 K for the evaporation case.

  4. Alcohol fuels: production. September 1985-December 1987 (citations from the NTIS data base). Report for September 1985-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the synthesis of alcohol fuels, including gasohol. Alcohol production from sugar beets, industrial wastes, hardwood, biomass, and coal conversion processes are discussed. Cellulose and lignin degradation processes are described. Production systems are evaluated. The utilization of alcohol fuels is discussed in a separate bibliography. (Contains 75 citations fully indexed and including a title list.)

  5. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  6. Fuel cell power plant economic and operational considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    Fuel cell power plants intended for electric utility and cogeneration applications are now in the design and construction stage. This paper describes economic and operational considerations being used in the development and design of plants utilizing air cooled phosphoric acid fuel cells. Fuel cell power plants have some unique characteristics relative to other types of power plants. As a result it was necessary to develop specific definitions of the fuel cell power plant characteristics in order to perform cost of electricity calculations. This paper describes these characteristics and describes the economic analyses used in the Westinghouse fuel cell power plant program.

  7. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  8. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  9. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this part. A proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may also transfer spirits in bond from the alcohol fuel plant to a distilled spirits plant qualified under subpart D of this...

  10. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  11. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Alcohol KidsHealth > For Teens > Alcohol Print A A A ... you can make an educated choice. What Is Alcohol? Alcohol is created when grains, fruits, or vegetables ...

  12. Potential health and safety impacts from distribution and storage of alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, S.E.; Gasper, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This assessment includes three major sections. Section 1 is a synopsis of literature on the health and safety aspects of neat alcohols, alcohol-gasoline blends, and typical gasoline. Section 2 identifies the toxic properties of each fuel type and describes existing standards and regulations and suggests provisions for establishing others. Section 3 analyzes the major safety and health risks that would result from the increased use of each type of alcohol fuel. Potential accidents are described and their probable impacts on occupational and public populations are determined. An attempt was made to distill the important health and safety issues and to define gaps in our knowledge regarding alcohol fuels to highlight the further research needed to circumvent potential helth and safety problems.

  13. Power Alcohol Plant, Pfister Bros. Farms. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, Frederick C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in the process engineering and construction of an alcohol plant. Substrate supply, waste carbohydrate material, has been reduced by 20%. Process heat will be supplied by a stoker boiler fired by natural gas in the initial stages, later by a mixture of corn cobs and coal. The design of the cooker is included. The selection of fermentation tanks has not been made. Studies in the selection of yeast for the project are underway. Distillation equipment is described. An appropriate technology for water removal has not been determined. Tests to determine the thermal efficiency of CaO as a water entraining agent are being conducted. The plant layout and construction schedule diagrams are included. (DMC)

  14. Economics of biomass-derived alcohol application in fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kothari, S.P.; Patel, P.S.

    1982-12-01

    Unlike conventional internal combustion engines, the fuel cell can offer high thermal efficiencies even with low-proof ethanol. Manufacture of low-proof ethanol results in a considerable savings in operating cost and hence a cheaper fuel. The ethanol-fueled fuel cell used in transportation as well as cogeneration is an important option for conservation of fossil fuels and for decreasing our dependence on foreign energy. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  15. 27 CFR 19.672 - Types of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of plants. 19.672... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.672 Types of plants. There are three types of alcohol fuel plants: Small plants, medium...

  16. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ernest, J.B.; Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K.

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  18. Impact of alcohol fuel production on agricultural markets

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    Production of alcohol from biomass feedstocks, such as corn, was given Federal and State support which resulted in alcohol production rising from 20 million gallons in 1979 to 430 million gallons in 1984. This study estimates the impacts of alcohol production from corn on selected agricultural markets. The tool of analysis was a three region (United States, the European Community and the rest of the world) econometric model of the markets for corn, soybeans, soybean meal, soybean oil, wheat and corn byproduct feeds. Three alternative growth paths for alcohol production (totalling 1.1, 2.0, and 3.0 billion gallons) were analyzed with the model in the context of three different trade environments. The results of this analysis indicate that alcohol production of 1.1 billion gallons by 1980 would have caused moderate adjustments to commodity markets while 3.0 billion gallons would have caused major adjustments. Corn prices rose sharply with increased alcohol production as did wheat prices but to a somewhat lesser extent. The substitution of corn for soybeans on the supply side was not sufficient to offset the demand depressing effects of corn byproduct feeds on soybean meal which translated into slightly lower soybean prices. A quota limiting imports of corn gluten feed into the EC to three million tons annually would cause reductions in export earnings for corn millers.

  19. 27 CFR 19.723 - Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Redistillation § 19.723 Effect of redistillation on plant size and bond amount. The redistillation of spirits at an alcohol fuel plant may affect the alcohol fuel plant size... on plant size and bond amount. 19.723 Section 19.723 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms...

  20. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthsis gas. Quarterly technical progress report number 10, 1 January 1994--31 March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The WVU plug-flow microreactor system is now complete. Screening runs with this system will commence. Computer control is being installed in the second WVU unit. Additional hardware has been suggested for this system so that it can be used either to screen additional catalysts or to obtain kinetic data on selected catalyst samples. Synthetic preparations and characterizations of molybdenum-based sulfide and nitride catalysts are ongoing. Modelling studies are continuing satisfactorily. A more detailed model of the reaction kinetics, to account for individual alcohols rather than a lumped highter-alcohol, has been inserted into the model of a plug-flow reactor. A solution methodology to maximize the profitability of alcohol production, separation and blending has been developed. The temperatures, pressures, flowrates, and key component recoveries in the separation steps are the optimization variables. The probability of this process becoming economically feasible in the near future appears to be extremely small given the low return on capital investment associated with the production of alcohol from coal. If coal derived alcohols are to become alternative transportation fuels, then the capital cost associated with the process must be reduced, specifically the cost of the gasifiers, or significant changes need to be made in the composition of the mixed alcohol product. A methodology for performing Monte Carlo studies to determine quantitatively the uncertainties relevant to future decisions to build an alcohol-fuels plant is still being developed.

  1. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Alcohol Wondering if alcohol is off limits with diabetes? Most people with diabetes can have a moderate amount of alcohol. Research has shown that there can be some ...

  2. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    If you are like many Americans, you drink alcohol at least occasionally. For many people, moderate drinking ... risky. Heavy drinking can lead to alcoholism and alcohol abuse, as well as injuries, liver disease, heart ...

  3. Preliminary evaluation of swine manure as alternative feedstock for the Del Valle Hog Farm fuel alcohol facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.A.; Vinson, J.K.

    1983-08-01

    The purpose of this proejct was to investigate the use of swine manure as a feedstock for fuel alcohol plants. The project was conducted on the Del Valle Hog Farm and made use of the 24 gal/day fuel alcohol plant in operation there. The project involved the determination of the starch content of various samples of hog manure, and if an adequate source of starch was found, to use that manure as feedstock in full scale tests that would lead to a determination of the economic feasibility of such use. A full scale test consists of the conversion and fermentation of about 250 gallon batches of test feedstock. The production yield was determined by measurement of evolved gas during fermentation. The analysis of raw hog manure samples indicate that a good portion, about 19% by weight, of the dry matter is starch. The plant modifications required to operate with hog manure as feedstock appear to be reasonable and inexpensive. Full efficiency of conversion and fermentation was achieved with mash of about 4% solids concentration. However, with solids concentrations of 10% to 15%, the yeast died within a short time. A theory for the yeast deaths is that some yeast poison is present in the manure, and that it can be mitigated by dilution with water. Lab scale experiments confirm the dilution dependent behavior, however, no determination of the nature of the poison has been made. The study concludes that hog manure would be a viable feedstock if the yeast deaths can be prevented. The mash concentration could then be raised to 25% solids, and with screened manure of say 40% starch, the alcohol plant would work at 137% capacity with the same operating costs (acid, lime, yeast, but not heat) as with a batch of milo.

  4. Control of aldehyde emissions in the diesel engines with alcoholic fuels.

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V S Murali; Varaprasad, C M; Reddy, C Venkata Ramana

    2006-01-01

    The major pollutants emitted from compression ignition (CI) engine with diesel as fuel are smoke and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When the diesel engine is run with alternate fuels, there is need to check alcohols (methanol or ethanol) and aldehydes also. Alcohols cannot be used directly in diesel engine and hence engine modification is essential as alcohols have low cetane number and high latent hear of vaporization. Hence, for use of alcohol in diesel engine, it needs hot combustion chamber, which is provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine with an air gap insulated piston with superni crown and air gap insulated liner with superni insert. In the present study, the pollution levels of aldehydes are reported with the use of methanol and ethanol as alternate fuels in LHR diesel engine with varying injection pressure, injection timings with different percentage of alcohol induction. The aldehydes (formaldehyde and acetaldehyde) in the exhaust were estimated by wet chemical technique with high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC). Aldehyde emissions increased with an increase in alcohol induction. The LHR engine showed a decrease in aldehyde emissions when compared to conventional engine. However, the variation of injection pressure showed a marginal effect in reducing aldehydes, while advancing the injection timing reduced aldehyde emissions. PMID:17913204

  5. Economic and energetic evaluation of alcohol fuel production from agriculture: Yolo County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Meo, M.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation reviews the technical aspects of alcohol fuel production and consumption, examines the set of policy-related issues that affect both the private and the public sectors, and investigates the economic and energetic feasibility of small-scale on-farm production on a representative Sacramento Valley field and vegetable crop farm. Candidate feedstocks, including both starch and sugar-rich crops, are: barley, corn, fodder beet, grain sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, sugar beet, sweet sorghum, tomatoes, and wheat. The leading fuel crops were found to be sweet sorghum, Jerusalem artichoke, corn, fodder beet, and grain sorghum in order of declining preference. With better than average crop yields and the current mix of financial incentives, the breakeven cost of alcohol fuel is $1.03 per gallon when diesel fuel and gasoline prices are $1.30 and $1.46, respectively. Without subsidy, the breakeven cost is $1.62 per gallon. An energy analysis was calculated for each of the feedstocks under consideration. With the exception of sweet sorghum, wheat, and barley, all feedstocks showed a negative net energy balance. The use of agricultural residues as a boiler fuel, however, made a significant difference in the overall energy balance. The role of government in energy policy is reviewed and typical policy instruments are discussed. Although on-farm alcohol fuel production is not currently economically competitive with gasoline and diesel fuel, technological innovation and the return of increasing petroleum prices could alter the situation.

  6. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Alcohol KidsHealth > For Kids > Alcohol Print A A A Text Size What's in ... What Is Alcoholism? Say No en español El alcohol Getting the Right Message "Hey, who wants a ...

  7. Use of alcohol fuel: engine-conversion demonstration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    The use of ethanol as a fuel extender when mixed with gasoline, and the use of both hydrated and anhydrous ethanol as a fuel in gasoline and diesel engines are discussed. Required engine modifications for efficient use of ethanol are described, and include engine compression alterations, carburetor adjustments, and arrangement for fuel preheating. In 1981 and 1982 a demonstration of ethanol use in spark ignition engines was conducted at a major public park in South Carolina. The demonstration included a controlled road test with a pick-up truck and a demonstration of ethanol use in small, air cooled gasoline engines. One problem that was identified was that of contaminated fuel that clogged the fuel system after a few days' operation. (LEW)

  8. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  9. Safeguards techniques in a pilot conditioning plant for spent fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, E.; Rudolf, K.; Weh, R. )

    1991-01-01

    The pilot conditioning plant at Gorleben, Germany, is designed as a multi-purpose plant. Its primary task is the conditioning of spent fuel assemblies into a form suitable for final disposal. As a pilot plant, it allows furthermore for the development and testing of various conditioning techniques. In terms of international safeguards, the pilot conditioning plant is basically considered an item facility. Entire fuel assemblies enter the plant in transport casks, whereas bins filled with fuel rods or canisters containing cut fuel rods leave the facility in final disposal packages (e.g. POLLUX). Each POLLUX final disposal package content is uniquely correlated to a definite number of fuel assemblies which have entered the conditioning process. For this type of facility, containment/surveillance (C/S) should take over the major role in nuclear material safeguards. This paper discusses the safeguards at the Gorleben plant.

  10. Equipment specifications for an electrochemical fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hemphill, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Electrochemical reprocessing is a technique used to chemically separate and dissolve the components of spent nuclear fuel, in order to produce new metal fuel. There are several different variations to electrochemical reprocessing. These variations are accounted for by both the production of different types of spent nuclear fuel, as well as different states and organizations doing research in the field. For this electrochemical reprocessing plant, the spent fuel will be in the metallurgical form, a product of fast breeder reactors, which are used in many nuclear power plants. The equipment line for this process is divided into two main categories, the fuel refining equipment and the fuel fabrication equipment. The fuel refining equipment is responsible for separating out the plutonium and uranium together, while getting rid of the minor transuranic elements and fission products. The fuel fabrication equipment will then convert this plutonium and uranium mixture into readily usable metal fuel.

  11. Development of a micro distillery for fuel alcohol in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Hulett, D.J.L.

    1981-10-01

    The design, operation and capital cost of a MICRO distillery in Brazil are outlined. The distillery, which produces hydrated ethyl alcohol at a rate of less than 5,000 litres/day is extremely simple, inexpensive and easy to run, needing at most five people per shift to operate. The initial investment, per litre of capacity installed, is approximately one third that of the large distilleries. The ideal feedstocks are sugar cane and sweet sorghum.

  12. Alcohol fuels: the Brazilian experience and its implications for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nemir, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Brazil's experience in the use of ethyl alcohol, produced from sugar cane, as a motor fuel in the pure form or in the form of a 20 percent additive to gasoline, is examined. The production of ethanol was 4.2 billion liters from 1981 to 1982 and the plan calls for the production of 5.2 billion liters between 1982 and 1983. The total number of motor vehicles in Brazil which operate on pure alcohol reached 900,000 by the end of 1983 and the expenditure of alcohol in them reached 3 billion liters. The expansion of the use of ethanol as a motor fuel must substantially reduce Brazilian expenditures on the import of oil products, improve the use of agricultural resources and increase the labor force in agriculture. An analogous experience is justified for the U.S.A., but sugar beets must serve as the raw material for the production of ethanol in their case.

  13. Proceedings of the international conference on (fuel) alcohols and chemicals from biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 12 selections. Some of the titles are: Specialty genetics in maize breeding as it relates to product design; Recovery of glycerol from still bottoms; Technology of the rum industry; The use of immobilized enzyme/yeast product for the continuous production of ethanol from liquefied starch; and Current national and international issues in the fuel alcohol industry.

  14. 75 FR 82069 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and published its most recent previous determination for the 2010 amount in the Federal Register of December 23, 2009 (74 FR 68282). The Commission uses official statistics... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  15. 76 FR 82320 - Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ... its notice instituting this investigation in the Federal Register of March 21, 1990 (55 FR 10512), and..., 2010 (75 FR 82069). By order of the Commission. James R. Holbein, Secretary. BILLING CODE 7020-02-P ... COMMISSION Ethyl Alcohol for Fuel Use: Determination of the Base Quantity of Imports AGENCY: United...

  16. Alcohol fuels from biomass in Brazil: a comparative assessment of methanol and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The prospect of an unprecedented production of ethanol for use as fuel has raised two general types of questions: (a) is sugar cane/ethanol the most cost-effective feedstock/product combination for a Brazilian alcohol-fuels program. (b) What are the potential environmental impacts of increased alcohol-fuels production, especially with respect to water quality and land use. This study uses a linear-programming model to evaluate options for future alcohol-fuels production in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The results indicate that: (a) the expansion of alcohol distilleries located adjacent to sugar refineries was the best strategy for the first phase of the Program; (b) in the future, the use of wood methanol could be less costly than sugar ethanol produced in independent distilleries; (c) ethanol from manioc can be competitive only if the cost of manioc falls to half of its current value, but manioc could be used immediately as a backup feedstock in the sugar-cane off-season; (d) the displacement of other crops by sugar cane, as measured by current land prices, seems to have little impact on the cost of ethanol, but could pose problems in terms of increased food prices and loss of foreign exchange; (e) the enforcement of regional water-quality standards would require relocation of distilleries in order to protect areas which already show high levels of pollution; (f) from the standpoint of gasoline substitution, the use of pure alcohol fuels should be expanded as much as possible.

  17. Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... as well as injuries, liver disease, heart disease, cancer, and other health problems. It can also cause problems at home, at work, and with friends. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  18. The economic production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas

    SciTech Connect

    Kugler, E.L.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Yang, R.Y.K.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this project are to discover, (1) study and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. Specifically, alternative methods of preparing catalysts are to be investigated, and novel catalysts, including sulfur-tolerant ones, are to be pursued. (Task 1); (2) explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (Task 1); (3) simulate by computer the most energy efficient and economically efficient process for converting coal to energy, with primary focus on converting syngas to fuel alcohols. (Task 2); (4) develop on the bench scale the best holistic combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor and total process configuration integrated with the overall coal conversion process to achieve economic optimization for the conversion of syngas to liquid products within the framework of achieving the maximum cost effective transformation of coal to energy equivalents. (Tasks 1 and 2); and (5) evaluate the combustion, emission and performance characteristics of fuel alcohols and blends of alcohols with petroleum-based fuels. (Task 2)

  19. Intermediate Alcohol-Gasoline Blends, Fuels for Enabling Increased Engine Efficiency and Powertrain Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Splitter, Derek A; Szybist, James P

    2014-01-01

    The present study experimentally investigates spark-ignited combustion with 87 AKI E0 gasoline in its neat form and in mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends with 24% vol./vol. iso-butanol-gasoline (IB24) and 30% vol./vol. ethanol-gasoline (E30). A single-cylinder research engine is used with a low and high compression ratio of 9.2:1 and 11.85:1 respectively. The engine is equipped with hydraulically actuated valves, laboratory intake air, and is capable of external exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All fuels are operated to full-load conditions with =1, using both 0% and 15% external cooled EGR. The results demonstrate that higher octane number bio-fuels better utilize higher compression ratios with high stoichiometric torque capability. Specifically, the unique properties of ethanol enabled a doubling of the stoichiometric torque capability with the 11.85:1 compression ratio using E30 as compared to 87 AKI, up to 20 bar IMEPg at =1 (with 15% EGR, 18.5 bar with 0% EGR). EGR was shown to provide thermodynamic advantages with all fuels. The results demonstrate that E30 may further the downsizing and downspeeding of engines by achieving increased low speed torque, even with high compression ratios. The results suggest that at mid-level alcohol-gasoline blends, engine and vehicle optimization can offset the reduced fuel energy content of alcohol-gasoline blends, and likely reduce vehicle fuel consumption and tailpipe CO2 emissions.

  20. Utilization of concentrated cheese whey for the production of protein concentrate fuel alcohol and alcoholic beverages

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurti, R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to recover the major components of whey and to develop food applications for their incorporation/conversion into acceptable products of commercial value. Reconstituted dried sweet whey with 36% solids was ultrafiltered to yield a protein concentrate (WPC) and a permeate containing 24% lactose and 3.7% ash. Orange juice fortified up to 2.07% and chocolate milks fortified up to 5.88% total protein levels with WPC containing 45% total protein were acceptable to about 90% of a panel of 24 individuals. Fermentation of demineralized permeate at 30/sup 0/C with Kluyveromyces fragilis NRRL Y 2415 adapted to 24% lactose levels, led to 13.7% (v/v) ethanol in the medium at the end of 34 hours. Batch productivity was 3.2 gms. ethanol per liter per hour and conversion efficiency was 84.26% of the theoretical maximum. Alcoholic fermentation of permeate and subsequent distillation produced compounds with desirable aroma characters in such products. This study suggests that there is potential for the production of protein fortified non-alcoholic products and alcoholic beverages of commercial value from whey, thus providing a cost effective solution to the whey utilization problem.

  1. Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliguri, Joseph P., Ed.

    This extensive annotated bibliography provides a compilation of documents retreived from a computerized search of the ERIC, Social Science Citation Index, and Med-Line databases on the topic of alcoholism. The materials address the following areas of concern: (1) attitudes toward alcohol users and abusers; (2) characteristics of alcoholics and…

  2. Properties and performance testing with blends of biomass alcohols, vegetable oils and diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Vinyard, S.; Hawkins, L.; Renoll, E.S.; Bunt, R.C.; Goodling, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    This paper is a presentation of results from three related efforts to determine the technical feasibility of using alcohols and vegetable oils blended with Diesel oil as fuel for unmodified compression ignition engines. Several different vegetable oils were successfully tested in a single cylinder engine. Sunflower oil was blended from 50% to 80% by volume with Diesel fuel and used in a multicylinder engine. Thermophysical property data were gathered on pure and blended fuels and are reported. A spray parameter, epsilon, was found which would predict the necessary change in valve opening pressure to render the atomization of the new fuel similar to that for which the injection system was designed. Engine testing showed that fuel consumption was substantially reduced upon setting the injectors at the new VOP. 2 figures, 1 table.

  3. Electrocatalysis: A Direct Alcohol Fuel Cell and Surface Science Perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Braunchweig, B; Hibbitts, David D; Neurock, Matthew; Wieckowski, A.

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have enabled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis. More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation of C-1 and C-2 alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the influence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis. Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Electrocatalysis: A direct alcohol fuel cell and surface science perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Braunchweig, B; Neurock, Matthew; Wieckowski, A.; Hibbitts, David D

    2012-01-01

    In this report, we discuss some of the advances in surface science and theory that have ena bled a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that govern the electrocatalysis.More specifically, we examine in detail the electrooxidation ofC1 and Cz alcohol molecules in both acidic and basic media. A combination of detailed in situ spectroscopic measurements along with density functional theory calculations have helped to establish the mechanisms that control the reaction paths and the innuence of acidic and alkaline media. We discuss some of the synergies and differences between electrocatalysis and aqueous phase heterogeneous catalysis.Such analyses begin to establish a common language and framework by which to compare as well as advance both fields.

  5. Alcohol-Fuel-Technology Grant Program: an evaluation and summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This report summarizes the research projects with respect to one of five process areas into which each was grouped. The process areas are feedstock preparation, feedstock conversion, product recovery, byproduct recovery, and end use. These areas encompass the conversion of biomass to fuels and the consumption of the fuels. In each of these process areas there are research needs which, if achieved, will provide improved economic feasibility for production. These needs revolve around improved alternate feedstocks, better conversion, lower energy, recycling of the biocatalysts, reduced energy input, less capital intensive recovery of byproducts and expanded byproduct markets. All of the short term projects in this program have directed these investigations to one of these needs. Some of these projects have achieved breakthroughs or shown insight into achieving an improved process. A more detailed technical abstract of each project is available in the Appendix. Within these reviews, the uniqueness of the individual project and its accomplishments are discussed.

  6. Alcohol as a fuel for farm and construction equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, G L; Foster, D E; Meyers, P S; Uyehara, O A

    1982-06-01

    Work in three areas dealing with the utilization of ethanol as fuel for farm and construction diesels is summarized. The first part is a review of what is known about the retrofitting of diesels for use of ethanol and the combustion problems involved. The second part is a discussion of the work that has been done under the contract on the performance of a single-cylinder, open-chamber diesel using solutions and emulsions of diesel fuel with ethanol. Data taken include performance, emissions and cylinder pressure-time for diesel fuel with zero to forty percent ethanol by volume. Analysis of the data includes calculation of heat release rates using a single zone model. The third part is a discussion of work done retrofitting a multicylinder turbocharged farm tractor diesel to use ethanol by fumigation. Three methods of ethanol introduction are discussed; spraying ethanol upstream and downstream of the compressor and prevaporization of the ethanol. Data on performance and emissions are given for the last two methods. A three zone heat release model is described and results from the model are given. A correlation of the ignition delay using prevaporized ethanol fumigation data is also given. Comparisons are made between fumigation in DI and IDI engines.

  7. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  8. Plant fatty acyl reductases: enzymes generating fatty alcohols for protective layers with potential for industrial applications.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Owen; Domergue, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    Primary fatty alcohols are found throughout the biological world, either in free form or in a combined state. They are common components of plant surface lipids (i.e. cutin, suberin, sporopollenin, and associated waxes) and their absence can significantly perturb these essential barriers. Fatty alcohols and/or derived compounds are also likely to have direct functions in plant biotic and abiotic interactions. An evolutionarily related set of alcohol-forming fatty acyl reductases (FARs) is present in all kingdoms of life. Plant microsomal and plastid-associated FAR enzymes have been characterized, acting on acyl-coenzymeA (acyl-CoA) or acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) substrates, respectively. FARs have distinct substrate specificities both with regard to chain length and chain saturation. Fatty alcohols and wax esters, which are a combination of fatty alcohol and fatty acid, have a variety of commercial applications. The expression of FARs with desired specificities in transgenic microbes or oilseed crops would provide a novel means of obtaining these valuable compounds. In the present review, we report on recent progress in characterizing plant FAR enzymes and in understanding the biological roles of primary fatty alcohols, as well as describe the biotechnological production and industrial uses of fatty alcohols. PMID:22794916

  9. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.; Chum, H.L.; Evans, R.J.; Rejai, B.; Bain, R.L.; Overend, R.P.

    1996-04-02

    A process is described for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols. 35 figs.

  10. Process to convert biomass and refuse derived fuel to ethers and/or alcohols

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.; Chum, Helena L.; Evans, Robert J.; Rejai, Bahman; Bain, Richard L.; Overend, Ralph P.

    1996-01-01

    A process for conversion of a feedstock selected from the group consisting of biomass and refuse derived fuel (RDF) to provide reformulated gasoline components comprising a substantial amount of materials selected from the group consisting of ethers, alcohols, or mixtures thereof, comprising: drying said feedstock; subjecting said dried feedstock to fast pyrolysis using a vortex reactor or other means; catalytically cracking vapors resulting from said pyrolysis using a zeolite catalyst; condensing any aromatic byproduct fraction; catalytically alkylating any benzene present in said vapors after condensation; catalytically oligomerizing any remaining ethylene and propylene to higher olefins; isomerizing said olefins to reactive iso-olefins; and catalytically reacting said iso-olefins with an alcohol to form ethers or with water to form alcohols.

  11. The effects of fuel additives on alcohol exhaust and evaporative emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Espinola, S.A.; Nebolon, J.F.; Pepley, R.K.; Tamura, A.T.

    1982-06-01

    As a result of the past decade of evaluation, the technical feasibility of alcohols as extenders and substitutes for gasoline in spark ignited engines has been generally established both with regards to performance and emissions. One of the problem areas is cold starting and warm-up driveability. High heats of vaporation and low vapor pressures at low temperatures of the alcohols are the cause of these problems. Current solutions include electric heating, separate fuel supply, and the addition of volatile components to the alcohol such as gasoline, isopentane and dimethyl ether. The alcohols typically are as clean burning or cleaner burning than gasoline. The effect on regulated emissions from using additives needs to be included in the evaluation of cold starting additives. This assessment should include consideration of total hydrocarbons as well as detailed hydrocarbons for photochemical impact and flame ionization detector responsivity. This paper presents an examination of the emissions evidence from two three-way catalysts equipped vehicles: A 1980 Ford Pinto and a 1981 Volkswagon Rabbit. The test fuels were neat methanol and a 5.5% (by mass) isopentane/methanol blend.

  12. 27 CFR 19.672 - Types of plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of plants. 19.672... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.672 Types of plants. There are three types of alcohol fuel plants: Small plants, medium...

  13. Comparative analysis of plant oil based fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.J.; Haines, H.; Huong, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the evaluation results from the analysis of different blends of fuels using the 13-mode standard SAE testing method. Six high oleic safflower oil blends, six ester blends, six high oleic sunflower oil blends, and six sunflower oil blends were used in this portion of the investigation. Additionally, the results from the repeated 13-mode tests for all the 25/75% mixtures with a complete diesel fuel test before and after each alternative fuel are presented.

  14. Cost and quality of fuels for electric plants 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Cost and Quality of Fuels for Electric Utility Plants (C&Q) presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  15. 27 CFR 19.739 - Authorized transfers to or from distilled spirits plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... may not be withdrawn, used, sold, or disposed of for other than fuel use; (d) An alcohol fuel plant... Spirits for Fuel Use Transfer of Spirits to and from Distilled Spirits Plants § 19.739 Authorized... coal, a proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may receive spirits in bond from a distilled spirits...

  16. DEMONSTRATION OF A 200-KILOWATT BIOMASS FUELED POWER PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the demonstration of a 200-kW biomass-fueled electric power plant. he objective of the demonstration is to evaluate the operating and performance characteristics of the system using lumber wastes for fuel. t is scheduled to accumulate 8000 hours of operation o...

  17. Prospects for advanced coal-fuelled fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, D.; Vanderlaag, P. C.; Oudhuis, A. B. J.; Ribberink, J. S.

    1994-04-01

    As part of ECN's in-house R&D programs on clean energy conversion systems with high efficiencies and low emissions, system assessment studies have been carried out on coal gasification power plants integrated with high-temperature fuel cells (IGFC). The studies also included the potential to reduce CO2 emissions, and to find possible ways for CO2 extraction and sequestration. The development of this new type of clean coal technology for large-scale power generation is still far off. A significant market share is not envisaged before the year 2015. To assess the future market potential of coal-fueled fuel cell power plants, the promise of this fuel cell technology was assessed against the performance and the development of current state-of-the-art large-scale power generation systems, namely the pulverized coal-fired power plants and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants. With the anticipated progress in gas turbine and gas clean-up technology, coal-fueled fuel cell power plants will have to face severe competition from advanced IGCC power plants, despite their higher efficiency.

  18. Direct alcohol fuel cells: Increasing platinum performance by modification with sp-group metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Marta C.; Sorsa, Olli; Doan, Nguyet; Pohjalainen, Elina; Hildebrand, Helga; Schmuki, Patrik; Wilson, Benjamin P.; Kallio, Tanja

    2015-02-01

    By using sp group metals as modifiers, the catalytic properties of Pt can be improved toward alcohols oxidation. In this work we report the performance increase of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) fuelled with ethanol or 2-propanol with platinum based anode electrodes modified with Bi and Sb adatoms. For example, by simply adding Sb to the Pt/C based anode ink during membrane electrode assembly fabrication of a direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) its performance is improved three-fold, with more than 100 mV increase in the open circuit potential. For the fuel cell fuelled with 2-propanol high power densities are obtained at very high potentials with these catalyst materials suggesting a great improvement for practical applications. Particularly in the case of Pt/C-Bi, the improvement is such that within 0.6 V (from 0.7 to 0.1 V) the power densities are between 7 and 9 mW/cm2. The results obtained with these catalysts are in the same range as those obtained with other bimetallic catalysts comprising of PtRu and PtSn, which are currently considered to be the best for these type of fuel cells and that are obtained by more complicated (and consequently more expensive) methods.

  19. Alcohol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schibeci, Renato

    1996-01-01

    Describes the manufacturing of ethanol, the effects of ethanol on the body, the composition of alcoholic drinks, and some properties of ethanol. Presents some classroom experiments using ethanol. (JRH)

  20. Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-01

    Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteria are genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuel—in this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLA’s electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

  1. Recommended guidelines for solid fuel use in cement plants

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.L.; Jayaraman, H.; Tseng, H.

    2007-07-01

    Pulverized solid fuel use at cement plants in North America is universal and includes bituminous and sub-bituminous coal, petroleum coke, and any combination of these materials. Provided are guidelines for the safe use of pulverized solid fuel systems in cement plants, including discussion of the National Fire Protection Association and FM Global fire and explosion prevention standards. Addressed are fire and explosion hazards related to solid fuel use in the cement industry, fuel handling and fuel system descriptions, engineering design theory, kiln system operations, electrical equipment, instrumentation and safety interlock issues, maintenance and training, and a brief review of code issues. New technology on fire and explosion prevention including deflagration venting is also presented.

  2. Alcohol-fueled vehicles: An alternative fuels vehicle, emissions, and refueling infrastructure technology assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.; Lyons, J.K.

    1993-06-01

    Interest in alternative motor vehicle fuels has grown tremendously over the last few years. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, the National Energy Policy Act of 1992 and the California Clean Air Act are primarily responsible for this resurgence and have spurred both the motor fuels and vehicle manufacturing industries into action. For the first time, all three U.S. auto manufacturers are offering alternative fuel vehicles to the motoring public. At the same time, a small but growing alternative fuels refueling infrastructure is beginning to develop across the country. Although the recent growth in alternative motor fuels use is impressive, their market niche is still being defined. Environmental regulations, a key driver behind alternative fuel use, is forcing both car makers and the petroleum industry to clean up their products. As a result, alternative fuels no longer have a lock on the clean air market and will have to compete with conventional vehicles in meeting stringent future vehicle emission standards. The development of cleaner burning gasoline powered vehicles has signaled a shift in the marketing of alternative fuels. While they will continue to play a major part in the clean vehicle market, alternative fuels are increasingly recognized as a means to reduce oil imports. This new role is clearly defined in the National Energy Policy Act of 1992. The Act identifies alternative fuels as a key strategy for reducing imports of foreign oil and mandates their use for federal and state fleets, while reserving the right to require private and municipal fleet use as well.

  3. The market for utility-scale fuel cell plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Masaru; Takasu, Kazuhiko

    This paper is devoted to a survey of the current technology and future market for utility-scale fuel cell plants. The phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) is entering into the stage where it is practically available for use with natural gas. Large capacity plants such as 11, 5 and 1 MW have been installed and operated in Italy and Japan. Their efficiency ranges from 36 to 42%. The molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) is in the demonstrating stage, both the fuel cell and the balance-of-plant (BOP) for natural gas. Demonstration plants of 2 and 1 MW have been under construction in the USA and Japan. Their efficiency will range from 40 to 50%. The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is in the experimental stage around 100 kW for co-generation. Its conceptual system design has been conducted for both centralized and dispersed power plant in a cooperation with Westinghouse and NEDO. A market survey is now considered on the basis that future fuel cells will run for around 40 000 h in a stable manner with competitive performance. The market for fuel cells will be roughly at 2000 MW in Japan by the year 2010. Half of them will be installed for electric companies on the utility scale. The market will be shared between PAFC and MCFC by 10 and 90%, respectively. Current technologies have not reached the stage to precisely forecast when fuel cells will be entering into the market on a utility scale. At the present time, it is worthwhile to consider how the technological and economic requirements will be definitely achieved. After achieving these requirements, fuel cells will be positively introduced and socially accepted as the best energy converting option to save energy and environmental impact. Further efforts will be devoted to meeting the market from the technological and economic aspects.

  4. Investigation and demonstration of a rich combustor cold-start device for alcohol-fueled engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, J W; Irick, D K

    1998-04-01

    The authors have completed a study in which they investigated the use of a rich combustor to aid in cold starting spark-ignition engines fueled with either neat ethanol or neat methanol. The rich combustor burns the alcohol fuel outside the engine under fuel-rich conditions to produce a combustible product stream that is fed to the engine for cold starting. The rich combustor approach significantly extends the cold starting capability of alcohol-fueled engines. A design tool was developed that simulates the operation of the combustor and couples it to an engine/vehicle model. This tool allows the user to determine the fuel requirements of the rich combustor as the vehicle executes a given driving mission. The design tool was used to design and fabricate a rich combustor for use on a 2.8 L automotive engine. The system was tested using a unique cold room that allows the engine to be coupled to an electric dynamometer. The engine was fitted with an aftermarket engine control system that permitted the fuel flow to the rich combustor to be programmed as a function of engine speed and intake manifold pressure. Testing indicated that reliable cold starts were achieved on both neat methanol and neat ethanol at temperatures as low as {minus}20 C. Although starts were experienced at temperatures as low as {minus}30 C, these were erratic. They believe that an important factor at the very low temperatures is the balance between the high mechanical friction of the engine and the low energy density of the combustible mixture fed to the engine from the rich combustor.

  5. Projecting plant economics for wind, wood, and waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.M.; Rundle, W.L.; Strauss, S.D.

    1983-02-01

    This article provides economic analyses for three alternative energy sources which are technically feasible--wind, wood, and solid waste. Total installation cost must be taken into account: base capital cost, engineering, environmental, and installation costs. Contingencies, owner's and working capital, fuel inventories, and escalation allowance for funds during construction are also considered. Cash flow projection then provides an estimate of the percentage of total expenditure during the preconstruction phase. In wood plants, fuel cost will be a critical factor. In solid waste plants, small scale modular incinerators are used. The turbine generator is the other capital cost. The above methodology allows analysis of the economics of plants using various energies.

  6. Characterization of exhaust emissions from alcohol-fueled vehicles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.R.

    1985-05-01

    The report describes the laboratory effort to develop analytical techniques to characterize exhaust emissions from neat methanol and ethanol-fueled vehicles. Analytical techniques were developed or modified to allow the measurement of methanol, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, methyl nitrite, and formic and acetic acid in both raw and CVS-diluted exhaust. The methods were validated, qualified, and then used to evaluate exhaust emissions from a 1981 Ford Escort chassis with a 1983 1.6-liter methanol-fueled Ford Escort engine. The vehicle was evaluated over the Light-Duty Federal Test Procedure (FTP) and at 30 and 55 mph steady-state operation both with and without a catalytic converter. In addition to testing conducted with the 90% methanol/10% gasoline fuel blend for which the Ford Escort engine was designed, testing was also conducted with 100% methanol fuel. Other areas investigated included unburned fuel hydrocarbon composition, FID response correction for alcohols as compared with propane, and losses of unburned fuel and aldehydes in the sampling system.

  7. Ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as an aviation fuel: Eleventh international symposium on alcohol fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Maben, G.D.; Shauck, M.E.; Zanin, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the preliminary flight testing of an aircraft using neat burning ethyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (ETBE) as a fuel. No additional changes were made to the fuel delivery systems which had previously been modified to provide the higher fuel flow rates required to operate the engine on neat ethanol. Air-fuel ratios were manually adjusted with the mixture control. This system allows the pilot to adjust the mixture to compensate for changes in air density caused by altitude, pressure and temperature. The engine was instrumented to measure exhaust gas temperatures (EGT), cylinder head temperatures (CHT), and fuel flows, while the standard aircraft instruments were used to collect aircraft performance data. Baseline engine data for ETBE and Avgas are compared. Preliminary data indicates the technical and economic feasibility of using ETBE as an aviation fuel for the piston engine fleet. Furthermore, the energy density of ETBE qualifies it as a candidate for a turbine engine fuel of which 16.2 billion gallons are used in the US each year.

  8. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    Two base case flow sheets have now been prepared. In the first, which was originally presented in TPR4, a Texaco gasifier is used. Natural gas is also burned in sufficient quantity to increase the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of the synthesis gas to the required value of 1. 1 for alcohol synthesis. Acid gas clean up and sulfur removal are accomplished using the Rectisol process followed by the Claus and Beavon processes. About 10% of the synthesis gas is sent to a power generation unit in order to produce electric power, with the remaining 90% used for alcohol synthesis. For this process, the estimated installed cost is $474.2 mm. The estimated annual operating costs are $64.5 MM. At a price of alcohol fuels in the vicinity of $1. 00/gal, the pay back period for construction of this plant is about four years. The details of this case, called Base Case 1, are presented in Appendix 1. The second base case, called Base Case 2, also has a detailed description and explanation in Appendix 1. In Base Case 2, a Lurgi Gasifier is used. The motivation for using a Lurgi Gasifier is that it runs at a lower temperature and pressure and, therefore, produces by-products such as coal liquids which can be sold. Based upon the economics of joint production, discussed in Technical Progress Report 4, this is a necessity. Since synthesis gas from natural gas is always less expensive to produce than from coal, then alcohol fuels will always be less expensive to produce from natural gas than from coal. Therefore, the only way to make coal- derived alcohol fuels economically competitive is to decrease the cost of production of coal-derived synthesis gas. one method for accomplishing this is to sell the by-products from the gasification step. The details of this strategy are discussed in Appendix 3.

  9. Integrated energy production and reduction of the environmental impact at alcohol distillery plants.

    PubMed

    van Haandel, A C

    2005-01-01

    In Brazil cane is being been grown at large scale to produce alcohol as an automotive fuel. Alcohol is the sole product, but there is generation of a large quantity of gaseous (CO2), liquid (vinasse) and solid (bagasse) by-products, which currently have very little or even negative value. By using steam turbines fuelled with bagasse combustion, electric power can be generated at a rate of 1 MWh per m3 of produced alcohol. Anaerobic digestion can be applied to vinasse to produce enough biogas for 0.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol, bringing total electric power production from subproducts to 1.5 MWh per m3 of alcohol. These operations are presently implemented at some distilleries at full scale. It has been shown at bench scale that by applying anaerobic digestion also to bagasse and burning the non-biodegradable residual, the power output can be increased to 2.25 MWh per m3 of alcohol, but the economic feasibility of this option depends on the maximum loading rate of the bagasse digester and the energy price. At the current alcohol production level of 13 x 10(6) m3/year, the power generation potential is 2.2 GW, which represents 4% of the power demand in Brazil. The digested waste water contains about 70% of the nutrient demand of the cane fields, which can be recycled. A preliminary economic evaluation shows that productive use of the subproducts of alcohol distilleries is economically feasible if the price is more than US$30 per MWHh, which is the current sales price in Brazil. Another important advantage of the rational use of by-products is that the generation of electric power has the potential to reduce the emission of CO2 to the atmosphere by 0.8-1.2t per m3 of alcohol compared to generation using natural gas. PMID:16180408

  10. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) net petroleum gain; (2) net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end user.

  11. ENERGY PRODUCTION AND POLLUTION PREVENTION AT SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS USING FUEL CELL POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses energy production and pollution prevention at sewage treatment plants using fuel cell power plants. Anaerobic digester gas (ADG) is produced at waste water treatment plants during the anaerobic treatment of sewage to reduce solids. The major constituents are...

  12. Neat methanol fuel cell power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abens, S.; Farooque, M.

    1985-12-01

    Attention is given to a fuel cell development effort which has been directed, by ease-of-supply, low weight, and low volume criteria toward the use of undiluted methanol. Partial oxidation and internal water recovery concepts are incorporated, allowing the onboard dilution of methanol fuel through mixing with exhaust-recovered water. This scheme is successfully demonstrated for the case of a 3 kW unit employing commercial cross flow heat exchangers, as well as for a 5 kW reformer flue exhaust water recovery design with U.S. Air force baseload stationary applications. The USAF powerplant has an overall thermal efficiency of 32 percent at rated load.

  13. Shuttle orbter fuel cell power plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is one of the three fuel cells that make up the generating system which provides electrical power to the space shuttle orbiter. Each unit measures 14 inches (35 centimeters) high, 15 inches (38 centimeters) wide, 40 inches (101 centimeters) long and weighs 200 pounds.

  14. Production of ethyl alcohol by fermentation and its utilization as automotive fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, J.E.

    1980-03-01

    Alcohol has an excellent future as a fuel, and its large-scale production from sugar-bearing feedstocks should definitely be a stabilizing factor in the economics of the international sugar industry. This article approaches the subject from the sugar industry viewpoint, with emphasis on the underdeveloped countries. The economic data presented here are only approximations so as to give some idea as to the order of magnitude of the capital and operating costs involved. All economic projections are based on conditions prevailing during the third quarter of 1979.

  15. A technique to measure fuel oil viscosity in a fuel power plant.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo, Miguel Angel; Ibargüengoytia, Pablo H; García, Uriel A

    2016-01-01

    The viscosity measurement and control of fuel oil in power plants is very important for a proper combustion. However, the conventional viscometers are only reliable for a short period of time. This paper proposes an on-line analytic viscosity evaluation based on energy balance applied to a piece of tube entering the fuel oil main heater and a new control strategy for temperature control. This analytic evaluation utilizes a set of temperature versus viscosity graphs were defined during years of analysis of fuel oil in Mexican power plants. Also the temperature set-point for the fuel oil main heater output is obtained by interpolating in the corresponding graph. Validation tests of the proposed analytic equations were carried out in the Tuxpan power plant in Veracruz, Mexico. PMID:26652127

  16. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburt, Corinne

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

  17. HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

    1980-10-01

    The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

  18. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  19. The importance of aeration strategy in fuel alcohol fermentations contaminated with Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts.

    PubMed

    Abbott, D A; Ingledew, W M

    2005-11-01

    Whole corn mash fermentations infected with industrially-isolated Brettanomyces yeasts were not affected even when viable Brettanomyces yeasts out-numbered Saccharomyces yeasts tenfold at the onset of fermentation. Therefore, aeration, a parameter that is pivotal to the physiology of Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts, was investigated in mixed culture fermentations. Results suggest that aeration strategy plays a significant role in Dekkera/Brettanomyces-mediated inhibition of fuel alcohol fermentations. Although growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was not impeded, mixed culture fermentations aerated at rates of > or =20 ml air l(-1) mash min(-1) showed decreased ethanol yields and an accumulation of acetic acid. The importance of aeration was examined further in combination with organic acid(s). Growth of Saccharomyces occurred more rapidly than growth of Brettanomyces yeasts in all conditions. The combination of 0.075% (w/v) acetic acid and contamination with Brettanomyces TK 1404W did not negatively impact the final ethanol yield under fermentative conditions. Aeration, however, did prove to be detrimental to final ethanol yields. With the inclusion of aeration in the control condition (no organic acid stress) and in each fermentation containing organic acid(s), the final ethanol yields were decreased. It was therefore concluded that aeration strategy is the key parameter in regards to the negative effects observed in fuel alcohol fermentations infected with Dekkera/Brettanomyces yeasts. PMID:15782293

  20. Detection of adulteration in hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel using infrared spectroscopy and supervised pattern recognition methods.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adenilton Camilo; Pontes, Liliana Fátima Bezerra Lira; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pontes, Márcio José Coelho

    2012-05-15

    This paper proposes an analytical method to detect adulteration of hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel based on near infrared (NIR) and middle infrared (MIR) spectroscopies associated with supervised pattern recognition methods. For this purpose, linear discriminant analysis (LDA) was employed to build a classification model on the basis of a reduced subset of wavenumbers. For variable selection, three techniques are considered, namely the successive projection algorithm (SPA), the genetic algorithm (GA) and a stepwise formulation (SW). For comparison, models based on partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were also employed using full-spectrum. The method was validated in a case study involving the classification of 181 hydrated ethyl alcohol fuel samples, which were divided into three different classes: (1) authentic samples; (2) samples adulterated with water and (3) samples contaminated with methanol. LDA/GA and PLS-DA models were found to be the best methods for classifying the spectral data obtained in NIR region, which achieved a correct prediction rate of 100% in the test set, while the LDA/SPA and LDA/SW were correctly classified at 84.4% and 97.8%, respectively. For MIR data, all models (PLS-DA and LDA coupled with the SW, SPA and GA) employed in this study correctly classified all samples in the test set. PMID:22483888

  1. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT TERMINAL ISLAND WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-01

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Terminal Island 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from June 2003 to July 2004.

  2. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  3. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-14

    This document presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. Purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate, timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  4. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-02

    This publication presents an annual summary of statistics at the national, Census division, State, electric utility, and plant levels regarding the quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels used to produce electricity. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decision-makers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on issues regarding electric power.

  5. Microbial production of fatty-acid-derived fuels and chemicals from plant biomass.

    PubMed

    Steen, Eric J; Kang, Yisheng; Bokinsky, Gregory; Hu, Zhihao; Schirmer, Andreas; McClure, Amy; Del Cardayre, Stephen B; Keasling, Jay D

    2010-01-28

    Increasing energy costs and environmental concerns have emphasized the need to produce sustainable renewable fuels and chemicals. Major efforts to this end are focused on the microbial production of high-energy fuels by cost-effective 'consolidated bioprocesses'. Fatty acids are composed of long alkyl chains and represent nature's 'petroleum', being a primary metabolite used by cells for both chemical and energy storage functions. These energy-rich molecules are today isolated from plant and animal oils for a diverse set of products ranging from fuels to oleochemicals. A more scalable, controllable and economic route to this important class of chemicals would be through the microbial conversion of renewable feedstocks, such as biomass-derived carbohydrates. Here we demonstrate the engineering of Escherichia coli to produce structurally tailored fatty esters (biodiesel), fatty alcohols, and waxes directly from simple sugars. Furthermore, we show engineering of the biodiesel-producing cells to express hemicellulases, a step towards producing these compounds directly from hemicellulose, a major component of plant-derived biomass. PMID:20111002

  6. The Role of Fuel Breaks in the Invasion of Nonnative Plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merriam, Kyle E.; Keeley, Jon E.; Beyers, Jan L.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary Fuel reduction projects have become an increasingly important component of state and federal fuels management programs. However, an unintended result of some pre-fire fuel manipulation projects may be the introduction of nonnative invasive plants. The establishment of nonnative plants within fuel breaks is a serious concern because the presence of invasive species in areas treated to reduce fuels could make adjacent wildland areas more susceptible to invasion, particularly following widespread disturbances such as fires. This report presents the results of a research project investigating the relationship between fuel reduction treatments and the invasion of nonnative plants. Throughout the rest of this document, we will collectively refer to these treatments as fuel breaks, although we sampled a range of fuel breaks described variously as fuel breaks, shaded fuel breaks, defensible fuel reduction zones, defensible fuel profile zones, fuel reduction projects, fuel management zones, wildfire protection zones, and community protection zones.

  7. Local biofuels power plants with fuel cell generators

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstroem, O.

    1996-12-31

    The fuel cell should be a most important option for Asian countries now building up their electricity networks. The fuel cell is ideal for the schemes for distributed generation which are more reliable and efficient than the centralized schemes so far favoured by the industrialized countries in the West. Not yet developed small combined cycle power plants with advanced radial gas turbines and compact steam turbines will be the competition. Hot combustion is favoured today but cold combustion may win in the long run thanks to its environmental advantages. Emission standards are in general determined by what is feasible with available technology. The simple conclusion is that the fuel cell has to prove that it is competitive to the turbines in cost engineering terms. A second most important requirement is that the fuel cell option has to be superior with respect to electrical efficiency.

  8. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  9. Studies and research concerning BNFP: spent fuel dry storage studies at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Kenneth J.

    1980-09-01

    Conceptual designs are presented utilizing the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant for the dry interim storage of spent light water reactor fuel. Studies were conducted to determine feasible approaches to storing spent fuel by methods other than wet pool storage. Fuel that has had an opportunity to cool for several years, or more, after discharge from a reactor is especially adaptable to dry storage since its thermal load is greatly reduced compared to the thermal load immediately following discharge. A thermal analysis was performed to help in determining the feasibility of various spent fuel dry storage concepts. Methods to reject the heat from dry storage are briefly discussed, which include both active and passive cooling systems. The storage modes reviewed include above and below ground caisson-type storage facilities and numerous variations of vault, or hot cell-type, storage facilities.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Pilot Plant and Hydrogen ICE Vehicle Testing

    SciTech Connect

    J. Francfort

    2005-03-01

    The U.S. Department Energy's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA) teamed with Electric Transportation Applications (ETA) and Arizona Public Service (APS) to develop the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant that produces and compresses hydrogen on site through an electrolysis process by operating a PEM fuel cell in reverse; natural gas is also compressed onsite. The Pilot Plant dispenses 100% hydrogen, 15 to 50% blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas (H/CNG), and 100% CNG via a credit card billing system at pressures up to 5,000 psi. Thirty internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles (including Daimler Chrysler, Ford and General Motors vehicles) are operating on 100% hydrogen and 15 to 50% H/CNG blends. Since the Pilot Plant started operating in June 2002, they hydrogen and H/CNG ICE vehicels have accumulated 250,000 test miles.

  11. Interim and archival preservation of plant specimens in alcohols for DNA studies.

    PubMed

    Flournoy, L E; Adams, R P; Pandy, R N

    1996-04-01

    Three plant species, spinach, juniper and broccoli, were stored in different alcohol solutions, and the DNAs were examined to determine changes in the quality and quantity of DNA over time. The smallest changes in the genomic DNA were found in the samples stored in the lower mol wt alcohols (100% methanol and 100% and 95% ethanol) and when proteinase (Pronase E) was used in the extraction procedure. After 11 months of storage in ethanol, excellent yields of high mol wt DNA were obtained, but only when the procedure utilized Pronase E. The use of proteinase was found to be essential to obtain DNA from preserved specimens of spinach and broccoli. This appears to explain the previous reports of failures to obtain DNA from alcohol-preserved specimens. Vacuum infiltration of ethanol resulted in better DNA preservation than passive infiltration of ethanol. PMID:8800686

  12. Reduced Toxicity Fuel Satellite Propulsion System Including Fuel Cell Reformer with Alcohols Such as Methanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A reduced toxicity fuel satellite propulsion system including a reduced toxicity propellant supply for consumption in an axial class thruster and an ACS class thruster. The system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to the ACS decomposing element of an ACS thruster. The ACS decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot propulsive gases. In addition the system includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying the reduced toxicity propellant to an axial decomposing element of the axial thruster. The axial decomposing element is operative to decompose the reduced toxicity propellant into hot gases. The system further includes suitable valves and conduits for supplying a second propellant to a combustion chamber of the axial thruster, whereby the hot gases and the second propellant auto-ignite and begin the combustion process for producing thrust.

  13. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas: Case studies, design, and economics

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This project is a combination of process simulation and catalyst development aimed at identifying the most economical method for converting coal to syngas to linear higher alcohols to be used as oxygenated fuel additives. There are two tasks. The goal of Task 1 is to discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas, and to explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. The goal of Task 2 is to simulate, by computer, energy efficient and economically efficient processes for converting coal to energy (fuel alcohols and/or power). The primary focus is to convert syngas to fuel alcohols. This report contains results from Task 2. The first step for Task 2 was to develop computer simulations of alternative coal to syngas to linear higher alcohol processes, to evaluate and compare the economics and energy efficiency of these alternative processes, and to make a preliminary determination as to the most attractive process configuration. A benefit of this approach is that simulations will be debugged and available for use when Task 1 results are available. Seven cases were developed using different gasifier technologies, different methods for altering the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas to the desired 1.1/1, and with the higher alcohol fuel additives as primary products and as by-products of a power generation facility. Texaco, Shell, and Lurgi gasifier designs were used to test gasifying coal. Steam reforming of natural gas, sour gas shift conversion, or pressure swing adsorption were used to alter the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the syngas. In addition, a case using only natural gas was prepared to compare coal and natural gas as a source of syngas.

  14. Industrial fuel gas plant project. Phase II. Memphis industrial fuel gas plant. Final report. [U-GAS process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Industrial Fuel Gas Plant produces a nominal 50 billion Btu/day of product gas. The entire IFG production will be sold to MLGW. Under normal conditions, 20% of the output of the plant will be sold by MLGW to the local MAPCO refinery and exchanged for pipeline quality refinery gas. The MAPCO refinery gas will be inserted into the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System. A portion (normally 10%) of the IFG output of the plant will be diverted to a Credit Generation Unit, owned by MLGW, where the IFG will be upgraded to pipeline quality (950 Btu/SCF). This gas will be inserted into MLGW's Natural Gas Distribution System. The remaining output of the IFG plant (gas with a gross heating value of 300 Btu/SCF) will be sold by MLGW as Industrial Fuel Gas. During periods when the IFG plant is partially or totally off-stream, natural gas from the Memphis Natural Gas Distribution System will be sent to an air mixing unit where the gas will be diluted to a medium Btu content and distributed to the IFG customers. Drawing 2200-1-50-00104 is the plant block flow diagram showing the process sequence and process related support facilities of this industrial plant. Each process unit as well as each process-related support facility is described briefly.

  15. Commercial ballard PEM fuel cell natural gas power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, D.S.; Dunnison, D.; Cohen, R.

    1996-12-31

    The electric utility industry is in a period of rapid change. Deregulation, wholesale and retail wheeling, and corporate restructuring are forcing utilities to adopt new techniques for conducting their business. The advent of a more customer oriented service business with tailored solutions addressing such needs as power quality is a certain product of the deregulation of the electric utility industry. Distributed and dispersed power are fundamental requirements for such tailored solutions. Because of their modularity, efficiency and environmental benefits, fuel cells are a favored solution to implement distributed and dispersed power concepts. Ballard Power Systems has been working to develop and commercialize Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell power plants for stationary power markets. PEM`s capabilities of flexible operation and multiple market platforms bodes well for success in the stationary power market. Ballard`s stationary commercialization program is now in its second phase. The construction and successful operation of a 10 kW natural gas fueled, proof-of-concept power plant marked the completion of phase one. In the second phase, we are developing a 250 kW market entry power plant. This paper discusses Ballard`s power plant development plan philosophy, the benefits from this approach, and our current status.

  16. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities C Appendix C to Subpart E of Part 1980 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT...

  17. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOEpatents

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  18. Carbon dioxide separation from high temperature fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanari, Stefano

    High temperature fuel cell technologies, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs), are considered for their potential application to carbon dioxide emission control. Both technologies feature electrochemical oxidisation of natural gas reformed fuels, avoiding the mixture of air and fuel flows and dilution with nitrogen and oxygen of the oxidised products; a preliminary analysis shows how the different mechanism of ion transport attributes each technology a specific advantage for the application to CO 2 separation. The paper then compares in the first part the most promising cycle configurations based on high efficiency integrated SOFC/gas turbine "hybrid" cycles, where CO 2 is separated with absorption systems or with the eventual adoption of a second SOFC module acting as an "afterburner". The second part of the paper discusses how a MCFC plant could be "retrofitted" to a conventional fossil-fuel power station, giving the possibility of draining the majority of CO 2 from the stack exhaust while keeping the overall cycle electrical efficiency approximately unchanged.

  19. A Characterization Of Alcohol Fuel Vapor For Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy Applied To Microgravity Flame Spread

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, Michael J.; Perry, David S.; Miller, Fletcher; Piltch, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    A diode laser diagnostic is being developed for use in an ongoing investigation of flame spread in microgravity at NASA Glenn Research Center. Flame spread rates through non-homogenous gas mixtures are significantly different in a microgravity environment because of buoyancy and possibly hydrostatic pressure effects. These effects contribute to the fuel vapor concentration ahead of the flame being altered so that flame spread is more rapid in microgravity. This paper describes spectral transmission measurements made through mixtures of alcohol, water vapor, and nitrogen in a gas cell that was designed and built to allow measurements at temperatures up to 500 C. The alcohols considered are methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. The basic technique of wavelength modulation spectroscopy for gas species measurements in microgravity was developed by Silver et al. For this technique to be applicable, one must carefully choose the spectral features over which the diode laser is modulated to provide good sensitivity and minimize interference from other molecular lines such as those in water. Because the methanol spectrum was not known with sufficient resolution in the wavelength region of interest, our first task was to perform high-resolution transmission measurements with an FTIR spectrometer for methanol vapor in nitrogen, followed recently by ethanol and n-propanol. A computer program was written to generate synthesized data to mimic that expected from the experiment using the laser diode, and results from that simulation are also presented.

  20. Clean fuels from biomass. [feasibility of converting plant systems to fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Y. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of converting biomass to portable fuels is studied. Since plants synthesize biomass from H2O and CO2 with the help of solar energy, the conversion methods of pyrolysis, anaerobic fermentation, and hydrogenation are considered. Cost reduction methods and cost effectiveness are emphasized.

  1. 27 CFR 19.674 - TTB action on small plant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false TTB action on small plant applications. 19.674 Section 19.674 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel...

  2. Asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones to chiral alcohols catalyzed by plants tissue.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Rong; Yang, Gai; Wang, Yu; Li, Li-Zhen; Lv, Zao-Sheng; Yao, Man; Lai, Bin

    2008-09-01

    As an important organic compound, chiral alcohols are the key chiral building blocks to many single enantiomer pharmaceuticals. Asymmetric reduction of the corresponding prochiral ketones to produce the chiral alcohols by biocatalysis is one of the most promising routes. Asymmetric reduction of different kinds of non-natural prochiral ketones catalyzed by various plants tissue was studied in this work. Acetophenone, 4'-chloroacetophenone and ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate were chosen as the model substrates for simple ketone, halogen-containing aromatic ketone and beta-ketoesters, respectively. Apple (Malus pumila), carrot (Daucus carota), cucumber (Cucumis sativus), onion (Allium cepa), potato (Soanum tuberosum), radish (Raphanus sativus) and sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) were chosen as the biocatalysts. It was found that these kinds of prochiral ketoness could be reduced by these plants tissue with high enantioselectivity. Both R- and S-form configuration chiral alcohols could be obtained. The e.e. and chemical yield could reach about 98 and 80% respectively for acetophenone and 4'-chloroacetophenone reduction reaction with favorable plant tissue. And the e.e. and yield for ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate reduction reaction was about 91 and 45% respectively. PMID:18548304

  3. Neutron field characterisation at mixed oxide fuel plant.

    PubMed

    Passmore, C; Million, M; Kirr, M; Bartz, J; Akselrod, M S; Devita, A; Berard, J

    2012-06-01

    A neutron field characterisation was conducted at the AREVA Melox Plant to determine the response of passive and active neutron dosemeters for several stages in the mixed oxide fuel manufacturing process. Landauer Europe provides radiation dosimetry to many contractors working at the Melox site. The studies were conducted to assist in determining the neutron radiation fields the workers are exposed to routinely, evaluate the need for specific neutron correction factors and to ensure that the most accurate neutron dose is reported for the Melox Plant workers. PMID:22028415

  4. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  5. Modeling of an industrial alcohol fermentation and simulation of the plant by a process simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Pascal, F.; Corriou, J.P.; Pons, M.N.; Dagot, C.; Engasser, J.M.; Pingaud, H.

    1995-05-05

    The aim of the present study was the development of a general simulation module for fermentation within the framework of existing chemical process simulators. This module has been applied to an industrial plant which produces ethanol from beet molasses and fresh beet juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An unstructured mechanistic model has been developed with kinetic laws that are based on a chemically defined reaction scheme which satisfies stoichiometric constraints. This model can be applied to different culture conditions and takes into account secondary byproducts such as higher alcohols. These byproducts are of prime importance and need to be correctly estimated because a sequence of distillation columns follow the fermentor in the plant. Important measurement campaigns have been performed on the plant to validate the model. Plant operation has been successfully simulated using the same kinetic model for both continuous and fed-batch modes of production.

  6. Modeling of an industrial alcohol fermentation and simuiation of the plant by a process simulator.

    PubMed

    Pascal, F; Dagot, C; Pingaud, H; Corriou, J P; Pons, M N; Engasser, J M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of the present study was the development of a general simulation module for fermentation within the framework of existing chemical process simulators. This module has been applied to an industrial plant which produces ethanol from beet molasses and fresh beet juice by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An unstructured mechanistic model has been developed with kinetic laws that are based on a chemically defined reaction scheme which satisfies stoichiometric constraints. This model can be applied to different culture conditions and takes into account secondary byproducts such as higher alcohols. These byproducts are of prime importance and need to be correctly estimated because a sequence of distillation columns follow the fermentor in the plant. Important measurement campaigns have been performed on the plant to validate the model. Plant operation has been successfully simulated using the same kinetic model for both continuous and fed-batch modes of production. (c) 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:18623305

  7. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. PMID:25443096

  8. APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant - Monitoring System Report

    SciTech Connect

    James Francfort; Dimitri Hochard

    2005-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity (AVTA), along with Electric Transportation Applications and Arizona Pubic Service (APS), is monitoring the operations of the APS Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant to determine the costs to produce hydrogen fuels (including 100% hydrogen as well as hydrogen and compressed natural gas blends) for use by fleets and other operators of advanced-technology vehicles. The hydrogen fuel cost data will be used as benchmark data by technology modelers as well as research and development programs. The Pilot Plant can produce up to 18 kilograms (kg) of hydrogen per day by electrolysis. It can store up to 155 kg of hydrogen at various pressures up to 6,000 psi. The dispenser island can fuel vehicles with 100% hydrogen at 5,000 psi and with blends of hydrogen and compressed natural gas at 3,600 psi. The monitoring system was designed to track hydrogen delivery to each of the three storage areas and to monitor the use of electricity on all major equipment in the Pilot Plant, including the fuel dispenser island. In addition, water used for the electrolysis process is monitored to allow calculation of the total cost of plant operations and plant efficiencies. The monitoring system at the Pilot Plant will include about 100 sensors when complete (50 are installed to date), allowing for analysis of component, subsystems, and plant-level costs. The monitoring software is mostly off-the-shelve, with a custom interface. The majority of the sensors input to the Programmable Automation Controller as 4- to 20-mA analog signals. The plant can be monitored over of the Internet, but the control functions are restricted to the control room equipment. Using the APS general service plan E32 electric rate of 2.105 cents per kWh, during a recent eight-month period when 1,200 kg of hydrogen was produced and the plant capacity factor was 26%, the electricity cost to produce one kg of hydrogen was $3.43. However, the

  9. Need for higher fuel burnup at the Hatch Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Beckhman, J.T.

    1996-03-01

    Hatch is a BWR 4 and has been in operation for some time. The first unit became commercial about 1975. Obtaining higher burnups, or higher average discharge exposures, is nothing new at Hatch. Since we have started, the discharge exposure of the plant has increased. Now, of course, we are not approaching the numbers currently being discussed but, the average discharge exposure has increased from around 20,000 MWD/MTU in the early to mid-1980s to 34,000 MWD/MTU in 1994, I am talking about batch average values. There are also peak bundle and peak rod values. You will have to make the conversions if you think in one way or the other because I am talking in batch averages. During Hatch`s operating history we have had some problems with fuel failure. Higher burnup fuel raises a concern about how much fuel failure you are going to have. Fuel failure is, of course, an economic issue with us. Back in the early 1980s, we had a problem with crud-induced localized corrosion, known as CILC. We have gotten over that, but we had some times when it was up around 27 fuel failures a year. That is not a pleasant time to live through because it is not what you want from an economic viewpoint or any other. We have gotten that down. We have had some fuel failures recently, but they have not been related to fuel burnup or to corrosion. In fact, the number of failures has decreased from the early 1980s to the 90s even though burnup increased during that time. The fuel failures are more debris-related-type failures. In addition to increasing burnups, utilities are actively evaluating or have already incorporated power uprate and longer fuel cycles (e.g., 2-year cycles). The goal is to balance out the higher power density, longer cycles, higher burnup, and to have no leakers. Why do we as an industry want to have higher burnup fuel? That is what I want to tell you a little bit about.

  10. Energy balances in the production and end use of alcohols derived from biomass. A fuels-specific comparative analysis of alternate ethanol production cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    Considerable public interest and debate have been focused on the so-called energy balance issue involved in the conversion of biomass materials into ethanol for fuel use. This report addresses questions of net gains in premium fuels that can be derived from the production and use of ethanol from biomass, and shows that for the US alcohol fuel program, energy balance need not be a concern. Three categories of fuel gain are discussed in the report: (1) Net petroleum gain; (2) Net premium fuel gain (petroleum and natural gas); and (3) Net energy gain (for all fuels). In this study the investment of energy (in the form of premium fuels) in alcohol production includes all investment from cultivating, harvesting, or gathering the feedstock and raw materials, through conversion of the feedstock to alcohol, to the delivery to the end-user. To determine the fuel gains in ethanol production, six cases, encompassing three feedstocks, five process fuels, and three process variations, have been examined. For each case, two end-uses (automotive fuel use and replacement of petrochemical feedstocks) were scrutinized. The end-uses were further divided into three variations in fuel economy and two different routes for production of ethanol from petrochemicals. Energy requirements calculated for the six process cycles accounted for fuels used directly and indirectly in all stages of alcohol production, from agriculture through distribution of product to the end-user. Energy credits were computed for byproducts according to the most appropriate current use.

  11. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  12. The effect of fuel alcohol on monoaromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation and natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro J J; Hunt, Craig S

    2002-01-01

    gasoline is 10% by volume in the United States. Thus, such high ethanol concentrations are unlikely to be encountered at sites contaminated with ethanol-gasoline blends, except near the fuel/water interfaces or in the case of neat ethanol releases. Downgradient of the source area, biodegradation is unlikely to be inhibited by alcohol toxicity as concentrations decrease exponentially with distance. The preferential degradation of fuel alcohols by indigenous microorganisms and the accompanying depletion of oxygen and other electron acceptors suggest that ethanol could hinder BTEX bioremediation. This is particularly important for the fate of benzene, which is the most toxic BTEX compound and the most recalcitrant under anaerobic conditions. Alternatively, ethanol represents a carbon and energy source that is likely to stimulate the growth of a variety of aerobic and anaerobic microbial populations, including those that can degrade BTEX compounds. A higher concentration of BTEX degraders would be conducive to faster BTEX degradation rates under carbon-limiting conditions. Nevertheless, controlled studies that assess the overall effect of ethanol on BTEX bioremediation are lacking. In theory, ethanol could also contribute to longer BTEX plumes by enhancing BTEX solubilization from the fuel phase and by decreasing sorption-related retardation during transport. The overall effect of ethanol on BTEX plume length and treatment end points is likely to be system specific, and will depend largely on the release scenario and on the buffering and dilution capacity of the aquifer. Additional research is needed to understand the effect of ethanol on the stability and dimensions of co-occurring and pre-existing BTEX plumes. Future laboratory and field studies should also address response variability as a function of release scenario and site specificity, to facilitate risk assessment and remedial action decisions. PMID:17063777

  13. Molten carbonate fuel cell power plant systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of the DOE and IFC Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Program is to develop a MCFC technology base capable of providing clean electrical energy at competitive cost when integrated with coal gasification systems. To be successful, a coal-fueled MCFC system must provide cost of electricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long range electric generating systems. The strategy for the study was to initially evaluate the status of non-fuel cell systems to establish the basis for a competitive CG/MCFC power plant and the corresponding MCFC subsystem goals. Secondly, an iterative and comparative analysis of potential CG/MCFC systems was conducted. This analysis included a detailed examination of MCFC integration with gasifier technology in which the technical basis for MCFC compatibility with a broad range of gasifiers was established. Lastly, a detailed conceptual design was prepared for the most desirable CG/MCFC system. The design established the potential of the CG/MCFC power plant to meet the goals and provide a competitive cost of electricity at very high efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. The design also provided focus for the technical issues still outstanding and required for commercialization of the CG/MCFC technology. 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  14. Feasibility study for a 10-MM-GPY fuel ethanol plant, Brady Hot Springs, Nevada. Volume 1. Process and plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing and operating a geothermally heated, biomass, motor fuel alcohol plant at Brady's Hot Springs. The results of the study are positive, showing that a plant of innovative, yet proven design can be built to adapt current commerical fermentation-distillation technology to the application of geothermal heat energy. The specific method of heat production from the Brady's Hot Spring wells has been successful for some time at an onion drying plant. Further development of the geothermal resource to add the capacity needed for an ethanol plant is found to be feasible for a plant sized to produce 10 million gallons of motor fuel grade ethanol per year. A very adequate supply of feedgrains is found to be available for use in the plant without impact on the local or regional feedgrain market. The effect of diverting supplies from the animal feedlots in Northern Nevada and California will be mitigated by the by-product output of high-protein feed supplements that the plant will produce. The plant will have a favorable impact on the local farming economies of Fallon, Lovelock, Winnemucca and Elko, Nevada. It will make a positive and significant socioeconomic contribution to Churchill County, providing direct employment for an additional 61 persons. Environmental impact will be negligible, involving mostly a moderate increase in local truck traffic and railroad siding activity. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 deals with the technical design aspects of the plant. The second volume addresses the issue of expanded geothermal heat production at Brady's Hot Springs, goes into the details of feedstock supply economics, and looks at the markets for the plant's primary ethanol product, and the markets for its feed supplement by-products. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic viability of the proposed project.

  15. Biobutanol as Fuel for Direct Alcohol Fuel Cells-Investigation of Sn-Modified Pt Catalyst for Butanol Electro-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Puthiyapura, Vinod Kumar; Brett, Dan J L; Russell, Andrea E; Lin, Wen-Feng; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-05-25

    Direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs) mostly use low molecular weight alcohols such as methanol and ethanol as fuels. However, short-chain alcohol molecules have a relative high membrane crossover rate in DAFCs and a low energy density. Long chain alcohols such as butanol have a higher energy density, as well as a lower membrane crossover rate compared to methanol and ethanol. Although a significant number of studies have been dedicated to low molecular weight alcohols in DAFCs, very few studies are available for longer chain alcohols such as butanol. A significant development in the production of biobutanol and its proposed application as an alternative fuel to gasoline in the past decade makes butanol an interesting candidate fuel for fuel cells. Different butanol isomers were compared in this study on various Pt and PtSn bimetallic catalysts for their electro-oxidation activities in acidic media. Clear distinctive behaviors were observed for each of the different butanol isomers using cyclic voltammetry (CV), indicating a difference in activity and the mechanism of oxidation. The voltammograms of both n-butanol and iso-butanol showed similar characteristic features, indicating a similar reaction mechanism, whereas 2-butanol showed completely different features; for example, it did not show any indication of poisoning. Ter-butanol was found to be inactive for oxidation on Pt. In situ FTIR and CV analysis showed that OHads was essential for the oxidation of primary butanol isomers which only forms at high potentials on Pt. In order to enhance the water oxidation and produce OHads at lower potentials, Pt was modified by the oxophilic metal Sn and the bimetallic PtSn was studied for the oxidation of butanol isomers. A significant enhancement in the oxidation of the 1° butanol isomers was observed on addition of Sn to the Pt, resulting in an oxidation peak at a potential ∼520 mV lower than that found on pure Pt. The higher activity of PtSn was attributed to the

  16. Natural-gas-fueled molten carbonate fuel cell power plant development

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, C.A. )

    1990-12-01

    The high temperature molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) operating on natural gas fuel offers an exceptional opportunity for providing economically competitive, high efficiency, low emissions power generators for utilities and industrial and commercial cogenerators. The primary goal of this project is to establish a path to develop competitive natural gas fueled MCFC products with goals of less than $1000 per kW and 6000 Btu/kWhr heat rate (based on higher heating value). A coal fueled MCFC system study funded by DOE under contract AC21-MC23270 was used as a basis to define natural gas fuel products with a high degree of commonality with the coal gas systems. In this way, the natural gas systems could be derived from the DOE coal-fueled system with a minimum of non-recurring cost. The effort was carried out in three technical tasks. Task 1, Conceptual System Design Studies -- provides a conceptual design definition of a multimegawatt power plant system adapted from DOE coal-gas/natural gas design data and provides a preliminary design definition of a truck and/or rail transportable, megawatt scale power plant derived from a DOE coal-gas/natural gas power unit; Task 2, Integrated System Test Design -- provides a preliminary design of a kW-scale integrated system to resolve critical component and system integration issues specific to the natural gas products defined in Task 1; and Task 3, Critical Element Evaluation -- provides the analytical and experimental assessments of the critical non-stack components identified in Tasks 1 and 2. 32 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Process for producing fuel from plant sources and fuel blends containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Whitworth, R.D.

    1987-04-04

    A process for producing a fuel from plant sources comprising the steps of: (a) providing a supply of limonene; (b) distilling the limonene and removing the distillate fraction in a temperature range of from about 346/sup 0/F to about 382/sup 0/F; (c) removing water from the distilled limonene; and (d) treating the distilled limonene to preclude the formation of gums therefrom.

  18. Process for making anhydrous alcohol for mixing with gasoline to make gasohol motor fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, J.M.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a process for making an anhydrous fraction from a fermented feed material or beer. The process consists of contacting the fermented feed material or beer directly with steam vapor volatilizing the alcohol in the feed or beer and producing an alcohol free bottom. The alcohol vapor is conducted through a oneway flow mechanism into a column provided with trays located one above the other, refluxing the alcohol vapor over the trays and concentrating the alcohol vapor to high-proof alcohol. The reflux and vapor are utilized to concentrate additional alcohol from a dilute aqueous gasoline-containing recycle. The net total water bottoms are contacted from the concentration step with direct steam prior to discharge to sewer, feeding the concentrated alcohol with recovered gasoline from the recycle as contaminant along with additional gasoline. The gasoline is optimally heated to eliminate light ends, into a drying column, heating the alcohol gasoline feed with heat from a reboiler and vaporizing overhead the azeotropic fractions containing alcohol, gasoline and water. The azeotropic fractions are condensed and form two liquid phases. The gasoline phase returns as reflux to the drying column, recycling the water phase as initiator prior to the alcohol concentrating column, cooling and subcooling the anhydrous alcohol-gasoline bottoms. This process produces a final product which is completely denatured alcohol ready for removal from premises and containing the entire component of the originally added gasoline.

  19. Reprocessing of nuclear fuels at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.W.

    1986-10-04

    For more than 30 years, the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has been a major supplier of nuclear materials such as plutonium-239 and tritium-3 for nuclear and thermonuclear weapons, plutonium-238 for space exploration, and isotopes of americium, curium, and californium for use in the nuclear research community. SRP is a complete nuclear park, providing most of the processes in the nuclear fuel cycle. Key processes involve fabrication and cladding of the nuclear fuel, target, and control assemblies; rework of heavy water for use as reactor moderator; reactor loading, operation, and unloading; chemical recovery of the reactor transmutation products and spent fuels; and management of the gaseous, liquid, and solid nuclear and chemical wastes; plus a host of support operations. The site's history and the key processes from fabrication of reactor fuels and targets to finishing of virgin plutonium for use in the nuclear weapons complex are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the chemistry of the recovery and purification of weapons grade plutonium from irradiated reactor targets.

  20. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  1. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, J. L., Jr.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.

    1980-08-01

    During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: system studies to define the reference power plant design; cell and stack design, development and verification; preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. Preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization was completed. Design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping were defined. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication was made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated. Theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects.

  2. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  3. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  4. A fuel cell balance of plant test facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicks, A. L.; Martin, P. A.

    Much attention is focused in the fuel cell community on the development of reliable stack technology, but to successfully exploit fuel cells, they must form part of integrated power generation systems. No universal test facilities exist to evaluate SOFC stacks and comparatively little research has been undertaken concerning the issues of the rest of the system, or balance of plant (BOP). BG, in collaboration with Eniricerche, has therefore recently designed and built a test facility to evaluate different configurations of the BOP equipment for a 1-5 kWe solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stack. Within this BOP project, integrated, dynamic models have been developed. These have shown that three characteristic response times exist when the stack load is changed and that three independent control loops are required to manage the almost instantaneous change in power output from an SOFC stack, maintain the fuel utilisation and control the stack temperature. Control strategies and plant simplifications, arising from the dynamic modelling, have also been implemented in the BOP test facility. An SOFC simulator was designed and integrated into the control system of the test rig to behave as a real SOFC stack, allowing the development of control strategies without the need for a real stack. A novel combustor has been specifically designed, built and demonstrated to be capable of burning the low calorific anode exhaust gas from an SOFC using the oxygen depleted cathode stream. High temperature, low cost, shell and tube heat exchangers have been shown to be suitable for SOFC systems. Sealing of high temperature anode recirculation fans has, however, been shown to be a major issue and identified as a key area for further investigation.

  5. Polyvinyl alcohol: an efficient fuel for synthesis of superparamagnetic LSMO nanoparticles for biomedical application.

    PubMed

    Thorat, N D; Shinde, K P; Pawar, S H; Barick, K C; Betty, C A; Ningthoujam, R S

    2012-03-14

    La(0.7)Sr(0.3)MnO(3) (LSMO) nanoparticles have been prepared using glycine and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as fuels. Their crystal structure, particle morphology and compositions are characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, field-emission electron microscopy and energy dispersive analysis of X-ray. They show a pseudo-cubic perovskite structure. The spherical particle sizes of 30 and 20 nm have been obtained from samples prepared by glycine and PVA respectively. The field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetizations have been recorded from 5 to 375 K at 500 Oe and superparamagnetic blocking temperatures (T(B)) of 75 and 30 K are obtained from samples prepared by glycine and PVA respectively. Particle size distribution is observed from dynamic light scattering measurements. Dispersion stability of the particles in water is studied by measuring the Zeta potential with varying the pH of the medium from 1 to 12. Under induction heating experiments, a hyperthermia temperature (42-43 °C) is achieved by both the samples (3-6 mg mL(-1)) at magnetic fields of 167-335 Oe and at a frequency of 267 kHz. The bio-compatibility of the LSMO nanoparticles is studied on the L929 and HeLa cell lines by MTT assay for up to 48 h. The present work reveals the importance of synthesis technique and fuel choice on structural, morphological, magnetic, hyperthermia and biocompatible properties of LSMO and predicts the suitability for biomedical applications. PMID:22277953

  6. Actinide partitioning processes for fuel reprocessing and refabrication plant wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Finney, B.C.; Tedder, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    Chemical processing methods have been developed on a laboratory scale to partition the actinides from the liquid and solid fuel reprocessing plant (FRP) and refabrication plant (FFP) wastes. It was envisioned that these processes would be incorporated into separate waste treatment facilities (WTFs) that are adjacent to, but not integrated with, the fuel reprocessing and refabrication plants. Engineering equipment and material balance flowsheets have been developed for WTFs in support of a 2000-MTHM/year FRP and a 660-MTHM/year MOX-FFP. The processing subsystems incorporated in the FRP-WTF are: High-Level Solid Waste Treatment, High-Level Liquid Waste Treatment, Solid Alpha Waste Treatment, Cation Exchange Chromatography, Salt Waste Treatment, Actinide Recovery, Solvent Cleanup and recycle, Off-Gas Treatment, Actinide Product Concentration, and Acid and Water Recycle. The WTF supporting a fuel refabrication facility, although similar, does not contain subsystems (1) and (2). Based on the results of the laboratory and hot-cell experimental work, we believe that the processes and flowsheets offer the potential to reduce the total unrecovered actinides in FRP and FFP wastes to less than or equal to 0.25%. The actinide partitioning processes and the WTF concept represent advanced technology that would require substantial work before commercialization. It is estimated that an orderly development program would require 15 to 20 years to complete and would cost about 700 million 1979 dollars. It is estimated that the capital cost and annual operating cost, in mid-1979 dollars, for the FRP-WTF are $1035 million and $71.5 million/year, and for the FFP-WTF are $436 million and $25.6 million/year, respectively.

  7. Decontamination and decommissioning of a fuel reprocessing pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, W.F.; Speer, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    SYNOPSIS The strontium Semiworks Pilot Fuel Reprocessing Plant at the Hanford Site in Washington State was decommissioned by a combination of dismantlement and entombment. The facility contained 9600 Ci of Sr-90 and 10 Ci of plutonium. Process cells were entombed in place. The above-grade portion of one cell with 1.5-m- (5-ft-) thick walls and ceilings was demolished by means of expanding grout. A contaminated stack was remotely sandblasted and felled by explosives. The entombed structures were covered with a 4.6-m- (15-ft-) thick engineered earthen barrier. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Modular plant recovers high quality fuel from slurry pond

    SciTech Connect

    Batanian, D.C.; Terry, R.L.; Watters, L.A.

    1999-07-01

    For more than forty years, Peabody Coal Company operated a large deep mine complex near the town of Pawnee, approximately 15 miles southeast of Springfield in Christian County, Illinois. The Peabody Mine No.10 recovered No.6 (Herrin) seam raw coal from a depth of about 350 feet. All of the run-of-mine production was washed in a cleaning plant that utilized jigs and water-only cyclone circuits to produce a clean coal sold exclusively in the domestic steam coal market. Cleaning plant capacity was approximately 1,150 tons per hour, and clean coal production averaged about 2.5 million tons per year. When the economically recoverable reserves of No.6 coal were depleted in 1994, the mine was closed and the plant idled. Clean coal produced at Mine No.10 had an average ash content of about 10.0%, total sulfur of 3.50% and a heating value of 10,300 BTU/lb. Due to the relative inefficiency of the plant fine coal cleaning circuitry, significant quantities of coal reported to the tailings thickener as refuse. Thickener underflow was pumped to nearby slurry impoundments, which by 1994 were estimated to contain more than 5 million tons of material. Following the mine closure, the slurry ponds were reclaimed and the coal cleaning plant was dismantled. In 1997, USA Coal contracted for the erection of two synthetic fuel production facilities at the old Mine No.10 site. These facilities became operational in June of 1998 and qualified for Section 29 federal tax credits. In January of 1998, Sedgman was awarded a contract to design and build a preparation plant capable of recovering fine coal from the slurry impoundments at the Mine No.10 site. The fine coal recovery plant was erected in under 4 months utilizing modular construction techniques, which not only reduced field construction time but will also allow for rapid relocation of the recovery plant when all the slurry pond material at this site is depleted. From a raw plant feed of 325 tons per hour of 3.0 MM x 0 material, the

  9. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl este...

  10. [Use of associative cultures of cyanobacteria for tertiary treatment of sewage from yeast and alcohol plants].

    PubMed

    Koshel', M I; Zabolotna, G M; Kovyrzina, T V; Mendzhul, M I; Koltukova, N V

    2001-01-01

    The associative cultures of cyanobacteria were selected which may be used for development of technology of tertiary treatment of sewage for yeast and alcohol production plants. Growth parameters of associations were studied during periodic and continuous cultivation. When studying the influence of flowing speed for some exponents of treatment it was shown that cultivation of cyanobacteria should be carried out with the change of volume not more than 0.01 h. Final treatment 0.010 h-1 in order to return sewage to natural water reservoirs may be carried out by means of Oscillatoria sp. in bioponds. PMID:11785265

  11. Metabolites and biodegradation pathways of fatty alcohol ethoxylates in microbial biocenoses of sewage treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Steber, J.; Wierich, P.

    1985-03-01

    The biodegradation of fatty alcohol polyglycol ethers was studied by analyzing the /sup 14/C-labeled intermediates isolated from the effluent of a model continuous-flow sewage treatment plant after dosage of either alkyl- or heptaglycol-labeled stearyl alcohol ethoxylate (SA-7EO). In each case, uncharged and carboxylated (mainly dicarboxylated) polyethylene glycols constituted the most prominent metabolites. The results indicate that there is a faster degradation of the alkyl than the polyethylene glycol moiety and that there are two distinct primary degradation mechanisms acting simultaneously in microbial biocenoses: intramolecular scission of the surfactant as well as omega- and beta-oxidation of the alkyl chain. Characterization of the bulk of /sup 14/C-labeled metabolites as a homologous series of neutral and acidic polyglycol units and identification of several C2-fragments accounted for the depolymerization of the hydrophilic part of the surfactant by stepwise cleavage of ether-bound EO units; from additional degradation studies employing either neutral or carboxylated /sup 14/C-labeled polyethylene glycols as model metabolites, it was concluded that hydrolytic as well as oxidative cleavage of C2-units is involved. The simultaneous action of different degradation mechanisms indicates the involvement of several distinct bacterial groups in the biodegradation of fatty alcohol ethoxylates under environmental conditions.

  12. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  13. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  14. 10 CFR 140.13a - Amount of financial protection required for plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plant is required to have and maintain financial protection in the... use plutonium at two or more plutonium processing and fuel fabrication plants at the same location... protection covers all such plants at the location....

  15. Study of the potential uses of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-03-25

    The purpose of this study is to provide an evaluation of possible international and domestic uses for the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, located in South Carolina, at the conclusion of the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. Four generic categories of use options for the Barnwell plant have been considered: storage of spent LWR fuel; reprocessing of LWR spent fuel; safeguards development and training; and non-use. Chapters are devoted to institutional options and integrated institutional-use options.

  16. Phloem Loading Strategies in Three Plant Species That Transport Sugar Alcohols1[C][OA

    PubMed Central

    Reidel, Edwin J.; Rennie, Emilie A.; Amiard, Véronique; Cheng, Lailiang; Turgeon, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Many plants translocate sugar alcohols in the phloem. However, the mechanism(s) of sugar alcohol loading in the minor veins of leaves are debated. We characterized the loading strategies of two species that transport sorbitol (Plantago major and apple [Malus domestica]), and one that transports mannitol (Asarina scandens). Plasmodesmata are abundant at all interfaces in the minor vein phloem of apple, and in one of two types of phloem in the minor veins of A. scandens. Few plasmodesmata are present in the minor veins of P. major. Apple differs from the other two species in that sugar alcohol and sucrose (Suc) are present in much higher concentrations in leaves. Apple leaf tissue exposed to exogenous [14C]sorbitol, [14C]Suc, or 14CO2 did not accumulate radiolabel in the minor veins, as determined by macroautoradiography. P. major minor veins accumulated radiolabel from [14C]Suc, [14C]sorbitol, and 14CO2. A. scandens minor veins accumulated 14C from [14C]Suc and 14CO2, but not from [14C]mannitol. We conclude that the movement of sugar alcohol from the mesophyll into the phloem in apple and A. scandens is symplastic and passive, but in P. major it involves an apoplastic step and is energized. We also suggest that apple leaves transport sorbitol in high concentrations to avoid the feedback limitation of photosynthesis that would result from driving passive movement of solute into the phloem with high levels of Suc alone. The loading pathways and the mechanisms by which hydrostatic pressure is maintained in the minor vein phloem of these species are discussed. PMID:19129415

  17. Fuel gas main replacement at Acme Steel's coke plant

    SciTech Connect

    Trevino, O. . Chicago Coke Plant)

    1994-09-01

    ACME Steel's Chicago coke plant consists of two 4-meter, 50-oven Wilputte underjet coke-oven batteries. These batteries were constructed in 1956--1957. The use of blast furnace gas was discontinued in the late 1960's. In 1977--1978, the oven walls in both batteries were reconstructed. Reconstruction of the underfire system was limited to rebuilding the coke-oven gas reversing cocks and meter in orifices. By the early 1980's, the 24-in. diameter underfire fuel gas mains of both batteries developed leaks at the Dresser expansion joints. These leaks were a result of pipe loss due to corrosion. Leaks also developed along the bottoms and sides of both mains. A method is described that permitted pushing temperatures to be maintained during replacement of underfire fuel gas mains. Each of Acme's two, 50-oven, 4-metric Wilputte coke-oven, gas-fired batteries were heated by converting 10-in. diameter decarbonizing air mains into temporary fuel gas mains. Replacement was made one battery at a time, with the temporary 10-in. mains in service for five to eight weeks.

  18. Intermediate-sized natural gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.; Fleming, Donald K.

    1994-04-01

    This executive summary of the report describes the accomplishments of the joint US Department of Energy's (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and M-C POWER Corporation's Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. 93-013. This study addresses the intermediate power plant size between 2 megawatt (MW) and 200 MW. A 25 MW natural-gas, fueled-carbonate fuel cell power plant was chosen for this purpose. In keeping with recent designs, the fuel cell will operate under approximately three atmospheres of pressure. An expander/alternator is utilized to expand exhaust gas to atmospheric conditions and generate additional power. A steam-bottoming cycle is not included in this study because it is not believed to be cost effective for this system size. This study also addresses the simplicity and accuracy of a spreadsheet-based simulation with that of a full Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulation. The personal computer can fully utilize the simple spreadsheet model simulation. This model can be made available to all users and is particularly advantageous to the small business user.

  19. Farm and cooperative alcohol plant study: technical and economic assessment as a commercial venture

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The objective of the study is to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of producing motor fuel grade (MFG) ethanol in smaller plants amenable to a farm or cooperative operation. Several parameters are explored as follows: six agricultural locations; three plant sizes of 90,000, 300,000, and 900,000 gallons per year; five feedstocks; ethanol proof levels of 190 and 199; and byproduct distillers grains either as whole stillage or prepared by various degrees of drying. Plants were assumed to operate only 6000 hours per year (sugar beets only 3600 hours) because of limitations of time (or beet feedstock). Locally available boiler fuels were chosen. Simplified processing was identified so as to be realistically within the time and experience available to a farmer-operator. The most attractive case used Indiana corn in a 900,000 gallon plant making 190 proof ethanol, and selling whole stillage (no dewatering or drying). Plant investment for this best case as well as several option combinations is given. The selling price of the best case 190 proof ethanol at 20% IROR was $1.79 based on $2.70 corn.

  20. Chlorine induced corrosion of steels in fossil fuel power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, M.; Grabke, H.J.

    1998-12-31

    The corrosion of steels in power plants (coal combustion, waste incineration) is mainly due to condensed chlorides in the ash deposited on the boiler tubes. These chlorides are stabilized by HCl in the combustion gas. In the case of coal as a fuel, chlorine is present as chloride minerals in the raw material which is converted to HCl during the combustion process. Corrosion of steels in chlorine containing environments occurs by the active oxidation mechanism, which is a self-sustaining accelerated oxidation process, catalyzed by chlorine. This study shows that solid chlorides react with the oxide scale of the steels to form chlorine, which initiates active oxidation. In order to prevent chlorine induced corrosion, the deposition of chlorides on the tubes within the coal ash must be avoided. This is possible by the presence of SO{sub 2}, which is present in the combustion gas, converting the chlorides to sulfates in the gas phase. The paper presents an example of a failure case in a coal fired plant in Germany. In this plant, chlorine induced corrosion was observed after effective removal of SO{sub 2} by additions of CaO. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that a certain amount of SO{sub 2} is necessary in order to avoid deposition of chlorides and to prevent corrosion.

  1. Biomass alcohols as potential petroleum alternatives in the fuel and petrochemical industries: A generalized network model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, R. F.

    A generalized network model called PETNET is developed to address this problem. The focus of the analysis presented is the role of biomass alcohols as potential alternatives to fossil hydrocarbons as raw materials in the petrochemical and oil industries. Illustrative scenarios for biomass-based alcohol replacements are investigated with PETNET by solving for alternative assumptions of price, capacity, resource availability and process technology.

  2. Dynamic behavior of PEM fuel cell and microturbine power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Sisworahardjo, N. S.; Uzunoglu, M.; Onar, O.; Alam, M. S.

    This paper presents a comparison between the dynamic behavior of a 250 kW stand-alone proton exchange membrane fuel cell power plant (PEM FCPP) and a 250 kW stand-alone microturbine (MT). Dynamic models for the two are introduced. To control the voltage and the power output of the PEM FCPP, voltage and power control loops are added to the model. For the MT, voltage, speed, and power control are used. Dynamic models are used to determine the response of the PEM FCPP and MT to a load step change. Simulation results indicate that the response of the MT to reach a steady state is about twice as fast as the PEM FCPP. For stand-alone operation of a PEM FCPP, a set of batteries or ultracapacitors is needed in order to satisfy the power mismatch during transient periods. Software simulation results are obtained by using MATLAB ®, Simulink ®, and SimPowerSystems ®.

  3. The use of artificial intelligence for safeguarding fuel reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wachter, J.W.; Forgy, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    Recorded process data from the ''Minirun'' campaigns conducted at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) in Barnwell, South Carolina during 1980 to 1981 have been utilized to study the suitability of computer-based Artificial Intelligence (AI) methods for process monitoring for safeguards purposes. The techniques of knowledge engineering were used to formulate the decision-making software which operates on the process data customarily used for process operations. The OPS5 AI language was used to construct an Expert System for this purpose. Such systems are able to form reasoned conclusions from incomplete, inaccurate or otherwise ''fuzzy'' data, and to explain the reasoning that led to them. The programs were tested using minirun data taken during simulated diversions ranging in size from 1 to 20 L of solution that had been monitored previously using conventional procedural techniques. 13 refs., 3 figs.

  4. MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATIONS OF RADIONUCLIDES RELEASED FROM NUCLEAR FUEL REPROCESSING PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    FRANCIS,A.J.

    2006-10-18

    Microorganisms can affect the stability and mobility of the actinides U, Pu, Cm, Am, Np, and the fission products Tc, I, Cs, Sr, released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Under appropriate conditions, microorganisms can alter the chemical speciation, solubility and sorption properties and thus could increase or decrease the concentrations of radionuclides in solution and the bioavailability. Dissolution or immobilization of radionuclides is brought about by direct enzymatic action or indirect non-enzymatic action of microorganisms. Although the physical, chemical, and geochemical processes affecting dissolution, precipitation, and mobilization of radionuclides have been investigated, we have only limited information on the effects of microbial processes. The mechanisms of microbial transformations of the major and minor actinides and the fission products under aerobic and anaerobic conditions in the presence of electron donors and acceptors are reviewed.

  5. Synthetic-fuel plants: potential tumor risks to public health.

    PubMed

    Moskowitz, P D; Morris, S C; Fischer, H; Thode, H C; Hamilton, L D

    1985-09-01

    This article quantifies potential public health risks from tumor-producing pollutants emitted from two synthetic-fuel plants (direct liquefaction--Exxon Donor Solvent: and indirect liquefaction--Lurgi Fischer-Tropsch) located at a representative site in the eastern United States. In these analyses gaseous and aqueous waste streams were characterized; exposures via inhalation, terrestrial and aquatic food chains, and drinking water supplies were modeled. Analysis suggested that emissions of "polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," "aromatic amines," "neutral N, O, S heterocyclics," "nitriles," and "other trace elements" pose the largest quantifiable risks to public health. Data and analysis for these pollutant categories should be refined to more accurately match compound-specific estimated exposure levels with tumorigenic potency estimates. Before these results are used for regulatory purposes, more detailed analysis for selected pollutant classes are needed, and more sophisticated aquatic exposure models must be developed. Also, differences in geographic scales among the environmental transport models used need to be rectified. PMID:3843682

  6. Hydrogen Separation Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roark, Shane E.; Mackay, Richard; Sammells, Anthony F.

    2001-11-06

    Eltron Research and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. By appropriately changing the catalysts coupled with the membrane, essentially the same system can be used to facilitate alkane dehydrogenation and coupling, aromatics processing, and hydrogen sulfide decomposition.

  7. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 8, October--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Our current targets for isobutanol-producing catalysts are to produce an equimolar mixture of methanol and isobutanol with a productivity for isobutanol of > 50 g/Kg-hr. Reactor system modifications, undertaken to improve data quality, have been completed. The changes should help eliminate differences between the two reactors and allow for more accurate determination of higher molecular weight products. To calibrate our new reactor system, we have retested our ``best`` isobutanol catalyst, 10-DAN-54 (a promoted Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide). Under standard test conditions (400{degrees}C, 1000 psi, 12000 GHSV and syngas ratio = 1:1), this catalyst produces 200--252 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivities of 57--68%) with an isobutanol rate of 94--130 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3. These results compare with a productivity of 112 g/kg-hr of total alcohols (total alcohol selectivity of 86%) with an isobutanol rate of 38 g/kg-hr and a MeOH/i-BuOH product mole ratio of 3 observed in the original microreactor system configuration. It should be remembered that the test apparatus is designed for screening only. Detailed, more reliable data for kinetic modeling must be generated using larger catalyst charges (> 10g) and in larger scale test equipment.

  8. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Sixteenth quarterly technical progress report, October--December, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Among our previous best catalysts was the family consisting of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. We have now examined the effect of potassium promotion on (1) a Zn/Cr/O spinel and (2) on ZnO; these two individual components are used together to make our best support. The presence of excess zinc oxide has a beneficial effect on the performance of Zn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts (1) promoted with cesium and (2) promoted with both cesium and palladium. The presence of the excess zinc oxide results in a more active and selective catalyst to total alcohols and increased isobutanol rates, demonstrating the effectiveness of zinc oxide addition to the spinel support. Potassium addition promotes higher alcohol synthesis on a commercial Zn/Cr spinel oxide methanol synthesis catalyst. Incremental potassium levels (1, 3 and 5 wt%) result in an increase in total alcohol selectivity, while isobutanol. rates are maximized at 1 wt% potassium. The commercial catalyst promoted with potassium is slightly less active for isobutanol synthesis and less selective to total alcohols when compared with our spinel formulation promoted with potassium and containing excess ZnO. Surface science studies have shown that the surface of these catalysts is predominately ZnO and alkali. With use, the ZnO is reduced to Zn metal, and Cr migrates to the surface giving increased surface acidity. In addition tends to lower the overall acidity. Hydrogen can be observed on the catalyst surface by surface science studies. Hydrogen on the active catalyst is associated with the palladium.

  9. Development of a 200kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Take, Tetsuo; Kuwata, Yutaka; Adachi, Masahito; Ogata, Tsutomu

    1996-12-31

    Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NFT) has been developing a 200 kW multi-fuel type PAFC power plant which can generate AC 200 kW of constant power by switching fuel from pipeline town gas to liquefied propane gas (LPG) and vice versa. This paper describes the outline of the demonstration test plant and test results of its fundamental characteristics.

  10. Sunflower seed hulls as supplementary fuel to coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brudenell, W.N.; Holland, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of biomass as a supplementary fuel to fossil-fuel power plants is gaining increasing attention due to escalating energy costs. The design of a sunflower seed hulls combustion system for an existing lignite-fired power plant is presented in this paper. 5 refs.

  11. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, W.C.; Durant, W.S.; Dexter, A.H.

    1980-12-01

    The occurrence of certain potential events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants could lead to significant consequences involving risk to operating personnel or to the general public. This document is a compilation of such potential initiating events in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Possible general incidents and incidents specific to key operations in fuel reprocessing are considered, including possible causes, consequences, and safety features designed to prevent, detect, or mitigate such incidents.

  12. Plant host and sugar alcohol induced exopolysaccharide biosynthesis in the Burkholderia cepacia complex.

    PubMed

    Bartholdson, S Josefin; Brown, Alan R; Mewburn, Ben R; Clarke, David J; Fry, Stephen C; Campopiano, Dominic J; Govan, John R W

    2008-08-01

    The species that presently constitute the Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) have multiple roles; they include soil and water saprophytes, bioremediators, and plant, animal and human pathogens. Since the first description of pathogenicity in the Bcc was based on sour skin rot of onion bulbs, this study returned to this plant host to investigate the onion-associated phenotype of the Bcc. Many Bcc isolates, which were previously considered to be non-mucoid, produced copious amounts of exopolysaccharide (EPS) when onion tissue was provided as the sole nutrient. EPS production was not species-specific, was observed in isolates from both clinical and environmental sources, and did not correlate with the ability to cause maceration of onion tissue. Chemical analysis suggested that the onion components responsible for EPS induction were primarily the carbohydrates sucrose, fructose and fructans. Additional sugars were investigated, and all alcohol sugars tested were able to induce EPS production, in particular mannitol and glucitol. To investigate the molecular basis for EPS biosynthesis, we focused on the highly conserved bce gene cluster thought to be involved in cepacian biosynthesis. We demonstrated induction of the bce gene cluster by mannitol, and found a clear correlation between the inability of representatives of the Burkholderia cenocepacia ET12 lineage to produce EPS and the presence of an 11 bp deletion within the bceB gene, which encodes a glycosyltransferase. Insertional inactivation of bceB in Burkholderia ambifaria AMMD results in loss of EPS production on sugar alcohol media. These novel and surprising insights into EPS biosynthesis highlight the metabolic potential of the Bcc and show that a potential virulence factor may not be detected by routine laboratory culture. Our results also highlight a potential hazard in the use of inhaled mannitol as an osmolyte to improve mucociliary clearance in individuals with cystic fibrosis. PMID:18667584

  13. 27 CFR 19.676 - Large plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Large plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.676 Large plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  14. 27 CFR 19.673 - Small plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Small plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.673 Small plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  15. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  16. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  17. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  18. 27 CFR 19.675 - Medium plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medium plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.675 Medium plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  19. 27 CFR 19.676 - Large plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Large plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.676 Large plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a large plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  20. 27 CFR 19.673 - Small plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Small plant permit... Obtaining A Permit § 19.673 Small plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish a small plant must file form TTB F 5110.74, Application and Permit for an Alcohol Fuel Producer Under 26...

  1. 27 CFR 19.913 - Action on applications to establish small plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action on applications to establish small plants. 19.913 Section 19.913 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Permits § 19.913 Action on applications to establish small plants. (a) Receipt by...

  2. 27 CFR 19.677 - Large plant applications-organizational documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Large plant applications-organizational documents. 19.677 Section 19.677 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.677 Large plant applications—organizational documents. In addition...

  3. Optimization of hydrocarbon fuels combustion variable composition in thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saifullin, E. R.; Larionov, V. M.; Busarov, A. V.; Busarov, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that associated petroleum gas and refinery waste can be used as fuel in thermal power plants. However, random changes in the composition of such fuels cause instability of the combustion process. This article explores the burning of hydrocarbon fuel in the case of long continuous change of its specific heat of combustion. The results of analysis were used to develop a technique of optimizing the combustion process, ensuring complete combustion of the fuel and its minimum flow.

  4. Enzyme orientation for direct electron transfer in an enzymatic fuel cell with alcohol oxidase and laccase electrodes.

    PubMed

    Arrocha, Andrés A; Cano-Castillo, Ulises; Aguila, Sergio A; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-11-15

    A new full enzymatic fuel cell was built and characterized. Both enzymatic electrodes were molecularly oriented to enhance the direct electron transfer between the enzyme active site and the electrode surface. The anode consisted in immobilized alcohol oxidase on functionalized carbon nanotubes with 4-azidoaniline, which acts as active-site ligand to orientate the enzyme molecule. The cathode consisted of immobilized laccase on functionalized graphite electrode with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzoic acid. The enzymatic fuel cell reaches 0.5 V at open circuit voltage with both, ethanol and methanol, while in short circuit the highest current intensity of 250 μA cm(-2) was obtained with methanol. Concerning the power density, the methanol was the best substrate reaching 60 μW cm(-2), while with ethanol 40 μW cm(-2) was obtained. PMID:24953844

  5. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Tony F. Sammells; Adam Calihman; Andy Girard; Pamela M. Van Calcar; Richard Mackay; Tom Barton; Sara Rolfe

    2001-01-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, Inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. The proposed technology addresses the DOE Vision 21 initiative in two ways. First, this process offers a relatively inexpensive solution for pure hydrogen separation that can be easily incorporated into Vision 21 fossil fuel plants. Second, this process could reduce the cost of hydrogen, which is a clean burning fuel under increasing demand as supporting technologies are developed for hydrogen utilization and storage. Additional motivation for this project arises from the potential of this technology for other applications. Membranes testing during this reporting period were greater than 1 mm thick and had the general perovskite composition AB{sub 1-x}B'{sub x}O{sub 3-{delta}}, where 0.05 {<=} x {<=} 0.3. These materials demonstrated hydrogen separation rates between 1 and 2 mL/min/cm{sup 2}, which represents roughly 20% of the target goal for

  6. Water-soluble metal nanoparticles stabilized by plant polyphenols for improving the catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Liao, Y.; Ma, J.; Zhao, S. L.; Huo, F. W.

    2015-12-01

    Plant polyphenols extracted from plants are one of the most abundant biomasses in nature, which are typical water soluble natural polymers. Herein, we reported a facile approach for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) aqueous colloid by utilizing black wattle tannin (BWT, a typical plant polyphenol) as amphiphilic stabilizer. The phenolic hydroxyls of BWT provide the PtNPs with enough hydrophilicity, and their reduction ability could protect the PtNPs from deactivation caused by oxygen atmosphere. Additionally, the hydrophilic nature of BWT could efficiently promote the oxidation of alcohols in water, meanwhile, the hydrophobic and rigid backbones of plant polyphenols are able to suppress the PtNPs from aggregating, thus ensuring the high dispersion of the PtNPs during reactions. Under mild aerobic conditions, the as-prepared BWT-Pt colloid catalyst exhibited high activity in a series of biphasic oxidation of aromatic alcohols and aliphatic alcohols. As for the cycling stability, the BWT-Pt catalyst showed no obvious decrease during the 7 cycles, revealing superior cycling stability as compared with the counterparts using PVP or PEG as the stabilizer.Plant polyphenols extracted from plants are one of the most abundant biomasses in nature, which are typical water soluble natural polymers. Herein, we reported a facile approach for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) aqueous colloid by utilizing black wattle tannin (BWT, a typical plant polyphenol) as amphiphilic stabilizer. The phenolic hydroxyls of BWT provide the PtNPs with enough hydrophilicity, and their reduction ability could protect the PtNPs from deactivation caused by oxygen atmosphere. Additionally, the hydrophilic nature of BWT could efficiently promote the oxidation of alcohols in water, meanwhile, the hydrophobic and rigid backbones of plant polyphenols are able to suppress the PtNPs from aggregating, thus ensuring the high dispersion of the PtNPs during reactions. Under mild aerobic

  7. Carbon-Nanotubes-Supported Pd Nanoparticles for Alcohol Oxidations in Fuel Cells: Effect of Number of Nanotube Walls on Activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Lu, Shanfu; Xiang, Yan; Shen, Pei Kang; Liu, Jian; Jiang, San Ping

    2015-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are well known electrocatalyst supports due to their high electrical conductivity, structural stability, and high surface area. Here, we demonstrate that the number of inner tubes or walls of CNTs also have a significant promotion effect on the activity of supported Pd nanoparticles (NPs) for alcohol oxidation reactions of direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFCs). Pd NPs with similar particle size (2.1-2.8 nm) were uniformly assembled on CNTs with different number of walls. The results indicate that Pd NPs supported on triple-walled CNTs (TWNTs) have the highest mass activity and stability for methanol, ethanol, and ethylene glycol oxidation reactions, as compared to Pd NPs supported on single-walled and multi-walled CNTs. Such a specific promotion effect of TWNTs on the electrocatalytic activity of Pd NPs is not related to the contribution of metal impurities in CNTs, oxygen-functional groups of CNTs or surface area of CNTs and Pd NPs. A facile charge transfer mechanism via electron tunneling between the outer wall and inner tubes of CNTs under electrochemical driving force is proposed for the significant promotion effect of TWNTs for the alcohol oxidation reactions in alkaline solutions. PMID:25900368

  8. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOEpatents

    Misage, Robert; Scheffler, Glenn W.; Setzer, Herbert J.; Margiott, Paul R.; Parenti, Jr., Edmund K.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  9. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  10. Linalool, a plant-derived monoterpene alcohol, reverses doxorubicin resistance in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ravizza, Raffaella; Gariboldi, Marzia B; Molteni, Roberta; Monti, Elena

    2008-09-01

    Essential oils from various aromatic plants have been reported to exert chemopreventive and/or antitumor effects. In addition, a number of studies have shown the ability of chemopreventive phytochemicals to increase the sensitivity of cancer cells to conventional anticancer drugs. The success of chemotherapeutic agents is often hindered by the development of drug resistance, with multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes reported in a number of tumors, generally involving reduced intracellular drug accumulation due to increased drug efflux by membrane transporters. In the present study, the effects of linalool (LIN), a monoterpene alcohol found in the essential oils from many aromatic plants, on the growth of two human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines, MCF7 WT and multidrug resistant MCF7 AdrR, were investigated, both as a single agent and in combination with doxorubicin (DOX). The results reported here show that LIN only moderately inhibits cell proliferation; interestingly, however, subtoxic concentrations of LIN potentiate DOX-induced cytotoxicity and pro-apoptotic effects in both cell lines. A significant synergism can be observed in MCF7 AdrR cells, which may be due, at least in part, to the ability of LIN to increase DOX accumulation and to induce a decrease in Bcl-xL levels. In summary, the results of the present study suggest that LIN may improve the therapeutic index of anthracyclines in the management of breast cancer, especially in MDR tumors. PMID:18695915

  11. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  12. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Twelfth quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have prepared an improved version of 10-DAN-54, a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide promoted with Pd and K. This material (16-DMM-68) has acceptable elemental analysis for the expected composition and possesses the desired high surface area of >80 m{sup 2}/g. The catalyst has extra added potassium vs. the standard catalyst, 10-DAN-54, as previous work had indicated that more potassium is required for optimal performance. In tests under standard conditions (400 C, 1,000 psi, GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1), this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 84% and produces > 100 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 4.7. The authors have tested 16-DMM-68 at temperatures above 400 C and pressures up to 1,500 psi (GHSV = 12,000, syngas ratio = 1). At 440 C and 1500 psi, this catalyst shows a selectivity to total alcohols of 64% and produces 179 g/kg/hr of isobutanol with a MeOH/i-BuOH mole ratio = 2.2. This is their best overall performance to data. The catalyst operates at syngas conversions up to 28% with good selectivity to total alcohols due to the extra added alkali. This performance can be compared with 10-DAN-54, which could only operate up to 20% conversion before hydrocarbon formation became a serious inefficiency.

  13. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifteenth quarterly technical progress report, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The previous best catalysts consisted of potassium-promoted Pd on a Zn/Cr spinel oxide prepared via controlled pH precipitation. The authors have now examined the effect of cesium addition to the Zn/Cr spinel oxide support. Surprisingly, cesium levels required for optimum performance are similar to those for potassium on a wt% basis. The addition of 3 wt% cesium gives isobutanol rates > 170 g/kg-hr at 440 C and 1,500 psi with selectivity to total alcohols of 77% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 1.4: this performance is as good as their best Pd/K catalyst. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr spinel oxide support gives further performance improvements. The 5 wt% cesium, 5.9 wt% Pd formulation gives isobutanol rates > 150 g/kg-hr at 440 C and only 1,000 psi with a selectivity to total alcohols of 88% and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of 0.58: this is their best overall performance to date. The addition of both cesium and palladium to a Zn/Cr/Mn spinel oxide support that contains excess Zn has also been examined. This spinel was the support used in the synthesis of 10-DAN-54, the benchmark catalyst. Formulations made on this support show a lower overall total alcohol rate than those using the spinel without Mn present, and require less cesium for optimal performance.

  14. Infrared imaging of fossil fuel power plant boiler interiors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, James W.; Cranton, Brian W.; Armstrong, Karen L.; Hammaker, Robert G.

    1997-08-01

    Fossil fuel power plant boilers operate continuously for months at a time, typically shutting down only for routine maintenance or to address serious equipment failures. These shutdowns are very costly, and diagnostic tools and techniques which could be used to minimize shutdown duration and frequency are highly desirable. Due to the extremely hostile environment in these boilers, few tools exist to inspect and monitor operating boiler interiors. This paper presents the design of a passively cooled, infrared borescope used to inspect the interior of operating boilers. The borescope operates at 3.9 micrometer, where flame is partially transparent. The primary obstacles overcome in the instrument design were the harsh industrial environment surrounding the boilers and the high temperatures encountered inside the boilers. A portable yet durable lens system and enclosure was developed to work with a scanning radiometer to address these two problems by both shielding the radiometer from the environment and by extending the optical train into a snout designed to be inserted into access ports on the sides of the boiler. In this manner, interior images of the boiler can be made while keeping the radiometer safely outside the boiler. The lens views a 40 degree field of view through any 2.5' or larger opening in a foot thick boiler wall. Three of these borescopes have been built, and high resolution images of boiler interiors have been obtained.

  15. Status of radioiodine control for nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

    1983-07-01

    This report summarizes the status of radioiodine control in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with respect to capture, fixation, and disposal. Where possible, we refer the reader to a number of survey documents which have been published in the last four years. We provide updates where necessary. Also discussed are factors which must be considered in developing criteria for iodine control. For capture from gas streams, silver mordenite and a silver nitrate impregnated silica (AC-6120) are considered state-of-the-art and are recommended. Three aqueous scrubbing processes have been demonstrated: Caustic scrubbing is simple but probably will not give an adequate iodine retention by itself. Mercurex (mercuric nitrate-nitric acid scrubbing) has a number of disadvantages including the use of toxic mercury. Iodox (hyperazeotropic nitric acid scrubbing) is effective but employs a very corrosive and hazardous material. Other technologies have been tested but require extensive development. The waste forms recommended for long-term storage or disposal are silver iodide, the iodates of barium, strontium, or calcium, and silver loaded sorbents, all fixed in cement. Copper iodide in bitumen (asphalt) is a possibility but requires testing. The selection of a specific form will be influenced by the capture process used.

  16. Cost and quality of fuels for electric utility plants: Energy data report. 1980 annual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-25

    In 1980 US electric utilities reported purchasng 594 million tons of coal, 408.5 million barrels of oil and 3568.7 billion ft/sup 3/ of gas. As compared with 1979 purchases, coal rose 6.7%, oil decreased 20.9%, and gas increased for the fourth year in a row. This volume presents tabulated and graphic data on the cost and quality of fossil fuel receipts to US electric utilities plants with a combined capacity of 25 MW or greater. Information is included on fuel origin and destination, fuel types, and sulfur content, plant types, capacity, and flue gas desulfurization method used, and fuel costs. (LCL)

  17. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The proposed control scheme is verified through computer simulations. PMID:25053926

  18. Historic American Engineering Record, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Susan Stacy; Julie Braun

    2006-12-01

    Just as automobiles need fuel to operate, so do nuclear reactors. When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned to power an automobile, they are consumed immediately and nearly completely in the process. When the fuel is gone, energy production stops. Nuclear reactors are incapable of achieving this near complete burn-up because as the fuel (uranium) that powers them is burned through the process of nuclear fission, a variety of other elements are also created and become intimately associated with the uranium. Because they absorb neutrons, which energize the fission process, these accumulating fission products eventually poison the fuel by stopping the production of energy from it. The fission products may also damage the structural integrity of the fuel elements. Even though the uranium fuel is still present, sometimes in significant quantities, it is unburnable and will not power a reactor unless it is separated from the neutron-absorbing fission products by a method called fuel reprocessing. Construction of the Fuel Reprocessing Complex at the Chem Plant started in 1950 with the Bechtel Corporation serving as construction contractor and American Cyanamid Company as operating contractor. Although the Foster Wheeler Corporation assumed responsibility for the detailed working design of the overall plant, scientists at Oak Ridge designed all of the equipment that would be employed in the uranium separations process. After three years of construction activity and extensive testing, the plant was ready to handle its first load of irradiated fuel.

  19. Water-soluble metal nanoparticles stabilized by plant polyphenols for improving the catalytic properties in oxidation of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Mao, H; Liao, Y; Ma, J; Zhao, S L; Huo, F W

    2016-01-14

    Plant polyphenols extracted from plants are one of the most abundant biomasses in nature, which are typical water soluble natural polymers. Herein, we reported a facile approach for the synthesis of platinum nanoparticle (PtNP) aqueous colloid by utilizing black wattle tannin (BWT, a typical plant polyphenol) as amphiphilic stabilizer. The phenolic hydroxyls of BWT provide the PtNPs with enough hydrophilicity, and their reduction ability could protect the PtNPs from deactivation caused by oxygen atmosphere. Additionally, the hydrophilic nature of BWT could efficiently promote the oxidation of alcohols in water, meanwhile, the hydrophobic and rigid backbones of plant polyphenols are able to suppress the PtNPs from aggregating, thus ensuring the high dispersion of the PtNPs during reactions. Under mild aerobic conditions, the as-prepared BWT-Pt colloid catalyst exhibited high activity in a series of biphasic oxidation of aromatic alcohols and aliphatic alcohols. As for the cycling stability, the BWT-Pt catalyst showed no obvious decrease during the 7 cycles, revealing superior cycling stability as compared with the counterparts using PVP or PEG as the stabilizer. PMID:26662453

  20. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourteenth quarterly technical progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The project objectives are: (1) To discover, study, and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalytic systems for the production of oxygenated fuel enhancers from synthesis gas. In particular, novel heterogeneous catalysts will be studied and optimized for the production of: (a) C{sub 1}-C{sub 5} alcohols using conventional methanol synthesis conditions, and (b) methanol and isobutanol mixtures which may be used for the downstream synthesis of MTBE or related oxygenates. (2) To explore, analytically and on the bench scale, novel reactor and process concepts for use in converting syngas to liquid fuel products. (3) To develop on the bench scale the best combination of chemistry, catalyst, reactor, and total process configuration to achieve the minimum product cost for the conversion of syngas to liquid products. The authors have prepared a comparative Zn/Cr spinel oxide support that contains excess ZnO and have looked at the catalytic performance of (a) the bare support, (b) a potassium traverse on the bare support to determine the effect of alkali addition in the absence of Pd and (c) a potassium traverse on the support impregnated with 6 wt% Pd. The bare support is an inefficient methanol catalyst. Alkali addition results in an increase in selectivity to total alcohols vs. the bare support and a dramatic increase higher alcohol synthesis. Pd addition results in further improvements in performance. Selectivities increase with K loading. The 5 wt% K, 5.9 wt% Pd catalyst produces > 100 g/kg-hr of isobutanol at 440 C and 1,000 psi, with 85% selectivity to total alcohols and with a methanol/isobutanol mole ratio of <2. The authors intend to continue formulation screening using K/Pd formulations on ZnO and ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} prepared conventionally and via controlled pH precipitation. They will also examine the effect of Cs in place of K as the alkali promoter and the use of Rh instead of Pd as a promoter.

  1. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  2. Alkaline direct ethanol fuel cell performance using alkali-impregnated polyvinyl alcohol/functionalized carbon nano-tube solid electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chien-Yi; Lin, Jia-Shiun; Pan, Wen-Han; Shih, Chao-Ming; Liu, Ying-Ling; Lue, Shingjiang Jessie

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the application of a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/functionalized carbon nano-tubes (m-CNTs) composite in alkaline direct ethanol fuel cells (ADEFC). The m-CNTs are functionalized with PVA using the ozone mediation method, and the PVA composite containing the modified CNTs is prepared. Adding m-CNT into the PVA matrix enhances the alkaline uptake and the ionic conductivity of the KOH-doped electrolyte. Meanwhile, the m-CNT-containing membrane exhibited a lower swelling ratio and suppressed ethanol permeability compared to the pristine PVA film. The optimal condition for the ADEFC is determined to be under operation at an anode feed of 3 M ethanol in a 5 M KOH solution (at a flow rate of 5 cm3 min-1) with a cathode feed of moisturized oxygen (with a flow rate of 100 cm3 min-1) and the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte. We achieved a peak power density value of 65 mW cm-2 at 60 °C, which is the highest among the ADEFC literature data and several times higher than the proton-exchange direct ethanol fuel cells using sulfonated membrane electrolytes. Therefore, the KOH-doped PVA/m-CNT electrolyte is a suitable solid electrolyte for ADEFCs and has potential for commercialization in alkaline fuel cell applications.

  3. EMISSION CHARACTERIZATION OF MAJOR FOSSIL FUEL POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study characterizes the atmospheric emissions from five major coal-fired power plant units in the Ohio River Valley between Portsmouth, Ohio, and Louisville, Kentucky. This characterization provides data that are representative of the boiler fuel emission control combination...

  4. 27 CFR 19.914 - Medium plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medium plants. 19.914... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.914 Medium plants. Any person wishing to establish a medium plant shall make application for and obtain...

  5. 27 CFR 19.912 - Small plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Small plants. 19.912... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.912 Small plants. Persons wishing to establish a small plant shall apply for a permit as provided in...

  6. 27 CFR 19.915 - Large plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Large plants. 19.915... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits For Fuel Use Permits § 19.915 Large plants. Any person wishing to establish a large plant shall make application for and obtain...

  7. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    Preliminary economic investigations have focused on cost reduction measures in the production of syngas from coal. A spread sheet model has been developed which can determine the cost of syngas production based upon the cost of equipment and raw materials and the market value of energy and by-products. In comparison to natural gas derived syngas, coal derived syngas is much more expensive, suggesting a questionable economic status of coal derived alcohol fuels. While it is possible that use of less expensive coal or significant integration of alcohol production and electricity production may reduce the cost of coal derived syngas, it is unlikely to be less costly to produce than syngas from natural gas. Fuels evaluation is being conducted in three parts. First, standard ASTM tests are being used to analyze the blend characteristics of higher alcohols. Second, the performance characteristics of higher alcohols are being evaluated in a single-cylinder research engine. Third, the emissions characteristics of higher alcohols are being investigated. The equipment is still under construction and the measurement techniques are still being developed. Of particular interest is n-butanol, since the MoS{sub 2} catalyst produces only linear higher alcohols. There is almost no information on the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol, hence the importance of gathering this information in this research.

  8. Using the second law of thermodynamics for enrichment and isolation of microorganisms to produce fuel alcohols or hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Richard A; Kim, Seon-Woo

    2015-10-01

    Fermentation of crops, waste biomass, or gases has been proposed as a means to produce desired chemicals and renewable fuels. The second law of thermodynamics has been shown to determine the net direction of metabolite flow in fermentation processes. In this article, we describe a process to isolate and direct the evolution of microorganisms that convert cellulosic biomass or gaseous CO2 and H2 to biofuels such as ethanol, 1-butanol, butane, or hexane (among others). Mathematical models of fermentation elucidated sets of conditions that thermodynamically favor synthesis of desired products. When these conditions were applied to mixed cultures from the rumen of a cow, bacteria that produced alcohols or alkanes were isolated. The examples demonstrate the first use of thermodynamic analysis to isolate bacteria and control fermentation processes for biofuel production among other uses. PMID:26231417

  9. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly report, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extender and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory and equipment setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis. Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. During this time period, at WVU, we tried several methods to eliminate problems related to condensation of heavier products when reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C materials were used as catalysts. We then resumed our kinetic study on the reduced Mo-Ni-K/C catalysts. We have also obtained same preliminary results in our attempts to analyze quantitatively the temperature-programmed reduction spectra for C- supported Mo-based catalysts. We have completed the kinetic study for the sulfided Co-K-MoS{sub 2}/C catalyst. We have compared the results of methanol synthesis using the membrane reactor with those using a simple plug-flow reactor. At UCC, the complete characterization of selected catalysts has been completed. The results suggest that catalyst pretreatment under different reducing conditions yield different surface compositions and thus different catalytic reactivities.

  10. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Thirteenth quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The authors have tested a number of K/Pd promoted Zn/Mn/Cr spinel oxide catalysts within an experimental design to determine the effect of K, Pd, temperature and pressure on catalyst performance. High temperature operation (at 440 C) results in drastic loss in selectivities to total alcohols (down to 18--30%), and this obscures the effect of the catalyst formulation variables. It appears that at higher temperatures, the tube walls can also catalyze syngas conversion with a more hydrogen-rich syngas mix. Comparison with tests in a copper-lined tube with 1:1 syngas confirm this hypothesis. The design suggested that higher Pd loadings would be beneficial for isobutanol synthesis. The 6 wt% and a 9 wt% Pd formulation were tested with 1:2 syngas in copper-lined tubes. The 6 wt% Pd catalyst, at 440 C and 1,500 psi, produced 71 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio < 1. Under the same conditions, the 9 wt% Pd catalyst is again inferior, producing 52 g/kg-hr of isobutanol with a methanol/isobutanol product mole ratio = 1.7. Of particular interest here is that the 6 wt% Pd catalyst produces more higher alcohols than methanol on a molar basis at good rates using a syngas mix that could be derived from a Shell gasifier.

  11. A project to improve the capabilities of minorities in energy fields and a cost benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sara, T.S.; Jones, M. Jr.

    1986-08-01

    The project being reported in this document had three components: (1) a research project to carry out cost-benefit analysis of an ethyl alcohol plant at Tuskegee University, (2) seminars to improve the high-technology capabilities of minority persons, and (3) a class in energy management. The report provides a background on the three components listed above. The results from the research on the ethyl alcohol plant, are discussed, along with the seminars, and details of the energy management class.

  12. Association between Residential Proximity to Fuel-Fired Power Plants and Hospitalization Rate for Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaopeng; Lessner, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Background: Air pollution is known to cause respiratory disease. Unlike motor vehicle sources, fuel-fired power plants are stationary. Objective: Using hospitalization data, we examined whether living near a fuel-fired power plant increases the likelihood of hospitalization for respiratory disease. Methods: Rates of hospitalization for asthma, acute respiratory infection (ARI), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were estimated using hospitalization data for 1993–2008 from New York State in relation to data for residences near fuel-fired power plants. We also explored data for residential proximity to hazardous waste sites. Results: After adjusting for age, sex, race, median household income, and rural/urban residence, there were significant 11%, 15%, and 17% increases in estimated rates of hospitalization for asthma, ARI, and COPD, respectively, among individuals > 10 years of age living in a ZIP code containing a fuel-fired power plant compared with one that had no power plant. Living in a ZIP code with a fuel-fired power plant was not significantly associated with hospitalization for asthma or ARI among children < 10 years of age. Living in a ZIP code with a hazardous waste site was associated with hospitalization for all outcomes in both age groups, and joint effect estimates were approximately additive for living in a ZIP code that contained a fuel-fired power plant and a hazardous waste site. Conclusions: Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that exposure to air pollution from fuel-fired power plants and volatile compounds coming from hazardous waste sites increases the risk of hospitalization for respiratory diseases. PMID:22370087

  13. Effect of alcohol addition on the movement of petroleum hydrocarbon fuels in soil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Gillian; Gamoh, Keiji; Morris, David G; Duncan, Harry

    2002-03-01

    Groundwater contamination by fuel spills from aboveground and underground storage tanks has been of growing concern in recent years. This problem has been magnified by the addition of oxygenates, such as ethanol and methyl-tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) to fuels to reduce vehicular emissions to the atmosphere. These additives, although beneficial in reducing atmospheric pollution, may, however, increase groundwater contamination due to the co-solvency of petroleum hydrocarbons and by the provision of a preferential substrate for microbial utilisation. With the introduction of ethanol to diesel fuel imminent and the move away from MTBE use in many states of the USA, the environmental implications associated with ethanol additive fuels must be thoroughly investigated. Diesel fuel movement was followed in a 1-m soil column and the effect of ethanol addition to diesel fuel on this movement determined. The addition of 5% ethanol to diesel fuel was found to enhance the downward migration of the diesel fuel components, thus increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A novel method using soil packed HPLC columns allowed the influence of ethanol on individual aromatic hydrocarbon movement to be studied. The levels of ethanol addition investigated were at the current additive level (approx. 25%) for ethanol additive fuels in Brazil and values above (50%) and below (10%) this level. An aqueous ethanol concentration above 10% was required for any movement to occur. At 25% aqueous ethanol, the majority of hydrocarbons were mobilised and the retention behaviour of the soil column lessened. At 50% aqueous ethanol, all the hydrocarbons were found to move unimpeded through the columns. The retention behaviour of the soil was found to change significantly when both organic matter content and silt/clay content was reduced. Unexpectedly, sandy soil with low organic matter and low silt/clay was found to have a retentive behaviour similar to sandy subsoil with moderate silt

  14. Microbial production of fatty alcohols.

    PubMed

    Fillet, Sandy; Adrio, José L

    2016-09-01

    Fatty alcohols have numerous commercial applications, including their use as lubricants, surfactants, solvents, emulsifiers, plasticizers, emollients, thickeners, and even fuels. Fatty alcohols are currently produced by catalytic hydrogenation of fatty acids from plant oils or animal fats. Microbial production of fatty alcohols may be a more direct and environmentally-friendly strategy since production is carried out by heterologous enzymes, called fatty acyl-CoA reductases, able to reduce different acyl-CoA molecules to their corresponding primary alcohols. Successful examples of metabolic engineering have been reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli in which the production of fatty alcohols ranged from 1.2 to 1.9 g/L, respectively. Due to their metabolic advantages, oleaginous yeasts are considered the best hosts for production of fatty acid-derived chemicals. Some of these species can naturally produce, under specific growth conditions, lipids at high titers (>50 g/L) and therefore provide large amounts of fatty acyl-CoAs or fatty acids as precursors. Very recently, taking advantage of such features, over 8 g/L of C16-C18 fatty alcohols have been produced in Rhodosporidium toruloides. In this review we summarize the different metabolic engineering strategies, hosts and cultivation conditions used to date. We also point out some future trends and challenges for the microbial production of fatty alcohols. PMID:27465852

  15. Case studies of unique problems and events encountered during design, construction, and operation of three large commercial-scale fuel ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    This paper summarizes the unique problems and events encountered during the design, construction, start-up, and operation phases of three differently constructed alcohol fuel projects. These projects were awarded cost sharing contracts (Cooperative Agreements) as part of the Department of Energy's effort to expedite ethanol production on a commercial scale. The scope of the projects included final design, economic and financial analysis, market analysis, environmental analysis, facility construction, and plant start-up operation. The three ethanol plants are a 20-million gallon per year (MMGPY) new-construction or grass roots facility; a 60-MMGPY plant constructed using refurbished equipment at a decommissioned ammonia fertilizer facility; and a 10-MMGPY retrofitted brewery. A comparison of the case histories of these projects clearly points out the advantages and disadvantages of each type of design and construction.

  16. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Rindt, J.R.; Smith, E. )

    1988-01-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report contains information on oxygenate analysis of jet fuels.

  17. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  19. A novel approach to fabricating fuel compacts for the next generation nuclear plant (NGNP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappano, P. J.; Burchell, T. D.; Hunn, J. D.; Trammell, M. P.

    2008-10-01

    The next generation nuclear plant (NGNP) is a combined complex of a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) and hydrogen production facility. The VHTR can have a prismatic or pebble bed design and is powered by TRISO fuel in the form of a fuel compact (prismatic) or pebble (pebble bed). The US is scheduled to build a demonstration VHTR at the Idaho National Laboratory site by 2020. The first step toward building of this facility is development and qualification of the fuel for the reactor. This paper summarizes the research and development efforts performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) toward development of a qualified fuel compact for a VHTR.

  20. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    2010-06-01

    Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 ENVIRON International Corporation, in collaboration with Callidus Technologies by Honeywell and Shell Global Solutions, Inc., will develop and demonstrate a full-scale fuel blending and combustion system. This system will allow a broad range of opportunity fuel compositions, including syngas, biogas, natural gas, and refinery fuel gas, to be safely, cost-effectively, and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria pollutants. The project will develop a commercial technology for application in refinery and chemical plant process heaters where opportunity fuels are used.

  1. Simulation and system analysis of an ethanol fuel processor/PEM fuel cell power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Amphlett, J.C.; Leclerc, S.; Mann, R.F.; Peppley, B.A.; Roberge, P.R.

    1998-07-01

    Proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Currently, practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of a hydrogen-rich gas for the fuel cell anode. Liquid fuels such as ethanol, which can be produced from renewable feed stocks, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these fuel processors require a gas clean-up system to ensure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant effect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly affect the overall heat balance. A model of a methanol steam reformer that was previously developed has been used as the basis for a model for an ethanol steam reformer. Similarly, a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM) that was previously developed was used. A palladium diffuser purifier simulation was used for gas clean-up. The ethanol fuel processor model and the SSEM have been incorporated into a process simulation and system analysis of an ethanol-fueled reformer/fuel cell system. The performance of this complete system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions. Assuming that ethanol reforming could be done at 400 C, a net electrical efficiency based on the LHV of ethanol of approximately 54% was calculated. The efficiency, however, is very sensitive to reforming temperature and drops rapidly as the reformer temperature increases. The fractional recovery of hydrogen by the gas clean-up system is also an important factor. The net thermal efficiency passes through a maximum at the point when the heating value in the retentate from the purifier just meets the endothermic heating requirements of the reformer.

  2. Potential alternative fuel sources for agricultural crops and plant components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The changing landscape of agricultural production is placing unprecedented demands on farmers as they face increasing global competition and greater natural resource conservation challenges. However, shrinking profit margins due to increasing input costs, particularly of fuel and fertilizer, can res...

  3. Experience with the combustion of alternate fuels in a CFB pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alliston, M.G.; Probst, S.G.; Wu, S.; Edvardsson, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    A circulating fluidized bed pilot plant has been operated for several years in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, by Tampella Power Corporation to test the combustion characteristics of many different types of fuels. The fuels tested at the facility include: bituminous and anthracite coals; bituminous (gob) and anthracite (culm) waste; fluid and delayed petroleum coke; Colorado and Israel oil shales; tire derived fuel (TDF); refuse derived fuel (RDF); paper mill sludge and bark; and refinery process off-gas. Each of these fuels presented special fuel and ash handling problems that needed to be addressed before successful testing could be accomplished; these problems are more urgent on the pilot scale than in the commercial scale due to the corresponding reduction in equipment size. Each of these fuels also behaved differently in terms of combustion characteristics and gaseous emissions, as would be expected on the basis of their vastly different physical and chemical properties. This paper describes the major experiences obtained during the pilot plant testing of each of these alternative fuels, including summaries of the tested fuels and their measured emissions, limestone performance when applicable, and practical considerations.

  4. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 16, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The objective of Task 1 is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. Task 1 is subdivided into three separate subtasks: laboratory setup; catalysis research; and reaction engineering and modeling. Research at West Virginia University (WVU) is focused on molybdenum-based catalysts for higher alcohol synthesis (HAS). Parallel research carried out at Union Carbide Chemicals and Plastics (UCC&P) is focused on transition-metal-oxide catalysts. Accomplishments to date are discussed in this report. In Task 2, during the past three months, much has been accomplished in fuel testing. Several tests have been run on pure indolene, and the data have been analyzed from these tests. The two limiting alcohol blends have been made, sent out for analysis and the results obtained. The emissions sampling system is undergoing changes necessary for running alcohol fuels. A cylinder pressure measurement system has been installed.

  5. Diesel cogeneration plant using oxygen enriched air and emulsified fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, T.J.; Cole, R.L.; Sekar, R.R.; Stodolsky, F. ); Eustis, J.N. )

    1990-01-01

    The investigation of oxygen-enriched combustion of alternative fuels in diesel engines at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is based on information gathered from two previous Department of Energy programs. The first was the slow-speed diesel engine program which used fuels such as coal-water slurry and coal derived liquid fuels in a slow speed diesel engine. The second was the development of membrane oxygen separation equipment. The results of these programs indicated that using the new membrane oxygen enrichment technology with medium- and high-speed diesel engines would do two things. First, oxygen enrichment could reduce some emissions from stationary diesel engines, particularly smoke, particulates and hydrocarbons while significantly increasing power output. The second, was that it might be possible to use less expensive liquid fuels such as No. 4, No. 6 and residual oil emulsified with water in medium- to high-speed diesel engines. The water would (1) help to eliminate the undesirable increase in nitrogen oxide production when enriched oxygen is used, and (2) by reducing the viscosity of the heavier liquid fuels, make them easier to use in smaller industrial cogeneration applications. This program consists of four steps: preliminary feasibility study, exploratory experiments, system development, and demonstration and commercialization of an industrial cogeneration system. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products

    SciTech Connect

    Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.; Smith, E. )

    1987-01-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes the stream assessment. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL POWER PLANT LOCATED AT LADWP MAIN STREET SERVICE CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    William W. Glauz

    2004-09-10

    The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) has developed one of the most recognized fuel cell demonstration programs in the United States. In addition to their high efficiencies and superior environmental performance, fuel cells and other generating technologies that can be located at or near the load, offers several electric utility benefits. Fuel cells can help further reduce costs by reducing peak electricity demand, thereby deferring or avoiding expenses for additional electric utility infrastructure. By locating generators near the load, higher reliability of service is possible and the losses that occur during delivery of electricity from remote generators are avoided. The potential to use renewable and locally available fuels, such as landfill or sewage treatment waste gases, provides another attractive outlook. In Los Angeles, there are also many oil producing areas where the gas by-product can be utilized. In June 2000, the LADWP contracted with FCE to install and commission the precommercial 250kW MCFC power plant. The plant was delivered, installed, and began power production at the JFB in August 2001. The plant underwent manufacturer's field trials up for 18 months and was replace with a commercial plant in January 2003. In January 2001, the LADWP contracted with FCE to provide two additional 250kW MCFC power plants. These commercial plants began operations during mid-2003. The locations of these plants are at the Terminal Island Sewage Treatment Plant at the Los Angeles Harbor (for eventual operation on digester gas) and at the LADWP Main Street Service Center east of downtown Los Angeles. All three carbonate fuel cell plants received partial funding through the Department of Defense's Climate Change Fuel Cell Buydown Program. This report covers the technical evaluation and benefit-cost evaluation of the Main Street 250kW MCFC power plant during its first year of operation from September 2003 to August 2004. The data for the month of

  8. Primary Metabolism and Plant Defense - Fuel for the Fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants have the ability to recognize and respond to a multitude of microorganisms. Recognition of pathogens results in a massive reprogramming of the plant cell to activate and deploy defense responses to halt pathogen growth. Such responses are associated with increased demands for energy, reduci...

  9. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin; Ya-Tang Cheng

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  10. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011. PMID:22143900

  11. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  12. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... This means that their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or ... brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the risk of ...

  13. The challenges of fuel options for the new generation of Indian thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Sanyal, A.

    1999-07-01

    The selection of fuel supply is probably the most important challenge a potential power project developer for a new Indian thermal power plant has to face when considering the overall project economics. The paper reviews the essential issues and the effect of fuel selection on project costs of the new generation of thermal power plants of India. Coal, lignite and natural gas are India's indigenous fossil fuel resources for power generation. The country has a modest reserve of petroleum crude. India is the world's third largest coal producer and has 205 billion metric tons of assessed and 73 billion tons of proven reserves. The indigenous supply of petroleum is unlikely to improve much in the near future. Liquid fuel based generation is therefore marginal in the country. Although coal will continue to be the mainstay fuel, there is a short term need to examine the possibility of using alternative fuels due to two basic reasons: (a) A 70 million tons of shortfall is forecast for the power sector during the 1997--2002 period. The deficit has to be met by either import of coal or other fuels. Development of new mines is a long gestation activity. (b) There is an uneven geographical location of Indian coal reserves. For the load centers, which are distant from the indigenous coal sources, use of alternative fuel could also prove to be economical in the long term. Moving coal will become harder in view of the high demands being placed on the railways by many other sectors.

  14. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 19, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of Task I is to prepare and evaluate catalysts and to develop efficient reactor systems for the selective conversion of hydrogen-lean synthesis gas to alcohol fuel extenders and octane enhancers. In Task 1, during this reporting period, we encountered and solved a problem in the analysis of the reaction products containing a small amount of heavy components. Subsequently, we continued with the major thrusts of the program. We analyzed the results from our preliminary studies on the packed-bed membrane reactor using the BASF methanol synthesis catalyst. We developed a quantitative model to describe the performance of the reactor. The effect of varying permeances and the effect of catalyst aging are being incorporated into the model. Secondly, we resumed our more- detailed parametric studies on selected non-sulfide Mo-based catalysts. Finally, we continue with the analysis of data from the kinetic study of a sulfided carbon-supported potassium-doped molybdenum-cobalt catalyst in the Rotoberty reactor. We have completed catalyst screening at UCC. The complete characterization of selected catalysts has been started. In Task 2, the fuel blends of alcohol and unleaded test gas 96 (UTG 96) have been made and tests have been completed. The testing includes knock resistance tests and emissions tests. Emissions tests were conducted when the engine was optimized for the particular blend being tested (i.e. where the engine produced the most power when running on the blend in question). The data shows that the presence of alcohol in the fuel increases the fuel`s ability to resist knock. Because of this, when the engine was optimized for use with alcohol blends, the engine produced more power and lower emission rates.

  15. Effect of fuel cycle length on plant performance and cost

    SciTech Connect

    O`Donnell, E.P.

    1996-08-01

    As competitive pressures increase in the utility industry, many nuclear units are moving to longer fuel cycles in order to increase capacity factors and lower cost. This paper reviews recent experience with longer cycle operation for both GPU Nuclear and the industry as a whole.

  16. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  17. Monensin inhibits growth of bacterial contaminants from fuel ethanol plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of commercial fermentation cultures by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is a common and costly problem to the fuel ethanol industry. Virginiamycin (VIR) and penicillin (PEN) are frequently used to control bacterial contamination but extensive use of antibiotics may select for strains with d...

  18. WOOD WASTE AS A POWER PLANT FUEL IN THE OZARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the testing program conducted on a chain-grate stoker boiler with a blended coal and wood waste fuel. The boiler was designed to produce 18,000 lb/hr of saturated steam at 150 psig. The objective of the tests was to determine the difference, if any, in the pe...

  19. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  20. Dynamic performance of fossil-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Armor, A.F.; Bennett, W.E.; Di Domenico, P.N.; Shor, S.W.W.; Smith, L.P.

    1982-10-01

    Dynamic simulation is a valuable tool for optimizing the design and operation of steam electric power plants, especially those that change load or shut down frequently. However, its use has been limited because it has required experienced modeling specialists. An easy-to-use modeling system has therefore been developed under Electric Power Research Institute sponsorship. It has been tested by simulating transients performed on Boston Edison Company's Mystic Unit 7, a 550-MW oil-fired plant, with good agreement between the simulations and the recorded plant transients.

  1. Operating experiences with a molten carbonate fuel cell at Stuttgart-Möhringen wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Locher, C; Meyer, C; Steinmetz, H

    2012-01-01

    Fuel cells on wastewater treatment plants are a relatively new technology to convert biogas from anaerobic digestion into thermal and electrical energy. Since the end of 2007, a type of MCFC fuel cell (>250 kW(el), 180 kW(th)) has been installed at Stuttgart-Möhringen wastewater treatment plant. The goals of this research project are to raise the power self-sufficiency in Stuttgart-Möhringen, to further optimise high temperature fuel cells using biogas and to gain practical experience. After approximately 9,000 h of operation, a mean electrical 'gross'-efficiency of 44% was achieved. To fully exploit this high electrical efficiency, it is essential to keep the energy consumption of peripheral devices (gas pressure unit, gas cleaning unit, etc.) of the fuel cell as low as possible. PMID:22339011

  2. Building dismantlement and site remediation at the Apollo Fuel Plant: When is technology the answer?

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, L.

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo fuel plant was located in Pennsylvania on a site known to have been used continuously for stell production from before the Civil War until after World War II. Then the site became a nuclear fuel chemical processing plants. Finally it was used to convert uranium hexafluoride to various oxide fuel forms. After the fuel manufacturing operations were teminated, the processing equipment was partially decontaminated, removed, packaged and shipped to a licensed low-level radioactive waste burial site. The work was completed in 1984. In 1990 a detailed site characterization was initiated to establishe the extent of contamination and to plan the building dismantlement and soil remediation efforts. This article discusses the site characterization and remedial action at the site in the following subsections: characterization; criticality control; mobile containment; soil washing; in-process measurements; and the final outcome of the project.

  3. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  4. Method for processing whole cane and sweet sorghum into fuel alcohol and electric power

    SciTech Connect

    le Grand, F.

    1983-10-01

    A process is described for fermenting whole cane in situ to ethanol, rather than extracting the sugar and fermenting it separately. An energy efficient way of obtaining dehydrated ethanol is the employment of a molecular sieve using bagasse as a desicant. The remaining bagasse is recovered and dried prior to gasification. The producer gas is used to fuel a spark ignition engine which may be geared either to a generating unit or a hydraulic pump. The economics of the process are discussed briefly. (Refs. 3).

  5. Hydrogen fuel reforming in a fog cooled fuel cell power plant assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.H.; Wertheim, R.J.

    1989-09-12

    This patent describes a high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly. The cell comprising: a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity. The stack including cathode means, anode means, and the stack being formed without a separate cooling system; means for delivering a pressurized air supply to the cathode means; means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; first exhaust means for removing a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and product water from the cathode means; means for delivering a water fog stream to the anode means for mixture with the hydrogen rich fuel gas. The water fog stream being evaporated in the anode means to cool the stack; means for exhausting a mixture of hydrogen-depleted gas and water vapor from the anode means; reformer means for reforming a raw hydrocarbon fuel to the hydrogen rich fuel gas; and means for delivering the mixture of hydrogen-depleted exhaust gas and water vapor to the reformer means to provide water for the reforming reaction.

  6. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  7. How to modify your car to run on alcohol fuel: guidelines for converting gasoline engines with specific instructions for air-cooled volkswagens

    SciTech Connect

    Lippman, R.

    1982-04-01

    It is simple to run an engine on alcohol, but doing it right is more complex. In converting an engine, it is important to obtain good fuel economy and driveability while minimizing exhaust emissions and engine wear. This manual describes significant properties of alcohol and explains the engine changes which must consequently be made, as well as providing step-by-step instructions. Engine modification procedures are presented for the amateur and professional mechanic. Conversion involves modifying the carburetor, intake manifold, and ignition system; installing a cold starting system; and raising the compression ratio. If one can tune up an engine, overhaul a carburetor, replace a cylinder head, and follow directions carefully, he is well qualified to convert his car to run on alcohol. The process will take three or four days, and the cost to the do-it-yourselfer will be $250 to $300.

  8. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Alex; Banta, Larry; Tucker, D.A.; Gemmen, R.S.

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key issues encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the facility consisting of a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in Transfer Function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H-Infinity robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence.

  9. Disposal of defense spent fuel and HLW from the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ermold, L.F.; Loo, H.H.; Klingler, R.D.; Herzog, J.D.; Knecht, D.A.

    1992-12-01

    Acid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) resulting from fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been solidified to a calcine since 1963 and stored in stainless steel bins enclosed by concrete vaults. Several different types of unprocessed irradiated DOE-owned fuels are also in storage ate the ICPP. In April, 1992, DOE announced that spent fuel would no longer be reprocessed to recover enriched uranium and called for a shutdown of the reprocessing facilities at the ICPP. A new Spent Fuel and HLW Technology Development program was subsequently initiated to develop technologies for immobilizing ICPP spent fuels and HLW for disposal, in accordance with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. The Program elements include Systems Analysis, Graphite Fuel Disposal, Other Spent Fuel Disposal, Sodium-Bearing Liquid Waste Processing, Calcine Immobilization, and Metal Recycle/Waste Minimization. This paper presents an overview of the ICPP radioactive wastes and current spent fuels, with an emphasis on the description of HLW and spent fuels requiring repository disposal.

  10. Surveillance system using the CCTV at the fuel transfer pond in the Tokai reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, T.; Fukuhara, J.; Ochiai, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Ogata, Y.; Okamoto, H. )

    1991-01-01

    The Fuel Transfer Pond (FTP) in the Tokai Reprocessing Plant (TRP) is a strategic point for safeguards. Spent fuels, therefore, in the FTP have been surveyed by the surveillance system using the underwater CCTV. This system was developed through the improvement of devices composed of cameras and VCRs and the provision of tamper resistance function as one of the JASPAS (Japan Support Program for Agency Safeguards) program. The purpose of this program is to realize the continuous surveillance of the slanted tunnel through which the spent fuel on the conveyor is moved from the FTP to the Mechanical Processing Cell (MPC). This paper reports that, when this surveillance system is applied to an inspection device, the following requirements are needed: To have the ability of continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel on the conveyor path from the FTP to the MPC; To have the tamper resistance function for continuous and unattended surveillance of the spent fuel.

  11. Safety aspects of fuel handling in IGCC and PFBC plants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilen, C.; Rautalin, A.

    1999-07-01

    Safety-technical characteristics of fuels, primarily biomass and, as reference, coal have been studied at VTT Energy since the year 1993. The work has related mainly to the development work of feeding and handling systems for pressurized gasification and combustion technology. This paper compares various pressurized system alternatives based primarily on lock-hopper feeding technology. A significant issue is how to arrange pressurization and sufficiently safe conditions. New alternatives to produce inert gas and the latest dust explosion suppression technology are assessed. New data on the safety-technical characteristics of renewable fuels, wastes, low-rank coals and mixtures of these, created in a research project funded by EC under the Joule 3 Programme are presented. Dust explosion testing was performed at initial pressures of up to 15 bar and temperatures of 150 C to simulate pressurized drying and handling of the biomass fuels. Inerting tests with nitrogen and flue gases were carried out to determine the requirements of non-explosive conditions. Very high explosion pressures and rates of pressure rise are measured at elevated initial pressures. The required level of inertization on dust explosions is dependent of the initial pressure and temperature. Safe operation would require an oxygen concentration of max 10 vol% in the surrounding atmosphere. The allowable oxygen concentration decreases with increasing initial temperature. For all powders tested this decrease was more or less the same, around 1--3 vol% per 100 C temperature rise. Suppression tests were performed in co-operation with Coal Technology Development Division of British Coal Corp. to assess the usability of this explosion protection method for biomass fuels in elevated conditions.

  12. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  13. Activity of fuel batches processed through Hanford separations plants, 1944 through 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Watrous, R.A.; Wootan, D.W.

    1997-07-29

    This document provides a printout of the ``Fuel Activity Database`` (version U6) generated by the Hanford DKPRO code and transmitted to the Los Alamos National Laboratory for input to their ``Hanford Defined Waste`` model of waste tank inventories. This fuel activity file consists of 1,276 records--each record representing the activity associated with a batch of spent reactor fuel processed by month (or shorter period) through individual Hanford separations plants between 1944 and 1989. Each record gives the curies for 46 key radionuclides, decayed to a common reference date of January 1, 1994.

  14. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    SciTech Connect

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-22

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  15. A review of inputs and impacts of coal-based synthetic fuel plants. Staff report

    SciTech Connect

    Shillington, T.H.

    1981-02-01

    The report assesses published estimates of the inputs and local economic impacts of proposed coal-based synthetic fuel plants, and identifies gaps in assessment informational requirements. It concludes that the nature and magnitude of local economic impacts cannot be predicted accurately using available data. First, the few published estimates of synthetic fuel employment requirements and schedules often are out-of-date or contradictory. Second, growth management strategies for energy boom towns have not been adequately evaluated. Third, conventional assessments may not identify substantial structural changes in small rural economies undergoing rapid growth from sustained energy development. Finally, uncertainty -- about plant lifetimes and the settlement decisions of newcomers -- remains an important variable.

  16. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. First quarterly technical progress report, January--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate. novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. The project is being pursued as two concurrent tasks. Task 1 involves catalyst research and development and is being largely conducted by catalyst chemists and analytical specialists. Task 2 is largely an engineering activity, and includes process conceptualization and economics and bench-scale process evaluation of systems developed in Task 1. Work this quarter has concentrated largely on literature work, revamping laboratory and reactor systems, and planning specific experiments to pursue the objectives of the program. A systematic search of the literature has been initiated to ensure that our literature base on conversion of syngas to higher alcohols is current. This activity will be continued throughout the project. Variables in catalyst formulation and preparation will be examined by a fractional factorial designed experiment. The variables are based upon previous work at UCC on a catalyst system that gave a product rich in isobutanol. The ranges of some of the fixed and free variables are being identified by a preliminary 3 {times} 3 designed set. The precipitation pH and its effects on surface area, porosity, and thermal characteristics of the resulting precipitate will also be investigated. Potentiometric titrations during coprecipitation are being used to aid in improving this catalyst preparation procedure. A microreactor system has been prepared for use in screening heterogeneous catalysts in this project. It will allow the independent control of three fixed bed reactor tubes except for reaction temperature. Appropriate temperature, pressure, and flow ranges are attainable with this system.

  17. Where do poly(vinyl alcohol) based membranes stand in relation to Nafion® for direct methanol fuel cell applications?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiti, Jatindranath; Kakati, Nitul; Lee, Seok Hee; Jee, Seung Hyun; Viswanathan, Balasubramanian; Yoon, Young Soo

    2012-10-01

    Though fuel cells have been considered as a viable energy conversion device, their adaptation for practical applications has been facing certain challenging issues regarding the availability of appropriate materials and components. For low temperature fuel cells, membranes that are cost effective and also competitive to Nafion® are the major requirements especially for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFC). Proton conductivity and methanol crossover are the two main characteristics that are of great concern for the development of suitable, alternate, and viable membranes for DMFC applications, though other factors including environmental acceptability are also important. In this regard, in recent time's poly (vinyl alcohol) based membranes have been developed as a viable alternative. This presentation therefore assesses the technological advances that have been made and the impediments that are faced in this development. This critical assessment exercise, it is presumed, may contribute toward a speedy development of this critical component for a viable fuel cell based energy economy.

  18. Alcohol and the regulation of energy balance: overnight effects on diet-induced thermogenesis and fuel storage.

    PubMed

    Murgatroyd, P R; Van De Ven, M L; Goldberg, G R; Prentice, A M

    1996-01-01

    The effect of alcohol on overnight energy expenditure and substrate disposal was studied in eleven subjects (five men, six women) using whole-body indirect calorimetry for 15.5 h after test meals. Three test meals were studied in random order with at least 48 h between treatments: control, 50% of maintenance energy needs provided as 14, 40 and 46% energy from protein, fat and carbohydrate respectively; alcohol addition, control plus 23% energy as alcohol; alcohol substitution, control with alcohol replacing 23% of carbohydrate energy. ANOVA revealed no significant sex effects. Alcohol-induced thermogenesis dissipated only 15 (SD 14)% of the alcohol energy. Alcohol addition had no significant effect on protein or carbohydrate oxidation but fat oxidation was suppressed (P < 0.0005) to an extent equivalent to storing 74 (SD 51)% of the alcohol energy as fat. Alcohol substitution reduced carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.009) to an equivalent of 42 (SD 41)% and also spared fat (P < 0.005) to an equivalent of 59 (SD 37)% of the alcohol energy. It is concluded that alcohol has no special thermogenic capacity, and that its energy can be accounted for in a similar way to carbohydrate. PMID:8785189

  19. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  20. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  1. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  2. 7 CFR Appendix C to Subpart E of... - Guidelines for Loan Guarantees for Alcohol Fuel Production Facilities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... beverage purposes, is manufactured from biomass. (2) The alcohol production facility includes all... energy balance must be indicated and supported by appropriate data; i.e., the energy content of the alcohol produced at the alcohol production facility must be greater than the energy used to produce...

  3. Steam/fuel system optimization report: 6000-tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vakil, T.D.

    1983-07-01

    The design and configuration of the steam and fuel system for the 6000-ton-per-day (tpd) SRC-I Demonstration plant have been optimized, based on requirements for each area of the plant that were detailed in Area Baseline Designs of December 1982. The system was optimized primarily for the two most likely modes of plant operation, that is, when the expanded-bed hydrocracker (EBH) is operating at either high or low conversion, with all other units operating. However, the design, as such, is also operable under four other anticipated operating modes. The plant is self-sufficient in fuel except when the coker/calciner unit is not operating; then the required fuel oil import ranges from 80 to 125 MM Btu/h, lower heating value (LHV). The system affords stable operation under varying fuel gas availability and is reliable, flexible, and efficient. The optimization was based on maximizing overall efficiency of the steam system. The system was optimized to operate at five different steam-pressure levels, which are justifiable based on the plant's team requirements for process, heat duty, and power. All identified critical equipment drives will be run by steam turbines. Also part of the optimization was elimination of the steam evaporator in the wastewater treatment area. This minimized the impact on the steam system of operating in either the discharge of zero-discharge mode; the steam system remains essentially the same for either mode. Any further optimization efforts should be based on overall cost-effectiveness.

  4. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Refinery and Chemical Plant Process Heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Charles; Wilson, Robert

    2014-04-30

    This project culminated in the demonstration of a full-scale industrial burner which allows a broad range of “opportunity” gaseous fuels to be cost-effectively and efficiently utilized while generating minimal emissions of criteria air pollutants. The burner is capable of maintaining a stable flame when the fuel composition changes rapidly. This enhanced stability will contribute significantly to improving the safety and reliability of burner operation in manufacturing sites. Process heating in the refining and chemicals sectors is the primary application for this burner. The refining and chemical sectors account for more than 40% of total industrial natural gas use. Prior to the completion of this project, an enabling technology did not exist that would allow these energy-intensive industries to take full advantage of opportunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. Opportunity gaseous fuels include biogas (from animal and agricultural wastes, wastewater plants, and landfills) as well as syngas (from the gasification of biomass, municipal solid wastes, construction wastes, and refinery residuals). The primary challenge to using gaseous opportunity fuels is that their composition and combustion performance differ significantly from those of conventional fuels such as natural gas and refinery fuel gas. An effective fuel-flexible burner must accept fuels that range widely in quality and change in composition over time, often rapidly. In Phase 1 of this project, the team applied computational fluid dynamics analysis to optimize the prototype burner’s aerodynamic, combustion, heat transfer, and emissions performance. In Phase 2, full-scale testing and refinement of two prototype burners were conducted in test furnaces at Zeeco’s offices in Broken Arrow, OK. These tests demonstrated that the full range of conventional and opportunity fuels could be utilized by the project’s burner while achieving robust flame stability and very low levels of

  5. Enzymes desulfurizing diesel fuel in pilot plant tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-05-15

    Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, Texas, is collecting data from a new 5 b/d, continuous-operation, biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) pilot plant. Hurdles to commercialization are catalyst activity, stability, and fermentation yield. Since 1990, however, Energy BioSystems Corp. (EBC) has made great strides in improving all three of these factors. The BDS process uses enzymes to remove organically bound sulfur from petroleum streams at mild temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Objectives of the pilot plant studies include: validating and refining the computer simulations used to control the process and establishing the process design basis. So far, the results from pilot plant operations have met expectations. The projected 45% desulfurization rate has been achieved, within a few percent. This rate was simply the target for the initial evaluation experiments, and that the process is capable of desulfurizing almost to extinction.

  6. Evaluation of alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes as bi-enzymatic anodes in a membraneless ethanol microfluidic fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galindo-de-la-Rosa, J.; Arjona, N.; Arriaga, L. G.; Ledesma-García, J.; Guerra-Balcázar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) enzymes were immobilized by covalent binding and used as the anode in a bi-enzymatic membraneless ethanol hybrid microfluidic fuel cell. The purpose of using both enzymes was to optimize the ethanol electro-oxidation reaction (EOR) by using ADH toward its direct oxidation and AldH for the oxidation of aldehydes as by-products of the EOR. For this reason, three enzymatic bioanode configurations were evaluated according with the location of enzymes: combined, vertical and horizontally separated. In the combined configuration, a current density of 16.3 mA cm-2, a voltage of 1.14 V and a power density of 7.02 mW cm-2 were obtained. When enzymes were separately placed in a horizontal and vertical position the ocp drops to 0.94 V and to 0.68 V, respectively. The current density also falls to values of 13.63 and 5.05 mA cm-2. The decrease of cell performance of bioanodes with separated enzymes compared with the combined bioanode was of 31.7% and 86.87% for the horizontal and the vertical array.

  7. Compressed Air System Redesign Results in Increased Production at a Fuel System Plant (Caterpillar Fuel Systems Pontiac Plant)

    SciTech Connect

    2001-06-01

    This case study is one in a series on industrial firms who are implementing energy efficient technologies and system improvements into their manufacturing processes. This case study documents the activities, savings, and lessons learned on the Caterpillar's Pontiac Plant project.

  8. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, Chris

    2007-11-12

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  9. Reducing Our Carbon Footprint: Converting Plants to Fuel (LBNL Science at the Theater)

    ScienceCinema

    Somerville, Chris

    2011-04-28

    Berkeley Lab's Chris Somerville is a leading authority on the structure and function of plant cell walls, which comprise most of the body mass of higher plants. He views the knowledge of cell wall structure and function as furthering the development of plants with improved usefulness: these plants are strong potential sources of renewable materials and biofuel feedstocks. His scientific expertise defines an ideal match of his interest - in the development of cellulosic and other solar-to-fuel science - with his recent appointment as Director of the Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI). With colleagues in biology, physical sciences, engineering, and environmental and the social sciences, he now leads the EBI multidisciplinary teams' research efforts to develop next-generation, carbon-neutral transportation fuels.

  10. Design considerations for an integrated safeguards system for fuel-reprocessng plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cartan, F O

    1982-05-01

    This report presents design ideas for safeguards systems in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants. The report summarizes general safeguards requirements and describes a safeguards system concept being developed and tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report gives some general concepts intended for design consideration and a checklist of specific problems that should be considered. The report is intended as an aid for the safeguards system designer and as a source of useful information.

  11. Adaptation of a commercially available 200 kW natural gas fuel cell power plant for operation on a hydrogen rich gas stream

    SciTech Connect

    Maston, V.A.

    1997-12-01

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has designed a hydrogen fueled fuel cell power plant based on a modification of its standard natural gas fueled PC25{trademark} C fuel cell power plant. The natural gas fueled PC25 C is a 200 kW, fuel cell power plant that is commercially available. The program to accomplish the fuel change involved deleting the natural gas processing elements, designing a new fuel pretreatment subsystem, modifying the water and thermal management subsystem, developing a hydrogen burner to combust unconsumed hydrogen, and modifying the control system. Additionally, the required modifications to the manufacturing and assembly procedures necessary to allow the hydrogen fueled power plant to be manufactured in conjunction with the on-going production of the standard PC25 C power plants were identified. This work establishes the design and manufacturing plan for the 200 kW hydrogen fueled PC25 power plant.

  12. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Dombek, B.D.

    1996-03-01

    The primary objective of this project has been the pursuit of a catalyst system which would allow the selective production from syngas of methanol and isobutanol. It is desirable to develop a process in which the methanol to isobutanol weight ratio could be varied from 70/30 to 30/70. The 70/30 mixture could be used directly as a fuel additive, while, with the appropriate downstream processing, the 30/70 mixture could be utilized for methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) synthesis. The indirect manufacture of MTBE from a coal derived syngas to methanol and isobutanol process would appear to be a viable solution to MTBE feedstock limitations. To become economically attractive, a process fro producing oxygenates from coal-derived syngas must form these products with high selectivity and good rates, and must be capable of operating with a low-hydrogen-content syngas. This was to be accomplished through extensions of known catalyst systems and by the rational design of novel catalyst systems.

  13. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    PubMed Central

    Misztal, P.K.; Hewitt, C.N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J.D.; Eller, A.S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D.R.; Gilman, J.B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A.B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F.N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B.M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A.C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D.R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y−1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry. PMID:26165168

  14. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  15. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmore » of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.« less

  16. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S. D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-01

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  17. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels.

    PubMed

    Misztal, P K; Hewitt, C N; Wildt, J; Blande, J D; Eller, A S D; Fares, S; Gentner, D R; Gilman, J B; Graus, M; Greenberg, J; Guenther, A B; Hansel, A; Harley, P; Huang, M; Jardine, K; Karl, T; Kaser, L; Keutsch, F N; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Kleist, E; Lerner, B M; Li, T; Mak, J; Nölscher, A C; Schnitzhofer, R; Sinha, V; Thornton, B; Warneke, C; Wegener, F; Werner, C; Williams, J; Worton, D R; Yassaa, N; Goldstein, A H

    2015-01-01

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y(-1)), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry. PMID:26165168

  18. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  19. Economic implications of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, R.C.; Collins, G.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Chang, H.C.

    1983-08-01

    This study of expected economic impacts of substituting plant oils for diesel fuel consisted of two components: (1) analysis of oilseed production and oilseed crushing capacity in the US and Texas and (2) simulation of impacts on US cropping patterns, crop prices, producer rent, and consumer surplus. The primary oilseed crops considered were soybeans, cottonseed, sunflowers, and peanuts. 19 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  20. WET/DRY COOLING SYSTEMS FOR FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS: WATER CONSERVATION AND PLUME ABATEMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of technical and economic feasibilities of wet/dry cooling towers for water conservation and vapor plume abatement. Results of cost optimizations of wet/dry cooling for 1000-MWe fossil-fueled power plants are presented. Five sites in the wester...

  1. Use of plasma fuel systems at thermal power plants in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Karpenko, E.I.; Karpenko, Y.E.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-05-15

    The technology of plasma ignition of solid fuels is described, as well as its creation and development steps, the technoeconomic characteristics of plasma igniter systems, schemes of their installation in pulverized-coal boilers, and results of their application at pulverized coal-fired power plants.

  2. 75 FR 60147 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on January 14, 2010 (75 FR 2163). Pursuant to 10 CFR 72.46(b)(2), on... promulgated on August 28, 2007 (72 FR 49139). All documents filed in NRC adjudicatory proceedings, including... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation; Notice...

  3. Fuels from renewable resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

    Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

  4. Characteristics of candidate sites selected for onsite fuel cell power plant testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, W. C.; Ferraro, V. D.; Woods, R. R.

    A portion of the Onsite Fuel Cell Program involves field testing forty-nine, 40-kW onsite fuel cell power plants. This paper describes the energy characteristics of 82 different sites that have been selected as potential field test locations. The 82 sites include multi-family residential, commercial and light industrial buildings that represent 26 market segments throughout the United States and Japan. Each one of the 82 sites has been instrumented with a standard data acquisition system to obtain hourly thermal and electrical energy consumption data. This energy data will help determine each site's compatibility with a 40-kW fuel cell power plant, and will provide an extensive data base which may be useful in other energy studies.

  5. Startup, testing, and operation of the Santa Clara 2MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Leo, A.J.; O`Shea, T.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is a collaboration between several utility organizations, Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE), and the U.S. Dept. Of Energy aimed at the demonstration of Energy Research Corporation`s (ERC) direct carbonate fuel cell (DFC) technology. ERC has been pursuing the development of the DFC for commercialization near the end of this decade, and this project is an integral part of the ERC commercialization effort. The objective of the Santa Clara Demonstration Project is to provide the first full, commercial scale demonstration of this technology. The approach ERC has taken in the commercialization of the DFC is described in detail elsewhere. An aggressive core technology development program is in place which is focused by ongoing interaction with customers and vendors to optimize the design of the commercial power plant. ERC has selected a 2.85 MW power plant unit for initial market entry. Two ERC subsidiaries are supporting the commercialization effort: the Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) and the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE). FCMC manufactures carbonate stacks and multi-stack modules, currently from its production facility in Torrington, CT. FCE is responsible for power plant design, integration of all subsystems, sales/marketing, and client services. FCE is serving as the prime contractor for the design, construction, and testing of the SCDP Plant. FCMC has manufactured the multi-stack submodules used in the DC power section of the plant. Fluor Daniel Inc. (FDI) served as the architect-engineer subcontractor for the design and construction of the plant and provided support to the design of the multi-stack submodules. FDI is also assisting the ERC companies in commercial power plant design.

  6. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; R.D. Carneim; P.F. Becher; C-H. Hsueh; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-04-30

    Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.

  7. AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant safety overview for spent fuel cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Gorgemans, J.; Mulhollem, L.; Glavin, J.; Pfister, A.; Conway, L.; Schulz, T.; Oriani, L.; Cummins, E.; Winters, J.

    2012-07-01

    The AP1000{sup R} plant is an 1100-MWe class pressurized water reactor with passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications that enhance construction, operation, maintenance, safety and costs. The AP1000 design uses passive features to mitigate design basis accidents. The passive safety systems are designed to function without safety-grade support systems such as AC power, component cooling water, service water or HVAC. Furthermore, these passive features 'fail safe' during a non-LOCA event such that DC power and instrumentation are not required. The AP1000 also has simple, active, defense-in-depth systems to support normal plant operations. These active systems provide the first level of defense against more probable events and they provide investment protection, reduce the demands on the passive features and support the probabilistic risk assessment. The AP1000 passive safety approach allows the plant to achieve and maintain safe shutdown in case of an accident for 72 hours without operator action, meeting the expectations provided in the U.S. Utility Requirement Document and the European Utility Requirements for passive plants. Limited operator actions are required to maintain safe conditions in the spent fuel pool via passive means. In line with the AP1000 approach to safety described above, the AP1000 plant design features multiple, diverse lines of defense to ensure spent fuel cooling can be maintained for design-basis events and beyond design-basis accidents. During normal and abnormal conditions, defense-in-depth and other systems provide highly reliable spent fuel pool cooling. They rely on off-site AC power or the on-site standby diesel generators. For unlikely design basis events with an extended loss of AC power (i.e., station blackout) or loss of heat sink or both, spent fuel cooling can still be provided indefinitely: - Passive systems, requiring minimal or no operator actions, are sufficient for at least 72 hours under all possible pool

  8. Multivariable Robust Control of a Simulated Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Alex; Banta, Larry; Tucker, David; Gemmen, Randall

    2010-08-01

    This work presents a systematic approach to the multivariable robust control of a hybrid fuel cell gas turbine plant. The hybrid configuration under investigation built by the National Energy Technology Laboratory comprises a physical simulation of a 300kW fuel cell coupled to a 120kW auxiliary power unit single spool gas turbine. The public facility provides for the testing and simulation of different fuel cell models that in turn help identify the key difficulties encountered in the transient operation of such systems. An empirical model of the built facility comprising a simulated fuel cell cathode volume and balance of plant components is derived via frequency response data. Through the modulation of various airflow bypass valves within the hybrid configuration, Bode plots are used to derive key input/output interactions in transfer function format. A multivariate system is then built from individual transfer functions, creating a matrix that serves as the nominal plant in an H{sub {infinity}} robust control algorithm. The controller’s main objective is to track and maintain hybrid operational constraints in the fuel cell’s cathode airflow, and the turbo machinery states of temperature and speed, under transient disturbances. This algorithm is then tested on a Simulink/MatLab platform for various perturbations of load and fuel cell heat effluence. As a complementary tool to the aforementioned empirical plant, a nonlinear analytical model faithful to the existing process and instrumentation arrangement is evaluated and designed in the Simulink environment. This parallel task intends to serve as a building block to scalable hybrid configurations that might require a more detailed nonlinear representation for a wide variety of controller schemes and hardware implementations.

  9. Evaluation of innovative fossil fuel power plants with CO{sub 2} removal

    SciTech Connect

    2000-07-15

    This interim report presents initial results of an ongoing study of the potential cost of electricity produced in both conventional and innovative fossil fueled power plants that incorporate carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) removal for subsequent sequestration or use. The baseline cases are natural gas combined cycle (NGCC) and ultra-supercritical pulverized coal (PC) plants, with and without post combustion CO{sub 2} removal, and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants, with and without pre-combustion CO{sub 2} removal.

  10. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  11. Advanced power systems featuring a closely coupled catalytic gasification carbonate fuel cell plant

    SciTech Connect

    Steinfeld, G.; Wilson, W.G.

    1993-06-01

    Pursuing the key national goal of clean and efficient uulization of the abundant domestic coal resources for power generation, a study was conducted with DOE/METC support to evaluate the potential of integrated gasification/carbonate fuel cell power generation systems. By closely coupling the fuel cell with the operation of a catalytic gasifier, the advantages of both the catalytic gasification and the high efficiency fuel cell complement each other, resulting in a power plant system with unsurpassed efficiencies approaching 55% (HHV). Low temperature catalytic gasification producing a high methane fuel gas offers the potential for high gas efficiencies by operating with minimal or no combustion. Heat required for gasification is provided by combination of recycle from the fuel cell and exothermic methanation and shift reactions. Air can be supplemented if required. In combination with internally reforming carbonate fuel cells, low temperature catalytic gasification can achieve very attractive system efficiencies while producing extremely low emissions compared to conventional plants utilizing coal. Three system configurations based on recoverable and disposable gasification catalysts were studied. Experimental tests were conducted to evaluate these gasification catalysts. The recoverable catalyst studied was potassium carbonate, and the disposable catalysts were calcium in the form of limestone and iron in the form of taconite. Reactivities of limestone and iron were lower than that of potassium, but were improved by using the catalyst in solution form. Promising results were obtained in the system evaluations as well as the experimental testing of the gasification catalysts. To realize the potential of these high efficiency power plant systems more effort is required to develop catalytic gasification systems and their integration with carbonate fuel cells.

  12. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2004-10-21

    During this quarter, work was focused on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes in a one hundred percent permeate environment. Permeation data was also collected on cermets as a function of thickness. A thin film deposition procedure was used to deposit dense thin BCY/Ni onto a tubular porous support. Thin film tubes were then tested for permeation at ambient pressure. Process flow diagrams were prepared for inclusion of hydrogen separation membranes into IGCC power plants under varying conditions. Finally, membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation experiments were performed.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Evenson; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard T. Treglio; Jim Fisher; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Chandra Ratnasamy; Mahendra Sunkara; Jyothish Thangla; Clive Brereton; Warren Wolfs; James Lockhart

    2005-01-28

    During this quarter work was continued on characterizing the stability of layered composite membranes under a variety of conditions. Membrane permeation was tested up to 100 hours at constant pressure, temperature, and flow rates. In addition, design parameters were completed for a scale-up hydrogen separation demonstration unit. Evaluation of microstructure and effect of hydrogen exposure on BCY/Ni cermet mechanical properties was initiated. The fabrication of new cermets containing high permeability metals is reported and progress in the preparation of sulfur resistant catalysts is discussed. Finally, a report entitled ''Criteria for Incorporating Eltron's Hydrogen Separation Membranes into Vision 21 IGCC Systems and FutureGen Plants'' was completed.

  14. Onsite 40-kilowatt fuel cell power plant manufacturing and field test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A joint Gas Research Institute and U.S. Department of Energy Program was initiated in 1982 to evaluate the use of fuel cell power systems for on-site energy service. Forty-six 40 kW fuel cell power plants were manufactured at the United Technologies Corporation facility in South Windsor, Connecticut, and are being delivered to host utilities and other program participants in the United States and Japan for field testing. The construction of the 46 fully-integrated power plants was completed in January 1985 within the constraints of the contract plan. The program has provided significant experience in the manufacture, acceptance testing, deployment, and support of on-site fuel cell systems. Initial field test results also show that these experimental power plants meet the performance and environmental requirements of a commercial specification. This Interim Report encompasses the design and manufacturing phases of the 40 kW Power Plant Manufacturing and Field Test program. The contract between UTC and NASA also provides UTC field engineering support to the host utilities, training programs and associated manuals for utility operating and maintenance personnel, spare parts support for a defined test period, and testing at UTC of a power plant made available from a preceding program phase. These activities are ongoing and will be reported subsequently.

  15. Onsite 40-kilowatt fuel cell power plant manufacturing and field test program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1985-02-01

    A joint Gas Research Institute and U.S. Department of Energy Program was initiated in 1982 to evaluate the use of fuel cell power systems for on-site energy service. Forty-six 40 kW fuel cell power plants were manufactured at the United Technologies Corporation facility in South Windsor, Connecticut, and are being delivered to host utilities and other program participants in the United States and Japan for field testing. The construction of the 46 fully-integrated power plants was completed in January 1985 within the constraints of the contract plan. The program has provided significant experience in the manufacture, acceptance testing, deployment, and support of on-site fuel cell systems. Initial field test results also show that these experimental power plants meet the performance and environmental requirements of a commercial specification. This Interim Report encompasses the design and manufacturing phases of the 40 kW Power Plant Manufacturing and Field Test program. The contract between UTC and NASA also provides UTC field engineering support to the host utilities, training programs and associated manuals for utility operating and maintenance personnel, spare parts support for a defined test period, and testing at UTC of a power plant made available from a preceding program phase. These activities are ongoing and will be reported subsequently.

  16. Fuel-Flexible Combustion System for Co-production Plant Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Haynes; Justin Brumberg; Venkatraman Iyer; Jonathan Janssen; Ben Lacy; Matt Mosbacher; Craig Russell; Ertan Yilmaz; Williams York; Willy Ziminsky; Tim Lieuwen; Suresh Menon; Jerry Seitzman; Ashok Anand; Patrick May

    2008-12-31

    Future high-efficiency, low-emission generation plants that produce electric power, transportation fuels, and/or chemicals from fossil fuel feed stocks require a new class of fuel-flexible combustors. In this program, a validated combustor approach was developed which enables single-digit NO{sub x} operation for a future generation plants with low-Btu off gas and allows the flexibility of process-independent backup with natural gas. This combustion technology overcomes the limitations of current syngas gas turbine combustion systems, which are designed on a site-by-site basis, and enable improved future co-generation plant designs. In this capacity, the fuel-flexible combustor enhances the efficiency and productivity of future co-production plants. In task 2, a summary of market requested fuel gas compositions was created and the syngas fuel space was characterized. Additionally, a technology matrix and chemical kinetic models were used to evaluate various combustion technologies and to select two combustor concepts. In task 4 systems analysis of a co-production plant in conjunction with chemical kinetic analysis was performed to determine the desired combustor operating conditions for the burner concepts. Task 5 discusses the experimental evaluation of three syngas capable combustor designs. The hybrid combustor, Prototype-1 utilized a diffusion flame approach for syngas fuels with a lean premixed swirl concept for natural gas fuels for both syngas and natural gas fuels at FA+e gas turbine conditions. The hybrid nozzle was sized to accommodate syngas fuels ranging from {approx}100 to 280 btu/scf and with a diffusion tip geometry optimized for Early Entry Co-generation Plant (EECP) fuel compositions. The swozzle concept utilized existing GE DLN design methodologies to eliminate flow separation and enhance fuel-air mixing. With changing business priorities, a fully premixed natural gas & syngas nozzle, Protoytpe-1N, was also developed later in the program. It did

  17. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  18. Competitiveness of small power plants using ambient pressure, air-blown gasifiers. Final report. [Seven 50 MW designs using fuel gas, fuel oil, natural gas and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boulay, R.B.; Chen, H.T.; Harvey, L.E.; Losovsky, M.L.

    1986-02-01

    Small power plants have become more attractive to utilities recently for a variety of reasons, including the desire to minimize new plant investment and to tailor increases in generation base to smaller annual load growths. The study presented herein is an analysis and comparison of seven different 50 MW commercially available power plants designs, including four utilizing ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed coal gasifiers for fuel supply. Plant designs, capital costs, and busbar electricity costs for each plant are presented. The results of the study indicate that nominal 50 MW coal gasification based power plants, when using commercially available, ambient pressure, air-blown, fixed-bed gasifiers, are not competitive with conventional coal-fired steam plants or combined cycle plants fueled with fuel oil or natural gas. Capital costs, heat rates, and operating costs are higher for the coal gasification based plants. This leads to costs-of-electricity for gasification based plants that range from 18 to 59% higher than costs of electricity produced in conventional plants. The two major influences leading to high costs of the gasification based plants are the small size of a gasification train (about 5 MW) and the need to compress the ambient pressure gas to required combustion pressure. 47 figs., 89 tabs.

  19. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight

    2004-09-01

    An innovative Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) process was recently described where evaporation of mineralized water is driven by diffusion within a packed bed. The energy source to drive the process is derived from low pressure condensing steam within the main condenser of a steam power generating plant. Since waste heat is used to drive the process, the main cost of fresh water production is attributed to the energy cost of pumping air and water through the packed bed. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A combined thermodynamic and dynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3'' Hg. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower and direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. An experimental DDD facility has been fabricated, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. The analyses agree quite well with the current data and the information available in the literature. Direct contact condensers with and without packing have been investigated. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is significantly enhanced when packing is added to the direct contact condensers.

  20. INNOVATIVE FRESH WATER PRODUCTION PROCESS FOR FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Mohamed Darwish; Diego Acevedo; Jessica Knight

    2003-09-01

    This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system, which is powered by the waste heat from low pressure condensing steam in power plants. The desalination is driven by water vapor saturating dry air flowing through a diffusion tower. Liquid water is condensed out of the air/vapor mixture in a direct contact condenser. A thermodynamic analysis demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production efficiency of 4.5% based on a feed water inlet temperature of only 50 C. An example is discussed in which the DDD process utilizes waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant to produce 1.51 million gallons of fresh water per day. The main focus of the initial development of the desalination process has been on the diffusion tower. A detailed mathematical model for the diffusion tower has been described, and its numerical implementation has been used to characterize its performance and provide guidance for design. The analysis has been used to design a laboratory scale diffusion tower, which has been thoroughly instrumented to allow detailed measurements of heat and mass transfer coefficient, as well as fresh water production efficiency. The experimental facility has been described in detail.

  1. Basis for assessing the movement of spent nuclear fuels from wet to dry storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, R.J.; Gilbert, E.R.; Johnson, A.B.; Lund, A.L.; Pednekar, S.P.; Windes, W.E.

    1994-12-01

    An assessment of the possible material interactions arising from the movement of previously wet stored spent nuclear fuel (SNF) into long-term dry interim storage has been conducted for selected fuels in the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). Three main classes of fuels are addressed: aluminum (Al) clad, stainless steel (SS) clad, and unclad Uranium-Zirconium Hydride (UZrHx) fuel types. Degradation issues for the cladding, fuel matrix material, and storage canister in both wet and dry storage environments are assessed. Possible conditioning techniques to stabilize the fuel and optimum dry environment conditions during storage are also addressed.

  2. Feasibility study for production of anhydrous alcohol from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The feasibility of establishing a facility to produce fuel grade alcohol from corn to be located within an existing soybean processing plant in Mexico, Missouri has been studied. The alcohol producing industries, technical literature, various available process technologies, and industry consultants were surveyed. A process consisting of dry milling corn, continuous cooking, batch fermentation and azeotropic distillation was selected as the most suitable technique for the MFA's venture. It was determined that a production rate of 6288 bushels of corn per day yielding 5,200,000 gallons per year of fuel grade ethanol plus the capability to up grade an additional 500,000 gallons per year of low grade alcohol from off-site production facilities was the best design for the space and facilities available within the existing Mexico, Missouri soybean plant while economically utilizing existing buildings and plant area to the best advantage. A factored estimate of expected capital costs for the gasohol demonstration plant was made based on surveys of the plant site and furnished plant drawings, approximate prices for major items of process equipment and estimated construction and erection costs. This cost, with a plus or minus 20% accuracy, was determined to be $8,852,000.00. Revenues were estimated based on the selling price of 200 proof fuel grade alcohol and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A number of cases were reviewed to demonstrate the sensitivity of plant operating income to various prices for corn, alcohol and DDGS and to assess the effect of inflation over the useful life of the plant. Based on the estimated plant cost and the various cases of operating income, an economic analysis was performed employing a profitability index criterion of discounted cash flow to determine an interest rate of return on the plant investment.

  3. Projecting plant economics for wind, wood and waste fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.M.; Rundle, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for determining the cost of producing electricity by using the energy of wind and the energy obtained with combustion of wood and solid wastes, to evaluate the economic expediencey of construction an energy system on alternative energy sources as compared to other variants. Data are presented for conditions of northeast United States which characterize the outlays of the main capital with regard for costs associated with environmental protection, preparation of planning documents, unforeseen expenditures, tax deductions for capital investments used during construction and other costs. The data are presented for the calculated year. Evaluation of the economic competitiveness of the WEC is made based on two systems of cost based on the technology of the current production and on the expected economics of mass production with output of the WES 1.5-2.5 MW. Estimates of the cost of producing electricity obtained by burning wood fuel were made for the ES with power of 9, 30 and 46 MW. The cost of wood depends on many local factors and can change in broad limits.

  4. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUELS PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard Mackay; Stewart Schesnack; Scott Morrison; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2003-07-31

    Eltron Research Inc. and team members CoorsTek, Sued Chemie, and Argonne National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative, which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. Currently, this project is focusing on four basic categories of dense membranes: (1) mixed conducting ceramic/ceramic composites, (2) mixed conducting ceramic/metal (cermet) composites, (3) cermets with hydrogen permeable metals, and (4) layered composites containing hydrogen permeable alloys. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. This report presents hydrogen permeation data during long term tests and tests at high pressure in addition to progress with cermet, ceramic/ceramic, and thin film membranes.

  5. Low investment approach to alcohol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bungay, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper suggests attitudes for designing a low investment fuel alcohol plant instead of providing a specific blueprint, noting that the criteria for an agro-industrial complex can be applied rather than those of a modern chemical plant. In the case of fermenter design, for example, alternative approaches suggested are, the use of open-vat fermenters, tower fermentation maintaining high concentrations of organisms, combined fermentation and storage and use of 12 ft diameter plastic sewer pipe buried in the ground for an inexpensive and well-insulated fermenter. Instead of 3 or more distillation columns, the proposed plant would have only one, producing 85% alcohol, plus a tank or column for a drying agent to remove the remaining water. A direct fired still using biomass residues or coal could be designed to avoid the major expense of a large power plant to generate process steam.

  6. Chemical Processing of Non-Crop Plants for Jet Fuel Blends Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulis, M. J.; Hepp, A. F.; McDowell, M.; Ribita, D.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Biofuels has been gaining in popularity over the past few years due to their ability to reduce the dependence on fossil fuels. Biofuels as a renewable energy source can be a viable option for sustaining long-term energy needs if they are managed efficiently. We describe our initial efforts to exploit algae, halophytes and other non-crop plants to produce synthetics for fuel blends that can potentially be used as fuels for aviation and non-aerospace applications. Our efforts have been dedicated to crafting efficient extraction and refining processes in order to extract constituents from the plant materials with the ultimate goal of determining the feasibility of producing biomass-based jet fuel from the refined extract. Two extraction methods have been developed based on communition processes, and liquid-solid extraction techniques. Refining procedures such as chlorophyll removal and transesterification of triglycerides have been performed. Gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to qualitatively determine the individual components of the refined extract. We also briefly discuss and compare alternative methods to extract fuel-blending agents from alternative biofuels sources.

  7. Air emission from the co-combustion of alternative derived fuels within cement plants: Gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Richards, Glen; Agranovski, Igor E

    2015-02-01

    Cement manufacturing is a resource- and energy-intensive industry, utilizing 9% of global industrial energy use while releasing more than 5% of global carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions. With an increasing demand of production set to double by 2050, so too will be its carbon footprint. However, Australian cement plants have great potential for energy savings and emission reductions through the substitution of combustion fuels with a proportion of alternative derived fuels (ADFs), namely, fuels derived from wastes. This paper presents the environmental emissions monitoring of 10 cement batching plants while under baseline and ADF operating conditions, and an assessment of parameters influencing combustion. The experiential runs included the varied substitution rates of seven waste streams and the monitoring of seven target pollutants. The co-combustion tests of waste oil, wood chips, wood chips and plastic, waste solvents, and shredded tires were shown to have the minimal influence when compared to baseline runs, or had significantly reduced the unit mass emission factor of pollutants. With an increasing ADF% substitution, monitoring identified there to be no subsequent emission effects and that key process parameters contributing to contaminant suppression include (1) precalciner and kiln fuel firing rate and residence time; (2) preheater and precalciner gas and material temperature; (3) rotary kiln flame temperature; (4) fuel-air ratio and percentage of excess oxygen; and (5) the rate of meal feed and rate of clinker produced. PMID:25947054

  8. Krypton-85 health risk assessment for a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1984-08-01

    The risks involved in the routine release of /sup 85/Kr from nuclear fuel reprocessing operations to the environment were compared to those resulting from the capture and storage of /sup 85/Kr. Instead of releasing the /sup 85/Kr to the environment when fuel is reprocessed, it can be captured, immobilized and stored. Two alternative methods of capturing /sup 85/Kr (cryogenic distillation and fluorocarbon absorption) and one method of immobilizing the captured gas (ion implantation/sputtering) were theoretically incorporated into a representative fuel reprocessing plant, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant, even though there are no known plans to start up this facility. Given the uncertainties in the models used to generate lifetime risk numbers (0.02 to 0.027 radiation induced fatal cancers expected in the occupational workforce and 0.017 fatal cancers in the general population), the differences in total risks for the three situations, (i.e., no-capture and two-capture alternatives) cannot be considered meaningful. It is possible that no risks would occur from any of the three situations. There is certainly no reason to conclude that risks from /sup 85/Kr routinely released to the environment are greater than those that would result from the other two situations considered. Present regulations mandate recovery and disposal of /sup 85/Kr from the off gases of a facility reprocessing spent fuel from commercial sources. Because of the lack of a clear-cut indication that recovery woud be beneficial, it does not seem prudent to burden the facilities with a requirement for /sup 85/Kr recovery, at least until operating experience demonstrates the incentive. The probable high aging of the early fuel to be processed and the higher dose resulting from the release of the unregulated /sup 3/H and /sup 14/C also encourage delaying implementation of the /sup 85/Kr recovery in the early plants.

  9. How much nuclear fuel is present in the lavalike fuel-containing mass in the fourth power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant?

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, A.N.

    1995-10-01

    At the time of the accident in the reactor of the fourth power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on April 26, 1986, the core contained 1659 fuel assemblies. Each assembly contained 114.7 kg of uranium, and therefore the reactor contained a total of 114.7 x 1659 = 190,287.3 kg of uranium. If the amount of fuel is calculated according to the uranium dioxide, i.e. in the form in which the fuel was loaded into the fuel elements, then its mass in each fuel element was 3.6 kg. A fuel assembly consists of 36 fuel elements, and therefore the reactor contained 3.6 x 36 x 1659 = 215,006.4 kg of uranium dioxide. The investigations performed in the destroyed buildings showed that the nuclear fuel after the accident is found in three main modifications: in the form of uranium dioxide tablets, in the form in which it was loaded into the reactor; in a dispersed form as dust and aerosol; and in a remelted state, in the form of a lavalike fuel-containing mass. This paper discusses the amount of nuclear fuel in the lavalike mass at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant.

  10. Innovative Fresh Water Production Process for Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    James F. Klausner; Renwei Mei; Yi Li; Jessica Knight; Venugopal Jogi

    2005-09-01

    This project concerns a diffusion driven desalination (DDD) process where warm water is evaporated into a low humidity air stream, and the vapor is condensed out to produce distilled water. Although the process has a low fresh water to feed water conversion efficiency, it has been demonstrated that this process can potentially produce low cost distilled water when driven by low grade waste heat. This report describes the annual progress made in the development and analysis of a Diffusion Driven Desalination (DDD) system. A dynamic analysis of heat and mass transfer demonstrates that the DDD process can yield a fresh water production of 1.03 million gallon/day by utilizing waste heat from a 100 MW steam power plant based on a condensing steam pressure of only 3 Hg. The optimum operating condition for the DDD process with a high temperature of 50 C and sink temperature of 25 C has an air mass flux of 1.5 kg/m{sup 2}-s, air to feed water mass flow ratio of 1 in the diffusion tower, and a fresh water to air mass flow ratio of 2 in the condenser. Operating at these conditions yields a fresh water production efficiency (m{sub fW}/m{sub L}) of 0.031 and electric energy consumption rate of 0.0023 kW-hr/kg{sub fW}. Throughout the past year, the main focus of the desalination process has been on the direct contact condenser. Detailed heat and mass transfer analyses required to size and analyze these heat and mass transfer devices are described. The analyses agree quite well with the current data. Recently, it has been recognized that the fresh water production efficiency can be significantly enhanced with air heating. This type of configuration is well suited for power plants utilizing air-cooled condensers. The experimental DDD facility has been modified with an air heating section, and temperature and humidity data have been collected over a range of flow and thermal conditions. It has been experimentally observed that the fresh water production rate is enhanced when air

  11. Characterization and quantification of uncertainty in solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanyan, Karthik; Diwekar, Urmila M.

    Distributed power generation is one of the most powerful applications of fuel cell technology. Several types of configurations have been hypothesized and tested for these kinds of applications at the conceptual level, but hybrid power plants are one of the most efficient. These are designs that combine the fuel cell cycle with other thermodynamic cycles to provide higher efficiency. The power plant in focus is the high pressure (HP)-low pressure (LP) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC)/steam turbine (ST)/gas turbine (GT) configuration which is a part of the vision-21 program, which is a new approach, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fossil Energy has begun, for developing 21st century energy plants that would have virtually no environmental impact. The overall goal is to effectively eliminate—at competitive costs—environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels, for producing electricity and transportation fuels. In this design, coal is gasified in an entrained bed gasifier and the syn-gas produced is cleaned in a transport bed desulfurizer and passed over to cascaded SOFC modules (at two pressure levels). This module is integrated with a reheat GT cycle. The heat of the exhaust from the GT cycle is used to convert water to steam, which is eventually used in a steam bottoming cycle. Since this hybrid technology is new and futuristic, the system level models used for predicting the fuel cells' performance and for other modules like the desulfurizer have significant uncertainties in them. Also, the performance curves of the SOFC would differ depending on the materials used for the anode, cathode and electrolyte. The accurate characterization and quantification of these uncertainties is crucial for the validity of the model predictions and hence is the main focus of this paper. This work performs a two-level uncertainty analysis of the fuel cell module: uncertainty associated with (1) model and (2) material used for anode, cathode and

  12. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membranes for Vision 21 Fossil Fuel Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Carl R. Evenson; Shane E. Roark

    2006-03-31

    The objective of this project was to develop an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. A family of hydrogen separation membranes was developed including single phase mixed conducting ceramics, ceramic/ceramic composites, cermet membranes, cermet membranes containing a hydrogen permeable metal, and intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. Each membrane type had different operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages that were documented over the course of the project. Research on these membranes progressed from ceramics to cermets to intermediate temperature composite layered membranes. During this progression performance was increased from 0.01 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2} up to 423 mL x min{sup -1} x cm{sup -2}. Eltron and team membranes not only developed each membrane type, but also membrane surface catalysis and impurity tolerance, creation of thin film membranes, alternative applications such as membrane promoted alkane dehydrogenation, demonstration of scale-up testing, and complete engineering documentation including process and mechanical considerations necessary for inclusion of Eltron membranes in a full scale integrated gasification combined cycle power plant. The results of this project directly led to a new $15 million program funded by the Department of Energy. This new project will focus exclusively on scale-up of this technology as part of the FutureGen initiative.

  13. ADVANCED HYDROGEN TRANSPORT MEMBRANES FOR VISION 21 FOSSIL FUEL PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Shane E. Roark; Anthony F. Sammells; Richard A. Mackay; Lyrik Y. Pitzman; Thomas A. Zirbel; Thomas F. Barton; Sara L. Rolfe; U. Balachandran; Richard N. Kleiner; James E. Stephan; Frank E. Anderson; George Farthing; Dan Rowley; Tim R. Armstrong; M.K. Ferber; Aaron L. Wagner; Jon P. Wagner

    2002-07-30

    Eltron Research Inc. and their team members are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur. During this quarter, new cermet compositions were tested that demonstrated similar performance to previous materials. A 0.5-mm thick membrane achieved at H{sub 2} transport rate of 0.2 mL/min/cm{sup 2} at 950 C, which corresponded to an ambipolar conductivity of 3 x 10{sup -3} S/cm. Although these results were equivalent to those for other cermet compositions, this new composition might be useful if it demonstrates improved chemical or mechanical stability. Ceramic/ceramic composite membranes also were fabricated and tested; however, some reaction did occur between the proton- and electron-conducting phases, which likely compromised conductivity. This sample only achieved a H{sub 2} transport rate of {approx} 0.006 mL/min/cm{sup 2} and an ambipolar conductivity of {approx}4 x 10{sup -4} S/cm. Chemical stability tests were continued, and candidate ceramic membranes were found to react slightly with carbon monoxide under extreme testing conditions. A cermet

  14. Quantitative Determination of Perfluorochemicals and Fluorotelomer Alcohols in Plants from Biosolid-Amended Fields using LC/MS/MS and GC/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Analytical methods for determining perfluorochemicals (PFCs) and fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) in plants using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were developed, and applied to quantify a suite of analytes i...

  15. NASA's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant Development Program for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    A three-center NASA team led by the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio is completing a five-year PEM fuel cell power plant development program for future space applications. The focus of the program has been to adapt commercial PEM fuel cell technology for space applications by addressing the key mission requirements of using pure oxygen as an oxidant and operating in a multi-gravity environment. Competing vendors developed breadboard units in the 1 to 5 kW power range during the first phase of the program, and a single vendor developed a nominal 10-kW engineering model power pant during the second phase of the program. Successful performance and environmental tests conducted by NASA established confidence that PEM fuel cell technology will be ready to meet the electrical power needs of future space missions.

  16. Feasibility of converting a sugar beet plant to fuel ethanol production

    SciTech Connect

    Hammaker, G S; Pfost, H B; David, M L; Marino, M L

    1981-04-01

    This study was performed to assess the feasibility of producing fuel ethanol from sugar beets. Sugar beets are a major agricultural crop in the area and the beet sugar industry is a major employer. There have been some indications that increasing competition from imported sugar and fructose sugar produced from corn may lead to lower average sugar prices than have prevailed in the past. Fuel ethanol might provide an attractive alternative market for beets and ethanol production would continue to provide an industrial base for labor. Ethanol production from beets would utilize much of the same field and plant equipment as is now used for sugar. It is logical to examine the modification of an existing sugar plant from producing sugar to ethanol. The decision was made to use Great Western Sugar Company's plant at Mitchell as the example plant. This plant was selected primarily on the basis of its independence from other plants and the availability of relatively nearby beet acreage. The potential feedstocks assessed included sugar beets, corn, hybrid beets, and potatoes. Markets were assessed for ethanol and fermentation by-products saleability. Investment and operating costs were determined for each prospective plant. Plants were evaluated using a discounted cash flow technique to obtain data on full production costs. Environmental, health, safety, and socio-economic aspects of potential facilities were examined. Three consulting engineering firms and 3 engineering-construction firms are considered capable of providing the desired turn-key engineering design and construction services. It was concluded that the project is technically feasible. (DMC)

  17. Potential safety-related incidents with possible applicability to a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Perkins, W.C.; Lee, R.; Stoddard, D.H.

    1982-05-20

    The Safety Technology Group is developing methodology that can be used to assess the risk of operating a plant to reprocess spent nuclear fuel. As an early step in the methodology, a preliminary hazards analysis identifies safety-related incidents. In the absence of appropriate safety features, these incidents could lead to significant consequences and risk to onsite personnel or to the public. This report is a compilation of potential safety-related incidents that have been identified in studies at SRL and in safety analyses of various commercially designed reprocessing plants. It is an expanded revision of the version originally published as DP-1558, Published December 1980.

  18. Fuel moisture content enhances nonadditive effects of plant mixtures on flammability and fire behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blauw, Luke G; Wensink, Niki; Bakker, Lisette; van Logtestijn, Richard S P; Aerts, Rien; Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Cornelissen, J Hans C

    2015-01-01

    Fire behavior of plant mixtures includes a complex set of processes for which the interactive contributions of its drivers, such as plant identity and moisture, have not yet been unraveled fully. Plant flammability parameters of species mixtures can show substantial deviations of fire properties from those expected based on the component species when burnt alone; that is, there are nonadditive mixture effects. Here, we investigated how fuel moisture content affects nonadditive effects in fire behavior. We hypothesized that both the magnitude and variance of nonadditivity in flammability parameters are greater in moist than in dry fuel beds. We conducted a series of experimental burns in monocultures and 2-species mixtures with two ericaceous dwarf shrubs and two bryophyte species from temperate fire-prone heathlands. For a set of fire behavior parameters, we found that magnitude and variability of nonadditive effects are, on average, respectively 5.8 and 1.8 times larger in moist (30% MC) species mixtures compared to dry (10% MC) mixed fuel beds. In general, the moist mixtures caused negative nonadditive effects, but due to the larger variability these mixtures occasionally caused large positive nonadditive effects, while this did not occur in dry mixtures. Thus, at moister conditions, mixtures occasionally pass the moisture threshold for ignition and fire spread, which the monospecific fuel beds are unable to pass. We also show that the magnitude of nonadditivity is highly species dependent. Thus, contrary to common belief, the strong nonadditive effects in mixtures can cause higher fire occurrence at moister conditions. This new integration of surface fuel moisture and species interactions will help us to better understand fire behavior in the complexity of natural ecosystems. PMID:26380709

  19. 27 CFR 19.673 - Small plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Small plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.673 Small plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  20. 27 CFR 19.676 - Large plant permit applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Large plant permit... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.676 Large plant permit applications. (a) General. Any person wishing to establish...

  1. Enhanced metabolic and redox activity of vascular aquatic plant Lemna valdiviana under polarization in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2015-12-01

    In this study, duckweed species Lemna valdiviana was investigated as a photoautotrophycally grown biocatalyst in recently developed Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell. Stable current outputs, reaching maximum of 226±11 mА/m(2), were achieved during the operating period. The electricity production is associated with electrons generated through the light-dependent reactions in the chloroplasts as well as the respiratory processes in the mitochondria and transferred to the anode via endogenous electron shuttle, synthesized by the plants as a specific response to the polarization. In parallel, a considerable increase in the content of proteins (47%) and reserve carbohydrates (44%) of duckweeds grown under polarization conditions was established by means of biochemical analyses. This, combined with the electricity generation, makes the technology a feasible approach for the duckweed farming. PMID:25129413

  2. Feasibility study of a plant for LWR used fuel reprocessing by pyrochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bychkov, A.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.; Savotchkin, Yu.P.; Sokolovsky, Yu.S.; Baganz, Catherine; Lopoukhine, Serge; Maurin, Guy; Medzadourian, Michel

    2007-07-01

    In 2005, experts from AREVA and RIAR performed a joint research work on the feasibility study of a plant reprocessing 1000 t/y of LWR spent nuclear fuel by the gas-fluoride and pyro-electrochemical techniques developed at RIAR. This work was based on the RIAR experience in development of pyrochemical processes and AREVA experience in designing UNF reprocessing plants. UNF reprocessing pyrochemical processes have been developed at RIAR at laboratory scale and technology for granulated MOX fuel fabrication and manufacturing of vibro-packed fuel rods is developed at pilot scale. The research work resulted in a preliminary feasibility assessment of the reprocessing plant according to the norms and standards applied in France. The study results interpretation must integrate the fact that the different technology steps are at very different stage of development. It appears clearly however that in its present state of development, pyro-electrochemical technology is not adapted to the treatment of an important material flow issuing from thermal reactors. There is probably an economic optimum to be studied for the choice of hydrometallurgical or pyro-electrochemical technology, depending on the area of application. This work is an example of successful and fruitful collaboration between French and Russian specialists. (authors)

  3. The challenges of fuel options for the new generation of Indian thermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, C.; Pande, S.; Sanyal, A.

    1999-11-01

    The selection of fuel supply is probably the most important challenge a potential power project developer for a new Indian thermal power plant has to face when considering the overall project economics. The paper reviews the essential issues and the effect of fuel selection on project costs of the new generation of thermal power plants of India. The electric power sector has taken great strides since the beginning of the planning process, over 45 years ago. It has been unable to keep pace with the rapid growth of demand, primarily due to resource constraints. Changes in the Government policy in 1991 brought fundamental changes to the power sector. The opening up of the sector and the consequent changes in the power policy, evoked great interest from private local and foreign-investors. However, mainly dud to the poor financial position of the State Electricity Boards (SEBs), few proposals settled. Uncertainty relating to fuel, multiple negotiating agencies and financing posed great challenges for developers. As of March 1997, the installed capacity of Indian utilities was 85,266 MW. Power generation in 1996--97 was 394 billion units with a plant load factor of a more 64.5%.

  4. Alcohol Fuels. Instructional Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Kenneth; Thessing, Dan

    This document is one of five learning packets on alternative energy developed as part of the descriptive curriculum research project in Arkansas (see note). The overall objectives of the learning packets are to improve the level of instruction in the alternative energies by vocational exploration teachers, and to facilitate the integration of new…

  5. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  6. Enzymatic conversion of cellulosic materials to sugars and alcohol

    SciTech Connect

    Klyosov, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    This techno-economic study deals with the production of sugars and alcohols from cellulosic materials. It covers such key subjects as: potential raw materials; the state-of-the-art on production technologies; the economics of extant processes; and finally infers implications for developing countries from the foregoing. It is clear that a large number of cellulose-, starch-, and sugar-containing plants can be processed to produce sugars and alcohols. Sugar-containing plants such as sugarcane, sweet sorghum, and nipa palm are the best candidates for the high-yield production of alcohol fuel. Likewise, the starch-containing crops such as cassava, sweet potatoes, yams, taro, and tannia are good candidates, but require an additional step to break down starch to sugar. However, the emphasis of this report is on the major part of biomass containing cellulose and which, therefore, needs special treatment before it can be used to produce glucose and alcohols. 21 references.

  7. Default operational intervention levels (OILs) for severe nuclear power plant or spent fuel pool emergencies.

    PubMed

    McKenna, T; Kutkov, V; Vilar Welter, P; Dodd, B; Buglova, E

    2013-05-01

    Experience and studies show that for an emergency at a nuclear power plant involving severe core damage or damage to the fuel in spent fuel pools, the following actions may need to be taken in order to prevent severe deterministic health effects and reduce stochastic health effects: (1) precautionary protective actions and other response actions for those near the facility (i.e., within the zones identified by the International Atomic Energy Agency) taken immediately upon detection of facility conditions indicating possible severe damage to the fuel in the core or in the spent fuel pool; and (2) protective actions and other response actions taken based on environmental monitoring and sampling results following a release. This paper addresses the second item by providing default operational intervention levels [OILs, which are similar to the U.S. derived response levels (DRLs)] for promptly assessing radioactive material deposition, as well as skin, food, milk and drinking water contamination, following a major release of fission products from the core or spent fuel pool of a light water reactor (LWR) or a high power channel reactor (RBMK), based on the International Atomic Energy Agency's guidance. PMID:23532075

  8. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Main Menu Search Search form Search Alcohol & ... on a single aspect of alcohol abuse and alcoholism. Please click on the desired publication for full ...

  9. Plant-wide distributed control is the key to an efficient waste wood fuel system at Augusta Newsprint

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.; Rennie, C.

    1986-03-01

    Augusta Newsprint has successfully implemented a total plant system almost eliminating the use of fossil fuels in their industrial steam generator whose design, control system and wood waste handling system is described here.

  10. Anti-leukemic activities of alcoholic extracts of two traditional Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Shipra; Malhotra, Hemant; Rathore, Om Singh; Malhotra, Bharti; Sharma, Pratibha; Batra, Amla; Sharma, Asha; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the anticancer in vitro activity of two plants commonly used in traditional Indian medicine: Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Nerium oleander L. The extracts of these plants were tested in vitro on several human leukemic cell lines, K562, THP-1, MOLT-4 and Jurkat. Cell growth inhibition was observed for both plant extracts with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging between 1 and 28 μg/mL using SRB (sulphorodamine B) and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assays. Enhanced cell growth inhibition was observed when the extracts were combined with imatinib. Exposed cells showed cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cytochrome c release, indicating that the mechanism of cytotoxicity could be via mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathways. Combination of the extracts of these plants with standard cancer treatment may be a way of enhancing responses. Clinical studies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are planned at our center. PMID:25772975

  11. Environmental Stresses of Field Growth Allow Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase-Deficient Nicotiana attenuata Plants to Compensate for their Structural Deficiencies1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harleen; Shaker, Kamel; Heinzel, Nicolas; Ralph, John; Gális, Ivan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2012-01-01

    The organized lignocellulosic assemblies of cell walls provide the structural integrity required for the large statures of terrestrial plants. Silencing two CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE (CAD) genes in Nicotiana attenuata produced plants (ir-CAD) with thin, red-pigmented stems, low CAD and sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity, low lignin contents, and rubbery, structurally unstable stems when grown in the glasshouse (GH). However, when planted into their native desert habitat, ir-CAD plants produced robust stems that survived wind storms as well as the wild-type plants. Despite efficient silencing of NaCAD transcripts and enzymatic activity, field-grown ir-CAD plants had delayed and restricted spread of red stem pigmentation, a color change reflecting blocked lignification by CAD silencing, and attained wild-type-comparable total lignin contents. The rubbery GH phenotype was largely restored when field-grown ir-CAD plants were protected from wind, herbivore attack, and ultraviolet B exposure and grown in restricted rooting volumes; conversely, it was lost when ir-CAD plants were experimentally exposed to wind, ultraviolet B, and grown in large pots in growth chambers. Transcript and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-time-of-flight analysis revealed that these environmental stresses enhanced the accumulation of various phenylpropanoids in stems of field-grown plants; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed that the lignin of field-grown ir-CAD plants had GH-grown comparable levels of sinapaldehyde and syringaldehyde cross-linked into their lignins. Additionally, field-grown ir-CAD plants had short, thick stems with normal xylem element traits, which collectively enabled field-grown ir-CAD plants to compensate for the structural deficiencies associated with CAD silencing. Environmental stresses play an essential role in regulating lignin biosynthesis in lignin-deficient plants. PMID:22645069

  12. Strategy for decommissioning of the glove-boxes in the Belgonucleaire Dessel MOX fuel fabrication plant

    SciTech Connect

    Vandergheynst, Alain; Cuchet, Jean-Marie

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: BELGONUCLEAIRE has been operating the Dessel plant from the mid-80's at industrial scale. In this period, over 35 metric tons of plutonium (HM) was processed into almost 100 reloads of MOX fuel for commercial West-European Light Water Reactors. In late 2005, the decision was made to stop the production because of the shortage of MOX fuel market remaining accessible to BELGONUCLEAIRE after the successive capacity increases of the MELOX plant (France) and the commissioning of the SMP plant (UK). As a significant part of the decommissioning project of this Dessel plant, about 170 medium-sized glove-boxes are planned for dismantling. In this paper, after having reviewed the different specifications of {+-}-contaminated waste in Belgium, the authors introduce the different options considered for cleaning, size reduction and packaging of the glove-boxes, and the main decision criteria (process, {alpha}-containment, mechanization and radiation protection, safety aspects, generation of secondary waste, etc) are analyzed. The selected strategy consists in using cold cutting techniques and manual operation in shielded disposable glove-tents, and packaging {alpha}-waste in 200-liter drums for off-site conditioning and intermediate disposal. (authors)

  13. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  14. Invitro Anti-mycotic Activity of Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Fluconazole Resistant Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Varadarajan, Saranya; Malaisamy, Malaiyandi; Duraipandian, Chamundeeswari

    2015-01-01

    Background Candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections caused by Candida albicans. Fluconazole is the drug of choice for prevention and management of this condition. However, the emergence of fluconazole resistant candidal strains has become a major concern. Many herbs like fenugreek, cinnamon, papaya, oregano, garlic are rich in phytochemical constituents known to express antimycotic activity. With the available information, the present research study was carried out to assess the invitro anti-mycotic activity of hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum seeds, Cinnamomum verum bark and Carica papaya leaves and seeds against fluconazole resistant Candida albicans Materials and Methods Hydro alcoholic extracts of Trigonella foenum-graecum (seeds), Cinnamomum verum (bark), Carica papaya CO.2 strain (male and female leaves) and Carica papaya CO.2 strain (seeds) were prepared by maceration. The anti-mycotic activity of the prepared extracts against Candida albicans was assessed by agar well diffusion method. Three independent experiments were performed in triplicates and the mean and standard deviation were calculated. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined. Results The results of the present study revealed that all the extracts exhibited anti-mycotic activity in a dose dependent manner and minimum inhibitory concentration of all the extracts was found to be 15.62 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present study shed light on the fact that plant extracts could be used not only as an alternate drug for management of fluconazole resistant candidiasis but also explored further for oral cancer prevention as a therapeutic adjunct. PMID:26436036

  15. Evaluation of the magnitude and effects of bundle duct interaction in fuel assemblies at developmental plant conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Serell, D.C.; Kaplan, S.

    1980-09-01

    Purpose of this evaluation is to estimate the magnitude and effects of irradiation and creep induced fuel bundle deformations in the developmental plant. This report focuses on the trends of the results and the ability of present models to evaluate the assembly temperatures in the presence of bundle deformation. Although this analysis focuses on the developmental plant, the conclusions are applicable to LMFBR fuel assemblies in general if they have wire spacers.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: UTC FUEL CELLS' PC25C POWER PLANT - GAS PROCESSING UNIT PERFORMANCE FOR ANAEROBIC DIGESTER GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification program, which provides objective and scientific third party analysis of new technology that can benefit the environment, a combined heat and power system based on the UTC Fuel Cell's PC25C Fuel Cell Power Plant was evaluated. The...

  17. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... the integrity of completed fuel pins (or rods). This item typically includes equipment for: (i)...

  18. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... the integrity of completed fuel pins (or rods). This item typically includes equipment for: (i)...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... the integrity of completed fuel pins (or rods). This item typically includes equipment for: (i)...

  20. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... the integrity of completed fuel pins (or rods). This item typically includes equipment for: (i)...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix O to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Illustrative List of Fuel Element Fabrication Plant Equipment and Components Under NRC's Export Licensing Authority O Appendix O to Part 110 Energy NUCLEAR... the integrity of completed fuel pins (or rods). This item typically includes equipment for: (i)...

  2. Feasibility study for Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant spent fuel dry storage facility in Ukraine. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This document reports the results of a Feasibility Study sponsored by a TDA grant to Zaporozhye Nuclear Power Plant (ZNPP) in Ukraine to study the construction of storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. It provides pertinent information to U.S. companies interested in marketing spent fuel storage technology and related business to countries of the former Soviet Union or Eastern Europe.

  3. ON-LINE MONITORING FOR CONTROL AND SAFEGUARDING OF RADIOCHEMICAL STREAMS AT SPENT FUEL REPROCESSING PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Lines, Amanda M.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.; Thomas, Elizabeth M.

    2009-11-10

    Advanced techniques that enhance safeguarding of spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on the prerequisite that real-time monitoring of solvent extraction flowsheets at a spent fuel reprocessing plant provides the unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and capable of withstanding harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes recently has been developed by our research team for tank waste retrieval. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from nuclear waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information that can be gained by using Vis-NIR capabilities augmenting Raman spectroscopy. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. Actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by Vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we present our results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels designed to demonstrate the applicability of Raman and Vis-NIR spectroscopic analysis for actual dissolver feed solutions.

  4. Multi-unit Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) plants producing hydrogen fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, B. G.

    1993-12-01

    A quantitative energy pathway comparison is made between a modern oil refinery and genetic fusion hydrogen plant supporting hybrid-electric cars powered by gasoline and hydrogen-optimized internal combustion engines, respectively, both meeting President Clinton's goal for advanced car goal of 80 mpg gasoline equivalent. The comparison shows that a fusion electric plant producing hydrogen by water electrolysis at 80% efficiency must have an electric capacity of 10 GWe to support as many hydrogen-powered hybrid cars as one modern 200,000 bbl/day-capacity oil refinery could support in gasoline-powered hybrid cars. A 10 GWe fusion electric plant capital cost is limited to $12.5 billion to produce electricity at 2.3 cents/kWehr, and hydrogen production by electrolysis at $8/GJ, for equal consumer fuel cost per passenger mile as in the oil-gasoline-hybrid pathway.

  5. Alcoholism, Alcohol, and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Emanuel; Lieber, Charles S.

    1971-01-01

    Describes research on synergistic effects of alcohol and other drugs, particularly barbiturates. Proposes biochemical mechanisms to explain alcoholics' tolerance of other drugs when sober, and increased sensitivity when drunk. (AL)

  6. Alternative fuels for maritime use

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to review the potential fuels which may be available to the marine industry from the present to the year 2000 and to define the economic, technical, and environmental/social impacts of these alternative fuels on marine power plants. Thus, this study is aimed at the fuels/prime mover combination. This study should help to guide the industry in choosing the proper power plant for the future - recognizing that a new power plant installed in 1980 will still be in service in the 21st century. The importance of the marine transportation industry and the need to consider alternate fuels are examined. An overview of potential alternate fuels for marine applications is presented, and power plant/fuel interaction is discussed. An in-depth discussion is presented on the impact of the most likely alternate fuels from the viewpoint of maintenance, retrofit capability, safety, and air-quality impacts. Two nonfossil-fuel alternatives sailing ships and nuclear-powered vessels, are discussed. It is concluded that: there is a high probability of using synfuels from tar sands shale, or coal liquids in both existing and future ships; coal and coal/oil slurries have a high probability of use in future ships and medium probability in existing ships; nuclear and sail-power future ships have a medium probability of commercial development; and is a low probability of commercial maritime use of alcohol fuels, methane, or coal/methanol combinations. (LCL)

  7. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  8. Feasibility study for a forest-residue-fueled electric-generating plant. Final report, May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of locating and building a forest-residue-fueled electric generating plant in the heavily-forested, Western Cascades region of the upper Willamette Valley in Oregon. The quantity of forest residues that could be recovered, without competing with currently marketable forest products of greater value, was determined. Methods for removing, transporting, and processing the diseased boles, larger limbs, tops of trees, and broken chunks were investigated. The best means of storing and logging cull logs, chunks, and limbs over 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet long were investigated. The economics of various handling and processing methods were compared. A size and type of wood-fuel-fired boiler plant was selected that would operate in the full-condensing or cogeneration mode. A 50% extraction turbine-generator was used as the basis for economics calculations. The best combinations of components for this application were obtained from trade-off studies. The plant investment, total capital requirement, operating/maintenance costs and net busbar power costs were determined. A 24-MW power plant located in the vicinity of Oakridge, Oregon, would cost about $29,620,000 in January 1980 dollars. Due largely to high procurement and processing costs for forest residues, fuel costs were quite high (about $15.50/ton or $1.67/10/sup 6/ Btu as fired). For the Oakridge site, the net busbar power cost is 106 mills/kWh in the full-condensing mode of operation and 104 mills/kWh in the 50% extraction operating mode (at .67 capacity factor and steam sales price of $3/1000 pounds of steam). Busbar power costs levelized for a 10% discount rate and 6% inflation.

  9. The development of a method for the determination of trace elements in fuel alcohol by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using external calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Maranhão, Tatiane de Andrade; Frescura, Vera Lúcia Azzolin; Curtius, Adilson José

    2005-06-01

    A method for the determination of Ag, As, Cd, Cu, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sn and Tl in fuel alcohol by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is proposed. The determinations were carried out by external calibration against ethanolic solutions, without a chemical modifier, employing the following pyrolysis and vaporization temperatures: 400 °C and 2300 °C for the more volatile analytes and 1000 °C and 2500 °C for the less volatile analytes. The determination of As, Cd, Pb, Sn and Tl was additionally carried out using Pd as modifier at 800 °C pyrolysis and 2400 °C vaporization temperatures. The temperatures were optimized through pyrolysis and vaporization curves. Seven common fuel ethanol, one fuel ethanol with additive and one anhydrous fuel ethanol sample have been analyzed. The measured concentrations were at the μg L -1 level or lower. Since there is no certified reference material for fuel ethanol, the accuracy of the method was checked by the recovery test, with recoveries from 75% to 124%. The limits of detection (LODs), in μg L -1, and the relative standard deviations for 5 replicates were, for the elements in the conditions without modifier: Ag: 0.015 and 9.1%, Co: 0.002 and 10%, Cu: 0.22 and 6.6%, Fe: 0.72 and 4.3%, Mn: 0.025 and 12%, Ni: 0.026 and 9.3%, and for the elements with Pd: As: 0.02 and 2.9%, Cd: 0.07 and 25%, Pb: 0.02 and 3.1%, Sn: 0.010 and 6.0%, Tl: 0.0008 and 2.5%. Electrothermal vaporization avoids the loading of the plasma with organics, allowing the analysis of fuel ethanol by ICP-MS with good accuracy and reasonable precision.

  10. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of fuel cell based Combined Cycle Cogeneration plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odukoya, Adedoyin

    Power plants operating in combined cycle cogeneration configuration are becoming increasingly popular because of high energy conversion efficiency and reduced pollutant and green-house gas emissions. On the other hand, fuel cell technology continues to be of global interest because it can operate with very low to 0% green-house gas emission depending on the fuel. The aim of the present work is to investigate the effect of co-firing of natural gas with synthetic gas generated from coal gasification on the thermodynamic performance of an air blown coal gasification Combined Cycle Cogeneration unit with a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) arrangement. The effects of the operating temperature of the SOFC and the pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine on the net work output and efficiency of the power cycles on the cogeneration unit are simulated. Simulations are also conducted on the thermal and cogeneration efficiencies of the individual power cycle as well as the overall plants respectively. The optimal pressure ratio, temperature of operation of the SOFC and, gas turbine inlet temperature was determined using a sequential quadratic program solver base on the Quasi-Newton algorithm.

  11. ISRU Reactant, Fuel Cell Based Power Plant for Robotic and Human Mobile Exploration Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, Russell S.; Sanders, Gerald; Simon, Thomas; McCurdy, Kerri

    2003-01-01

    Three basic power generation system concepts are generally considered for lander, rover, and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) assistant applications for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration missions. The most common power system considered is the solar array and battery system. While relatively simple and successful, solar array/battery systems have some serious limitations for mobile applications. For typical rover applications, these limitations include relatively low total energy storage capabilities, daylight only operating times (6 to 8 hours on Mars), relatively short operating lives depending on the operating environment, and rover/lander size and surface use constraints. Radioisotope power systems are being reconsidered for long-range science missions. Unfortunately, the high cost, political controversy, and launch difficulties that are associated with nuclear-based power systems suggests that the use of radioisotope powered landers, rovers, and EVA assistants will be limited. The third power system concept now being considered are fuel cell based systems. Fuel cell power systems overcome many of the performance and surface exploration limitations of solar array/battery power systems and the prohibitive cost and other difficulties associated with nuclear power systems for mobile applications. In an effort to better understand the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems for Moon and Mars exploration applications, NASA is investigating the use of in-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) produced reactant, fuel cell based power plants to power robotic outpost rovers, science equipment, and future human spacecraft, surface-excursion rovers, and EVA assistant rovers. This paper will briefly compare the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems relative to solar array/battery and nuclear systems, discuss the unique and enhanced missions that fuel cell power systems enable, and discuss the common technology and system attributes

  12. ISRU Reactant, Fuel Cell Based Power Plant for Robotic and Human Mobile Exploration Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Russell S.; Sanders, Gerald; Simon, Thomas; McCurdy, Kerri

    2003-01-01

    Three basic power generation system concepts are generally considered for lander, rover, and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) assistant applications for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration missions. The most common power system considered is the solar array and battery system. While relatively simple and successful, solar array/battery systems have some serious limitations for mobile applications. For typical rover applications, these limitations include relatively low total energy storage capabilities, daylight only operating times (6 to 8 hours on Mars), relatively short operating lives depending on the operating environment, and rover/lander size and surface use constraints. Radioisotope power systems are being reconsidered for long-range science missions. Unfortunately, the high cost, political controversy, and launch difficulties that are associated with nuclear-based power systems suggests that the use of radioisotope powered landers, rovers, and EVA assistants will be limited. The third power system concept now being considered are fuel cell based systems. Fuel cell power systems overcome many of the performance and surface exploration limitations of solar array/battery power systems and the prohibitive cost and other difficulties associated with nuclear power systems for mobile applications. In an effort to better understand the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems for Moon and Mars exploration applications. NASA is investigating the use of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) produced reactant, fuel cell based power plants to power robotic outpost rovers, science equipment, and future human spacecraft, surface-excursion rovers, and EVA assistant rovers. This paper will briefly compare the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems relative to solar array/battery and nuclear systems, discuss the unique and enhanced missions that fuel cell power systems enable, and discuss the common technology and system attributes

  13. Thorium-Fueled Underground Power Plant Based on Molten Salt Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Moir, Ralph W.; Teller, Edward

    2005-09-15

    This paper addresses the problems posed by running out of oil and gas supplies and the environmental problems that are due to greenhouse gases by suggesting the use of the energy available in the resource thorium, which is much more plentiful than the conventional nuclear fuel uranium. We propose the burning of this thorium dissolved as a fluoride in molten salt in the minimum viscosity mixture of LiF and BeF{sub 2} together with a small amount of {sup 235}U or plutonium fluoride to initiate the process to be located at least 10 m underground. The fission products could be stored at the same underground location. With graphite replacement or new cores and with the liquid fuel transferred to the new cores periodically, the power plant could operate for up to 200 yr with no transport of fissile material to the reactor or of wastes from the reactor during this period. Advantages that include utilization of an abundant fuel, inaccessibility of that fuel to terrorists or for diversion to weapons use, together with good economics and safety features such as an underground location will diminish public concerns. We call for the construction of a small prototype thorium-burning reactor.

  14. Exposure of thermoelectric power-plant workers to volatile organic compounds from fuel oil: genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Garcia, P V; Linhares, D; Amaral, A F S; Rodrigues, A S

    2012-09-18

    Thermoelectric power-plant workers are constantly exposed to high levels of potentially genotoxic gaseous substances, such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the combustion of fuel oil or the processing of naphtha. The aim of the present study was to estimate the association between such occupational exposure and the frequency of micronucleated cells and cells with other nuclear anomalies. Buccal epithelial cells were collected from a total of 44 power-plant workers (exposed group) and 47 administrative workers (non-exposed group), and examined for the frequency of micronucleated cells (MNC) and of cells with other nuclear anomalies (ONA: pyknosis, karyolysis, and karyorrhexis) by means of the micronucleus assay. The frequencies of MNC and ONA per 1000 cells in the exposed group (1.8‰ and 82.4‰, respectively) were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group (0.2‰ and 58.3‰, respectively). The exposed group had a twelve-fold increase in risk for formation of MNC compared with non-exposed individuals (RR=12.1; 95% CI, 5.0-29.2; P<0.001). The confounding factors analyzed (age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and mouthwash use) did not show any significant association with the frequency of MNC or ONA. The findings of this study show that workers from power plants exposed to VOCs have a significantly elevated risk for DNA damage. Therefore, bio-monitoring of DNA damage is recommended for this group of workers. PMID:22640882

  15. Conversion of solar energy into electricity by using duckweed in Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell.

    PubMed

    Hubenova, Yolina; Mitov, Mario

    2012-10-01

    In the present study we demonstrate for the first time the possibility for conversion of solar energy into electricity on the principles of Direct Photosynthetic Plant Fuel Cell (DPPFC) technology by using aquatic higher plants. Lemna minuta duckweed was grown autotrophically in specially constructed fuel cells under sunlight irradiation and laboratory lighting. Current and power density up to 1.62±0.10 A.m(-2) and 380±19 mW.m(-2), respectively, were achieved under sunlight conditions. The influence of the temperature, light intensity and day/night sequencing on the current generation was investigated. The importance of the light intensity was demonstrated by the higher values of generated current (at permanently connected resistance) during daytime than those through the nights, indicating the participation of light-dependent photosynthetic processes. The obtained DPPFC outputs in the night show the contribution of light-independent reactions (respiration). The electron transfer in the examined DPPFCs is associated with a production of endogenous mediator, secreted by the duckweed. The plants' adaptive response to the applied polarization is also connected with an enhanced metabolism resulting in an increase of the protein and carbohydrate intracellular content. Further investigations aiming at improvement of the DPPFC outputs and elucidation of the electron transfer mechanism are required for practical application. PMID:22445768

  16. Release and disposal of materials during decommissioning of Siemens MOX fuel fabrication plant at Hanau, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, Werner; Baumann, Roland

    2007-07-01

    In September 2006, decommissioning and dismantling of the Siemens MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Hanau were completed. The process equipment and the fabrication buildings were completely decommissioned and dismantled. The other buildings were emptied in whole or in part, although they were not demolished. Overall, the decommissioning process produced approximately 8500 Mg of radioactive waste (including inactive matrix material); clearance measurements were also performed for approximately 5400 Mg of material covering a wide range of types. All the equipment in which nuclear fuels had been handled was disposed of as radioactive waste. The radioactive waste was conditioned on the basis of the requirements specified for the projected German final disposal site 'Schachtanlage Konrad'. During the pre-conditioning, familiar processes such as incineration, compacting and melting were used. It has been shown that on account of consistently applied activity containment (barrier concept) during operation and dismantling, there has been no significant unexpected contamination of the plant. Therefore almost all the materials that were not a priori destined for radioactive waste were released without restriction on the basis of the applicable legal regulations (chap. 29 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance), along with the buildings and the plant site. (authors)

  17. Plant and microorganisms support media for electricity generation in biological fuel cells with living hydrophytes.

    PubMed

    Salinas-Juárez, María Guadalupe; Roquero, Pedro; Durán-Domínguez-de-Bazúa, María Del Carmen

    2016-12-01

    Plant support media may impact power output in a biological fuel cell with living plants, due to the physical and biochemical processes that take place in it. A material for support medium should provide the suitable conditions for the robust microbial growth and its metabolic activity, degrading organic matter and other substances; and, transferring electrons to the anode. To consider the implementation of this type of bio-electrochemical systems in constructed wetlands, this study analyzes the electrochemical behavior of biological fuel cells with the vegetal species Phragmites australis, by using two different support media: graphite granules and a volcanic slag, commonly known as tezontle (stone as light as hair, from the Aztec or Nahuatl language). Derived from the results, both, graphite and tezontle have the potential to be used as support medium for plants and microorganisms supporting a maximum power of 26.78mW/m(2) in graphite reactors. These reactors worked under mixed control: with ohmic and kinetic resistances of the same order of magnitude. Tezontle reactors operated under kinetic control with a high activation resistance supplying 9.73mW/m(2). These performances could be improved with stronger bacterial populations in the reactor, to ensure the rapid depletion of substrate. PMID:26947022

  18. Workshop on instrumentation and analyses for a nuclear fuel reprocessing hot pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Babcock, S.M.; Feldman, M.J.; Wymer, R.G.; Hoffman, D.

    1980-05-01

    In order to assist in the study of instrumentation and analytical needs for reprocessing plants, a workshop addressing these needs was held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory from May 5 to 7, 1980. The purpose of the workshop was to incorporate the knowledge of chemistry and of advanced measurement techniques held by the nuclear and radiochemical community into ideas for improved and new plant designs for both process control and inventory and safeguards measurements. The workshop was athended by experts in nuclear and radiochemistry, in fuel recycle plant design, and in instrumentation and analysis. ORNL was a particularly appropriate place to hold the workshop since the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) is centered there. Requirements for safeguarding the special nuclear materials involved in reprocessing, and for their timely measurement within the process, within the reprocessing facility, and at the facility boundaries are being studied. Because these requirements are becoming more numerous and stringent, attention is also being paid to the analytical requirements for these special nuclear materials and to methods for measuring the physical parameters of the systems containing them. In order to provide a focus for the consideration of the workshop participants, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) being designed conceptually by the CFRP was used as a basis for consideration and discussions.

  19. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  20. 27 CFR 19.366 - Alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcohol. 19.366 Section 19.366 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Processing of Distilled Spirits Rules for Bottling,...

  1. Fuel cell balance of plant cost analysis. Final report, June 1994-May 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T.P.; Senetar, J.J.

    1995-05-01

    M-C Power Corporation currently plans to introduce its molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) market entry unit in the year 2000 for distributed and on-site power generation. Extensive efforts have been made to analyze the cell stack manufacturing costs. However, the balance of plant (BOP) facilities, such as fuel processing, waste heat recovery, inverter, and air supply system, have not received equal attention even though their combined cost may surpass the stack cost by a ratio of 2 to 1. The major objective of this study is to conduct a detailed analysis of BOP costs based on an initial design of the market entry unit to ensure M-C Power`s current development program will lead to a competitive product.

  2. Recent studies related to head-end fuel processing at the Hanford PUREX plant

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    This report presents the results of studies addressing several problems in the head-end processing (decladding, metathesis, and core dissolution) of N Reactor fuel elements in the Hanford PUREX plant. These studies were conducted over 2 years: FY 1986 and FY 1987. The studies were divided into three major areas: 1) differences in head-end behavior of fuels having different histories, 2) suppression of /sup 106/Ru volatilization when the ammonia scrubber solution resulting from decladding is decontaminated by distillation prior to being discharged, and 3) suitability of flocculating agents for lowering the amount of transuranic (TRU) element-containing solids that accompany the decladding solution to waste. 16 refs., 43 figs.

  3. FEASIBILITY OF PRODUCING AND MARKETING BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM SO2 EMISSION CONTROL AT FOSSIL-FUEL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to identify fossil-fuel-fired power plants that might, in competition with existing crude gypsum sources and other power plants, lower the cost of compliance with SO2 regulations by producing and marketing abatement gypsum. In the Eastern U.S.,...

  4. Enhancement of Electricity Production by Graphene Oxide in Soil Microbial Fuel Cells and Plant Microbial Fuel Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Yuko; Yoshida, Naoko; Umeyama, Yuto; Yamada, Takeshi; Tero, Ryugo; Hiraishi, Akira

    2015-01-01

    The effects of graphene oxide (GO) on electricity generation in soil microbial fuel cells (SMFCs) and plant microbial fuel cell (PMFCs) were investigated. GO at concentrations ranging from 0 to 1.9 g⋅kg−1 was added to soil and reduced for 10 days under anaerobic incubation. All SMFCs (GO-SMFCs) utilizing the soils incubated with GO produced electricity at a greater rate and in higher quantities than the SMFCs which did not contain GO. In fed-batch operations, the overall average electricity generation in GO-SMFCs containing 1.0 g⋅kg−1 of GO was 40 ± 19 mW⋅m−2, which was significantly higher than the value of 6.6 ± 8.9 mW⋅m−2 generated from GO-free SMFCs (p < 0.05). The increase in catalytic current at the oxidative potential was observed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) for GO-SMFC, with the CV curve suggesting the enhancement of electron transfer from oxidation of organic substances in the soil by the reduced form of GO. The GO-containing PMFC also displayed a greater generation of electricity compared to the PMFC with no added GO, with GO-PMFC producing 49 mW⋅m−2 of electricity after 27 days of operation. Collectively, this study demonstrates that GO added to soil can be microbially reduced in soil, and facilitates electron transfer to the anode in both SMFCs and PMFCs. PMID:25883931

  5. Food and fuel from plant biomass - will there be enough to go around?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLucia, E. H.; Gomez-Casanovas, N.; Greenberg, J. A.; Hudiburg, T. W.; Kantola, I. B.; Long, S.; Parton, W. J.; Miller, A. D.

    2013-12-01

    The ever-growing need for food and renewable energy is increasing the demand for biomass from wild and cultivated plants. The annual production of carbon in biomass - net primary production (NPP) - from terrestrial ecosystems globally is 57 Gt; of this total, humans currently appropriate 23-40%. Recent estimates suggest that the amount of plant biomass available for bioenergy is too small to significantly reduce our reliance on fossil fuels, and increasing biomass allocated to fuel would compete with the food supply. These estimates assume that maximum sustainable NPP is represented by that location's native vegetation. We invalidate this assumption by comparing NPP from native and cultivated crops at several locations globally. We also estimate the theoretical maximum biomass production (NPPmax) and the maximum biomass production that can be sustained by local water availability (NPPwater). Across six unfertilized, non-irrigated ecoregions, NPP from cultivated and non-native wild plants surpassed that of native vegetation by up to 500%. Using the rain-fed Midwestern US as an example agricultural region, we estimate NPPmax from the theoretical solar conversion efficiency of 6% to be 137 tonnes/ha, i.e. 6.8x current maize yields. This value drops to 3.8x current maize yields when constrained by local plant-available water (NPPwater) or when using an empirically observed solar conversion efficiency of 3.7%. Our analysis of terrestrial NPPwater using the highest observed solar conversion efficiency for C3 and C4 was approximately 10x greater than current estimates. These global results provide an upper bound for NPP at any given location. Crop improvement aimed at increasing solar conversion efficiency has the potential to dramatically increase NPP, and incorrect assumptions guiding current models may lead to underestimates of biomass production. However, our findings indicate that the limiting factor to plant production in rain-fed agro-ecosystems is plant

  6. Dual application of duckweed and azolla plants for wastewater treatment and renewable fuels and petrochemicals production

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shortages in fresh water supplies today affects more than 1 billion people worldwide. Phytoremediation strategies, based on the abilities of aquatic plants to recycle nutrients offer an attractive solution for the bioremediation of water pollution and represents one of the most globally researched issues. The subsequent application of the biomass from the remediation for the production of fuels and petrochemicals offers an ecologically friendly and cost-effective solution for water pollution problems and production of value-added products. Results In this paper, the feasibility of the dual application of duckweed and azolla aquatic plants for wastewater treatment and production of renewable fuels and petrochemicals is explored. The differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by these aquatic macrophytes were used as the basis for optimization of the composition of wastewater effluents. Analysis of pyrolysis products showed that azolla and algae produce a similar range of bio-oils that contain a large spectrum of petrochemicals including straight-chain C10-C21 alkanes, which can be directly used as diesel fuel supplement, or a glycerin-free component of biodiesel. Pyrolysis of duckweed produces a different range of bio-oil components that can potentially be used for the production of “green” gasoline and diesel fuel using existing techniques, such as catalytic hydrodeoxygenation. Conclusions Differences in absorption rates of the key wastewater nutrients, ammonium and phosphorus by different aquatic macrophytes can be used for optimization of composition of wastewater effluents. The generated data suggest that the composition of the petrochemicals can be modified in a targeted fashion, not only by using different species, but also by changing the source plants’ metabolic profile, by exposing them to different abiotic or biotic stresses. This study presents an attractive, ecologically friendly and cost

  7. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report No. 4, July 1, 1992--September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    A base case flow sheet for the production of higher alcohols from coal derived synthesis gas has been completed, including an economic analysis. The details of the flow sheet and economics are in Appendix 1. The pay back period for the capital investment for the plant has been calculated as a function of the market price of the product, and this figure is also shown as Figure I in Appendix 1. The estimated installed cost is almost $500 MM, and the estimated annual operating cost is $64 MM. At a price in the vicinity of $1.00/gal for the alcohol product, the pay back period for construction of the plant is four years. These values should be considered preliminary, since many of the capital costs were obtained from other paper studies sponsored by DOE and TVA and very few values could be found from actual plants which were built. This issue is currently being addressed. The most expensive capital costs were found to be the gasifier, the cryogenic air separation plant, the steam/power generation plant and the acid gas/sulfur removal processes taken as a whole. It is planned to focus attention on alternatives to the base case. The problem is that it is less expensive to make syngas from natural gas. Therefore, it is essential to reduce the cost of syngas from coal. This is where the energy park concept becomes important. In order for this process to be economical (at current market and political conditions) a method must be found to reduce the cost of syngas manufacture either by producing energy or by-products. Energy is produced in the base case, but the amount and method has not been optimized. The economic arguments for this concept are detailed in Appendix 2.

  8. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fifth quarterly technical progress report, January--March, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    Objective is to evaluate heterogeneous catalysts for converting syngas to oxygenates for use as fuel enhancers, and to develop the best total process for converting syngas to liquid fuels. Two tasks are being pursued: Catalyst R and D, and engineering studies. Initial work will be on the isobutanol catalyst system. A microreactor has been prepared for screening heterogeneous catalysts.

  9. Heterogeneous catalytic process for alcohol fuels from syngas. Fourth quarterly technical progress report, October--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The principal objectives of this project are to discover and evaluate novel heterogeneous catalysts for conversion of syngas to oxygenates having use as fuel enhancers, to explore novel reactor and process concepts applicable in this process, and to develop the best total process for conversion of syngas to liquid fuels.

  10. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant optimization model and computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimized cost and performance model for a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system was derived and developed into a modular FORTRAN computer code. Cost, energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses were combined to develop a mathematical model for optimizing the steam to methane ratio in the reformer, hydrogen utilization in the PAFC plates per stack. The nonlinear programming code, COMPUTE, was used to solve this model, in which the method of mixed penalty function combined with Hooke and Jeeves pattern search was chosen to evaluate this specific optimization problem.

  11. Microbial community structure accompanied with electricity production in a constructed wetland plant microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lu; Xing, Defeng; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    This study reveals the complex structure of bacterial and archaeal communities associated with a Canna indica plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) and its electricity production. The PMFC produced a maximum current of 105 mA/m(2) by utilizing rhizodeposits as the sole electron donor without any external nutrient or buffer supplements, which demonstrates the feasibility of PMFCs in practical oligotrophic conditions with low solution conductivity. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the PMFC than non-plant controls or sediment-only controls, and pyrosequencing and clone library reveal that rhizodeposits conversion to current were carried out by syntrophic interactions between fermentative bacteria (e.g., Anaerolineaceae) and electrochemically active bacteria (e.g., Geobacter). Denitrifying bacteria and acetotrophic methanogens play a minor role in organics degradation, but abundant hydrogenotrophic methanogens and thermophilic archaea are likely main electron donor competitors. PMID:26066972

  12. The economical production of alcohol fuels from coal-derived synthesis gas. Quarterly technical progress report Number 9, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Catalysts based on molybdenum are being prepared using four different approaches. These materials have been characterized by IR, XRD and single-crystal studies. Modeling studies are continuing satisfactorily. The overall efficiency of each base case has been calculated and tested as a screening method to select feasible technologies. A methodology to determine the effects and influences of process variable uncertainties on the performance of a design has been developed. Input variables in the model to be considered include the reaction product distribution, the operating temperatures of equipment (e.g., gasifiers, separators, etc.), and the estimates of the thermodynamic model used in the computer aided design simulation of the process. The efficiency of the process can be modeled by calculation of output variables such as the payback period or the energy efficiency of the plant. The result will be a range of expected operating conditions for the process and an indication of which variables` uncertainties are most likely to affect process operating conditions. The stream exiting the reactor consists of alcohols, esters and water. The separation block consists of a network of distillation columns which separate the various alcohols and water. The choice and order of separation, operating conditions, degree of separation and amount to be bypassed are the random variables to be optimized by simulated annealing. The value of the above variables controls the mix of the alcohol streams to be used as gasoline additives exiting the network of distillation column. The total profitability is the price obtained by selling the various blended products after accounting for the cost of production of various alcohols.

  13. A simulation methodology to evaluate BIG-STIG systems in sugar and alcohol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, A.C.; Bajay, S.V.; Nogueira, L.A.H.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes a simulation procedure to assess BIG-STIG -- Biomass Integrated Gasifier/Steam Injected Gas Turbine -- systems in sugar-cane mills. Two configurations are considered: one in which the conventional steam cycle is the bottoming part of a combined cycle and another one in which the gas turbine is used as the only power machine. Both the operation during the harvest season and the operation between such seasons -- when the steam injection in the gas turbines occurs -- are simulated. The four main modules of a BIG-STIG system are simulated here: the gas turbine -- GT, the heat recovery steam generator -- HRSG, the biomass gasification plant and the conventional back-pressure steam turbine cogeneration unit. Three gas turbines of different capacities were studied and the corresponding results compared to those available in some references. The modelling allows the analysis of the process steam requirements, the blast air extractions and the main HRSG operational constraints, like the minimum pinch-point temperature at the HRSG and the minimum HRSG stack gas value.

  14. Alcohol Alert

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us You are here Home » Alcohol Alert Alcohol Alert The NIAAA Alcohol Alert is a quarterly bulletin that disseminates important research ... text. To order single copies of select Alcohol Alerts, see ordering Information . To view publications in PDF ...

  15. Alcoholism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - alcoholism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on alcoholism : Alcoholics Anonymous -- www.aa.org Al-Anon/Alateen -- www.al-anon.org/home National Institute on Alcohol ...

  16. Alcoholic ketoacidosis

    MedlinePlus

    Ketoacidosis - alcoholic ... Alcoholic ketoacidosis is caused by very heavy alcohol use. It most often occurs in a malnourished person ... Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include: Nausea and vomiting ... Changed level of alertness, which may lead to coma Confusion ...

  17. Alcohol Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... raquo Alcohol Facts Alcohol Facts Listen Drinks like beer, malt liquor, wine, and hard liquor contain alcohol. Alcohol is the ingredient that gets you drunk. Hard liquor—such as whiskey, rum, or gin—has more ...

  18. Alcoholic neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    Neuropathy - alcoholic; Alcoholic polyneuropathy ... The exact cause of alcoholic neuropathy is unknown. It likely includes both a direct poisoning of the nerve by the alcohol and the effect of poor nutrition ...

  19. System approach to the analysis of an integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziębik, Andrzej; Gładysz, Paweł

    2014-09-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) belongs to one of the three commonly known clean coal technologies for power generation sector and other industry sectors responsible for CO2 emissions (e.g., steel or cement production). The OFC capture technology is based on using high-purity oxygen in the combustion process instead of atmospheric air. Therefore flue gases have a high concentration of CO2. Due to the limited adiabatic temperature of combustion some part of CO2 must be recycled to the boiler in order to maintain a proper flame temperature. An integrated oxy-fuel combustion power plant constitutes a system consisting of the following technological modules: boiler, steam cycle, air separation unit, cooling water and water treatment system, flue gas quality control system and CO2 processing unit. Due to the interconnections between technological modules, energy, exergy and ecological analyses require a system approach. The paper present the system approach based on the `input-output' method to the analysis of the: direct energy and material consumption, cumulative energy and exergy consumption, system (local and cumulative) exergy losses, and thermoecological cost. Other measures like cumulative degree of perfection or index of sustainable development are also proposed. The paper presents a complex example of the system analysis (from direct energy consumption to thermoecological cost) of an advanced integrated OFC power plant.

  20. NASA's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant Development Program for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoberecht, Mark

    2006-01-01

    NASA embarked on a PEM fuel cell power plant development program beginning in 2001. This five-year program was conducted by a three-center NASA team of Glenn Research Center (lead), Johnson Space Center, and Kennedy Space Center. The program initially was aimed at developing hardware for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) application, but more recently had shifted to applications supporting the NASA Exploration Program. The first phase of the development effort, to develop breadboard hardware in the 1-5 kW power range, was conducted by two competing vendors. The second phase of the effort, to develop Engineering Model hardware at the 10 kW power level, was conducted by the winning vendor from the first phase of the effort. Both breadboard units and the single engineering model power plant were delivered to NASA for independent testing. This poster presentation will present a summary of both phases of the development effort, along with a discussion of test results of the PEM fuel cell engineering model under simulated mission conditions.

  1. Impact of hydrocarbons from a diesel fuel on the germination and early growth of subantarctic plants.

    PubMed

    Macoustra, Gabriella K; King, Catherine K; Wasley, Jane; Robinson, Sharon A; Jolley, Dianne F

    2015-07-01

    Special Antarctic Blend (SAB) is a diesel fuel dominated by aliphatic hydrocarbons that is commonly used in Antarctic and subantarctic regions. The past and present use of SAB fuel at Australia's scientific research stations has resulted in multiple spills, contaminating soils in these pristine areas. Despite this, no soil quality guidelines or remediation targets have been developed for the region, primarily due to the lack of established indigenous test species and subsequent biological effects data. In this study, twelve plant species native to subantarctic regions were collected from Macquarie Island and evaluated to determine their suitably for use in laboratory-based toxicity testing, using germination success and seedling growth (shoot and root length) as endpoints. Two soil types (low and high organic carbon (OC)) were investigated to reflect the variable OC content found in soils on Macquarie Island. These soils were spiked with SAB fuel and aged for 14 days to generate a concentration series of SAB-contaminated soils. Exposure doses were quantified as the concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH, nC9-nC18) on a soil dry mass basis. Seven species successfully germinated on control soils under laboratory conditions, and four of these species (Colobanthus muscoides Hook.f., Deschampsia chapmanii Petrie, Epilobium pendunculare A.Cunn. and Luzula crinita Hook.f.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of germination when exposed to SAB-contaminated soils. Contaminated soils with low OC were generally more toxic to plants than high organic carbon soils. Increasing soil-TPH concentrations significantly inhibited shoot and root growth, and root length was identified as the most sensitive endpoint. Although the test species were tolerant to SAB-contaminated soils in germination assays, development of early life stages (up to 28 days) were generally more sensitive indicator of exposure effects, and may be more useful endpoints for future testing. PMID

  2. US-Russian collaboration in MPC & A enhancements at the Elektrostal Uranium Fuel-Fabrication Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, H.; Murray, W.; Whiteson, R.

    1997-11-01

    Enhancement of the nuclear materials protection, control, and accounting of (MPC&A) at the Elektrostal Machine-Building Plant (ELEMASH) has proceeded in two phases. Initially, Elektrostal served as the model facility at which to test US/Russian collaboration and to demonstrate MPC&A technologies available for safeguards enhancements at Russian facilities. This phase addressed material control and accounting (MC&A) in the low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel-fabrication processes and the physical protection (PP) of part of the (higher-enrichment) breeder-fuel process. The second phase, identified later in the broader US/Russian agreement for expanded MPC&A cooperation. includes implementation of appropriate MC&A and PP systems in the breeder-fuel fabrication processes. Within the past year, an automated physical protection system has been installed and demonstrated in building 274, and an automated MC&A system has been designed and is being installed and will be tested in the LEU process. Attention has now turned to assuring longterm sustainability for the first phase and beginning MPC&A upgrades for the second phase. Sustainability measures establish the infrastructure for operation, maintenance, and repair of the installed systems-with US support for the lifetime of the US/Russian Agreement, but evolving toward full Russian operation of the system over the long term. For phase 2, which will address higher enrichments, projects have been identified to characterize the facilities, design MPC&A systems, procure appropriate equipment, and install and test final systems. One goal in phase 2 will be to build on initial work to create shared, plant-wide MPC&A assets for operation, maintenance, and evaluation of all safeguards systems.

  3. On-Line Monitoring for Control and Safeguarding of Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Billing, Justin M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Johnsen, Amanda M.; Peterson, James M.

    2009-10-06

    Advanced techniques enabling enhanced safeguarding of the spent fuel reprocessing plants are urgently needed. Our approach is based on prerequisite that real time monitoring of the solvent extraction flowsheets provides unique capability to quickly detect unwanted manipulations with fissile isotopes present in the radiochemical streams during reprocessing activities. The methods used to monitor these processes must be robust and must be able to withstand harsh radiation and chemical environments. A new on-line monitoring system satisfying these requirements and featuring Raman spectroscopy combined with a Coriolis and conductivity probes, has been recently developed by our research team. It provides immediate chemical data and flow parameters of high-level radioactive waste streams with high brine content generated during retrieval activities from Hanford nuclear waste storage tanks. The nature of the radiochemical streams at the spent fuel reprocessing plant calls for additional spectroscopic information, which can be gained by the utilization of UV-vis-NIR capabilities. Raman and UV-vis-NIR spectroscopies are analytical techniques that have extensively been extensively applied for measuring the various organic and inorganic compounds including actinides. The corresponding spectrometers used under the laboratory conditions are easily convertible to the process-friendly configurations allowing remote measurements under the flow conditions. A fiber optic Raman probe allows monitoring of the high concentration species encountered in both aqueous and organic phases within the UREX suite of flowsheets, including metal oxide ions, such as uranyl, components of the organic solvent, inorganic oxo-anions, and water. The actinides and lanthanides are monitored remotely by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy in aqueous and organic phases. In this report, we will present our recent results on spectroscopic measurements of simulant flowsheet solutions and commercial fuels available at

  4. Alcohol Alert: Genetics of Alcoholism

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Reports » Alcohol Alert » Alcohol Alert Number 84 Alcohol Alert Number 84 Print Version The Genetics of ... immune defense system. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Alcohol Breakdown Some of the first genes linked to ...

  5. 27 CFR 19.674 - TTB action on small plant applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false TTB action on small plant... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.674 TTB action on small plant applications. (a) Notice of receipt. Within 15 days...

  6. 27 CFR 19.677 - Large plant applications-organizational documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.677 Large plant applications—organizational documents. In addition to the information required by § 19.676, any person who wants to establish a large plant must provide... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Large plant...

  7. Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels

    DOEpatents

    Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

    2013-04-30

    A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

  8. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2003-01-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification (now ChevronTexaco), SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the technoeconomic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the United States to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase I is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report covers the period performance from July 1, 2002 through September 30, 2002.

  9. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-12-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors Texaco Power & Gasification, SASOL Technology Ltd., and Nexant Inc. entered into a Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-00NT40693 with the US Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP designs emphasize on recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from coal clean operations and will assess blends of the culm and coal or petroleum coke as feedstocks. The project is being carried out in three phases. Phase I involves definition of concept and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II consists of an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III involves updating the original EECP design, based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 BPD coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania.

  10. Bioelectrochemical Chromium(VI) Removal in Plant-Microbial Fuel Cells.

    PubMed

    Habibul, Nuzahat; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yun-Kun; Chen, Wei; Yu, Han-Qing; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-04-01

    Plant-microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a renewable and sustainable energy technology that generates electricity with living plants. However, little information is available regarding the application of PMFC for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated water or soil. In this study, the potential for the removal of heavy metal Cr(VI) using PMFC was evaluated, and the performance of the PMFC at various initial Cr(VI) contents was investigated. The Cr(VI) removal efficiency could reached 99% under various conditions. Both the Cr(VI) removal rates and the removal efficiencies increased with the increasing initial Cr(VI) concentration. Furthermore, the long-term operation of the PMFC indicated that the system was stable and sustainable for Cr(VI) removal. The mass balance results and XPS analysis results demonstrate that only a small amount of soluble Cr(III) remained in the PMFC and that most Cr(III) precipitated in the form of the Cr(OH)3(s) or was adsorbed onto the electrodes. The PMFC experiments of without acetate addition also show that plants can provide carbon source for MFC through secrete root exudates and bioelectrochemical reduction of Cr(VI) was the main mechanism for the Cr(VI) removal. These results extend the application fields of PMFC and might provide a new insight for Cr(VI) removal from wastewater or soil. PMID:26962848

  11. EARLY ENTRANCE CO-PRODUCTION PLANT - DECENTRALIZED GASIFICATION COGENERATION TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND STEAM FROM AVAILABLE FEEDSTOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-06-01

    Waste Processors Management, Inc. (WMPI), along with its subcontractors entered into a Cooperative Agreement with the USDOE, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to assess the techno-economic viability of building an Early Entrance Co-Production Plant (EECP) in the US to produce ultra clean Fischer-Tropsch (FT) transportation fuels with either power or steam as the major co-product. The EECP design includes recovery and gasification of low-cost coal waste (culm) from physical coal cleaning operations and will assess blends of the culm with coal or petroleum coke. The project has three phases. Phase 1 is the concept definition and engineering feasibility study to identify areas of technical, environmental and financial risk. Phase II is an experimental testing program designed to validate the coal waste mixture gasification performance. Phase III updates the original EECP design based on results from Phase II, to prepare a preliminary engineering design package and financial plan for obtaining private funding to build a 5,000 barrel per day (BPD) coal gasification/liquefaction plant next to an existing co-generation plant in Gilberton, Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. The current report is WMPI's fourth quarterly technical progress report. It covers the period performance from January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002.

  12. A model of the Capital Cost of a natural gas-fired fuel cell based Central Utilities Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This model defines the methods used to estimate the cost associated with acquisition and installation of capital equipment of the fuel cell systems defined by the central utility plant model. The capital cost model estimates the cost of acquiring and installing the fuel cell unit, and all auxiliary equipment such as a boiler, air conditioning, hot water storage, and pumps. The model provides a means to adjust initial cost estimates to consider learning associated with the projected level of production and installation of fuel cell systems. The capital cost estimate is an input to the cost of ownership analysis where it is combined with operating cost and revenue model estimates.

  13. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Flexibility Retrofits for Coal and Gas-Fueled Power Plants: August 2012 - December 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Venkataraman, S.; Jordan, G.; O'Connor, M.; Kumar, N.; Lefton, S.; Lew, D.; Brinkman, G.; Palchak, D.; Cochran, J.

    2013-12-01

    High penetrations of wind and solar power plants can induce on/off cycling and ramping of fossil-fueled generators. This can lead to wear-and-tear costs and changes in emissions for fossil-fueled generators. Phase 2 of the Western Wind and Solar Integration Study (WWSIS-2) determined these costs and emissions and simulated grid operations to investigate the full impact of wind and solar on the fossil-fueled fleet. This report studies the costs and benefits of retrofitting existing units for improved operational flexibility (i.e., capability to turndown lower, start and stop faster, and ramp faster between load set-points).

  14. Hybrid sugarbeets - fuel from fodder

    SciTech Connect

    Yarris, L.

    1980-05-01

    Plant geneticists at Utah University are exploring the possibility of developing a hybrid sugarbeet especially bred for use in making alcohol fuel. They are aiming at increasing sugar quantity in the beet without having to worry about the quality factors that affect sugar crystallization. A cross between European fodder beets and U.S. sugarbeets which would be resistant to curly top virus disease is envisaged.

  15. Removal plan for Shippingport pressurized water reactor core 2 blanket fuel assemblies form T plant to the canister storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Lata

    1996-09-26

    This document presents the current strategy and path forward for removal of the Shippingport Pressurized Water Reactor Core 2 blanket fuel assemblies from their existing storage configuration (wet storage within the T Plant canyon) and transport to the Canister Storage Building (designed and managed by the Spent Nuclear Fuel. Division). The removal plan identifies all processes, equipment, facility interfaces, and documentation (safety, permitting, procedures, etc.) required to facilitate the PWR Core 2 assembly removal (from T Plant), transport (to the Canister storage Building), and storage to the Canister Storage Building. The plan also provides schedules, associated milestones, and cost estimates for all handling activities.

  16. Geothermal source potential and utilization for alcohol production

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, J.C.

    1981-11-01

    A study was conducted to assess the technical and economic feasibility of using a potential geothermal source to drive a fuel grade alcohol plant. Test data from the well at the site indicated that the water temperature at approximately 8500 feet should approach 275/sup 0/F. However, no flow data was available, and so the volume of hot water that can be expected from a well at this site is unknown. Using the available data, numerous fuel alcohol production processes and various heat utilization schemes were investigated to determine the most cost effective system for using the geothermal resource. The study found the direct application of hot water for alcohol production based on atmospheric processes using low pressure steam to be most cost effective. The geothermal flow rates were determined for various sizes of alcohol production facility using 275/sup 0/F water, 235/sup 0/F maximum processing temperature, 31,000 and 53,000 Btu per gallon energy requirements, and appropriate process approach temperatures. It was determined that a 3 million gpy alcohol plant is the largest facility that can practically be powered by the flow from one large geothermal well. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was prepared, operating costs were calculated, the economic feasibility of the propsed project was examined, and a sensitivity analysis was performed.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and fuel cell performance tests of boric acid and boron phosphate doped, sulphonated and phosphonated poly(vinyl alcohol) based composite membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şahin, Alpay; Ar, İrfan

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize a composite membrane having high proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and chemical stability. In order to achieve this aim, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) based composite membranes are synthesized by using classic sol-gel method. Boric acid (H3BO3) and boron phosphate (BPO4) are added to the membrane matrix in different ratios in order to enhance the membrane properties. Characterization tests, i.e; FT-IR analysis, mechanical strength tests, water hold-up capacities, swelling properties, ion exchange capacities, proton conductivities and fuel cell performance tests of synthesized membranes are carried out. As a result of performance experiments highest performance values are obtained for the membrane containing 15% boron phosphate at 0.6 V and 750 mA/cm2. Water hold-up capacity, swelling ratio, ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of this membrane are found as 56%, 8%, 1.36 meq/g and 0.37 S/cm, respectively. These values are close to the values obtained ones for perfluorosulphonic acid membranes. Therefore this membrane can be regarded as a promising candidate for usage in fuel cells.

  18. Cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid polymer as an electrolyte/electrode material for H2-O2 proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebenezer, D.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Haridoss, Prathap

    2016-02-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) performance with a cross-linked poly (vinyl alcohol)/sulfosuccinic acid (PVA/SSA) polymer is compared with Nafion® N-115 polymer. In this study, PVA/SSA (≈5 wt. % SSA) polymer membranes are synthesized by a solution casting technique. These cross-linked PVA/SSA polymers and Nafion are used as electrolytes and ionomers in catalyst layers, to fabricate different membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for PEMFCs. Properties of each MEA are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, impedance spectroscopy and hydrogen pumping technique. I-V characteristics of each cell are evaluated in a H2-O2 fuel cell testing fixture under different operating conditions. PVA/SSA ionomer causes only an additional ≈4% loss in the anode performance compared to Nafion ionomer. The maximum power density obtained from PVA/SSA based cells range from 99 to 117.4 mW cm-2 with current density range of 247 to 293.4 mA cm-2. Ionic conductivity of PVA/SSA based cells is more sensitive to state of hydration of MEA, while maximum power density obtained is less sensitive to state of hydration of MEA. Maximum power density of cross-linked PVA/SSA membrane based cell is about 35% that of Nafion® N-115 based cell. From these results, cross-linked PVA/SSA polymer is identified as potential candidate for PEMFCs.

  19. Influence of the composition of isopropyl alcohol/water mixture solvents in catalyst ink solutions on proton exchange membrane fuel cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngo, Trung Truc; Yu, T. Leon; Lin, Hsiu-Li

    2013-03-01

    We study the morphology of Nafion in the dilute IPA (isopropyl alcohol)/water mixture solutions containing 20-100 wt.% of IPA and in the Pt-C/Nafion gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs; where Pt-C is the carbon powder deposited on its surface with Pt particles), which are prepared by spraying on the carbon paper surfaces with a layer of Pt-C, Nafion and IPA/water ink solution. The fuel cell performance of the GDEs strongly depends on the Nafion morphology in the ink solutions. A lower IPA content in the Pt-C/Nafion ink solutions results in the formation of larger and higher negatively charged Nafion aggregated particles, which leads to higher steric hindrance of the deposition of Nafion ionomer on the surface of Pt-C particles and thus a thinner Nafion film in contact on the Pt-C particle surfaces. The thinner Nafion film in contact with the Pt particles in the CL increases the chances of the Pt particles in contact with the H2/O2 gas, leading to a higher fuel cell performance.

  20. Utility experience with a 250-kW molten carbonate fuel cell cogeneration power plant at NAS Miramar, San Diego

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueroa, R. A.; Otahal, J.

    This paper focuses on the strategy and experience of San Diego Gas and Electric with the development and demonstration of a proof of concept 250-kW internally manifolded heat exchanger (IMHEX®) carbonate fuel cell power plant. The plant was installed, commissioned, and operated by San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E) in a cogeneration mode at the Naval Air Station (NAS) at Miramar in San Diego. These activities were part of a collaborative effort between SDG&E and M-C Power's Program team (IMHEX® Team). The IMHEX® Team consists of M-C Power, Bechtel Engineering, Stewart and Stevenson, and the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The technical aspects of the plant's commissioning and operation were addressed by my colleague, J. Otahal, in a poster presentation. Our activities in carbonate fuel cell development are unique because of the level of involvement by an investor-owned utility in the development, engineering, installation, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell demonstration plant. The following topics are discussed in this paper: (i) SDG&E's involvement in the development of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology; (ii) the active role in engineering and specification of the IMHEX® MCFC demonstration plant; (iii) responsibility for installation, commissioning, and operation; (iv) utility role in technology development and application of MCFC in a restructured and competitive environment; (v) summary.